SYMBOLS LIST OF nGURES 1.0 2.0 2.1 INTRODUCTION CODE CLAUSES General Clause 16, Basis of design Clause 17, Stability Clause 18, Loads Clause 19, Structural properties and analysis Characteristic compressive strength of masonry, !k Characteristic compressive strength of masonry in bending Characteristic shear strength of masonry, t; Characteristic strength of reinforcing steel, fy Characteristic anchorage bond strength, fb Elastic moduli, Em, Eo t; Analysisofstructure Clause 20, Partial safety factors
2 3 5 5 5 5 5 7
10
2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.4.1 2.2.4.2 2.2.4.3 2.2.4.4 2.2.4.5 2.2.4.6 2.2.4.7 2.2.5
2.2
CodeSection3
10
10
12 13
2.3
2.3.1
Section4
5.0 5.1 5.1.1 5.1.2
REINFORCED Mru.ONRY DESIGN EXAMPLES
Beams
44
44 44.
5.2 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3
5.2.4
5.3 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3
Example 1, Simply supported beam Example 2, Cantilever beam Columns Example 3, Axially loaded short column Example 4, Axially loaded slender column Example 5, Short column and slender column subjected to single axis bending Example 6, Short column subjected to biaxial bending Retaining walls Example 7, Grouted cavity retaining wall Example 8, Quetta bond retaining wall Example 9, Pocket
47
M.
c d de d. tc tet 2
crosssectional area of masonry crosssectional area of masonry in compression crosssectional area of primary reinforcing steel area of compression reinforcement in the most compressed face area of reinforcement in the least compressed face crosssectional area of reinforcing steel resisting shear forces shear span distance from face of support to the nearest edge of a principal load width of section width of compression face midway between restraints width of rib or pier width of section at level of the tension reinforcement lever arm factor effective depth depth of masonry in compression the depth from the surface to the reinforcement in the more highly compressed face the depth of the centroid of the reinforcement from the least compressed face modulus of elasticity of concrete modulus of elasticity of masonry nominal earth or water load modulus of elasticity of steel resultant eccentricity in plane of bending characteristic anchorage bond strength between mortar or concrete infill and steel characteristic compressive strength of masonry characteristic flexural strength (tension) of masonry stress in the reinforcement stress in the reinforcement in the most compressed face stress in the reinforcement in the least compressed face characteristic shear strength of masonry characteristic tensile strength of reinforcing steel characteristic dead load acceleration due to gravity design load per unit area due to loads acting at right angles to the bed joints clear distance between lateral supports effective height of wall or column moment of inertia active ground pressure coefficient length of the wall span of beam bending moment due to design load increase in moment due to slenderness design moment of resistance design moment about the x axis effective uniaxial design moment about the x axis design moment about the y axis effective uniaxial design moment about the yaxis ratio of E. ex fh fk fkx fs fs1 fs2 f.
b.' My My' m N Nd Ndz P p Q Qk q R RA s s. Em Eli E. ignoring all bending lateral force due to earth pressure overall section dimension in a direction perpendicular to the x axis moment of resistance factor characteristic imposed load overall section dimension in a direction perpendicular to the yaxis reaction arch rise spacing of reinforcing bars spacing of shear reinforcement along member overall thickness of a wall or column width of cavity effective thickness of a wall or column
. fy Gk g gB h hcf I KA L I M M.SYMBOLS
Am Amc As AS1 As2 Asv a a. b be b. Md M. d2 E. to Em design axial load design axial load resistance design axial load resistance of column.
minimum horizontal loading 3.0 9. Load cases 13. Wall beam/tied arch analogy/simply supported beam 16. Stress blockshort column design reinforcement case 21.0 8. fs2 22. Typical flexural design flow chart 33. reinforced hollow blockwork 19. with stress in reinforcement in least compressed face of column. Arrangement of column links 27.0 and 4. Characteristic compressive strength. Characteristic compressive strength. fk' for masonry of solid blocks with ratio of height to least horizontal dimension of between 2. Bar spacing recommendations 25. Overall stability . Link anchorage 26.L
thickness of a flange in a pockettype wall shear force due to design loads shear stress due to design loads point load characteristic wind load uniformly distributed load section modulus lever arm coefficient for column design or bending moment coefficient for lateral load design partial safety factor for load partial safety factor for material partial safety factor for bond strength between mortar or concrete infill and steel partial safety factor for compressive strength of masonry partial safety factor for strength of steel partial safety factor for shear strength of masonry Aslbd soil density angle of friction between retained earth and back of wall orthogonal ratio
LIST OF FIGURES]
I. Reinforcement curtailment 30. Pocket wall maximum reinforcement size 24. fk' for masonry of solid blocks with ratio of height to least horizontal dimension of 1. dc. fk' for masonry of units with ratio of height to least horizontal dimension of 0. Definition of principal load 11. Beams and slabs limiting deflections 2. internal supports 29. Damp proof course in reinforced masonry 6. Alternative cross sections for derivation of relative stiffness 12. Effective anchorage of hooks and bends 28. fb for masonry of blocks other than solid with ratio of height to least horizontal dimension of between 2. Variation of depth of compression block. Reinforcement anchorage. Stress blockshort column minimum reinforcement case 20. Effective width.tf V v W Wk w Z z
CI. Determination of effective span 14. Design width of masonry with raked joints 5. simply supported ends 31. Maximum reinforcement sizes 23.6 7. Flange thicknesses of pocket type walls 17.
'Yf 'Ym 'Ymb 'Ymm 'Yms 'Ymv p
Ps &
f. Cracking due to differential movement 4. Flange width of pocket type walls 18. Reinforcement anchorage. Anchorage of reinforcement where principal loads occur 32. Links in vertical joints
I Handbook
to BS5628: Part 2: SECTION 2: Reinforced Masonry
3
.0 10.0 and 4. Characteristic compressive strength. Characteristic compressive strength. Limiting spans for lateral stability 15.
.
The design must also satisfy the requirements of the serviceability limit states of deflection and cracking and/or others where appropriate. where appropriate.2. creep. etc. appropriate to the limit state under consideration. or otherwise derived. Detailed design information and guidance is given in Code Section 4. Thus the design strength must be equal to. The same relationship as given above must be satisfied for each of the serviceability limit states. taking account of the possibility of overturning and buckling.1
CODE SECTION 3
CLAUSE 16. ie will the section behave as reinforced masonry or as reinforced concrete incorporating masonry.0
] ] INTRODUCTION
I
This Section of the Handbook deals with the objectives of the design of reinforced masonry to BS56281: Part 2 and the general and detailed design recommendations as contained in Sections 3 and 4 of the Code.2
2.) not greater length . moments etc. the effects of sway. Compliance with the Code requirements for the serviceability limit state of deflection is intended to ensure that the performance of the structure or its applied finishes in service is not impaired. BASIS OF DESIGN This clause deals with the 'basis of design' and outlines the requirements of the limit state approach to design as adopted by the Code.1. or exceed.
2. The Code suggests that the designer should consider whether the proportion of concrete infill to the overall crosssection makes reinforced concrete design to BS81102 more appropriate than BS5628 : Part 2 design. as to what the limiting proportions should be. especially with respect to weather resistance. the Code adopts the Limit State philosophy which has been used by many countries and organisations for their most recent Codes of Practice or equivalent design documents. Code Section 3 sets out the design objectives embodied in the limit state philosophy and discusses the general stability requirements of reinforced masonry structures. but it might be assumed that if more than 50% of the section is concrete. whilst reference may be made to Section 1 of this Handbook as necessary. shrinkage. To satisfy this relationship partial safety factors are used.
Handbook to 8S5628: Part 2: SECTION 2: Reinforced Masonry
5
. In relation to the ultimate limit state the Code refers to the strength of the structure being adequate for the design loads. In general terms:
'Ym x characteristic strength of reinforced masonry
must be greater than or equal to
'Yf x characteristic applied load effects
where 'Ym and 'Yf are the partial safety factors on materials and loads respectively appropriate to the ultimate limit state. Section 2 covers those parts of the Code that relate to the carrying out of structural design calculations. BS8110 would be more appropriate.
a) b)
Postconstruction deflection (ie that due to imposed loads) not greater than span or
500
20mm. being reached. however. in order to minimise risk of damage to partitions and floor finishes. span than 125 for cantilevers and 250 for other elements. To this end the following limiting deflections are recommended in the Code and illustrated in Figure 1: Final deflection (including that due to temperature. ie collapse. No guidance is given.0
2. as given in the Code. As already described in Section 1 of this Handbook. The intention is that.1
I CODE
CLAtT8ES
I
GENERAL Sections 3 and 4 of BS5628 Part 2 contain the information required to enable the designer of reinforced masonry to carry out structural calculations and also enable the design philosophy adopted by the Code to be followed. considering. Thus the designer must ensure that an ultimate limit state is not reached as a result of buckling due to elastic or plastic instability. whichever is less. These recommendations are not peculiar to reinforced masonry and designers experienced in the design of reinforced concrete to BS8110 will have no difficulty in coping with them.
2. The clause also refers to the need to provide an adequate factor of safety against the ultimate limit state. resulting from the design load. Also given in Code Section 4 are recommendations on the detailing of reinforced masonry.
This artifice has commonly been used in the design of retaining walls by reducing the design strength of high tensile reinforcement to that of mild steel.
6
. in common with similar prestressed concrete members.Onwhere finishes are
to be applied. In unusual cases. slabs etc. it is pointed out that fine cracking or opening up of joints may occur in reinforced masonry structures but that the cracking must not be such as to adversely affect the appearance or durability of the structure. shrinkage and moisture movement.
c) Upward deflection of prestressed masonry members not greater than sr. These reflect the conservative approach of the Code to actual performance of reinforced masonry in areas in which information is limited. to achieve these limiting deflections. unless uniformity of camber between adjacent units can be ensured. Item c) above applies to factory prestressed masonry units (beams. No guidance on the limiting values of crack width for reinforced masonry is given in the Code. Attention is also drawn to the need for movement joints or other precautions to deal with the effects oftemperature.) laid side by side. creep. These recommendations were based on those which were given in CPl103 with the exception of the additional limitation on cantilever members given in a) and the reduction in permitted deflection in b) from sf5~nto sf~n.Successful and economic use of posttensioned brickwork in this unique building for the Salvation Army. however. suggesting that an elastic analysis should be used. such units are likely to vary in precamber with consequent difficulties in the application of finishes. satisfy the limiting deflections given. Bournemouth. it is suggested that the designer considers reducing the stresses in the reinforcement to control both deflection and cracking. in the majority of cases. Compliance with the requirements of Code Sections 3 and 4 should. However. No such 'factory' prestressed masonry units are as yet available in this country. The Orsborn Memorial Halls. Appendix C to the Code gives some guidance in general terms on the estimation of deflection.
1
L
I
reinforced masonry beam or slab
total load iJ.1 ~ 20mm
L iJ. General recommendations are given regarding the need for one designer to be responsible for the overall stability of a structure and for ensuring that stability req uirements are incorporated in the design of the various elements of the structure even when they may be carried out by different parties (trussed rafter roofs.
2.2.. spans up to 10..0m
<.deflection due to Imposed load
_I
1
. ~
L 250
J[:"""="""""!"fj.
iJ.
1
.). Reference is also made to the need for a 'robust and stable design' which is particularly important in reinforced masonry structures because of the more open layouts 7
Handbook to BS5628: Part 2: SECTION 2: Reinforced Masonry
.d"""'=:]:t
1_
/
1_ rtl
~
deflected shape after construction of partitions and finishes but before applicationof imposed load iJ. high covers to the tension reinforcement. STABILITY Clause 17 deals with stability.1 .2
CLAUSE 17.1
Reinforced brick beam test structure under construction. reinforced concrete plate floors etc.i I. 1~5
F =t~.0m spans over 10. thus strains at the tensile face of the masonry may also be high in comparison with reinforced concrete. .
I. Limiting the design strength of the reinforcement can reduce the incidence of cracking.deflection due to dead load iJ..
Figure 1Beams and slabs =limiting deflections It is apparent that reinforced masonry elements will often have. Cracks will tend to open only at joints between units.11
"
""<
:5::
500
L
Movement joint in posttensioned
brickwork.
iJ.I
I. in reinforced concrete terms.
:= J=1 3 J
L
I
reinforced masonry cantilever
6
lo'alload6".20mm
prestressed masonry member before application of finishes
L
iJ.0m thus by implication: spans up to 10.d. concentrating their size.0m spans over 10.1 L
. ~ 300 unless uniformity of camber between adjacent members can be ensured
iJ.
L
.d ~ 250 ..
2) Robust connections should be provided between elements ofthe structure. guidance is given on the "if values to be used when designing reinforced masonry elements. Whilst the introduction of reinforcement and grouted voids into masonry sections modifies to some degree the behaviour of the masonry. This recommendation draws attention to the variations in behaviour between masonry. Although the geotechnical procedures for the calculation of the forces acting upon these structures are not given in the Code (being obtainable in numerous suitable text books':"). both of which may adversely affect the assumptions made in the design. the tendency of clay brickwork to long term expansion. In order to assist the designer three recommendations are given as follows: 1) Buildings should be capable of resisting.5% of the total characteristic dead load above that level. Clause 17 also refers to the stability of earth retaining and foundation structures. see Figure 3.
possible cracking
\
may expand with time
shortens with time
reinforced masonry
reinforced concrete
the use of pinned joints may avoid stress build up and cracking. particularly at floors and roofs. Whilst these details can often be used without further calculations. as opposed to the long term contraction of reinforced concrete for example. namely the raking out of bed joints and the inclusion of dpcs. 1. should be borne in mind when connecting different materials together. Stability of these
8
. at any level. Reference is made to Appendix C of BS5628: Part 1which gives information on the use of metal anchors and joist hangers capable of resisting lateral movements.Figure 2 Overall stability . reinforced concrete and steelwork etc under the influence of thermal and moisture changes. but effect on stability must be considered
Figure 3 Cracking due to differential movement The attention of the designer is also drawn to two constructional matters. see Figures 4 and 5. 3) Consideration should be given to the effects of the differential behaviour of structural elements of different materials on the connections between them. and for the forming of these connections in buildings of up to 6 storeys in height.minimum horizontal loading possible in comparison with traditional unreinforced load bearing masonry. the designer must be satisfied that the connection meets the requirements of his design assumptions. acting as a horizontally distributed load as illustrated in Figure 2. In general it is also important that undue reliance is not placed upon the structural performance of individual connections because of the often variable nature of their installation.
6 for loads considered to be imposed. and as appropriate to walling
if membrane type dpc required then reduced bending and shear capacity will result
Figure 5 Damp proof course in reinforced masonry
structures or structural elements will usually be governed by geotechnical criteria... In addition to consideration of these general recommendations..
Handbook to BSS628: Part 2: SECTION 2: Reinforced Masonry
9
. In both codes the designer is permitted to analyse the behaviour of his structure or follow the tying rules laid down. and of 1. When dealing with reinforced masonry. in clause 17 requires the designer of reinforced masonry structures to consider the effect of misuse or accident upon his design. In general. There is also the need to allow for particular types of damage to which structures may be susceptible by virtue of their use. As with other recent structural Codes of Practice+".
raked joints
I. Hammersmith is reinforced. ie 1. There is some dissension as to the value of "tt to be assigned to earth and water loads but the Code adopts a value of 1. The principle to be followed is that the extent of any damage should not be disproportionate to the cause. for buildings of five storeys and above design should follow the requirements of clause 37 of BS5628: Partl . The designer has to consider what accidental damage design requirements are appropriate to his structure in these circumstances. The 'Yf values to be used are the equivalent of those applied to other forms of loading. if required.The brickwork in the curved walling over the glazed entrance to this offices and shops building in King Street. the recommendations given in BS8110 and BS5628: Part 1 are similar. BS5628: Part 2. For the reasons discussed in Sectiori 1 of this Handbook no distinction is made between adverse and beneficial loads in the application of 'Yf to earth and water pressures. The use of mortar designation (iii) in this connection is again excluded for reinforced masonry except where it onlycontains bed joint reinforcement and is designed in accordance with Appendix A of the Code.2 when wind load is also included. This considerably simplifies design procedures. compliance with Option 3 in BS5628: Part 1would also satisfy BS8110 requirements for any reinforced concrete elements.4 for loads which are considered to be dead loads and 1. steelwork. width of masonry for
design purposes
~
I
Figure 4 Design width of masonry with raked joints
freestanding grouted cavity wall
2 courses of damp proof course bricks as dpc. Whilst there is no theoretical reason why buildings of 5 storeys and above should not have a structure composed entirely of reinforced masonry.4 when combined with dead and imposed loads. this is unusual in the United Kingdom and elements of reinforced masonry are more likely to be combined with elements of reinforced concrete or. since reinforcement suitable to function as ties is likely to be available in the masonry. indeed.
fk
Table 3 of the Code gives values of fk for various combinations of masonry unit and mortar designation loaded in the normal manner. As masonry will often be reinforced to permit increases in slenderness over unreinforced masonry (retaining walls. to arrange for the units to be orientated such that the compressive force on the unit is normal to its bed face ie in the usual unreinforced masonry manner. Qk Load assumed to be produced by occupancy or use including: movable partitions distributed loads concentrated loads impact loads inertia loads snow loads
taken as equal to the imposed load as defined in and calculated in accordance with BS6399: Parts 1 and 3 or other appropriate Code of Practice eg BS6180 for protective barriers in and about buildings
(c) Characteristic wind load. LOADS
Clause 18 gives definitions of the various loads to be used in the design of reinforced structures. CP2004 in turn refers also to Civil Engineering Code of Practice N 0. Gk for: str~cture fimshes .2. En Load to be obtained in accordance with current practice.3
CLAUSE 18.2. eg if they are hollow or perforated. where possible.24 for the derivation of lateral earth pressures.
with
partitions (permanent) weights to be based on unit weights given in BS648 or from actual known services weights.
2.4 2.2. Where the compressive force is parallel to the bed face of the unit ie the direction of loading is normal to the stretcher or perpend face. The values are also given graphically in Figure 10f the Code. shed type structures etc. Wk Load due to the effect of wind pressure or suction taken as equal to the wind load as defined in and calculated in accordance with CP3: Ch. as the sections considered to be reinforced will have their voids filled with concrete.4. obtaining fk will present few problems. In reinforced masonry it is preferable.0 are used. STRUCTURAL
PROPERTIES
AND ANALYSIS
masonry and the
Clause 19 deals with the structural properties analysis of reinforced masonry structures.
of materials used in reinforced
Characteristic compressive strength of masonry. (d) Nominal earth load. as explained in Section 1 of this Handbook.1
CLAUSE 19. eg as described in CP2004. the appropriate section of Table 3 can be used to obtain the characteristic compressive strength for frogged brick masonry (filled frogs). For those familiar with masonry design in accordance with BS5628: Part 1. or its elements. as follows: (a) Characteristic dead load. those tables relating to solid blocks can be used for obtaining fk' provided that the strength of the concrete infill is at least equal to the strength of the block. If the units are loaded compressively on other than their normal bed faces there can be a considerable reduction in the characteristic compressive strength of the units. Complications may arise with the partial reinforcement of hollow concrete blockwork. indeed the process is simplified when concrete units having a height to width ratio of 1. during construction.). solid units and
10
. since a separate table for this case is included in Part 2.
2. (including tanks and contents) (b) Characteristic imposed load. V: Part 2. fixtures masonry
I
taken as equal to the dead load as defined in and calculated in accordance BS6399: Part 1. stability considerations during construction may be more onerous than with unreinforced masonry and in such circumstances the contractor should be advised that special precautions are necessary. The information given in Table 3 and Figure 1 are included here in Figures 6 to 9. However.The final point made in Clause 17 requires the designer to consider whether any special precautions or temporary propping are necessary for the stability of the structure.
. This
Handbook to 8S5628: Part 2 : SECTION 2: Reinforced Masonry
11
./'
".6
Figure 6 Characteristic compressive dimension of 0.::
o o
16
~ ~ !II
IP'
~ I
~
/ V
./
de'. iil
Q)
~
>
<II
·iii
a..s: E
z ~ c
0
<II
26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 mortar designation (i)I~..
26 24 N 22 E E Z 20
0
<II
strength. fk>for masonry of solid blocks with ratio of height to least horizontal
filled hollow blockwork....
ff
/
V
~L:a:: :
30
/
L
~
V"
~
JIll'"
..c o
I
o
I
o
I
7 10
20
50 40 compressive strength of unit (N/mm2)
60
70
80
block masonry constructed with solid blocks having a ratio of height to least horizontal dimension of 1./
.. for
masonry of units with ratio of height to least horizontal
mortar deSignatio~
..
".0
Figure 7 Characteristic compressive dimension of 1./ L/~
/mortar
V
~
". !II
o
.
strength..
e c
18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2
E '0 s:
c
Q)
!II
"5
iil
<II Q)
~
> ·iii
BE
0 u
~
s ts
!II ..
~
.'OO I....6./
~ ~ ~
""..
A..
E .0...~
...
~ ~ ~ ~
~
!II
a
s: c
E
0.....90. "'"""""'"
designation (ii)
Ii
30
40 70 50 60 compressive strength of unit (N/mm2) 80
o
o
I
7 10
20
90
100
masonry constructed with bricks or other units having a ratio of height to least horizontal dimension of 0. E
0
~
.)
. For cellular or perforated brick masonry the characteristic compressive strength may be obtained using the test described in Appendix D to the Code.
0 and 4.
0
"ti
. the value obtained from Table 3 may be divided by three to give a value for fk./'
/
deslqnation (li)
I
o
o
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
compressive strength of unit (N/mm2) block masonry constructed with solid blocks having a ratio of height to least horizontal dimension of between 2.0
Figure 8 Characteristic compressive strength. tests will be required to obtain the unit strength. Alternatively. Unless this information is available from the manufacturer. The appropriate block strength may be obtained as above using the method given in Appendix B of BS6073: Part 1. if no test data are available and the extent of the works does not warrant testing. In the unusual case where hollow or cellular block work is subjected to compressive forces parallel to the bed face of the unit.2 the Code refers to the characteristic compressive strength of masonry in bending. but the method described in Appendix B of BS6073: Part 1: 1981 may be used for this purpose.
2. /J // J'/ hv /L
/
L L .2. using the compressive strength of the unit determined in the direction parallel to the bed face of the unit in which the block will be loaded in service.. The Code does not specify a method of determining the unit compressive strength. and for block masonry using the value given in Code Table 3 for the appropriate block strength.1. This is
.4.40 38 36 34 32
N
mortar deSignatio.0 and 4.. O.2
12
test may of course be used to determine fk for any masonry materials stressed in any direction. BS5628: Part 2 also refers to units of unusual format and unusual bonding patterns and suggests that fk may be obtained for brick masonry using the method given in Appendix D of the Code. Characteristic compressive strength of masonry in bending In 19. For brick masonry the value of fk must not exceed that which would be obtained using Table 3. fk' for masonry of solid blocks with ratio of height to least horizontal dimension of between 2.~
0 0
t5
s:
0
~ ca
f~
II
l
7 10
/ /' ~V / I v/ :art..
/ V
Z
E E
30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2
c:
e
0
ca E '0
s:
III
'5 c:
1i5
~
Q)
> '00
III
E
~ a. the value for fk is obtained from Table 3.
E
8
6 4 2
8
. may be increased by the factor 2d where av is av the distance from the face of the support to the face of a principal load. must not exceed 0. For combinations of loads the shear span must be calculated accordingly.3
Characteristic
shear strength of masonry. a. These requirements are discussed in 2.2.~
o
rI i
o
.6 in this Handbook..2 the designer's attention is drawn to the detailing requirements when a principal load is within 2d of the support.35 Nrmm? in all cases except for simply supported beams or cantilevers where the ratio of the shear span. is less than 2. however.. as described
2.35 N/mm2 ie the same as for unreinforced masonry./
mortar deSignatio~
C
o
~
~
E
. Thus it is unnecessary to factor fk when using flexural design formulae. and for uniformly distributed loads as the span divided by 4.. In this case.N
z

