Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007

Forging
Forging
• Introduction/objectives
• Classification of forging processes
- Hammer or drop forging
- Press forging
- Open-die forging
- Closed-die forging
• Calculation of forging loads
• Effect of forging on microstructure
• Residual stresses in forgings
• Typical forging defects
Chapter 2
Subjects of interest
Tapany Udomphol
Objectives
Objectives
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
• This chapter provides fundamental of metal working process for forging
in order to understand mathematical approaches used in the calculation
of applied forging loads required to cause plastic deformation to give the
final product.
• Classification of metal forging methods is also provided with
descriptions of defects observed from the forging processes.
• The solutions to tackle such defects will also be addressed.
Tapany Udomphol
Introduction
Introduction
• Forging is the working of metal into a useful
shape by hammering or pressing.
• The oldest of the metalworking arts (primitive
blacksmith).
• Replacement of machinery occurred during
early the Industrial revolution.
• Forging machines are now capable of making
parts ranging in size of a bolt to a turbine
rotor.
• Most forging operations are carried out hot,
although certain metals may be cold-forged.
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
www.eindiabusiness.com
www.prime-metals.com
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Forging operations
Edging is used to shape
the ends of the bars and to
gather metal. The metal
flow is confined in the
horizontal direction but it is
free to flow laterally to fill
the die.
www.jsc-pfm.com
Drawing is used to reduce the cross-sectional area of
the workpiece with concurrent increase in length.
Piercing and punching are used to produce holes in
metals.
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Forging operations
Fullering is used to reduce the cross-sectional area
of a portion of the stock. The metal flow is outward
and away from the centre of the fuller.
i.e., forging of connecting rod for an internal-
combustion engine.
Fullers come
in different
shapes
• Fuller move fast and moves metal
perpendicular to the face
www.anvilfire.com
Fullers
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Forging operations
Swaging is used to produce a bar with a smaller
diameter (using concave dies).
Swaging at the ends, ready
for next forming process.
• Swaging provides a reduced round
cross section suitable for tapping,
threading, upsetting or other
subsequent forming and machining
operations.
• Swaging is a special type of forging
in which metal is formed by a
succession of rapid hammer blows
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Classification of forging processes
Classification of forging processes
By equipment
1) Forging hammer or drop hammer
2) Press forging
By process
1) Open - die forging
2) Closed - die forging
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Forming machines
Forming machines
There are four basic types of forging machines
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Hammer and press forging processes
Forging hammers
• Board hammer
• Power hammer
There are two basic types of forging
hammers used;
Forging presses
• Mechanical presses
• Hydraulic presses
There are two basic types of forging
presses available;
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Board hammer –forging hammer
Board hammer
• The upper die and ram are raised by
friction rolls gripping the board.
• After releasing the board, the ram falls
under gravity to produce the blow energy.
• The hammer can strike between 60-150
blows per minute depending on size and
capacity.
• The board hammer is an energy-
restricted machine. The blow energy
supplied equal the potential energy due
to the weight and the height of the fall.
• This energy will be delivered to the metal
workpiece to produce plastic
deformation.
Potential energy = mgh …Eq 1
Tapany Udomphol
Forging hammer or drop hammer
• Provide rapid impact blows to the surface of the metal.
• Dies are in two halves
- Lower : fixed to anvil
- Upper : moves up and down with the TUP.
• Energy (from a gravity drop) is adsorbed onto the metal,
in which the maximum impact is on the metal surface.
• Dies are expensive being accurately machined from
special alloys (susceptible to thermal shock).
• Drop forging is good for mass production of complex
shapes.
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
TUP
Anvil
Drop hammer
Metal
Belt
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2006
Example: Forging hammer or drop hammer
The energy supplied by
the blow is equal to the
potential energy due to
the weight of the ram and
the height of the fall.
Potential energy = mgh
Forging machine
…Eq 1
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Power hammer
Power hammer
• Power hammer provides greater
capacity, in which the ram is accelerated
on the downstroke by steam or air pressure
in addition to gravity.
• Steam or air pressure is also used to raise
the ram on the upstroke.
• The total energy supplied to the blow
in a power drop hammer is given by
H pA mg pAH mv W ) (
2
1
2
+ = + =
Where m = mass
v = velocity of ram at start of
deformation
g = acceleration of gravity
p = air or steam pressure
acting on ram cylinder on
downstroke
A = area of ram cylinder
H = height of the ram drop
…Eq 2
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Hydraulic press forging
• Using a hydraulic press or a mechanical
press to forge the metal, therefore, gives
continuous forming at a slower rate.
• Provide deeper penetration.
• Better properties (more homogeneous).
• Equipment is expensive.
Hydraulic press
Die
Die
Ram
High
pressure
fluid
Metal
Tapany Udomphol
Example: Hydraulic Press forging
• Hydraulic presses are load-
restricted machines in which
hydraulic pressure moves a piston
in a cylinder.
• The full press load is available at
any point during the full stroke of
the ram. Therefore, hydraulic
presses are ideally suited for
extrusion-type forging operation.
• Due to slow speed, contact time
is longer at the die-metal interface,
which causes problems such as
heat lost from workpiece and die
deterioration.
• Also provide close-tolerance forging.
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
• Hydraulic presses are more
expensive than mechanical presses
and hammers.
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Mechanical press forging
Mechanical press
• Crank press translates rotary motion into
reciprocating linear motion of the press slide.
• The ram stroke is shorter than in a hammer or
hydraulic press.
• Presses are rated on the basis of the force
developed at the end of the stroke.
• The blow press is more like squeeze than
like the impact of the hammer, therefore, dies
can be less massive and die life is longer than
with a hammer.
• The total energy supplied during the stroke of
a press is given by
| |
2 2
2
1
f o
I W ω ω − =
Where I is moment of inertia of the flywheel
ω ωω ω is angular velocity, ω ωω ω
o
-original, ω ωω ω
f
-after deformation, rad.s
-1
…Eq 3
Tapany Udomphol
Typical values of velocity for different
forging equipment
Forging machine
Velocity range, ms
-1
Gravity drop hammer 3.6-4.8
Power drop hammer 3.0-9.0
HERF machine 6.0-24.0
Mechanical press 0.06-1.5
Hydraulic press 0.06-0.30
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Remark: HERF – High Energy Rate Forging
Tapany Udomphol
Closed and open die forging processes
Open-die forging
Closed-die forging
Impression-die
forging
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007 Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Open-die forging
• Open-die forging is carried
out between flat dies or dies of
very simple shape.
• The process is used for
mostly large objects or when
the number of parts produced
is small.
• Open-die forging is often used
to preform the workpiece for
closed-die forging.
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Closed-die forging (or impression-die forging)
• The workpiece is deformed between two
die halves which carry the impressions
of the desired final shape.
• The workpiece is deformed under high
pressure in a closed cavity.
• The process provide precision forging
with close dimensional tolerance.
• Closed dies are expensive.
• Normally used for smaller components.
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Closed-die forging operation
F
o
r
g
i
n
g

