Electrical installation handbook Volume 2

2 edition
nd

Electrical devices

1SDC010001D0202

ABB SACE

Electrical installation handbook

Volume 2

Electrical devices

2nd edition February 2004

First edition 2003 Second edition 2004

Published by ABB SACE via Baioni, 35 - 24123 Bergamo (Italy) All rights reserved

.....................2......................... 131 4 Power factor correction 4............................. 66 2........ 22 2.2 IEC Standards for electrical installation ...................................................................................................2 DOCWin ...................................... 110 3...................................................................4 Protection against short-circuit ..1 General aspects .............3 Protection against both direct and indirect contact .......................... 159 5 Protection of human beings 5.......................................... 152 4.........3 Joule-effect losses .................................. 179 5........... 146 4..... 162 5.........................................2 Power factor correction method ...1 General aspects .....................3 Protection against overload ............................................................................................................................................ 78 2...1 Protection and switching of lighting circuits ........................... 25 2.....1 Slide rules .......... 2 1 Standards 1..........1 Introduction ...3 Protection and switching of motors .................................1 General aspects: effects of current on human beings .........................................................................................................................6 IT system ... 227 Annex E: Main physical quantities and electro technical formulas ........3 Circuit-breakers for the protection and swiching of capacitor banks ..... 3 1............. 15 2 Protection of feeders 2..........4 Protection and switching of transformers ........................ 55 2.. 165 5...................2 Installation and dimensioning of cables ....Index Introduction ......................................2............................... 31 Installation in ground .................................................4 TT system ...............5 Neutral and protective conductors .................................................................... 213 Annex D: Calculation of the coefficient k for the cables .................................................... 182 Annex A: Calculation tools A................................................................... 25 Installation not buried in the ground ............................................................................... 230 ABB SACE ..................8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings .................................................................................. 200 A.......................5 TN system ..............................................................................................................2 Distribution systems ............... 205 Annex B: Calculation of load current Ib ............................7 Residual current devices ..........................................2 Voltage drop .............................................................. 171 5... 209 Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current ....Electrical devices 1 ... 177 5....................... 115 3........ 44 2.6 Busbar trunking systems .............. 70 2........... 101 3........ 86 3 Protection of electrical equipment 3... 67 2......................2................ 174 5....................2 Protection and switching of generators ...... 168 5......................1 Current carrying capacity and methods of installation ..................

This electrical installation handbook. in a single document. however. Electrical installation handbook users The electrical installation handbook is a tool which is suitable for all those who are interested in electrical plants: useful for installers and maintenance technicians through brief yet important electrotechnical references.Electrical devices . and for sales engineers through quick reference selection tables. aims to be of help in the correct definition of equipment. in favour of safety. The dimensioning of an electrical plant requires knowledge of different factors relating to. immediate-use working tool. the electrical conductors and other components. aims to supply. installation utilities. in addition to the latter. this knowledge leads the design engineer to consult numerous documents and technical catalogues. in numerous practical installation situations. The tables are always drawn up conservatively. Some application examples are included to aid comprehension of the selection tables. for example. for more accurate calculations. the use of DOCWin software is recommended for the dimensioning of electrical installations. correction factors are given for actual conditions which may differ from the assumed ones. Validity of the electrical installation handbook Some tables show approximate values due to the generalization of the selection process. where possible. This is not intended to be a theoretical document. for example those regarding the constructional characteristics of electrical machinery.Introduction Scope and objectives The scope of this electrical installation handbook is to provide the designer and user of electrical plants with a quick reference. nor a technical catalogue. tables for the quick definition of the main parameters of the components of an electrical plant and for the selection of the protection devices for a wide range of installations. but. In every case. 2 ABB SACE .

Application fields Electrotechnics and Electronics Telecommunications Mechanics. are circumstantially drawn up and can have legal force when this is attributed by a legislative measure. This association is formed by the International Committees of over 40 countries all over the world. a precise knowledge of the standards is the fundamental premise for a correct approach to the problems of the electrical plants which shall be designed in order to guarantee that “acceptable safety level” which is never absolute. and in particular in the electrical sector. The IEC publishes international standards. is the respect of all the relevant laws and technical standards. technical guides and reports which are the bases or. published by national and international bodies. Ergonomics and Safety International Body European Body IEC CENELEC ITU ETSI ISO CEN This technical collection takes into consideration only the bodies dealing with electrical and electronic technologies. Technical Standards These standards are the whole of the prescriptions on the basis of which machines. IEC Standards are generally issued in two languages: English and French. with the aim of securing the international co-operation as regards standardization and certification in electrical and electronic technologies. for a common planning of new standardization activities and for parallel voting on standard drafts. ABB SACE . materials and the installations should be designed. Juridical Standards These are all the standards from which derive rules of behavior for the juridical persons who are under the sovereignty of that State. a reference of utmost importance for any national and European standardization activity.1 Standards 1. in any case.Electrical devices 3 . a condition sufficient (even if not necessary) for the realization of plants according to the “status of the art” and a requirement essential to properly meet the demands of customers and of the community. manufactured and tested so that efficiency and function safety are ensured. The technical standards. apparatus. IEC International Electrotechnical Commission The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) was officially founded in 1906. In 1991 the IEC has ratified co-operation agreements with CENELEC (European standardization body). Therefore.1 General aspects In each technical field.

these directives come into juridical force and become a reference for manufacturers. and dealers who must fulfill the duties prescribed by law. Ireland. Poland. When the study of a specific subject has already been started by the IEC. Croatia. Romania. From 1991 CENELEC cooperates with the IEC to accelerate the standards preparation process of International Standards. France. Slovakia. Malta.Electrical devices . Finland. Portugal. • the applicability of the harmonized standards or of other technical specifications is facultative and manufacturers are free to choose other technical solutions which ensure compliance with the essential requirements. French and German.1 General aspects 1 Standards CENELEC European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization The European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC) was set up in 1973. • only the products which comply with the essential requirements specified by the directives can be marketed and put into service. Denmark. Ukraine) which have first maintained the national documents side by side with the CENELEC ones and then replaced them with the Harmonized Documents (HD). Lithuania. Czech Republic. Belgium. the European Community has the task of promulgating directives which must be adopted by the different member states and then transposed into national law. Sweden. Bulgaria. Turkey. Latvia. Presently it comprises 27 countries (Austria. EC DIRECTIVES FOR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Among its institutional roles. Switzerland. Norway. CENELEC hopes and expects Cyprus to become the 28th members before May 2004. Spain. Germany. Iceland. to amend the works already approved by the International standardization body. installers.1. whose reference numbers are published in the Official Journal of the European Communities and which are transposed into the national standards. CENELEC deals with specific subjects. Italy. Luxembourg. Directives are based on the following principles: • harmonization is limited to essential requirements. the second ones can be amended to meet particular national requirements. are considered in compliance with the essential requirements. There is a difference between EN Standards and Harmonization Documents (HD): while the first ones have to be accepted at any level and without additions or modifications in the different countries. for which standardization is urgently required. Slovenia. the European standardization body (CENELEC) can decide to accept or. The scope of each directive is to make manufacturers take all the necessary steps and measures so that the product does not affect the safety and health 4 ABB SACE . Once adopted. Greece. Estonia. whenever necessary. United Kingdom) and cooperates with 8 affiliates (Albania. • the harmonized standards. Bosnia and Herzegovina. EN Standards are generally issued in three languages: English. Cyprus. • a manufacturer can choose among the different conformity evaluation procedure provided by the applicable directive. Hungary. Netherlands.

the apparatus covered by this Directive are divided into the following categories according to their characteristics: • domestic radio and TV receivers.Electrical devices 5 . with the general standards. • radio and television broadcast transmitters. • information technology equipment (ITE). • domestic appliances and household electronic equipment. “Low Voltage” Directive 73/23/CEE – 93/68/CEE The Low Voltage Directive refers to any electrical equipment designed for use at a rated voltage from 50 to 1000 V for alternating current and from 75 to 1500 V for direct current. Directive EMC 89/336/EEC (“Electromagnetic Compatibility”) The Directive on electromagnetic compatibility regards all the electrical and electronic apparatus as well as systems and installations containing electrical and/or electronic components. transformers. • telecommunications networks and apparatus. An apparatus is declared in conformity to the provisions at points a) and b) when the apparatus complies with the harmonized standards relevant to its product family or. • industrial manufacturing equipment. devices. b) the apparatus has an adequate level of intrinsic immunity to electromagnetic disturbance to enable it to operate as intended. aircraft or railways. for use on ships. conversion. transmission. In particular. • mobile radio equipment. • medical and scientific apparatus. The following categories are outside the scope of this Directive: • electrical equipment for use in an explosive atmosphere. • electrical parts for goods and passenger lifts. • specialized electrical equipment. ABB SACE . The apparatus shall be so constructed that: a) the electromagnetic disturbance it generates does not exceed a level allowing radio and telecommunications equipment and other apparatus to operate as intended. • electrical energy meters. which complies with the safety provisions drawn up by international bodies in which the Member States participate. protection devices and wiring materials. • lights and fluorescent lamps. measuring instruments. such as machines. • mobile radio and commercial radio telephone equipment.1 General aspects 1 Standards of persons. In particular.1. it is applicable to any apparatus used for production. • plugs and socket outlets for domestic use. • electrical equipment for radiology and medical purposes. • educational electronic equipment. in case there aren’t any. distribution and use of electrical power. • electric fence controllers. • radio-electrical interference. • aeronautical and marine radio apparatus. animals and property.

on board environments (engine room) where the apparatus operate in the presence of vibrations characterized by considerable amplitude and duration. manufacture and operation of the product EC declaration of conformity The manufacturer guarantees and declares that his products are in conformity to the technical documentation and to the directive requirements Naval type approval The environmental conditions which characterize the use of circuit breakers for on-board installations can be different from the service conditions in standard industrial environments. humidity and dry-heat tests.1.Electrical devices ASDC008045F0201 Manufacturer . it represents a declaration of the manufacturer or of his authorized representative that the product in question conforms to all the applicable provisions including the conformity assessment procedures. by virtue of the European Community directives providing for the affixing of the CE marking.environments characterized by high temperature and humidity.1 General aspects 1 Standards CE conformity marking The CE conformity marking shall indicate conformity to all the obligations imposed on the manufacturer. including saltmist atmosphere (damp-heat. 6 ABB SACE . In order to ensure the proper function in such environments. salt-mist environment). such as: . as a matter of fact. dynamic inclination. the most significant of which are vibration. When the CE marking is affixed on a product. . marine applications can require installation under particular conditions. the shipping registers require that the apparatus has to be tested according to specific type approval tests. This prevents the Member States from limiting the marketing and putting into service of products bearing the CE marking. unless this measure is justified by the proved non-conformity of the product. Flow diagram for the conformity assessment procedures established by the Directive 73/23/EEC on electrical equipment designed for use within particular voltage range: Technical file The manufacturer draw up the technical documentation covering the design. as regards his products.

AUSTRALIA S. Mark Standards Association of Australia (S. Marks of conformity to the relevant national and international Standards The international and national marks of conformity are reported in the following table. EUROPE AUSTRALIA AS Mark Electrical and non-electrical products.1. for information only: COUNTRY Symbol Mark designation – Applicability/Organization Mark of compliance with the harmonized European standards listed in the ENEC Agreement.Electrical devices 7 .A.abb.1 General aspects 1 Standards ABB SACE circuit-breakers (Isomax-Tmax-Emax) are approved by the following shipping registers: • • • • • • RINA DNV BV GL LRs ABS Registro Italiano Navale Det Norske Veritas Bureau Veritas Germanischer Lloyd Lloyd’s Register of Shipping American Bureau of Shipping Italian shipping register Norwegian shipping register French shipping register German shipping register British shipping register American shipping register It is always advisable to ask ABB SACE as regards the typologies and the performances of the certified circuit-breakers or to consult the section certificates in the website http://bol.it.A. The Electricity Authority of New South Wales Sydney Australia AUSTRIA Austrian Test Mark Installation equipment and materials OVE ABB SACE .).A. It guarantees compliance with SAA (Standard Association of Australia).A.com.

1.1 General aspects 1 Standards COUNTRY Symbol Mark designation ÖVE Identification Thread Applicability/Organization Cables AUSTRIA BELGIUM CEBEC Mark Installation materials and electrical appliances BELGIUM CEBEC Mark Conduits and ducts.Electrical devices . This mark guarantees compliance with CSA (Canadian Standard Association) CHINA CCEE Mark Great Wall Mark Commission for Certification of Electrical Equipment Czech Republic EZU’ Mark Electrotechnical Testing Institute Slovakia Republic EVPU’ Mark Electrotechnical Research and Design Institute 8 ABB SACE . conductors and flexible cords BELGIUM Certification of Conformity Installation material and electrical appliances (in case there are no equivalent national standards or criteria) CANADA CSA Mark Electrical and non-electrical products.

This mark guarantees the compliance of the product with the requirements (safety) of the “Heavy Current Regulations” FRANCE ESC Mark Household appliances FRANCE NF Mark Conductors and cables – Conduits and ducting – Installation materials FRANCE NF Identification Thread Cables FRANCE NF Mark Portable motor-operated tools FRANCE NF Mark Household appliances ABB SACE .Electrical devices 9 .1. This mark guarantees the compliance of the product with the requirements (safety) of the “Heavy Current Regulations” FINLAND Safety Mark of the Elektriska Inspektoratet Low voltage material.1 General aspects 1 Standards COUNTRY Symbol Mark designation KONKAR Applicability/Organization Electrical Engineering Institute CROATIA DENMARK DEMKO Approval Mark Low voltage materials.

1 General aspects 1 Standards COUNTRY Symbol Mark designation VDE Mark Applicability/Organization For appliances and technical equipment. R . earthing systems. installation accessories such as plugs. insulated cords. fuses. lamp holders and electronic devices) Cables and cords GERMANY GERMANY VDE Identification Thread GERMANY VDE Cable Mark For cables. I.Electrical devices . which is granted both to be used alone as well as in combination with the mark GS Hungarian Institute for Testing and Certification of Electrical Equipment JAPAN JIS Mark Mark which guarantees compliance with the relevant Japanese Industrial Standard(s). as well as other components (capacitors. S . installation conduits and ducts GERMANY VDE-GS Mark for technical equipment geprüfte Sicherheit HUNGARY MEEI Safety mark for technical equipment to be affixed after the product has been tested and certified by the VDE Test Laboratory in Offenbach.1. IRELAND IIRS Mark Electrical equipment IRELAND K OF CO N F O IIRS Mark MI TY Electrical equipment R MAR I . wires and cables. sockets. the conformity mark is the mark VDE. 10 ABB SACE .

it certifies compliance with the European Standard(s).1 General aspects 1 Standards COUNTRY Symbol Mark designation IMQ Mark Applicability/Organization Mark to be affixed on electrical material for non-skilled users. It guarantees complance with national standard (Gosstandard of Russia) SINGAPORE R O V ED T O SIN SISIR GAPO R E Electrical and non-electrical products STA N D AR PP SLOVENIA SPAIN C A DE CON FO R M I DA D A AR ABB SACE . The mark is under the control of the Asociación Electrotécnica Española(Spanish Electrotechnical Association) M 11 . ITALY NORWAY Norwegian Approval Mark Mandatory safety approval for low voltage material and equipment NETHERLANDS KEUR KEMA-KEUR General for all equipment POLAND KWE Electrical products B RUSSIA Certification of Conformity Electrical and non-electrical products.1.Electrical devices E D A SIQ Slovenian Institute of Quality and Metrology AEE NO R MA S U N Electrical products.

SWITZERLAND – Cables subject to mandatory approval SWITZERLAND SEV Safety Mark Low voltage material subject to mandatory approval AT I UNITED KINGDOM ER TI C ASTA Mark N TR O AD C E FI M AR K Mark which guarantees compliance with the relevant “British Standards” UNITED KINGDOM BASEC Mark Mark which guarantees compliance with the “British Standards” for conductors.Electrical devices . cables and ancillary products.1 General aspects 1 Standards COUNTRY Symbol Mark designation AENOR Applicability/Organization Asociación Española de Normalización y Certificación. SWITZERLAND Safety Mark Swiss low voltage material subject to mandatory approval (safety). UNITED KINGDOM BASEC Identification Thread Cables 12 ABB SACE . (Spanish Standarization and Certification Association) SPAIN SWEDEN SEMKO Mark Mandatory safety approval for low voltage material and equipment.1.

Y U.A.1 General aspects 1 Standards COUNTRY Symbol Mark designation BEAB Safety Mark Applicability/Organization Compliance with the “British Standards” for household appliances UNITED KINGDOM UNITED KINGDOM BSI Safety Mark Compliance with the “British Standards” ROVED UNITED KINGDOM TO B R IT I S H BEAB Kitemark Compliance with the relevant “British Standards” regarding safety and performances A N D AR ST PP ND AN I G FO R P U B L IC L I S T E D (Product Name) (Control Number) AF S ET U. U.S. CEN CENELEC ABB SACE .S.1.A.Electrical devices D TES A EP DENT LA B OR EN OR AT Y UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES Mark Electrical and non-electrical products TI N UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES Mark Electrical and non-electrical products UL Recognition Electrical and non-electrical products CEN Mark Mark issued by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN): it guarantees compliance with the European Standards.A. Mark Cables 13 .S.

• any reference to the technical specifications of conformity. A copy of the EC Declaration of Conformity shall be kept by the manufacturer or by his representative together with the technical documentation.1. etc).Declaration of Conformity The EC Declaration of Conformity is the statement of the manufacturer. electric clocks. • identification of the signer. The EC Declaration of Conformity should contain the following information: • name and address of the manufacturer or by its European representative.Electrical devices . • the two last digits of the year of affixing of the CE marking. procedures or services refer and comply with specific standards (directives) or other normative documents.1 General aspects 1 Standards COUNTRY Symbol Mark designation Applicability/Organization Certification mark providing assurance that the harmonized cable complies with the relevant harmonized CENELEC Standards – identification thread Mark assuring the compliance with the relevant European Standards of the products to be used in environments with explosion hazards Mark which is applicable to some household appliances (shavers. 14 ABB SACE . CENELEC Harmonization Mark EC Ex EUROPEA Mark CEEel CEEel Mark EC . • description of the product. • reference to the harmonized standards and directives involved. who declares under his own responsibility that all the equipment.

Part 3: Connection diagrams.12month subscription to online database comprising parts 2 to 11 of IEC 60617 Preparation of documents used in electrotechnology .Part 2: Functionoriented diagrams Preparation of documents used in electrotechnology . systems .Calculation of effects .Part 3: Insulation levels. dielectric tests and external clearances in air Power transformers .Part 1: General Rotating electrical machines .1 Standards 1.2 IEC Standards for electrical installation STANDARD IEC 60027-1 YEAR 1992 TITLE Letter symbols to be used in electrical technology .Part 0: Calculation of currents Short-circuit currents .Part 1: Definitions and calculation methods Application guide for calculation of shortcircuit currents in low-voltage radial systems Power transformers . requirements and tests Short-circuit currents in three-phase a.Part 1: General Power transformers .Part 2: Temperature rise Power transformers . marking and identification .Electrical devices 15 .c. including general rules for an alphanumeric system IEC 60034-1 IEC 60617-DB-12M 1999 2001 IEC 61082-1 1991 IEC 61082-2 1993 IEC 61082-3 1993 IEC 61082-4 1996 IEC 60038 IEC 60664-1 1983 2000 IEC 60909-0 IEC 60865-1 2001 1993 IEC 60781 1989 IEC 60076-1 IEC 60076-2 IEC 60076-3 2000 1993 2000 IEC 60076-5 IEC/TR 60616 IEC 60726 IEC 60445 2000 1978 1982 1999 ABB SACE .Part 1: General requirements Preparation of documents used in electrotechnology . tables and lists Preparation of documents used in electrotechnology .Identification of equipment terminals and of terminations of certain designated conductors.Part 1: Rating and performance Graphical symbols for diagrams .Part 1: Principles.Part 5: Ability to withstand short circuit Terminal and tapping markings for power transformers Dry-type power transformers Basic and safety principles for manmachine interface.Part 4: Location and installation documents IEC standard voltages Insulation coordination for equipment within low-voltage systems .

switchdisconnectors and fuse-combination units Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 4-1: Contactors and motor-starters – Electromechanical contactors and motorstarters Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 4-2: Contactors and motor-starters – AC semiconductor motor controllers and starters Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 4-3: Contactors and motor-starters – AC semiconductor controllers and contactors for non-motor loads Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 5-1: Control circuit devices and switching elements .Electrical emergency stop device with mechanical latching function IEC 60446 1999 IEC 60447 IEC 60947-1 IEC 60947-2 IEC 60947-3 1993 2001 2001 2001 IEC 60947-4-1 2000 IEC 60947-4-2 2002 IEC 60947-4-3 1999 IEC 60947-5-1 2000 IEC 60947-5-2 1999 IEC 60947-5-3 1999 IEC 60947-5-4 1996 IEC 60947-5-5 1997 16 ABB SACE . disconnectors.Identification of conductors by colours or numerals Man-machine-interface (MMI) .1.Electromechanical control circuit devices Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 5-2: Control circuit devices and switching elements – Proximity switches Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 5-3: Control circuit devices and switching elements – Requirements for proximity devices with defined behaviour under fault conditions Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 5: Control circuit devices and switching elements – Section 4: Method of assessing the performance of low energy contacts.2 IEC standards for electrical installation 1 Standards STANDARD IEC 60073 YEAR 1996 TITLE Basic and safety principles for manmachine interface.Electrical devices . marking and identification . marking and identification – Coding for indication devices and actuators Basic and safety principles for manmachine interface. Special tests Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 5-5: Control circuit devices and switching elements .Actuating principles Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 1: General rules Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 2: Circuit-breakers Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 3: Switches.

Electrical devices 17 .Part 3: Particular requirements for low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies intended to be installed in places where unskilled persons have access for their use Distribution boards Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies .Part 3: Particular requirements for low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies intended to be installed in places where unskilled persons have access for their use Distribution boards IEC 60947-6-1 1998 IEC 60947-6-2 1999 IEC 60947-7-1 1999 IEC 60947-7-2 1995 IEC 60439-1 1999 IEC 60439-2 2000 IEC 60439-3 2001 IEC 60439-4 1999 IEC 60439-5 1999 IEC 61095 2000 ABB SACE .1.Part 3: Particular requirements for low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies intended to be installed in places where unskilled persons have access for their use Distribution boards Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies .Part 3: Particular requirements for low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies intended to be installed in places where unskilled persons have access for their use Distribution boards Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies .2 IEC standards for electrical installation 1 Standards STANDARD IEC 60947-5-6 YEAR 1999 TITLE Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 5-6: Control circuit devices and switching elements – DC interface for proximity sensors and switching amplifiers (NAMUR) Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 6-1: Multiple function equipment – Automatic transfer switching equipment Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 6-2: Multiple function equipment Control and protective switching devices (or equipment) (CPS) Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 7: Ancillary equipment .Part 2: Particular requirements for busbar trunking systems (busways) Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies .Part 1: Type-tested and partially type-tested assemblies Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies .Section 1: Terminal blocks Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 7: Ancillary equipment .Section 2: Protective conductor terminal blocks for copper conductors Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies .

Rated voltages up to and including 450/750 V Part 1: General requirements Part 2: Test methods Part 3: Heat resistant silicone insulated cables IEC 61117 1992 IEC 60092-303 1980 IEC 60092-301 IEC 60092-101 IEC 60092-401 1980 1994 1980 IEC 60092-201 IEC 60092-202 IEC 60092-302 1994 1994 1997 IEC 60092-350 2001 IEC 60092-352 1997 IEC 60364-5-52 2001 IEC 60227 1998 1997 1997 1997 1998 2001 1995 IEC 60228 IEC 60245 1978 1998 1998 1994 18 ABB SACE .2 IEC standards for electrical installation 1 Standards STANDARD IEC 60890 YEAR 1987 TITLE A method of temperature-rise assessment by extrapolation for partially type-tested assemblies (PTTA) of low-voltage switchgear and controlgear A method for assessing the short-circuit withstand strength of partially type-tested assemblies (PTTA) Electrical installations in ships.1. Part 401: Installation and test of completed installation Electrical installations in ships .Part 352: Choice and installation of cables for lowvoltage power systems Electrical installations of buildings .Electrical devices .General Electrical installations in ships . Part 301: Equipment .Protection Electrical installations in ships .Transformers for power and lighting Electrical installations in ships.Part 101: Definitions and general requirements Electrical installations in ships.Part 5-52: Selection and erection of electrical equipment – Wiring systems Polyvinyl chloride insulated cables of rated voltages up to and including 450/ 750 V Part 1: General requirements Part 2: Test methods Part 3: Non-sheathed cables for fixed wiring Part 4: Sheathed cables for fixed wiring Part 5: Flexible cables (cords) Part 6: Lift cables and cables for flexible connections Part 7: Flexible cables screened and unscreened with two or more conductors Conductors of insulated cables Rubber insulated cables .Part 350: Shipboard power cables .Part 201: System design . Part 303: Equipment .Part 302: Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies Electrical installations in ships .General construction and test requirements Electrical installations in ships .Part 202: System design .Generators and motors Electrical installations in ships .

2 IEC standards for electrical installation 1 Standards STANDARD YEAR 1994 1994 1994 1998 IEC 60309-2 1999 TITLE Part 5: Lift cables Part 6: Arc welding electrode cables Part 7: Heat resistant ethylene-vinyl acetate rubber insulated cables Part 8: Cords for applications requiring high flexibility Plugs. socket-outlets and couplers for industrial purposes .Part 2-1: Particular requirements – Electronic switches Switches for household and similar fixed electrical installations .Part 2: Dimensional interchangeability requirements for pin and contact-tube accessories Residual current operated circuit-breakers without integral overcurrent protection for household and similar uses (RCCBs) Part 1: General rules Residual current operated circuit-breakers without integral overcurrent protection for household and similar uses (RCCB’s). Part 2-2: Applicability of the general rules to RCCB’s functionally dependent on line voltage Residual current operated circuit-breakers with integral overcurrent protection for household and similar uses (RCBOs) Part 1: General rules Residual current operated circuit-breakers with integral overcurrent protection for household and similar uses (RCBO’s) Part 2-1: Applicability of the general rules to RCBO’s functionally independent of line voltage Residual current operated circuit-breakers with integral overcurrent protection for household and similar uses (RCBO’s) Part 2-2: Applicability of the general rules to RCBO’s functionally dependent on line voltage General requirements for enclosures for accessories for household and similar fixed electrical installations Switches for household and similar fixed electrical installations . Part 2-1: Applicability of the general rules to RCCB’s functionally independent of line voltage Residual current operated circuit-breakers without integral overcurrent protection for household and similar uses (RCCB’s).Part 2-3: Particular requirements – Time-delay switches (TDS) IEC 61008-1 1996 IEC 61008-2-1 1990 IEC 61008-2-2 1990 IEC 61009-1 1996 IEC 61009-2-1 1991 IEC 61009-2-2 1991 IEC 60670 1989 IEC 60669-2-1 2000 IEC 60669-2-2 2000 IEC 606692-3 1997 ABB SACE .Part 2: Particular requirements – Section 2: Remote-control switches (RCS) Switches for household and similar fixed electrical installations .Electrical devices 19 .1.

Part 3-1: Supplementary requirements for fuses for use by unskilled persons (fuses mainly for household and similar applications) Sections I to IV Miniature fuses Part 1: Definitions for miniature fuses and general requirements for miniature fuse-links Part 2: Cartridge fuse-links Part 3: Sub-miniature fuse-links Part 4: Universal Modular Fuse-Links (UMF) Part 5: Guidelines for quality assessment of miniature fuse-links Part 6: Fuse-holders for miniature cartridge fuse-links Part 10: User guide for miniature fuses Automatic electrical controls for household and similar use. Part 7: Requirements for special installations or locations Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code) IEC 60079-14 1996 IEC 60079-17 1996 IEC 60269-1 IEC 60269-2 1998 1986 IEC 60269-3-1 2000 IEC 60127-1/10 1999 1989 1988 1996 1988 1994 2001 1990 IEC 60730-2-7 IEC 60364-1 2001 IEC 60364-4 IEC 60364-5 IEC 60364-6 IEC 60364-7 2001 2001…2002 2001 1983…2002 IEC 60529 2001 20 ABB SACE . Part 2: Particular requirements for timers and time switches Electrical installations of buildings .Part 14: Electrical installations in hazardous areas (other than mines) Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres .Part 1: Fundamental principles. assessment of general characteristics.Part 17: Inspection and maintenance of electrical installations in hazardous areas (other than mines) Low-voltage fuses . definitions Electrical installations of buildings .Part 10: Classification of hazardous areas Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres .Part 1: General requirements Low-voltage fuses. Part 2: Supplementary requirements for fuses for use by authorized persons (fuses mainly for industrial application) Low-voltage fuses .2 IEC standards for electrical installation 1 Standards STANDARD IEC 60079-10 YEAR 1995 TITLE Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres .Part 6: Verification Electrical installations of buildings.Electrical devices .Part 5: Selection and erection of electrical equipment Electrical installations of buildings .Part 4: Protection for safety Electrical installations of buildings .1.

The effects of highaltitude EMP (HEMP) on civil equipment and systems IEC 61000-1-2 2001 IEC 61000-1-3 2002 ABB SACE .Probes for verification Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Part 1: General .2 IEC standards for electrical installation 1 Standards STANDARD IEC 61032 IEC 61000-1-1 YEAR 1997 1992 TITLE Protection of persons and equipment by enclosures .Section 1: Application and interpretation of fundamental definitions and terms Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Part 1-2: General .Methodology for the achievement of the functional safety of electrical and electronic equipment with regard to electromagnetic phenomena Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Part 1-3: General .Electrical devices 21 .1.

Currents Design current (of a circuit) The current intended to be carried by a circuit in normal service. Short-circuit current An overcurrent resulting from a fault of negligible impedance between live conductors having a difference in potential under normal 22 ABB SACE .Electrical devices .1 Introduction The following definitions regarding electrical installations are derived from the Standard IEC 60050. Origin of an electrical installation The point at which electrical energy is delivered to an installation. the rated value is the current-carrying capacity.earthed point of the source or artificial neutral. For conductors. Note: the actual voltage may differ from the nominal voltage by a quantity within permitted tolerances. Neutral conductor (symbol N) A conductor connected to the neutral point of a system and capable of contributing to the transmission of electrical energy.earth electrode. . Protective conductor PE A conductor required by some measures for protection against electric shock for electrically connecting any of the following parts: . . Overload current (of a circuit) An overcurrent occurring in a circuit in the absence of an electrical fault. Overcurrent Any current exceeding the rated value. PEN conductor An earthed conductor combining the functions of both protective conductor and neutral conductor Ambient temperature The temperature of the air or other medium where the equipment is to be used.2 Protection of feeders 2. Current-carrying capacity (of a conductor) The maximum current which can be carried continuously by a conductor under specified conditions without its steady-state temperature exceeding a specified value.extraneous conductive parts.main earthing terminal. Voltages Nominal voltage (of an installation) Voltage by which an installation or part of an installation is designated. .exposed conductive parts. . Characteristics of installations Electrical installation (of a building) An assembly of associated electrical equipment to fulfil a specific purpose and having coordinated characteristics.

Overcurrent detection A function establishing that the value of current in a circuit exceeds a predetermined value for a specified length of time. Leakage current Electrical current in an unwanted conductive path other than a short circuit. Electrical circuits Electrical circuit (of an installation) An assembly of electrical equipment of the installation supplied from the same origin and protected against overcurrents by the same protective device(s). control. distribution or utilization of electrical energy. apparatus. and motive power Switchgear and controlgear Equipment provided to be connected to an electrical circuit for the purpose of carrying out one or more of the following functions: protection. in which the motor. heat. equipment for wiring systems. if necessary.2. protective devices.1 Introduction 2 Protection of feeders operating conditions. isolation. Fault current The current flowing at a given point of a network resulting from a fault at another point of this network. ABB SACE . enclose the cable(s) or busbars. Other equipment Electrical equipment Any item used for such purposes as generation. measuring instruments. Current-using equipment Equipment intended to convert electrical energy into another form of energy. appliances. designated conventional time. conversion. forms an integral part of the equipment. Hand-held equipment Portable equipment intended to be held in the hand during normal use. such as machines.Electrical devices 23 . switching. Stationary equipment Either fixed equipment or equipment not provided with a carrying handle and having such a mass that it cannot easily be moved. for example light. if any. Conventional operating current (of a protective device) A specified value of the current which cause the protective device to operate within a specified time. Fixed equipment Equipment fastened to a support or otherwise secured in a specific location. transmission. Distribution circuit (of buildings) A circuit supplying a distribution board. Wiring systems Wiring system An assembly made up of a cable or cables or busbars and the parts which secure and. Portable equipment Equipment which is moved while in operation or which can easily be moved from one place to another while connected to the supply. Final circuit (of building) A circuit connected directly to current using equipment or to socket-outlets. transformers.

.…).definition of the power absorbed by the loads and relevant position. verification of the coordination with switch disconnectors.. taking into account the utilization factors and demand factors.2.verification of the protection against short-circuit: the specific let-through energy by the circuit breaker under short-circuit conditions shall be lower than the specific let-through energy which can be withstood by the cable: I2t ≤ k2S2 ..) 1SDC010001F0901 negative outcome negative outcome Definition of the components (auxiliary circuits.1 Introduction 2 Protection of feeders Installation dimensioning The flow chart below suggests the procedure to follow for the correct dimensioning of a plant. Verification of the coordination with other equipments (discrimination and back-up. configuration.. .definition of the total power absorbed.).definition of the conductor type (conductors and insulation materials. capacitors.. .. but lower than the current carrying capacity of the conductor: Ib ≤ In ≤ Iz .definition of the paths and calculation of the length of the connection elements.calculation of the voltage drop at the load current under specific reference conditions (motor starting. . .evaluation of the current (I b ) in the single connection elements.verification of the protection against overload: the rated current or the set current of the circuit-breaker shall be higher than the load current. Dimensioning of transformers and generators with margin connected to future predictable power supply requirements (by approximation from +15÷30%) Dimensioning of conductors: .rated current In not lower than the load curren Ib.characteristics compatible with the type of protected load (motors.verification of the protection against indirect contacts (depending on the distribution system).. .definition of the position of the power distribution centers (switchboards).breaking capacity higher than the maximum prospective short-circuit current. . Verification of the protection of conductors: . Verification of the voltage drop limits at the final loads negative outcome Short-circuit current calculation maximum values at the busbars (beginning of line) and minimum values at the end of line Selection of protective circuit-breakers with: . Load analysis: .).Electrical devices . terminals…) and switchboard design 24 ABB SACE . . .definition of the cross section and of the current carrying capacity.

singlecore cable with sheath. 2. Table 1 shows the types of conductors permitted by the different methods of installation. In general. the carrying capacity of a copper conductor is about 30% greater than the carrying capacity of an aluminium conductor of the same cross section. – Not permitted.Wiring systems”.Support trunking. joints along the route. degree of insulation and difficulty of installation (bends. multi-core cable) is selected according to mechanical resistance. The following parameters are used to select the cable type: • conductive material (copper or aluminium): the choice depends on cost. flush floor Cable ducting Cable brackets sulators wire fixings direct Conduit trunking) + + + + + + 0 + + + + + + + + + + 0 0 + + Conductors and cables Bare conductors Insulated conductors Sheathed cables Multi-core (including armoured and mineral insulated) Single-core + Permitted.4 “Protection against short-circuit”]. An aluminium conductor of the same cross section has an electrical resistance about 60% higher and a weight half to one third lower than a copper conductor. • choose the cross section according to the load current. XLPE-EPR): the insulation material affects the maximum temperature under normal and short-circuit conditions and therefore the exploitation of the conductor cross section [see Chapter 2.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables For a correct dimensioning of a cable. barriers.) required by the method of installation.Electrical devices 25 .1 Current carrying capacity and methods of installation Selection of the cable The international reference Standard ruling the installation and calculation of the current carrying capacity of cables in residential and industrial buildings is IEC 60364-5-52 “Electrical installations of buildings – Part 5-52 Selection and Erection of Electrical Equipment. single-core cable without sheath. or not normally used in practice. Table 1: Selection of wiring systems Method of installation Cable trunking (including skirting Cable ladder Cable tray Without Clipped On in.2 Protection of feeders 2.. • the type of conductor (bare conductor.2. 0 Not applicable.. dimension and weight requirements. PVC. it is necessary to: • choose the type of cable and installation according to the environment. resistance to corrosive environments (chemical reagents or oxidizing elements). ABB SACE . • verify the voltage drop. • insulation material (none.

34 30. 5 0 50. 55 0 33. E. 16 56 72. F. 33. C. 71 44. 31. 58 - The number in each box indicates the item number in Table 3. 14 10. A2. Table 2: Method of installation Method of installation Cable trunking (including skirting Cable ladder Support trunking. 31. 7. 32. 73 57. 34 30. 9 0 0 30.Electrical devices . the standardized method of installation that better suits the actual installation situation must be identified among those described in the mentioned reference Standard. D. 8. Methods of installation To define the current carrying capacity of the conductor and therefore to identify the correct cross section for the load current.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders For industrial installations. B1. 71 1. 46.Not permitted. 9. 45 6. the method of installation (A1. flush floor Cable With Cable tray On fixings Conduit trunking) ducting Cable brackets insulators wire 30. 2 59. 31. multi-core cables are rarely used with cross section greater than 95 mm2. 31. 13. . 60 4. 32. 0 Not applicable or not normally used in practice. 53 6. 51. 33. 21 70. 32. 26 ABB SACE . 16 32. 33. 34 0 3 20. 7. From Tables 2 and 3 it is possible to identify the installation identification number. 12. 52. 15. G) and the tables to define the theoretical current carrying capacity of the conductor and any correction factors required to allow for particular environmental and installation situations. 44 56 54. 11 70.2. 8. 0 0 15. B2. 34 36 36 35 Situations Building voids Cable channel Buried in Ground Embedded in Structure Surface Mounted Overhead Without fixings 40.