E
E
>..3...0 and 4. see Figure: 10. the shear span may be taken as the distance from the support to the line of action of the point load.~
.
c
Q)
Ul
(/)
~
> 'iii
~ c. In both cases the value of fk may be further governed in beams by the area of the main reinforcement and the shear span (the ratio of maximum design bending moment to maximum design shear force) of the beam. In clause 22. and is determined above. f.
20 18 16 14 12 10
.... to effective depth.
V
~
V.7N/mm2• No enhancement is permitted for uniformly distributed loads.0 and 4.
.4..0
Figure 9 Characteristic compressive strength..s:::
0.d. fk' for masonry of blocks other than solid with ratio of height to least horizontal dimension of between 2. given as fk' the characteristic compressive strength of masonry. VV
~VY
mortar designation (ii)
~
V
.5. f.
__".7R (principal load)
Figure 10 Definition of principal load
Handbook to BS5628: Part 2: SECTION 2: Reinforced Masonry
13
. fv
The characteristic shear strength of reinforced masonry is dependent upon whether the reinforcement in the section is embedded in mortar or concrete. a) Reinforcement embedded in mortar The characteristic shear strength for reinforcement embedded in mortar is 0. The basic characteristic shear strength for both infill mortar and concrete is taken as 0.s:::
~ ro
o
o
7 10
!
20
30 40 50 compressive strength of unit (N/mm2)
60
70
80
block masonry constructed with structural units other than solid concrete blocks having a ratio of height to least horizontal dimension of between 2. In the case of point loads. O.
all main tension reinforcement to be fully anchored at support see fig 30
w~
0.~ .
Interestingly.25(a/d» up to a maximum of 1.0 is used.4.2. whichever method gives the greater value.5 pup to a maximum of 0. b. ie. dead and wind load.5 must be applied as opposed to the value in BS5628: Part 20f2.50. In this case fv is increased by the factor (2.35 is enhanced by 0.
2.35 + 17. as above.75N/mm2.75 Nzmrrr'.7 Nzmnr' provided that the ratio of the height of the wall to its length does not exceed 1. or as 0. imposed and Again the upper limit for I. In Table 4 of the Code the values of fy for plain steel bars and for high yield steel bars have been transposed.is
b) Reinforcement embedded in concrete When the reinforcement is surrounded by infill concrete the characteristic shear strength is taken asO. fy
The characteristic tensile strength of reinforcement as given in the Code is reproduced in Table 1 below. up to a maximum of 1. the presence of a dpc will probably reduce considerably the shear resistance of the wall and should therefore be allowed for in design.4 states that the characteristic compressive strength of reinforcemen t should be obtained by multiplying the values of fy in the Table by a factor of 0. the same value of fv is used for racking shear basic value of 0.1.The Code points out that where a wall is subjected to considerable vertical loading the wall may have adequate shear resistance when considered as unreinforced in accordance with BS5628: Part 1. for racking shear may be taken as either 0. Where the main reinforcement in a shear wall is surrounded by infill concrete the value of f. TABLE 1: CHARACTERISTIC (FROM BS5628: PART 2)
Designation
TENSILE STRENGTH
OF REINFORCING
STEEL.5. Whilst such a practice may not be common in reinforced masonry construction. fy
N/mm2
Nominal Size
Hot rolled plain steel bars complying with BS4449 Hot rolled deformed high yield steel bars complying with BS4449 Cold worked steel bars complying with BS4461 Hard drawn steel wire complying with BS4482 and steel fabric complying with BS4483 Stainless Steel complying with BS970: Part1 grades 304S 15. in this case a 'Ymv value of 2. 75 Nzmrrr'. This shear strength can be further increased in simply supported beams and cantilever retaining walls. Clause 19. A future amendment will deal with this error. 316S31 or 316S33
All
250'
All
460'
All
460
Up to and including 12
485
All
460
* Corrected from Table 4 in BS5628 " Part 2
14
. fy
Characteristic tensile strength.83.7 Nrrnrrr'where pis the crosssectional area of main reinforcement divided by the effective depth times the section width.6 times the design load appropriate loading condition from clause 20. It should be noted that the BS5628: Part 1 material partial safety factor 'Ymv of2. if it is done. In this case.35 + 0. the shear strength would be taken as 0. where the ratio of shear span to effective depth is less than 6.4
Characteristic
strength of reinforcing
steel.35 Nzmnr' plus 0. where the per unit area (gB) for the wind load or dead. 1.0. It is common practice to build unreinforced masonry walls off a dpc on concrete ground slabs.6 gB. However.6 times the design vertical load per unit area due to vertical dead and imposed loads for the appropriate load case. in reinforced shear walls.
TABLE 2: CHARACTERISTIC
Reinforcement Plain bars
ANCHORAGE
BOND STRENGTH. However. A further value of Es. and the positions of the laps should be staggered in adjacent bed joints.5
embedded in mortar embedded in infill concrete embedded in mortar Deformed Bars types 1 &2 embedded in infill concrete
The recommendations given in Clause 19. the elastic modulus for all steel reinforcement.2.0 2.2.1. The ends of each strip of reinforcement should be cut to provide the longitudinal bars with as much side by side lap as possible without removing internal reinforcement or overlapping the strips of reinforcement in the vertical plane.9 fk as given in Code Clause 19.
Reinforced
brick stair tread under construction. Es
Being a composite and anisotropic material. The values of fb are given in Table 2.8 2.0 fk (see Handbook Section 1). In this case most proprietary reinforcement systems rely upon the mechanical anchorage afforded by their welded latticed form. and the direction ofloading etc. Em.
Mortar/Concrete
r.5 1. The recommendations given in Clause 19. is given as 200 kN/mm2• This value is accurate enough for all design calculations.6 may not apply where bed joint reinforcement is incorporated purely to increase the lateral load resistance of the wall. Also given in this clause are elastic moduli for concrete infill. therefore.6 may not apply where bed joint reinforcement is incorporated purely to increase the lateral load resistance of the wall. and for prestressing tendons. For accurate determination of deflection. which depends upon the masonry materials used. Ec. will have a value of elastic modulus.5
Characteristic
anchorage bond strength. Ec. d) embedded in infill concrete. An absolute minimum of 150 mm lap between the longitudinal bars should be provided. rotation etc. b) of type 1 or 2 having a deformed or ribbed surface.5 fk2. Because of the limited thickness available in bed joints the usual means of lapping the bars will be impossible with some of these latticed systems.
2.6
Elastic moduli. and often more so reinforced masonry. An absolute minimum of 150 mm lap between the longitudinal bars should be provided. The ends of each strip of reinforcement should be cut to provide the longitudinal bars with as much side by side lap as possible without removing internal reinforcement or overlapping the strips of reinforcement in the vertical plane. Because of the limited thickness available in bed joints the usual means of lapping the bars will be impossible with some of these latticed systems. be necessary to carry out tests to arrive at a value for the elastic modulus. In this case most proprietary reinforcement systems rely upon the mechanical anchorage afforded by their welded latticed form.4. 0.
Handbook to BS5628: Part 2 : SECTION 2: Reinforced Masonry
IS
. E s s for use in the calculation of losses of prestress.1.4.2.
fb<N/mml) 1. Em.7 even though the range is substantial in practice. c) embedded in mortar. and the positions ofthe laps should be staggered in adjacent bed joints.1. it will. fb
is:
The value of fb depends upon whether the reinforcement a) of circular cross section with a plain surface. masonry. in most cases it will be sufficient to use a value for Em of 0.
1(d) will be necessary unless the building exceeds four storeys in height. the case of analysis for accidental damage and also the serviceability limit state. For obvious reasons the first ofthese will be appropriate for the design situation.
AmAs+
(i)
(m x As)
Ame + (m x As) (iii)
(ii)
Am = total masonry section ignoring reinforcement Ame = compression area of masonry As = area of reinforcement m = ratio of Es to Em
Figure 11 Alternative
cross sections for derivation of relative stiffness
2. thus some judgement is required if calculating for deflection etc.1 in the Code gives values for the partial safety factors for loads. Thus there is no need to consider an alternative value of 'YfofO. consideration having been given to Clause 17. being at 16
. The Code rightly reminds the designer that it may be necessary. These were as used by CPllO. It should also be noted that when dealing with earth or water loads the Code considers it unnecessary to make any distinction between adverse and beneficial loading conditions. The Code accepts that in certain circumstances other values of 'Yf may be appropriate eg for farm buildings where type of structure and design life are factors. those partial safety factors on materials which are also used in BS5628: Part 1 have been modified in Part 2. in certain cases. No serviceability values of 'Yf earth and water loads are given. (b) and (c) in relation to these loads although this might appear to result in more critical loading.7
Analysis of structure The implication of the first paragraph of clause 19. 'Yf. PARTIAL SAFETYFACTORS
Clause 20 deals with partial safety factors for materials bmm etc. Clause 20. together with those used in Part 1 for comparison purposes.for the serviceability limit state.5
CLAUSE20.
It also accepts that alternative values of 'Yf En may be more appropriate in the derivation of for
design loads for earth and water pressure.2. Three assumptions for the calculation of the stiffness of members are given in terms of the member crosssection and are illustrated in Figure 11. The Table gives the values of 'Ymm for use in the ultimate limit state. drying shrinkage in reinforced concrete blockwork and creep movements in both. ie it is a category 2 structure as defined in BS5628: Part 1. Because of the need for closer control and efficient design of reinforced masonry.9or 1.3 'accidental forces'. when dealing with the limit states of deflection and cracking.3. but the designer must carefully consider the implications of amending the values given.) and for loads ('Yf)' The values of 'Yf used in BS5628: Part 2 are based upon those in Part 1 and the same four load cases are adopted. The Code also requires that the analysis ofthe structure should recognise indeterminacy where appropriate and make due allowance for continuity and joint stiffness in the derivation of forces in members. All of these movements are time dependent. no further detailed design requirements involving loading case 20. Generally. The latter two methods will be more useful when analysing existing structures.2 must be considered by the designer and the critical case or cases must be used in the design. Table 3 below gives the values of the material partial safety factors used in BS5628: Part 2. In fact for reinforced masonry design. Each of the four load cases referred to in 20. Since reinforced masonry will often be used in conjunction with reinforced concrete.2. similarly if clay brickwork and concrete blockwork are used in conjunction. It should be noted that the three methods can give considerably different answers in certain circumstances.2. involving earth or water pressures.2 is that calculations will be required for a number of limit states. to allow for additional deflections resulting from moisture expansion in clay brick reinforced masonry. property differences of the materials should be allowed for in analysis of the structure.4. compliance with the span/depth ratios and slenderness requirements given in Section 4 of the Code will mean that in general only ultimate limit state calculations will be necessary.0 in cases (a).2.
25.15.
Shear strength of masonry
'fmv
2.L.S.3
CODE SECTION 4.S.25
V.55.5.8 to 3.3.6.D.0 1.2.4Gk IIIIlIIIIIII 0. the Code requires consideration of only two loading arrangements as follows (see Figure 12): 1) maximum design load on alternate spans and minimum design dead load on the remaining spans. of course.3.