l
o
a
d
F
o
r
g
i
n
g


c
o
m
p
l
e
t
e
Forging stroke
Die cavity
completely
filled
Flash begins
to form
Dies contact
workpiece
Typical curve of forging load vs. stroke for
closed-die forging.
Preshaped Rough-forge Finishing die Trimming die
Final
product
billet
Flash is the excess metal, which
squirts out of the cavity as a thick
ribbon of metal.
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
The flash serves two purposes:
• Acts as a ‘safety value’ for excess metal.
• Builds up high pressure to ensure that
the metal fills all recesses of the die cavity.
Functions of flash
Remark: It is necessary to achieve complete filling of the forging cavity
without generating excessive pressures against the die that may
cause it to fracture.
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Example: Die set and forging steps for the
manufacturing of an automobile engine connecting rod
• Preforming of a round piece in an open die
arrangement.
• Rough shape is formed using a block die.
• The finishing die is used to bring the part to
final tolerances and surface finish.
• Removal of flash (excess metal).
Steering knuckle
Flange
Rail
http://www.hirschvogel.de/en/produkti
onsverfahren/warmumformung.php
See simulation
Tapany Udomphol
Closed-die design
Usually the deformation in closed-die forging is very complex and the
design of the intermediate steps to make a final precision part requires
considerable experience and skill.
The design of a part for production by closed-die forging involves
the prediction of
• workpiece volume and weight
• number of preforming steps and their configuration
• flash dimensions in preforming and finishing dies
the load and energy requirement for each forging operation, for
example; the flow stress of the materials, the fictional condition,
the flow of the material in order to develop the optimum geometry for
the dies.
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007 Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Shape classification
•The degree of difficulty increases as the
geometry moves down and toward the right.
• Simple parts are symmetry shape, or parts with circular, square
and similar contours.
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Shape classification
• More complicated parts have pronounced longitudinal axis and
are curved in several planes.
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Preform design is the most difficult and
critical step in forging design. Proper
preform design assures defect-free flow,
complete die fill, and minimum flash loss.
- Metal flow consists only of two basic types
• extrusion (flow parallel to the direction of
the die motion)
• upsetting ( flow perpendicular to the
direction of the die motion).
- However both types of metal flow occur
simultaneously.
- We need to identify the neutral surface
since metal flows away from the neutral
surface in a direction perpendicular to the
die motion.
mfge.atilim.edu.tr/
Metal flow during forging
Upsetting
http://www.qform3d.com/images/el
ectrups/elecrups2.gif
See simulation
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Metal flow in forging
Finite element analysis of upsetting an aluminium cylinder
• It is a numerical modelling technique that involves splitting the whole of
a body into a series of simple geometrical elements that are joined
together at points (nodes) where both equilibrium (lower bound) and
compatibility (upper bound) requirement are established.
• Finite element analysis
was originally developed to
model the elastic
deformation of complex
structures but recently has
been extended to cover large
plastic deformation under real
stress system.
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
General considerations for preformdesign
• Area of each cross section = area in the finished cross section + flash.
• Concave radii of the preform > radii on the final forging part.
• Cross section of the preform should be higher and narrower than the
final cross section, so as to accentuate upsetting flow and minimise
extrusion flow.
• Shape with thin and long
sections or projections (ribs and
webs) are more difficult to
process because they have
higher surface area per unit
volume increasing friction and
temperature effects.
draft angle
web
rib
Some typical nomenclature
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
General rules of closed-die design
• The die set should be designed for smooth metal flow – symmetry
dies (spherical or blocklike) are the easier than thin and long section.
• Shape changes in section are to be avoided.
• Dies should be designed for the minimum flash to do the job.
• Generous fillet dimensions should be allowed, therefore, forging dies
must be tapered or drafted to facilitate removal of the finished piece.
• Draft allowance is approximately 3-5
o
outside and 7-10
o
inside.
• Dies with inclined angles should have counterlock to prevent the dies
from sliding apart from each other due to side thrust.
Counterlock
Side thrust
draft angle
web
rib
Tapany Udomphol
Die materials
• Thermal shock resistance
• Thermal fatigue resistance
• High temperature strength
• High wear resistance
• Hgh toughness and ductility
• High hardenability
• High dimensional stability during hardening
• High machinability
Required properties
Die materials: alloyed steels (with Cr,
Mo, W, V), tool steels, cast steels or cast
iron. (Heat treatments such are nitriding
or chromium plating are required to
improve die life)
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Forging die
www.nitrex.com
1) Carbon steels with 0.7-0.85% C are appropriate for small tools and
flat impressions.
2) Medium-alloyed tool steels for hammer dies.
3) Highly alloyed steels for high temperature resistant dies used in
presses and horizontal forging machines.
Note:
Tapany Udomphol
Die materials
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Common steels used for forging dies
H12 H12 X37CrMoW51 X37CrMoW51
- - X30WCrV53 X30WCrV53 - - X30WCrV52 X30WCrV52 - - X30WCrV53 X30WCrV53
H10 H10 X32CrMoV33 X32CrMoV33 H10 H10 X32CrMoV33 X32CrMoV33 H10 H10 X32CrMoV33 X32CrMoV33
H11 H11 X38CrMoV51 X38CrMoV51 H21 H21 X30WCrV93 X30WCrV93 H11 H11 X38CrMoV51 X38CrMoV51
- - 35NiCrMo16 35NiCrMo16
6F3 6F3 57NiCrMoV77 57NiCrMoV77 - - 57NiCrMoV77 57NiCrMoV77 - - 57NiCrMoV77 57NiCrMoV77
6F2 6F2 56NiCrMoV7 56NiCrMoV7 6F3 6F3 56NiCrMoV7 56NiCrMoV7
55NiCrMoV6 55NiCrMoV6 6F2 6F2 55NiCrMoV6 55NiCrMoV6 Die inserts Die inserts
H10 H10 X32CrMoV33 X32CrMoV33
H11 H11 X38CrMoV51 X38CrMoV51 H11 H11 X38CrMoV51 X38CrMoV51 - - 40CrMnMo7 40CrMnMo7
- - X30WCrV53 X30WCrV53 H21 H21 X30WCrV53 X30WCrV53 - - 60MnSi4 60MnSi4
- - C85 W2 C85 W2
- - C70 W2 C70 W2 Forging dies Forging dies
AISI AISI DIN DIN AISI AISI DIN DIN AISI AISI DIN DIN
Light alloys Light alloys Copper and copper alloys Copper and copper alloys Steels Steels Forging Forging
materials materials
Tapany Udomphol
Die materials
Ultra hard surface coatings
Ultra hard surface coating
on die surface is used to
• Improve die life.
• Reduce energy input.
• Reduce die-related uptime
and downtime.
• Reduce particulate emission
from lubricants.
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Die life can be increased by
1) Improving die materials such as using composite die or
2) Using surface coating or self-lubricating coatings
Current forging
Future forging
I
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http://www.eere.energy.gov/industry/supporting_industries
/pdfs/innovative_die_materials.pdf
Tapany Udomphol
Die failures
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Different types of die failure
Wear (abrasion)
Thermal fatigue
Mechanical fatigue
Permanent deformation
• Different parts of dies are liable to permanent deformation and wear
resulting from mechanical and thermal fatigue.
• Important factors: shape of the forging, die materials, how the
workpiece is heated, coating of die surface, the operating temperature
(should not exceed the annealing temperature).
Tapany Udomphol
Calculation of forging loads
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
The calculation for forging load can be divided into three cases according to friction:
• In the absence of friction
• Low friction condition (lower bound analysis or sliding condition)
• High friction condition (sticky friction condition)
U
total
= U
ideal
+ U
friction
+ U
redundant
The total energy required for deformation process;
Note: redundant work = work that does not contribute to
shape change of the workpiece
Efficiency of a given deformation process η η η η is
total
ideal
U
U
= η
Note: η ηη η = 0.3-0.6 for extrusion
= 0.75-0.95 for rolling
= 0.10-0.20 for closed die forging
Tapany Udomphol
1) In the absence of friction
By assuming that there is no friction at die-workpiece interface, the forging
load is therefore the compressive force (P) acting on a round metal bar.
A P
o
σ =
Where P is the compressive force
σ σσ σ
o
is the yield stress of the metal
A is the cross sectional area of the metal.
And the compressive stress (p) produced by this force P can be
obtained from
o o
o
o o
h D
Ah
h D
Ph
D
Ph
p
2 2 2
4 4 4
π
σ
π π
= → =
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Where h is the instantaneous height of the metal bar during forging
h
o
is the original height of the metal bar
D
o
is the original diameter of the metal bar.
Then
….Eq. 4
….Eq. 5
D
o
h
o
D
h
Note: from volume constant
h D h D
o
2 2
=
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
We have engineering strain in compression,
o
o
o
h
h h
h
h
e