2.3 times conduit diameter from it Multi-core cable in conduit on a wooden. or spaced less than 0.3 times conduit diameter from it Insulated conductors or single-core cables in cable trunking on a wooden wall – run horizontally (6) – run vertically (7) Insulated conductors or single-core cable in suspended cable trunking (8) Multi-core cable in suspended cable trunking (9) Insulated conductors or single-core cable run in mouldings Insulated conductors or single-core cables in skirting trunking (13) Multi-core cable in skirting trunking (14) Insulated conductors in conduit single-core or multi-core cable architrave Insulated conductors in conduit single-core or multi-core cable window frames or in or in A1 4 B1 5 B2 6 7 B1 8 9 B1 (8) or B2 (9) 12 A1 B1 (13) or B2 (14) A1 A1 1SDC010001F0201 TV ISDN TV ISDN 13 14 15 16 20 21 Single-core or multi-core cables: – fixed on.Electrical devices 27 . Description Room 1 Insulated conductors or single-core cables in conduit in a thermally insulated wall A1 Room 2 Multi-core cables in conduit in a thermally insulated wall A2 Room 3 Multi-core cable direct in a thermally insulated wall Insulated conductors or single-core cables in conduit on a wooden. or masonry wall or spaced less than 0.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Table 3: Examples of methods of installation Reference method of installation to be used to obtain currentcarrying capacity Methods of installation Item n.3 times (20) cable diameter from a wooden wall – fixed directly under a wooden ceiling (21) C ABB SACE . or masonry wall or spaced less than 0.

3 De ≤ 0.3 De ≤ 0.2.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Reference method of installation to be used to obtain currentcarrying capacity Methods of installation Item n.Electrical devices .3 De 31 On perforated tray 1 E or F ≤ 0.3 De 33 Spaced more than 0. Description ≤ 0.3 De 30 On unperforated tray 1 C ≤ 0.3 De 32 On brackets or on a wire mesh 1 E or F ≤ 0.3 times cable diameter from a wall E or F or G 34 On ladder E or F 35 Single-core or multi-core cable suspended from or incorporating a support wire E or F 36 Bare or insulated conductors on insulators G 28 ABB SACE .

5 De ≤ V < 20 De . Description De V 40 Single-core or multi-core cable in a 2 building void 1.5 De ≤ V < 5 D e De V 46 Single-core or multi-core cable: – in a ceiling void 1 – in a suspended floor B2 5 De ≤ V < 50De B1 50 Insulated conductors or single-core cable in flush cable trunking in the floor Multi-core cable in flush cable trunking in the floor B1 B2 51 TV ISDN TV ISDN 52 53 Insulated conductors or single-core cables in embedded trunking (52) Multi-core cable in embedded trunking (53) B1 (52) or B2 (53) De V 54 Insulated conductors or single-core cables in conduit in an unventilated cable channel run horizontally or 2 vertically B2 V ≥20 De B1 ABB SACE .Electrical devices 29 1SDC010002F0201 1.5 De ≤ V < 5 De V 44 Insulated conductors in cable ducting in masonry having a thermal resistivity not greater than 2 Km/W B2 5 De ≤ V < 50 De B1 1.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Reference method of installation to be used to obtain currentcarrying capacity Methods of installation Item n.2.5 De ≤ V < 20 De B2 V ≥ 20 De B1 1.5 De ≤ V < 20 De B2 V ≥ 20 De B1 De V 24 Insulated conductors in cable ducting 2 in a building void 1.

2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Reference method of installation to be used to obtain currentcarrying capacity Methods of installation Item n.2 x the cable diameter when three single core cables are bound in trefoil. floor or ceiling void. Description 55 Insulated conductors in conduit in an open or ventilated cable channel in the floor Sheathed single-core or multi-core cable in an open or ventilated cable channel run horizontally or vertically Single-core or multi-core cable direct in masonry having a thermal resistivity not greater than 2 Km/W Without added mechanical protection Single-core or multi-core cable direct in masonry having a thermal resistivity not greater than 2 Km/W With added mechanical protection B1 56 B1 57 C 58 C 59 Insulated conductors or single-core cables in conduit in masonry B1 60 Multi-core cables in conduit in masonry B2 70 Multi-core cable in conduit or in cable ducting in the ground D 71 Single-core cable in conduit or in cable ducting in the ground Sheathed single-core or multi-core cables direct in the ground – without added mechanical protection Sheathed single-core or multi-core cables direct in the ground – with added mechanical protection D 72 D 73 1 D De is the external diameter of a multi-core cable: – 2.Electrical devices 1SDC010003F0201 . 2 De is the external diameter of conduit or vertical depth of cable ducting. 30 ABB SACE . The depth of the channel is more important than the width. or – 3 x the cable diameter when three single core cables are laid in flat formation.2. or the vertical depth of a rectangular duct. V is the smaller dimension or diameter of a masonry duct or void.

2.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables

2 Protection of feeders
Installation not buried in the ground: choice of the cross section according to cable carrying capacity and type of installation
The cable carrying capacity of a cable that is not buried in the ground is obtained by using this formula:

I z = I 0 k1k2 = I 0 ktot
where: • I0 is the current carrying capacity of the single conductor at 30 °C reference ambient temperature; • k1 is the correction factor if the ambient temperature is other than 30 °C; • k2 is the correction factor for cables installed bunched or in layers or for cables installed in a layer on several supports.

Correction factor k1 The current carrying capacity of the cables that are not buried in the ground refers to 30 °C ambient temperature. If the ambient temperature of the place of installation is different from this reference temperature, the correction factor k1 on Table 4 shall be used, according to the insulation material.

Table 4: Correction factor for ambient air temperature other than 30 °C
Insulation Ambient temperature (a) °C 10 15 20 25 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95
(a)

PVC 1.22 1.17 1.12 1.06 0.94 0.87 0.79 0.71 0.61 0.50 – – – – – – –

XLPE and EPR 1.15 1.12 1.08 1.04 0.96 0.91 0.87 0.82 0.76 0.71 0.65 0.58 0.50 0.41 – – –

Mineral (a) PVC covered or bare and exposed Bare not exposed to touch 70 °C to touch 105 °C 1.26 1.14 1.11 1.20 1.07 1.14 1.04 1.07 0.96 0.93 0.92 0.85 0.87 0.88 0.67 0.84 0.57 0.80 0.45 0.75 – 0.70 – 0.65 – 0.60 0.54 – 0.47 – 0.40 – 0.32 –

For higher ambient temperatures, consult manufacturer.

ABB SACE - Electrical devices

31

2.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables

2 Protection of feeders
Correction factor k2 The cable current carrying capacity is influenced by the presence of other cables installed nearby. The heat dissipation of a single cable is different from that of the same cable when installed next to the other ones. The factor k2 is tabled according to the installation of cables laid close together in layers or bunches. Definition of layer or bunch layer: several circuits constituted by cables installed one next to another, spaced or not, arranged horizontally or vertically. The cables on a layer are installed on a wall, tray, ceiling, floor or on a cable ladder;

> 2 De2 a)

De1

De2

b)

c)

< 30 cm

Cables in layers: a) spaced; b) not spaced; c) double layer

bunch: several circuits constituted by cables that are not spaced and are not installed in a layer; several layers superimposed on a single support (e.g. tray) are considered to be a bunch. 32 ABB SACE - Electrical devices

1SDC010002F0001

2.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables

2 Protection of feeders

a)

b)

c)

Bunched cables: a) in trunking; b) in conduit; c) on perforated tray

The value of correction factor k2 is 1 when: • the cables are spaced: - two single-core cables belonging to different circuits are spaced when the distance between them is more than twice the external diameter of the cable with the larger cross section; - two multi-core cables are spaced when the distance between them is at least the same as the external diameter of the larger cable; • the adjacent cables are loaded less than 30 % of their current carrying capacity. The correction factors for bunched cables or cables in layers are calculated by assuming that the bunches consist of similar cables that are equally loaded. A group of cables is considered to consist of similar cables when the calculation of the current carrying capacity is based on the same maximum allowed operating temperature and when the cross sections of the conductors is in the range of three adjacent standard cross sections (e.g. from 10 to 25 mm2). The calculation of the reduction factors for bunched cables with different cross sections depends on the number of cables and on their cross sections. These factors have not been tabled, but must be calculated for each bunch or layer.

ABB SACE - Electrical devices

33

1SDC010003F0001

2.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables

2 Protection of feeders
The reduction factor for a group containing different cross sections of insulated conductors or cables in conduits, cable trunking or cable ducting is:

k2 =

where: • k2 is the group reduction factor; • n is the number of circuits of the bunch. The reduction factor obtained by this equation reduces the danger of overloading of cables with a smaller cross section, but may lead to under utilization of cables with a larger cross section. Such under utilization can be avoided if large and small cables are not mixed in the same group. The following tables show the reduction factor (k2). Table 5: Reduction factor for grouped cables
To be used with current-carrying capacities, reference Methods A to F 1.00 0.85 0.79 0.75 0.73 0.72 0.72 0.71 0.70

1 n

Arrangement Item (cables touching) 1 Bunched in air, on a surface, embedded or enclosed Single layer on wall, 2 floor or unperforated tray Single layer fixed 3 directly under a wooden ceiling Single layer on a 4 perforated horizontal or vertical tray 5 Single layer on ladder support or cleats etc.

Number of circuits or multi-core cables 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 12 16 20 1.00 0.80 0.70 0.65 0.60 0.57 0.54 0.52 0.50 0.45 0.41 0.38

No further reduction factor for more than nine circuits or 1.00 0.88 0.82 0.77 0.75 0.73 0.73 0.72 0.72 multicore cables

0.95 0.81 0.72 0.68 0.66 0.64 0.63 0.62 0.61

Method C

1.00 0.87 0.82 0.80 0.80 0.79 0.79 0.78 0.78

Methods E and F

NOTE 1 These factors are applicable to uniform groups of cables, equally loaded. NOTE 2 Where horizontal clearances between adjacent cables exceeds twice their overall diameter, no reduction factor need be applied. NOTE 3 The same factors are applied to: – groups of two or three single-core cables; – multi-core cables. NOTE 4 If a system consists of both two- and three-core cables, the total number of cables is taken as the number of circuits, and the corresponding factor is applied to the tables for two loaded conductors for the two-core cables, and to the tables for three loaded conductors for the three-core cables. NOTE 5 If a group consists of n single-core cables it may either be considered as n/2 circuits of two loaded conductors or n/3 circuits of three loaded conductors.

34

ABB SACE - Electrical devices

93 0.78 Three cables in horizontal formation 2 3 Use as a multiplier to rating for Method of installation in Table 3 20 mm Touching Vertical perforated trays (note 3) 1 225 mm 31 0. For closer spacing the factors should be reduced. etc. NOTE 3 Values are given for horizontal spacing between trays of 225 mm with trays mounted back to back and at least 20 mm between the tray and any wall.96 0.87 0.97 0.97 0.87 0.90 0. cleats.98 0.00 0.92 0.Electrical devices 35 1SDC010004F0201 . ABB SACE .93 0.00 0. NOTE 4 For circuits having more than one cable in parallel per phase. For closer spacing the factors should be reduced.00 0.89 0.89 0.96 0.00 0.86 0.00 0.91 0.86 Perforated trays (note 2) De De 2 3 20 mm Spaced Vertical perforated trays (note 3) ≥2 D e 31 225 mm 1 2 1.96 0.95 0. NOTE 2 Values are given for vertical spacings between trays of 300 mm.97 0.86 Three cables in horizontal formation 20 mm ≥2 D e e 2D 31 1 1. (note 2) 32 33 34 ≥2 D e De 1 2 3 1.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Table 6: Reduction factor for single-core cables with method of installation F Number of trays Number of three-phase circuits (note 4) 1 Touching Perforated trays (note 2) 1 31 2 3 0.93 0.96 1. Values for such installations may be significantly lower and must be determined by an appropriate method. each three phase set of conductors should be considered as a circuit for the purpose of this table.98 0. cleats.94 1.00 1.90 20 mm NOTE 1 Factors are given for single layers of cables (or trefoil groups) as shown in the table and do not apply when cables are installed in more than one layer touching each other.2.97 0.96 0.84 – – 2 Three cables in vertical formation Ladder supports.98 0. (note 2) Touching 32 33 34 1 2 3 1. etc.00 0.86 Three cables in trefoil formation De Ladder supports.81 0.85 0.95 0.89 0.96 0.90 0.91 0.95 0.

72 0.00 1. Values for such installations may be significantly lower and must be determined by an appropriate method.00 0.76 0.86 0.00 1.80 0.88 0.82 0.85 – – – 20 mm Touching 1 225 mm 1.87 0.91 0.73 0.73 0.97 0.88 0.00 1.99 0.98 0.95 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.87 0.82 0.76 0.00 1.78 0. 36 ABB SACE .85 – – De De 2 Touching 1 2 3 Ladder supports.00 0.00 1. NOTE 3 Values are given for horizontal spacing between trays of 225 mm with trays mounted back to back.73 0.80 0.85 0.73 0.96 0.86 0.79 0.71 0.00 1.00 0.88 0.00 1.76 0. For closer spacing the factors should be reduced.00 1.98 0.88 0.78 0.98 0.77 0.80 0.00 0.89 0.76 0.81 0.00 0.91 0.99 0.97 1.Electrical devices . (note 2) 32 33 34 1.91 0.00 1.91 0.78 0.96 1.88 0.71 0.73 0.00 1.00 0. For closer spacing the factors should be reduced.87 0.66 Number of trays Number of cables 1 2 3 4 6 9 20 mm 31 Spaced 3 De 1 2 3 1.87 0.82 0.00 0.68 0.92 0.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Table 7: Reduction factor for multi-core cables with method of installation E Method of installation in Table 3 Touching 1 2 Perforated trays (note 2) 1.98 1. cleats.76 0.70 20 mm Spaced D ee D 1 2 3 1. etc. 1SDC010005F0201 NOTE 2 Values are given for vertical spacings between trays of 300 mm and at least 20 mm between trays and wall.79 0.79 0.70 2 Vertical perforated trays (note 3) 31 Spaced 1 225 mm 1.79 0.96 0.2.93 – – – 20 mm NOTE 1 Factors apply to single layer groups of cables as shown above and do not apply when cables are installed in more than one layer touching each other.95 0.00 1.87 0.

depending on the method of installation. 3. calculate the value of current I’b by dividing the load current Ib (or the rated current of the protective device) by the product of the correction factors calculated: I'b = Ib I = b k1k2 k tot 5. from Table 8 or from Table 9. ABB SACE . from Table 3 identify the method of installation. 2.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders To summarize: The following procedure shall be used to determine the cross section of the cable: 1.Electrical devices 37 . Table 6 for singlecore cables in a layer on several supports. from Table 4 determine the correction factor k1 according to insulation material and ambient temperature. 4. Table 7 for multi-core cables in a layer on several supports or the formula shown in the case of groups of cables with different sections to determine the correction factor k2 appropriate for the numbers of circuits or multicore cables. use Table 5 for cables installed in layer or bunch. on insulation and conductive material and on the number of live conductors. 6. determine the cross section of the cable with capacity I0 ≥ I’b.2. the actual cable current carrying capacity is calculated by IZ = I0 k1 k2.

5 26 24 36 32 48 43 63 57 77 70 93 84 118 107 142 129 164 149 189 170 215 194 252 227 289 261 13 18.Electrical devices .5 2.2.5 17.0 25 22 18.5 13.5 16.5 14 13.5 33 30 25 23 26 42 38 32 29 33 57 51 43 39 45 76 68 57 52 60 99 89 75 68 78 121 109 92 83 96 145 130 110 99 115 183 164 139 125 145 220 197 167 150 175 253 227 192 172 201 290 259 219 196 230 329 295 248 223 262 386 346 291 261 307 442 396 334 298 352 18 24 31 41 55 71 87 104 131 157 180 206 233 273 313 14.5 19.5 18 26 24 34 31 46 42 61 56 80 73 99 89 119 108 151 136 182 164 210 188 240 216 273 245 321 286 367 328 20 27 35 48 64 84 103 125 158 191 220 253 288 338 387 19 25 32 44 58 76 94 113 142 171 197 226 256 300 344 14.5 13.5 14 20 18.5 25 23 33 31 44 41 58 53 71 65 86 78 108 98 130 118 150 135 172 155 195 176 229 207 263 237 38 ABB SACE .5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 400 500 630 17 23 31 40 54 73 95 117 141 179 216 249 285 324 380 435 14.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Table 8: Current carrying capacity of cables with PVC or EPR/XLPE insulation (method A-B-C) Installation method A1 A2 Conductor Insulation Loaded conductors XLPE EPR 2 19 26 35 45 61 81 106 131 158 200 241 278 318 362 424 486 3 Cu PVC 2 3 XLPE EPR 2 3 Al PVC 2 3 XLPE EPR 2 3 Cu PVC 2 3 XLPE EPR 2 3 Al PVC 2 3 Cu XLPE EPR 2 23 31 42 54 75 100 133 164 198 253 306 354 3 20 28 37 48 66 88 117 144 175 222 269 312 S[mm2] 1.5 19.5 20 17.

5 15.Electrical devices 39 1SDC010006F0201 22 30 40 52 71 96 119 147 179 229 278 322 371 424 500 576 19.5 25 22.5 17.0 32 44 59 73 90 110 140 170 197 227 259 305 351 .5 26 23 35 30 44 38 60 52 80 69 105 90 128 111 154 133 194 168 233 201 268 232 23 31 40 54 72 94 115 138 175 210 242 21 28 35 48 64 84 103 124 156 188 216 17.5 24 21 32 28 41 36 57 50 76 68 101 89 125 110 151 134 192 171 232 207 269 239 25 33 43 59 79 105 130 157 200 242 281 22 29 38 52 71 93 116 140 179 217 251 18.5 16.5 24 21 30 27.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders B1 B2 C Al PVC 2 3 XLPE EPR 2 3 2 PVC 3 XLPE EPR 2 22 30 40 51 69 91 119 146 175 221 265 305 3 Cu PVC 2 3 15 20 27 34 46 62 80 99 118 149 179 206 XLPE EPR 2 3 Al PVC 2 3 XLPE EPR 2 24 33 45 58 80 107 138 171 209 269 328 382 441 506 599 693 3 Cu PVC 2 3 XLPE/EPR 2 3 Al PVC 2 3 17.2.0 32 28 44 39 60 53 79 70 97 86 118 104 150 133 181 161 210 186 19.5 25 25.5 15.5 16.5 27 24 36 32 46 41 63 57 85 76 112 96 138 119 168 144 213 184 258 223 299 259 344 299 392 341 461 403 530 464 26 35 45 62 84 101 126 154 198 241 280 324 371 439 508 24 32 41 57 76 90 112 136 174 211 245 283 323 382 440 21 28 36 49 66 83 103 125 160 195 226 261 298 352 406 18.0 41 36 54 48 71 62 86 77 104 92 131 116 157 139 181 160 ABB SACE .

2.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Table 8: Current carrying capacity of cables with PVC or EPR/XLPE insulation (method E-F-G) Installation method E F or Insulation Loaded conductors Cu XLPE EPR PVC 2 26 36 49 63 86 115 149 185 225 289 352 410 473 542 641 741 22 30 40 51 70 94 119 148 180 232 282 328 379 434 514 593 Al XLPE EPR PVC Cu XLPE EPR PVC 3 23 32 42 54 75 100 127 158 192 246 298 346 399 456 538 621 18.5 26 33 46 61 78 96 117 150 183 212 245 280 330 381 5 161 200 242 310 377 437 504 575 679 783 940 1083 1254 131 162 196 251 304 352 406 463 546 629 754 868 1005 121 150 184 237 289 337 389 447 530 613 740 856 996 98 122 149 192 235 273 316 363 430 497 600 694 808 13 169 207 268 328 383 444 510 607 703 823 946 1088 110 137 167 216 264 308 356 409 485 561 656 749 855 103 129 159 206 253 296 343 395 471 547 663 770 899 84 5 105 128 166 203 237 274 315 375 434 526 610 711 40 ABB SACE .5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 400 500 630 28 38 49 67 91 108 135 164 211 257 300 346 397 470 543 23 31 39 54 73 89 111 135 173 210 244 282 322 380 439 24 32 42 58 77 97 120 146 187 227 263 304 347 409 471 19.5 2 34 43 60 80 101 126 153 196 238 276 319 364 430 497 Al Cu XLPE XLPE EPR PVC EPR PVC 2 Al Cu Al XLPE XLPE XLPE EPR PVC EPR PVC EPR PVC 3 S[mm2] 1.5 2.Electrical devices .

2.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders G or De Cu XLPE EPR PVC 3 Al XLPE EPR PVC Cu XLPE EPR 3H 3V 3H PV C 3V XLPE EPR 3H De Al PV 3H 3V 3V 1SDC010100F0201 141 176 216 279 342 400 464 533 634 736 868 998 1151 114 143 174 225 275 321 372 427 507 587 689 789 905 107 135 165 215 264 308 358 413 492 571 694 806 942 87 109 133 173 212 247 287 330 392 455 552 640 746 182 226 275 353 430 500 577 661 781 902 1085 1253 1454 161 201 246 318 389 454 527 605 719 833 1008 1169 1362 146 181 219 281 341 396 456 521 615 709 852 982 1138 130 162 197 254 311 362 419 480 569 659 795 920 1070 138 172 210 271 332 387 448 515 611 708 856 991 1154 122 153 188 244 300 351 408 470 561 652 792 921 1077 112 139 169 217 265 308 356 407 482 557 671 775 900 99 124 152 196 241 282 327 376 447 519 629 730 852 ABB SACE .Electrical devices 41 .

5 2. For metallic sheath temperature 105 °C no correction for grouping need to be applied.Electrical devices .2.5 4 1. values should be multiplied by 0.9. De is the external diameter of the cable.5 4 6 10 16 25 750 V 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 2 23 31 40 25 34 45 57 77 102 133 163 202 247 296 340 388 440 514 3 19 26 35 21 28 37 48 65 86 112 137 169 207 249 286 327 371 434 3 21 29 38 23 31 41 52 70 92 120 147 181 221 264 303 346 392 457 2 28 38 51 31 42 55 70 96 127 166 203 251 307 369 424 485 550 643 3 24 33 44 26 35 47 59 81 107 140 171 212 260 312 359 410 465 544 3 27 36 47 30 41 53 67 91 119 154 187 230 280 334 383 435 492 572 2 25 33 44 26 36 47 60 82 109 142 174 215 264 317 364 416 472 552 3 21 28 37 22 30 40 51 69 92 120 147 182 223 267 308 352 399 466 Note 1 Note 2 Note 3 Note 4 For single-core cables the sheaths of the cables of the circuit are connected together at both ends.5 500 V 2. For bare cables exposed to touch.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Table 9: Current carrying capacity of cables with mineral insulation Installation method Metallic sheath temperature 70 °C Sheath PVC covered or bare exposed to touch C Metallic sheath temperature 105 °C Bare cable not exposed to touch Metallic sheath temperature PVC covered or bare exposed to touch Loaded conductors or or S[mm2] 1. 42 ABB SACE .

2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders E or F 70 °C Metallic sheath temperature 105 °C Bare cable not exposed to touch e Metallic sheath temperature 70 °C PVC covered or bare exposed to touch G Metallic sheath temperature 105 °C Bare cable not exposed to touch or or or or De De De De 3 33.Electrical devices 43 1SDC010007F0201 .0 33 43 56 35 47 61 78 105 137 178 216 266 323 385 441 498 557 624 3 37.0 37 49 64 40 54 70 89 120 157 204 248 370 441 505 565 629 704 304 3 23 31 41 26 34 45 57 77 102 132 161 198 241 289 331 377 426 496 2 31 41 54 33 45 60 76 104 137 179 220 272 333 400 460 526 596 697 3 26 35 46 28 38 50 64 87 115 150 184 228 279 335 385 441 500 584 3 29 39 51 32 43 56 71 96 127 164 200 247 300 359 411 469 530 617 3 26 34 45 28 37 49 62 84 110 142 173 213 259 309 353 400 446 497 3 29 39 51 32 43 56 71 95 125 162 197 242 294 351 402 454 507 565 ABB SACE .2.

60 0.76 0.84 0.89 0.07 1.63 0.Electrical devices . 2.96 0.05 0. • k2 is the correction factor for adjacent cables.2.38 44 ABB SACE .2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Installation in ground: choice of the cross section according to cable carrying capacity and type of installation The current carrying capacity of a cable buried in the ground is calculated by using this formula: I z = I 0 k1k 2k 3 = I 0 k tot where: • I0 is the current carrying capacity of the single conductor for installation in the ground at 20°C reference temperature.93 0. • k1 is the correction factor if the temperature of the ground is other than 20°C.89 0. use the correction factor k1 shown in Table 10 according to the insulation material.45 – – – – XLPE and EPR 1. Correction factor k1 The current carrying capacity of buried cables refers to a ground temperature of 20 °C.55 0. • k3 is the correction factor if the soil thermal resistivity is different from the reference value.95 0.65 0.77 0.71 0.10 1.85 0.53 0. Table 10: Correction factors for ambient ground temperatures other than 20 °C Ground temperature °C 10 15 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 Insulation PVC 1.04 0.80 0. If the ground temperature is different.46 0.5 Km/W.71 0.

55 0.60 0. 12.90 0. according to their distance from other cables or the distance between the ducts.25 m 0.70 0. and 13 show the factor k2’ values for single-core and multi-core cables that are laid directly in the ground or which are installed in buried ducts.90 0.7 m and a soil thermal resistivity of 2. Table 11: Reduction factors for cables laid directly in the ground Cable to cable clearance (a) Number of circuits 2 3 4 5 6 Nil (cables touching) 0.5 m 0.70 0.55 0.70 0.80 0.75 0. The correction factor k2 is obtained by the formula: ' ' k2 = k 2 .80 0.2.85 0. The heat dissipation of a single cable is different from that of the same cable installed next to the other ones.80 0.5 Km/W.80 Multi-core cables a a Single-core cables a a NOTE The given values apply to an installation depth of 0.70 0.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Correction factor k2 The cable current carrying capacity is influenced by the presence of other cables installed nearby.60 0.75 0.125 m 0.55 0.60 0.65 0. k 2' Tables 11.80 0.65 0.85 0. ABB SACE .Electrical devices 45 .50 One cable diameter 0.75 0.

Electrical devices .95 0. 46 ABB SACE .75 0.90 0.90 0.80 0.90 0.80 0.95 0.90 0.90 Single-core cables a a NOTE The given values apply to an installation depth of 0.90 0.75 0.80 0.90 0.25 m 0. Table 13: Reduction factors for single-core cables laid in single way ducts in the ground Number of single-core circuits of two or three cables 2 3 4 5 6 Duct to duct clearance (a) Nil (ducts touching) 0.80 0.85 0.5 m 0.95 0.0 m 0.80 0.90 0.70 0.85 0.80 1.65 0.5 Km/W.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Table 12: Reduction factors for multi-core cables laid in single way ducts in the ground Cable to cable clearance (a) Number of circuits 2 3 4 5 6 Nil (cables touching) 0.5 m 0.70 0.7 m and a soil thermal resistivity of 2.85 0.60 0.60 0.95 0.70 0.90 0.80 0.90 0.5 Km/W.0 m 0.2.80 0.80 1.70 0.90 Multi-core cables a NOTE The given values apply to an installation depth of 0.25 m 0.85 0.85 0.7 m and a soil thermal resistivity of 2.65 0.60 0.

Soil with low thermal resistivity facilitates heat dissipation.2. see the paragraphs above).5 1. the correction factor is calculated by using this formula: ' k 2' = 1 n where: n is the number of circuits in the duct. Note 3: the correction factors are applicable to ducts buried at depths of up to 0.05 2.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders For correction factor k2’’: • for cables laid directly in the ground or if there are not other conductors within the same duct. Note 2: the correction factors are applicable to cables drawn into buried ducts. for cables laid direct in the ground the correction factors for thermal resistivities less than 2. • if several conductors of similar sizes are present in the same duct (for the meaning of “group of similar conductors”. whereas soil with high thermal resistivity limits heat dissipation. • if the conductors are not of similar size.5 1 3 0. the value of k2’’ is 1.5 Km/W will be higher.96 Note 1: the overall accuracy of correction factors is within ±5%.8 m.18 1. k2’’ is obtained from the first row of Table 5. Correction factor k3 Soil thermal resistivity influences the heat dissipation of the cable. IEC 60364-5-52 states as reference value for the soil thermal resistivity 2. Where more precise values are required they may be calculated by methods given in IEC 60287.5 Km/W.5 Km/W Thermal resistivities Km/W Correction factor 1 1.1 2 1. ABB SACE . Table 14: Correction factors for soil thermal resistivities other than 2.Electrical devices 47 .

I z = I 0 k 1k 2 k 3 Table 15: Current carrying capacity of cables buried in the ground Installation method D Conductor Insulation Loaded conductors 2 26 34 44 56 73 95 121 146 173 213 252 287 324 363 419 474 XLPE EPR 3 22 29 37 46 61 79 101 122 144 178 211 240 271 304 351 396 Cu PVC 2 22 29 38 47 63 81 104 125 148 183 216 246 278 312 361 408 3 18 24 31 39 52 67 86 103 122 151 179 203 230 258 297 336 2 XLPE EPR 3 Al PVC 2 3 S[mm2] 1. 2. according to the method of installation.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders To summarize: Use this procedure to determine the cross section of the cable: 1.2. from Table 15. use Table 11.Electrical devices 1SDC010008F0201 26 34 42 56 73 93 112 132 163 193 220 249 279 322 364 22 29 36 47 61 78 94 112 138 164 186 210 236 272 308 22 29 36 48 62 80 96 113 140 166 189 213 240 277 313 18. determine the correction factor k1 according to the insulation material and the ground temperature.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 48 ABB SACE . the insulation and conductive material and the number of live conductors. calculate the value of the current I’b by dividing the load current Ib (or the rated current of the protective device) by the product of the correction factors calculated: ' Ib = Ib I = b k1k2 k 3 k tot 5. Table 12. 6.5 24 30 40 52 66 80 94 117 138 157 178 200 230 260 . from Table 14 determine factor k3 corresponding to the soil thermal resistivity. determine the cross section of the cable with I0 ≥ I’b.5 2. the actual cable current carrying capacity is calculated by. from Table 10. 3. Table 13 or the formula for groups of non-similar cables to determine the correction factor k2 according to the distance between cables or ducts. 4.

2.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders START selection of wiring systems table 1 erection of wiring systems table 2 Method of installation table 3 Ib D method? yes Ground temperature <> 20 °C? yes k 1 from table 10 no k 1 from table 4 no k1 = 1 yes Ambient air temperature <> 30 °C? no k1 = 1 cables laid directly in the ground? yes k 2 ' from table 11 (k 2 ''=1) no for cables? yes k2 = 1 yes multi-core cable? no similar sections? no k 2 ' from table 13 k 2 ' from table 12 no k 2 '' = 1 n yes yes no k 2 from table 7 multi-core cable? single layer? more than one cable per conduit? yes no k 2 '' = no k 2 from table 6 yes k 2 from table 5 k 2 ''=1 yes k 2 '' from table 6 k tot =k 1 *k 2 I' b =I b /k tot k tot =k 1 *k 2 *k 3 k 2 =k 2 '*k 2 '' table current carrying capacity I 0 > I' b Thermal resistivity <> 2.5 Km/W? yes k 3 from table 14 no k3 = 1 S [mm2 ] I z = I 0 *k tot END ABB SACE .Electrical devices 49 1SDC010009F0201 similar sections? 1 n .

In three-phase systems with high unbalance. In balanced or slightly unbalanced three-phase circuits the number of loaded conductors is three. In single-phase circuits. In this case the conductor size shall be chosen on the basis of the highest phase current. where the neutral conductor in a multi-core cable carries current as a result of an unbalance in the phase currents the temperature rise due to the neutral current is offset by the reduction in the heat generated by one or more of the phase conductors. The magnitude of the neutral current due to the third harmonic may exceed the magnitude of the power frequency phase current. Effect of harmonic currents on balanced three-phase systems: reduction factors for harmonic currents in fourcore and five-core cables with four cores carrying current Where the neutral conductor carries current without a corresponding reduction in load of the phase conductors. The most significant harmonic which does not cancel in the neutral is usually the third harmonic. 9 and 15 provide the current carrying capacity of loaded conductors (current carrying conductors) under normal service conditions. the current flowing in the neutral conductor shall be taken into account in ascertaining the current-carrying capacity of the circuit. In such a case the neutral current will have a significant effect on the current-carrying capacity of the cables in the circuit.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Note on current carrying capacity tables and loaded conductors Tables 8. A B N 1SDC010007F0001 C 50 ABB SACE . This neutral current is due to the phase currents having a harmonic content which does not cancel in the neutral.2. since the current in the neutral conductor is negligible. the number of loaded conductors is two. In all cases the neutral conductor shall have an adequate cross section.Electrical devices .

Where the cable size selection is based on a neutral current which is not significantly higher than the phase current. for example. If the neutral current is more than 135 % of the phase current and the cable size is selected on the basis of the neutral current. then the three phase conductors will not be fully loaded.3 . higher harmonics (e. The reduction factors given in Table 16 only apply in the balanced three-phase circuits (the current in the fourth conductor is due to harmonics only) to cables where the neutral conductor is within a four-core or five-core cable and is of the same material and cross-sectional area as the phase conductors.g. 0. i. 12th. ktot is the total correction factor.Electrical devices 51 . more than 10 %. These reduction factors have been calculated based on third harmonic currents. kIII is the third harmonic content of phase current. Where the neutral current is expected to be higher than the phase current then the cable size should be selected on the basis of the neutral current. then lower reduction factors may be applicable: these factors can be calculated only by taking into account the real shape of the current in the loaded phases. fluorescent lighting banks and dc power supplies such as those found in computers (for further information on harmonic disturbances see the IEC 61000).86 > 45 - - 1 I 'b = I N Where IN is the current flowing in the neutral calculated as follows: Ib is the load current. etc.86 Ib k tot .2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Equipment likely to cause significant harmonic currents are.) are expected or there is an unbalance between phases of more than 50 %.86 - 0.e.86 33 ÷ 45 - I'b = IN 0. If significant. The reduction in heat generated by the phase conductors offsets the heat generated by the neutral conductor to the extent that it is not necessary to apply any reduction factor to the current carrying capacity for three loaded conductors. 9th. it is necessary to reduce the tabulated current carrying capacity for three loaded conductors. k III k tot ABB SACE . Table 16: Reduction factors for harmonic currents in four-core and five-core cables Third harmonic content of phase current % Size selection is based on phase current 1 Reduction factor Current to take in account for the cable selection Ib’ Size selection is based on neutral current Current to take in account for the cable selection Ib’ - 0 ÷ 15 I 'b = I 'b = Ib k tot 15 ÷ 33 0. IN = Ib .2.

d) single-phase circuit consisting of 2 single-core cables. 2x70 mm2. c) three-phase circuit consisting of 9 single-core (3 per phase) cables.2. a b c 52 ABB SACE . 1x(3x50) mm2.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Example of cable dimensioning in a balanced threephase circuit without harmonics Dimensioning of a cable with the following characteristics: • conductor material: : copper • insulation material: • type of cable: • installation: : : : PVC multi-core cables bunched on horizontal perforated tray 100 A • load current: : Installation conditions: • ambient temperature: • adjacent circuits with : 40 °C a) three-phase circuit consisting of 4 single-core cables.Electrical devices 1SDC010008F0001 d . 9x95 mm2. b) three-phase circuit consisting of one multi-core cable. 4x50 mm2.

for a multi-core copper cable with PVC insulation. I’b is calculated by: I 'b = Ib 100 = = 212. • the cable to be dimensioned is a multi-core cable and therefore constitutes a single circuit.87.85A k1k2 0.87.2. which corresponds to method E (multi-core cable on tray). A 95 mm2 cross section cable can carry. The current carrying capacity.87. method of installation E. 0.85 A. Correction factor of temperature k1 From Table 4. b) and d) constitute a separate circuit. Referring to the row for the arrangement (cables bunched) and to the column for the number of circuits (7) k 2 = 0. the number of circuits or multi-core cables present shall be determined.54 From Table 8.87 Correction factor for adjacent cables k2 For the multi-core cables grouped on the perforated tray see Table 5. k1 = 0.Electrical devices 53 . with three loaded conductors.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Procedure: Type of installation In Table 3. • circuit c) consists of three circuits.81 A ABB SACE . under Standard reference conditions. is Iz = 238 .54 After k1 and k2 have been determined. a cross section with current carrying capacity of I0 ≥ I’b = 212. 238 A.54 = 111. 0. In this example. since it is composed by three cables in parallel per phase. given that: • each circuit a). the reference number is 31. As a first step. 0. for a temperature of 40 °C and PVC insulation material. k 1 = 0. according to the actual conditions of installation. the total number of circuits is 7. it is possible to find the reference number of the installation and the method of installation to be used for the calculations. is obtained.

it is possible to find the reference number of the installation and the method of installation to be used for the calculations.Electrical devices . In this example. for a temperature of 30 °C and PVC insulation material k1 = 1 Correction factor for adjacent cables k2 As there are no adjacent cables. I’b is calculated by: I 'b = Ib = 115 A k1k 2 54 ABB SACE .2.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Example of dimensioning a cable in a balanced threephase circuit with a significant third-harmonic content Dimensioning of a cable with the following characteristics: • conductor material: : copper • insulation material: • type of cable: • installation: • load current: Installation conditions: • ambient temperature: • no adjacent circuits. : 30 °C : : : : PVC multi-core layer on horizontal perforated tray 115 A Procedure: Type of installation On Table 3. so k2 = 1 After k1 and k2 have been determined. Temperature correction factor k1 From Table 4. the reference number is 31. which corresponds to method E (multi-core cable on tray).