A.S.68.0 1.0 2.4.5 1. when designing reinforced masonry.1.9 Gk
Figure 12 Load cases
It should be noted from Figure 12 that.75.5 to 5.1.Ultimate limit state SLS . Thus it is not necessary to consider the case with maximum design load on adjacent spans and minimum design load on the remainder.
It may be noted that with BS5628: Part 1 and CPllO the selection of partial safety factors was
governed.D. GENERAL The designer is permitted to assume that in the majority of cases.5 1. by the desire to achieve comparable global factors of safety with those inherent in permissible stress design.Misuse and accidental damage

their greatest immediately after construction and becoming of less significance.15 1.1. and in BS5628: Part 1 from 3.2.L.5

Material partial safety factors Compressive strength of masonry
'fmm
A.S.L. inter alia.0 1.1. where spans differ.
2.1.0 8S5628: Partl 3.0 1.
V. although never quite ceasing.S.6Qk
t t
t
t
+
t
t t
t t
11111
t t
~1. case (1) may need to be carried out twice to obtain the maximum design bending moments and shear forces.84. 2) maximum design load on all spans.L.
Strength of steel
'fms
1.8.Serviceability limit state AD . can be
Handbook to BS5628: Part 2: SECTION 2: Reinforced Masonry
17
.
V.D.TABLE 3: PARTIAL
SAFETY FACTORS
FOR MATERIALS
Limit state V. with the passage of time.0 1. Thus in CPllO global factors of safety on strength ranged from 1. In the analysis of continuous members.
1)
IIIIII III IIIIII IIIII IIIII
2)
t t
~1.L.
A.61 to 1.
ULS . These calculations. 8S5628: Part 2 2.2.
CLAUSE 21. S.L.
Bond strength
'fmb

A.5 1. In BS5628: Part 2 there is no predecessor and the global factors of safety are pitched between the two ranges mentioned above ie 2. Thus compliance with the design guidance and particular recommendations given in the Code obviate the need for special calculations for the serviceability limit states of deflection and cracking.S. S.D. the ultimate limit state wiIIbe critical.
.1. It is reasonable to assume that since Appendix A relates specifically to bed joint reinforced panels. It must be accepted that the design of slabs._
I
.
2
effective span
Figure 13 Determination
of effective span
2..2. However. retaining walls. istance between . in reinforced masonry is not very common.'
I f4Q
.3 and it is not made clear which of the limiting dimensions requirements apply.2 CLAUSE 22. it is necessary only to multiply the values in Table 9 by the x
18
.
useth~ smaller of
__. limiting dimensions are given to control deflection and cracking.. REINFORCED MASONRY SUBJECTED TO BENDING Clause 22 deals with reinforced masonry elements subjected to bending and covers the design of beams...1 previously. effective span .
I
. ==. 2.3.. and perhaps beams.. Following reinforced concrete practice. it may be assumed in the case of upstand beams that lateral restraint is provided by a slab attached to the tension zone of the beam. Limiting span to effective depth ratios for beams are the same as those used in BS811O.
I
usethl smaller of . It is also important to realise that the sizing of reinforced masonry elements will be controlled by the size of the masonry unit and the direction in which the units are loaded.
b) cantilever beam
effective span
..2. where only wind loading is involved the use of the methods in Appendix A will be more appropriate..2. Wall panels resisting lateral loads may also be designed in accordance with this section but. buttresses and piers etc.2
Limiting dimensions In Clause 22. The limiting span/effective depth ratios given in Code Table 9 are set to limit the deflections of beams to those values given in 16. methods one and two in Appendix A refer back to Clause 22. 2.3..3.carried out where particular circumstances warrant.4. If the designer wishes to use a different limiting deflection of say ~of a beam of span s. except when the 30% increase permitted by this clause for freestanding walls is used. provided that the slab thickness is at least one tenth ofthe effective depth of the beam and that the beam does not project above the slab by more than ten times its width..2. this is as illustrated in Figure 14... these are assumed to result in compliance with the recommendations of Clause 16.as are the limiting distances between lateral restraints. It can be seen from Code Table 8 that where a wall is subjected to lateral wind loading it may often be beneficial to design to Appendix A methods since these permit greater panel sizes. the limiting dimensions in the Appendix override those given in Table 8 so that Table 8 may be taken as referring to laterally loaded walls which are reinforced other than with bed joint reinforcement.2.1 Effective span The effective span of elements follows reinforced concrete practice as shown in Figure 13. be is not defined for cantilevers but where the width of the compression face varies it may be taken as the average width.2 discussed in 2.. d ¢'s of supports a) continuous beam
*
.. slabs.3.2. as shown in Table 4 below...
4d)
Bm.m"m cover
15 mm
[]O
~
t1 tz t3



~
t.5d)
I
I
30rmore sides continuous other cases
60td
27OOte/
60ter
2400t<?
cantilever
~d~O.o.
t2 = maximum 100mm
solid wall
Values in brackets for freestanding walls
grouted cavity wall
~60 be or 250 be d
2
'viewb 'viewa view a
~d
U~d
view b or
a) simply supported continuous beam
b) cantilevers lateral restraint at support only
Figure 14 Limiting spans for lateral stability
Handbook to BS5628: Part 2: SECTION 2: Reinforced Masonry
19
..+t2+t.TABLE 4: LATERALLY
Code Table 8 Limiting dimensions
LOADED WALLS: LIMITING
Code Appendix A Limiting dimensions maximum span
DIMENSIONS
maximum span 60td