=

=
And true strain in compression,
h
h
h
h
h
dh
o
o
h
h
o
ln ln − = = =

ε
The relationship between e and ε εε ε is
( ) 1 ln + = e ε
….Eq. 6
….Eq. 7
….Eq. 8
D
o
h
o
D
h
Tapany Udomphol
2) Low friction condition (Lower bound analysis)
By considering the equilibrium of forces acting on the workpiece at any
instant of deformation.
• For example, if we consider the effect of friction
on an upset forging operation in plane strain
condition (rigid-plastic behaviour, see Fig).
• To calculate the total forming load, we have
to determine the local stresses needed to
deform each element of a workpiece of height h
and width 2a.
• In plane strain condition, as the workpiece is
reduced in height, it expands laterally and all
deformation is confined in the x-y plane. This
lateral expansion causes frictional forces to act
in opposition to the movement.
• Assuming that there is no redundant work
and the material exhibits rigid-plastic
behaviour, and all stress on the body are
compressive.
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007 Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
• Consider the force acting on a vertical element of
unit length and width dx. The element is at some
distance x from the central ‘no-slip’ point, in this
case to the right.
• The vertical force acting on the element is
dx area stress
y
σ = ×
• If the coefficient of friction for the die-workpiece
interface is µ µµ µ, the magnitude of the friction force
will be µσ µσ µσ µσ
y
dx. The frictional force acts at both
ends of the element so the total horizontal force
from the right is 2µσ µσ µσ µσ
y
dx.
• Acting on the left will be the force σ σσ σ
x
h and from the right the force (σ σσ σ
x
+dσ σσ σ
x
)h.
The horizontal compressive stress σ σσ σ
x
varies from a maximum at the centre of
the workpiece to zero at the edge and changes by dσ σσ σ
x
across the element
width dx.
….Eq. 9
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Balancing the horizontal forces acting on
the element:
( )
x y x x
h dx d h σ µσ σ σ = + + 2
….Eq. 10
Rearranging, we have
x y
hd dx σ µσ − = 2 ….Eq. 11
and therefore
dx
h
d
y
x
µ
σ
σ 2
− = ….Eq. 12
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
As the frictional force µσ µσ µσ µσ
y
is usually much smaller than
both σ σσ σ
x
and σ σσ σ
y
, which are principal stresses. Thus
we can use them in the yield criterion when the slab
will yield
'
3
2
o o x y
σ σ σ σ = = −
Where σ σ σ σ

o
is the yield stress in plane strain.
….Eq. 13
Differentiation of the yield condition gives dσ σσ σ
y
= dσ σσ σ
x
,
and substituting for dσ σσ σ
x
in Eq. 12 gives
dx
h
d
y
y
µ
σ
σ
2
− =
Integrating both sides of this differential equation gives
….Eq. 14
o y
C
h
x
+ − =
µ
σ
2
ln ….Eq. 15
or |
¹
|

\
|
− =
h
x
C
y
µ
σ
2
exp ….Eq. 16
where C
o
is a constant of integration.
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
We can evaluate C by looking at the boundary conditions. At the edge of the
workpiece where x = a, σ σσ σ
x
= 0 and from the yield criterion σ σσ σ
y
- σ σσ σ
x
= σ σσ σ

o
, so
σ σσ σ
y
= σ σσ σ

o
and therefore:
'
2
exp
o
h
a
C σ
µ
=
|
¹
|

\
|

so
|
¹
|

\
|
=
h
a
C
o
µ
σ
2
exp
'
….Eq. 17
….Eq. 18
Using this in Eq.16, we find
( )
(
¸
(

¸

− = x a
h
o y
µ
σ σ
2
exp
'
….Eq. 19
X
σ
o
X
a -a
σ σσ σ‘
o
σ σσ σ
y
|
¹
|

\
|
h
a
o
µ
σ
2
exp
'
( )
(
¸
(

¸

− x a
h
o
µ
σ
2
exp
'
Friction hill
x = a x = 0 x = -a
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
The total forging load, P, is given by
aw p P
_
2 =
Where p is the average forming pressure across the workpiece
w is the width of the workpiece (in the plane of the paper).
….Eq. 20
This equals σ σσ σ
y
and can be estimated by integrating Eq.19:
( ) dx x a
h a
dx
a
p
a
o
o
a
o
y
∫ ∫ (
¸
(