86 From Table 8. a 50 mm2 cable with carrying capacity of 153 A shall be selected. ABB SACE . under Standard reference conditions. 0. is obtained.5 A 0. If the third harmonic content is 40 %. with three loaded conductors.86 0. from Table 8. is still 126 A.4 = 138 A ktot and the value of current I’b is: I 'b = 138 IN = = 160.86 0. method of installation E.86 must be applied. 3 kIII = 115. a 70 mm2 cable with 196 A current carrying capacity shall be selected. A 35 mm2 cross section cable can carry. If the third harmonic content is 60 %. since the value of factors k1 and k2 is 1.86 must be applied.6 = 207A ktot and current I’b is: I 'b = I N = 207A From Table 8. but a reduction factor of 1 must be applied. 3 k III = 115. The current carrying capacity. The current in the neutral conductor is: IN = Ib . Table 16 shows that the cable shall be dimensioned according to the current of the neutral conductor. 126 A. The current in the neutral conductor is: IN = Ib .86 From Table 8. 3 . k 2 . a cross section with current carrying capacity of I0 ≥ I’b = 115 A. Table 16 shows that for a third harmonic content of 28% the cable must be dimensioned for the current that flows through the phase conductors. a 95 mm2 cable with current carrying capacity of 238 A must be selected.7 A k1 . 0. according to the actual conditions of installation.Electrical devices 55 . . 0. The current I’b becomes: I' = b Ib 115 = = 133. . The third harmonic content is assumed to be 28%.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders If no harmonics are present. 3 .2. but a reduction factor of 0. Table 16 shows that the cable shall be dimensioned according to the current of the neutral conductor and a reduction factor of 0. for a multi-core copper cable with PVC insulation.

Electrical devices .5 recommends that: “the voltage drop from the point of supply to the load shall not exceed 5% of the rated voltage under normal operating conditions”. Other considerations include start-up time for motors and equipment with high inrush current. • electromechanical devices: the reference Standard states that devices such as contactors and auxiliary releases have a minimum voltage below which their performances cannot be guaranteed. the holding of the contacts becomes unreliable below 85% of the rated voltage. • IEC 60364-7-714 “Electrical installations of buildings .2 Voltage drop In an electrical installation it is important to evaluate voltage drops from the point of supply to the load. Selection and erection of electrical equipment . 56 ABB SACE . • incandescent lamps: the more the voltage drops the weaker the beam becomes and the light takes on a reddish tone. therefore.Requirements for special installations or locations . the starting torque shall also decrease. For example: • motors: the torque is proportional to the square of the supply voltage.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders 2. great variation may cause them to switch off. making it more difficult to start up motors.2. For a contactor. • IEC 60204-1”Safety of machinery – Electrical equipment of machines – General requirements” Clause 13. they are not very sensitive to small variations in voltage. • electronic appliances: they are very sensitive to variations in voltage and that is why they are fitted with stabilizers. the maximum torque shall also decrease. but in certain cases. if the voltage drops.512 requires that “the voltage drop in normal service shall be compatible with the conditions arising from the starting current of the lamps”. for example. • discharge lamps: in general.2.External lighting installations” Clause 714. The performance of a device may be impaired if supplied with a voltage different from its rated voltage.Wiring systems” Clause 525 states that “in the absence of other considerations it is recommended that in practice the voltage drop between the origin of consumer’s installation and the equipment should not be greater than 4% of the rated voltage of the installation. To limit these problems the Standards set the following limits: • IEC 60364-5-52 “Electrical installations of buildings. Temporary conditions such as voltage transients and voltage variation due to abnormal operation may be disregarded”.

2 for single-phase and two-phase systems. if no information are available.cos 2 . • cosϕ is the power factor of the load: sin = 1 . the cable carrying capacity Iz shall be considered. • L [km] is the length of the conductor. in case of 60 Hz. • r [Ω/km] is the resistance of the single cable per kilometre.Electrical devices 57 . Normally. • x [Ω/km] is the reactance of the single cable per kilometre. for 50 Hz. the reactance value shall be multiplied by 1. for three-phase systems. • n is the number of conductors in parallel per phase. ABB SACE . the voltage drop is calculated by the following formula: L (1) ∆U = kZIb = kIb ( r cos + x sin ) [V] n where • k is a coefficient equal to: .2.2. • Ib [A] is the load current.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Voltage drop calculation For an electrical conductor with impedance Z. the percentage value in relation to the rated value Ur is calculated by: ∆u% = ∆U 100 Ur (2) Resistance and reactance values per unit of length are set out on the following table by cross-sectional area and cable formation.

112 0.203 0.328 0.0965 0.109 5.125 0.101 6.129 0.0783 0.5 2.483 0.112 1.143 6.177 0.236 0.056 0.106 1.252 0.0752 0.24 0.0751 0.143 3.0761 0.0745 0.57 0.156 5.188 0.153 0.356 0.2.101 0.0975 0.168 14.241 0.135 2.27 0.0752 0.878 0.112 0.078 0.119 2.0861 1.5 2.334 0.0762 0.106 0.0895 two-core/three-core cable r[Ω/km] x[Ω/km] @ 80 [°C] 24.540 0.323 0.0902 0.0779 0.0762 0.101 0.101 0.0751 0.0902 0.0817 0.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Table 1: Resistance and reactance per unit of length of copper cables single-core cable r[Ω/km] x[Ω/km] @ 80 [°C] 14.0908 0.494 0.907 0.0943 0.680 0.0939 0.118 9.641 0.691 0.123 0.0813 1.550 0.259 0.384 0.358 0.155 0.0742 0.119 1.101 3.118 14.0939 0.740 0.0966 0.074 0.156 9.Electrical devices .135 3.168 8.796 0.0817 1.779 0.125 0.0813 0.0908 0.71 0.0955 2.473 0.101 0.206 0.8 0.0742 0.0975 0.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 Table 2: Resistance and reactance per unit of length of aluminium cables S [mm2] 1.0783 0.0745 0.157 0.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 single-core cable r[Ω/km] x[Ω/km] @ 80 [°C] 24.0955 3.074 0.077 0.397 0.191 0.0928 0.465 0.0779 0.228 0.159 0.41 0.654 0.0895 two-core/three-core cable r[Ω/km] x[Ω/km] @ 80 [°C] 15.960 0.91 0.78 0.315 0.109 9.310 0.075 58 ABB SACE .1 0.68 0.389 0.43 0.08 0.0965 0.889 0.0928 0.0861 2.075 S [mm2] 1.

13 0.14 S[mm2] 1.88 2.08 0.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders The following tables show the ∆Ux [V/(A.km)] values by cross section and formation of the cable according to the most common cosϕ values.24 10.65 7.5 2.20 26.38 0.15 0.15 18.36 0.58 0.58 2.21 0.19 0.19 two-core cable three-core cable single-phase three-phase 27.25 0.17 14.13 two-core cable three-core cable single-phase three-phase 30.22 0.26 0.81 1.25 1.41 0.31 0.64 2.16 0. Table 3: Specific voltage drop at cosϕ = 1 for copper cables cosϕ = 1 single-core cable single-phase three-phase 29.51 0.48 3.57 0.81 0.84 0.33 0.47 1.48 1.67 0.19 0.31 0.36 9.28 1.43 0.43 4.9 single-core cable single-phase three-phase 26.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 ABB SACE .66 0.21 0.57 1.89 5.25 0.65 2.28 1.43 11.31 8.38 0.31 0.58 0.22 0.67 0.56 6.11 0.14 3.97 0.36 0.18 S[mm2] 1.08 0.50 0.42 0.94 0.16 0.73 11.80 5.41 0.44 14.29 0.42 6.14 9.25 0.01 10.Electrical devices 59 .24 1.2.82 2.69 1.44 1.44 0.25 0.15 8.63 17.48 1.47 0.96 4.5 2.84 7.35 0.21 0.27 0.86 2.54 1.22 0.67 0.24 0.93 2.93 6.17 0.30 0.63 16.9 for copper cables cosϕ = 0.42 0.79 6.94 0.81 0.60 25.82 15.54 3.33 0.28 23.95 0.89 4.55 4.16 3.60 2.70 1.30 0.27 0.79 23.20 16.31 1.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 Table 4: Specific voltage drop at cosϕ = 0.48 0.35 0.58 0.16 15.82 0.29 1.78 1.

22 0.20 1.48 0.99 0.57 0.26 0.30 21.23 2.31 0.10 5.30 0.34 3.07 1.44 0.45 5.62 0.79 22.35 0.41 0.78 0.31 0.41 1.44 12.29 0.2.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Table 5: Specific voltage drop at cosϕ = 0.69 9.59 3.04 0.29 0.07 1.15 0.21 0.41 1.50 0.40 0.8 single-core cable single-phase three-phase 23.73 3.30 0.91 0.62 1.41 0.55 13.23 2.26 9.35 0.31 13.22 0.39 2.21 0.22 0.65 3.95 3.87 6.42 2.29 0.5 2.85 single-core cable single-phase three-phase 25.55 1.28 3.55 0.99 0.26 0.56 0.87 0.55 1.39 0.25 0.68 14.25 0.51 9.34 0.43 0.36 0.51 2.36 0.18 S[mm2] 1.41 2.64 0.21 0.39 2.18 1.20 two-core cable three-core cable single-phase three-phase 24.54 0.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 Table 6: Specific voltage drop at cosϕ = 0.23 0.74 3.76 0.66 0.18 1.33 6.49 0.94 15.Electrical devices .42 0.24 0.08 7.21 0.03 0.31 0.26 0.34 1.93 3.24 0.26 0.34 0.16 5.19 S[mm2] 1.14 0.05 14.21 7.5 2.53 5.85 for copper cables cosϕ = 0.88 20.47 9.62 8.42 0.34 15.88 0.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 60 ABB SACE .36 0.79 0.19 two-core cable three-core cable single-phase three-phase 25.52 2.90 0.65 0.36 0.8 for copper cables cosϕ = 0.75 0.19 1.49 0.98 6.66 12.34 1.63 1.34 21.45 6.76 8.

65 4.92 25.21 0.05 2.48 4.35 0.99 2.42 19.44 0.23 0.24 0.95 0.11 1.74 4.75 13.95 0.30 0.67 0.93 2.08 0.96 1.72 0.25 0.59 7.22 S[mm2] 1.89 12.09 29.60 0.75 single-core cable single-phase three-phase 22.25 1.94 0.95 1.26 0.28 0.35 0.5 2.40 5.71 4.29 0.81 19.59 2.92 8.52 0.84 0.73 0.39 4.59 1.52 3.47 1.32 0.77 42.48 6.29 0.57 11.28 1.15 1.2.41 0.08 0.62 0.78 0.52 0.Electrical devices 61 .33 0.31 0.43 18.50 0.80 5.38 0.54 0.23 0.25 0.54 0.41 0.54 2.65 7.19 S[mm2] 1.42 0.49 5.42 13.83 0.35 0.10 0.56 1.35 1.08 2.79 0.54 7.35 15.76 11.46 10.75 for copper cables cosϕ = 0.20 two-core cable three-core cable single-phase three-phase 22.33 0.26 0.46 0.38 1.75 8.23 29.94 0.02 2.31 0.45 0.55 0.26 0.41 0.76 43.91 18.47 1.10 0.52 3.22 10.02 3.83 1.36 0.97 3.22 two-core cable three-core cable single-phase three-phase 49.36 25.87 1.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Table 7: Specific voltage drop at cosϕ=0.79 7.26 1.05 2.69 0.48 0.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 Table 8: Specific voltage drop at cosϕ = 1 for aluminium cables cosϕ = 1 single-core cable single-phase three-phase 48.27 1.21 12.63 0.5 2.62 0.22 0.40 0.27 0.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 ABB SACE .38 6.72 16.

04 38.12 6.74 1.90 1.66 0.31 0.66 1.73 25.71 2.31 0.26 6.40 16.76 0.64 14.91 1.02 23.54 4.54 0.49 1.35 0.29 1.87 27.30 0.60 2.43 0.9 single-core cable single-phase three-phase 44.43 1.07 3.06 0.26 S[mm2] 1.56 23.55 22.24 1.5 2.30 0.02 13.68 0.65 0.50 1.05 25.27 two-core cable three-core cable single-phase three-phase 42.53 9.28 3.93 14.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Table 9: Specific voltage drop at cosϕ = 0.38 0.39 2.14 26.31 0.45 5.63 6.53 0.73 2.41 11.53 0.06 0.76 0.12 9.85 single-core cable single-phase three-phase 41.55 0.88 0.78 0.68 0.45 0.12 16.52 0.81 5.66 11.58 4.5 2.72 1.84 4.38 0.Electrical devices .87 10.38 0.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 Table 10: Specific voltage drop at cosϕ = 0.25 1.99 1.52 2.76 2.30 1.29 9.2.46 0.69 9.46 0.36 0.35 0.31 3.01 1.91 0.24 1.44 0.40 5.26 two-core cable three-core cable single-phase three-phase 44.65 1.46 0.63 0.09 3.75 15.01 0.36 0.63 2.63 36.30 0.78 0.12 21.85 for aluminium cables cosϕ = 0.37 0.88 38.26 S[mm2] 1.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 62 ABB SACE .75 13.30 0.55 0.00 16.44 0.53 0.44 0.53 0.61 0.63 0.75 5.02 0.64 0.30 0.9 for aluminium cables cosϕ = 0.88 0.54 2.73 2.64 10.42 36.89 4.27 1.92 0.43 1.36 1.78 6.

53 0.85 0.49 0.61 6.15 2.42 0.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Table 11: Specific voltage drop at cosϕ = 0.31 0.35 0.50 0.34 2.85 12.80 0.34 2.85 3.35 8.57 1.08 8.42 0.23 19.82 1.74 0.67 20.Electrical devices 63 .62 0.47 8.38 0.51 0.26 S[mm2] 1.17 12.36 0.8 single-core cable single-phase three-phase 39.45 22.25 S[mm2] 1.31 0.97 0.27 3.63 0.86 9.37 1.8 for aluminium cables cosϕ = 0.29 0.73 6.18 0.92 0.34 0.61 0.72 1.27 9.2.59 0.34 0.5 2.27 two-core cable three-core cable single-phase three-phase 39.49 0.60 0.47 2.15 2.70 0.27 two-core cable three-core cable single-phase three-phase 37.5 2.12 0.96 23.24 3.14 1.31 0.63 3.43 0.09 5.75 single-core cable single-phase three-phase 36.41 0.16 1.64 3.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 Table 12: Specific voltage drop at cosϕ = 0.42 0.08 9.13 0.31 0.95 12.50 14.18 0.35 2.73 0.50 0.95 34.96 3.03 1.64 0.30 1.37 1.07 10.43 0.05 5.59 0.94 0.35 0.22 33.71 0.81 0.56 14.87 3.80 31.30 0.02 1.84 0.49 1.87 22.94 8.25 13.30 0.93 3.35 2.51 0.81 1.45 0.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 ABB SACE .84 15.72 1.98 0.58 19.57 1.49 2.44 0.72 4.36 0.09 5.75 for aluminium cables cosϕ = 0.51 0.49 1.57 0.69 4.47 32.09 13.37 0.07 20.30 1.59 24.29 0.20 5.

100 .2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Example 1 To calculate a voltage drop on a three-phase cable with the following specifications: • rated voltage: 400 V. I b .62% 690 Ur 64 ABB SACE . for a 50 mm2 single-core cable it is possible to read that a ∆Ux voltage drop corresponds to 0. 2. • load current Ib: 50 A. 100 = 100 = 0.025 = 2. 0. it results: ∆U = ∆U x . 3x50 mm2. From Table 5. By multiplying this value by the length in km and by the current in A. for a multi-core 10 mm2 cable it is possible to read that ∆Ux voltage drop corresponds to 3. • load current Ib: 100 A. 2x(3x10) mm2. 4.03 . From Table 4. • cable length: 25 m. 100 = 100 = 0. • cable formation: multi-core copper cable. I b .03 V which corresponds to this percentage value: ∆u% = ∆U .9.42. • cable length: 50 m.51% 400 Ur Example 2 To calculate a voltage drop on a three-phase cable with the following specifications: • rated voltage: 690 V. it results: 0. • cable formation: single-core copper cable.2. = 3. and by dividing it by the number of cables in parallel. • power factor cosϕ: 0.05 L ∆U = ∆U x .Electrical devices . 50 . By multiplying this value by the length in km and by the current in A. • power factor cosϕ: 0. = 4.28 V 2 2 which corresponds to this percentage value: ∆u% = ∆U .42 V/(A⋅km).85. L = 0.28 .81 .81 V/(A⋅km).

2. L 100 .05% 400 Ur ∆U x max = ∆u% . the verification using as reference the cross section calculated on the basis of thermal considerations (calculation according to chapter 2. cos 3 . 56 .2.2 .2 V which corresponds to this percentage value: ∆u% = This value is too high. Example: Supply of a three-phase load with Pu = 35 kW (Ur=400 V.U r . cosϕ=0. I b .1 shows S = 10 mm2. 0.14 = 28. it results: ∆U = 3.2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders Method for defining the cross section of the conductor according to voltage drop in the case of long cables In the case of long cables.9) with a 140 m cable installed on a perforated tray. km) 100 . By multiplying this value by the length in km and by the current in A. the maximum ∆Uxmax value calculated by using the formula: ∆u%. for the multi-core 10 mm2 cable it is possible to read that the voltage drop per A and per km is 3. From Table 4.6 .60.14 ABB SACE . Load current Ib is: Ib = P 35000 u = = 56 A 3 .2.U r ∆U x max = (3) 100. fr= 50 Hz. 28. 0. L = 3. Formula (3) shows: ∆U .U r 2% . Maximum permitted voltage drop 2%. 100 = 100 = 7. I b .Electrical devices 65 .1 “Current carrying capacity and methods of installation”) may have a negative result. or if particular design specifications impose low limits for maximum voltage drops. 56. 400 = = 1. 400.02 V/(A . 0.9 The Table 8 of Chapter 2. L is compared with the corresponding values on Tables 4÷12 by choosing the smallest cross section with a ∆Ux value lower than ∆Uxmax. To define the correct cross section. I b .60 V/(A⋅km). consisting of a multi-core copper cable with EPR insulation.

155 0.177 6. A first estimate of three-phase losses is: Pj = 2 3.125 Two-core/three-core cable Cu 15.077 0.889 0.494 1.259 0.8 8.157 0.27 1.356 1.203 0.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 Cu 14. I b .r .779 0.81< 1.5 2.358 6.129 66 ABB SACE .334 0.0943 0.125 0.236 0.57 3.680 9.0966 0.384 14.228 3.315 0.252 0.153 0.740 2.188 0. 56 . I b .1 9.112 3.14 = 6.389 0.159 0.206 0.0761 AI 24. • r is the phase resistance per unit of length of the cable at 80 °C [Ω/km] (see Table 1).473 0.91 5.35 . 6.08 5.2.078 AI 24.691 2.02 V/(A⋅km). L [W] 1000 whereas single-phase losses are: Pj = 2 2. For this cross section ∆Ux = 0.465 1.41 0.397 0.6% 400 Ur 2.78 2. • L is the cable length [m]. ∆u% = 100 = 100 = 1.241 0.68 3. Table 1: Resistance values [Ω/km] of single-core and multi-core cables in copper and aluminium at 80 °C Single-core cable S [mm2] 1.35 V This corresponds to a percentage value of: ∆U .654 0.550 0.907 0.641 0. 0.123 0. L [W] 1000 where: • Ib is the load current [A].960 9. By using this value it results: ∆U = ∆U x . The lost energy is dissipated in heat and contributes to the heating of the conductor and of the environment.Electrical devices .328 0.483 0.878 14. I b .2 Installation and dimensioning of cables 2 Protection of feeders From Table 4 a cross section of 50 mm2 can be chosen.2.540 0.81.310 0. r .191 0. L = 0.3 Joule-effect losses Joule-effect losses are due to the electrical resistance of the cable.43 0.796 0.24 1.71 2.323 1.056 0.

45⋅Iz or In ≤ 0. formula (2) becomes 1. The verification of condition (2) is not necessary in the case of circuit-breakers because the protective device is automatically tripped if: • I2 = 1. • I2 = 1. the formula I2 ≤ 1. to prevent unwanted tripping.6⋅In current must automatically melt the fuse.45Iz .3 Protection against overload The Standard IEC 60364-4-43 “Electrical installation of buildings . it is necessary to check that the circuit-breaker has a rated (or set) current that is: • higher than the load current. To sum up: to carry out protection against overload by a fuse.2 Protection of feeders 2. • In is the rated current of the protective device. for adjustable protective releases. the rated current In is the set current. for circuit-breakers. • I2 is the current ensuring effective operation in the conventional time of the protective device.Protection against overcurrent” specifies coordination between conductors and overload protective devices (normally placed at the beginning of the conductor to be protected) so that it shall satisfy the two following conditions: I b ≤ In ≤ I z I2 ≤ 1.45⋅In for circuit-breakers complying with IEC 60898 (circuit-breakers for household and similar installations).Electrical devices 67 1SDC010009F0001 Ib Iz 1.6⋅In ≤ 1. • Iz is the continuous current carrying capacity of the cable. In this case.3⋅In for circuit-breakers complying with IEC 60947-2 (circuit-breakers for industrial use).45⋅Iz will also be verified. • lower than the current carrying capacity of the cable. The Standard allows an overload current that may be up to 45% greater than the current carrying capacity of the cable but only for a limited period (conventional trip time of the protective device). When the protective device is a fuse. Iz (1) (2) Where: • Ib is the current for which the circuit is dimensioned.45 . to prevent cable overload. it is also essential to check formula (2) because IEC 60269-2-1 on “Low-voltage fuses” states that a 1. Therefore. In I2 According to condition (1) to correctly choose the protective device. if In ≤ Iz.9⋅Iz. the following ABB SACE .

Ib Iz In Circuit-breaker: choice of rated current Ib 0. three-phase load so Ib = 112 A Cable specifications Iz = 134 A Protective device specifications T1B160 TMD In 125.3 Protection against overload 2 Protection of feeders To summarize: to carry out by a fuse protection against overload.9 . Ur = 400 V.9.Electrical devices 1SDC010011F0001 1SDC010010F0001 . and the currents in the parallel conductors are unequal.2. the design current and requirements for overload protection for each conductor shall be considered individually.Iz and this means that the cable is not fully exploited.9 Iz In Fuse: choice of rated current Where the use of a single conductor per phase is not feasible. cosϕ = 0. the following must be achieved: Ib ≤ In ≤ 0. Examples Example 1 Load specifications Pr = 70 kW. set current I1 = 125 A 68 ABB SACE .

8 A Example 3 Load specifications Pr = 100 kW.9. Ur = 230 V . cosϕ = 0. set current I1 = 0. cosϕ = 0.9. three-phase load so Ib = 160 A Cable specifications Iz = 190 A Protective device specifications T3N250 TMD R200 In 200.3 Protection against overload 2 Protection of feeders Example 2 Load specifications Pr = 80 kW.9.Electrical devices 69 .88 x In = 140. three-phase load so Ib = 128 A Cable specifications Iz = 171 A Protective device specifications T2N160 PR221DS-LS In 160. single-phase load so Ib = 121 A Cable specifications Iz = 134 A Protective device specifications T1B160 1P TMF In 125 ABB SACE . cosϕ = 0.2. set current I1 = 0. Ur = 400 V. Ur = 400 V .9 x In = 180 A Example 4 Load specifications Pr = 25 kW.

• S is the cable cross section [mm2]. Vol. . . . in the case of conductors in parallel it is the cross section of the single conductor.duration of short-circuit exceeding 5 s.Electrical devices 1SDC010010F0201 NOTE 1 Other values of k are under consideration for. for a more detailed calculation. . • k is a factor that depends on the cable insulating and conducting material. NOTE 3 The above factors are based on IEC 60724.2 Protection of feeders 2. Table 1: Values of k for phase conductor Conductor insulation PVC ≤300 mm2 Initial temperature °C Final temperature °C Material of conductor: Copper Aluminium tin-soldered joints in copper conductors a PVC >300 mm2 70 140 103 68 - EPR XLPE 90 250 143 94 - Rubber 60 °C 60 200 141 93 - Mineral PVC 70 160 115 Bare 105 250 135/115 a - 70 160 115 76 115 This value shall be used for bare cables exposed to touch. see Annex D.bare conductors.other types of joints in conductors. NOTE 2 The nominal current of the short-circuit protective device may be greater than the current carrying capacity of the cable. .4 Protection against short-circuit A cable is protected against short-circuit if the specific let-through energy of the protective device (I2t) is lower or equal to the withstood energy of the cable (k2S2): I2t ≤ k 2S2 (1) where • I2t is the specific let-through energy of the protective device which can be read on the curves supplied by the manufacturer (see Electrical installation handbook.small conductors (particularly for cross section less than 10 mm2). Chapter 3. The values of the most common installations are shown in Table 1. 70 ABB SACE . 1.4 “Specific let-through energy curves”) or from a direct calculation in the case of devices that are not limiting and delaying.

08 2.41·10 -2 -2 -1 -2 -1 -2 4 2.31·10 1.08·10 2.99·10 4.24·10 5.25·10 2 1 2 2 2 2 150 2.84·10 7.60·10 1.39 1.09 2.96·10 2 2 2 2 2 2 240 7.52·10 1.98·10 1.32 5.44·10 5.53·10 1. Due to the shape of the specific let-through energy curve of a circuit breaker.79·10 7.27·10 3.11·10 2.Electrical devices 71 1SDC010002F0901 .4 Protection against short-circuit 2 Protection of feeders Table 2 shows the maximum withstood energy for cables according to the cross section.78·10 2.5 8.12·10 9.48 5.79·10 7.41 1 1 35 1.47·10 1.30·10 4.23 2.19·10 5.95·10 2 2 2 2 2 2 185 4.09·10 1.94·10 1.76·10 2. it is generally sufficient to verify formula (1) only for the maximum and minimum short-circuit current that may affect the cable.62·10 3.32·10 2.19·10 5.52 1.98·10 7.33·10 1.98·10 1.97·10 2.74·10 4.80·10 2.38·10 -1 -2 -1 -1 -1 -1 6 4.51·10 1.02·10 6.48·10 2.83·10 1.30·10 4. The maximum value is normally the value of the three-phase short-circuit current at the beginning of the line.15·10 4.78·10 3 2 3 2 3 2 G2 The formula (1) must be verified along the whole length of the cable.90·10 8.11·10 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 10 1.06·10 1 1 1 1 1 Cross section [mm2 ] Cable PVC Cu Al EPR/XLPE Cu Al Cu Al k 115 76 143 94 141 93 50 3.85·10 7.21·10 1. the conductor material and the type of insulation.27·10 2.62·10 7. while the minimum value is the value of the phase to neutral short-circuit current (phase to phase if the neutral conductor is not distributed) or phase to earth at the end of the cable.00·10 3.33·10 9.08·10 7.27·10 1.60·10 1.44·10 1. which are calculated by using the parameters of Table 1.2.99·10 4.28·10 5.24·10 3.97·10 1.28·10 5.98·10 2 2 3 2 3 2 300 1.27 3.16·10 3.24·10 5.41·10 3.04 8.18·10 5.36·10 3.65·10 -1 -1 -1 16 3.21 25 8.61 1.26 5.86·10 1.00·10 4.81·10 2 1 1 1 1 1 120 1.18·10 1.18·10 7.20·10 1.95·10 1.84·10 1.99 8.61·10 1.24·10 1 1 1 1 1 1 95 1.21·10 4.95·10 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 2.16·10 1 1 1 1 1 1 70 6. ABB SACE .47·10 1. Table 2: Maximum withstood energy for cables k2 S2 [(kA)2 s] Cross section [mm2 ] Cable PVC Cu Al EPR/XLPE Cu Al Rubber Cu Al k 115 76 143 94 141 93 1.5 2.

Electrical devices 1SDC010011F0001 . 72 ABB SACE .2.4 Protection against short-circuit 2 Protection of feeders [(KA)2s] 102 10 1 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-1 1 10 [KA] This verification can be simplified by comparing only the let-through energy value of the circuit-breaker at the maximum short-circuit current with the withstood energy of the cable and by ensuring that the circuit breaker trips instantaneously at the minimum short-circuit current: the threshold of the shortcircuit protection (taking into consideration also the tolerances) shall therefore be lower than the minimum short-circuit current at the end of the conductor.

9 150 0. • L is the length of the protected conductor [m]. k par 2L 1. • S is the cross section of the conductor [mm2]. k 0 sec with non-distributed neutral conductor (2.0.5 .85 180 0. (1 + m) . .2 is the tolerance at the trip threshold.2 .027 for aluminium. • 1. ABB SACE .2 *kpar = 4 (n-1)/n where: n = number of conductors in parallel per phase • m is the ratio between the resistances of the neutral conductor and the phase conductor (if they are made of the same material m is the ratio between the cross section of the phase conductor and the cross section of the neutral conductor). • U0 is the phase to earth supply voltage [V]. Ur .1) par L 1. U .75 300 0. • ksec is the correction factor which takes into account the reactance of the cables with cross section larger than 95 mm2: S[mm2] ksec 120 0.018 for copper.0.4 Protection against short-circuit 2 Protection of feeders Calculation of short-circuit current at end of the conductor Minimum short-circuit current can be calculated by the following approximate formulas: Ikmin = Ikmin = 0. k sec .8 .2. I3 (3) where: • I3 is the current that trips the magnetic protection of the circuit-breaker. • Ur is the supply voltage [V].Electrical devices 73 . • ρ is the resistivity at 20 °C of the material of the conductors in Ωmm2/m and is: .8 . After calculating the minimum short-circuit current. verify that Ikmin >1.80 240 0.5 .2) where: • Ikmin is the minimum value of the prospective short-circuit current [kA].7 4 3 5 3. . S with distributed neutral conductor (2. . S 0. k .72 • kpar is the correcting coefficient for conductors in parallel: number of parallel conductors kpar* 2 2 3 2.

4 Protection against short-circuit 2 Protection of feeders Example U Ur = 400 V Ik = 30 kA Choice of CB1 System data: Rated voltage 400 V Ik = 30 kA Cable data: Insulated copper conductor in PVC Length = 150 m S = 50 mm2 Iz = 134 A CB1 T1N160 In160 Cable Section 50 mm2 1SDC010011F0201 PVC Cu Iz = 134. Maximum protected length The formula (3). S The magnetic threshold of the circuit breaker T1N160 In160 is set at 1600 A. .31. Protection against short-circuit at end of the conductor The minimum short-circuit current at end of the conductor (ksec=1 and kpar=1) is: Ikmin = 0.018 Ωmm2/m. k par = 1. the cable is therefore fully protected against short-circuit. when solved for the length.0 A L = 150 m L Protection against short-circuit at the beginning of the conductor T1N160 In160 (breaking capacity 36 kA@400 V) I2t (@30 kA) = 7. 74 ABB SACE .8 . In Table 3.101 (kA)2s The cable is therefore protected against short-circuit at the beginning of the conductor.non-distributed neutral.2. the increase in cable resistivity due to heating caused by the short-circuit current and the reduction of voltage due to the fault. Chapter 3.Electrical devices .three-phase system. see Volume 1. The correction factors shown after the table must be applied if the system conditions are different from the reference conditions. .copper conductor with resistivity equal to 0.4) k2S2 = 1152 ⋅ 502 = 3. enables the maximum length protected by the protective device to be obtained for a precise instantaneous trip threshold. 400 V rated voltage. If tolerance is 20%.5 10-1 (kA)2s (for the curves of specific let-through energy. the circuit breaker shall definitely trip if the values exceed 1920 A. U .98 kA 2L 1.5 . the maximum protected length can be identified for a given cross section of the cable and for the setting threshold of the instantaneous protection of the circuit breaker against short-circuit: . . The values on the table below take into account the 20% tolerance coefficient for the magnetic trip value. k sec .

5 2.5 20 370 617 30 246 412 40 185 309 50 148 247 60 123 206 70 105 176 80 92 154 90 82 137 100 74 123 120 61 102 140 52 88 150 49 82 160 46 77 180 41 68 200 37 61 220 33 56 250 29 49 280 26 44 300 24 41 320 23 38 350 21 35 380 19 32 400 18 30 420 17 29 450 16 27 480 15 25 500 14 24 520 14 23 550 13 22 580 12 21 600 12 20 620 11 19 650 11 19 680 10 18 700 10 17 750 16 800 15 850 14 900 13 950 13 1000 12 1250 1500 1600 2000 2500 3000 3200 4000 5000 6300 8000 9600 10000 12000 15000 20000 24000 30000 4 658 494 395 329 282 246 219 197 164 141 131 123 109 98 89 79 70 65 61 56 52 49 47 43 41 39 38 35 34 32 31 30 29 28 26 24 23 21 20 19 15 13 12 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 741 593 494 423 370 329 296 246 211 197 185 164 148 134 118 105 98 92 84 78 74 70 65 61 59 57 53.4 Protection against short-circuit 2 Protection of feeders Table 3: Maximum protected length section [mm2] I3[A] 1.Electrical devices 75 .2. 51 49 47 45 43 42 39 37 34 32 31 29 23 19 18 14 11 705 617 549 494 412 353 329 309 274 247 224 198 176 165 154 141 130 123 118 110 103 99 95 90 85 82 80 76 73 71 66 62 58 55 52 49 40 33 31 25 20 16 15 12 10 790 658 564 527 494 439 395 359 316 282 263 247 226 208 198 188 176 165 158 152 144 136 132 127 122 116 113 105 99 93 88 83 79 63 53 49 40 32 26 25 20 16 13 10 772 686 617 561 494 441 412 386 353 325 309 294 274 257 247 237 224 213 206 199 190 182 176 165 154 145 137 130 123 99 82 77 62 49 41 39 31 25 20 15 13 12 10 786 691 617 576 540 494 455 432 412 384 360 346 332 314 298 288 279 266 254 247 230 216 203 192 182 173 138 115 108 86 69 58 54 43 35 27 22 18 17 14 12 772 705 650 617 588 549 514 494 475 449 426 412 398 380 363 353 329 309 290 274 260 247 198 165 154 123 99 82 77 62 49 39 31 26 25 21 16 12 10 768 720 691 665 629 596 576 558 532 508 494 461 432 407 384 364 346 277 230 216 173 138 115 108 86 69 55 43 36 35 29 23 17 14 12 809 782 757 722 690 670 626 586 552 521 494 469 375 313 293 235 188 156 147 117 94 74 59 49 47 39 31 23 20 16 847 790 667 627 593 561 533 427 356 333 267 213 178 167 133 107 85 67 56 53 44 36 27 22 20 840 787 741 700 663 630 504 420 394 315 252 210 197 157 126 100 79 66 63 52 42 31 26 25 731 585 487 457 365 292 244 228 183 146 116 91 76 73 61 49 37 30 30 711 593 556 444 356 296 278 222 178 141 111 93 89 74 59 44 37 40 667 533 427 356 333 267 213 169 133 111 107 89 71 53 44 49 ABB SACE .

1 3 1+ S SN if S = SN if S = 2.39. 76 ABB SACE . so that kv is 0.1 1.S N kd is 0.Electrical devices . In particular: 2 .73 1 230 V single-phase is the equivalent of a three-phase 400 V system with distributed neutral and with the cross section of the phase conductor the same as the cross section area of the neutral conductor.2.58 1 1.58. Correction factor for aluminium conductors: kr If the cable is in aluminium. kd is 0. multiply the length value obtained from the table above by the correction factor kr = 0.67.25 1.4 Protection against short-circuit 2 Protection of feeders Correction factor for voltage other than 400 V: kv Multiply the length value obtained from the table by the correction factor kv: Ur [V] (three-phase value) 2301 400 440 500 690 kv 0. Correction factor for distributed neutral: kd Multiply the length value obtained from the table by the correction factor kd: kd = where • S is the phase cross section [mm2].58. • SN is the neutral cross section [mm2].