maximum area
one way span
simply supported continuous
35d (45.OO5
18d (23.5d)
60ter
[]
support on 3 edges of wall support on 4 edges of wall
20rmore sides continuous other cases
1800tj 60ter 60tcr l600t<£2
2 way span maximum area 2025d2 (3422d2)
45d (58.~t.5d) 45d (58.
the usual approach used being that of strain compatibility. tension
14
reinforcement
~I
beam
S
I. Assumption (f) is included because the Code considers that where the span to effective depth ratio is less than 1. flanged members. and reinforced hollow blockwork where only intermittent holes are reinforced. with the reinforcement concentrated in ribs or pockets. Sub Clause 22.
It is worthy of comment that whilst the Code in 22.1 to that required.
in both cases
S = 1.
2.Shett.0. Whilst this is not strictly true.3 deals with walls in flexure in which the reinforcement is concentrated locally. Particular attention must be given to the anchorage of the tension reinforcement and the provision. in 22.. The presence of a small axial thrust will in fact increase the moment of resistance of the section. It is worth noting that the rectangular stress block referred to in assumption (b) simplifies analysis in comparison with the.4. of shear and hanging reinforcement where the beam is bottom loaded.5 in assumption (f).4.
A_
s
IyI xYms
fyxO. ie by 2. In the former case the thickness of the flange is taken as shown in Figure 16. Two cases are considered.4.4. especially where irregular sections are being analysed.ratio of the limit in 16.4. The anomaly will perhaps be dealt with in a future revision. perhaps more theoretically correct. Design procedures are discussed in 3. provided this does not exceed 0. if necessary. Simplifying assumptions for analysis from first principles are given.2.3
Resistance moments of elements Clause 22.2.
Wall beams may alternatively be designed as simply supported beams provided that the effective depth is limited as shown in Figure 15b. parabolic or rectangular/parabolic stress blocks. Consequently there is a small overlapping area where a deep beam could be analysed either in bending or as a tied arch.5 a beam no longer acts in simple bending but as a tied arch or wall beam.0. but the Code considers that the added complexity of the calculation to make allowance for it is unwarranted. either by using the design formulae given in 22.
]
lever arm = O. the errors resulting from it do not become significant until the depth of the beam exceeds about half its span and a different method of analysis becomes necessary.2 refers to the span to depth ratio being not less than 1.1 it refers to the span to effective depth ratio being not less than 1.1 is conventional for elastic analysis ie that plane sections remain plane.7 times the span. Assumption (a) in 22. because a constant value of ~ will give deflection limits in fractions of the span.15L
a) tied arch to be fully anchored
b) Simply supported
Figure 15 Wall beamtied arch analogy/simply supported beam The Code states that the tension reinforcement providing the tie force should resist a tensile force calculated on the basis that the lever arm is equal to 0. L
"" "0. The general pattern offorces in such a wall beam is indicated in Figure 15 below. 5S
ct
nb.4 deals with the resistance moment of reinforced masonry elements.5.1 (an iterative process). namely.2. The Code gives two methods of designing singly reinforced rectangular beams.3. or by using the Table or graph giving values of moment of resistance factor Q.67 of the beam depth.Sheff. The width of the flange (see Figure 17) is taken as the least of:
20
.
or
The design moment of resistance of the section Md. the Code suggests that in beams the designer should consider the use of nominal links in order to minimise the risk of sudden shear failure.
Nominal links should be provided where required in accordance with Code subclause 26. as given in Clause 19.3. or as arching between pockets or ribs.
p aiD ~lblalD g}
• b 31 . However. is its spacing.2. v=bd Thus for flanged beams and locally reinforced hollow blockwork the area considered to resist shear for design purposes is the area given by b (Figures 17 & 18) x d (or for a pocket wall the actual thickness of the masonry between the pockets if this is less than d).tf'~~l=S' 4{~..5 deals with the shear resistance of reinforced masonry elements.
V
Shear resistanceofelements
s. fvdivided by 'Ymvs exceeded links should be provided to resist the excess shear stress such that i Asv>. to avoid an overreinforced section. ii) spacing of pockets iii) height of wall
3
..Jd
flange a) pocket within wall thickness b) pocket projects behind wall
Figure 16 Flange thicknesses of pocket type walls
a)
width of pocket or rib
b) the spacing of pockets or ribs. must not exceed
_&_ b tf(d . It may be possible to design the wall in accordance with Appendix A. where the lateral load is low or the span short.13 of the Code. If v is less than the characteristic shear strength of the masonry I. v. In the case of hollow blockwork the width of the reinforced section is considered to be equal to 3 times the thickness of the blockwork.0. is the crosssectional area of the shear reinforcement and s. as shown in Figure 18 below. Where the characteristic shear strength.5 tf)
'Ymm
b
=
lesser of i) 12t1 + b. The design shear stress. M.
Figure 17 Flange width of pocket type walls
Where the spacing of the ribs exceeds 1m consideration should be given to the ability of the masonry between the pockets or ribs to span horizontally between them..5. ie using bed joint reinforcement. is for practical purposes calculated as the average shear stress on the section ie. shear reinforcement is not generally needed.
+ 12 x flange thickness.
Figure 18 Effective width. is obtained in the same way as for rectangular beams but in this case. divided by 'Ymv.b(vfvl'Ymv) 'Yms fy where As. reinforced hollow blockwork
2.4
Clause 22. or c) one third the height of the wall.2 such that
Handbook to BS5628: Part 2: SECTION 2: Reinforced Masonry
21
.
Effective heights based on Code Table 11 are illustrated in Table S. The maximum slenderness ratio. as their incorporation will often be impractical in reinforced masonry beams. defined as the ratio of effective height to effective thickness as in BSS628: Part 1 and BS811O. In subclause 22. sy b being the width at the level of tension reinforcement.S.9. In walls in bending. Mansfield. The clause deals with the design of columns and walls which carry substantial vertical loads and are required to resist bending moments arising from the eccentricity of the vertical load. 22
.002 b. except for cantilevers which are limited to 18.S% of the effective depth times the breadth ofthe section. in accordance with the last paragraph of Code Clause 26.3 CLAUSE 23.is given as 27.OS times the member thickness in the direction of the eccentricity. of the main tension reinforcement in a beam where a principal load is close to the support. Such a process is unlikely to be warranted in the design of the majority of reinforced masonry walls and columns.2 the Code draws the designer's attention to the need to ensure the adequate anchorage.3. REINFORCED MASONRY SUBJECTED TO A COMBINATION OF VERTICAL LOADING AND BENDING. The more rigorous approach to the assessment of effective height recommended by the Code involves consideration of the momentrotation characteristics of the connections between the walls or columns and the structural elements providing lateral support. it is necessary to increase the area of the masonry resisting shear. for mild steel sv and Asy = 0. where the design shear strength is exceeded.0012 b. see Figure 10. usually by thickening the wall. for high yield steel. the provision of shear reinforcement is not usually practical and. Again a warning is included regarding deflection where the area of reinforcement in cantilever members exceeds the arbitrary limit ofO. 2.One of the first buildings to exploit the potential of posttensioned Centre. eg retaining walls. The ratio 27 corresponds to that for unreinforced masonry in BSS628: Part 1and 18 to that for laterally loaded walls given in Table 8 of the Code. Derivation of the effective height of walls and columns uses the same concepts for lateral supports as BSS628: Part 1. and/or from lateral loading. and it may be obtained by calculation or from tabulated values. in order to establish the deflected shape of the member.
l
No reference is made to bent up bars. such that the resultant eccentricity exceeds O. A principal load is defined as a load which contributes more than 70% of the total shear force at the support.
diaphragm walls was the Oak Tree Community
ASY= 0. for walls and columns.
L..
movement restricted in both directions
h 0...rT'
h
movement restricted in yy direction
xx axis h
II
0..75
h
enhanced resistance to lateral movement
timber...L_~1
t
floor
r
". concrete (precast or insitu).
)r yyaxis h h2 h
timber / floors 'II
simple resistance
_j
Handbook to BS5628: Part 2: SECTION 2: Reinforced Masonry
23
.75h
yyaxis
y
enhanced resistance to lateral movement
2h
enhanced resistance
0... columns
h...
1
Ih
h
xx axis h...TABLE 5: EFFECTIVE HEIGHTS OF WALLS AND COLUMNS
walls h. reinforced masonry
'_. F===LI::::===...75
simple resistance
.L.
In each case a rectangular stress block as illustrated in Figures 19 and 20 is used..0 enabling the design process to be simplified... Design is thus an iterative process involving assumptions of de and estimation of steel stresses which give load and moment capacities which exceed the design values. ~ li"
r
e. are included in section 4. The first equation is used where the load is predominantly axial and does not exceed the capacity of the masonry alone.
2
Nd= _v.. A check using this equation will establish whether the reinforcement capacity must be used. Walls are subdivided into short and slender walls. Short columns may be designed from first principles.lk b (t . Design guidance is divided into that for columns and that for walls. assessing the moment and axial load capacity of the column using the assumptions given earlier in the Code for bending mem bers.
~
. Design charts based on these equations and the stress strain curves given in the Code.
reinforced brick pier under
The solution of the latter equations requires an assumption of the depth of the compressive stress block dc.1.
I~
1. or using the design equations given. short columns subjected to biaxial bending and slender columns. An alternative method of design when bending predominates. 24
.TABLE 6: EFFECTIVE THICKNESS
single leaf wall tet= t
tef
cavity wallone leaf reinforced tet = greater of a) 2/3(tl + t2) or b) thickness of thicker leaf
grouted cavity wall tet = t 1 + t2 + te where te:.100mm
fA tLl1 tQ] ~ IID=DII~=:JI' t . [=
l
t
t1 te t2
iftc>100mm Ie = t1 + t2 + 100
The effective thickness of reinforced masonry walls is illustrated in Table 6.. This can be done on the basis of the stress strain curves for reinforcement given earlier in the Code or using the guidance given in clause 23. reinforced hollow block wall etc for practical reasons the reinforced leaf will usually be the thicker leaf
. quetta bond wall. so that the steel stresses can be obtained.3.q..2ex)
2
t
mm
where b is the width 01 the section
Figure 19 Stress block . even when moments occur about both axes. permits the axial load to be ignored and the section designed as a beam resisting an increased bending moment.. The Code states that in general it is only necessary to consider single axis bending. in which case further equations are given for the vertical load capacity and the moment capacity ofthe section.1 and illustrated in Figure 21... : ~
. The resulting area of steel may then be reduced to allow for the vertical load effect.short column minimum reinforcement case (load capacity if masonry alone adequate)
Posttensioned construction.
.
. Design for columns is further subdivided into short columns..
eg square corner columns with substantial moments about both axes.
Figure 21 Variation of depth of compression block.
de
(t .N(her)2
a
2000t
The apparent discontinuity at a slenderness design moment of M. it may be necessary to design the column for biaxial bending.a".. Design must allow for the additional moment which is deemed to be induced by lateral deflection being a function of the design load. the axis being that which has the greater ratio of the design moment about the axis to the column's overall dimension perpendicular to the axis. As
t
with short columns.. In each case the design moment includes the additional slenderness moment. and secondly the expression for the design axial load resistance ofthe column. Subclause 23. ie columns with a ratio of effective height to column dimension in the plane of bending in excess of 12.
for by the minimum
on the design of walls resisting combined vertical loading and bending is limited in the
Handbook to BS5628: Part 2 : SECTION 2: ReinforcedMasonry
25
.. = N X 0. in certain circumstances.. since eccentricity is also covered.
The whole section dealing with column design will be amended in the first revision to the Code to resolve the present anomalous use ofthe word 'axial'. should not include any contribution from the reinforcement or the partial safety factor for compressive strength of masonry..3 gives a method for the design of slender columns.(steel stress) column(least comoressed face)
most compressed :="""'4 face
least compressed face
minimum permitted value of dct<III1+i
tension
value
Off. design may then be carried out from first principles. The use ofthe word 'vertical' might be more appropriate in place of 'axial' in some instances. do with stress in reinforcement in least compressed face of column. the effective height hef and slenderness ratio of the columns.__J
increasing eccentricity
Figure 20 Stress block . Ndz.4. using the basic assumption given in the clause on analysis of section (22. given by .!
t> Oc > O~. fs2
However. hef .1. N.(area of steel) . or using the equations for short column design (the design moment including the additional slenderness moment) or using the design charts.d2)
compression 0. Guidance
ratio of 12 is compensated .3. Thus the design moment about the critical axis is increased by the moment about the other axis factored by the ratio of the column dimensions and a factor which depends upon the ratio of the axial design load to axial design capacity.83 fyL. Firstly the ratio of the column dimensions in the expression for the increased moment about the y axis must be inverted. There are two main errors in this clause which will be dealt with in the first revision to it. Ma. see AppendixA. The correct expression is Ndz
= fk Am
where Am is the plan area ofthe column.short column design reinforcement case...1)..05t. M .". BS5628: Part 2 enables this to be done by increasing the design moment about one axis.
for practical reasons. ie walls or columns in which the eccentricity of load does not exceed 0.3. where the masonry simply provides formwork to the concrete.0/'Ymv·
:>
t(vfy l'Ymv)
fyl'Yms
where t is the thickness of the wall and v the shear stress due to design loads.05 times the thickness of the section in the direction of the eccentricity. In order to control flexural cracking the Code recommends that the column is treated as a beam and reinforced in accordance with the detailing section of the Code. This. a slenderness ratio of 12 defines the change from short to slender walls. 2. Code Clause 26 gives the basic principles on which such a system must be based. Conversely. The Code concentrates on the racking shear design of shear walls permitting the assumption that the horizontal shear force is uniformly distributed across the plan area of the wall. or if suitably modified. 2.1. given in part (b) of that clause. but there is no reason why they should not be used where appropriate.3. REINFORCED MASONRY SUBJECTED TO AXIAL COMPRESSIVE LOADING This clause deals with axially loaded walls or columns. Code clause 23.2. where out of plane bending occurs.4. Thus no explicit minimum area of main reinforcement is given in the Code. DETAILING OF REINFORCED MASONRY The successful use of reinforced masonry and its future prospect as a major structural material are largely dependent upon the development of a simple and efficient system of detailing. v must not exceed As discussed above tension and compression in the ends of the shear wall due to horizontal forces should be checked and. citwill be necessary to design the end of the wall carrying the maximum compression as a column. The variety of masonry units and forms of construction available make generalisation difficult. but the designer is advised to consider whether design to Part 1of the Code would be more appropriate when the area of reinforcement is a small proportion of the gross area of the section. Whilst compliance with the Code recommendations generally satisfies serviceability requirements. Thus there is no automatic allowance for a minimum eccentricity in the design of these members.Code to the use of the basic assumptions given in 22.1 for determination of vertical load and bending resistance. The maximum size of reinforcing bars is limited. The Code specifically refers to the need to treat the end of the wall as a slender column where the slenderness of the wall at right angles to its plane exceeds 12. considered as a uniform compressive stress across the section.3 of this handbook.. or with clause 23. relates to walls and columns since beams etc. of course.1. are not covered by BS5628: Part 1. REINFORCED MASONRY SUBJECTED TO HORIZONTAL FORCES IN THE PLANE OF THE ELEMENT Clause 25 deals with reinforced masonry shear walls.5 draws attention to the case of lightly loaded columns subject to bending ie where the design stress due to vertical load is less than fk/2. neglecting the axial load.) is greater than. the latter being designed for an additional moment obtained as above for slender columns. 2.2. although the compression in the end of the wall due to bending should be checked.1.6 CLAUSE 26. as shown in Figure 22. Bending in the plane of the wall is unlikely to be critical.
26
. design to BS8110 may be more appropriate. using the equation for vertical load resistance.3. As for columns.5 CLAUSE 25. or equal to: Asv
Sv 2. In walls carrying low vertical loads tension may occur at one end and reinforcement should be provided accordingly. The design shear strength ofthe masonry is obtained from clause 19. The clause recommends such members are designed in accordance with BS5628: Part 1. Because reinforced masonry walls will usually be singly reinforced the column design equations are not referred to.3. the column equation cannot be used and the Code recommends that the walls are designed as flexural members. Where the resultant eccentricity exceeds 0. ignoring the reinforcement. as pointed out previously. Nd. as discussed in 2.3.4 CLAUSE 24. Where the design shear strength is exceeded. horizontal shear reinforcement must be provided such that the area of shear reinforcement per unit height of wall (Asv) divided by its spacing (s.4.05t.
maximum bar diameter e) masonry beam f) column bar diameter in cases a) to f) not to exceed 25mm
~m
plan
Figure 22 Maximum
reinforcement
sizes
Figure 23 Pocket wall maximum size
reinforcement
Pockettype
Handbook
reinforced brick retaining wall under construction at Banbury see inside front cover.
2: Reinforced Masonry
to BS5628: Part 2: SECTION
27
.bar diameter not to exceed 6mm
bed joint reinforcement
a) grouted cavity
b) hollow block
c) quetta bond d) bond beams
Pockettype reinforced brick retaining wall forming bridge abutment and parapet.
or where it is necessary to reinforce the masonry between pockets to resist lateral loads. Bar spacing recommendations are illustrated in Figure 24.s~ maximum aggregate size + Smm or bar diameter or 10mm whichever is greater
b
s
T
s
s~SOOmm
d
rcolumn.25 % of the masonry area. Thus Quetta bond walls and reinforced hollow block walls require secondary bed joint reinforcement.. (d) spacing of shear/inks in direction of span not to exceed O.0005 times the effective depth times the breadth of the section. (iii) 20 x main bar diameter. this secondary reinforcement may also be used to assist in controlling cracking resulting from thermal and moisture movements. (b) maximum spacing of main and secondary reinforcement (except where reinforcement is concentrated locally as in pocket type walls etc). for example. The exception to this is pocket type walls where secondary reinforcement is not usually provided unless it is necessary to tie the masonry to the pocket concrete infill. The minimum area of secondary reinforcement in oneway spanning walls and slabs should be 0. 28
. (c) only one bar (except at laps) permitted in voids or cores less than 125mm x 125mm. and more than 25% of the design axial load capacity is to be used. Note that 25mm diameter bars are the largest permitted in a reinforced masonry column. the concrete core to a reinforced masonry column is of adequate size to accommodate four 32mm diameter reinforcing bars the column should probably be designed as a masonry clad reinforced concrete column. As well as distributing the forces causing bending.
If.75 d.l
1
T
II
I
:31
I I I I
link spacing not greater than the least of i) ii) or iii)
Lr1_l
Figure 24 Bar spacing recommendations (a) minimum clear space between bars (vertical or horizontal). (e) Where column links are required ie if the area of reinforcement exceeds 0. as 6mm diameter bars are the biggest permitted in bed joints). the spacing should not exceed the least of: (i) the least lateral dimension of the column (ii) 50 x link diameter (since links will often pass through bed joints 300mm would be the maximum spacing in this case.
. see 2..column
. the links should surround the main vertical corner bars at the above spacing (Figure 24 (e)). except in the case of bed joint reinforcement.. The internal angles of the links should not exceed 135°and the radius should not be less than 2 x the manufacturer's guaranteed test bend. Where hooks or bends are required to provide anchorage to reinforcing bars their equivalent anchorage length values are as shown in Figure 27. [QJ
Figure 26 Arrangements of column links All reinforcing bars should extend beyond any point such that the length is adequate to develop the design anchorage bond strength appropriate to the design stress in the bar at that point.CIS 18025 BDA . see Figure 26.. Where laps or joints are required they should be positioned where practicable away from areas of high stress and should be staggered. 8886148
0166780
633 .
r r
a
b
r:
a
b
. e_face
of support b) 180· bend
face of support
a) 90· bend
Figure 27 Effective anchorage of hooks and bends
Handbook to BS5628: Part 2: SECTION 2: Reinforced Masonry
29
.
Anchorage recommendations for links are illustrated in Figure 25 below:
~1i
~I14
8 x link dia
4
x
link dia
8 x link dia
~~
[J

4 x link dia
Figure 25 Link anchorage When detailing column links.4. but should not be taken as less than 25 x the bar diameter + 150mm for a tension lap or 20 x the bar diameter for a compression lap.
a b aa a b bb
.
. Lap lengths should be able to develop the required anchorage bond strength in the smaller of the bars being lapped.5. . Any main vertical internal bars need only be supported by the internal angle of a link at alternate link spacings.2. [QJ . The Code permits the use of mechanical couplers to hold bars in compression in concentric end bearing contact.
dimension x to be the least of i) 4 x bar diameter ii) width of support / 2 iii) effective depth /2 effective anchorage length = lesser of 24 bar diameter or' 4 x r (must exceed or equal 12 x bar dlamefer) where dimension x is the distance from the face of tho support to the start of the bend
effective anchorage length = lesser of 24 x bar diameter or 8 x r(must exceed or equal 12 x bar diameter)
x
iI.
11 =
d1 or 12 x bar diameter whichever is greater 12 x bar diameter whichever is greater
12 bending moment envelope
11
= d~ or
Figure 28 Reinforcement
anchorage. to provide an equivalent anchorage length of twenty bar diameters. _
Figure 29 Reinforcement
curtailment
At a simply supported end each tension bar should be anchored as shown in Figure 30. The bend or hook must also be of sufficient radius to avoid overstressing the concrete or mortar.For hooks and bends the Code refers to BS4466 which gives the minimum permissible radii to which they may be formed. beyond the point at which it is no longer needed for a distance as shown in Figure 28. internal supports
When curtailing bars in the tension zone at internal supports. or a) to a point where the design shear capacity of the section at the point where the bar ends is at least twice the shear force due to design loads. In flexural members every main tension reinforcing bar should extend.
curtailment in tension zone dimension x = full anchorage length.. whichever is the shorter distance. 30
¥
. t ~.:>
. except when there is a principal load within 2 d of the face of the support in which case all the tension reinforcement should continue beyond either the centreline of the support or a line from the face of the support. 12 x bar diameter or d whichever is greater
~curtailed
bar no+++++"'" longer required to lef1of line
bending moment envelope
c
moment capacity of reinforcement . see Figure 29. the curtailed bar should extend a full anchorage length beyond the point where it is no longer required.
la
shear force diagram
L. see Figure 31. except at end supports. and it also reminds the designer that in no case should the internal radius of any bend be less than twice the radius of the manufacturer's guaranteed test bend.. or if a>2b or if c > 2e. The calculation method given in BS8110 for bearing stress inside bends may be used where Fbt is taken as the tensile force due to design loads. or b) the continuing bars provide double the required moment capacity at that point. a) orb).
..
I~ ... .Reinforced brick staircasefollowing curved diaphragm wallfor a brickmaker's head office .
I
I