¸

− = =

µ σ
σ
2
exp
'
….Eq. 21
The integration in Eq. 18 can be simplified if we make the following
approximation to Eq. 16. The general series expansion for exp x is
...
! 3 ! 2
1 exp
3 2
+ + + + =
x x
x x
….Eq. 22
Since µ µµ µ is usually small (<1) we can approximate exp x as (1+x) for small x.
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Thus we can approximate Eq.19 as
( )
(
¸
(

¸


+ =
h
x a
o y
µ
σ σ
2
1
'
and Eq.21 becomes
( )
dx
h
x a
a
p
a
o
∫ (
¸
(

¸


+ =
0
'
_
2
1
µ σ
….Eq. 23
….Eq. 24
Integrating this gives:
a
o
h
x
h
ax
x
a
p
0
2 '
_
2
(
¸
(

¸

− + =
µ µ σ
….Eq. 25
So that the average axial tooling pressure, p, is
|
¹
|

\
|
+ =
h
a
p
o
µ
σ 1
'
_
….Eq. 26
We can see that as the ratio a/h increases, the forming pressure p and
hence the forming load rises rapidly.
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Example:
The flash has high deformation resistance than in the die (due to
much higher a/h ratio), therefore the material completely fills the
cavity rather than being extruded sideward out of the die.
Tapany Udomphol
In the situation where the friction force is high, the stress acting on the
metal is
3) High friction condition (sticky friction)
|
¹
|

\
|
+ = 1
2
'
_
h
a
p
o
σ
….Eq. 27
Under these conditions, the forming load is dependent on the flow stress
of the material and the geometry of the workpiece.
For example: if the a/h ratio is high, say a/h = 8, then p = 5σ σσ σ

o
. The local
stress on the tooling can therefore be very high indeed and 5σ σσ σ

o
is probably
high enough to deform the tooling in most cold forming operation.
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Solutions:
• reducing µ µµ µ to ensure that sticking friction conditions do not apply.
• changing the workpiece geometry.
• reducing σ σσ σ

o
by increasing the temperature.
|
¹
|

\
|


= 1
'
h
x a
o y
σ σ
and the mean forging pressure is
….Eq. 28
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
dx
h
d
y
y
µ
σ
σ
2
− =
….Eq. 14
In the case of sticky friction, if we replace the force µσ µσ µσ µσ
y
with k (the average
shear stress of the material) in Eq.14
then we have
h
dx
h
dx
dx
h
k
d
o
o
y
'
_
3
2 2
σ
σ
σ − = − = − =
….Eq. 29
Integrating
C
h
x
o y
+ − =
'
σ σ
….Eq. 30
Since σ σσ σ
y
= σ σσ σ

o
at x = a,
then
h
a
C
o o
' '
σ σ + =
….Eq. 31
Replacing C in Eq. 30 we then have
|
¹
|

\
|
+

= + + − = 1
' ' ' '
h
x a
h
a
h
x
o o o o y
σ σ σ σ σ
Or Eq. 27
Tapany Udomphol
Example:
A block of lead 25x25x150 mm
3
is pressed between flat dies to a size
6.25x100x150 mm
3
. If the uniaxial flow stress σ σσ σ
o
= 6.9 MPa and µ µµ µ = 0.25,
determine the pressure distribution over the 100 mm dimension (at x = 0, 25
and 50 mm and the total forging load in the sticky friction condition.
Dieter, page 574-575
Since 150 mm dimension does not change, the deformation is plane strain.
From Eq.19.
( )
(
¸
(

¸

− = x a
h
o y
µ
σ σ
2
exp
3
2
At the centreline of the slab (x = 0)
( ) MPa 435 0 50
25 . 6
) 25 . 0 ( 2
exp
3
) 9 . 6 ( 2
max
=
(
¸
(

¸

− = σ
Likewise, at 25 and 50 mm, the stress distribution will be 58.9 and 8.0 MPa
respectively.
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
o o
σ σ
3
2
'
=
where
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
The mean forging load (in the sticky friction condition) from Eq.28 is
|
¹
|