1 2 . By applying the correction factor kd required when the neutral is distributed: kd = 2 . ABB SACE . if necessary. This length shall then be multiplied. by the correction factors in order to obtain a value that is compatible with the installation operating conditions: L = L 0 k v kd k r Example 1 Neutral not distributed Rated voltage = 400 V Protective device: T2N160 TMD In100 Magnetic threshold: I3 = 1000 A Phase cross section = Neutral cross section = 70 mm2 The table shows that at I3 = 1000 A.39 = 207. 1 = = 0. for the cross section and magnetic trip threshold it is possible to read a maximum protected value L0. 0.2. Example 2 Neutral distributed Rated voltage = 400 V Protective device: T3S250 In200 Magnetic threshold: I3 = 2000 A Phase cross section = 300 mm2 Neutral cross section = 150 mm2 For I3 = 2000 A and S = 300 mm2. 0.Electrical devices 77 .39 = 533 .9 m This is the maximum protected length with neutral distributed.39 3 1+ S 3 1+ 300 150 SN L= L0 .4 Protection against short-circuit 2 Protection of feeders To summarize: On the table. the 70 mm2 cable is protected up to 346 m. a protected length equivalent of L0= 533 m is obtained.

Therefore. R 1 R1+ R2 . P P P N U1 R1 R2 U1 = Figure 1: Disconnection of the neutral conductor Moreover. a voltage to earth may occur on the neutral conductor. thereby making available a voltage that is different from the phase to phase voltage.g. This may be caused by a phase to neutral short-circuit and by the disconnection of the neutral conductor due to accidental breaking or to tripping of single-pole devices (fuses or single-pole circuit breakers). For TN-C systems. voltage to earth arising on the neutral conductor constitutes a hazard for people.Electrical devices 1SDC010013F0001 3 . Protection and disconnection of the neutral conductor If fault conditions arise. in fact. In certain cases and under specific conditions. by not protecting the neutral conductor with single-pole devices. in TN-C systems. all the necessary measures to prevent this type of fault shall be taken. The need for protection on the neutral conductor and the possibility of disconnecting the circuit depend on the distribution system: 78 ABB SACE . the Standards specify minimum cross sections (see next clause) for the neutral conductor in order to prevent accidental breaking and they forbid the use of any device (single-pole or multi-pole) that could disconnect the PEN. 1).5 Neutral and protective conductors Neutral conductor The neutral conductor is a conductor that is connected to the system neutral point (which generally but not necessarily coincides with the star centre of the secondary windings of the transformer or the windings of the generator). If the neutral conductor only is disconnected in a four-conductor circuit the supply voltage to the single-phase loads may be altered so that they are supplied by a voltage different from the U0 phase to neutral voltage (as shown in Fig. since this conductor is also a protective conductor. U0 . it is able to contribute to the transmission of electric power. this voltage reaches the connected exposed conductive parts. the functions of neutral conductor and protective conductor can be combined in a single conductor (PEN). e.2 Protection of feeders 2.

Furthermore. if the neutral conductor is disconnected. cause r.This method prevents electromagnetic fields due to stray currents in the main supply system of an installation. This ensures that the neutral current will flow only in the neutral conductor of the respective switched on circuit. current values on the neutral conductor higher than the maximum current detected on the phase conductors. in TN-C systems.5 Neutral and protective conductors 2 Protection of feeders TT or TN systems: • if the cross section of the neutral conductor is the same or larger than the cross section of the phase conductor. As already mentioned. the neutral need not be disconnected if the supply conditions are such that the neutral conductor can be considered to be reliable at earth potential. In TN-S systems.the maximum current that can flow through the neutral conductor during normal service is lower than the neutral current carrying capacity. The sum of the currents within one cable must be zero.Electrical devices 79 1SDC010012F0201 NOTE . The 3rd harmonic (150 Hz) current of the line conductors will be added with the same phase angle to the neutral conductor current. but not necessarily the neutral conductor. overcurrents on the neutral conductor must be detected so as to have the phase conductors. In certain specific cases. the neutral conductor has to be disconnected to prevent currents circulating between parallel supply sources (see Figures 2 and 3) Figure 2: Three-phase alternative power supply with a 4-pole switch Power supply 1 Power supply 2 Current using equipment ABB SACE . the exposed conductive parts of the single-phase equipment could take the system rated voltage to earth.m. at any instant. L1 L2 L3 PEN PE L1 L2 L3 Supplier User . there is neither the need to detect overcurrents on the neutral conductor nor to use a breaking device (neutral conductor is not protected or disconnected).s. disconnected (neutral conductor protected but not disconnected): in this case the overcurrents on the neutral conductor do not need to be detected if the following conditions are simultaneously fulfilled: 1. the neutral conductor is also a protective conductor and cannot therefore be disconnected.the neutral conductor is protected against short-circuit by the protective device of the phase conductors.2. 2. this requirement applies only if there are no harmonics that may. • if the cross section of the neutral conductor is less than the cross section of the phase conductor.

If the neutral conductor is distributed.15 times the current carrying capacity of the corresponding neutral conductor. the overcurrents must be detected on the neutral conductor of each circuit in order to disconnect all the live conductors on the corresponding circuit. For all distribution systems. including the neutral one (neutral conductor protected and disconnected). • the neutral conductor is connected at the same moment or before the phase conductor. Overcurrents do not need to be detected on the neutral conductor in any of the following cases: • the neutral conductor is protected against short-circuit by a protective device fitted upstream. whenever necessary. • the circuit is protected by a residual current device with rated residual current lower than 0. This device must disconnect all the live conductors. .2.Electrical devices 1SDC010014F0001 NOTE – A three-phase alternative power supply with a non-suitable 3-pole switch.5 Neutral and protective conductors 2 Protection of feeders Figure 3: Three-phase alternative power supply with non-suitable 3-pole switch L1 L2 L3 PEN PE L1 L2 L3 IT system: The Standard advises against distributing the neutral conductor in IT systems. the neutral conductor included. 80 ABB SACE . due to unintentional circular stray currents generating electromagnetic fields. shall ensure that: • the neutral conductor is not disconnected before the phase conductor. connection and disconnection of the neutral conductor.

5 Neutral and protective conductors 2 Protection of feeders START no Upstream protection for the neutral? yes TT/TN System? no yes SN ≥ S? no yes no Is the circuit protected by a RCD with I∆n≤ 0. It is not necessary to: -open the neutral contact.Electrical devices 81 1SDC010013F0201 .open all the contacts (phase and neutral) It is not necessary to: -detect the neutral current. -open the phase contacts. It is necessary to: -detect the neutral current. It is not necessary: -the presence of a breaking device for the neutral. -open the neutral contact. It is necessary to: . It is necessary to: -open the phase contacts It is not necessary to: -detect the neutral overcurrent. Neutral shall not be disconnected before the phase conductors Neutral shall be reconnected at the same time as or before the phase conductors ABB SACE .15 x Neutral carrying capacity ? yes Is the neutral protected by the short-circuit protection of the phase conductor? yes no Neutral max current < Neutral carrying capacity (Iz)? no yes It is necessary to: detect the neutral current in order to open all the contacts (phase and neutral).2.

Electrical devices . when the size of the line conductors is less than or equal to 16 mm2 in copper.2. if both the following conditions are met: • the cross section of the neutral conductor is at least 16 mm2 for copper conductors and 25 mm2 for aluminium conductors.1 “Current carrying capacity and methods of installation” 82 ABB SACE . two-wire circuits whatever the section. Table 1: Minimum cross sections of the neutral conductor Phase cross section S [mm2] Single-phase/two-phase circuits Cu/Al Any Three-phase circuits S ≤ 16 Cu S > 16 Three-phase circuits S ≤ 25 Al S > 25 Min. • there is no high harmonic distortion of the load current. if any.1 The cross section of the neutral conductor can be less than the cross section of the phase conductor when the cross section of the phase conductor is greater than 16 mm2 with a copper cable. or 25 mm2 with an aluminium cable. as for example in equipment with discharge lamps. • in polyphase and single-phase three-wire circuits. neutral cross section SN [mm2] S* S* 16 S* 25 * for TN-C systems.5 Neutral and protective conductors 2 Protection of feeders Determination of the minimum cross section of the neutral conductor The neutral conductor. the Standards specify a minimum cross section of 10 mm2 for copper and 16 mm2 for aluminium conductors 1 The cross section of phase conductors shall be dimensioned in compliance with the instructions of the Chapter 2.2. If there is high harmonic distortion (the harmonic content is greater than 10%). shall have the same cross section as the line conductor: • in single-phase. the cross section of the neutral conductor cannot be less than the cross section of the phase conductors. or 25 mm2 in aluminium.

* For a PEN conductor. ABB SACE . 2 S 16 < S ≤ 25 16* k1 . For a more accurate calculation and if the protective conductor is subjected to adiabatic heating from an initial known temperature to a final specified temperature (applicable for fault extinction time no longer than 5s). S k2 2 Where 1SDC010014F0201 k1 is the value of k for the line conductor.s. selected from Table 1 Chapter 2.2.4 according to the materials of the conductor and insulation. the minimum cross section of the protective conductor SPE can be obtained by using the following formula: SPE = I 2t k (1) where: • SPE is the cross section of the protective conductor [mm2]. 16 k 2 S > 25 S* 2 k1 . k2 is the value of k for the protective conductor. • t is the trip time of the protective device [s].Electrical devices 83 . the reduction of the cross section is permitted only in accordance with the rules for sizing of the neutral conductor. current flowing through the protective conductor in the event of a fault with low impedance [A].5 Neutral and protective conductors 2 Protection of feeders Protective conductor Determination of the minimum cross sections The minimum cross section of the protective conductor can be determined by using the following table: Table 2: Cross section of the protective conductor Cross section of line conductor S [mm2 ] Minimum cross section of the corresponding protective conductor [mm2 ] If the protective conductor is of the same material as the line conductor If the protective conductor is not of the same material as the line conductor S ≤ 16 S k k1 . • I is the r.m.

Temperature limits for various types of insulation are given in IEC 60724. Table 4: Values of k for protective conductors as a core incorporated in a cable or bunched with other cables or insulated conductors Temperature °C b Initial 70 °C PVC 90 °C PVC 90 °C thermosetting 60 °C rubber 85 °C rubber Silicon rubber a b Material of conductor Copper 115/103 a 100/86 a 143 141 134 132 Aluminium Values for k 76/68 a 66/57 a 94 93 89 87 42/37 a 36/31 a 52 51 47 1SDC010015F0201 Conductor insulation Steel Final 160/140 a 160/140 a 250 200 220 350 70 90 90 60 85 180 48 The lower value applies to PVC insulated conductors of cross section greater than 300 mm2.5 Neutral and protective conductors 2 Protection of feeders • k is a constant which depends on the material of the protective conductor. The most common values can be taken from Tables 3 and 4. on the type of insulation and on initial and final temperature.2. 84 ABB SACE .Electrical devices . Temperature limits for various types of insulation are given in IEC 60724. Table 3: Values of k for insulated protective conductors not incorporated in cables and not bunched with other cables Temperature °C b Initial 70 °C PVC 90 °C PVC 90 °C thermosetting 60 °C rubber 85 °C rubber Silicon rubber a b Material of conductor Copper 143/133 a 143/133 176 159 168 201 a Conductor insulation Aluminium Values for k 95/88 a 95/88 116 105 110 133 2 a Steel 52/49 a 52/49 a 64 58 73 1SDC010015F0201 Final 160/140 a 143/133 250 200 220 350 a 30 30 30 30 30 30 60 The lower value applies to PVC insulated conductors of cross section greater than 300 mm .

a larger standardized cross section shall be chosen. which provides the formula for accurate calculation of the value of k. For current using equipment intended for permanent connection and with a protective conductor current exceeding 10 mA.5 mm2 Cu/16 mm2 Al. through its total run. When overcurrent protective devices are used for protection against electric shock. the cross section of the protective conductor. ABB SACE . which is not part of the supply cable.2. Regardless of whether Table 2 or formula (1) are used. if a mechanical protection is provided. This requires that the appliance has a separate terminal for a second protective conductor. If Table 2 or formula (1) do not provide a standardized cross section. reinforced protective conductors shall be designed as follows: • either the protective conductor shall have a cross-sectional area of at least 10 mm2 Cu or 16 mm2 Al. if no mechanical protection ise provided. shall be at least: . .2.5 Neutral and protective conductors 2 Protection of feeders Further values of k can be taken from the Tables in Annex D. • or a second protective conductor of at least the same cross-sectional area as required for protection against indirect contact shall be laid up to a point where the protective conductor has a cross-sectional area not less than 10 mm2 Cu or 16 mm2 Al. the protective conductor shall be incorporated in the same wiring system as the live conductors or be located in their immediate proximity.4 mm2 Cu/16 mm2 Al.Electrical devices 85 .

IEC 60439 – 1 “Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies – Part 1: Type-tested and partially type-tested assemblies” .pull boxes: elements that enable lamps or operating machines to be supplied directly with integrated protection (fuses or circuit breakers).straight elements: base elements of the line for carrying energy from the source to the loads. BTSs consist of: .supplying moving equipment (bridge cranes). . .suspensions/accessories: hanging and fixing elements for BTS and for any support required for special loads (lighting components. .IEC 60439 – 2 “Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies – Part 2: Particular requirements for busbar trunking systems (busways)”.conductors/busbars. .6 Busbar trunking systems (BTSs) In electrical installations for industrial environments. Dimensioning of a BTS To dimension a BTS.supplying sources of light. . replacement of loads) and to facilitate maintenance work and safety verifications. power and cosϕ and type of loads supplied by the same BTS 86 ABB SACE . .Electrical devices . horizontal and vertical angles.power supply and distribution (medium and large power). busbar trunking systems (BTSs) optimize the power distribution despite the inevitable modifications that are carried out (additions. .single-phase .central power supply.three-phase. displacements.from both ends. Loads • Number.lighting lines (medium power).2 Protection of feeders 2.from one end. distribution. .coupling: electrical and mechanical connecting elements for different elements. etc). • Rated voltage • Short-circuit current at the supply point • Ambient temperature. . • Type of BTS supply: . They are mainly used for: . tee joints and cross elements to create any type of route. . Busbar trunking systems are subject to the following Standards: .routing elements: flexible joints for the creation of curves or overcoming obstacles. safety and low power distribution. the load current must be determined using the following data: Power supply • General type of load supply: .

Table 1: Correction factor kt for ambient temperature other than 40 °C Ambient Temperature [°C] 15 kt 1. .17 25 1.2. which is: .85 ABB SACE . .edge-on. • kt is the correction factor for ambient temperature values other than the reference ambient temperature shown on Table 1. • Ib is the load current.2 20 1. • Ur is the operating voltage [V]. . If possible. • cosϕm is the average power factor of the loads. • Length. it is preferable to install the BTS edge-on so as to improve mechanical resistance and reduce any possible deposit of powder and polluting substances that might affect the level of internal insulation. kt = I Z (2) where: • IZ0 is the current that the BTS can carry for an indefinite time at the reference temperature (40 °C).U .vertical.08 35 1.12 30 1. cos 3 r [A] m (1) where: • Pt is the sum of the active power of all the installed loads [W]. NOTE: BTSs shall be placed at a distance from the walls and the ceilings in such a way as to enable visual inspection of connections during assembly and to facilitate insertion of the branch units.Electrical devices 87 . b .6 Busbar trunking systems 2 Protection of feeders BTS geometry • Type of installation: . Load current calculation for three-phase system Load current Ib for a three-phase system is calculated by the following formula: Ib = Pt .flat.95 50 0. Choice of BTS current carrying capacity A BTS shall be chosen so that its current carrying capacity Iz complies with the following formula: I b ≤ I Z 0 .1 if the BTS is supplied from one side only. • b is the supply factor.05 40 1 45 0.1/2 if the BTS is supplied from the centre or from both ends simultaneously.

122 0.792 1. Cu SB4 700A 4 cond.188 0.335 0.144 1.p.205 0.574 0. Cu MRf 315A 5 cond.314 0. Cu MR 630A 4 cond.194 0.216 0. Cu HL404 40A 4 cond. Cu HL254 25A 4 cond. Cu SL 63A 4 cond.285 0.142 0.314 0. Cu MRf 630A 5 cond.115 0. Cu MR 400A 4 cond. Cu SB6 160A 5 cond.216 0.142 0. Cu SB6 250A 5 cond.092 0. Cu MRf 250A 5 cond.6 Busbar trunking systems 2 Protection of feeders Note: the following tables refer to Zucchini S.790 0.314 0. Cu SB5 700A 5 cond. Cu SB5 160A 5 cond.129 0. Cu MR 315A 4 cond.290 0.073 0.142 0.122 Ur [V] 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 500 500 500 500 1000 1000 500 500 500 500 1000 1000 500 500 500 500 1000 1000 500 500 500 500 1000 1000 500 500 88 ABB SACE . Cu SB4 350A 4 cond.400 1.188 0.580 1.188 0.122 0.194 0.188 0. Cu HL4044 40A 4+4 cond.129 0.142 0. Cu LB404 40A 4 cond.092 0.092 0.077 0.516 3.188 0.205 0.077 xph [mΩ/m] 1.115 0.876 6.129 0.876 3.205 0.637 0.194 0. Cu SB6 500A 5 cond.400 0.580 0. Cu MRf 400A 5 cond.129 0.366 0. Cu MS 160A 4 cond.173 1. Cu SB5 500A 5 cond. Cu SB4 250A 4 cond.247 0.A.556 3. products Table 2: Current carrying capacity IZ0 of copper BTS Size 25 25 25 40 40 40 40 63 100 160 160 160 160 160 250 250 250 250 250 250 315 315 350 350 350 350 400 400 500 500 500 500 630 630 700 700 Type LB254 25A 4 cond.335 0.194 0. Cu SB6 350A 5 cond. Cu SB4 500A 4 cond. Cu SB5 250A 5 cond.129 0. Cu SB7 250A 4 cond.122 0. Cu MR 250A 4 cond. Cu MS 100A 4 cond.335 0.964 6. Cu SB4 160A 4 cond.285 0. Cu Number of conductors 4 4 4+4 4 4 4+4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 4 4 5 4 5 5 4 4 5 4 5 5 4 4 5 4 5 5 4 4 5 4 5 IZ0 [A] 25 25 25 40 40 40 40 63 100 160 160 160 160 160 250 250 250 250 250 250 315 315 350 350 350 350 400 400 500 500 500 500 630 630 700 700 rph* [mΩ/m] 6.Electrical devices .335 0.648 0.092 0. Cu SB7 350A 4 cond. Cu SL 40A 4 cond. Cu HL2544 25A 4+4 cond.2. Cu SB7 160A 4 cond.188 0.205 0.314 0. Cu SB7 500A 4 cond.516 2.129 0. Cu SB5 350A 5 cond.205 0.073 0.205 0.

013 0.005 0.097 0. Cu SB4 800A 4 cond.034 0. Cu SB6 800A 5 cond.016 0.035 0.030 0.122 0.2.120 0.068 0. Cu SC 800A 4 cond.031 0.122 0.072 0.068 0.120 0.120 0.122 0. Cu HRC1 2000A 4 cond. Cu SC 4000A 4 cond.038 0. Cu MR 800A 4 cond.020 0.120 0.038 0.011 0. Cu SC 1000A 4 cond.068 0.037 0. Cu SC 3000A 4 cond.023 0. Cu SB4 1000A 4 cond. Cu SC 2400A 4 cond. Cu SC 3200A 4 cond.015 0.014 0.027 0.Electrical devices 89 . Cu SC 1250A 4 cond. Cu SC 2000A 4 cond.077 0.074 0.074 0.122 0.072 0. Cu Number of conductors 5 4 4 5 4 4 5 5 4 4 5 4 4 4 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 IZ0 [A] 700 700 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1200 1250 1250 1500 1600 1600 2000 2000 2400 2500 2500 3000 3000 3200 3200 4000 4000 5000 5000 rph* [mΩ/m] 0. Cu SB5 1000A 5 cond.122 0.072 0.009 0. Cu SB7 1000A 4 cond.025 0. Cu MRf 1000A 5 cond. Cu HRC2 4000A 4 cond.047 0.015 0.017 0.035 0. Cu SB7 700A 4 cond. Cu HRC1 1000A 4 cond.122 0.040 0.008 xph [mΩ/m] 0. Cu HRC2 3200A 4 cond.031 0. Cu SB5 800A 5 cond. Cu MRf 800A 5 cond. Cu SC 5000A 4 cond.012 0.026 0.120 0. Cu SC 1200A 4 cond.076 0. Cu SC 1600A 4 cond.007 0. Cu HRC1 1600A 4 cond.018 0. Cu HRC1 1250A 4 cond.021 0.068 0.025 0.038 0. Cu SB7 800A 4 cond.122 0. Cu MR 1000A 4 cond.047 0. Cu SC 1500A 4 cond.011 0. Cu HRC2 5000A 4 cond. Cu SC 2500A 4 cond.023 Ur [V] 500 500 1000 1000 1000 500 500 500 500 1000 1000 1000 1000 500 500 500 500 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 *phase resistance at Iz0 ABB SACE . Cu HRC1 2500A 4 cond.022 0.122 0.026 0.008 0. Cu HRC2 3000A 4 cond.077 0.038 0.011 0.072 0.011 0.120 0.019 0.019 0.034 0. Cu SB6 1000A 5 cond.6 Busbar trunking systems 2 Protection of feeders Size 700 700 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1200 1250 1250 1500 1600 1600 2000 2000 2400 2500 2500 3000 3000 3200 3200 4000 4000 5000 5000 Type SB6 700A 5 cond.

102 0.186 0.236 0.202 0. Al MRf 250A 5 cond.130 0.097 0.260 0.260 0. Al SB7 160A 4 cond. Al SB4 500A 4 cond.202 0. Al SB4 160A 4 cond. Al SB5 160A 5 cond.431 0. Al SB5 500A 5 cond. Al SC 630A 4 cond. Al MRf 630A 5 cond. Al SB7 250A 4 cond.186 0.186 0.202 0.181 0. Al MR 315A 4 cond.260 0. Al SB6 400A 5 cond.394 0.394 0. Al SB7 500A 4 cond.260 0.072 0.Electrical devices .6 Busbar trunking systems 2 Protection of feeders Table 3: Current carrying capacity IZ0 of aluminium BTS Size 160 160 160 160 160 160 250 250 250 250 250 250 315 315 315 315 315 315 400 400 400 400 400 400 500 500 500 500 630 630 630 Type MR 160A 4 cond. Al SB4 315A 4 cond. Al Number of conductors 4 5 4 5 5 4 4 5 4 5 5 4 4 5 4 5 5 4 4 5 4 5 5 4 4 5 5 4 4 5 4 IZ0 [A] 160 160 160 160 160 160 250 250 250 250 250 250 315 315 315 315 315 315 400 400 400 400 400 400 500 500 500 500 630 630 630 rph* [mΩ/m] 0.181 0. Al SB6 500A 5 cond.102 0.144 0.186 0.431 0.260 0.097 0.125 0.130 0.431 0. Al SB5 315A 5 cond. Al MR 630A 4 cond.181 0.226 0.591 0.029 Ur [V] 1000 1000 500 500 500 500 1000 1000 500 500 500 500 1000 1000 500 500 500 500 1000 1000 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 1000 1000 1000 90 ABB SACE .127 0.102 0. Al MRf 400A 5 cond.130 0.202 0.125 0. Al SB5 250A 5 cond.072 0. Al SB5 400A 5 cond.236 0.431 0.181 0.202 0.072 xph [mΩ/m] 0.226 0. Al SB7 400A 4 cond. Al MRf 160A 5 cond.127 0.102 0. Al MR 400A 4 cond. Al SB4 400A 4 cond.130 0.202 0.127 0.226 0.186 0. Al MRf 315A 5 cond.186 0. Al SB6 250A 5 cond. Al SB4 250A 4 cond.127 0. Al MR 250A 4 cond.130 0.226 0.260 0.591 0.125 0. Al SB6 160A 5 cond.2.125 0.130 0. Al SB7 315A 4 cond.144 0. Al SB6 315A 5 cond.

2.6 Busbar trunking systems

2 Protection of feeders

Size 630 630 630 630 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 1000 1000 1200 1250 1250 1500 1600 1600 2000 2000 2250 2400 2500 2500 3000 3200 3200 4000 4000 4500

Type SB4 630A 4 cond. Al SB5 630A 5 cond. Al SB6 630A 5 cond. Al SB7 630A 4 cond. Al MR 800A 4 cond. Al MRf 800A 5 cond. Al SC 800A 4 cond. Al SB4 800A 4 cond. Al SB5 800A 5 cond. Al SB6 800A 5 cond. Al SB7 800A 4 cond. Al SC 1000A 4 cond. Al HRC1 1000A 4 cond. Al SC 1200A 4 cond. Al SC 1250A 4 cond. Al HRC1 1250A 4 cond. Al SC 1500A 4 cond. Al SC 1600A 4 cond. Al HRC1 1600A 4 cond. Al SC 2000A 4 cond. Al HRC1 2000A 4 cond. Al HRC2 2250A 4 cond. Al SC 2400A 4 cond. Al SC 2500A 4 cond. Al HRC2 2500A 4 cond. Al SC 3000A 4 cond. Al SC 3200A 4 cond. Al HRC2 3200A 4 cond. Al SC 4000A 4 cond. Al HRC2 4000A 4 cond. Al HRC2 4500A 4 cond. Al

Number of conductors 4 5 5 4 4 5 4 4 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

IZ0 [A] 630 630 630 630 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 1000 1000 1200 1250 1250 1500 1600 1600 2000 2000 2250 2400 2500 2500 3000 3200 3200 4000 4000 4500

rph* [mΩ/m] 0.073 0.073 0.073 0.073 0.062 0.062 0.067 0.071 0.071 0.071 0.071 0.062 0.068 0.054 0.044 0.044 0.041 0.035 0.041 0.029 0.034 0.032 0.028 0.022 0.022 0.020 0.017 0.020 0.014 0.017 0.014

xph [mΩ/m] 0.097 0.097 0.097 0.097 0.096 0.096 0.027 0.096 0.096 0.096 0.096 0.023 0.087 0.023 0.021 0.066 0.023 0.017 0.066 0.016 0.053 0.049 0.012 0.011 0.034 0.011 0.009 0.034 0.008 0.024 0.024

Ur [V] 500 500 500 500 1000 1000 1000 500 500 500 500 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000

*phase resistance at Iz0

ABB SACE - Electrical devices

91

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BTS protection
Protection against overload BTSs are protected against overload by using the same criterion as that used for the cables. The following formula shall be verified:

I b ≤ In ≤ I z

(3)

where: • Ib is the current for which the circuit is designed; • In is the rated current of the protective device; for adjustable protective devices, the rated current In is the set current; • Iz is the continuous current carrying capacity of the BTS.

1 The protection against short-circuit does not need to be checked if MCBs up to 63 A are used whenever correctly dimensioned for overload protection. In such cases, in fact, protection against both thermal and electrodynamic effects is certainly adequate because of the energy and peak limitations offered by these protective devices.

Protection against short-circuit1 The BTS must be protected against thermal overload and electrodynamic effects due to the short-circuit current. Protection against thermal overload The following formula shall be fulfilled:

I2t CB ≤ I2t BTS (4)
where: • I2tCB is the specific let-through energy of the circuit-breaker at the maximum short-circuit current value at the installation point. This can be extrapolated from the curves shown in Volume 1 Chapter 3.4; • I2tBTS is the withstood energy of the BTS and it is normally given by the manufacturer (see Tables 4 and 5).

Protection against electrodynamic effects The following formula shall be fulfilled:

Ikp CB ≤ Ikp BTS (5)
where: • Ikp CB is the peak limited by the circuit-breaker at the maximum short-circuit current value at the installation point. This can be extrapolated from the limitation curves shown in Volume 1, Chapter 3.3; • Ikp BTS is the maximum peak current value of the BTS (see Tables 4 and 5).

92

ABB SACE - Electrical devices

2.6 Busbar trunking systems

2 Protection of feeders
START

Ib

Temperature <> 40 °C ?

yes

no

kt=1

kt from Table 1

BTS choice

(I b < kt*IZ0 =IZ )

Voltage drop OK ?

no

yes
Circuit-breaker choice

Ib < InCB < IZ ?
yes

no

I2 t CB < I2 t BTS ?
yes

IkpCB < I kp BTS ?
yes

no

END

1SDC010017F0201

no

ABB SACE - Electrical devices

93

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2 Protection of feeders
Table 4: Values of the withstood energy and peak current of copper BTS
Size 25 25 25 40 40 40 40 63 100 160 160 160 160 160 250 250 250 250 250 250 315 315 350 350 350 350 400 400 500 500 500 500 630 630 700 700 Type LB254 25A 4 cond. Cu HL254 25A 4 cond. Cu HL2544 25A 4+4 cond. Cu LB404 40A 4 cond. Cu HL404 40A 4 cond. Cu HL4044 40A 4+4 cond. Cu SL 40A 4 cond. Cu SL 63A 4 cond. Cu MS 100A 4 cond. Cu MS 160A 4 cond. Cu SB4 160A 4 cond. Cu SB5 160A 5 cond. Cu SB6 160A 5 cond. Cu SB7 160A 4 cond. Cu MR 250A 4 cond. Cu MRf 250A 5 cond. Cu SB4 250A 4 cond. Cu SB5 250A 5 cond. Cu SB6 250A 5 cond. Cu SB7 250A 4 cond. Cu MR 315A 4 cond. Cu MRf 315A 5 cond. Cu SB4 350A 4 cond. Cu SB5 350A 5 cond. Cu SB6 350A 5 cond. Cu SB7 350A 4 cond. Cu MR 400A 4 cond. Cu MRf 400A 5 cond. Cu SB4 500A 4 cond. Cu SB5 500A 5 cond. Cu SB6 500A 5 cond. Cu SB7 500A 4 cond. Cu MR 630A 4 cond. Cu MRf 630A 5 cond. Cu SB4 700A 4 cond. Cu SB5 700A 5 cond. Cu I2tph [(kA)2s] 0.48 0.64 0.64 0.73 1 1 7.29 7.29 20.25 30.25 100 100 100 100 312.5 312.5 169 169 169 169 312.5 312.5 169 169 169 169 900 900 756.25 756.25 756.25 756.25 1296 1296 756.25 756.25 I2tN [(kA)2s] 0.48 0.64 0.64 0.73 1 1 7.29 7.29 20.25 30.25 60 100 100 100 187.5 312.5 101.4 169 169 169 187.5 312.5 101.4 169 169 169 540 900 453.75 756.25 756.25 756.25 777.6 1296 453.75 756.25 I2tPE [(kA)2s] 0.48 0.64 0.64 0.73 1 1 7.29 7.29 20.25 30.25 60 100 100 100 187.5 312.5 101.4 169 169 169 187.5 312.5 101.4 169 169 169 540 900 453.75 756.25 756.25 756.25 777.6 1296 453.75 756.25 Ipeakph [kA] 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 17 17 17 17 52.5 52.5 26 26 26 26 52.5 52.5 26 26 26 26 63 63 58 58 58 58 75.6 75.6 58 58 IpeakN [kA] 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 31.5 31.5 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.6 31.5 31.5 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.6 37.8 37.8 34.8 34.8 34.8 34.8 45.4 45.4 34.8 34.8

94

ABB SACE - Electrical devices

Cu HRC1 2000A 4 cond.25 756.4 63 116.4 45.4 2940 18585. Cu SB6 800A 5 cond.8 34. Cu SC 5000A 4 cond. Cu HRC2 3000A 4 cond.25 756.2 118.25 1296 1296 3969 756.4 232.4 4646.75 756.6 1296 2381.8 232.25 756.4 960 614.6 139 84 60 60 60 60 194 194 105 194 194 105 194 132 194 194 154 387 198 387 198 387 198 387 220 IpeakN [kA] 34.8 45.2 116. Cu SB7 1000A 4 cond. Cu SC 1600A 4 cond.25 756. Cu SC 1200A 4 cond. Cu SC 2000A 4 cond.8 34.2 132 ABB SACE . Cu HRC2 3200A 4 cond.6 1296 2381.6 1296 3969 1600 614.4 79.4 4646.4 36 36 36 36 116.25 777.4 34.6 1296 3969 453. Cu SB4 1000A 4 cond.25 756. Cu MRf 800A 5 cond. Cu SB4 800A 4 cond. Cu SC 1250A 4 cond. Cu I2tph [(kA)2s] 756. Cu SB7 700A 4 cond. Cu MR 800A 4 cond.8 232. Cu HRC2 4000A 4 cond. Cu SC 2500A 4 cond. Cu SB6 1000A 5 cond.6 4860 18585.4 116.4 63 116.4 92. Cu MRf 1000A 5 cond.25 756.4 1500 4646.6 75.25 756.25 756. Cu HRC1 1250A 4 cond.75 756. Cu SC 3000A 4 cond.25 777.4 1024 1024 1024 4646.2.6 75. Cu SC 4000A 4 cond. Cu SB5 800A 5 cond.25 756.2 118. Cu SC 1000A 4 cond. Cu SC 1500A 4 cond. Cu HRC1 1000A 4 cond. Cu SC 800A 4 cond. Cu HRC2 5000A 4 cond. Cu HRC1 2500A 4 cond.4 1500 4646.4 45.4 1024 1024 1024 7744 7744 2500 7744 7744 2500 7744 3600 7744 7744 4900 30976 8100 30976 8100 30976 8100 30976 10000 I2tPE [(kA)2s] 756.4 116.25 756.6 6000 Ipeakph [kA] 58 58 75.4 50. Cu SC 3200A 4 cond.8 45.4 4646.25 1296 1296 3969 1600 1024 1024 1024 1024 7744 7744 2500 7744 7744 2500 7744 3600 7744 7744 4900 30976 8100 30976 8100 30976 8100 30976 10000 I2tN [(kA)2s] 756. Cu SC 2400A 4 cond.Electrical devices 95 .4 453.4 83.4 83.4 116.6 4860 18585.25 777.6 Busbar trunking systems 2 Protection of feeders Size 700 700 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1200 1250 1250 1500 1600 1600 2000 2000 2400 2500 2500 3000 3000 3200 3200 4000 4000 5000 5000 Type SB6 700A 5 cond.8 34.8 34.2 118.4 2160 4646.6 4860 18585. Cu MR 1000A 4 cond.25 777. Cu SB5 1000A 5 cond. Cu SB7 800A 4 cond.8 232. Cu HRC1 1600A 4 cond.6 139 58 58 58 58 75.

5 52. Al SC 630A 4 cond. Al SB6 400A 5 cond. Al SB7 400A 4 cond. Al SB4 160A 4 cond.6 Busbar trunking systems 2 Protection of feeders Table 5: Values of the withstood energy and peak current of aluminium BTS Size 160 160 160 160 160 160 250 250 250 250 250 250 315 315 315 315 315 315 400 400 400 400 400 400 500 500 500 500 630 630 630 Type MR 160A 4 cond.5 45.5 26 26 26 26 63 63 52.2 10.2 10. Al SB5 160A 5 cond.5 31.5 52. Al SB4 400A 4 cond.5 52.5 52.5 52.4 169 169 169 540 900 375 625 625 625 375 625 625 625 777.5 52. Al SB7 315A 4 cond. Al MRf 160A 5 cond.5 52.5 100 100 100 100 312. Al SB7 160A 4 cond.6 31. Al SB6 315A 5 cond.4 169 169 169 375 625 101.5 31.6 1296 1444 I2tPE [(kA)2s] 67. Al MRf 630A 5 cond. Al SB7 250A 4 cond.6 15.5 112.5 31.4 45.5 312. Al SB5 315A 5 cond.2.5 60 100 100 100 187.4 169 169 169 540 900 375 625 625 625 375 625 625 625 777.5 15.6 15. Al MRf 400A 5 cond.5 15.6 15.5 31. Al MR 250A 4 cond. Al SB5 500A 5 cond.6 1296 866.6 15.5 101.6 37.5 31. Al SB4 315A 4 cond.5 60 100 100 100 187. Al SB4 500A 4 cond.6 15.6 80 IpeakN [kA] 18 18 10. Al SB7 500A 4 cond.5 312.Electrical devices . Al MRf 250A 5 cond. Al MRf 315A 5 cond.5 112.8 37. Al SB6 160A 5 cond. Al I2tph [(kA)2s] 112.5 31.2 10. Al MR 400A 4 cond.5 31.6 15.5 112. Al SB5 250A 5 cond. Al MR 630A 4 cond. Al SB4 250A 4 cond.5 26 26 26 26 52.8 31.5 31.5 169 169 169 169 625 625 169 169 169 169 900 900 625 625 625 625 625 625 625 625 1296 1296 1444 I2tN [(kA)2s] 67.5 312.4 48 96 ABB SACE .5 75.5 52.5 52.2 31.4 Ipeakph [kA] 30 30 17 17 17 17 52. Al SB6 250A 5 cond.4 169 169 169 375 625 101. Al MR 315A 4 cond. Al SB6 500A 5 cond. Al SB5 400A 5 cond.5 31.6 75.5 101.