~
=
r+:
=
a) column or pier support I
..
Handbook to BS5628: Part 2: SECTION 2: Reinforced Masonry
31
.. simply supported ends
principal load
Figure 31 Anchorage of reinforcement where principal loads occur...
where
I = anchorage length
d = effective depth
I
I
b) wide support
d
2
Figure 30 Reinforcement anchorage._.
0.
32
. There is no reason why reinforced masonry should not be used in association with reinforced concrete and structural steelwork where such an arrangement is advantageous either structurally or economically.. the unit size and type and bonding pattern influence how the reinforcement is incorporated into the section. there will be many instances where the use of reinforced masonry for the major part of a structure or for individual elements is structurally and economically beneficial to all parties. durability is a primary design consideration which must be dealt with at an early stage in the design of reinforced masonry. and the need to minimise section size and complexity of construction. However. aspects are discussed atthe beginning of Section 5. With regard to the appearance of various bonding patterns it is interesting to note that in the mid 19th Century the outer leaf of cavity walls was built using snap headers to give the appearance of Flemish or English bond because stretcher bond was considered dull and uninteresting.I
I DESIGN PROCEDURES
GOOD DESIGN Good economic design of reinforced masonry is dependent upon the achievement of a balance between the limitations of form imposed by masonry unit size.. or alternative masonry strengths. Above right: Deep corbel in reinforced brickwork.
Above left: Pockettype reinforced brick retaining wall and parapet for a bridge. As with reinforced concrete.2
DESIGN OF nEXURAL MEMBERS
The structural elements most commonly designed in reinforced masonry are probably beams and walls etc. Below: Reinforced brick arch for an office block. A representative procedure is illustrated in Figure 32.1
3. The decision whether to use reinforced concrete clad in masonry or reinforced masonry in its own right will often be governed by nonstructural requirements (eg aesthetics).. Although durability is not dealt with in detail in this document. A number of design procedures are possible depending upon whether the designer is considering alternative masonry types. A working knowledge of masonry bonds and nominal and work sizes of units is essential in this respect. Although the design principles follow those of reinforced concrete. which act in bending.O .
3. The BDA publishes a document+which lists coordinating dimensions for brick masonry units and the concrete block manufacturer's technical literature offers similar guidance.__3_.
anchorage
Figure 32 Typical flexural design flow chart
Handbook to 8S5628: Part 2: SECTION 2: Reinforced Masonry
33
. if bonding can accommodate them if not increase section size
provide nominal links
nominal links required at discrection of designer
detail in accordance with code. hollow/solid mortar. concrete
.quetta bond. check span/eft. eg curtailment. grouted. cavity etc
based on unit size and bonding. required ok
use charts or code equations
shear
or provide design shear links
if required provide links. reinforced hollow blocks. choice of infill and reinforcement type
bending
no
excessive
calculate As.masonry unit type/ infill
notes bricks. depth ratio and lateral stability if required
may affect eft. depth. blocks.
to simplify beam design by providing a section of sufficient depth that shear reinforcement may be omitted. although by careful arrangement of bonding pattern and limiting the link bar diameter. or has uniaxial or biaxical moments applied to it. see Figure 33.3. frame into the columns on opposite sides along one or both axes giving a resultant eccentricity not exceeding 0. it is necessary to use the formulae for the design axial load resistance. anything other than bed joint reinforcement in brick masonry is likely to require the use of half bat bricks in order to provide suitable continuous horizontal voids into which reinforcement may be introduced. a trial section size is selected which will be governed by masonry unit size and bonding pattern. This has the advantage that the limitations imposed on the positioning of shear reinforcement by the bonding pattern are avoided. without taking any slenderness reduction factor into account. the full section being in compression and the symmetrically placed reinforcement being equally stressed in compression. In order to use these formulae the designer is required to choose a value for the depth of masonry in compression.1(b).1. Whatever bonding pattern is adopted. It is finally necessary to establish whether link reinforcement is required.83 fy As
'Vmm 'Vms
where As is the total area of reinforcement This equation can then either be solved for As>having assumed a value for fb or solved for fk.3. After checking that design reinforcement is required to Code clause 23. ie whether the slenderness ratio is greater or less than 12. may be simplified.1a).
3. M. where circumstances permit. Where the column is short.5. An initial check using the design axial load capacity of the masonry section alone. this reinforcement being later bent into. it is possible to place the links in continuous vertical joints.1. d.3. To avoid the risk of bimetallic corrosion. It is common practice to provide additional secondary reinforcement of small diameter in the perpend joints of the soffit brickwork to flexural members. bearing in mind
34
. the formulae being modified accordingly.It should be noted that it is possible.1. Md. or close to it.3. de would be chosen either as equal to the full depth of the section. as follows: Nd
= _f_k bt + 0. of approximately equal spans and carrying approximately equal loads. The use of special clay bricks with cut outs to accommodate reinforcement can also minimise the need for continuous voids and the cutting of bricks. axially loaded columns must be designed for an additional moment. Where the slenderness ratio exceeds 12.. given in Code clause 23. the design moment. is axially loaded. Whilst this may be efficacious in providing additional support to the soffit brickwork. Axially loaded columns will generally only occur where stiff beams. Where the design vertical load is substantially more than the capacity of the unreinforced masonry section.3. in Code clause 23. If reinforcement is required the slenderness ratio must then be calculated to see whether the column is defined as short or slender.05 times the column dimension in the appropriate direction. having assumed an area of reinforcement.3.3
DESIGN OF COLUMNS
Column design to the Code varies depending upon whether the column is short or slender. or more simply from Code Table 11. Design of short columns subjected to vertical loads and bending about one axis is an iterative process. Similar vertical voids may be required to accommodate links. in accordance with Code clause 26. With the axial load calculated. will indicate whether reinforcement is required or not. the secondary reinforcement must comply with the durability requirements of the Code and must be arranged in a manner that does not interfere with the placing and fixing of the main reinforcement. the equation for the design axial load resistance Nd. contact between stainless steel and mild or hightensile steel reinforcement should be avoided. as given in Code clause 23.1b). The effective height can either be obtained from frame analysis of the column and its associated beams. The designer also has to make a first estimate of the reinforcement area to be provided. t. Such columns may be designed as unreinforced in accordance with BS5628: Part 1 or in accordance with the Code provision for columns subjected to a combination of vertical load and bending. with M. In choosing a value for de the relative sizes of the design moment and design vertical load are helpful. or over.1.. based on percentage area of reinforcement. and the design moment of resistance. the main reinforcement cage or infill concrete. In this case the design for axially loaded columns becomes as for short columns subjected to bending. Nd.
Reinforced and prestressed brickwork major brick company.
were used extensively in this headquarters
building for a
that the moment capacity of the column will be effectively limited to the middle term of the equation given for Md' Conversely if the design moment is large, a value of de of ~ may be chosen to gain the maximum moment resistance from the reinforcement. This will, however, limit the vertical load capacity to less than half that of the full masonry section considered as unreinforced. By a process of adjusting de until Nd and Md exceed Nand M respectively, or by increasing the assumed area of steel if the former cannot be achieved, a satisfactory solution can be obtained. It should be remembered that the maximum bar size permitted by the Code is 25mm and it may be necessary in some cases to try more than one section size. The process is not as protracted as it may be seem as the designer will rapidly gain a feel for the relationship between the variables. The design of slender columns subject to bending is straightforward. The additional moment for slenderness effects given in Code Clauses 23.3.1.3 is always calculated in relation to the width of the column in the plane of bending so that if the design bending moment is about the major axes so will be the additional moment, even if the column is not slender about the major axis. Thus the additional moment is added to the design moment and design proceeds as for a short column subjected to bending. The design of short columns subjected to biaxial bending to Code clause 23.3.1 .. is also fairly 2 straightforward. Having assumed material properties, section size and area of reinforcement, the design axial load resistance of the column, Ndz,is calculated and the value of the coefficient a obtained from Code Table 12. Depending upon the relative values of the ratios of the design moments about the two axes to their respective depth of section in their directions of bending, an increased design moment M,' or My' is calculated about the critical axis. Where, for square columns, the design vertical load, N, is low in relation to Ndz>the axial load capacity of the column, the increased moment tends to the sum of the moments about the two axes. Having obtained the increased moment the procedure is as for uniaxial bending using the increased moment. . Link reinforcement is only required in reinforced masonry columns when the total area of the main steel exceeds 0.25% ofthe area of masonry. In practice links will usually be required. The links will in general be accommodated in the bed joints ofthe masonry and will, therefore, be limited in size to 6mm diameter. Link spacing is given as the lesser.of three criteria, namely, the minimum plan dimension of the column, fifty times the link diameter or twenty times the main bar diameter. Assuming the use of 6mm diameter links and main bar diameter not less than 16mm, fifty times the link diameter will govern to give link spacing of 300mm in most cases for brickwork, and at 200mm or 225mm depending upon block unit height, for blockwork.
Handbook to BS5628: Part 2: SECTION 2: Reinforced Masonry
3S
4.0
I I DESIGN
CHARTS
4.1
SINGLY REINFORCED BEAMS
0.25
t,,rrr,
0.20
0.15
C\J
~
.x.
"0 .0

0.10
o~
200
~
250
~
300
~
350
~
400
~
450
~ __~
500
Ymm=2.0
36
o~
200
~
250
~
300
~
350
~
400
~
450
~ __~
500
Ymm= 2.3
37
+'
~
103 103
1.2
0.0
X X
P
z
.0 0.
P=bf
As
Tk
3.2
COLUMNS
1.0 x 103 2..7 fy = 460N/mm2
.2
X X
103 103
o
0..6
38
.4
0...0 Ymm= 2..0
..3
M/bt2 fk
0.3
d/t = 0.5 0 0.5
0.5 2.1
0.4.
b
~.5x103 1.6
{~]
Ymm=2..
1.5
0.3
I~
b~
0.2
0.6~~~~~~
d[~]
d/t = 0.1
0.0 Ymm= 2.6
Handbook to 8S5628: Part 2: SECTION 2: Reinforced Masonry
39
.4
0.75 fy = 460N/mm2 Ymm=2.3 M/bt2
fk
0.
d/t = 0.3
o
o
0.0

Vmm= 2.8 ty = 460N/mm2
Vmm=2.6
.5
0.4
0.
3 M/bt
2 tk
0.4
0.o
0.6
Handbook to BS5628: Part 2 : SECTION 2: Reinforced Masonry
41
.5
0.