\
|
+ = 1
2
3
2
_
h
a
p
o
σ
MPa p 8 . 39 1
5 . 12
50
3
) 9 . 6 ( 2
_
=
|
¹
|

\
|
+ =
We calculate the forging load on the assumption that the stress distribution
is based on 100 percent sticky friction. Then
The forging load is P = stress x area
= (39.8x10
6
)(100x10
-3
)(150x10
-3
)
= 597 kN
= 61 tonnes.
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Effect of forging on microstructure
grain structure resulting from (a) forging, (b) machining and (c) casting.
• The formation of a grain structure in forged parts is elongated in the
direction of the deformation.
• The metal flow during forging provides fibrous microstructure (revealed by
etching). This structure gives better mechanical properties in the plane of
maximum strain but (perhaps) lower across the thickness.
• The workpiece often undergo recrystallisation, therefore, provide finer
grains compared to the cast dendritic structure resulting in improved
mechanical properties.
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Forming textures
Redistribution of metal structures occurring during forming
process involves two principle components; 1) redistribution of
inclusions and 2) crystallographic orientation of the grains
1) The redistribution of inclusions
Redistribution
during forming of
(a) soft inclusions
(b) hard inclusions
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Forming textures
2) Crystallographic orientation of the grains
Castings Forgings
Mainly epitaxial,
dendritic or
equiaxed grains
Redistribution of grains
in the working directions
Fibre structure in forged steels
Cast iron structure
Tapany Udomphol
Residual stresses in forging
• The residual stress produced in forgings as a results of
inhomogeneous deformation are generally small because the
deformation is normally carried out well into the hot-working region.
• However, appreciable residual stresses and warping can occur on
the quenching of steel forgings in heat treatment.
• Large forgings are subjected to the formation of small cracks, or
flakes at the centre of the cross section. This is associated with the high
hydrogen content usually present in steel ingots of large size, coupled
with the presence of residual stresses.
• Finite element analysis is used to predict residual stresses in forgings.
• Large forgings therefore have to be slowly cooled from the working
temperature. Examples: burying the forging in ashes for a period of time or
using a controlled cooling furnace.
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007 Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Typical forging defects
• Incomplete die filling.
• Die misalignment.
• Forging laps.
• Incomplete forging penetration- should
forge on the press.
• Microstructural differences resulting in
pronounced property variation.
• Hot shortness, due to high sulphur
concentration in steel and nickel.
Fluorescence penetrant
reveals Forging laps
files.bnpmedia.com
See simulation
www.komatsusanki.co.jp
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Typical forging defects
• Pitted surface, due to oxide scales occurring
at high temperature stick
on the dies.
• Buckling, in upsetting forging. Subject to
high compressive stress.
• Surface cracking, due to temperature
differential between surface and
centre, or excessive working of the surface
at too low temperature.
• Microcracking, due to residual stress.
www.mece.ualberta.ca
Buckling
http://upload.wikimedia.org
Tapany Udomphol
Typical forging defects
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Cracking at the flash
Cold shut or fold
Internal cracking
• Flash line crack, after trimming-occurs more often in thin
workpieces. Therefore should increase the thickness of the flash.
• Cold shut or fold , due to flash or fin from prior forging steps is
forced into the workpiece.
• Internal cracking, due to secondary tensile stress.
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
Summary
• Mainly hot forging – Blacksmith, now using water power, steam,
electricity, hydraulic machines.
• Heavy forging
- Hydraulic press = slow, high force squeeze.
- Pieces up to 200 tonnes with forces up to 25,000 tonnes.
- Simple tools squeeze metal into shape (open-die forging).
- Sufficient deformation must be given to break up the ‘as cast’
structure.
- Reheating is often needed to maintain sufficient temperature
for hot working.
- Forging is costly but eliminates some as-cast defects
- Continuous ‘grain flow’ in the direction of metal flow is
revealed by etching.
- Impurities (inclusions and segregation) have become
elongated and (unlike casting) gives superior properties in the
direction of elongation.
Tapany Udomphol
Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007
References
• Dieter, G.E., Mechanical metallurgy, 1988, SI metric edition,
McGraw-Hill, ISBN 0-07-100406-8.
• Edwards, L. and Endean, M., Manufacturing with materials,
1990, Butterworth Heinemann, ISBN 0-7506-2754-9.
• Beddoes, J. and Bibbly M.J., Principles of metal manufacturing
process, 1999, Arnold, ISBN 0-470-35241-8.
• Lange, K., Handbook of metal forming, 1919, McGraw-Hill Book
company, ISBN 0-07-036285-8.
• Lecture note, Sheffield University, 2003.
• Metal forming processes, Prof Manus.
Tapany Udomphol

Objectives

• This chapter provides fundamental of metal working process for forging in order to understand mathematical approaches used in the calculation of applied forging loads required to cause plastic deformation to give the final product. • Classification of metal forging methods is also provided with descriptions of defects observed from the forging processes. • The solutions to tackle such defects will also be addressed.

Suranaree University of Technology

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Jan-Mar 2007

Introduction
• Forging is the working of metal into a useful shape by hammering or pressing. • The oldest of the metalworking arts (primitive blacksmith). • Replacement of machinery occurred during early the Industrial revolution. • Forging machines are now capable of making parts ranging in size of a bolt to a turbine rotor. • Most forging operations are carried out hot, although certain metals may be cold-forged.
www.prime-metals.com Suranaree University of Technology
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www.eindiabusiness.com

Jan-Mar 2007

Forging operations
Edging is used to shape the ends of the bars and to gather metal. The metal flow is confined in the horizontal direction but it is free to flow laterally to fill the die.

www.jsc-pfm.com

Drawing is used to reduce the cross-sectional area of the workpiece with concurrent increase in length.

Piercing and punching are used to produce holes in metals.

Suranaree University of Technology

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Jan-Mar 2007

Forging operations
Fullering is used to reduce the cross-sectional area of a portion of the stock. The metal flow is outward and away from the centre of the fuller. i.e., forging of connecting rod for an internalcombustion engine.

• Fuller move fast and moves metal perpendicular to the face
Fullers come in different shapes
www.anvilfire.com

Fullers
Suranaree University of Technology
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Jan-Mar 2007

Swaging at the ends.Forging operations Swaging is used to produce a bar with a smaller diameter (using concave dies). • Swaging is a special type of forging in which metal is formed by a succession of rapid hammer blows • Swaging provides a reduced round cross section suitable for tapping. upsetting or other subsequent forming and machining operations. ready for next forming process. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . threading.

die forging 2) Closed .Classification of forging processes By equipment 1) Forging hammer or drop hammer 2) Press forging By process 1) Open .die forging Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .

Forming machines There are four basic types of forging machines Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .

• Mechanical presses • Hydraulic presses Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .Hammer and press forging processes Forging hammers There are two basic types of forging hammers used. • Board hammer • Power hammer Forging presses There are two basic types of forging presses available.

• The board hammer is an energyrestricted machine.Board hammer –forging hammer • The upper die and ram are raised by friction rolls gripping the board. Potential energy = mgh …Eq 1 Board hammer • This energy will be delivered to the metal workpiece to produce plastic deformation. The blow energy supplied equal the potential energy due to the weight and the height of the fall. Tapany Udomphol Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007 . • After releasing the board. the ram falls under gravity to produce the blow energy. • The hammer can strike between 60-150 blows per minute depending on size and capacity.

Metal • Dies are expensive being accurately machined from special alloys (susceptible to thermal shock). Anvil Drop hammer Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . • Drop forging is good for mass production of complex shapes.Forging hammer or drop hammer • Provide rapid impact blows to the surface of the metal. • Dies are in two halves . in which the maximum impact is on the metal surface.Upper : moves up and down with the TUP.Lower : fixed to anvil Belt TUP . • Energy (from a gravity drop) is adsorbed onto the metal.

Potential energy = mgh …Eq 1 Forging machine Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2006 .Example: Forging hammer or drop hammer The energy supplied by the blow is equal to the potential energy due to the weight of the ram and the height of the fall.

• The total energy supplied to the blow in a power drop hammer is given by W= 1 2 mv + pAH = (mg + pA) H 2 …Eq 2 Where Power hammer m = mass v = velocity of ram at start of deformation g = acceleration of gravity p = air or steam pressure acting on ram cylinder on downstroke A = area of ram cylinder H = height of the ram drop Jan-Mar 2007 Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol .Power hammer • Power hammer provides greater capacity. • Steam or air pressure is also used to raise the ram on the upstroke. in which the ram is accelerated on the downstroke by steam or air pressure in addition to gravity.

gives continuous forming at a slower rate. Metal • Equipment is expensive. therefore. • Provide deeper penetration. Die Die Hydraulic press Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . • Better properties (more homogeneous).Hydraulic press forging High pressure fluid Ram • Using a hydraulic press or a mechanical press to forge the metal.