6 1296 1058.6 88 67.5 176 84 176 176 105 176 176 105 176 132 154 352 352 198 352 352 198 352 198 220 IpeakN [kA] 40.6 105. Al SB6 630A 5 cond.5 67. Al HRC2 4500A 4 cond.5 67.5 45. Al HRC1 1250A 4 cond.2. Al HRC2 2250A 4 cond. Al SB6 800A 5 cond.4 1024 1024 1024 3840 960 3840 3840 1500 3840 3840 1500 3840 2160 2940 15360 15360 4860 15360 15360 4860 15360 4860 6000 Ipeakph [kA] 67.2 118. Al SC 4000A 4 cond. Al SC 3200A 4 cond. Al SC 1200A 4 cond.4 1024 1024 1024 6400 1600 6400 6400 2500 6400 6400 2500 6400 3600 4900 25600 25600 8100 25600 25600 8100 25600 8100 10000 I2tPE [(kA)2s] 614. Al SB4 800A 4 cond. Al SC 2000A 4 cond. Al MR 800A 4 cond. Al SC 1500A 4 cond.6 79. Al HRC2 4000A 4 cond.4 1024 1024 1024 777.4 45.8 40. Al SB5 800A 5 cond.5 75. Al SC 1000A 4 cond.2 211.4 211.5 40.5 40. Al SC 2400A 4 cond.4 1024 1024 1024 777. Al SC 800A 4 cond. Al MRf 800A 5 cond.5 40. Al I2tph [(kA)2s] 1024 1024 1024 1024 1296 1296 1764 1024 1024 1024 1024 6400 1600 6400 6400 2500 6400 6400 2500 6400 3600 4900 25600 25600 8100 25600 25600 8100 25600 8100 10000 I2tN [(kA)2s] 614. Al HRC1 1600A 4 cond.8 132 ABB SACE .8 211.6 1296 1764 614. Al HRC1 2000A 4 cond. Al SB7 800A 4 cond.4 614.Electrical devices 97 . Al SC 1600A 4 cond.5 105. Al HRC2 3200A 4 cond. Al HRC1 1000A 4 cond.5 67.4 105. Al SB7 630A 4 cond.5 67.6 75.4 52.5 40.2 92.6 63 105. Al SC 2500A 4 cond.5 67.6 105.6 50.5 67.5 40. Al SB5 630A 5 cond.5 40.6 63 105.6 Busbar trunking systems 2 Protection of feeders Size 630 630 630 630 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 1000 1000 1200 1250 1250 1500 1600 1600 2000 2000 2250 2400 2500 2500 3000 3200 3200 4000 4000 4500 Type SB4 630A 4 cond.2 211. Al SC 3000A 4 cond.2 118.8 211.2 118. Al HRC2 2500A 4 cond. Al SC 1250A 4 cond.

In explosive environments and environments with greater risk of fire. the value of the voltage drop must be verified. sin m ) [V] (6a) For single-phase BTS the formula is: ∆ u= a .protection against short-circuit: there is no need to protect the feeder against the short-circuit if simultaneously: a. is not already protected against short-circuit and overload by the device located upstream of the cable. protection against overload can also be provided by the circuit breakers protecting the single outgoing feeder from the panel only if the sum of their rated currents is lower or equal to the current carrying capacity Iz of the outgoing feeder. b. It is therefore necessary to protect also the feeder against overload. 2 . L. the following measures shall be taken: .2. c. as shown in Table 6: 98 ABB SACE . inside the pull box. Ib . the overload protection device shall be installed at the outgoing point. cos m + x . 3 . Voltage drop If a BTS is particularly long. In the latter case. sin 1000 m ) [V] (6b) where: • a is the current distribution factor.6 Busbar trunking systems 2 Protection of feeders Protection of the outgoing feeders If the outgoing feeder. Ib . the voltage drop can be calculated by using the following simplified formula: ∆u= a . In locations with greater risk of fire. ( rt . which generally consists of cable duct. L. protection against short-circuit is always required. The protection device against overload can be placed inside the pull box or on the incoming panel. i.Electrical devices . there is no inflammable material nearby. the risk of short-circuit is minimized.8. . ( rt . which depends on the circuit supply and the arrangement of the electric loads along the BTS. cos 1000 m + x . For three-phase systems with a power factor (cosϕm) not lower than 0.protection against overload: the current carrying capacity of the feeder is generally lower than that of the BTS. the length does not exceed 3 metres.e.

Calculation of voltage drop for unevenly distributed loads If the loads cannot be considered to be evenly distributed. the voltage drop can be calculated by the following formula if the BTS has a constant cross section (as usual): ∆u = 3[ rt ( I 1L1 cos 1+ I 2 L2 cos 2 + I 3 L3 cos 3 ) + x( I 1L1 sin 1 + I 2 L2 sin 2 + I 3 L3 sin 3 )] ABB SACE .125 • Ib is the load current [A]. measured under thermal steady-state conditions [mΩ/m]. the voltage drop can be calculated more accurately by using the formulas below.Electrical devices 99 1SDC010015F0001 . ∆u . Percentage voltage drop is obtained from: ∆ u% = where Ur is rated voltage. • x is the phase reactance per unit of length of BTS [mΩ/m]. • L is the BTS length [m]. • rt is the phase resistance per unit of length of BTS.5 0. • cosϕm is average power factor of the loads. L3 L2 L1 l1 l2 l3 L L L For the distribution of the three-phase loads shown in the figure.25 0. 100 Ur (7) To reduce the voltage drop in very long BTS the power can be supplied at an intermediate position rather than at the end (see Table 6).25 0.2.6 Busbar trunking systems 2 Protection of feeders Table 6: Current distribution factor Type of supply From one end only From both ends Central Arrangement of loads Load concentrated at the end Evenly distributed load Evenly distributed load Load concentrated at the ends Evenly distributed load Current distribution factor 1 0.

I b . rt . • cosϕm is average power factor of the i-th load. sin mi [V] (8) where: • rt is the phase resistance per unit of length of BTS. I i .6 Busbar trunking systems 2 Protection of feeders Generally speaking. rt . Calculation of power losses is useful for correctly dimensioning the air-conditioning system for the building. • x is the phase reactance per unit of length of BTS [mΩ/m]. cos mi + x . Three-phase losses are: 2 3 . I b . • L is the length of BTS [m]. e. Joule-effect losses Joule-effect losses are due to the electrical resistance of the BTS. The losses are dissipated in heat and contribute to the heating of the trunking and of the environment.g. L [W] (9a) 1000 Pj = while single-phase losses are: 2 2 . • rt is the phase resistance per unit of length of BTS measured under thermal steady-state conditions [mΩ/m]. this formula becomes: ∆u = 3 rt . Li . • Ii is i-th load current [A]. Li . in the case of distribution of loads shown in the previous figure: Length L1 L2-L1 L3-L2 Current I1+I2+I3 I2+I3 I3 Losses P1=3rtL1(I1+I2+I3)2 P2=3rt(L2-L1)(I2+I3)2 P3=3rt(L3-L2)(I3)2 Ptot=P1+P2+P3 1° section 2° section 3° section Total losses in BTS 100 ABB SACE . L [W] (9b) 1000 Pj = where: • Ib is the current used [A]. 1000 I i . losses must be assessed section by section on the basis of the currents flowing through them. • Li is the distance of the i-th load from the beginning of the BTS [m]. For accurate calculations. measured under thermal steady-state conditions [mΩ/m].Electrical devices .2.

Electrical devices 101 1SDC010003F0901 . Subsequently.halogen. Time [minutes] The most commonly used lamps are of the following types: . metal halide and sodium vapour. the resistance value increases considerably. there may also be an inrush current with a value of approximately 1. Incandescent lamps Incandescent lamps are made up of a glass bulb containing a vacuum or inert gas and a tungsten filament. . lasting up to some minutes. .fluorescent.5÷3 times the rated current. and is present for a few milliseconds.5 min. initially cold. . Peak current diagram I [A] Peak Inrush current diagram I [A] 15÷20 In Inrush In 1. causing the decrease in the current absorbed. presents a very low electrical resistance. The electrical behaviour of these lamps involves a high peak current. due to the very fast heating of the element.5÷3 In 4-5 milliseconds Time [milliseconds] 3. ABB SACE .high intensity discharge: mercury vapour.3 Protection of electrical equipment 3. The current flows through this filament. The peak is caused by the lamp filament which.1 Protection and switching of lighting circuits Introduction Upon supply of a lighting installation. This possible peak has a value of approximately 15÷20 times the rated current. The correct dimensioning of the switching and protection devices must take these problems into account. heating it until light is emitted. for a brief period an initial current exceeding the rated current (corresponding to the power of the lamps) circulates on the network. equal to approximately 15 times the rated current.incandescent. after a few milliseconds the current returns to the rated value.

the presence of the capacitor allows the reduction of the turnon time to a few seconds. . Once the lamp has been switched on. in turn.1 Protection and switching of lighting circuits 3 Protection of electrical equipment Halogen lamps Halogen lamps are a special type of incandescent lamp in which the gas contained within the bulb prevents the vaporized material of the tungsten filament from depositing on the surface of the bulb and forces re-deposition on the filament. quartz. the initial transient current may lead to peak currents equal to. a lower dissipation of heat. depending on the type of lamp) which contains mercury vapour at low pressure. using a controller (reactor). The colour of the light emitted depends upon the fluorescent material used. in some cases.6.non PFC lamps have inrush currents equal to approximately twice the rated current and a turn-on time of about ten seconds. this lowers the power factor to approximately 0. 102 ABB SACE . determined by the charge of the capacitor. the gas within the enclosure emits energy in the ultraviolet range which strikes the fluorescent material. 10 times the rated current. at maximum. which can reach 20 times the rated current. The value of the inrush current depends upon the presence of a power factor correction capacitor: . flicker-free light. The electrical behaviour of these lamps is the same as that of incandescent lamps. the gas offers an ever lower resistance. and it is necessary to stabilize the intensity of the current. which absorb from 10% to 20% of the rated power of the lamp.in PFC lamps. and ensure a stable. The discharge is created by an appropriate peak in voltage. a conventional or electronic controller.9 There are two types of controllers. normally a capacitor is added to increase the power factor to a value of more than 0. Some types of fluorescent lamps with electronic reactors do not need a starter. If the lamp is fitted with an electronic controller. improves the quality of the light emitted and increases the life of the lamp. generated by a starter.3.4÷0. This phenomenon slows the deterioration of the filament. magnetic (conventional) and electronic. this material transforms the ultraviolet radiation into radiation which has a wavelength within the visible spectrum. Compact fluorescent lamps are made up of a folded tube and a plastic base which contains.Electrical devices . Fluorescent lamps Fluorescent lamps are a so-called discharge light source. but requires a high peak current. Electronic controllers offer specific advantages such as a saving in the energy absorbed. Once the discharge has started. etc. The light is produced by a discharge within a transparent enclosure (glass.

The colour characteristics and the efficiency of the lamp depend upon the different metallic elements present in the gas. There are three main types of high intensity discharge lamps: mercury vapour. releasing energy in the form of radiation which is both ultraviolet and within the visible spectrum. PFC lamps have a peak current equal to 20 times the rated current. the arc is able to vaporize the metallic elements contained in the gas. • AC-5b switching of incandescent lamps.3.Electrical devices 103 . and to their type. The special type of bulb glass blocks the ultraviolet radiation and allows only the visible radiation to pass through. Lamp type Incandescent lamps Halogen lamps Fluorescent lamp High intensity discharge lamps Non PFC PFC Non PFC PFC Peak current 15In 15In − 20In − 20In Inrush current 2In 2In 2In Turn-on time 10 s 1÷6 s 2÷8 min 2÷8 min Protection and switching devices IEC 60947-4-1 identifies two specific utilization categories for lamp control contactors: • AC-5a switching of electric discharge lamps. ABB SACE . according to the number of lamps to be controlled. A momentary loss of power makes the restarting of the system and the heating necessary. High intensity discharge lamps require a suitably sized controller and a heating period which can last some minutes before the emission of the rated light output.1 Protection and switching of lighting circuits 3 Protection of electrical equipment High intensity discharge lamps: mercury vapour. The documentation supplied by the manufacturer includes tables for contactor selection. and an inrush current of up to twice the rated current for approximately 5 minutes. In this case. which are struck by the arc. metal halide and sodium vapour. metal halide and sodium vapour The functioning of high intensity discharge lamps is the same as that of fluorescent lamps with the difference that the discharge occurs in the presence of a gas at high pressure. Non PFC lamps have inrush currents of up to twice the rated current for approximately 5 minutes.

1 Protection and switching of lighting circuits 3 Protection of electrical equipment For the selection of a protection device the following verifications shall be carried out: .37 2.3.Electrical devices . . an approximate example is shown in Figure1. the following tables show the maximum number of lamps per phase which can be controlled by the combination of ABB circuit breakers and contactors for some types of lamps. With reference to the above verification criteria.the trip characteristic curve shall be above the turning-on characteristic curve of the lighting device to avoid unwanted trips.coordination shall exist with the contactor under short-circuit conditions (lighting installations are not generally characterized by overloads). for three phase installations with a rated voltage of 400 V and a maximum short-circuit current of 15 kA.55 57 34 17 11 6 3 65 38 19 12 7 4 70 42 20 13 8 4 103 62 30 20 12 6 142 85 42 28 16 8 S270 D20 ---A26 S270 D20 S270 D25 ---A26 ---A26 S270 D32 ---A26 S270 D50 ---A30 104 ABB SACE .91 1.45 0.28 4. 1 For calculation see Annex B Calculation of load current Ib Table 1: Incandescent and halogen lamps Ur= 400 V Ik= 15 kA Incandescent/halogen lamps Circuit-Breaker type Setting PR221 DS Contactor type Rated Power [W] 60 100 200 300 500 1000 Rated current Ib [A] 0. according to their power and absorbed current Ib1 .27 0.

B A95 355 210 105 70 42 21 T2N160 In160 L= 0.1 Protection and switching of lighting circuits 3 Protection of electrical equipment Figure 1: Approximate diagram for the coordination of lamps with protection and switching devices [t] Contactor Icw [A] Circuit-breaker characteristics T2N160 In63 L= 0.A S= 10.3.B A75 272 163 80 53 32 16 T2N160 In100 L= 1.A S= 8.A S= 8.A S= 8.B A50 220 132 65 43 26 13 T2N160 In100 L= 0.A S= 10.92.68.A S= 7.68.76.68.B A63 246 147 73 48 29 14 T2N160 In100 L= 0.B A110 390 240 80 48 24 1SDC010032F0201 N° lamps per phase 155 93 46 30 18 9 120 ABB SACE .B A40 T2N160 In63 L= 0.Electrical devices 105 1SDC010004F0901 Turning-on characteristics .

18 0.Electrical devices .65 0.3.38 0.52 0.8 1.7 106 ABB SACE .7 0.15 1.45 0.42 0.26 0.2 40 33 21 18 13 12 44 37 24 21 14 14 50 42 27 23 16 15 73 62 40 35 24 23 100 84 54 47 33 31 A26 A26 A26 A26 A30 S270 D16 S270 D20 S270 D20 S270 D32 S270 D40 Ur= 400 V Ik= 15 kA Fluorescent lamps PFC Circuit-Breaker type Setting PR221 DS Contactor type S270 D25 --A26 Capacitor [µF] 5 5 7 7 16 18 83 58 35 28 23 21 94 65 40 32 26 24 105 75 45 36 29 27 155 107 66 53 43 40 215 150 92 74 59 55 S270 D25 S270 D32 --A26 --A26 S270 D40 --A26 S270 D63 --A30 Rated Power [W] 20 40 65 80 100 110 Rated current Ib [A] 0.1 Protection and switching of lighting circuits 3 Protection of electrical equipment Table 2: Fluorescent lamps Ur= 400 V Ik= 15 kA Fluorescent lamps non PFC Circuit-Breaker type Setting PR221 DS Contactor type Rated Power [W] 20 40 65 80 100 110 Rated current Ib [A] 0.

B A110 278 234 132 92 88 1SDC010033F0201 N° lamps per phase 110 93 60 52 36 35 150 T2N160 In63 L= 0.B A63 173 145 94 82 57 55 T2N160 In100 L= 0.68.68.Electrical devices 107 .S= 10.B A40 T2N160 In63 L= 1.A S= 10.68.96.B A95 250 210 135 118 82 79 T2N160 In160 S= 0.B A63 360 255 158 126 101 94 T2N160 In100 L= 0.68.A S= 10.A.3.B A95 530 365 225 180 145 135 N° lamps per phase 233 160 100 80 64 59 ABB SACE .A S= 8.A S= 10.A S= 10.B A50 335 230 142 115 92 85 T2N160 In100 L= 0.A S= 10.76.B A75 192 162 104 91 63 60 T2N160 In100 L= 0.A S= 10.1 Protection and switching of lighting circuits 3 Protection of electrical equipment S270 D50 A40 S270 D63 A50 157 133 85 75 52 50 T2N160 In100 L= 0.B A75 400 280 173 140 112 104 T2N160 In100 L= 0.A S= 10.96.76.

3 6.2 10.3.5 3.4 6.1 Protection and switching of lighting circuits 3 Protection of electrical equipment Table 3: High intensity discharge lamps Ur= 400 V Ik= 15 kA Fluorescent lamps non PFC Circuit-Breaker type Setting PR221 DS Contactor type Rated Power [W] 150 250 400 600 1000 Rated current Ib [A] 1.8 3 4.Electrical devices .5 2.3 6 4 3 1 7 4 3 2 1 8 5 3 2 1 11 7 4 3 2 15 9 6 4 3 A26 A26 A26 A26 A30 S270 D16 S270 D2 S270 D20 S270 D32 S270 D40 Ur= 400 V Ik= 15 kA Fluorescent lamps PFC Circuit-Breaker type Setting PR221 DS Contactor type S270 D16 --A26 Capacitor [µF] 20 36 48 65 100 13 8 5 4 14 9 5 4 15 10 6 5 23 15 9 7 4 28 18 11 8 4 S270 D20 S270 D20 --A26 --A26 S270 D32 --A26 S270 D40 --A30 Rated Power [W] 150 250 400 600 1000 Rated current Ib [A] 1 1.2 108 ABB SACE .

. corresponding to the cell for 65 lamps per phase the following equipment are suggested: . curve B.ABB Tmax T2N160 In63 circuit breaker with PR221/DS type electronic release.3.5. supplied by a three phase network at 400 V 15 kA. In table 1. select the cell showing the number of controllable lamps immediately above the number of lamps per phase present in the installation.92.Electrical devices 109 . with protection L set at 0.5.88.5.84.B A75 29 17 12 8 5 T2N160 In100 L= 1.B S= 6.5.B S= 4.B S= 6.B L= 0.B S= 8.1 Protection and switching of lighting circuits 3 Protection of electrical equipment S270 D40 A40 S270 D50 A50 23 14 9 7 4 S270 D63 A63 26 16 10 8 5 T2N160 In100 L= 0.B A110 41 25 17 12 7 N° lamps per phase 17 10 7 5 3 S270 D40 --A40 T2N160 In100 L= 0. on the row corresponding to 200 W.B N° lamps per phase 30 20 12 9 5 Example: Switching and protection of a lighting system. of 200 W each. per phase.B S= 4.A50 contactor.B A75 63 42 25 19 10 T2N160 In160 A95 81 54 32 24 13 T2N160 In160 A110 88 59 36 27 14 1SDC010034F0201 L= 0.8.B S= 6.5.5. made up of 55 incandescent lamps.88. curve A and protection S set at 10.B A50 50 33 20 15 8 T2N160 In100 L= 0.B S= 6.B A63 58 38 23 17 9 T2N160 In100 L= 1. In the specific case.B A95 38 23 15 11 6 T2N160 In160 L= 0.8.5. ABB SACE .B S= 6.8.

2 Protection and switching of generators The need to guarantee an ever greater continuity of service has led to an increase in the use of emergency supply generators. 2. 3. and by the subtransient time constant T”d (5÷30 ms). which has a constant contribution. the current supplied by the generator is a function of the parameters of the machine itself. a synchronous phase: may persist until the tripping of external protection. Unlike the public supply network.Electrical devices . a subtransient phase: with a brief duration (10÷50 ms). and decreases with time. • Supply to the user installation in parallel with the public supply network. t [s] 101 Synchronous phase 1 Transient phase 10-1 Subtransient phase 1SDC010018F0201 10-2 10-3 1 10 102 x Irg 110 ABB SACE . either as an alternative to.3 Protection of electrical equipment 3.03÷2.5 s). and by the transitory time constant T’d (0. in case of a short-circuit. Typical configurations include: • “Island supply” (independent functioning) of the priority loads in the case of a lack of energy supply through the public network. and is characterized by the transitory reactance X’d (15÷40% of the rated impedance value).5÷2. characterized by the subtransient reactance X”d (5÷20% of the rated impedance value). it is possible to identify the following successive phases: 1.5 s). and is characterized by the synchronous reactance Xd (80÷300% of the rated impedance value). or in parallel with the public utility supply network. a transitory phase: may last up to some seconds (0.

in the case of a single generator: Icu(Ics) ≥ Ikg. • breaking capacity Icu or Ics higher than the maximum value of short-circuit current at the installation point: . . in such away as to “intercept” the decrement curve of the generator: I2 = (1. set between 1. Ur The circuit breaker for the protection of the generator shall be selected according to the following criteria: • the set current higher than the rated current of the generator: I1 ≥ Irg.Electrical devices 111 . function I can be set at the indicated values I3 = (1.in the case of operation in parallel with the network: Icu(Ics) ≥ IkNet. • for circuit breakers with thermomagnetic releases: low magnetic trip threshold: I3 =2. is equal to: Ikg = Irg .trip threshold of the delayed short-circuit protection function (S). so as to achieve discrimination with the devices installed downstream. at the rated voltage of the installation Ur. with rated power Srg. as the short-circuit contribution from the network is normally greater than the contribution from the generator.in the case of n identical generators in parallel: Icu(Ics) ≥ Ikg·(n-1). if the function S is not present.2 Protection and switching of generators 3 Protection of electrical equipment As a first approximation. 100 ' X 'd % where Irg is the rated current of the generator: Irg = Srg 3 .5/3·In.5÷4)·Irg.3.5÷4)·Irg. it can be estimated that the maximum value of the short-circuit current of a generator.5 and 4 times the rated current of the generator.trip threshold of the instantaneous short-circuit protection function (I) set at a value greater than the rated short-circuit current of the generator. . and to allow fast tripping in the event of a short-circuit upstream of the device (working in parallel with other generators or with the network): I 3 ≥ I kg ABB SACE . • for circuit breakers with electronic releases: . .

Electrical devices . Table 1 Srg [kVA] 4 6 7 9 11 14 17 19 21 22 28 31 35 38 42 44 48 55 69 80 87 100 111 138 159 173 180 190 208 218 242 277 308 311 346 381 415 436 484 554 692 727 865 1107 1730 2180 2214 2250 2500 2800 3150 3500 MCB S20L/S260 B6 S20L/S260 B10 S20L/S260 B13 S20L/S260 B16 S20L/S260 B25 S20L/S260 B32 S20L/S260 B50 S20L/S260 B63 T2 160 In=63 T2 160 In=10 MCCB 400 V ACB Table 2 Srg [kVA] 4 6 7 9 11 14 17 19 21 22 28 31 35 38 42 44 48 55 69 80 87 100 111 138 159 173 180 190 208 218 242 277 308 311 346 381 415 436 484 554 692 727 865 1107 1730 2180 2214 2250 2500 2800 3150 3500 MCB S20L/S260 B6 S20L/S260 B8 S20L/S260 B10 S20L/S260 B13 S20L/S260 B16 S20L/S260 B20 S20L/S260 B25 S20L/S260 B32 S20L/S260 B40 S20L/S260 B50 S20L/S260 B63 S280 B80 S280 B100 T2 160 In=100 T2 160 In=160 T2 160 In=160 T4 250 T3 250 T4 250 T2 160 In=63 MCCB T2 160 In=10 440 V ACB T2 160 In=25 T2 160 In=25 S280 B80 S280 B100 T2 160 In=100 T2 160 In=160 T2 160 T4 250 T3 250 T4 250 T4 320 T4 320 T5 400 T5 400 T5 630 S6 800 T5 630 S6 800 S6 800 S7 1250 S7 1250 S7 1600 S8 3200 E1/E2 1250 E2/E3 1600 E2/E3 2000 E3 3200 E3 3200/E4 4000 E4 4000 S6 800 S7 1000 S7 1000 S7 1250 S7 1600 S8 3200 E3 3200 E4 3600 E4 4000 E6 5000/6300 E1/E2 1250 E2/E3 1600 E3 2500 1SDC010016F0001 E6 5000/6300 112 ABB SACE .3. 500 V (Table 3) and 690 V (Table 4). the tables refer to 400 V (Table 1).2 Protection and switching of generators 3 Protection of electrical equipment The following tables give ABB SACE suggestions for the protection and switching of generators. 440 V (Table 2).

Electrical devices 113 . ABB SACE .3.2 Protection and switching of generators 3 Protection of electrical equipment Table 3 Srg [kVA] 4 6 7 9 11 14 17 19 21 22 28 31 35 38 42 44 48 55 69 80 87 100 111 138 159 173 180 190 208 218 242 277 308 311 346 381 415 436 484 554 692 727 865 1107 1730 2180 2214 2250 2500 2800 3150 3500 MCB MCCB T2 160 In=10 500 V ACB Table 4 MCB 4 6 7 9 11 14 17 19 21 22 28 31 35 38 42 44 48 55 69 80 87 100 111 138 159 173 180 190 208 218 242 277 308 311 346 381 415 436 484 554 692 727 865 1107 1730 2180 2214 2250 2500 2800 3150 3500 MCCB 690 V ACB T2 160 In=10 T2 160 In=25 T2 160 In=25 T2 160 In=63 T2 160 In=63 T2 160 In=100 T2 160 In=100 T2 160 In=160 T3 250 T4 250 T4 250 T2 160 In=160 T3 250 T4 320 T4 250 T5 400 T4 320 T5 630 S6 800 S6 800 S7 1000 S7 1250 S7 1600 S8 2500 S8 3200 E2/E3 1600 E3 2500 E3 3200 T5 400 T5 630 T5 630 S6 800 S6 800 S7 1000 S7 1600 E1 800 E1/E2 1250 E1/E2 1250 E2/E3 1600 E2 2000 E3 2500 E3 2500 1SDC010017F0001 S8 2500 E4 4000 E6 5000/6300 S8 3200 E3 3200 Note: It is always advisable to check that the settings of the releases are correct with respect to the effective decrement curve of the current of the generator to be protected.

3 ms (transient time constant) From table 2. the following settings are selected: function L: 0. function I: 1.84 – A.5 Time-Current Curves 10 4 s 10 3 s T2 160 10 2 s 10 1 s 1s 100 kVA generator decrement curve 10 s 1SDC010019F0201 -1 10-2s 10-1kA 1kA 101kA 114 ABB SACE .6 % (transient reactance) Xd = 230 % (synchronous reactance) T’’d = 5.2 A X’’d = 6. with In = 160 A. an ABB SACE T2N160 circuit-breaker is selected. corresponding to 134. For correct protection of the generator. in a system with a rated voltage of 440 V The generator parameters are: Ur = 440 V Srg = 100 kVA f = 50 Hz Irg = 131. with electronic release PR221-LS.5 ms (subtransient time constant) T’d = 39.5 % (subtransient reactance) X’d = 17.3.4 A.Electrical devices .2 Protection and switching of generators 3 Protection of electrical equipment Example: Protection of a generator with Srg = 100 kVA. value greater than Irg .

Circuit-breaker: defined by IEC 60947-2 as a mechanical switching device. inching AC-3 categories may be used for occasionally inching or plugging for limited time periods such as machine set-up. carrying and breaking currents under normal circuit conditions including operating overload conditions. during such limited time periods the number of such operations should not exceed five per minutes or more than ten in a 10 minutes period. The two devices must be coordinated with equipment capable of providing protection against short-circuit (typically a circuit breaker with magnetic release only).guarantee protection of motors against working overloads. which defines the above as follows: Contactor: a mechanical switching device having only one position of rest. . operated otherwise than by hand.start motors. .Electrical devices 115 . capable of making. switching off during running(1) Squirrel-cage motors: starting.ensure continuous functioning of motors.3 Protection and switching of motors Electromechanical starter The starter is designed to: . carrying for a specified time and breaking currents under specified abnormal circuit conditions. carrying and breaking currents under normal circuit conditions and also making. . plugging. Thermal release: thermal overload relay or release which operates in the case of overload and also in case of loss of phase. The starter is typically made up of a switching device (contactor) and an overload protection device (thermal release). capable of making. The main types of motor which can be operated and which determine the characteristics of the starter are defined by the following utilization categories: Table 1: Utilization categories and typical applications Current type Utilization categories AC-2 Alternating Current ac AC-3 AC-4 (1) Typical applications Slip-ring motors: starting. which is not necessarily part of the starter. The characteristics of the starter must comply with the international Standard IEC 60947-4-1. switching off Squirrel-cage motors: starting. ABB SACE .3 Protection of electrical equipment 3.disconnect motors from the supply line.

and have quite a high starting torque. Hence a squirrel-cage motor develops a high starting torque with a relatively reduced acceleration time. the DOL (Direct On Line) starter. This method is generally used with small and medium power motors which reach full working speed in a short time. MCCB KL Motor 116 ABB SACE . With alternating current.asynchronous three-phase squirrel-cage motors (AC-3): the most widespread type due to the fact that they are of simple construction. with the closing of line contactor KL. accompanied by a series of drawbacks. even with a supply network of low power.violent acceleration which has negative effects on mechanical transmission components (belts.3. the most commonly used motor types are as follows: .Electrical devices 1SDC010018F0001 TOR . if necessary. reducing working life.3 Protection and switching of motors 3 Protection of electrical equipment The choice of the starting method and also. including. for example: . . of the type of motor to be used depends on the typical resistant torque of the load and on the shortcircuit power of the motor supplying network. the line voltage is applied to the motor terminals in a single operation. . economical and sturdy.high current consumption and associated voltage drop which may cause damages to the other parts of the system connected to the network. they develop high torque with short acceleration times. however. chains and mechanical joints). Starting methods The most common starting methods for asynchronous squirrel-cage motors are detailed below: Direct starting With direct starting.slip-ring motors (AC-2): characterized by less demanding starting conditions. These advantages are. but require elevated starting currents.

This method is generally applied to motors with power from 15 to 355 kW. As can be easily checked. Once the set time has elapsed. Star-Delta starter The most common reduced voltage starter is the Star-Delta starter (Y-∆). MCCB KL K∆ KY TOR 1SDC010019F0001 Motor Starting sequence By pressing the start button. After the switchover. . in which: . and an increase in the acceleration time. the current and the torque follow the progress of the curves associated with normal service connections (delta). delayed by approximately 50 ms.on starting. the stator windings are star-connected. contactors KL and KY are closed. the motor becomes delta-connected. the first contact of the timer opens the KY contactor and the second contact. the switchover to delta is carried out. proportional to the square of the voltage.Electrical devices 117 . contactors KL and K∆ closed. and the current absorbed from the line is reduced by 1/3 compared with that absorbed with delta-connection. ABB SACE . With this new configuration. compared with the torque that the same motor would supply when delta-connected. starting the motor with star-connection gives a voltage reduction of √3.once the normal speed of the motor is nearly reached. The start-up torque. closes the K∆ contactor. is reduced by 3 times.3. The timer starts to measure the start time with the motor connected in star.3 Protection and switching of motors 3 Protection of electrical equipment Other types of starting for squirrel-cage motors are accomplished by reducing the supply voltage of the motor: this leads to a reduction in the starting current and of the motor torque. thus achieving the reduction of peak inrush current. but intended to start with a low initial resistant torque.

Applications can be found with squirrel-cage motors which generally have a power from 50 kW to several hundred kilowatts. which may occur due to saturation of the magnetic pack and by adding to the fundamental current. can detect any 3rd harmonic currents. and as a consequence the start-up torque is reduced by K2 times compared with the value of the full rated voltage. MCCB K2 K3 K1 TOR Motor The autotransformer reduces the network voltage by the factor K (K=1. and higher power doublecage motors.8). The reduction of the supply voltage is achieved by using a fixed tap autotransformer or a more expensive multi tap autotransformer. With reference to the connection diagram. the motor is connected to the taps of the autotransformer and the contactors K2 and K1 are closed. 118 ABB SACE .25÷1. the equipment used for a Star/Delta starter must be able to carry the following currents: Ir 3 Ir 3 Ir 3 KL line contactor and K∆ delta contactor KY star contactor overload protection release where Ir is the rated current of the motor. On starting. overload the motor without involving the line.3 Protection and switching of motors 3 Protection of electrical equipment The thermal release TOR.Electrical devices 1SDC010020F0001 . Starting with autotransformers Starting with autotransformers is the most functional of the methods used for reduced voltage starting. inserted in the delta circuit. but is also the most expensive.3.

64).6÷0. the motor starts at a reduced voltage. The use of reactors notably reduces the power factor. and according to the type of coordination achieved with the short-circuit protection device (Type 1 and Type 2). even if limited to the starting phase. and when it has reached approximately 80% of its normal speed.5÷3.Electrical devices 119 . the reactors are short-circuited by the closing of contactor K1.3 Protection and switching of motors 3 Protection of electrical equipment Therefore. in series to the stator.36÷0. starters can also be classified according to tripping time (trip classes). the motor is supplied via contactor K2. On starting. the current is limited to 2. the torque is reduced by K2 times (0. excluding the autotransformer so as to supply the full network voltage. It is possible to achieve exclusions by step of the resistors or reactors with time-delayed commands. while the use of resistors causes the dissipation of a high power (Joule effect). On start-up. contactor K1 is opened and main contactor K3 is closed. The reduction of the supply voltage is achieved by the insertion of inductive reactors or resistors. and are then excluded by the opening of contactor K2. once the normal speed is reached. even for motors with power greater than 100 kW. contactor K2 is opened. ABB SACE . K1 K2 Inductance 1SDC010021F0001 TOR Motor In compliance with the above mentioned Standard. Subsequently.5 times the rated value.8) of the motor voltage. For a reduction K (0. Starting with inductive reactors or resistors This type of starting is used for simple or double-cage rotors.3.

It is normal procedure to associate class 10 with a normal start-up type.440 V .2 times the set current value must not trip within 4 s. but must trip within 10 s). ABB supplies solutions with: • magnetic circuit-breaker . and therefore the equipment necessary to achieve it. The starter may still not be able to function and must be inspected. • short-circuit current at installation point.Electrical devices . In order to clearly determine a coordination type.contactor.690 V 35 kA .normal or heavy duty – Type 1 or Type 2. Coordination type Type 1 It is acceptable that in the case of short-circuit the contactor and the thermal release may be damaged.contactor . the contactor and/or the thermal release must be replaced. the following must be known: • power of the motor in kW and type. and the breaker release reset. while the welding of the contactor contacts is allowed. such as direct starting and Star/Delta starting. For the most common voltages and short-circuit values (400 V . for asynchronous squirrel-cage motor (AC-3).3 Protection and switching of motors 3 Protection of electrical equipment Trip classes The trip classes differentiate between the thermal releases according to their trip curve. for example). • thermomagnetic circuit-breaker with PR212 MP electronic release – contactor. The trip classes are defined in the following table 2: Table 2: Trip class Trip Class 10A 10 20 30 Tripping time in seconds (Tp) 2 < Tp ≤ 10 4 < Tp ≤ 10 6 < Tp ≤ 20 9 < Tp ≤ 30 where Tp is the cold trip time of the thermal release at 7. as they can easily be separated (with a screwdriver.50 kA) and for the most frequently used starting types. Type 2 In the case of short-circuit. • rated system voltage.500 V .3. if necessary. and class 30 with a heavy duty start-up type. the thermal release must not be damaged. • rated motor current. without any significant deformation.2 times the set current value (for example: a release in class 10 at 7. The requested devices shall be coordinated with each other in accordance with the prescriptions of the Standard.thermal release. • starting type: DOL or Y/∆ . 120 ABB SACE . • thermomagnetic circuit-breaker .

5 11 15 18.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 160 200 250 290 315 355 Ir [A] 1.4 TA25DU4 TA25DU5 TA25DU6.4 TA25DU1.55 0.6 8.2 3 4 5.5 TA25DU8.37 0.1 1. [A] 1.3.5 7.5 15.2 T2S160 MF 4 T2S160 MF 5 T2S160 MF 8.5 T2S160 MA 20 T2S160 MA 32 T2S160 MA 52 T2S160 MA 52 T2S160 MA 52 T2S160 MA 80 T2S160 MA 80 T2S160 MA 100 T3S250 MA 160 T3S250 MA 200 T3S250 MA 200 T4S320 PR221-I In320 T5S400 PR221-I In400 T5S400 PR221-I In400 T5S630 PR221-I In630 T5S630 PR221-I In630 S6S800 PR211-I In800 S6S800 PR211-I In800 S6S800 PR211-I In800 21 21 26 42 52 65 110 145 163 210 288 392 469 547 840 960 1200 1440 1800 2400 2720 3200 4000 5040 6300 8000 9600 9600 A9 A9 A9 A9 A16 A26 A26 A30 A30 A30 A30 A50 A50 A50 A63 A75 A95 A110 A145 A185 A210 A260 A300 AF400 AF460 AF580 AF580 AF750 TA25DU1.8 2.4 1.5 5 6.5 TA25DU11 TA25DU14 TA25DU19 TA42DU25 TA75DU42 TA75DU52 TA75DU52 TA75DU80 TA75DU80 TA110DU110 TA110DU110 TA200DU175 TA200DU200 E320DU320 E320DU320 E320DU320 E500DU500 E500DU500 E800DU800 E800DU800 E800DU800 1 1.6 T2S160 MF 2 T2S160 MF 3.5 T2S160 MF 11 T2S160 MF 12.4 4 5 6.5 1.5 8.5 36 42 56 68 83 98 135 158 193 232 282 349 430 520 545 610 Type I3 [A] Type Type min.5 11 14 19 25 42 52 52 80 80 110 110 175 200 320 320 320 500 500 800 800 800 1SDC010022F0201 T2S160 MF 1.2 22 28.1 1.5 6 7.8 TA25DU2.7 2.6 11.6 T2S160 MF 1.75 1. [A] max.5 2.3 Protection and switching of motors 3 Protection of electrical equipment The following is an example of the type of tables available: Table 3: 400 V 50 kA DOL Normal Type 2 (Tmax. Isomax – Contactor – Thermal release) Motor MCCB Contactor Thermal Overload Relay Current setting Pe [kW] 0.8 3.Electrical devices 121 .8 3.3 1.5 4.5 10 13 18 29 36 36 60 60 80 80 130 150 100 100 100 150 150 250 250 250 MA: magnetic only adjustable release MF: fixed magnetic only release ABB SACE .9 2.