0.3
.0
Z
...2
0..6
42
.0 Ymm= 2.6

d/t = 0..9 fy = 460N/mm2 Ymm=2..1..
5
0....
.3 M/bt2 f k
0.6r~~~b.2
0..4
0.3
o
0.1
0. ·1
d[~]t
d/t = 0..95 fy = 460N/mm2 Ymm=2.6
Handbook to BS5628: Part 2: SECTION 2: Reinforced Masonry
43
.0 Ymm= 2.1.
.0
= 1..Sm carrying a characteristic dead load of 20..1
BEAMS EXAMPLE 1.0 kN/m imposed load.3
(normal category of manufacturing
control)
(Note.designation Characteristic Characteristic (ii) strength of masonry.
Infill concrete grade (BS5328) 25 Nzmm?
Partial safety factors Loads (')'f):
Design load Materials: Masonry compression.4Gk
+ 1.4 N'mm? fy = 460 N'mrrr' strength = 35 Nzmm?
compressive
tensile strength of reinforcement...~ x 4.
floor construction
tireinforced~ masonry
. many manufacturers now meet the requirements control. 95. SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM Design a simply supported reinforced brickwork beam required to span 4.6 kN/m =
37 6 4 52 ·8 x.15
Loading
Characteristic Characteristic Design load
dead load.unit compressive Mortar .
')'mm
=
1..6kN
. Ok
= 1...0 = 37.0kN/m.0). = 37..5..0
+ 1.M.0
I:REINFORCED MASONRY DESIGN EXAMPLES
Note that in the following examples the minimum grade of infill concrete (25) permitted in the Code has been used.. Reinforcement to infilllmortar bond.5
Designshearforce. Y. The Code guidance is likely to be upgraded in a future amendment.0 kN/m (including selfweight) and a characteristic imposed load of6. 44
= 84... Reinforcement strength. Masonry shear.. enabling "[mm to be reduced to 2..1..5 m
Materials
Bricks .6 Ok
= 2.
')'ms ')'mv
of the special category of manufacturing
= 2.2kNm
Design
Simplysupporteddesignmoment. Gk = 20.
5..1
5. Careful consideration should be given to the selection of infill concrete to ensure adequate durability for the reinforcement type and exposure situation in question.6
= 6. fk = 9.0 kN/m x 6...rIt
~ section
4..4
x 20..
In order to suit column width make beam width.3] ~ 440 x 400 x 9.75 d.75 x 400 mm Therefore use 2 no. = 0. Design moment of resistance of beam in compression Md = 0.1. b. effective depth = 4~~ = 225 mm.3
= 115. thus. min.Asfyz M d.5 x 794 x 460 x 2.5 mm
= 0. A = 95. equate Md to M and solve for area of tensile steel As. fk must be determined in accordance with clause 19. z.
Try section as shown. 95. Beam depth = 553 mm Assume Exposure situation E1 with grade 25 concrete cover to reinforcement = 20 mm Effective depth. This area of steel gives a reinforcement percentage of
Handbook to BS5628: Part 2 : SECTION 2: Reinforced Masonry
45
.4 fkbd
'Ymm
2 2
= 407. the coordinating dimensions of brickwork coursing and possibly the shear strength of the beam.2 kNm
440
553
links at 300mm crs secondary 6mm diameter links
Design moment of resistance of beam in tension .1 kNm
This exceeds design moment.4 of the Code).
(Note that if brickwork is laid horizontally such that it is loaded in compression on its perpend or stretcher face. Use bricks as soldier courses for aesthetic reasons and so that brickwork in compression is loaded normal to its bed face.1.2x 106 X 1.4 x 440 x 400 2.Assuming that there are no nonstructural beam depth re~uirements. the effective depth will be based upon the limiting span to depth ratios given in the Code. = 440 mm.15 =794 2 s 460 x 0. This is less than 400 and therefore satisfactory.4 x 9.15
r
= 0 78d
. d = 553103201012.
This is higher than assumed value thus 2 TI5 bars satisfactory. Provision of vertical voids at 300 mm centres to accept links means shear strength is unlikely to control depth.5 say 400 mm Span/effective depth must not exceed 20. T25 diameter bars (982 mm'') z = d 1_ 0.'Yms
Assume lever arm.4 x 1.
which is less than 6
~=
10~:
= 2.
Alternative design using Code Table 10 and Figure 3
In order to simplify the above iterative process. Thus writing M.45 = 0. = 0. in terms of Obd? and rearranging 46
.fvl'Ymv) 'Yms
'Ym
s. 0 The Code does not give minimum percentages of reinforcement because it is often the case that the greater depths and widths used in reinforced masonry beams.
this is equal to 0. c.d sv require 440(0.4N/mm2 =
This is less than the maximum 1.
Shear reinforcement
Shear reinforcement Crosssectional must be provided to satisfy the relationship: resisting shear.0.25~)] M 95. may be obtained directly.8 1 0.4) 1.982 x 100 =0 56~ 440 x 400 . For a SImply supported
fv may be increased by a factor [2.002 x 440 = 264
mrrr'
Use RIO links in pairs at 300mm centres (Asv
= 314
mm2) is shown in the section to
It will be noted that additional secondary stainless steel reinforcement assist in the support of the masonry soffit.8
x 0.002 b.
Shear design
3
V Shear stress due to design loads. mm Characteristic shear strength of masonry.
= 300 x 0.10 = 0.5p
where p =bci = 0.6 x 10 = 0 48NI 2 440 x 400· .45 Nzmrrr'
beam where shearspan d a " is less than 6
.
increased
fv = 1.
Enhancement Therefore
factor
= 2.8
= 1. fv.75 Nzmm? and is therefore Design shear strength of beam
20 'Ymv .35
A
+ 0. v.0.
Thus As.
s. Asv area of reinforcement
spacing of shear reinforcement. require relatively small areas of reinforcement. = bd
84.25 x 2.75 d and therefore "A Th ererore .35
+ 17.
> b(v . This is less than the design shear stress and shear reinforcement
is required.2 a===l13m V 84. the Code includes a table and chart from which the lever arm factor.5
.50.8
the value to use.6 . is dictated by spacing of vertical voids ie 300mm centres. .48 acceptable. .81 Nzmrrr' =1Y_= O .0056 (from above) Therefore fv = 0.15 x 300 _ 49 2 250 mm required from
Check nominal area of shear reinforcement Asv Sv = 0.8.
2 X 106 440 X 4002 x 9.4m
Materials and partial safety factors as for Example 1.0.15=763 s 460 x 0.4_m
~
2. c = 0. The characteristic dead load is 10 kN/m. d = 553 .0 kN.78andz = 0.4 X 104 x fk bd Thus As required = 4. uniformly distributed.6kN/m
327mm
brick pier
~~I~~
2_. CANTILEVER
BEAM
Design a reinforced brickwork cantilever beam to carry a canopy structure using Code Table 10.2X 10 X 1.4 = 761 mrrr'
A
As before 2 no T25mm diameter bars are satisfactory. given in Section 4. = 515 mm (cover 20 mm)
+ 515/2
= 2657.0
minimum effective depth d = 2660/7 = 380 mm satisfactory.
and from Md =
6
A sv fz y
"(ms
2
A =95. to ensure lateral stability the clear distance from the end of the cantilever to the face of the
Handbook to BS5628: Part 2: SECfION 2: Reinforced Masonry
47
. as shown. including beam self weight.3.6 kN/m.
canopy
Gk: 10. Calculate the deflection at the end of the beam.0kN/m Ok!: 3.5 mm say 2660 mm
span/effective
depth ratio = 7. with a characteristic dead point load at the end of the 2.4 = 4.144
from chart for fy = 460 Nzmrrr' p = _s = 4.2
EXAMPLE 2.3 from Code Table 10 or Figure 3.2 x 1(1)= 1.
Design
Make width 327 mm to suit pier width Make section depth 553 mm.
5.4 0.6 x 104 x 440 x 400 x 9. and the characteristic imposed load 3.Q = 95.09 2.35 440 x 4002
_§_
"(mm
= 9.78 x 400
mm
Thus 2 no. the area oftension follows: 95.8 10 Effective span = 2400 Cantilever Therefore. T25mm diameter bars are satisfactory
(As = 982mm2)
Alternative design using design charts
From the singly reinforced beam design chart with reinforcement may be obtained directly as "(ms= 2.78 x 400
Therefore.20 .4 m span of6.
This is less than 515 and therefore
Note.1.
0 + 1.4=409 'Ymm 2. therefore.8 kN
Using Code Table 10 or Figure 3 Q = 92.66
= 92.3 Therefore Rearranging . 25bc 100b/ d = 25 x 327
2
= 8175 mm
= 100 x 327 = 20763 mm 515 the beam is laterally stable.4
+ 1.0 + 1. required. = As fyz and solving for As 'Yms
A _ 92.41 Nzmrrr'
No shear strength enhancement is possible because Code Clause 19.6)2= (1.85 and
= 0.3 kNm
Design shearforce
6
x 10.0
Nzmrrr'
is.85 x 515 .4 + 1.3. = (1.6 x 3.1.0 = 55.0 x 2.15 _ 2 s .33N/mm2
p = 0.85
x 515
Code equation M.
Z
c = 0. 2.6 x 3. v.6) 2.4 x 6.4 x 6. 1.528 mm Use 2 no.460 x 0.~8 515
= 0.8 X 103 327 x 515 fv = 0.21 'Ymv 2. Design shear strength of beam =~ = 0.3 X 106 X 1.35
+ 17. TIO diameter bars (628 mm")
Shear design
Shear stress due to design loads.
Both exceed 2400 mm.35 0.5
+ 17.3 X 10 = 1. = b~ 55.4
Md. 2 permits enhancement for simply supported beams and cantilever retaining walls only.5
32.
This is less than the design shear stress and shear reinforcement 48
.
327
553
515
secondary
reinforcement
Design moment.41 = 0.support must not exceed 25bc or IOOb/ld whichever is less.662
x 10. therefore.06 327 x 5152
~=9.
0 Gk + 1.0
x 3. AXIALLY LOADED SHORT COLUMNN (see Appendix A for proposed Code amendment) Design a 3.0 Ok
C.0 m high reinforced brickwork column to carry an axial design load of 1100 kN. However. the Code suggests that as an alternative.0.3
=
(normal category of manufacturing
control)
1.93 = 6.23 x 4.0
+ 1.75 d) A sv> 327
(0.29 mm
Maximum permitted deflection = lengthl125 =
21i~
= 19.45 x 9. 13.
Design load
UO load Point load
= 1.4 Nzmm? for 20 Nzrnrn? bricks in mortar designation
(ii)
fs = 0.61 x 1012
+
6. deflection of cantilever
Partial safety factors (serviceability limit state)
Dead and imposed load Design load Consider
= 1. Use elastic deflection coefficients For uniformly distributed wl" 8EmI
= 3~~.664 x 1012 Long term deflectIon = 8 x 4.6 X 2. Em = 0.83 fy = 0.663 X 1012 3 x 4.2 5. W.6
=
13. Try a column section 553 mm square
Materials
fk = 6.36 + 1.4 = 4.2 mm deflection
Calculated long term deflection well within permitted and. using 20 N/mm2 bricks in mortar designation (li).OQ2 x 327
= 98
mm
2
R8 diameter
links are satisfactory
(Asv
= 100
mnr')
Deflection
Calculation of deflection of members in bending is not generally necessary providing the span to effective depth ratios given in the Code are complied with. Reinforcement strength. the designer may calculate deflection and gives some guidance in Appendix C.15 49
Handbook to BS5628: Part 2: SECTION 2: Reinforced Masonry
.1
COLUMNS
EXAMPLE 3.0
x 10.2.61 x 1012
= 4.61 12
109 mm"
where dx is the overall depth of the section.33 .83 x 460 = 381 Nzrnm? (using high tensile reinforcement)
Partial safety factors (materials)
Masonry compression.45 fk = 0.21) 1.Shear reinforcement
Assuming voids at 150 centres (giving link spacing less than 0.
From Appendix 1= bdx 12
3
= 327 X 553 = 4.23 kN/mm2
3 X
long term deflection.0 X 2. satisfactory. deflection of cantilever
=
For point load.23 x 4.
for cantilever:
load.
5.0kN
. w.0
= 6.6 kN/m
= 1.15 x 150 250
= 28
mm
2
Check nominal area of shear reinforcement Asv
required
=
150 x 0.0 x 6. "Vmm "Vms
= 2. therefore.
Use R6links (maximum diameter permitted in bed joints) maximum spacing = lesser of:
a) least column dimension b) 50 x link diameter
= 553 mm =300mm
so
. Nd = ____§_ b de + 'Ymm fsl AsI 'Yms fs2As2 'Yms
As there is no moment applied to the column. T16 mm diameter bars. thus de = t Thus equation becomes Nd = fkb de + fs(Asl + As2) 'Ymm 'Yms Design load Nd = ll00kN Reinforcement required Rearranging equation from Code Clause 23 with As = As! + As2 A = (N _ __&_ bd) 'Yms s d 'Ymm fs
C
Therefore As = (1100
X
103 _
~:~
x 5532) 13!i = 752 mrrr'
Use 4 no.25 x 5532 = 764 mm 2 100
This is less than As provided. therefore links required.25/'0 Am = 0. Therefore hef = 3000 mm tet = actual thickness = 553 mm Slenderness ratio = 35~ = 5. will be equally stressed. (As = 804 mrrr') Check if links are required (ie ifO. Design To allow for reinforcement use method given in Code Clause 23.25%Am<As)
at 0. assuming symmetrical reinforcement.42 This is less than 12 therefore the column is short.Slenderness ratio Assume top and bottom of column have lateral supports restricting movement in both directions. the reinforcement in both faces of the column will be in compression and.
Use 27.3
(normal category of manufacturing
control)
= 1. T25 bars.9 Nzrnrn? for 27.2
EXAMPLE 4.
= 982 mrrr'
As design moment is small in comparison
Handbook to BS5628: Part 2: SECTION 2: Reinforced Masonry
with design axial load 51
.. due to
This is greater than 12 therefore
Design
The column must be designed to resist the axial load and an additional slenderness effects N M
a
= 850kN
= N(hec)2 =
2000t 850 x 6.
(ii)
Partial safety factors (materials)
'Vmm 'Vms
= 2.. Try a column section 440 mm square. moment.44
2
= 348
.0 2000 x 0.
Slenderness ratio
Assume top and bottom of column have lateral support restricting Therefore hcf = 6000 mm
tcf = actual thickness = 440 mm Slenderness .0 m high carrying an axial design load of 850 kN. and fy in tension. ratio
=
6000 440
= 13. AXIALLY LOADED SLENDER COLUMN (see Appendix A for proposed
Code amendment) Design a reinforced brickwork column 6.8 =.c) 20 x main bar diameter
Therefore
use link spacing
= 320 mm = 300 mm
5.15
movement in both directions.
Materials fk = 7.64
the column is slender. R esu Itant eccentricity
= Ma = 34.0 04 m N 850
Column capacity with minimum reinforcement
This is less than 850 kN and therefore
more than minimum reinforcement
As2
is required.2. Reinforcement strength.5 Nzmrrr' bricks in mortar designation
fs = 0. M..
Reinforcement
required
As!
Try 4 no.
kN
m only will be required
Consider whether minimum reinforcement .5N/mm2 bricks in mortar designation (ii) and grade 25 intill concrete.83 fy in compression Masonry compression. so that
= 982 mrn".
5
X
103 N
= 930.~5982 . use R6links at 300 mm centres.
This exceeds the design axial load of 850 kN and the section is therefore
Link reinforcement
As O.3
X
7.1 kNm
Thus moment resistance increases to 34.5 kN
satisfactory.83 X 460 1.
5.15
982(0.83fy
'Vms X
As1 (0. M.0kNm.5fk bde(t .assume de
= t and
fs2 = 0
Check axial load capacity F rom N d = .~5460
X
982 . fs2remains equal toO.5
440 .9
X
440
X
400(440 .0 f . Check axial load capacity Nd
=i~j
X
440
X
400
+ 0. Try reducing de to 400 mm.83
46~.fk
~mm
bd
e
+ fs1As1 _ fs2As2 ~ms ~ms X
Nd
=i~j
X
4402
+ 0.
2
Therefore
links required. Try column section 665 mm by 440 mm
M
~
665
52
.0m what effect does this have on the column section chosen.0
= 993.400)
=
12.5td2)
This is greater than 850 kN therefore Check moinent capacity From M.8kNm
of assumed stress distribution
This is less than design moment of 34.0
= 930.5fk bd.2.de)
~mm
= 0. seetion
= 4 X 491 = 1964mm2
0
= 0. see Figure 21.25 X 440 = 484 mm 2 100
as for Example 3. 2501_ .5
2.8~. 7m high reinforced brickwork column to carry a vertical design load of 800 kN and a design bending moment of85 kNm.9 kNm.150)
+ 0 = 22. SHORT COLUMN AND SLENDER COLUMN SUBJECTED SINGLE AXIS BENDING
TO
Design a 2. If the height of the column is increased to 6.
X
103N
= 991 kN
As2 (0. (tde)
~mm X
+ 0. = 0
satisfactory
=
0. 0.5td1)
+~
'Vms
+
0. which is greater than design moment and therefore satisfactory.3
EXAMPLE 5.8 kNm and modification is required.
The masonry section is therefore required to contribute a design moment resistance of 12.
) + k_As2 "fmm "fms "fms
M.510) +
X
0.3 x 1.~440(665 .5fk bd.52~ 7.8
X
103 + 0. Try 2 no T20 bars each face ASl = As2 = 628 mrn? Na = 770.14 This is less than 12.5t .212) 1~3= 684.6kNm Thus both Nd and M.~5460 x 982(0.7 X 106+57.15 = 770. = 0.d2 and fs2= 0 Try 2 no.83fy AsI (0. "fmm 2.9 N'mm? Infill concretegrade 25 Nzmrn? Partial safety factors (materials) Masonry compression.83
X 1~~~x
628 .Materials Bricksunit compressive strength = 27. Consider whether reinforcement area may be reduced.83 x 460 d 2.de) + 0. "fms= 1.5
665 155) + 0
=59.0
From M.5t . therefore more than minimum reinforcement is required.9 X 106= 117.8 kN
X
982 .d.fk bd c+ . 2700 Slenderness ratio = 440 = 6. = i·. Reinforcement required Consider stress distribution across section Assume de = t . ex = 8~~ = 0.8 x 103 + 326. therefore column is short.15 Slenderness ratio Assume top and bottom of column have lateral supports restricting movement in both directions Therefore het = 2700 mm tef = minimum thickness = 440 mm .8 X 103N = 1096.d2)
x 440 x 510(665 . exceed Nand M respectively and the section is satisfactory.6 x 106Nmm= 117. = 0.3
X
103N 53
Handbook to BS5628: Part 2: SECTION 2: Reinforced Masonry
.6kN
This is less than design vertical load N.9
(0.8i.0 X 103 = 1096.3 (normal category of manufacturing control) = Reinforcement strength. Design Check whether only minimum reinforcement required from Nd=~ "fmm b(t2ex)
Resultant eccentricity.9 440 X 510 + 0.106
Therefore N.fsl A s l "fmm "fms
?" 
fs2 A s2 "fms
N = 7.0 = 979. Therefore fk = 7. (t .5 Nzmm? Mortardesignation (ii). T25 bars each face FromNd= .
.= 979.R.665
= 21. TI5 bars.yield stress.0m high.~:60
X
628(0.
Both Nd and M. Thus in this case the effect of increasing the column height so that it becomes slender is to require an increase in reinforcement from 4 no. exceed Nand M respectively
Link reinforcement
As
=4X
314
= 1256
=
.25 X 440 x 665 100
= 731.2. both Nd and Md exceed the Nand M (including M.7
106Nmm
= 96.
Materials
Masonry .
ratio becomes
6000 440
= 13. 0. TIO bars to 4 no.0 m Slenderness .
Ma. must therefore
be allowed for
= N(heff
2000t
M.
=
800 X 62 2000 X 0.8.5 Nzmm?
= 460 Nzrnm?
strength of masonry. "Imm = 2.grade 25 Nzmrrr' Reinforcement Characteristic .unit compressive Mortardesignation (ii) Infill concrete .7kNm
From above it will be seen that using 4 no.4
EXAMPLE 6. becomes 85
+ 21. (materials)
Masonry compression.
If effective height of column is increased to 6. Reinforcement 54 strength.7
kNm
Design moment. TI5 bars.15
.3kN
Md
= 59.6
and column becomes
slender (S.7 =
106. fy compressive strength 27.
M.25% of section Therefore
mm? 0.0 (special category of manufacturing "Ims control)
= 1. Design a corner column to carry a vertical design load of 200 kN and a design bending moment about both axes of 35 kNm.
5.7
kNm and therefore 4 no TIO bars are satisfactory.clay bricks .5
X
665 155)
+0
= 96.
as for Example 3.5 mrrr'
links required. respectively. An additional M
a
moment. SHORT COLUMN SUBJECTED TO BIAXIAL BENDING
A single storey building with a rc roof slab is supported on reinforced brickwork columns which are 3. use R6links at 300 crs. fk = 7.7
X
X
106 + 0. Try column section 440 mm square. exceeds 12).9 N/mm2
Partial safety factors.
0kNm
Both Na and M. Ndz.85
X
440 .2) 103 = 339.15
460
X
628 (0.' respectively and the section is therefore satisfactory
Handbook to 8S5628: Part 2: SECTION 2: Reinforced Masonry
55
.8 kNm Assume de = ~ and fs2= fy.85 (see Appendix A) As M" = My.5tdz) 440155)
Md = 0.83
X
460 X 628 _ 460 X 628 1.7kN
From M.0
106Nmm
= 72.82
Design Load Design vertical load.15
= (382.9 X 193.2
"fmm "fms "fm..5 .5td]) +~A.7 X 103N = 339.. a = 0.9
440 X 220(440220)
X
+ 0.0
X
440 X 220+ 0.fk bd e + .
= 0. (t .' = M" + a [~] My Therefore M. X
(0.5fk bd.6 = 1529kN N 200 Ndz = 1529 = 0.3) 106 = 72. T20 bars giving As = 1257 mm? The design axial load resistance ofthe column ignoring bending.52~ 7.5
440 . N = 200 kN Design moments about both axes M" and My = 35 kNm Design Try 4 no. exceed Nand M. see Figure 21 fsI fs2As2 F rom N d.Slenderness ratio Assume top and bottom of columns have lateral supports restricting movement in both directions Therefore hef = 3000 mm tef= 440mm Slenderness ratio =
3~g
= 6.83 fyAsl (0.Asl _ "Vmm "Vms "Vms Na = 7.6 X 103 mrrr' Thus Ndz = 7.9 2.' = 64.5
X
+ 1.de) + 0.:5460 628(0.15 1.4 + 208.155)
X
= (42.is given by fkAm Am = 4402 = 193.6 + 16.251.1 + 13.13 Therefore from Code Table 12. 440 X 35 = 64.8i.8 kNm
Design column as bending about a single axis with N = 200 kN and M. increased moment to be designed for is given by
p
q
M.' = 35 + 0..
6
1. Masonry shear.
Materials Bricks .r
~I
1\
I
Partial safety factors (materials) Masonry compression.33
Lateral load. Lateral loading From CP24 for <I>
=
1.33 x 1600 x 9.3 (normal category of manufacturing control).1
RETAINING WALLS
EXAMPLE 7.6 kN/m
X
Design moment.3 = 32. En = KA Ps g H x H/2
= 0.
Use 6 mm diameter links (maximum diameter permitted in bed joints) maximum spacing a)
= lesser of:
= 440 mm = 300 mm = 400 mm
least column dimension
b) 50 x link diameter c) 20 x main bar diameter
Therefore link spacing
= 300 mm
5. ')'mm = 2.6 kNm/m
From Code Table 8 minimum effective depth
56
. fy = 460 Nzmm" Infill concrete grade (BS5328) 25 Nzmrrr'
u
~
3. GROUTED CAVITY RETAINING WALL
Design a reinforced brickwork grouted cavity retaining wall to support a 3. fk = 9.2.0m height of cohesionless soil of 1600 kglm3 density and an angle of internal friction of 30°.25
X 4402 100 = 484mm2
As exceeds 484 mrrr' and links are required.4 Nzrnnr' Characteristic tensile strength of reinforcement.15
KA
= 30° I) = 0
= 0.81
1000
X~
2
= 23.3 5. Mortardesignation (ii) Characteristic compressive strength of masonry.3 kN/m
Stem design Load case a) clause 20.0 = 32.25% of area of masonry
=
0.try clay bricks with unit compressive strength 35 Nzmm".Link reinforcement 0.0m
1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\
r'\
Ps~ 1600kg/m3
(/J ~
30·
.3.0
')'ms
Reinforcement strength. M = 32.1 Design load
= ')'f En = 1.4 X 23.
')'mv
= 2.
d ue to desi 32.1.6 Shear span of wall. therefore
satisfactory.3
X
2
106 satisfactory.7 mm
Z
tryd=265mm>
From clause 22.94 x 265 = 249 mm
.
This exceeds the design moment and is therefore
To ensure that the section is underreinforced check that the design moment of resistance based on brickwork compression exceeds the design moment of resistance of the reinforcement. V = 32.3 ] =265 L11000 x 265 x 9. Try T12 reinforcement Therefore. 3 .5. = V = 32.2 characteristic fv = 0.35
+ 17.4 x 1.
Md =
Q bd? this must be greater than
M
Therefore
32.15%
T12 bars at 250 mm centres = 452 mm".1
3
Design shear force.5 As fy'Ymm]
l
bdfk'Yms
0.6 x 106 Q ~ 1000 X 2652 = 0.917 = 243mm F rom cause 22 .1. a.9kNm/m
'Ymm
1.9 kNm/m and is therefore No minimum area of main reinforcement bd seems sensible in this situation. 6
= 32.2
s h earstress
22.7 mm 166.15
r
at 250mm centres. lever arm.
This is greater that 43.15 x 1(1i satisfactory.
Code Table 10 or Figure 3 may be used to avoid the need for a trial estimate of reinforcement. c.77 57
Handbook to BS5628: Part 2: SECfION 2: Reinforced Masonry
.As fy Z _ 452 x 460 x 243