Therefore. • Due to slow speed. which causes problems such as heat lost from workpiece and die deterioration. hydraulic presses are ideally suited for extrusion-type forging operation. contact time is longer at the die-metal interface. • Also provide close-tolerance forging. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . • The full press load is available at any point during the full stroke of the ram.Example: Hydraulic Press forging • Hydraulic presses are loadrestricted machines in which hydraulic pressure moves a piston in a cylinder. • Hydraulic presses are more expensive than mechanical presses and hammers.

• The ram stroke is shorter than in a hammer or hydraulic press. dies can be less massive and die life is longer than with a hammer.Mechanical press forging • Crank press translates rotary motion into reciprocating linear motion of the press slide. • The blow press is more like squeeze than like the impact of the hammer. therefore. rad.s-1 Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . ωf-after deformation. • Presses are rated on the basis of the force developed at the end of the stroke. • The total energy supplied during the stroke of a press is given by W = Mechanical press 1 2 I ωo − ω 2 f 2 [ ] …Eq 3 Where I is moment of inertia of the flywheel ω is angular velocity. ωo-original.

6-4.0-24.06-0.0-9.0 6.06-1.5 0.0 0. ms-1 3.Typical values of velocity for different forging equipment Forging machine Velocity range.30 Gravity drop hammer Power drop hammer HERF machine Mechanical press Hydraulic press Remark: HERF – High Energy Rate Forging Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .8 3.

Closed and open die forging processes Open-die forging Closed-die forging Impression-die forging Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .

Open-die forging • Open-die forging is carried out between flat dies or dies of very simple shape. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . • The process is used for mostly large objects or when the number of parts produced is small. • Open-die forging is often used to preform the workpiece for closed-die forging.

• The process provide precision forging with close dimensional tolerance. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .Closed-die forging (or impression-die forging) • The workpiece is deformed between two die halves which carry the impressions of the desired final shape. • Normally used for smaller components. • Closed dies are expensive. • The workpiece is deformed under high pressure in a closed cavity.

stroke for closed-die forging. Suranaree University of Technology Flash is the excess metal.Closed-die forging operation billet Preshaped Rough-forge Finishing die Trimming die Final product Forging load Flash begins to form Dies contact workpiece Forging complete Die cavity completely filled Forging stroke Typical curve of forging load vs. which squirts out of the cavity as a thick ribbon of metal. Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .

• Builds up high pressure to ensure that the metal fills all recesses of the die cavity. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . Remark: It is necessary to achieve complete filling of the forging cavity without generating excessive pressures against the die that may cause it to fracture.Functions of flash The flash serves two purposes: • Acts as a ‘safety value’ for excess metal.

The finishing die is used to bring the part to final tolerances and surface finish. Removal of flash (excess metal).hirschvogel.Example: Die set and forging steps for the manufacturing of an automobile engine connecting rod • • • • Preforming of a round piece in an open die arrangement.de/en/produkti onsverfahren/warmumformung.php See simulation Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007 Tapany Udomphol . Rough shape is formed using a block die. Steering knuckle Rail Flange http://www.

the flow of the material in order to develop the optimum geometry for the dies. for example. the flow stress of the materials. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . The design of a part for production by closed-die forging involves the prediction of • workpiece volume and weight • number of preforming steps and their configuration • flash dimensions in preforming and finishing dies the load and energy requirement for each forging operation.Closed-die design Usually the deformation in closed-die forging is very complex and the design of the intermediate steps to make a final precision part requires considerable experience and skill. the fictional condition.

or parts with circular.Shape classification •The degree of difficulty increases as the geometry moves down and toward the right. • Simple parts are symmetry shape. square and similar contours. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .Shape classification • More complicated parts have pronounced longitudinal axis and are curved in several planes.

Metal flow consists only of two basic types • extrusion (flow parallel to the direction of the die motion) • upsetting ( flow perpendicular to the direction of the die motion).tr/ Upsetting . . and minimum flash loss.Preform design is the most difficult and critical step in forging design. Proper preform design assures defect-free flow. mfge.We need to identify the neutral surface since metal flows away from the neutral surface in a direction perpendicular to the die motion.qform3d. .atilim.edu. See simulation http://www.However both types of metal flow occur simultaneously. complete die fill.gif Suranaree University of Technology Metal Tapany Udomphol flow during forging Jan-Mar 2007 .com/images/el ectrups/elecrups2.

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .Metal flow in forging • Finite element analysis was originally developed to model the elastic deformation of complex structures but recently has been extended to cover large plastic deformation under real stress system. Finite element analysis of upsetting an aluminium cylinder • It is a numerical modelling technique that involves splitting the whole of a body into a series of simple geometrical elements that are joined together at points (nodes) where both equilibrium (lower bound) and compatibility (upper bound) requirement are established.

Suranaree University of Technology Some typical nomenclature Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .General considerations for preform design • Area of each cross section = area in the finished cross section + flash. draft angle web rib • Shape with thin and long sections or projections (ribs and webs) are more difficult to process because they have higher surface area per unit increasing friction and volume temperature effects. • Concave radii of the preform > radii on the final forging part. • Cross section of the preform should be higher and narrower than the final cross section. so as to accentuate upsetting flow and minimise extrusion flow.

draft angle web rib Counterlock Side thrust Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . • Shape changes in section are to be avoided. • Draft allowance is approximately 3-5o outside and 7-10o inside. therefore. forging dies must be tapered or drafted to facilitate removal of the finished piece. • Dies should be designed for the minimum flash to do the job.General rules of closed-die design • The die set should be designed for smooth metal flow – symmetry dies (spherical or blocklike) are the easier than thin and long section. • Dies with inclined angles should have counterlock to prevent the dies from sliding apart from each other due to side thrust. • Generous fillet dimensions should be allowed.

7-0. 3) Highly alloyed steels for high temperature resistant dies used in presses and horizontal forging machines. • High temperature strength Mo. tool steels.com Die materials Required properties • Thermal shock resistance Forging die • Thermal fatigue resistance Die materials: alloyed steels (with Cr.nitrex. V).85% C are appropriate for small tools and flat impressions. (Heat treatments such are nitriding or chromium plating are required to • Hgh toughness and ductility improve die life) • High hardenability • High dimensional stability during hardening • High machinability Note: 1) Carbon steels with 0.www. 2) Medium-alloyed tool steels for hammer dies. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . W. cast steels or cast • High wear resistance iron.

Die materials Common steels used for forging dies Forging materials Forging dies Steels DIN C70 W2 C85 W2 60MnSi4 40CrMnMo7 Die inserts 55NiCrMoV6 56NiCrMoV7 57NiCrMoV77 35NiCrMo16 X38CrMoV51 X32CrMoV33 X30WCrV53 X37CrMoW51 6F2 6F3 H11 H10 H12 X30WCrV93 X32CrMoV33 X30WCrV52 H21 H10 X38CrMoV51 X32CrMoV33 X30WCrV53 H11 H10 57NiCrMoV77 X30WCrV53 X38CrMoV51 X32CrMoV33 H21 H11 H10 55NiCrMoV6 56NiCrMoV7 57NiCrMoV77 6F2 6F3 X30WCrV53 X38CrMoV51 H11 AISI Copper and copper alloys DIN AISI Light alloys DIN AISI Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .

• Reduce particulate emission from lubricants.gov/industry/supporting_industries /pdfs/innovative_die_materials.eere.energy. http://www. • Reduce die-related uptime and downtime.Die materials Die life can be increased by 1) Improving die materials such as using composite die or 2) Using surface coating or self-lubricating coatings Ultra hard surface coatings Current forging Future forging Ultra hard surface coating on die surface is used to • Improve die life. ie rfa su e iv n at atio o v ic nn di f I o m ce In m no at va er ti ia ve ls d • Reduce energy input.pdf Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .

how the workpiece is heated. • Important factors: shape of the forging. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . coating of die surface.Die failures Different types of die failure Wear (abrasion) Thermal fatigue Mechanical fatigue Permanent deformation • Different parts of dies are liable to permanent deformation and wear resulting from mechanical and thermal fatigue. die materials. the operating temperature (should not exceed the annealing temperature).

Utotal = Uideal + Ufriction + Uredundant Note: redundant work = work that does not contribute to shape change of the workpiece Efficiency of a given deformation process η is U ideal η= U total Note: η = 0.6 for extrusion = 0.3-0.75-0.95 for rolling = 0.Calculation of forging loads The total energy required for deformation process.20 for closed die forging The calculation for forging load can be divided into three cases according to friction: • In the absence of friction • Low friction condition (lower bound analysis or sliding condition) • High friction condition (sticky friction condition) Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .10-0.

Eq. Tapany Udomphol Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007 . …. 5 Do2 h = D 2 h Where h ho Do Note: from volume constant is the instantaneous height of the metal bar during forging is the original height of the metal bar is the original diameter of the metal bar.1) In the absence of friction By assuming that there is no friction at die-workpiece interface. the forging load is therefore the compressive force (P) acting on a round metal bar. Then Where P P =σoA σo A is the compressive force is the yield stress of the metal is the cross sectional area of the metal.Eq. 4 And the compressive stress (p) produced by this force P can be obtained from Do ho D h 4σ o Ah 4 Ph 4 Ph p= → = 2 2 πD πDo ho πDo2 ho ….

Eq.Eq. …. 7 ε = ln(e + 1) Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol …. ∆h h − ho e= = ho ho And true strain in compression.Do ho D h We have engineering strain in compression. 6 dh h ho ε = ∫ = ln = − ln h ho h ho The relationship between e and ε is h ….Eq. 8 Jan-Mar 2007 .

• For example. if we consider the effect of friction on an upset forging operation in plane strain condition (rigid-plastic behaviour. • Assuming that there is no redundant work and the material exhibits rigid-plastic behaviour. we have to determine the local stresses needed to deform each element of a workpiece of height h and width 2a. This lateral expansion causes frictional forces to act in opposition to the movement. see Fig). it expands laterally and all deformation is confined in the x-y plane. • In plane strain condition. • To calculate the total forming load. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .2) Low friction condition (Lower bound analysis) By considering the equilibrium of forces acting on the workpiece at any instant of deformation. as the workpiece is reduced in height. and all stress on the body are compressive.

Eq. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . • The vertical force acting on the element is stress × area = σ y dx …. The element is at some distance x from the central ‘no-slip’ point. The frictional force acts at both ends of the element so the total horizontal force from the right is 2µσydx. in this case to the right. 9 • If the coefficient of friction for the die-workpiece interface is µ.• Consider the force acting on a vertical element of unit length and width dx. the magnitude of the friction force will be µσydx. The horizontal compressive stress σx varies from a maximum at the centre of the workpiece to zero at the edge and changes by dσx across the element width dx. • Acting on the left will be the force σxh and from the right the force (σx+dσx)h.

Eq. 10 2µσ y dx = − hdσ x and therefore …. 11 dσ x σy Suranaree University of Technology =− 2µ dx h ….Eq.Balancing the horizontal forces acting on the element: h(σ x + dσ x ) + 2 µσ y dx = hσ x Rearranging. 12 Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . we have ….Eq.

Eq. Differentiation of the yield condition gives dσy = dσx . Thus we can use them in the yield criterion when the slab will yield σ y −σ x = Where 2 σ ‘o 3 ' σo =σo …. 13 is the yield stress in plane strain. 12 gives dσ y σy 2 µx ln σ y = − + Co ….Eq. 14 Integrating both sides of this differential equation gives  2 µx  or σ y = C exp −   h  ….Eq. and substituting for dσx in Eq. 16 where Co is a constant of integration. which are principal stresses. 15 h =− 2µ dx h ….As the frictional force µσy is usually much smaller than both σx and σy .Eq. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .

σx = 0 and from the yield criterion σy .16.Eq.We can evaluate C by looking at the boundary conditions. At the edge of the workpiece where x = a. so σy = σ‘o and therefore:  2 µa  ' C exp −  = σ o ….Eq. 19 x = -a x=0 x=a Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .Eq.σx = σ‘o. 17 h   so  2µa  σy σ exp   h  ' o Friction hill ' σ o exp   2µ (a − x )   h  σ‘o  2µa  C = σ exp   h  ' o σo X …. 18 -a a X Using this in Eq. we find  2µ  σ y = σ exp  (a − x )  h  ' o ….

.Eq. P. 2! 3! …. 22 Since µ is usually small (<1) we can approximate exp x as (1+x) for small x. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .Eq.. 21 The integration in Eq.Eq. 16. This equals σy and can be estimated by integrating Eq. 20 is the average forming pressure across the workpiece is the width of the workpiece (in the plane of the paper). 18 can be simplified if we make the following approximation to Eq. is given by Where p w P = 2 p aw _ ….19: p=∫ o − a σy a dx = ∫ o a ' σo  2µ  exp  (a − x )dx a  h  …. The general series expansion for exp x is x 2 x3 exp x = 1 + x + + + .The total forging load.

Thus we can approximate Eq. the forming pressure p and hence the forming load rises rapidly. is µa  '  p = σ o 1 +  h   _ …. 26 We can see that as the ratio a/h increases. p. 23 and Eq.Eq. 24 Integrating this gives: p= _ σ  ' o x + a  2µax µx  −  h h 0 2 a …. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .Eq. 25 So that the average axial tooling pressure.21 becomes p=∫ 0 _ a ' σo  2µ (a − x )  1 + dx a  h  ….Eq.Eq.19 as ' σ y = σ o 1 +   2µ (a − x )  h  ….