37 0.1 1.5 11 15 18.8 3.Electrical devices .2 22 28.4* TA25DU4* TA25DU5* TA25DU6.2 3 4 5.8* TA25DU2. of range turns of the CT primary min.6 T2S160 MF 2 T2S160 MF 3. Isomax – Contactor – Thermal release) Motor MCCB Setting of the magnetic release [A] T2S160 MF 1.55 0.5 5 6.4 4 5 6.8 3.7 2. To use the connecting kit.5 T2S160 MF 11 T2S160 MF 12.3 1.5 1.8 2.5 6 7.3 Protection and switching of motors 3 Protection of electrical equipment Table 4: 400 V 50 kA DOL Heavy duty Type 2 (Tmax.5 T2S160 MA 20 T2S160 MA 32 T2S160 MA 52 T2S160 MA 52 T2S160 MA 52 T2S160 MA 80 T2S160 MA 80 T2S160 MA 100 T3S250 MA 160 T3S250 MA 200 T3S250 MA 200 T4S320 PR221-I In320 T5S400 PR221-I In400 T5S400 PR221-I In400 T5S630 PR221-I In630 T5S630 PR221-I In630 S6S800 PR211-I In800 S6S800 PR211-I In800 S6S800 PR211-I In800 21 21 26 42 52 65 110 145 163 210 288 392 469 547 840 960 1200 1440 1800 2400 2720 3200 4000 5040 6300 8000 9600 9600 A9 A9 A9 A9 A16 A26 A26 A30 A30 A30 A30 A50 A50 A50 A63 A95 A110 A145 A185 A210 A260 A300 AF400 AF460 AF580 AF750 AF750 AF750 TA25DU1.5 2.3.6 8.5 15. coil [A] [A] 1 1.9 2.4 1. max.5 11 15 20 30 40 40 60 80 80 105 140 185 185 320 320 500 500 800 800 800 1SDC010020F0201 Pe [kW] 0.5 10 13 20 23 23 40 55 55 70 95 130 130 100 100 150 150 150 250 250 250 1.5 8.5 36 42 56 68 83 98 135 158 193 232 282 349 430 520 545 610 Type Type Type** 500 * Provide a by-pass contactor of the same size during motor start-up ** For type E releases choose tripping class 30 *** Connecting kit not available. replacement with release E800DU800 is necessary MA: magnetic only adjustable release MF: fixed magnetic only release 122 ABB SACE .5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 160 200 250 290 315 355 Ir [A] 1.6 11.5* TA25DU8.75 1.5 7.4* TA25DU1.5 4.1 1.6 T2S160 MF 1.5* TA25DU11* TA450SU60 TA450SU60 TA450SU60 TA450SU80 TA450SU80 TA450SU60 TA450SU80 TA450SU80 TA450SU105 TA450SU140 TA450SU185 TA450SU185 E320DU320 E320DU320 E500DU500 E500DU500 E500DU500*** E800DU800 E800DU800 E800DU800 4 3 2 2 2 Contactor Thermal Overload Relay Setting No.2 T2S160 MF 4 T2S160 MF 5 T2S160 MF 8.

320 100 .90 80 .63 66 . Isomax – Contactor – Thermal release) MOTOR MCCB Contactor Thermal Overload Relay STAR Type Type [A] I3 Pe [kW] 18.3 Protection and switching of motors 3 Protection of electrical equipment Table 4: 400 V 50 kA Y/∆ Normal Type 2 (Tmax.63 45 .Electrical devices 123 .110 100 .200 60 .5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 160 200 250 LINE Type DELTA Type Ir [A] 36 42 56 68 83 98 135 158 193 232 282 349 430 Type [A] T2S160 MA52 T2S160 MA52 T2S160 MA80 T2S160 MA80 T2S160 MA100 T2S160 MA100 T3S250 MA160 T3S250 MA200 T3S250 MA200 T4S320 PR221-I In320 T5S400 PR221-I In400 T5S630 PR221-I In630 T5S630 PR221-I In630 469 547 720 840 1050 1200 1700 2000 2400 2880 3600 4410 5670 A50 A50 A63 A75 A75 A75 A95 A110 A145 A145 A185 A210 A260 A50 A50 A63 A75 A75 A75 A95 A110 A145 A145 A185 A210 A260 A26 A26 A30 A30 A30 A40 A75 A95 A95 A110 A145 A185 A210 TA75DU25 TA75DU32 TA75DU42 TA75DU52 TA75DU63 TA75DU63 TA110DU90 TA110DU110 TA200DU135 E200DU200 E200DU200 E320DU320 E320DU320 18-25 22-32 29-42 36-52 45 .200 100 .135 60 .3.320 1SDC010023F0201 MA : magnetic only adjustable release ABB SACE .

2 3 4.4 1.1 TA25DU4 TA25DU5 TA25DU6.1 1.5 7.8 3.4 TA25DU1.55 0. Isomax – Contactor – Thermal release) Motor MCCB Contactor Thermal Overload Relay Current setting Pe [kW] 0.5 T2H160 MF 3.5 T2H160 MF 11 T2H160 MA 20 T2H160 MA 32 T2H160 MA 32 T2H160 MA 52 T2H160 MA 52 T2H160 MA 80 T2H160 MA 80 T2H160 MA 100 T4H250 PR221-I In160 T4H250 PR221-I In250 T4H250 PR221-I In250 T4H250 PR221-I In250 T4H320 PR221-I In320 T5H400 PR221-I In400 T5H630 PR221-I In630 T5H630 PR221-I In630 S6H630 PR211-I In630 S6H800 PR211-I In800 S6H800 PR211-I In800 13 21 26 33 42 65 84 110 145 180 240 336 469 547 720 840 1050 1200 1750 2000 2500 3200 3600 4410 5355 7560 8000 9600 A9 A9 A9 A9 A16 A26 A26 A30 A30 A30 A30 A50 A50 A50 A63 A75 A95 A110 A145 A185 A210 A260 A300 AF 400 AF 460 AF 580 AF 580 AF 580 TA25DU1.3 Protection and switching of motors 3 Protection of electrical equipment Table 6: 440 V 50 kA DOL Normal Type 2 (Tmax.2 2.4 5.5 4.6 T2H160 MF 2 T2H160 MF 2.2 3 4 5.5 2.3 1.5 T2H160 MF 8.8 10.8 2.7 2.1 4 5 6. [A] max.2 T2H160 MF 5 T2H160 MF 6.4 TA25DU3.7 7.5 TA25DU11 TA25DU14 TA25DU19 TA42DU25 TA75DU32 TA75DU42 TA75DU52 TA75DU63 TA75DU80 TA110DU90 TA110DU110 E200DU200 E200DU200 E320DU320 E320DU320 E320DU320 E500DU500 E500DU500 E500DU500* E800DU800 E800DU800 1 1.5 13. [A] 1.5 19 26 32 38 52 63 75 90 120 147 177 212 260 320 410 448 500 549 Type I3 [A] Type Type min.4 1.4 3.5 10 13 18 22 29 36 45 60 65 80 60 60 100 100 100 150 150 150 250 250 * Connection kit not available MA: magnetic only adjustable release MF: fixed magnetic only release 124 ABB SACE .8 TA25DU2.5 11 15 18.5 7.37 0.75 1.3.5 11 14 19 25 32 42 52 63 80 90 110 200 200 320 320 320 500 500 500 800 800 T2H160 MF 1 T2H160 MF 1.Electrical devices 1SDC010024F0201 .7 2.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 160 200 250 290 315 355 Ir [A] 1 1.

7 7.4* TA25DU3.5 T2H160 MF 11 T2H160 MA 20 T2H160 MA 32 T2H160 MA 32 T2H160 MA 52 T2H160 MA 52 T2H160 MA 80 T2H160 MA 80 T2H160 MA 100 T4H250 PR221-I In160 T4H250 PR221-I In250 T4H250 PR221-I In250 T4H250 PR221-I In250 T4H320 PR221-I In320 T5H400 PR221-I In400 T5H630 PR221-I In630 T5H630 PR221-I In630 S6H630 PR211-I In630 S6H800 PR211-I In800 S6H800 PR211-I In800 Thermal Overload Relay No.2 3 4.2 2.5 11 15 18.2 3 4 5.7 2.55 0.1 1.5 7.8 10. replacement with release E800DU800 is necessary MA: magnetic only adjustable release MF: fixed magnetic only release ABB SACE .3 Protection and switching of motors 3 Protection of electrical equipment Table 7: 440 V 50 kA DOL Heavy duty Type 2 (Tmax.1* TA25DU4* TA25DU5* TA25DU6.4 1.5 11 14 15 27 30 40 40 60 80 105 200 200 320 320 320 500 500 500 500 800 800 A9 A9 A9 A9 A16 A26 A26 A30 A30 A30 A30 A50 A50 A50 A63 A95 A110 A145 A185 A210 A260 A300 AF400 AF460 AF580 AF750 AF 750 AF 750 TA25DU1. Isomax – Contactor – Thermal release) Motor MCCB Type Pe [kW] 0.37 0.4 1.8* TA25DU2.8 2. of Setting turns of range the CT primary min.5 4.4 5.7 2.4* TA25DU1.2 T2H160 MF 5 T2H160 MF 6.5* TA25DU11* TA25DU14* TA450SU60 TA450SU80 TA450SU60 TA450SU80 TA450SU80 TA450SU60 TA450SU80 TA450SU105 E200DU200 E200DU200 E320DU320 E320DU320 E320DU320 E500DU500 E500DU500 E500DU500*** E500DU500*** E800DU800 E800DU800 * Provide a by-pass contactor of the same size during motor start-up ** For type E releases choose tripping class 30 *** Connecting kit not available.5 T2H160 MF 3.5 10 4 3 2 2 2 10 18 20 28 28 40 55 70 60 60 100 100 100 150 150 150 150 250 250 1.8 3. coil [A] [A] 1 1.5 7.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 160 200 250 290 315 355 Contactor Setting of the magnetic release [A] 13 21 26 33 42 65 84 110 145 180 240 336 469 547 720 840 1050 1200 1750 2000 2500 3200 3600 4410 5355 7560 8000 9600 Type Type** Ir [A] 1 1.Electrical devices 125 1SDC010021F0201 .5 19 26 32 38 52 63 75 90 120 147 177 212 260 320 410 448 500 549 T2H160 MF 1 T2H160 MF 1.4 3.6 T2H160 MF 2 T2H160 MF 2. To use the connecting kit.3 1.1 4 5 6. max.5 2.3.5 T2H160 MF 8.75 1.5 13.

63 60-80 80-110 60-200 60-200 100-320 100-320 1SDC010025F0201 60-200 MA : Magnetic only adjustable release 126 ABB SACE .3.Electrical devices .3 Protection and switching of motors 3 Protection of electrical equipment Table 8: 440 V 50 kA Y/∆ Normal Type 2 (Tmax.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 160 200 250 Ir [A] 32 38 52 63 75 90 120 147 177 212 260 320 410 Type [A] T2H160 MA52 T2H160 MA52 T2H160 MA80 T2H160 MA80 T2H160 MA80 T2H160 MA100 T4H250 PR221-I In250 T4H250 PR221-I In250 T4H250 PR221-I In250 T4H320 PR221-I In320 T5H400 PR221-I In400 T5H630 PR221-I In630 T5H630 PR221-I In630 392 469 720 840 960 1150 1625 1875 2250 2720 3200 4095 5040 A 50 A 50 A 63 A 75 A 75 A 75 A95 A95 A145 A145 A185 A210 A260 A 50 A 50 A 63 A 75 A 75 A 75 A95 A95 A145 A145 A185 A210 A260 A 16 A 26 A 26 A 30 A30 A40 A75 A75 A95 A110 A145 A185 A210 TA75DU25 TA75DU25 TA75DU42 TA75DU42 TA75DU52 TA75DU63 TA80DU80 TA110DU110 E200DU200 E200DU200 E200DU200 E320DU320 E320DU320 18-25 18-25 29-42 29-42 36-52 45 . Isomax – Contactor – Thermal release) MOTOR MCCB I3 LINE Type Contactor DELTA Type STAR Type Type [A] Thermal Overload Relay Pe [kW] 18.

5 8.63 1 1.5 11 15 18.2 2.5 4.2 T2L160 MF 4 T2L160 MF 6.1 12.6 T2L160 MF 1.5 T2L160 MA 20 T2L160 MA 32 T2L160 MA 52 T2L160 MA 52 T2L160 MA 52 T2L160 MA 80 T2L160 MA 80 T2L160 MA 100 T4H250 PR221-I In160 T4H250 PR221-I In250 T4H250 PR221-I In250 T4H320 PR221-I In320 T5H400 PR221-I In400 T5H400 PR221-I In400 T5H630 PR221-I In630 T5H630 PR221-I In630 S6L630 PR211-I In630 S6L630 PR211-I In630 I3 [A] 13 21 21 33 42 52 84 110 145 163 240 336 392 469 624 840 960 1200 1440 1875 2250 2720 3600 4000 4725 5040 7560 7560 A9 A9 A9 A9 A16 A26 A26 A30 A30 A30 A30 A50 A50 A50 A63 A75 A95 A110 A145 A145 A185 A210 A260 A300 AF 400 AF 460 AF 580 AF 580 TA25DU1.5 TA25DU11 TA25DU14 TA25DU19 TA75DU25 TA75DU32 TA75DU42 TA75DU52 TA75DU63 TA80DU80 TA110DU90 E200DU200 E200DU200 E200DU200 E320DU320 E320DU320 E320DU320 E 500DU500 E 500DU500 E 500DU500* E 800DU800 0.1 TA25DU4 TA25DU5 TA25DU6.5 11 14 19 25 32 42 52 63 80 90 200 200 200 320 320 500 500 500 800 1SDC010026F0201 Pe [kW] 0.0 TA25DU1.6 T2L160 MF 2.2 1.5 TA25DU8.8 TA25DU3.2 17.8 3.3 Protection and switching of motors 3 Protection of electrical equipment Table 9: 500 V 50 kA DOL Normal Type 2 (Tmax.5 6 7.37 0.5 2.4 TA25DU1.9 9.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 160 200 250 290 315 355 Ir [A] 0.Electrical devices 127 .5 T2L160 MF 3.4 1.5 T2L160 MF 11 T2L160 MF 12.3 2.1 1.8 3.5 2. Isomax – Contactor – Thermal release) Motor Type MCCB Contactor Type Thermal Overload Relay Current Type setting min.1 4 5 6.8 4 5.2 2. [A] 1 1.55 0.2 6.88 1.2 3 4 5.3.5 10 13 18 22 29 36 45 60 65 60 60 60 100 100 100 150 150 150 250 320 * Connection kit not available MA: magnetic only adjustable release MF: fixed magnetic only release ABB SACE .5 7.75 1. [A] max.5 T2L160 MF 8.5 23 29 34 45 56 67 82 110 132 158 192 230 279 335 394 440 483 T2L160 MF 1 T2L160 MF 1.

max.75 1. of Setting turns of range the CT primary min.5 T2L160 MF 8.5 8.6 T2L160 MF 1.2 1.8* TA25DU3.8 4 5.2 2.5 4 3 2 2 2 10 13 20 27. replacement with release E800DU800 is necessary MA: magnetic only adjustable release MF: fixed magnetic only release 128 ABB SACE .63 1 1. coil [A] [A] 0.1* TA25DU4* TA25DU5* TA25DU6.5 4.5 7.6 T2L160 MF 2.0* TA25DU1.Electrical devices 1SDC010021F0201 .37 0.2 T2L160 MF 4 T2L160 MF 6.5* TA25DU11* TA450SU60 TA450SU60 TA450SU60 TA450SU80 TA450SU80 TA450SU60 TA450SU60 TA450SU80 TA450SU105 E200DU200 E200DU200 E320DU320 E320DU320 E320DU320 E500DU500 E500DU500 E500DU500*** E500DU500*** E500DU500 * Provide a by-pass contactor of the same size during motor start-up ** For type E releases choose tripping class 30 *** Connecting kit not available. Isomax – Contactor – Thermal release) Motor MCCB Type Pe [kW] 0.1 4 5 6.2 17.3 2.9 9.8 3.5 2.5 T2L160 MA 20 T2L160 MA 32 T2L160 MA 52 T2L160 MA 52 T2L160 MA 52 T2L160 MA 80 T2L160 MA 80 T2L160 MA 100 T4H250 PR221-I In160 T4H250 PR221-I In250 T4H250 PR221-I In250 T4H320 PR221-I In320 T5H400 PR221-I In400 T5H400 PR221-I In400 T5H630 PR221-I In630 T5H630 PR221-I In630 S6L630 PR211-I In630 S6L630 PR211-I In630 Thermal Overload Relay No.88 1.3 Protection and switching of motors 3 Protection of electrical equipment Table 10: 500 V 50 kA DOL Heavy duty Type 2 (Tmax.8 3.4 1.55 0. To use the connecting kit.2 6.5 T2L160 MF 3.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 160 200 250 290 315 355 Contactor Setting of the magnetic release [A] 13 21 21 33 42 52 84 110 145 163 240 336 392 469 624 840 960 1200 1440 1875 2123 2720 3200 3600 4725 5040 7560 7560 Type Type** Ir [A] 0.5* TA25DU8.3.5 27.4* TA25DU1.5 23 29 34 45 56 67 82 110 132 158 192 230 279 335 394 440 483 T2L160 MF 1 T2L160 MF 1.5 11 15 20 30 40 40 60 60 80 105 200 200 320 320 320 500 500 500 500 500 A9 A9 A9 A9 A16 A26 A26 A30 A30 A30 A30 A50 A50 A50 A63 A75 A95 A145 A145 A185 A210 A260 A300 AF400 AF460 AF580 AF750 AF750 TA25DU1.2 2.5 6 7.5 T2L160 MF 11 T2L160 MF 12.1 1.2 3 4 5.5 2.5 11 15 18.1 12.5 40 40 55 70 60 60 100 100 100 150 150 150 150 150 1 1.

Electrical devices 129 1SDC010027F0201 Pe [kW] 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 160 200 250 290 Ir [A] 34 45 56 67 82 110 132 158 192 Type [A] T2L160 MA52 T2L160 MA52 T2L160 MA80 T2L160 MA80 T2L160 MA100 T4H250 PR221-I In250 T4H250 PR221-I In250 T4H250 PR221-I In250 T4H320 PR221-I In320 430 547 720 840 1050 1375 1750 2000 2560 A 50 A 63 A 75 A 75 A 75 A95 A95 A110 A145 A 50 A 63 A 75 A 75 A 75 A95 A95 A110 A145 A 16 A 26 A 30 A30 A30 A50 A75 A95 A95 TA75DU25 TA75DU32 TA75DU42 TA75DU52 TA75DU52 TA80DU80 TA110DU90 TA110DU110 E200DU200 18-25 22-32 29-42 36 . Isomax – Contactor – Thermal release) MOTOR MCCB I3 LINE Type Contactor DELTA Type STAR Type Type [A] Thermal Overload Relay 230 279 335 394 T4H320 PR221-I In320 T5H400 PR221-I In400 T5H630 PR221-I In630 T5H630 PR221-I In630 2880 3400 4410 5040 A145 A210 A210 A260 A145 A210 A210 A260 A110 A145 A185 A210 E200DU200 E320DU320 E320DU320 E320DU320 60-200 100-320 100-320 100-320 MA: magnetic only adjustable release ABB SACE .52 36 .52 60-80 65-90 80-110 60-200 .3.3 Protection and switching of motors 3 Protection of electrical equipment Table 11: 500 V 50 kA Y/∆ Normal Type 2 (Tmax.

of a three phase asynchronous squirrel-cage motor with the following data: rated voltage Ur = 400 V short-circuit current Ik = 50 kA rated motor power Pe = 200 kW from Table 5. • short-circuit protection device: circuit breaker T5S630 PR221-I In630.Electrical devices . • magnetic trip threshold: I3 = 4410 A. • star contactor: A185.3 Protection and switching of motors 3 Protection of electrical equipment Example: For a Y/∆ Normal starting Type 2. • delta contactor: A210. the following information can be found: • Ir (rated current): 349 A. • line contactor: A210. • thermal release E320DU320. on the relevant row. 3 130 ABB SACE . setting range 100-320 A (to be set at I r = 202 A ).3.

20 250 12 0.45 I0 = r1 Further to the above consideration.30 1000 10 0. The choice of the protection devices must take into account transient insertion phenomena. τ time constant of the inrush current. the follwing diagram shows the inrush current curve for a 20/0. depends on the size of the transformer and can be evaluated with the following formula (the short-circuit power of the network is assumed equal to infinity) K ⋅ I ⋅ e ( – t / τ) 2 where: K ratio between the maximum peak inrush current value ( I0 ) and the rated current of the transformer (I1r): (K= I0 / I1r). 10 1 [s] 10-2 10-3 10-2 10-1 1 [kA] 1SDC010022F0001 10-1 ABB SACE . the phenomenon decays in a few seconds. t time. This transformer has an inrush current during the very first moments equal to about 8 times the rated current.4kV of 400kVA transformer. this transient phenomenon stops after a few tenths of a second.15 160 12 0. The table below shows the indicative values for t and K parameters referred to rated power Sr for oil transformers. The curve which represents these transient phenomena in the time-current diagram.22 400 12 0.35 1600 9 0. during which the current may reach values higher than the rated full load current.4 Protection and switching of transformers General aspects Transformers are used to achieve a change in the supply voltage.40 2000 8 0. I1r rated current of the primary. for both medium and low voltage supplies. termed “inrush current I0”.3 Protection of electrical equipment 3.25 630 11 0. Sr [kVA] K = Io/I1r τ [s] 50 15 0.Electrical devices 131 .10 100 14 0.

The short-circuit current (Ik) flowing for a fault with low impedance at the LV terminals of the transformer is calculated by using the following formula: Ik = Ur [A] 3 ⋅ ( ZNet + Zt ) (1) where: • Ur is the rated voltage of the transformer [V]. 1s 10-1s 10-2s 1kA 10kA 132 ABB SACE . formula (1) becomes: Ik = Ur = 3 ⋅ ( Zt ) Ur 100 Sr = [A]  uk % U r2  3 ⋅ uk %⋅ Ur   3⋅ ⋅   100 Sr  (3) The diagram below shows the inrush current curve for a 20/0. this point is defined on the time-current diagram by the value of short-circuit current which can pass through the transformer and by a time equal to 2 s.Electrical devices 1SDC010023F0001 .). from the rated power of the transformer (Sr [VA]) and the percentage short-circuit voltage (uk%) is equal to: Zt = uk % U r2 ⋅ [Ω] 100 Sr (2) Considering the upstream short-circuit power of the network to be infinite (ZNet=0).4 kV of 400 kVA transformer (uk% = 4 %) and the point referred to the thermal ability to with the short-circuit current (Ik.4 Protection and switching of transformers 3 Protection of electrical equipment The transformer protection devices must also guarantee that the transformer cannot operate above the point of maximum thermal overload under shortcircuit conditions.3. as stated by Standard IEC 60076-5. • ZNet is the short-circuit impedance of the network [Ω]. 2 sec. • Zt is the short-circuit impedance of the transformer.

the selection of a circuit breaker shall take into account: • the rated current at LV side of the protected transformer (this value is the reference value for the rated current of the circuit breaker and the setting of the protections). 250 kVA transformer with uk% = 4 %. • Ur20 is the rated LV no-load voltage of the transformer [V].3.4 Protection and switching of transformers 3 Protection of electrical equipment In summary: for the correct protection of the transformer and to avoid unwanted trips. MV/LV unit with single transformer The rated current at the LV side of the transformer (Ir) is determined by the following formula: 1000⋅ Sr Ir = [A] (4) 3 ⋅ U r 20 where: • Sr is the rated power of the transformer [kVA]. 10 4 s 10 3 s T4N250 PR221 In=250 A 10 s 2 10 1 s 250 kVA Trafo 1s 10-2s 10-1 kA 1kA 10kA Criteria for the selection of protection devices For the protection at the LV side of MV/LV transformers. ABB SACE .Electrical devices 133 1SDC010024F0001 10-1s . • the maximum short-circuit current at the point of installation (this value determines the minimum breaking capacity (Icu/Ics) of the protection device). the trip curve of the protection device must be above the inrush current curve and below the overload point. The diagram below shows a possible position of the time-current curve of an upstream protection device of a 690/400 V.

MV/LV substation with more than one transformer in parallel For the calculation of the rated current of the transformer.4 Protection and switching of transformers 3 Protection of electrical equipment The full voltage three-phase short-circuit current (Ik). where ZNet is the sum of the impedance of the network and of the impedance of the connection. Icu (Ics) ≥ Ik. in %. 134 ABB SACE . The breaking capacity of each protection circuit-breaker on the LV side shall be higher than the short-circuit current equivalent to the short-circuit current of each equal transformer multiplied by the number of them minus one. in the case of a fault downstream of a transformer circuit-breaker (circuit-breaker A). can be expressed as (assuming that the short-circuit power of the network is infinite): Ik = 100⋅ I r [A] uk % (5) where: uk% is the short-circuit voltage of the transformer. at the LV terminals of the transformer. The protection circuit-breaker must have: In ≥ I r. In the case of a fault upstream of the same circuit-breaker. If the short-circuit power of the upstream network is not infinite and cable or busbar connections are present. the above applies (formula 4).3. the short-circuit current that flows through the circuit-breaker is equal to the contribution of a single transformer. the short-circuit current that flows is equal to the contribution of the other two transformers in parallel. As can be seen from the diagram below. it is possible to obtain a more precise value for Ik by using formula (1).Electrical devices .

3. according to the hypothesis that the upstream network short-circuit power is 750 MVA and the loads are passive.Electrical devices 135 1SDC010025F0001 . Ik1 Ik2 Ik3 Ik2 + Ik3 A B Ik = Ik1 + Ik2 + Ik3 ABB SACE . The circuit-breakers positioned on the outgoing feeders (circuit-breakers B) shall have a breaking capacity higher than the sum of the short-circuit currents of the three transformers. a circuit-breaker with a breaking capacity higher than twice the short-circuit current of one of the transformers must be chosen (assuming that all the transformers are equal and the loads are passive).4 Protection and switching of transformers 3 Protection of electrical equipment For a correct dimensioning.

9 In=320 0.9 7.6 38.9 30.2 32 A 63 A 125 A 160 A S250/S260 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 T1C160 T1B160 T1C160 T1B160 T1N160 T1C160 T2N160 T1C160 T2S160 T2L160 T1C160 T2S160 T2L160 T1N160 T2H160 T4L250 T2N160 T2L160 T4L250 [kVA] % 1 x 63 4 2 x 63 1 x 100 4 2 x 100 1 x 125 4 2 x 125 1 x 160 4 2 x 160 1 x 200 4 2 x 200 1 x 250 4 2 x 250 1 x 315 4 2 x 315 1 x 400 4 2 x 400 1 x 500 4 2 x 500 1 x 630 4 2 x 630 3 x 630 1 x 800 5 2 x 800 3 x 800 1 x 1000 2 x 1000 5 3 x 1000 1 x 1250 2 x 1250 5 3 x 1250 136 ABB SACE .6 10.9 In=400 0.7 24.9 19.9 In=3200 0.0 9.9 6.9 6.9 12.3 139.3 12.8 10.9 74.8 48.7 93.Electrical devices .9 47.7 171.8 In=3200 1 In=3200 1 In=3200 1 Busbar Ik [kA] 3.9 In=630 0.5 60.4 38. according to the characteristics of the transformer to be protected.6 39.9 In=1600 1 In=1600 1 In=1600 1 In=2500 0.7 In=630 0.9 In=2500 0.4 15.9 12.2 48.9 111.5 30.9 In=1600 0.0 113.8 114.8 24.4 19.8 In=3200 0.5 75.9 95. Table 1: Protection and switching of 230 V transformers Transformer Sr uk Trafo Ir [A] 158 158 251 251 314 314 402 402 502 502 628 628 791 791 1004 1004 1255 1255 1581 1581 1581 2008 2008 2008 2510 2510 2510 3138 3138 3138 Busbar Ib [A] 158 316 251 502 314 628 402 803 502 1004 628 1255 791 1581 1004 2008 1255 2510 1581 3163 4744 2008 4016 6025 2510 5020 7531 3138 6276 9413 Trafo Feeder Ik [kA] 3.1 Circuit Breaker "A" (LV side) ABB SACE Circuit Breaker T1B160 T1B160 T4N320 T4N320 T5N400 T5N400 T5N630 T5N630 T5N630 T5N630 T5N630 T5N630 S6N800 S6N800 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7S1600/E2B1600 S7S1600/E2B1600 S7S1600/E2B1600 S7S1600/E2B1600 S7S1600/E3S1600 E3N2500 E3N2500 E3H2500 E3N3200 E3N3200 E3H3200 E3N3200 E3N3200 S8V3200/E6V3200 Release size setting In=160 1 In=160 1 In=320 0.7 38.6 15.4 39.9 In=1250 0.9 In=1600 0.8 In=3200 0.4 Protection and switching of transformers 3 Protection of electrical equipment Selection of the circuit-breaker The following tables show some possible choices of ABB SACE circuit-breakers.6 19.6 30.9 In=400 0.4 24.9 3.7 In=630 0.9 In=2500 0.5 7.8 15.3 38.7 75.7 58.5 48.5 24.0 60.8 7.9 60.9 30.8 15.2 7.7 37.5 12.9 In=630 1 In=630 1 In=800 1 In=800 1 In=1250 0.3 77.7 117.9 In=630 0.3.0 19.3 6.

4 Protection and switching of transformers 3 Protection of electrical equipment Circuit Breaker "B" (Feeder Circuit Breaker) Feeder Circuit Breaker type and rated current 250 A T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3S250 T3N250 T3S250 T4L250 T3N250 T3S250 T4L250 T3N250 T4H250 T4L250 T3S250 T4L250 T4L250 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5S400 T5L400 T5N400 T5S400 T5L400 T5N400 T5H400 T5L400 T5N400 T5L400 T5L400 T5N630 T5N630 T5N630 T5N630 T5N630 T5N630 T5N630 T5N630 T5N630 T5N630 T5S630 T5L630 T5N630 T5S630 T5L630 T5N630 T5H630 T5L630 T5N630 T5L630 T5L630 S6N800 S6N800 S6N800 S6N800 S6N800 S6N800 S6N800 S6S800 S6L800 S6N800 S6S800 S6L800 S6N800 S6H800 S6L800 S6N800 S6L800 S6L800 S7S1250 S7S1250/E1N1250 S7S1600/E2N1600 S7S1250/E2N1250 S7S1250/E1N1250 S7S1250/E2L1250 S7L1250/E2L1250 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7S1250/E2L1250 S7L1250/E2L1250 S7S1250/E1N1250 S7H1250/E2L1250 S7L1250 S7S1250/E2N1250 S7L1250/E2L1250 S7L1250 S7S1600/E2N1600 E2N2000 S7S1600/E2L1600 S7L1600/E2L1600 S7S1600/E2B1600 S7S1600/E2L1600 S7L1600/E2L1600 S7S1600/E2N1600 S7H1600/E2L1600 S7L1600 S7S1600/E2N1600 S7L1600/E2L1600 S7L1600 E3H2000 E3H2500 E3L2000 E3L2500 E6V3200 E3H2000 E3L2000 E2N2000 E3H2000 E6V3200 E2N2000 E3L2000 E3H2500 E3H3200 E3L2500 E6V3200 E6V4000 E3H2500 E3H3200 E4H4000 E6V3200 E6V3200 E6V4000 E3N2500 E3L2500 E6V3200 E6V4000 1SDC010035F0201 400 A 630 A 800 A 1250 A 1600 A 2000 A 2500 A 3200 A 4000 A ABB SACE .Electrical devices 137 .3.

25 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3S250 T4H250 T3N250 T3S250 T4H250 T3N250 T4H250 T4L250 T3N250 T4H250 T4L250 T3N250 T4H250 T4L250 T3S250 T4L250 T4V250 T4H250 T4H250 138 ABB SACE .1 8.9 54.96 0.95 0.8 42.95 0.95 0.8 0.2 14 17.1 27.7 11.2 28 17.1 122.92 0.95 0.8 54.8 0.9 33.2 11.25 6.7 7.4 28.95/0.95 0.95 0.2 7.3 21.95 1 1 Busbar Ik [kA] 2.8 0.95 0.8 11.7 69.2 22.6 44.92 0.7 98.95 0.2 100.2 2.2 22.6 4.4 Protection and switching of transformers 3 Protection of electrical equipment Table 2: Protection and switching of 400 V transformers Transformer Sr [kVA] 1 x 63 2 x 63 1 x 100 2 x 100 1 x 125 2 x 125 1 x 160 2 x 160 1 x 200 2 x 200 1 x 250 2 x 250 1 x 315 2 x 315 1 x 400 2 x 400 1 x 500 2 x 500 1 x 630 2 x 630 3 x 630 1 x 800 2 x 800 3 x 800 1 x 1000 2 x 1000 3 x 1000 1 x 1250 2 x 1250 3 x 1250 1 x 1600 2 x 1600 3 x 1600 1 x 2000 2 x 2000 3 x 2000 1 x 2500 1 x 3125 uk % 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Trafo I r [A] 91 91 144 144 180 180 231 231 289 289 361 361 455 455 577 577 722 722 909 909 909 1155 1155 1155 1443 1443 1443 1804 1804 1804 2309 2309 2309 2887 2887 2887 3608 4510 Busbar Ib [A] 91 182 144 288 180 360 231 462 289 578 361 722 455 910 577 1154 722 1444 909 1818 2727 1155 2310 3465 1443 2886 4329 1804 3608 5412 2309 4618 6927 2887 5774 8661 3608 4510 Trafo Feeder Ik [kA] 2.95/0.95 0.8 0.95 0.95 0.3 85.7 35.7 32 A 63 A 125 A 160 A S250/S260 S250/S260 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 T1C160 T1B160 T1C160 T1B160 T1N160 T1C160 T1N160 T1C160 T2S160 T2H160 T1C160 T2S160 T2H160 T1N160 T2H160 T2L160 T1N160 T2H160 T4L250 T2N160 T2H160 T4L250 T2S160 T4L250 T4L250 T2H160 T2H160 250 A 5 5 5 6.7 Circuit Breaker "A" (LV side) ABB SACE Circuit Breaker T1B/T2N160 T1B/T2N160 T1B/T2N160 T1B/T2N160 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T4N320 T4N320 T5N400 T5N400 T5N630 T5N630 T5N630/S6N800 T5N630/S6N800 S6N800/S7S1250 S6N800/S7S1250 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7S1250/E1N1250 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7S1250/E1N1250 S7S1600/E2B1600 S7S1600/E2B1600 S7H1600/E2N1600 E2B2000 E2B2000 E3S2000 E3N2500 E3N2500 E3S2000 E3N3200 E3N3200 E3H3200 E4S4000 E6H5000 Release size In=100 In=100 In=160 In=160 In=250 In=250 In=250 In=250 In=320 In=320 In=400 In=400 In=630 In=630 In=630/800 In=630/800 In=800/1000 In=800/1000 In=1000 In=1000 In=1000 In=1250 In=1250 In=1250 In=1600 In=1600 In=1600 In=2000 In=2000 In=2000 In=2500 In=2500 In=2500 In=3200 In=3200 In=3200 In=4000 In=5000 setting 0.95 0.1 14.8 0.5 22.25 6.95/0.95 0.6 64.4 53.6 11.1 54.6 7.6 35.8 65.8 0.95/0.5 8.9 8.4 3.95 0.2 34.95 0.25 6.95/0.95 0.1 43.95 0.4 5.6 3.2 14.7 34.9 67.8 67.95 0.Electrical devices .95 0.8 22.2 4.8 67.3 43.6 67 44.95 0.4 35.8 0.2 3.95/0.2 8.95 0.3 65 28.9 17.7 5.9 22.8 5.96 0.95 0.95 0.2 4.3 42.2 14.8 0.7 17.95/0.6 81.6 22.3.4 7.95/0.5 4.8 80.5 34.6 44.