43.8 kNm/m 2.
From clause 19.2. this is greater than 398 mm".4 x 1000 x 265 = 114.6 kN/m
& Th ererore.6 = LOrn Therefore~= 0~2~5 = 3.4 2 .15 X 10 = 328 21 460 x 249 mm m = 398 mm2/m
but from above provide minimum area of reinforcement Therefore use T12 at 250mm centres.
From Code Figure 3 lever arm factor.4fkbi
'Ymm
= 0. As = 452 mm2/m
= 265 x 0. 0.15 x 1000 x 265 = 398 2 100 100 mm
is specified in BS5628: Part 2 but a minimum of 0.3
.. = 0.6 x 1.3000 d=18=
166.94 Thereforez an dA s = 0.15bd = 0. and
Shear clauses 19.
Z
=d
ft _ 0.
Md = 0.5 x 452 X 460 x 2.4 x 9.46
___&_ =M=41
'Ymm 2.6x10 esign Ioa d s = 1000 x 265 0 .38N/mm2
M 32.1. 12NI mm 2 shear strength of masonry. M d I
.4.5
[1~~
265]= 0.1.3.
5.3 (normal category of manufacturing =
.
Note austenitic stainless steel reinforcement Pockets are infilled with mortar designation
required for durability. using the pressure diagram.
no shear reinforcement
Secondary reinforcement
clause 26.and fv may be increased by a factor (2.0.2 Nzmrrr' fy = 460 Nzmrrr'
tensile strength of reinforcement. derived with the appropriate partial safety factors. Bearing pressure should be assessed in the same manner and compared with the safe bearing capacity of the soil.. to calculate the bending moments. control).
Partial safety factors (materials)
Masonry compression.7.0 and providing overall factors of safety against sliding and overturning.5m high to resist a design overturning moment of 3.. (ii).9 kNmlm and a design shear force of7.25 x 3. therefore satisfactory. 'Ymv= 2.
required.8 kN/m.05%bd
Minimum area of secondary reinforcement
= 0. Masonry shear. = 0.3. assuming the soil to have the same properties as those given in Example 7 above?
~~
168
r
I
• 11
•
•
•
•
• IL.55
= 0..
Materials
Assume a brick of 50 N/mm2 compressive designation (ii).
1
1500 d
=
164
I I I I I I I I I I I
L.. Typical calculations are given in the BDA handbook "Brickwork Retaining Walls.. this is greater than 0.29
Nrmrrr'.3
= 0.38
x
1. Characteristic Characteristic compressive strength is used in a mortar
strength of masonry. What is the maximum height of soil a wall of this section may retain.77) = 1.0 58
'Ymm 2. using partial safety factors equal to 1.12 Nzmrrr'..
Base design
Flexural design of the reinforced concrete base should be carried out in accordance with BS8110. QUETTA BOND RETAINING WALL
Design a Quetta bond reinforced brickwork retaining wall.5 . fk = 12. 1.2
EXAMPLE 8.55 therefore f.59 Nrmrrr' =~
'Ymv
Design shear resistance
of wall
= ~~~ = 0.05
100
x 1000 x 265
= 133 mm2/m
Therefore
provide T10 bars at 500 mm centres (As = 157 mm2/m)
Overall stability
The overall stability of a reinforced masonry retaining wall should be assessed in accordance with standard soil mechanics methods.
05 Nzrnrrr' and is therefore
satisfactory.9X1.9 x 106 x 1642
= 0.c=0. M Thereforebd2 fk 12 12 =·=5.5 kNm/m
.95 x 164 = 155 mm 63 mm
_3.1 x 1.15
=
1.15xl06 460 x 155
21
m
Check that Md in compression
exceeds M
2 M = 0.
Secondary reinforcement clause 26.72
1209 mm
6 Th ere f ore A s =57.4 x 0.3 X 10 Use say 0. Design moment.3
strength. (every 4th bed joint) = 94 mmvm. therefore Therefore an dA
s
lever arm.05% = 0.1 kNm/m as before.1
Shear force due to design loads.9 kNm/m
= 1000
3.17 N/mm2 = 2.95. = 56.= 0.33 x 1600 x 9.using Code Figure 3
M
= 3. 0
design shear resistance of wall = ~
"fmv
This exceeds 0.4 x 12.05 x 1000 x 164 = 82 mm2/m 100 Use 6mm dia.3
Minimum area = 0. V = 7 . _ 1.3.145
"fmm
Nzmm?
use c = 0.
Consider the maximum height a wall ofthis section may retain
Design moment of resistance based on brickwork in compression
= 57.
Using Code Figure 3 for Q = M 2 = 57.3
"fmm
fk
N/mm2.72 x 164 Therefore D
21
m
use T16 bars at 168 mm centres (1196 mmvrn). = O .
M.5.
"fmb
"fms =
1.2 x 1000 x 164 = 57. c > 0.5
Stem design .81 
J 46.15 x 10 460 x 0.1.4 x 0.95
From Code Figure 3.Reinforcement Bond strength.5 X 10:1x 6 _ 1.8k N/m Therefore shear stress due to design loads.3 2.6 m S9
Handbook to 8S5628: Part 2: SECTION 2: Reinforced Masonry
.3 5 0.12 and bd 1000 x 1642
6
=5.75
3~


3
.v = 1~ shear strength of reinforced is surrounded X}~~4
= 0.05 Nzmrrr'
Characteristic
brickwork.81 x H3 esign moment 6 x 1000
3
T h ere f ore H 
56.33 x 1600 x 9.1 and 22. bars at 300 mm centres.15% area of reinforcement
>M
= 246 mmvm
T12 bars at 336 mm centres (2 x pocket spacing) gives 337 mm2/m.1 x 10 = 2.1 kNrnlm 6 d 2.1.
fv = 0. z.
Shear clauses 19.35 Nzrnrn?
(where reinforcement Therefore
with mortar).
0 1000 x2
2
=
42 4 kN .0 m height of gravel of 2000 kglm3 density.33
X
1600 1000
X
9.4x
33. Psg H x Hl2
= 0.4 x 4~ = 79.30= 0.29 Nzmrrr' = O2.17 Nzmm? 5
.6 X 1000 X 2 0.81
x2
= 33 6 kNI
.4
x 42.81
= 3.sin 35 1 + sin 35
=0
.1).
Materials
Assume crushing strength of bricks is 35 Nzmm? and use of mortar designation Table 3 (A).0
m
The area of reinforcement.
m
X
Shear force due to design loads. m
Design lateral force. v
= =
~60~ :
1.3.4.81 4.279kNI
m
.3
EXAMPLE 9. iefrom Code
.
This exceeds design shear resistance of wall Therefore
=~
'Ymv
shear is critical and H must be reduced
M·aximum V
= 0.Check shear
Lateral loads.2 kNm per pocket
Try a wall width of 440 mm with pockets spaced at 1.6
2
= 0.
As.0m to avoid the need to design the brickwork as spanning between pockets (clause 22.
1 .
= 1. V Shear stress due to design loads.
27
Lateral load on stem P = K.27
x 2000 x 9.6 ~~4
= 47. building which is required
5. 60 fy = 460 Nzmrrr' (deformed type 2) (ii). H an d maximum
=
l.0
kN/m
= 0. may be reduced to suit. En
= KA
Psg H2/2 3.3.4
33.4
kN per pocket
M = 59.
Assume angle of internal friction of gravel Therefore
= 35°
K. 'YfP and design moment. fk = 9.4 Nzmrrr' Reinforcement.33 X 1600 X 9.17xlO00x164 3
10
=. POCKET RETAINING WALL
Design a reinforced brickwork cantilever pocket wall to an industrial to retain a 4.4
= 59.
~·~ 106 X 1000 x 190 (380 .0017 61
Handbook to B55628: Part 2: SECTION 2: Reinforced Masonry
. Design wall as flanged beam. V = 59.1000 x 380 .2and22. 'Yms 1.5 =
Stem design
Assume exposure situation E3. try pocket width of235 mm Flange depth = d/2 = 190 mm From Code clause 22.4016
= 40
mm
= 112.4.93 x 380 = 353.2x10 0.M_ bd2 therefore
Z
6 79.16
Nzmnr'
&_
628 _ bd .3 (normal category of manufacturing control) = Masonry shear. TIO diameter bars per pocket (628 mm") Check that Mdbased on brickwork in compression is not exceeded Md = __!t_ btf(d .5 mrn
As maximum bar diameter permitted by Code clause 26. b) 1000 mm.4 use 2 no.5 x 190) = 221.93 1000 x 3802 '
= 0.1 width of flange is least of: a) 235 + 12 x 190 = 2515 mm.0.1. c) 4000/3
=
1333 mm.55 c=0.4 mm
z exceeds the minimum permitted and is therefore satisfactory As = M'Yms 79.15 = Bond strength.5 .2 kNm and the section is satisfactory.5tf) 'Ymm Md = 2.3.5.2 = 32 mm = 384 mmsay380 mm.Infill concrete grade (BS 5328) 30 Nzmrrr'
Partial safety factors (materials)
Masonry compression.
therefore flange width = 1000 mm From Code Figure 3 for fk/'Ymm ~. 'Ymm 2.4 kN/m Shear stress due to design loads. From Code Table 14 minimum cover Therefore maximum bar diameter d = 440.1
Shear force due to design loads. 'Ymv 2.2 x lQ6 x 1.0.1 = andQ=. v =
i~: ~~~
= 0. 'Ymb 1.40 = 32.
Shear clauses 19.1.3.15 = 560 mrrr' fyz 460 x 353.': = 4.40 .0 = Reinforcement strength.0.3 kNm This is greater than 79.
1
= 0.2
X
59.0 X 106 1000 X 3802
= 58. and for
fk/'Ymm
= 4. T16 bars.4.0
kNm
29.27 x 2000 x 9.16
Nzmrrr'
and no shear reinforcement
is required.5 .4
x
10 = 1333 103
6
Therefore and
f. b or c must bel satisfied.6 m. From above.Characteristic
shear strength of section.T16
r:
.
1200
f
.35 + 17. assume c = 0.62 2. In order to curtail the T20s in the tension zone.81 x 1. Design Md of2 no. Code Clause 26. In this case it was unnecessary to enhance].95
is the correct assumption. fv. Therefore the design moment capacity of the T16s must be at least twice the design moment. As = 402mm2. because
°i =
8
0._
I I
'
T20
r
I I
'~1
where the design moment.5 = 3. In this case 26.
Curtailment
In order to avoid 4m lengths of reinforcement projecting from the foundation.
=
= 0.0.86 m from top of wall. 9c is appropriate.86 m below top of wall is satisfactory.
!
ilT16
'T20 . this occurs at H = 3/2 x 23. 62
.0.25~) a
= 79.
=3
Thus T20s may beterrninated This moment occurs where H
M
= 29.4
= 3j23.95 M
d
= 402
Md
x 460 x 0.
= 0.95 x 380 1.15 x 106 58.31 Nzmm"
This exceeds 0.38
=
1333 (2.36 m therefore curtailment ofT20s at 2. 9a.62
N/mm
2
_h_
'Ymv
0.22 m.16
Nlmmi .
NB.0 x 6 x 1000 0. 12 diameters above this level = 3.5 . therefore curtailment ofT20s at 2. An effective depth above this level = 3.5 = 2.0
kNm
Q c
= bd2 =
= 0.0
0. The T16s will resist a momentof58 kNm.0017
= 0. be curtailed at a suitable height and smaller bars lapped on.~
.
Check that T20s will extend at least an effective depth or 12 diameters beyond the point where they are no longer needed.5
X 0. the T20 bars may
Assume T16 bars are used.86 m below top of wall is satisfactory.38
N/mm2
fv may be increased by the factor (2.19 Nlmni'
> 0.25 380)
= 0.
'Ym= 3. is required. with
Capacity of unreinforced
BS5628 : Part 1 Clause 36. concrete blockwork in mortar designation (iv). clause 19. Therefore.2.
Foundation design will be to BS811 0 and using standard pressure and stability calculations.5x'ITxI6
fy x 'Ymbx As 'Ymsx fb X 'ITX bar diameter
= 960
mm
This is greater than 25 x bar diameter
+ 150 (= 550) and therefore governs.6 kN/m2• The wall is discontinuous at its top edge and both ends.6 bond
length required to develop full anchorage
=''460 x 1.90r 1.3 x 106 mm2
X
2400 x tcl = 2400 x 1352 = 44 therefore panel size satisfactory
106 mm?
> 20. A sheet dpc is provided at the base of the wall.9 Nzmm".Check lap length for T16.4.
In order to provide the maximum freedom of choice of facing brick it will be assumed that the clay brick used has a unit compressive strength of 20 Nzmm? and a water absorption greater than 12%. The wall is reinforced with bed joint reinforcement to resist a characteristic wind load of 0. In each design method it is necessary to establish the strength ofthe panel in accordance BS5628: Part 1 as if it was unreinforced.4
wall
Outer leaf
fkxperpendicular
= 0.5 m long cavity wall with a brick outer and a 100 mm thick blockwork inner leaf. because of the dpc.2.
Edge conditions
It is assumed that the supporting structure is sufficiently rigid to provide simple support to the top and sides of the panel and that.5 x 201 1.4
5. the bottom edge is also simply supported. from Table 13. or carbon steel coated with stainless steel. »s= 0. Exposure situation E2.5 + 100) = 135 mm Clause A.3 N/mm2.2. (instead of E2) austenitic stainless steel reinforcement.2.15x2.3 (b) (2) height x length
=
4500 x 4500
= 20.5. Therefore
fb = 2. A mortar designation (iii) is assumed.
fkxparallel
=
0.5 Nzrnm". LATERALLY LOADED WALL
Design a 4.
and for simplicity continue T16 down to just above soil mechanics procedures for bearing
Thus curtail T20s 1. Characteristic bond strength. The inner leafisof2.3 x 106
rnm '
Maximum dimension = 60 tcc = 60 x 135 therefore panel dimensions satisfactory.4 requires that where clay bricks with a water absorption greater than 10% are used the reinforcement protection should be that appropriate to the next more severe exposure situation. but is connected to the structure along these edges. For comparative purposes the wall will be designed by each of these methods.5 m high by 4.
Limiting panel dimensions
Clause 23.4.1. 15 mm cover is required to bed joint reinforcement.1
REINFORCEMENT
LATERALLY LOADED MASONRY WALLS CONTAINING BED JOINT EXAMPLE 10.
= 8100 mm > 4500 mm
Durability
Clause 32. 63
Handbook to BS5628: Part 2: SECTION 2: Reinforced Masonry
. for exposure situation E3.8 Nzmm". Appendix A to BS5628: Part 2 contains four alternative design methods.2m above foundation foundation level.
5. effective thickness of the wall 2 = 3' x (102.
67 X 106 106 = 0.06 0. design moment outer leaf
= 0.04
X
0.0018
X.2+0.
X
35 .25 X 1000 = 0.8 1000 X 100 X "If X
.75 X 106 106 = 0.057
= 0.4
X
1.
= 0.14 N/mm2 X .
Design moment of resistance outer leaf
= 0.049
fkxparallel
Inner leaf
fkxperpendicular Z = 1.2
X
4.5.
=. wall
W1= 0.5
0.051 If characteristic and characteristic
= 0.
64
.4 065
"1m
=.52 = 1.051 Equating Equating Therefore Therefore
X
Wo
X
1.19 kNmlm
(2)
From Table 9 E. Th ere f ore u== 0. Reinforce outer leaf with prefabricated stainless steel parallel wire lattice reinforcement.2N/mm2.47kN/m2
BS5628 : PART 2.3+0.15kN/m2
= 0.9 3. APPENDIX A DESIGN METHODS A~3Method One
Assume only brick leaf reinforced Maximum permitted enhancement of load capacity over that for the unreinforced wall panel = 50%. = 0.251~21~0 = 0. a (outer leaf) and a (inner leaf) = 0. Self weig h t stress at mr h ergh t =0.24 WI kNm/m Wo=0.32
(4) kN/m2
(1) & (3) and solving for Wo (2) & (4) and solving for WI characteristic unreinforced load capacity for unreinforced wall is inadequate.
"If
= 0.45 kNmlm
(1)
Design moment of resistance inner leaf
= 3.39WokNm/m
Design moment inner leaf
X
WI
X
1.057
load on outer leaf = W 0 load on inner leaf
= WI
(3)
then.67
X
= 0.q
"1m
= 0.5
X
1.52
= 1.2
106 mm3/m
X 2.9
X
3.
"1m
= 3.5
=.4N/mm2.2
X
4. id .~~.Z
= bd = 6"""
2
1.90r
09
1.06N/mm2 Th ere f are JJ.75
X
106 mm3/m
X "If X
Self weight stress at mid height = 2.14 o.
5
= 1. fy = 485 Nzmm? length of reinforcement provide reinforcement staggered as shown
= 3.. serviceability failure) in the wall panel.2. 2
bd
10 1000 x 752
X
6
= 0.32
fk from Table 2 (a).M.8N/mm2 (N B: Partl must be used to obtain fk values for masonry built with mortar designation (iii)).7
6
Therefore
area of reinforcement
A = 1.89
= 0.4. either both leaves must be reinforced or a serviceability check can be carried out on the outer leaf.. given in A. From page 64 the characteristic load (Ultimate Limit State) for the unreinforced outer leaf is 0. BS5628 : Part 2.6 x 4. only the outer leaf is reinforced.2. although such a check is not referred to in the Code. Clause 22.88 i. satisfactory
•
0.::. = 5..5 x 10
6
=
14 mnr' at not greater than 450mm centres
As is satisfactory strength of brick is adequate. laterally loaded.e.15 s 485 x 66. c mm required. 88%
As this is greater than 50%.6
0.:. Because.
= 0..2 D eSlgn moment = .1.. = 31 mrnvm. the enhancement of lateral load resistance over the equivalent unreinforced wall panel is limited to 50%. It is however considered to be a reasonable approach.7
kNm/m therefore
In order to avoid excessive deflection or cracking (i. the enhanced resistance is compared with the resistance of the unreinforced outer leaf alone: rein~orced resis~ance unreinforced resistance
= 0. ThereforeTherefore.e.4.89 x 75 = 66..82
kNm/m
8
8
Q =.32
=
1.bed joint reinforcement
t
d =75
"
= 1.. in this example.32 kN/m2•
Handbook to BS5628: Part 2: SECTION 2: Reinforced Masonry
65
..
from Figure 3. therefore Check that compressive Md = 3.0
m
with laps
. "YfWkL2 1. wall is comparable with the ultimate load for the equivalent unreinforced wall.7 Try reinforcement
65 mmvm
every second course
A
s
= 
42 x 4
1T
x = 84 mmvrn 2 x 75
1000
> 65 mmvrn
therefore
satisfactory Clause A.1.4 x 5.82
lap
~))
2
stainless steel. that the crack load for a bed joint reinforced.82 X 10 x 1. andz fk "Ym
= 3'5 =
•
58
1.66
bmfrom
BS5628: Part 1).2. The Appendix A design methods are based on the premise..8 x 1000 x 752
= 3. BS5628: Part 1.
Minimum area of reinforcement.:x 0.
therefore. 3 .
This exceeds the serviceability design load on the wall of 'Yf X 0.
Minimum area of reinforcement = 31 As=41 mrrrvm Stagger laps as for Method One. required design capacity of outer leaf = 0. .34 _ 1. BS5628: Part 2.0 and 'Ym = 1.32
Therefore. 2) .2 mm
6
X A s = 0.
A.6 = 0.6 x 1. clause A. less conservative than Method One and the enhancement is limited to 30%. the serviceability check required here is the same as for Method One.15 _ 'Ymm . provide reinforcement every 4th course (300 mm)
Serviceability check As the serviceability design load capacity of the reinforced leaf is considered to be independent of the area of reinforcement for commonly used percentages of bed joint reinforcement.34 . the reinforced leaf should be designed to resist the full load . from Figure 3.15 = 283 mm 2/m 485 X .15
we
'Ym