Example: The flash has high deformation resistance than in the die (due to much higher a/h ratio). Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . therefore the material completely fills the cavity rather than being extruded sideward out of the die.

27 and the mean forging pressure is  '  a p = σo + 1  2h  _ ….Eq.3) High friction condition (sticky friction) In the situation where the friction force is high. For example: if the a/h ratio is high. • reducing σ’o by increasing the temperature. then p = 5σ’o. say a/h = 8. the stress acting on the metal is ' σ y = σo a−x  − 1  h  …. The local stress on the tooling can therefore be very high indeed and 5σ’o is probably high enough to deform the tooling in most cold forming operation. the forming load is dependent on the flow stress of the material and the geometry of the workpiece. 28 Under these conditions.Eq. • changing the workpiece geometry. Solutions: • reducing µ to ensure that sticking friction conditions do not apply. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .

Eq. 31 Replacing C in Eq. 27 Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .In the case of sticky friction. 30 Since σy = σ’o at x = a. 30 we then have ' σ y = −σ o x  ' ' a ' a− x +σo +σo =σo + 1 h h  h  Or Eq. if we replace the force µσy with k (the average shear stress of the material) in Eq.Eq.14 dσ y σy then we have _ 2µ =− dx h ….Eq. then ' ' C = σo +σo a h …. 14 2σ o dx 2k ' dx dσ y = − dx = − = −σ o h h 3 h ' σ y= −σ o …. 29 Integrating x +C h ….Eq.

Example: Dieter. Since 150 mm dimension does not change.9)  2(0. page 574-575 A block of lead 25x25x150 mm3 is pressed between flat dies to a size 6.19.25  Likewise. determine the pressure distribution over the 100 mm dimension (at x = 0.25) (50 − 0) = 435MPa exp   3  6. 25 and 50 mm and the total forging load in the sticky friction condition. 2  2µ  where σ o' = 2 σ o a−x  σy = σ o exp  3 3  h ( )  At the centreline of the slab (x = 0) σ max = 2(6.25. the stress distribution will be 58.9 MPa and µ = 0. If the uniaxial flow stress σo = 6. at 25 and 50 mm.0 MPa respectively. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . the deformation is plane strain. From Eq.9 and 8.25x100x150 mm3.

28 is p= _ _ 2 3 σo  a  + 1  2h  p= 2(6.5  We calculate the forging load on the assumption that the stress distribution is based on 100 percent sticky friction. Then The forging load is P = stress x area = (39.8x106)(100x10-3)(150x10-3) = 597 kN = 61 tonnes.9)  50  + 1 = 39.The mean forging load (in the sticky friction condition) from Eq. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .8MPa  3  12.

• The formation of a grain structure in forged parts is elongated in the direction of the deformation. provide finer grains compared to the cast dendritic structure resulting in improved mechanical properties. • The metal flow during forging provides fibrous microstructure (revealed by etching). This structure gives better mechanical properties in the plane of maximum strain but (perhaps) lower across the thickness.Effect of forging on microstructure grain structure resulting from (a) forging. therefore. (b) machining and (c) casting. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . • The workpiece often undergo recrystallisation.

1) redistribution of inclusions and 2) crystallographic orientation of the grains 1) The redistribution of inclusions Redistribution during forming of (a) soft inclusions (b) hard inclusions Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007 Tapany Udomphol .Forming textures Redistribution of metal structures occurring during forming process involves two principle components.

Forming textures 2) Crystallographic orientation of the grains Castings Forgings Cast iron structure Fibre structure in forged steels Mainly epitaxial. dendritic or equiaxed grains Suranaree University of Technology Redistribution of grains in the working directions Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .

appreciable residual stresses and warping can occur on the quenching of steel forgings in heat treatment. coupled with the presence of residual stresses. • Large forgings are subjected to the formation of small cracks. • Finite element analysis is used to predict residual stresses in forgings.Residual stresses in forging • The residual stress produced in forgings as a results of inhomogeneous deformation are generally small because the deformation is normally carried out well into the hot-working region. This is associated with the high hydrogen content usually present in steel ingots of large size. • However. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . • Large forgings therefore have to be slowly cooled from the working temperature. Examples: burying the forging in ashes for a period of time or using a controlled cooling furnace. or flakes at the centre of the cross section.

Typical forging defects files. • Hot shortness. • Forging laps.com • Incomplete die filling. • Incomplete forging penetration. Fluorescence penetrant reveals Forging laps www. • Die misalignment.komatsusanki.jp See simulation Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .should forge on the press.bnpmedia.co. due to high sulphur concentration in steel and nickel. • Microstructural differences resulting in pronounced property variation.

due to temperature differential between surface and centre.wikimedia. due to residual stress.ualberta.Typical forging defects www. Subject to high compressive stress. • Surface cracking. due to oxide scales occurring at high temperature stick on the dies.org Buckling Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . http://upload. • Buckling. or excessive working of the surface at too low temperature.mece.ca • Pitted surface. • Microcracking. in upsetting forging.

due to secondary tensile stress. • Cold shut or fold . after trimming-occurs more often in thin workpieces. • Internal cracking. Therefore should increase the thickness of the flash. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . due to flash or fin from prior forging steps is forced into the workpiece.Typical forging defects Cracking at the flash Cold shut or fold Internal cracking • Flash line crack.

hydraulic machines. now using water power. . .000 tonnes.Hydraulic press = slow. steam. . electricity. .Sufficient deformation must be given to break up the ‘as cast’ structure.Impurities (inclusions and segregation) have become elongated and (unlike casting) gives superior properties in the direction of elongation.Reheating is often needed to maintain sufficient temperature for hot working.Simple tools squeeze metal into shape (open-die forging). high force squeeze.Continuous ‘grain flow’ in the direction of metal flow is revealed by etching.Summary • Mainly hot forging – Blacksmith.Forging is costly but eliminates some as-cast defects . • Heavy forging . Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .Pieces up to 200 tonnes with forces up to 25. . .

Sheffield University. and Bibbly M. Mechanical metallurgy. J. Butterworth Heinemann.J. • Beddoes. 1990. SI metric edition.. 1919.. Arnold. 2003. K. • Lecture note. ISBN 0-470-35241-8. 1988. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-7506-2754-9. McGraw-Hill Book company. and Endean.E.. G. Manufacturing with materials. Handbook of metal forming. Prof Manus. ISBN 0-07-100406-8. 1999. M. • Metal forming processes. Principles of metal manufacturing process. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . • Edwards. L. • Lange. ISBN 0-07-036285-8.References • Dieter..

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