3.4 Protection and switching of transformers 3 Protection of electrical equipment Circuit Breaker "B" (Feeder Circuit Breaker) Feeder Circuit Breaker type and rated current 400 A 630 A 800 A 1250 A 1600 A 2000 A 2500 A 3200 A 4000 A T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5S400 T5H400 T5N400 T5S400 T5H400 T5N400 T5H400 T5L400 T5N400 T5H400 T5L400 T5N400 T5H400 T5L400 T5S400 T5L400 T5V400 T5H400 T5H400 T5N630 T5N630 T5N630 T5N630 T5N630 T5S630 T5H630 T5N630 T5S630 T5H630 T5N630 T5H400 T5L630 T5N630 T5H630 T5L630 T5N630 T5H630 T5L630 T5S630 T5L630 T5V630 T5H630 T5H630 E3H2500 E3L2500 E3N2500 E3S2500 E3H3200 E6V3200 E3N3200 E3S3200 E4H4000 E6V4000 E4S4000 1SDC010036F0201 S6N800 S6N800/E1B800 S6S800/E1N800 S7S1250/E1N1250 S6L800/E2N1250 S7L1250/E2N1250 S6N800/E1B800 S6S800/E1N800 S7S1250/E1N1250 S6L800/E2N1250 S7L1250/E2N1250 S6N800/E1B800 S7S1250/E1B1250 S6H800/E2N1250 S7H1250/E2N1250 S6L800/E3H1250 S7L1250/E3H1250 S6N800/E1B800 S7S1250/E1B1250 S6L800/E3H1250 S7L1250/E3S1250 S6L800/E3H1250 S7L1250/E3H1250 S6N800/E1B800 S7S1250/E1B1250 S6L800/E3S1250 S7L1250/E3S1250 S8V2000/E2L1250 S6S800/E1N800 S7S1250/E1N1250 S6L800/E3H1250 S7L1250/E3H1250 E2L1250 S6H800/E2N1250 S7H1250/E2N1250 S6L800/E3S1250 S7L1250/E3S1250 S7L1600/E2N1600 S7S1600/E2N1600 S7L1600/E2N1600 S7H1600/E2N1600 S7L1600/E3H1600 S7S1600/E2B1600 S7L1600/E3S1600 S7L1600/E3H1600 S7S1600/E2B1600 S7L1600/E3S1600 S8V2000/E2L1600 S7S1600/E2N1600 S7L1600/E3H1600 E2L1600 S7H1600/E2N1600 S7L1600/E3S1600 E2N2000 E2N2000 E3H2000 E3S2000 E3H2000 E3S2000 E3L2000 E2N2000 E3H2000 E3L2000 E2N2000 E3S2000 E3N2500 E3H2500 E3S2500 E3H2500 E3S2500 E3L2500 E3H3200 E3S3200 E3H3200 E3S3200 E6V3200 E4H4000 E4S4000 E6V4000 ABB SACE .Electrical devices 139 .

9 12.7 49.9 0.3 6.9 0.88 0.7 0.3 59.9 0.8 61.2 25.9 0.9 0.9 20.4 6.1 31.9 0.9/0.9 20.1 3.5 62.1 5.4 Protection and switching of transformers 3 Protection of electrical equipment Table 3: Protection and switching of 440 V transformers Transformer Sr [kVA] 1 x 63 2 x 63 1 x 100 2 x 100 1 x 125 2 x 125 1 x 160 2 x 160 1 x 200 2 x 200 1 x 250 2 x 250 1 x 315 2 x 315 1 x 400 2 x 400 1 x 500 2 x 500 1 x 630 2 x 630 3 x 630 1 x 800 2 x 800 3 x 800 1 x 1000 2 x 1000 3 x 1000 1 x 1250 2 x 1250 3 x 1250 1 x 1600 2 x 1600 3 x 1600 1 x 2000 2 x 2000 3 x 2000 1 x 2500 1 x 3125 uk % 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Trafo I r [A] 83 83 131 131 164 164 210 210 262 262 328 328 413 413 525 525 656 656 827 827 827 1050 1050 1050 1312 1312 1312 1640 1640 1640 2099 2099 2099 2624 2624 2624 3280 4100 Busbar Ib [A] 83 165 131 262 164 328 210 420 262 525 328 656 413 827 525 1050 656 1312 827 1653 2480 1050 2099 3149 1312 2624 3936 1640 3280 4921 2099 4199 6298 2624 5249 7873 3280 4100 Trafo Feeder Ik [kA] 2.6 32.9 0.5 31.9 8.9 48.3 20.25 140 ABB SACE .9 0.25 6.9 0.5 4.6 49.1 8.6 24.9 0.2 10.5 32 A 63 A 125 A 160 A S250/S260 S250/S260 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 T1B160 S250/S260 T1B160 T1C160 T1B160 T1C160 T1B160 T1N160 T1C160 T1N160 T1C160 T2N160 T1N160 T2S160 T1N160 T2S160 T2L160 T1N160 T2S160 T2L160 T2N160 T2H160 T2L160 T2S160 T2L160 T4L250 T2S160 T2L160 T4L250 T2S160 S4L160 T4V250 T2H160 T2L160 250 A T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3N250 T3S250 T3N250 T3S250 T3N250 T3S250 T4H250 T3N250 T4H250 T4H250 T3S250 T4H250 T4L250 T3S250 T4H250 T4L250 T3S250 T4H250 T4L250 T4H250 T4L250 T4V250 T4H250 T4H250 5 5 5 6.2 19.3 77.2 10.9 91.9 0.9 0.1 3.7 20.5 Circuit Breaker "A" (LV side) ABB SACE Circuit Breaker T1B/T2N160 T1B/T2N160 T1B/T2N160 T1B/T2N160 T3N/T4N250 T3N/T4N250 T3N/T4N250 T3N/T4N250 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N630 T5N630 T5N630 T5N630 S6N800 S6N800 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7S1600/E2B1600 S7S1600/E2B1600 S7H1600/E2N1600 E2B2000 E2B2000 E2N2000 E2N2500 E2N2500 E2N2500 E3N3200 E3N3200 E3S3200 E4S4000 E6H5000 Release size In=100 In=100 In=160 In=160 In=250 In=250 In=250 In=250 In=320 In=320 In=400 In=400 In=630 In=630 In=630 In=630 In=800 In=800 In=1000 In=1000 In=1000 In=1250 In=1250 In=1250 In=1600 In=1600 In=1600 In=2000 In=2000 In=2000 In=2500 In=2500 In=2500 In=3200 In=3200 In=3200 In=4000 In=5000 setting 0.9/0.9 Busbar Ik [kA] 2.8 16.25 6.4 111.9 40.9 0.5 89.7 74.Electrical devices .2 39.88 0.7 58.9 0.9 0.9 0.5 12.1 12.3.2 12.9 0.2 6.7 0.1 5.9 0.8 72.9 0.3 4.85/0.9 0.6 20.9 0.9 0.1 2.6 40.7 30.5 32.1 39.1 10.9 0.9 0.7 61.8 61.6 31.6 16.88 0.9 0.88 0.5 25.9 0.1 15.1 16.4 40.7 0.3 3.1 4.9 0.4 49.9 31.9/0.2 20.8 59.9 0.5 6.9/0.5 8.9 0.4 60.85/0.2 5.3 38.1 8.25 6.7 0.1 4.9 25.1 10.8 38.

4 Protection and switching of transformers 3 Protection of electrical equipment Circuit Breaker "B" (Feeder Circuit Breaker) Feeder Circuit Breaker type and rated current 400 A 630 A 800 A 1250 A 1600 A 2000 A 2500 A 3200 A 4000 A T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5N400 T5S400 T5N400 T5S400 T5H400 T5N400 T5H400 T5H400 T5N400 T5H400 T5L400 T5S400 T5H400 T5L400 T5S400 T5H400 T5L400 T5H400 T5L400 T5V400 T5H400 T5H400 T5N630 T5N630 T5S630 T5N630 T5S630 T5H630 T5N630 T5H630 T5H630 T5N630 T5H630 T5L630 T5S630 T5H630 T5L630 T5S630 T5H630 T5L630 T5H630 T5L630 T5V630 T5H630 T5H630 S6S800 S6S800/E1B800 S7S1250/E1B1250 S6L800/E2N1250 S7L1250/E2N1250 S6N800/E1B800 S6S800/E1B800 S7H1250/E1B1250 S6L800/E2N1250 S7L1250/E2N1250 S6N800/E1B800 S6L800/E2N1250 S7H1250/E1N1250 S6L800/E3S1250 S7L1250/E3S1250 S6S800/E1B800 S7S1250/E1B1250 S6L800/E2N1250 S7L1250/E2N1250 S8V2000/E2L1250 S6S800/E1B800 S7S1250/E1B1250 S6L800/E2N1250 S7L1250/E2N1250 S8V2000/E2L1250 S6S800/E1B800 S7H1250/E1N1250 S6L800/E3H1250 S7L1250/E3H1250 S6L800/E2N1250 S6L800/E2N1250 S7H1250/E1N1250 S7L1250/E2N1250 S7L1600/E2N1600 S7H1600/E2B1600 S7L1600/E2N1600 S7H1600/E2N1600 S7L1600/E3S1600 S7L1600/E2N1600 S8V2000/E2L1600 S7S1600/E2B1600 S7L1600/E2N1600 S8V2000/E2L1600 S7H1600/E2B1600 S7L1600/E3H1600 S7H1600/E2N1600 S7L1600/E2N1600 E2N2000 E2N2000 E2N2000 E3S2000 E2N2000 E3H2000 E2N2000 E3H2000 E2B2000 E3H2000 E6V3200 E2N2000 E2N2000 E3N2500 E3N3200 E4S4000 E3S2500 E3N2500 E3H2500 E3N2500 E3H2500 E3H2500 E3N2500 E3N2500 E3S3200 E3H3200 E3N3200 E3H3200 E3H3200 E4H4000 E4H4000 E4H4000 E6V4000 E3N3200 1SDC010037F0201 ABB SACE .Electrical devices 141 .3.

9 0.3 37.9 0.6 4.92 0.3 31.9 8.2 39.9/0.2 32 A 63 A 125 A 160 A T1B160 T1B160 T1B160 T1N160 T1B160 T1N160 T1C160 T2S160 T1N160 T2L160 T1N160 T4N250 T2S160 T4N250 T2L160 T4N250 T4N250 T4S250 T4N250 T4H250 T4H250 T4N250 T4H250 T4H250 T4N250 T4H250 T4L250 T4S250 T4H250 T4L250 T4S250 T4L250 T4L250 T4H250 T4L250 T4V250 T4H250 T4H250 250 A T4N250 T4N250 T4N250 T4N250 T4N250 T4N250 T4S250 T4N250 T4H250 T4H250 T4N250 T4H250 T4H250 T4N250 T4H250 T4L250 T4S250 T4H250 T4L250 T4S250 T4L250 T4L250 T4H250 T4L250 T4V250 T4H250 T4H250 5 5 5 6.8 0.5 12.7 37.88 0.9 0.9 25.7 0.92 0.2 4.6 2.1 20.6 3.3 10.2 3.0 20.9 25.1 25.8 39.1 2.3 2.Electrical devices .9/0.0 20.9 0.6 5.1 2.3 10.9 31.9 0.3 16.9 0.9/0.9 0.3.2 12.6 24.1 6.3 4.5 8.9 0.2 31.7 40.9 0.3 71.2 Circuit Breaker "A" (LV side) ABB SACE Circuit Breaker T1B/T2N160 T1B/T2N160 T1B/T2N160 T1B/T2N160 T1B/T2N160 T1B/T2N160 T1C/T2N160 T1C/T2N160 T3N250/T4N250 T3N250/T4N250 T3S250/T4N250 T3S250/T4N250 T4N320 T4N320 T5N400 T5N400 T5N630 T5N630 T5N630 T5N630 T5S630 S6N800 S6N800 S6L800 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7S1250/E1B1250 S7L1250/E1B1250 S7H1250/E1B1250 S7S1250/E1B1250 E2B1250 E2B1600 E2B1600 E2B1600 E2B2000 E2B2000 E2B2000 E3N2500 E3N3200 Release size In=63 In=63 In=100 In=100 In=160 In=160 In=160 In=160 In=250 In=250 In=250 In=250 In=320 In=320 In=400 In=400 In=630 In=630 In=630 In=630 In=630 In=800 In=800 In=800 In=1000 In=1000 In=1000 In=1250 In=1250 In=1600 In=1600 In=1600 In=1600 In=2000 In=2000 In=2000 In=2500 In=3200 setting 0.88 0.9 0.3 3.9 0.88 0.9/0.2 8.9 0.3 6.8 46.9 0.9 0.9 0.2 2.2 10.9 0.2 57.9/0.3 2.3 5.1 5.7 20.72 0.1 12.9 0.3 6.9/0.4 Protection and switching of transformers 3 Protection of electrical equipment Table 4: Protection and switching of 690 V transformers Transformer Sr [kVA] 1 x 63 2 x 63 1 x 100 2 x 100 1 x 125 2 x 125 1 x 160 2 x 160 1 x 200 2 x 200 1 x 250 2 x 250 1 x 315 2 x 315 1 x 400 2 x 400 1 x 500 2 x 500 1 x 630 2 x 630 3 x 630 1 x 800 2 x 800 3 x 800 1 x 1000 2 x 1000 3 x 1000 1 x 1250 2 x 1250 3 x 1250 1 x 1600 2 x 1600 3 x 1600 1 x 2000 2 x 2000 3 x 2000 1 x 2500 1 x 3125 uk % 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Trafo I r [A] 53 53 84 84 105 105 134 134 167 167 209 209 264 264 335 335 418 418 527 527 527 669 669 669 837 837 837 1046 1046 1046 1339 1339 1339 1673 1673 1673 2092 2615 Busbar Ib [A] 53 105 84 167 105 209 134 268 167 335 209 418 264 527 335 669 418 837 527 1054 1581 669 1339 2008 837 1673 2510 1046 2092 3138 1339 2678 4016 1673 3347 5020 2092 2615 Trafo Feeder Ik [kA] 1.9 0.6 2.5 31.9 Busbar Ik [kA] 1.7 49.72 0.5 20.2 10.8 0.1 12.3 20.9/0.9 0.8 39.3 25.8 13.7 16.2 16.3 1.8 25.7 0.1 4.7 0.88 0.9/0.9 0.9 0.9 0.7 47.7 24.9 0.5 6.3 8.1 58.9/0.2 5.2 19.9 0.25 6.1 38.9 12.2 13.9/0.25 6.6 38.3 15.25 6.25 142 ABB SACE .

4 Protection and switching of transformers 3 Protection of electrical equipment Circuit Breaker "B" (Feeder Circuit Breaker) Feeder Circuit Breaker type and rated current 400 A 630 A 800 A 1250 A 1600 A 2000 A 2500 A 3200 A 4000 A T5N400 T5N400 T5S400 T5N400 T5H400 T5H400 T5N400 T5H400 T5H400 T5N400 T5H400 T5L400 T5S400 T5H400 T5L400 T5S400 T5L400 T5L400 T5H400 T5L400 T5V400 T5H400 T5H400 T5S630 T5H630 T5H630 T5H630 T5H630 T5N630 T5H630 T5L630 T5S630 T5H630 T5L630 T5S630 T5L630 T5L630 T5H630 T5L630 T5V630 T5H630 T5H630 S6L800 E2B1600 S7L1250/E1B800 S7L1250/E1B1250 S8V2000/E2N1250 S8V2000/E2N1600 S6S800/E1B800 S8H2000/E2B1250 S8H2000/E2B1600 E3N2500 S6S800/E1B800 S8V2000/E2B1250 S8V2000/E2B1600 E3N2500 S6L800/E1B800 S7L1250/E1B1250 S8V2000/E2N1250 S8V2000/E2N1600 E2L1250 E2L1600 S7L1250/E1B800 S7L1250/E1B1250 S7L1600/E2B1600 S8H2000/E2B1250 S8H2000/E2B1600 E2B1600 E2N2000 E2B2000 E3N3200 E2N2000 E3N2500 E3S2000 E3S2500 E3S3200 E2B2000 E4S4000 1SDC010037F0201 ABB SACE .Electrical devices 143 .3.

Example: Supposing the need to size breakers A1/A2/A3. For a correct selection.Electrical devices 1SDC010026F0001 B1 B2 B3 . the decision to use limiting circuitbreakers etc. It must also be noted that the short-circuit currents given are determined using the hypothesis of 750 MVA power upstream of the transformers. Therefore.4 kV with uk% equal to 4% and outgoing feeder circuit-breakers B1/B2/B3 of 63-400-800 A: A1 A2 A3 63 A 400 A 800 A 144 ABB SACE . must also be considered.3. it is essential that the design engineers carry out precise checks. back-up protection. other factors such as selectivity. the information for the selection of circuit-breakers is supplied only with regard to the current in use and the prospective short-circuit current.4 Protection and switching of transformers 3 Protection of electrical equipment NOTE The tables refer to the previously specified conditions. on the LV side of the three transformers of 630 kVA 20/0. disregarding the impedances of the busbars or the connections to the circuit-breakers.

3.4 Protection and switching of transformers

3 Protection of electrical equipment
From Table 2, corresponding to the row relevant to 3x630 kVA transformers, it can be read that:

Level A circuit-breakers (LV side of transformer) • Trafo Ir (909 A) is the current that flows through the transformer circuit-breakers; • Busbar Ib (2727 A) is the maximum current that the transformers can supply; • Trafo Feeder Ik (42.8 kA) is the value of the short-circuit current to consider for the choice of the breaking capacity of each of the transformer circuit-breakers; • S7S1250 or E1N1250 is the size of the transformer circuit-breaker; • In (1000 A) is the rated current of the transformer circuit-breaker (electronic release chosen by the user); • Setting (0.95) indicates the set value of function L of the electronic release.

Level B circuit-breakers (outgoing feeder) • Busbar Ik (64.2 kA) is the short-circuit current due to the contribution of all three transformers; • corresponding to 63 A, read circuit-breaker B1 Tmax T2H160; • corresponding to 400 A, read circuit-breaker B2 Tmax T5H400; • corresponding to 800 A, read circuit-breaker B3 Isomax S6L800 or E2N1250. The choice made does not take into account discrimination/back-up requirements. Refer to the relevant chapters for selections appropriate to the various cases.

ABB SACE - Electrical devices

145

4 Power factor correction
4.1 General aspects
U

IR I

P S IQ Q

In alternating current circuits, the current absorbed by the user can be represented by two components: - the active component IR, in phase with the supply voltage, is directly correlated to the output (and therefore to the part of electrical energy transformed into energy of a different type, usually electrical with different characteristics, mechanical, light and/or thermal); - the reactive component IQ, in quadrature to the voltage, is used to produce the flow necessary for the conversion of powers through the electric or magnetic field. Without this, there could be no flow of power, such as in the core of a transformer or in the air gap of a motor. In the most common case, in the presence of ohmic-inductive type loads, the total current (I) lags in comparison with the active component IR. In an electrical installation, it is necessary to generate and transmit, other than the active power P, a certain reactive power Q, which is essential for the conversion of electrical energy, but not available to the user. The complex of the power generated and transmitted constitutes the apparent power S.

Power factor (cosϕ) is defined as the ratio between the active component IR and the total value of the current l; ϕ is the phase shifting between the voltage U and the current l. It results:

cos

=

IR P (1) = S I

The reactive demand factor (tanϕ) is the relationship between the reactive power and the active power:

tan =

Q (2) P

146

ABB SACE - Electrical devices

4.1 General aspects

4 Power factor correction
Table 1 shows some typical power factors: Table 1: Typical power factor
Load Transformers (no load condition) Motor (full load) Motor (no load) Metal working apparatuses: - Arc welding - Arc welding compensated - Resistance welding: - Arc melting furnace Fluorescent lamps - compensated - uncompensated Mercury vapour lamps Sodium vapour lamp AC DC converters DC drives AC drives Resistive load cosϕ power factor 0.1÷0.15 0.7÷0.85 0.15 0.35÷0.6 0.7÷0.8 0.4÷0.6 0.75÷0.9 0.9 0.4÷0.6 0.5 0.65÷0.75 0.6÷0.95 0.4÷0.75 0.95÷0.97 1 tanϕ reactive demand factor 9.9÷6.6 1.0÷0.62 6.6 2.7÷1.3 1.0÷0.75 2.3÷1.3 0.9÷0.5 0.5 2.3÷1.3 1.7 1.2÷0.9 1.3÷0.3 2.3÷0.9 0.33÷0.25 0

The power factor correction is the action increasing the power factor in a specific section of the installation by locally supplying the necessary reactive power, so as to reduce the current value to the equivalent of the power required, and therefore the total power absorbed from the upstream side. Thus, both the line as well as the supply generator can be sized for a lower apparent power value required by the load. In detail, as shown by Figure 1 and Figure 2, increasing the power factor of the load: - decreases the relative voltage drop urp per unit of active power transmitted; - increases the transmittable active power and decreases the losses, the other dimensioning parameters remaining equal.

ABB SACE - Electrical devices

147

4.1 General aspects

4 Power factor correction
Figure 1: Relative voltage drop
Voltage drop per unit of active power transmitted 10

Cable cross section
Relative voltage drop

1
0.50 Load power factor

Figure 2: Transmittable active power
Active power increase with equal dimensioning factors

1000 original power factor 0.4 0.7
Active Power % increase

0.5 0.8

0.6 0.9

100

10

1 0.70

0.80 Improved power factor

0.90

1.00

148

ABB SACE - Electrical devices

1SDC010040F0201

1SDC010039F0201

and at the same time not to risk having. The same inconveniences are present in the distribution installation of the final user.Electrical devices 149 .tan 2 ) (3) where: P is the active power. and therefore has a series of further inconveniences which can be summarized as: . In the case of a sinusoidal waveform. Q1. Q2.oversizing of the conductors and and of the components of the transmission lines.ϕ1 are the reactive power and the phase shifting before power factor correction. The power factor is an excellent index of the size of the added costs and is therefore used by the distribution authority to define the purchase price of the energy for the final user. The distribution authority generally does not allow others to supply reactive power to the network.higher Joule-effect losses and higher voltage drops in the components and lines. a leading power factor when the power factor corrected device is working with a low load. Qc is the reactive power for the power factor correction.4. . The ideal situation would be to have a cosϕ slightly higher than the set reference so as to avoid payment of legal penalties.ϕ2 are the reactive power and the phase shifting after power factor correction.1 General aspects 4 Power factor correction The distribution authority is responsible for the production and transmission of the reactive power required by the user installations. also due to the possibility of unexpected overvoltages. with a cosϕ too close to the unit.Q1 = P ⋅ ( tan 1 . P Q2 S2 P Qc Power factor correction unit (reactive power generator) Q2 S2 Q1 Qc S1 P Q1 S1 Motor 1SDC010041F0201 ABB SACE . the reactive power necessary to pass from one power factor cosϕ1 to a power factor cosϕ2 is given by the formula: Qc = Q2 .

380 0.370 0.005 0.594 0.80 0.573 0.546 0.631 0.508 0.776 0.936 0.63 0.265 1.186 0.878 0.369 0.685 0.216 0.713 0.234 0.743 0.71 0.027 0.4.298 0.057 0.242 0.111 0.909 0.594 0.970 1.657 0.77 0.729 0.593 0.169 1.488 0.64 0.88 0.132 0.135 0.198 0.184 0.515 0.73 0.289 0.84 0.104 0.167 0.020 0.433 0.381 0.90 0.317 0.581 0.048 1.683 0.299 1.275 0.909 0.713 0.72 0.055 0.443 0.426 0.089 cosϕ2 0.829 0.608 0.480 0.354 0.821 0.750 0.645 0.992 0.996 0.328 0.629 0.904 0.177 0.654 0.537 0.281 0.779 0.084 0.90 0.355 0.700 0.849 0.487 0.815 0.026 0.358 0.294 0.447 0.770 0. Table 2: Factor Kc Kc cosϕ1 0.83 0.663 0.407 0.387 0.458 0.941 0.342 1 1.484 0.456 0.512 0.049 1.761 0.451 0.451 0.188 0.201 1.777 0.292 0.581 0.974 0.029 0.781 0.316 0.936 0.536 0.838 0.417 0.89 0.74 0.123 1.266 0.775 0.015 0.794 0.966 0.62 0.93 0.204 0.114 0.855 0.716 0.672 0.549 0.608 0.130 0.787 0.214 0.61 0.712 0.590 0.361 0.156 0.209 0.214 0.447 0.190 0.624 0.469 0.905 0.225 0.424 0.843 0.573 0.970 0.164 0.565 0.652 0.052 0.849 0.810 0.556 0.473 0.141 0.262 0.714 0.1 General aspects 4 Power factor correction Table 2 shows the value of the relationship Kc = Qc = tan P 1 .68 0.270 0.347 0.400 0.682 0.698 0.950 0.265 0.620 0.211 0.320 0.193 0.907 0.tan 2 (4) for different values of the power factor before and after the correction.477 0.540 0.425 0.108 1.552 0.95 0.810 0.233 1.159 0.439 0.052 0.145 0.526 0.870 0.919 0.026 0.741 0.369 0.683 0.875 0.519 0.828 0.238 0.096 1.429 0.739 0.388 0.679 0.857 0.538 0.635 0.623 0.090 1.474 0.882 0.406 0.623 0.251 0.058 1.083 1.398 0.495 0.547 0.078 0.98 1.162 0.686 0.878 0.626 0.235 0.521 0.082 0.390 0.242 0.733 0.397 0.66 0.660 0.907 0.597 0.580 0.998 0.870 0.872 0.257 0.65 0.483 0.79 0.499 0.714 0.92 0.172 0.713 0.936 0.877 0.617 0.541 0.030 0.625 0.335 0.938 0.806 0.599 0.318 0.536 0.333 1.605 0.85 0.837 0.272 0.514 0.745 0.309 0.194 0.262 0.492 0.937 0.042 1.78 0.798 0.371 0.510 0.508 0.117 0.395 0.183 0.511 0.966 0.654 0.80 0.567 0.569 0.672 0.007 0.839 0.70 0.69 0.775 0.97 1.078 1.503 0.91 0.686 0.646 0.566 0.805 0.483 0.646 0.400 0.220 0.138 0.328 0.484 150 ABB SACE .403 0.549 0.302 0.964 0.277 0.109 0.291 0.525 0.67 0.376 0.149 0.982 0.530 0.500 0.60 0.583 0.85 0.105 0.079 0.481 0.130 1.429 0.888 0.96 1.748 0.395 0.766 0.373 0.230 0.774 0.364 0.246 0.86 0.324 0.459 0.191 1.720 0.715 0.99 1.817 0.679 0.601 0.156 0.565 0.283 0.329 0.344 0.743 0.634 0.789 0.745 0.846 0.94 0.058 0.268 0.757 0.578 0.421 0.350 0.904 0.343 0.460 0.337 0.76 0.519 0.81 0.686 0.613 0.028 0.692 0.240 0.309 0.157 1.935 0.553 0.289 0.750 0.816 0.453 0.873 0.248 0.421 0.316 0.299 0.593 0.82 0.062 1.903 0.121 0.452 0.466 0.652 0.Electrical devices .343 0.413 0.802 0.563 0.724 0.706 0.372 0.086 0.419 0.847 0.432 0.652 0.303 0.658 0.75 0.138 1.344 0.840 0.87 0.807 0.221 0.

c. .Electrical devices 151 .the possibility of covering a wide range of powers and different load profiles.c.Safety requirements . P = 0.ease of installation and maintenance.93). The disadvantages are sensitivity to overvoltages and to the presence of nonlinear loads.5 W/kvar in low voltage).Part 1: General .8 to 0. Capacitors have the following advantages: .low cost compared with synchronous compensators and electronic power converters. . systems having a rated voltage up to and including 1000 V . From Table 2. . the value of Kc (0. testing and rating . The reactive power Qc which must be generated locally shall be: Qc = K c . .Guide for installation and operation”.Part 1: GeneralPerformance.5 kvar Due to the effect of power factor correction.Performance.Guide for installation and operation”.93 the power factor of a threephase installation (Ur= 400 V) which absorbs an average power of 300 kW.IEC 60831-1 “Shunt power capacitors of the self-healing type for a.4.8).Safety requirements . testing and rating .IEC 60931-1 “Shunt power capacitors of the non-self-healing type for a. at the intersection of the column corresponding to the final power factor (0. The Standards applicable to power factor correction capacitors are as follows: . simply supplying in parallel different combinations of components. ABB SACE . especially for an installation which already exists. and the row corresponding to the starting power factor (0. is installing capacitors. the current absorbed decreases from 540 A to 460 A (a reduction of approximately 15%). each with a relatively small power.355) can be read. Characteristics of power factor correction capacitor banks The most economical means of increasing the power factor.355 . systems having a rated voltage up to and including 1000 V .reduced losses (less than 0.1 General aspects 4 Power factor correction Example Supposing the need to change from 0. 300 = 106.

Electrical devices .2 Power factor correction method Single PFC Single or individual power factor correction is carried out by connecting a capacitor of the correct value directly to the terminals of the device which absorbs reactive power. generally expressed in kvar (reactive power of the capacitor bank). Individual PFC is usually applied to motors and fluorescent lamps. The capacitor units or small lighting capacitors are connected directly to loads. the star-connection requires a capacity 3 times larger and subjects the capacitors to a voltage and a current times less than the analogous delta-connection. which the capacitor must withstand indefinitely. for the same reactive power. The adjustment of cosϕ is systematic and automatic with benefit not only to the energy distribution authority. but also to the whole internal distribution system of the user. are: • rated voltage Ur. 152 ABB SACE . given on its nameplate. This type of power factor correction is advisable in the case of large users with constant load and power factor and long connection times. •rated power Qc.1 General aspects 4 Power factor correction The characteristics of a capacitor. Capacitors are generally supplied with connected discharge resistance. • rated frequency fr (usually equal to that of the network). 4. and are connected and disconnected simultaneously. as stated in the reference Standard. Installation is simple and economical: capacitors and load can use the same overload and short-circuit protection.4. From this data it is possible to find the size characteristics of the capacitors by using the following formulae (5): Single-phase connection Three-phase star-connection Three-phase delta-connection Capacity of the capacitor bank C= Qc 2 2 π fr ⋅ U r C= Qc 2 2π f r ⋅ U r C= Qc 2 2π f r ⋅ U r ⋅ 3 1SDC010005F0901 Rated current of the components Line current Irc = 2 π f r ⋅ C ⋅ U r Irc = 2 π f r ⋅ C ⋅ U r / 3 I l = Irc I rc = 2 π f r ⋅ C ⋅ U r I l = I rc I l = Irc ⋅ 3 With three-phase systems. calculated so as to reduce the residual voltage at the terminals to 75 V in 3 minutes.

with the risk of dangerous overvoltages of up to twice the rated voltage value. at rated voltage Ur. Considering that under no-load conditions. it results: Qc = 0. in the case of diagram 3.9 ⋅ 3 ⋅U r ⋅ I 0 [kvar] (6) 1000 The current I0 is generally given in the documentation supplied by the manufacturer of the motor. if the voltage is expressed in volts. to avoid the risk detailed above.Electrical devices 153 1SDC010028F0001 . the current absorbed I0 [A] is solely reactive. ABB SACE . to avoid a leading power factor.9 ⋅ Q0 = 0. it is advisable to use a PFC with reactive power Qc below 90% of the reactive power absorbed by the no-load motor Q0. the normal procedure is to connect the PFC bank to the motor only when it is running.4. the voltage is maintained on the load side of the switching and control device. and to disconnect it before the disconnection of the motor supply. In this case. However. acting as an asynchronous generator. As a general rule. the motor will continue to rotate (residual kinetic energy) and self-excite with the reactive energy supplied by the capacitor bank.2 Power factor connection method 4 Power factor correction Individual PFC of motors The usual connection diagrams are shown in the following Figure: Starter Starter Starter M Diagram 1 c M Diagram 2 c M Diagram 3 c In the case of direct connection (diagrams 1 and 2) there is a risk that after disconnection of the supply. for a motor with power Pr.

6 24.88 0.7 35.5 59.92 400V / 50 Hz / 4 poles 0.96 0.0 486.2 143.8 145.94 0.97 0.9 174.87 0.95 0.84 0.94 0.83 0.97 0.9 252.89 0.9 122.1 71.86 0.9 0.5 32 38.86 0.1 47.3 30.8 47.97 0.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 160 200 250 315 2.4 320.96 0.88 0.96 0.Electrical devices .2 21.86 0.84 0.5 5 5 7.95 0.95 0.83 0.4 507.91 0.5 391.94 0.96 0.89 0.2 87.86 0.93 12.98 0.95 0.86 0.6 257. according to the power and the number of poles.88 0.87 0.7 18.5 35 41 56 68 83 98 135 158 192 232 282 351 430 545 After PFC cosϕ2 I2 [A] 7.89 0.97 0.81 0.8 209.98 0.96 12.3 7.2 399.4.96 0.5 28.89 0.94 0.96 0.92 0.98 0.9 181.87 0.95 0.97 0.94 0.84 0.89 0.0 210.87 0.5 2.5 11 15 18.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 160 200 250 315 2.5 53 64 79 95 131 152 194 228 269 334 410 510 / 1500 r/min 14.9 154 ABB SACE .9 20 26.9 58.2 Power factor connection method 4 Power factor correction Table 3 shows the values of reactive power for power factor correction of some ABB motors.92 0.95 0.95 0.97 0.86 0.96 0.5 10 15 15 20 20 20 20 30 40 40 50 50 60 0.98 0.2 25.5 11 15 18.5 5 5 5 10 10 12. Table 3: Reactive power for power factor motor correction Pr [kW] Qc [kvar] Before PFC cosϕr Ir [A] / 3000 r/min 13.3 122.83 0.88 0.2 317.96 0.8 72.7 18.5 15 15 15 20 30 30 30 40 50 400V / 50 Hz / 2 poles 0.97 0.9 0.87 0.2 29.88 0.1 86.5 35.9 0.

81 0.82 0.4 90.93 0.6 178.92 12.82 0.7 30.0 62.79 0.Electrical devices 155 .8 210.5 7.91 0.93 0.83 0.5 11 15 18.2 178.8 72.95 0.5 11 15 18.5 7.84 163 0.3 25.95 0.78 0.82 0.5 15 20 25 30 35 45 50 60 70 75 0.83 69 0.92 0.9 36.85 355 0.8 214.93 0.4 0.84 101 0.93 13.8 / 750 r/min 18.92 0.4 60.97 0.2 514.93 0.1 23.93 0.93 0.85 280 0.0 404.81 43 0.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 5 7.79 15.9 144.76 0.5 29 37 45 59 74 90 104 140 167 202 250 After PFC cosϕ2 I2 [A] 7.94 0.95 0.6 146.84 450 0.94 0.78 0.4 24.83 202 0.6 88.2 120.81 36 0.4 19.5 49.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 160 200 250 315 5 5 7.77 0.83 56 0.96 0.5 37.83 240 0.2 Power factor connection method 4 Power factor correction Pr [kW] Qc [kvar] Before PFC cosϕr Ir [A] 400V / 50 Hz / 6 poles / 1000 r/min 0.79 0.5 7.8 75.5 31.95 0.97 0.98 0.5 10 12.7 0.4.4 7.84 565 400V / 50 Hz / 8 poles 0.94 0.93 0.5 15 20 20 30 30 35 50 0.8 249.95 0.6 ABB SACE .5 10 10 12.94 0.84 82 0.96 0.78 23 0.94 0.9 18.7 123.6 318.94 0.5 50.94 0.95 0.78 31 0.82 141 0.

the PFC power suggested in the table is 30 kvar. due to the system requirements.62 ⋅  ⋅ 630 = 20. the percentage value of the short-circuit voltage uk%.92 =19. it is advisable to carry out power factor correction directly at the transformer. From the data on the transformer nameplate: i0% = 1.8%   4%  2 u % ⋅ 630 + 0. the PFC power required is approximately: i %  u %  i %   2 2 2 2 u % Qc =  0 ⋅ Sr  − Pfe + K L ⋅  k ⋅ Sr  − Pcu ≈  0 ⋅ Sr  + K L ⋅  k ⋅ Sr  [kvar] (7)  100   100   100   100  2 2 where KL is the load factor.22−+ 0. Example Supposing the need for PFC of a 630 kVA oil-distribution transformer which supplies a load which is less than 60% of its rated power. when using the simplified formula.4 poles).8%   4%  ⋅ 630 1.2 Power factor connection method 4 Power factor correction Example For a three-phase asynchronous motor. the PFC power (Qc) for a transformer with rated power Sr [kVA] should not exceed the reactive power required under minimum reference load conditions.2 kW The PFC power of the capacitor bank connected to the transformer is: u %  i %  2 2 2 Qc =  0 ⋅ Sr  − Pfe + K L ⋅  k ⋅ Sr  − Pcu =   100   100 2 2  1.8 kvar   100   100  2 2 while. the percentage value of the no-load current i0%. the iron losses Pfe and the copper losses Pcu [kW].Electrical devices .9 kW Pfe = 1.4 kvar Qc =  0 ⋅ Sr  + K L ⋅  k ⋅ Sr  =    100   100   100   100 156 ABB SACE .62 ⋅  ⋅ 630 − 8. Individual power factor correction of three-phase transformers A transformer is an electrical device of primary importance which. defined as the relationship between the minimum reference load and the rated power of the transformer. in installations constituted by several transformer substations.8% uk% = 4% Pcu = 8. is often constantly in service. In particular.50 Hz . the result is: i %    1.4. In general. 110 kW (400 V . Reading the data from the transformer nameplate.