fk
= 1.6 kN/m2 and cracking will not occur.32 kN/m2.5 = 0.2 X 3.95 (maximum) andz
X
75 = 71.21. 1.28 X 4. Therefore.85 X 106 Q = bd2 = 1000 X 752 . with 'Yf
= 1.0 .5 .0 X 0.3
X
0. The serviceability limit state of deflection should also be considered and this will be as discussed in A.6 = 1. As this is at least as great as the cracking load for the equivalent reinforced leaf.85 X 1071.1.32 = 0. It is.2.0.
mmvrn
(as for Method One)
Therefore.28
kN/m2
> 0.6 .1 34 kNI m2. where only one leaf is reinforced.2 X 0.
It can be seen that the enhancement limit given in the Code can be exceeded.2 == 0. c = 0. see page 64. d = 75 mm 2 1.Therefore the ultimate load (ie failure strength). Use same type of reinforcement as in Method One. provided that a
Serviceability Limit State design check is carried out.85 kNm/m Design moment 'Yf k 8 8 M 0.0 32 X 1.0. 0 9 kNI m 2 ( 'Ymm from 20 .4 Method 'Two Assume only brick leaf reinforced.. Because of the differences in load/deflection behaviour between the reinforced and unreinforced leaves. the serviceability design load capacity of the reinforced leaf
. This method is similar to Method One except that the reinforced section is only required to resist the excess load above that carried by the unreinforced masonry.S Method Three Assume only brick leaf reinforced. of the outer leaf
.72 kN/m2 Try reinforcement every second course 66
.0.66 as for Method One = 0. Load capacity of unreinforced leaf = 0. either both leaves must be reinforced or a serviceability check carried out on the outer leaf as for Method One.1. A.6 Method Four on page 67.95
Therefore. Excess load
= 0.0 1.
0).6 Method Four In this approach the failure strength of the unreinforced wall is taken to be the cracking strength of the reinforced wall.. therefore. where the horizontal span strength is much greater than the vertical span strength.
= (0. BS5628: Part 2 recommends that with this design method the serviceability limit state of
Handbook to BS5628: Part 2 : SECTION 2: Reinforced Masonry
67
. Using Method Four.0 =. ultimate load (ie failure strength) 3. the wall has only to resist a characteristic wind load of 0. 197kN·I m 2 Thus the serviceability design load capacity (cracking) = 1.2 x 0. c = 0. This is somewhat illogical since in other respects the design is similar to Method One and.22
IJ. an d M d = 84 1.088
However this is outside the range of usual orthogonal ratios and has no empirical justification and the use of o = 0.~ = 0.47 x 1. for bending about the horizontal axis (unreinforced). Using yield line theory to calculate the value of a.09 gives (X and thus a smaller design moment.15 X x106 =.14)
x 1.47 kN/m2.2 Therefore with "If =1.97 = 1 .31 . a maximum enhancement of 50% may be considered appropriate. givesz = 71.2) 7 15 'Ymm . M = a'Yf W kL 2
= 0.
= ~:. is the design wind load capacity for the serviceability limit state of cracking (ie "If = 1. limit the load capacity enhancement over the equivalent unreinforced wall.5 x 106
6
= 0. at present. However the wall must be reinforced to ensure that in resisting the design serviceability load. therefore.01 kN/m2in accordance with Method Two (assuming that both leaves are
However.2 mm
x 485 71.52 kNm/m and.Therefore As = 84 mm2/m Assuming lever arm factor.0. orthogonal ratio.75 x 10 3. therefore.52 = 1. = 0. Stagger laps as for Method One and check that bond stress at lap position is satisfactory.0 x 1.
= 0. A.31 kN/m2 ("(mm from 20.3.. calculated using "1m = 3.6 kN/m2. satisfactory.6 kN/m2 and is therefore satisfactory.2 . This.125.068. It exceeds 0.5 1. As only one leaf is reinforced the serviceab:ility checks must be carried out on that leaf alone.125 is therefore considered appropriate. As the reinforced wall is to be designed in accordance with Method Two. 2 52 kNmJ m for b en di a b outt he vertica I axis. the value of a will tend toO.5 and "If = 1. To achieve its full serviceability design load capacity the wall would have to be reinforced to resist an excess ultimate design load of: 1. for the situation in the example.0. Considering both leaves.0 and "1m = 1.82 kNmJm
This is less than 2. BS5628: Part 1value of o for minimum IJ. . an orthogonal ratio of 0. the wall is capable of resisting a greater wind load than using Methods One.95. Use this value.125
x 1. design moment.3isO.2 (1. see page 64. it can be seen from page 66 that reinforcement in every fourth bed joint (300 mm) of the outer leaf will provide the necessary design resistance. however. Two and Three when the enhancement limits are applied.6 x 4.
kNmJm
Therefore.
=
1.09
From Table 9. The Code does not. again this is as for Method Two (page 66). the characteristic load capacity of the unreinforced wall = 0.2 = 0.9 = 1. the ultimate limit state is not reached.47) reinforced). Therefore. mg
Md.3 + 0.
8 x 8. Part 3.2 (1951). BDA Design Note 3 July 1979. 1991. Earth Retaining Structures. Structural use of reinforced and prestressed masonry. As has also been seen. This is not straightforward. Code of Practice for Design and Construction. 7. Civil Engineering Code of Practice No.
If both leaves are reinforced it will be necessary to carry out a serviceability check on both leaves. in order to do this. the panel will be considered to span horizontally. Part 2. Each leaf can then be reinforced (using Method Two) to resist theirrespective Ultimate Limit State design loads.1 and therefore satisfactory. Brickwork Dimensions Tables. This apportionment can be done by equating the deflection equations for each leaf and solving for the individual leaf loads from knowledge of the total design serviceability load on the wall. Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice. It is suggested that. it would be necessary to carry out a more rigorous analysis egousing elastic plate theory. CPII0 : 1972 (now superseded byBS8110) 4.
6. 6. Materials and components.97 x 107 = 6. since the latter make allowance for the load capacity of the unreinforced masonry. Use of Masonry • Part 1.2. because ofthe suggested limitations of the extrapolation of bending moment coefficients for low orthogonal ratios.2. 3. Structural Use of Concrete.2.6
X
4. deflectton
= 384 x 900 x 5. 2. Structural use of unrein forced masonry.54 x 1012
This is less than the limit of span 1250 (= 18mm) recommended in clause 16. and it is likely that this will be dealt with in a future amendment to BS 5628: Part 2. Wiley International Edition. scope for the clarification of these design methods.
It can be seen that Method Four is effectively the same as Method Two when the proposed serviceability design checks are carried out in the latter. Methods One and Three often effectively become the same. If the risk of damage to finishes was critical and a lower deflection limit set. thus. BS8110: Part 1 : 1985. 5.8mm
5
0. Methods One and Three are more conservative than Two and Four. If the design load (serviceability) is considered to be carried by the outer leaf: . The Structural Use of Concrete. BS 5628: Part 1: 1978(1985). assuming that the masonry is unreinforced and using the values for short term elastic moduli given in Appendix C to the Code. design and workmanship.
68
. Part 1.0
I I REFERENCES
I
1. BD A Design Guide No. British Standards Institution. BS 5628:Part 3: 1985. the load is apportioned between the leaves on the
assumption that both leaves deflect equally. These individualleafloads can then be compared with their serviceability load capacities as in Method Two on page 66. BS 5628: Part 2: 1985.deflection should be checked. There is. Haseltine and Tutt. It is recommended that elastic plate theory. British Standards Institution. British Standards Institution. In this case for simplicity. Brickwork Retaining Walls. Terzaghi and Peck.
Types 304 and 316 deformed stainless steel bars complying with BS 6744 250 460
Table 4 will be amended OF REINFORCING
Nominal
size
as shown STEEL. CHARACTERISTIC
Deslgnadon Hot rolled plain steel bars complying with BS4449 Hot rolled and cold worked deformed bars complying with BS4449 Cold reduced steel wire complying with BS 4482 used in steel fabic in accordance with BS 4483 Types 304 and 316 plain stainless steel bars complying with BS 6744 . fy _. below: TABLE 4.3 0.6 Valueofoe 1.88 0.1. It is proposed to alter this table slightly. In order to clarify the meaning it is proposed that the word 'vertical' will be substituted for the word 'axial'. where the meaning ofthe terms is unchanged. TABLE 4
I
PROPOSED AMENDMENTS TO BSS628: PART 2
A number of errors or anomalies in BS5628: Part 2 have been referred to in the text of this Handbook.2 0.4. where eccentric vertical loading is being referred to.3.. In line with revisions to other related British Standards.65 0. it should be:q p Ndz
= fk Am. The major revisions are noted below.5 .2 in the expression for My the term (Q) should be inverted to read (g_).53 0. The expression for Ndz is also incorrect.1.00 0. as shown below: TABLE 12 V ALVES OF THE COEFFICIENT
ValueofNlNdz 0 0. The most significant of these are included in a draft revision to the Code at present being prepared for publication.'0.4 0.__:_
TENSILE STRENGTH
Grade 250 460
__
'
Characteristic tensUestrength fy 250 460 460 250 460
All All Up to and including 12 mm All All
CLAUSES 23 AND 24
These clauses make numerous references to 'axial' loads.30
(X
Handbook to BS5628: Part 2: SECTION 2: Reinforced Masonry
69
.77 0.1 0.
Associated with both of the above expressions is Table 12 which gives values for the coefficient o .42 0. In subclause 23.I APPENDIXA
CLAUSE 19.
>~~.
CO~ONBONDPATTERNSFORREnwORCED~ONRY
:.L
+
I
I
I
....::: .
::
.'...
reinforcement I
. + I·' I
I .S:
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
aa
I
_J.
+ I
I
I
.
queHa bond wall
I I I
.
I
+
I
I
...~:':..L
+
I
I
J.
<. .APPENDIX.t1J. ..1_
I
bb
I:'OCk:1
pocket wall english bond.!....
~ •.:~"
I
.d cavity wall
part 2..:' .<'..
+ .. ':'..alternate courses dotted
• •
•
•
wall ties to BS5628 groutp. Appendix
3
70
....:' .>
I
I
alternate courses
variation on queHa bond
I I I
I
I I
I
I
I
}F.
District Architect at Mansfield District Council. Winkfield.31. Technical Director.David Goodwin Associates. Page 6: Photography . Windsor. WINDSOR Berkshire SL4 2DX. Photographs on pages 7. Architects . Berks SL4 2DX. R. Structural engineers . Architects . RIBA. MICeram. Design Guide 2 • Designing in Reinforced Brickwork. ArchitectsGreen Lloyd. Page 22: Photography John Adams.27. Consulting engineersCurtins. and the British Ceramic Association. Design Guide 14 • Handbook to BS 5628: Part 2: Section 1:Reinforced Masonry.The Salvation Army International Headquarters. Woodside House. Structural engineersFothergill & Co.Covell Matthews Wheatley. Architects and structural engineers . Design Guide 17 • Design of Post Tensioned Brickwork. Architects .Frank Walter. construction or repair of brickwork or any related project should first consult a Professional Advisor. for the purposes of
The Brick Development Association. Woodside Telephone Winkfield Row (0344) 885651 by David Goad MSTD.John Adams.THE BDA DESIGN GUIDE SERIES
The BDA Design Guide series of publications provides a range of titles covering many aspects of both unreinforced and reinforced structural use of brickwork masonry. or other contents of this publication. illustration: John James.Oxfordshire County Surveyor & Engineer in collaboration with Bradshaw Buckton &Tange.Frank Walter.Graham Jennings.Deakin Callard & Partners.32. Walters. Design Guide 20 These titles and the full publications Department. listing are available from BDA's Publications Sales
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Front cover: Photography .Curtins.15. Structural engineers . Technical House. Inside front cover: Photography . Structural engineers . Page 9: Photography . Printed: Prima Print. Architect .Porter Wright.24. Marshalls Clay Products Ltd. Tel: 0344 885651 The contents of this publication are intended for general guidance only and any person intending to use these contents design.
Handbook
to BS5628: Part 2: SECTION
2: Reinforced
Masonry
71
. © The Brick Development Association. Page 4: PhotographyBDA.F. Other publications in the series relevant to reinforced brickwork design are: • The Design of Brickwork Retaining Walls. Winkfield. Designed and produced for the Brick Development Association.35 and 72 were provided by Stuart Bell DipArch. its servants and any persons who contributed to or who are in anyway connected with this publication accept no liability arising from negligence or otherwise howsoever caused for any injury or damage to any property as a result of any or reliance on any method product instruction.