2 2.20 4.55 3.6 2 0.1 2 1.8 3.80 18.3 0.80 38.3 1.9 1.5 1.00 20 2.50 15 23 0.4 Oil Distribution Transformer MV-LV 0.80 6.94 8.20 8.7 4 4.1 3.2 11 14 18 22 28 35 60 74 93 118 142 175 252 333 100 160 200 250 315 400 500 630 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500 3150 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 8 Cast Resin Distribution Transformer MV-LV 2.5 0.25 9.4 5.3 1.20 5.40 9.50 17 26 0.8 5.1 7.9 2.1 9.00 11 15 0.1 1.95 3.50 24 3.3 6.1 11 14 17 25 31 38 47 53 64 89 125 2.20 21.6 1.8 8.4 1.3 0.00 7.00 27 4.00 19. the necessary PFC power is 17 kvar.7 13 0.30 4.2 0.5 1.00 33.9 12 14 17 20 25 29 38 45 54 81 5.05 4.00 24 3.5 2.60 15. 157 ABB SACE .00 16 2.00 8 10 1.20 3.7 1.40 3.30 2.5 11 13 16 20 24 30 31 37 48 73 1.90 11 1.20 17.85 6.4 0.4 1.00 34 4.9 7.1 1.7 5. according to the different minimum estimated load levels.6 12 1 2.Electrical devices .3 1.8 7 8.00 18 34 3.6 1.2 1.50 7.00 14.4.4 9.4 0.35 1.25 0.25 1.60 14 1.75 13.70 24.4 1.5 0.8 4.48 3.50 5.7 1.85 2.3 6.6 1.2 2.65 2.3 10 13 16 20 25 40 49 61 77 90 111 157 212 2.5 8.00 56 1.90 3.30 13.10 16.75 0 1 50 100 160 200 250 315 400 500 630 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500 3150 4000 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 2.7 9.4 10 13 16 19 23 29 35 43 52 67 82 101 159 8 12 15 19 24 29 36 45 56 69 85 109 134 166 269 Example For a 630 kVA oil-distribution transformer with a load factor of 0.80 5.70 2.4 1. Table 4: PFC reactive power for ABB transformers Sr [kVA] uk% [%] io% [%] Pfe [kW] Qc [kvar] Pcu [kW] load factor KL 0.5.7 5.35 2.9 3.9 4.50 1.8 8.7 1.6 0.9 1.45 10.40 6.5 6.80 9.3 2.5 2.60 7.72 5.7 4.3 5 6.50 14 20 0.20 8.9 5.8 0.9 0.6 6.61 4.80 4.6 8.7 1.8 1.3 4.45 5.1 1.2 Power factor connection method 4 Power factor correction Table 4 shows the reactive power of the capacitor bank Qc [kvar] to be connected on the secondary side of an ABB transformer.

4. In installations. In the case of installations with many loads occasionally functioning.2 Power factor connection method 4 Power factor correction PFC in groups Group of loads to be power factor corrected This consists of local power factor correction of groups of loads with similar functioning characteristics by installing a dedicated capacitor bank. the use of a single PFC system at the installation origin ensures a remarkable decrease in the total power of the capacitors to be installed. the solution of using single PFC becomes unsuitable as many of the capacitors installed could stay idle for long periods.Electrical devices 1SDC010030F0001 1SDC010029F0001 . Centralized PFC C LV Feeders The daily load profile is of fundamental importance for the choice of the most suitable type of power factor correction. since only the line downstream of the installation point of the capacitor bank is not correctly exploited. in which not all loads function simultaneously and/or in which some loads are connected for only a few hours a day. thus having a high installed power and a quite low average power absorption by the loads which function simultaneously. This method achieves a compromise between the economical solution and the correct operation of the installation. 158 ABB SACE .

the overload protection setting shall be equal to 1. associated with transient currents with high frequency (1÷15 kHz).the rated current of the circuit-breaker shall be greater than 1.3 Circuit-breakers for the protection and switching of capacitor banks The circuit-breakers for the protection and switching of capacitor banks in LV shall: 1.2 Power factor connection method 4 Power factor correction Centralized PFC normally uses automatic units with capacitor banks divided into several steps. Therefore: . withstand the transient currents which occur when connecting and disconnecting the banks. 4. In particular.4. the instantaneous magnetic and electronic releases shall not trip due to these peak currents.the capacitors shall normally function with an effective current value up to 130% of their rated current Irc (due to the possible presence of voltage harmonics in the network).the setting of the instantaneous short-circuit protection must not cause unwanted trips. Standards IEC 60831-1 and 60931-1 state that: .3⋅ 1. similar to a closing operation under shortcircuit conditions.Electrical devices 159 .5 ⋅ I rc (8) 3 ⋅U r Therefore: .the circuit-breaker shall have an adequate making capacity. with high peak (25÷200 Irc). 3. The maximum current which can be absorbed by the capacitor bank Icmax is: Ic max = 1. . 4. The connection of a capacitor bank.5⋅Irc. Furthermore. must be dimensioned taking into account the full reactive power required by the loads. ABB SACE . The main disadvantage of centralized PFC is that the distribution lines of the installation. be coordinated with any external device (contactors). of short duration (1÷3 ms). withstand the periodic or permanent overcurrents due to the voltage harmonics and to the tolerance (+15%) of the rated value of capacity. downstream of the PFC device. also with high frequency.15⋅ Qc ≈ 1.a tolerance of +15% on the value of the capacity is allowed. 2. the use of a permanently connected capacitor bank is only possible if the absorption of reactive energy is fairly regular throughout the day. perform a high number of no-load and on-load operations. . directly installed in the main distribution switchboards. .5⋅Irc. the making and breaking capacity of the circuit-breaker must be adequate to the short.circuit current values of the installation.

The following symbols are used in the tables (they refer to maximum values): .Electrical devices . . the instantaneous short-circuit protection shall be deactivated (I3 = OFF). Table 5: Selection table for Tmax moulded-case circuit-breakers InCB Irc QC [kvar] Nmech fmech [op/h] 240 240 240 240 240 120 120 Nel 8000 8000 8000 8000 6000 7000 5000 fel [op/h] 120 120 120 120 120 60 60 CB Type [A] [A] 400 V 440 V 500 V 690 V T1 B-C-N 160 160 107 74 81 92 127 25000 T2 N-S-H-L 160* 160 107 74 81 92 127 25000 T3 N-S 250* 250 167 115 127 144 199 25000 T4 N-S-H-L-V 250 250 167 115 127 144 199 20000 T4 N-S-H-L-V 320 320 213 147 162 184 254 20000 T5 N-S-H-L-V 400 400 267 185 203 231 319 20000 T5 N-S-H-L-V 630 630 420 291 320 364 502 20000 * for plug-in version reduce the maximum power of the capacitor bank by 10% Table 6: Selection table for SACE Isomax S moulded-case circuit-breakers InCB S6 N-S-H-L 800 S7 S-H-L 1250 S7 S-H-L 1600 S8 H-V 2000 S8 H-V 2500 S8 H-V 3200 800 1250 1600 2000 2500 3200 Irc 533 833 1067 1333 1667 2133 369 577 739 924 1155 1478 QC [kvar] 406 635 813 1016 1270 1626 462 722 924 1155 1443 1847 637 996 1275 1593 1992 2550 Nmech 20000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 fmech 120 120 120 120 120 120 Nel 5000 7000 5000 3000 2500 1500 fel 60 20 20 20 20 10 160 ABB SACE .3 Circuit-breakers for the protection and switching of capacitor banks 4 Power factor correction The second condition is generally respected: • for thermomagnetic releases. . refer to Volume 1.fmech = frequency of mechanical operations [op/h].QC= power of the capacitor bank which can be connected [kvar] with reference to the indicated voltage and 50 Hz frequency.Nel = number of electrical operations with reference to a voltage of 415 V for Tmax and Isomax moulded-case circuit breakers (Tables 5 and 6). Chapter 3.4. . and to a voltage of 440 V for Emax air circuit-breakers (Table 7). . Hereunder. the selection tables for circuit-breakers: for the definition of the version according to the required breaking capacity.InCB = rated current of the protection release [A]. the magnetic protection shall be set at a value not less than 10⋅Icmax Qr I3 ≥ 10 ⋅ Icmax = 15⋅Irc= 15⋅ (9) 3 ⋅U r • for electronic releases.1 “General characteristics”.fel = frequency of electrical operations [op/h].Irc= rated current of the connected capacitor bank [A]. . .Nmech = number of mechanical operations.

3 Circuit-breakers for the protection and switching of capacitor banks 4 Power factor correction Table 7: Selection table for SACE Emax air circuit-breakers InCB CB Type E1 B N E2 B-N E2 B-N E2 B-N E3 N-S-H E3 N-S-H E3 N-S-H E3 N-S-H E3 N-S-H E4 S-H E6 H-V [A] 1250 1250 1600 2000 1250 1600 2000 2500 3200 3200 3200 Irc [A] 834 834 1067 1334 834 1067 1334 1667 2134 2134 2134 400 V 578 578 739 924 578 739 924 1155 1478 1478 1478 QC [kvar] 440 V 636 636 813 1017 636 813 1017 1270 1626 1626 1626 500 V 722 722 924 1155 722 924 1155 1444 1848 1848 1848 690 V 997 997 1275 1594 997 1275 1594 1992 2550 2550 2550 Nmech 25000 25000 25000 25000 20000 20000 20000 20000 20000 15000 12000 fmech [op/h] 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 Nel 10000 15000 12000 10000 12000 10000 9000 8000 6000 7000 5000 fel [op/h] 30 30 30 30 20 20 20 20 20 10 10 ABB SACE .4.Electrical devices 161 .

Note: very high currents do not usually induce muscular tetanization because. when the body touches such currents. four zones to which the physiological effects of alternating current (15 ÷100 Hz) passing through the human body have been related.tetanization: the muscles affected by the current flow involuntary contract and letting go of gripped conductive parts is difficult. on a time-current diagram.burns: they are due to the heating deriving. 162 ABB SACE . The Standard IEC 60479-1 “Effects of current on human being and livestock” is a guide about the effects of current passing through the human body to be used for the definition of electrical safety requirements. This Standard shows.ventricular fibrillation: the most dangerous effect is due to the superposition of the external currents with the physiological ones which. the muscular contraction is so sustained that the involuntary muscle movements generally throw the subject away from the conductive part.1 General aspects: effects of current on human beings Danger to persons due to contact with live parts is caused by the flow of the current through the human body. from the current passing through the human body. . by generating uncontrolled contractions. induce alterations of the cardiac cycle. .breathing arrest: if the current flows through the muscles controlling the lungs. by Joule effect. This anomaly may become an irreversible phenomenon since it persists even when the stimulus has ceased. . the involuntary contraction of these muscles alters the normal respiratory process and the subject may die due to suffocation or suffer the consequences of traumas caused by asphyxia.Electrical devices . The effects are: .5 Protection of human beings 5.

5.1 0.5 mA up to line b* Line b up to curve c1 Physiological effects Usually no reaction.1 AC-4. Reversible disturbances of formation and conduction of impulses in the heart.c3 Beyond curve c3 AC-4. The electrical impedance of the human body depends on many factors.000 5. breathing arrest and severe burns may occur in addition to the effects of zone 3.c2 c2 .000 Duration of current flow t b c1 c2 c3 AC-4. ABB SACE . The above mentioned Standard gives different values of impedance as a function of the touch voltage and of the current path.000 2. Probability of ventricular fibrillation up to about 50%. Usually no harmful physiological effects. AC-4 Above curve c1 c1 .5 1 2 5 10 20 50 100 200 Body current IB 500 1.000 500 AC-1 200 100 50 20 10 0. Probability of ventricular fibrillation increasing up to about 5%.000 mA AC-2 AC-3 AC-4 Zone designation AC-1 AC-2 AC-3 Zone limits Up to 0.2 AC-4.1 General aspect: effects of current on human beings 5 Protection of human beings Figure 1: Time-current zones of the effects of alternating current on the human body a 5. including atrial fibrillation and transient cardiac arrest without ventricular fibrillation increasing with current magnitude and time. This Standard gives also a related figure for direct current. * For durations of current-flow below 10 ms.000 .000 2.1 AC-4. once the human body impedance has been calculated. dangerous pathophysiological effects such as cardiac arrest.3 1. Likelihood of cramplike muscular contractions and difficulty in breathing for durations of current-flow longer than 2 s.2 AC-4.Electrical devices 163 1SDC010042F0201 ms 10.5 mA line a 0. Probability of ventricular fibrillation above 50%. By applying Ohm’s law it is possible to define the safety curve for the allowable voltages.2 0. the limit for the body current for line b remains constant at a value of 200 mA. Increasing with magnitude and time.000 10.3 Usually no organic damage to be expected.

it is necessary to ensure that such breaking is carried out in compliance with the safety curve for any distribution system. This represents the maximum no-load touch voltage value.1 General aspect: effects of current on human beings 5 Protection of human beings The Standard IEC 60479-1 has adopted precautionary values for the impedance reported in the figure so as to get the time-voltage safety curve (Figure 2) related to the total touch voltage UT (i.e. thus. in particular locations. if the protection against indirect contact is obtained through the disconnection of the circuit.5. The curve shown in the figure refers to an ordinary location. the touch resistance of the human body towards earth changes and consequently the tolerable voltage values for an indefinite time shall be lower than 25 V. is present between a conductive part and a point of the ground sufficiently far. the most unfavorable condition is taken into consideration for safety’s sake. due to an insulation failure. 164 ABB SACE . Therefore. the voltage which. at 50 V the tolerance time is 5 s. the tolerance time is indefinite.Electrical devices . with zero potential). Figure 2: Safety curve 2 t [s] 10 10 1 10-1 1SDC010031F0001 10-2 10 10 2 10 3 UT [V] From this safety curve it results that for all voltage values below 50 V.

if any.2 Distribution systems The earth fault modalities and the consequences caused by contact with live parts.S: protective function is provided by a conductor separate from the neutral conductor. represent the arrangement of neutral and protective conductors: .5 Protection of human beings 5. The second letter represents the relationship of the exposed conductive parts of the installation to earth: . are strictly related to the neutral conductor arrangement and to the connections of the exposed conductive parts. . in alternating current systems. Three types of distribution system are considered: TT System L1 L2 L3 N PE TN System L1 L2 L3 PEN (TN-C) (TN-S) ABB SACE . IEC 60364-1 classifies the distribution systems with two letters. in alternating current systems.T: direct electrical connection of the exposed conductive parts to earth.N: direct electrical connection of the exposed conductive parts to the earthed point of the power system. it is necessary to know which is the distribution system of the plant. . For a correct choice of the protective device.I: all live parts isolated from earth. generally the neutral point.T: direct connection of one point to earth. Subsequent letters. connected to earth through an impedance.C: neutral and protective functions combined as a single conductor (PEN conductor). generally the neutral point. or one point. The first letter represents the relationship of the power system to earth: .Electrical devices 165 1SDC010033F0001 N PE 1SDC010032F0001 . .

2 Distribution systems 5 Protection of human beings IT System L1 L2 L3 N 1SDC010034F0001 PE In TT systems. TN-S neutral and protective conductors are always separated. TN-C neutral and protective functions are combined in a single conductor (PEN conductor). TN systems are typically used when the power supply is distributed to loads having their own electrical substation.g. Three types of TN system are considered according to the arrangement of neutral and protective conductors: 1. singularly or collectively. and can be locally earthed. 230 V) available. 166 ABB SACE .Electrical devices 1SDC010035F0001 . on the contrary.5. 2. 3. useful for single-phase load supply. it is usually distributed and has the function of making the phase voltage (e. TN-C-S neutral and protective functions are combined in a single conductor in a part of the system (PEN) and are separated in another part (PE + N). the fault current flows towards the power supply neutral point through earth (Fig. The exposed conductive parts. The neutral conductor is directly earthed in the substation. the neutral conductor and the exposed conductive parts are connected to earth electrodes electrically independent. TT systems are generally used for civil installations. the exposed conductive parts are connected to the same earthing point of the neutral conductor. 1): Figure 1: Earth fault in TT systems Ik L1 L2 L3 N RB Ik RA In TT installations. the neutral conductor is connected to the supply star center. are locally connected to earth.

5. Figure 3: Earth fault in IT systems L1 L2 L3 Ik C3 C2 C1 1SDC010037F0001 Ik These distribution systems are used for particular plants. or where a low value of a first earth fault is required. ABB SACE . In these cases. an insulation monitoring device shall be provided for optical or acoustic signalling of possible earth faults. where the absence of the supply can cause hazards to people or considerable economical losses. Exposed conductive parts shall be earthed individually.Electrical devices 167 1SDC010036F0001 . practically without involving the earth electrode (Figure 2). Figure 2: Earth fault in TN systems Ik L1 L2 L3 PEN (TN-C) Ik PE N (TN-S) 0 IT systems have no live parts directly connected to earth.2 Distribution systems 5 Protection of human beings In TN systems. but they can be earthed through a sufficiently high impedance. where the continuity of supply is a fundamental requirement. or failure of the supplied equipment. the fault current flows towards the power supply neutral point through a solid metallic connection. The earth fault current flows towards the power supply neutral point through the earthing electrode and the line conductor capacitance (Figure 3). in groups or collectively to an independent earthing electrode.

.Electrical devices . It must be remembered that the use of a residual current device as a mean of protection against direct contacts does not obviate the need to apply one of the above specified measures of protection.supplementary insulation or reinforced insulation.g. usually not live.5 Protection of human beings 5. Chapter 6.). An additional protection against direct contact can be obtained by using residual current devices with a rated operating residual current not exceeding 30 mA. terminals. .placing out of reach: simultaneously accessible parts at different potentials shall not be within arm’s reach. 168 ABB SACE . cable insulation). usually live (bare conductors. . e. for horizontal surfaces the degree of protection shall be of at least IPXXD or IP4X (for the meaning of the degree of protection codes please refer to Volume 1.3 Protection against both direct and indirect contact Contacts of a person with live parts can be divided in two categories: . The measures of protection against indirect contact are: . .automatic disconnection of the supply: a protective device shall automatically disconnect the supply to the circuit so that the touch voltage on the exposed conductive part does not persist for a time sufficient to cause a risk of harmful physiological effect for human beings. A contact is indirect when a part of the human body touches an exposed conductive parts.indirect contacts.barriers or enclosures: live parts shall be inside enclosures or behind barriers providing at least the degree of protection IPXXB or IP2X.obstacles: the interposition of an obstacle between the live parts and the operator prevents unintentional contacts only.g. but not an intentional contact by the removal of the obstacle without particular tools. . The measures of protection against direct contact are: . by the use of Class II components. but with voltage presence due to a failure or wear of the insulating materials. etc.1 Electrical switchboards). A direct contact occurs when a part of the human body touches a part of the plant.direct contacts.insulation of live parts with an insulating material which can only be removed by destruction (e.

A SELV circuit has the following characteristics: 1) it is supplied by an independent source or by a safety source. and 120 V ripple-free dc.SELV (Safety Extra Low Voltage) system and PELV (Protective Extra Low Voltage) system. 3) it shall be separated from other electrical systems.m.the supply shall be a SELV or PELV source. A PELV circuit has the same prescription of a SELV system. .3 Protection against both direct and indirect contact 5 Protection of human beings . at least one point is always earthed.earth-free local equipotential bonding: locations where the exposed conductive parts are connected together but not earthed.electrical separation. except for the prohibition of earthed points. Finally. Safety sources are supplies obtained through an isolating transformer. the conductors of the SELV circuit may be contained in multiconductor cables or may be provided with an additional insulating sheath. The protection against both direct and indirect contact is ensured if the requirements stated in 411 from IEC 60364-4-41 are fulfilled. ≥ 100 kΩ for Ur > 500 V) and without protective conductors inside . e. the following measures provide combined protection against both direct and indirect contact: . . .non-conducting locations: locations with a particular resistance value of insulating floors and walls (≥ 50 kΩ for Ur ≤ 500 V.Electrical devices 169 .s.5.g. by using an isolating transformer to supply the circuit. 2) there are no earthed points.all the installation conditions provided for such types of electrical circuits shall be fulfilled.the rated voltage shall not exceeds 50 V ac r. Independent sources are batteries or diesel-driven generators. in fact in PELV circuits. for this purpose. particularly: . .FELV (Functional Extra Low Voltage) system. The separation of a SELV system from other circuits shall be guaranteed for all the components. The earthing of both the exposed conductive parts as well as of the live parts of a SELV circuit is forbidden. ABB SACE .

If this test is not passed.insulation corresponding to the minimum test voltage specified for the primary circuit.barriers or enclosures with degree of protection in accordance with what stated above (measures of protection against direct contact). PELV. . Figure 1: SELV. 170 ABB SACE . by metal pipe or structural steelwork protective conductor earth electrode Note 1: Overcurrent protective devices are not shown in this figure. FELV systems safety isolating transformer or equivalent source. they require compliance with the following rules: a) protection against direct contact shall be provided by either: . provided that the latter is subject to one of the measures of protection against direct contact.Electrical devices 1SDC010043F0201 . .connection of the exposed conductive parts of the equipment of the FELV circuit to the protective conductor of the primary circuit. the insulation of accessible nonconductive parts of the equipment shall be reinforced during erection so that it can withstand a test voltage of 1500 V ac r.s.g. PELV and FELV systems. for 1 min.m. and plugs of other voltage systems shall not be able to enter socket-outlets of FELV systems.. Figure 1 shows the main features of SELV. c) plugs of FELV systems shall not be able to enter socket-outlets of other voltage systems. connection to earth is admissible L1 L2 L3 N PE PE PE E no safety source.3 Protection against both direct and indirect contact 5 Protection of human beings FELV circuits are used when for functional reasons the requirements for SELV or PELV circuits cannot be fulfilled.connection of a live conductor of the FELV circuit to the protective conductor of the primary circuit provided that an automatic disconnection of the supply is applied as measure of protection. b) protection against indirect contact shall be provided by: . e. no earthing SELV Class II equipment PELV circuit PELV E FELV FELV circuit voltage limits for extra-low voltages: 50 V ac 120 V dc E PE earth connections by estraneous conductive parts. connection to earth is admissible safety isolating transformer or equivalent source.5.

the fault resistance.4 TT System An earth fault in a TT system involves the circuit represented in Figure 1: Figure 1: Earth fault in TT system Ik L1 L2 L3 N RB Ik RA The fault current involves the secondary winding of the transformer. ABB SACE .Electrical devices 171 1SDC010035F0001 . the condition to be fulfilled in order to limit the touch voltage on the exposed conductive parts under this limit value is: Rt ≤ 50 Ia or Rt ≤ 50 I ∆n where: Rt is the total resistance. the protective devices must be coordinated with the earthing system in order to rapidly disconnect the supply. equal to the sum of the earth electrode (RA) and the protective conductor for the exposed conductive parts [Ω]. of the circuit-breaker [A]. within one second. if the touch voltage reaches harmful values for the human body. Ia is the current causing the automatic operation within 5 s of the overcurrent protective device. the phase conductor. read from the tripping curve of the device [A]. the protective conductor and the earth electrode resistance (plant earthing system (RA) and earthing system which the neutral is connected to (RB)). According to IEC 60364-4 requirements. Assuming 50 V (25 V for particular locations) as limit voltage value. I∆n is the rated residual operating current.5 Protection of human beings 5.

is about 750 A.6 Example: Assuming to provide protection by using an automatic circuit breaker Tmax T1B160 In125. with reference to an ordinary location (50 V): Table 1: Earth resistance values I∆n [A] 0.6 Ω 0. when starting from cold conditions (the worst case for thermomagnetic releases). Table 1 reports the maximum earth resistance values which can be obtained using residual current devices. which is not an easily obtainable value. it is possible to realize earthing systems with resistance value of thousands of ohms.06 Ω.5 3 10 30 Rt [Ω] 5000 1666 500 166 100 16 5 1.06 Ω 750 In order to provide the required protection.01 0.03 which can be easily obtained in practice.4 TT System 5 Protection of human beings From the above. with the former. the required value of earth resistance is: Rt ≤ 50 = 1666. with the latter. it is necessary to obtain very low earth resistance values (usually less than 1 Ω) since the 5 s tripping current is generally high.3 0.5. which are easier to be carried out. read from the tripping characteristic curve. it is clear that Rt value is considerably different when using automatic circuit breakers instead of residual current devices. with rated residual operating current I∆n = 0. it must be necessary to carry out an earthing system with an earth resistance Rt ≤ 0. On the contrary. In fact.Electrical devices .03 A. by using the same circuit breaker mounting ABB SACE RC221 residual current release. whereas. the trip current value in less than 5 s.03 0. 172 ABB SACE . So: Rt ≤ 50 = 0.1 0.

5.4 TT System

5 Protection of human beings
104 s

103 s

102 s

10s 5s 1s

10-1 s

10-2 s
750 A 0.1kA 1kA 10kA

In an electrical installation with a common earthing system and loads protected by devices with different tripping currents, for the achievement of the coordination of all the loads with the earthing system, the worst case - represented by the device with the highest tripping current - shall be considered. As a consequence, when some feeders are protected by overcurrent devices and some others by residual current devices, all the advantages deriving from the use of residual current releases are nullified, since the Rt shall be calculated on the basis of the I5s of the overcurrent device and since it is the highest tripping current between these two kind of devices. Therefore, it is advisable to protect all the loads of a TT system by means of residual current circuit-breakers coordinated with the earthing system to obtain the advantages of both a quick disconnection of the circuit when the fault occurs as well as an earthing system which can be easily accomplished.

ABB SACE - Electrical devices

173

1SDC010038F0001

5 Protection of human beings
5.5 TN System
An earth fault in a TN system involves the circuit represented in Figure 1:

Figure 1: Earth fault in TN system
Ik L1 L2 L3 PEN (TN-C) Ik PE N (TN-S)

0

The fault loop does not affect the earthing system and is basically formed by the connection in series of the phase conductor and of the protective conductor. To provide a protection with automatic disconnection of the circuit, according to IEC 60364-4 prescriptions, the following condition shall be fulfilled:

Z s . I a ≤ U0
where: Zs is the impedance of the fault loop comprising the source, the live conductor up to the point of the fault and the protective conductor between the point of the fault and the source [Ω]; U0 is the nominal ac r.m.s. voltage to earth [V]; Ia is the current causing the automatic operation of the disconnecting protective device within the time stated in Table 1, as a function of the rated voltage U0 or, for distribution circuits, a conventional disconnecting time not exceeding 5 s is permitted [A]; if the protection is provided by means of a residual current device, Ia is the rated residual operating current I∆n. Table 1: Maximum disconnecting times for TN system
U0 [V] 120 230 400 > 400 Disconnecting time [s] 0.8 0.4 0.2 0.1

174

ABB SACE - Electrical devices

1SDC010036F0001

5.5 TN System

5 Protection of human beings
In TN installations, an earth fault with low impedance occurring on the LV side causes a short circuit current with quite high value, due to the low value of the impedance of the fault loop. The protection against indirect contact can be provided by automatic circuit-breakers: it is necessary to verify that the operating current within the stated times is lower than the short-circuit current. The use of residual current devices improves the conditions for protection in particular when the fault impedance doesn’t have a low value, thus limiting the short-circuit current; this current can persist for quite long time causing overheating of the conductors and fire risks. Finally, it is important to highlight the fact that the residual current devices cannot be used in TN-C system, since the neutral and protective functions are provided by a unique conductor: this configuration prevents the residual current device from working. Example: In the plant represented in Figure 2, the earth fault current is:

IkLG = 3 kA
The rated voltage to earth is 230 V, therefore, according to Table 1, it shall be verified that:

I a ( 0.4s) ≤
Figure 2

U0 = I kLG = 3 kA Zs

U

-U1 Ur = 400 V LLLN / TN-S

-QF1 T1B 160 In125

L
ABB SACE - Electrical devices

Sr = 70.00 kVA cosϕ = 0.90

175

1SDC010039F0001

-WC1 3x(1x50)+1x(1x25)+1G25 PVC Cu dV = 0.38% Iz = 134.0 A L = 20 m -B1 Ik LG = 3.0 kA

5.5 TN System

5 Protection of human beings
From the tripping curve (Figure 3), it is clear that the circuit-breaker trips in 0.4 s for a current value lower than 950 A. As a consequence, the protection against indirect contact is provided by the same circuit-breaker which protects the cable against short-circuit and overload, without the necessity of using an additional residual current device. Figure 3: LG Time-Current curves
IkLG=3.0 kA

104 s

103 s

3x(1x50)+1x(1x25)+1G25

102 s

T1B160 In125
101 s

1s

0.4s
10-1 s
1SDC010040F0001

950 A
0.1kA 1kA 10kA

176

ABB SACE - Electrical devices

In IT system installations. of the first fault of negligible impedance between a phase conductor and an exposed conductive part [A]. the automatic disconnection of the circuit in case of the first earth fault is not necessary only if the following condition is fulfilled: Rt . the first earth fault is characterized by such an extremely low current value to prevent the overcurrent protections from disconnecting. For this reason. tolerable by the human body for an indefinite time. after the first fault. the earth fault current in an IT system flows through the line conductor capacitance to the power supply neutral point. I d ≤ U L where: Rt is the resistance of the earth electrode for exposed conductive parts [Ω].6 IT System As represented in Figure 1.5 Protection of human beings 5. the deriving touch voltage is very low. as shown in the safety curve (see Chapter 5. Id is the fault current. If this condition is fulfilled. UL is 50 V for ordinary locations (25 V for particular locations).1 “General aspects: effects of current on human beings”).Electrical devices 177 . Figure1: Earth fault in IT system L1 L2 L3 Ik C3 C2 C1 1SDC010037F0001 Ik According to IEC 60364-4. the touch voltage value on the exposed conductive parts is lower than 50 V. an insulation monitoring device shall be provided to ABB SACE .

2 IEC 60364-4 states that.4 “TT system”). 178 ABB SACE . in particular.6 IT System 5 Protection of human beings indicate the occurrence of a first earth fault. the conditions for protection are the same as for TT systems (see Chapter 5. • Zs is the impedance of the fault loop comprising the phase conductor and the protective conductor of the circuit [Ω]. the protection of every supplied load shall be provided by means of a residual current device.4 0.1 0. or within 5 s for distribution circuits. 0 2 Ia where • U0 is the rated voltage between phase and neutral [V].4 0. r 2 Ia if the neutral is distributed: U Z 's ≤ .Electrical devices .2 0. in the event of a second fault.8 0. b) where exposed conductive parts are interconnected by a protective conductor collectively earthed.5. the supply shall be disconnected according to the following modalities: a) where exposed conductive parts are earthed in groups or individually. The residual current device threshold shall be carefully chosen in order to avoid unwanted tripping. the conditions of a TN system apply. • Z’s is the impedance of the fault loop comprising the neutral conductor and the protective conductor of the circuit [Ω]. the following conditions shall be fulfilled: if the neutral is not distributed: U Zs ≤ . another sound line with higher capacitance could be affected by a higher fault current value). if the requirements mentioned at point b) cannot be fulfilled by using an overcurrent protective device. due also to the particular path followed by the first fault current through the line conductor capacitance to the power supply neutral point (instead of the faulted line. • Ia is the operating current of the protection device in the disconnecting time specified in Table 1.8 5 0. • Ur is the rated voltage between phases [V]. Table 1: Maximum disconnecting time in IT systems Rated voltage U0/Ur [V] 120/240 230/400 400/690 580/1000 disconnecting time [s] neutral not distributed neutral distributed 0.

.AC type: the tripping is ensured for residual sinusoidal alternating currents. . whether suddenly applied or slowly rising.time delayed S-type.A type: tripping is ensured for residual sinusoidal alternating currents and residual pulsating direct currents.undelayed type. the circuit at the secondary side of the toroid sends a command signal to a dedicated opening coil causing the tripping of the circuit-breaker. A first classification of RCDs can be made according to the type of the fault current they can detect: . whether suddenly applied or slowly rising. included the neutral if distributed. . ABB SACE . Another classification referred to the operating time delay is: .5 Protection of human beings 5. in case of an earth fault if the I∆ value exceeds the rated residual operating current I∆n. for residual sinusoidal alternating currents and residual pulsating direct currents.Electrical devices 179 . whether suddenly applied or slowly rising. by means of a toroid transformer which embraces all the live conductors. Figure 1: Operating principle of the residual current device L N R T 1SDC010041F0001 In absence of an earth fault.7 Residual current devices (RCDs) Generalities on residual current circuit-breakers The operating principle of the residual current release is basically the detection of an earth fault current. the vectorial sum of the currents I∆ is equal to zero.B type: tripping is ensured for residual direct currents.

their vectorial sums on each phase shall not be greater than 0. . for this reason.7 Residual current devices 5 Protection of human beings RCDs can be coupled. it is equal to 0. in order to avoid unwanted tripping. Discrimination between RCDs The Standard IEC 60364-5-53 states that discrimination between residual current protective devices installed in series may be required for service reasons. which represents the maximum value of the residual current which does not cause the circuit breaker trip. This discrimination can be achieved by selecting and installing RCDs in order to provide the disconnection from the supply by the RCD closest to the fault.for I∆ < 0. if any. Figure 2: Horizontal discrimination between RCDs I∆ I∆ 0. for the protection against thermal and dynamical stresses.for 0.residual current circuit-breakers with external toroid: they are used in industrial plants with high currents. There are two types of discrimination between RCDs: . with other devices. They are composed by a release connected to an external toroid with a winding for the detection of the residual current. However.3 A t 0.for I∆ > I∆n the RCD shall operate. Given I∆n the operating residual current.5 s 180 ABB SACE .5⋅I∆n < I∆ < I∆n the RCD could operate. to provide continuity of supply to the parts of the installation not involved by the fault. a very important parameter for residual current devices is the residual non-operating current. a signal commands the opening mechanism of a circuit-breaker or a line contactor. they provide the protection against both overcurrents as well as earth fault current. in this way. or not.5 s I∆ I∆ 0. it is possible to conclude that: .5 I∆n. it is necessary to provide protective measures against indirect contacts in the part of the switchboard and of the plant upstream the RCD. in case of earth fault.Electrical devices . They must be coupled with thermomagnetic circuit-breakers or fuses.horizontal discrimination: it provides the protection of each line by using a dedicated residual current circuit-breaker. only the faulted line is disconnected.pure residual current circuit-breakers (RCCBs): they have only the residual current release and can protect only against earth fault. in case of earth fault. .3 A t 0.5⋅I∆n. For the choice of the rated operating residual current.vertical discrimination: it is realized by using RCDs connected in series. it is necessary to consider. .5⋅I∆n the RCD shall not operate.5.residual current circuit-breakers with overcurrent protection (RCBOs): they are the combination of a thermomagnetic circuit-breaker and a RCD. since the other RCDs do not detect any fault current. it is possible to distinguish among: . Therefore. also the whole of the leakage currents in the plant. in addition to the coordination with the earthing system. particularly when safety is involved. . .

3 A t 0. (complying with IEC 61008-1 and IEC 61009).5. 1.for S type residual current circuit-breakers.the rated residual operating current on the device located on the supply side shall be higher than that of the residual current protective device located on the load side. discrimination between two RCDs connected in series can be achieved: . For the protection against indirect contacts in distribution circuits in TT system. the maximum disconnecting time at I∆n shall not exceed 1 s (IEC 60364-4-41. to ensure discrimination between two residual current protective devices in series.03 A t inst.1) ABB SACE .for electronic residual current releases (RC221/222/223. by choosing general type circuit-breakers located downstream with I∆n equal to one third of I∆n of the upstream ones. located on the supply side. keeping carefully into consideration the tolerances (see Vol.7 Residual current devices 5 Protection of human beings Figure 3: Vertical discrimination between RCDs I∆ 1 A t1s I∆ I∆ I∆ 0.the non-actuating time-current characteristic of the residual current protective device located on the supply side (upstream) shall lie above the total operating time-current characteristic of the residual current protective device located on the load side (downstream). .5 s I∆ I∆ 0.§ 413.Electrical devices 181 . According to IEC 60364-5-53. .5.3: Type of release). time-delayed type. these devices shall satisfy both the following conditions: . The non-actuating time-current characteristic is the curve reporting the maximum time value during which a residual current greater than the residual non-operating current (equal to 0. RCQ) by choosing the upstream device with time and current thresholds directly greater than the downstream device. As a conclusion. Chapter 2.I∆n) involves the residual current circuitbreaker without causing the tripping.

5 Protection of human beings 5. in order to avoid pathophysiological effects for people touching live parts.5 is the coefficient representing the increasing in the resistance.75 300 0.80 240 0. . . obtainable from the following table: Phase conductor cross section [mm2] k1 120 0. .L is the length of the cable.k1 is the correction factor which takes into account the reactance of cables with cross section larger than 95 mm2. it shall be verified that the circuitbreaker trips within a time lower than the maximum time stated by the Standard. The minimum short-circuit current occurs when there is a short-circuit between the phase and the protective conductors at the farthest point on the protected conductor. .8 is the coefficient representing the reduction of the voltage.S is the phase conductor cross section.Electrical devices . .90 150 0.SN is the neutral conductor cross section. number of conductors in parallel) and the protective conductor cross section SPE assuming they are made of the same conductor material. . The formula below is obtained by applying Ohm’s law between the protective device and the fault point. .8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings As described in the previous chapters.85 185 0. Legend of the symbols and constants of the formula: .SPE is the protection conductor cross section. with respect to the 20 °C value. this verification is carried out by comparing the minimum short-circuit current of the exposed conductive part to be protected with the operating current corresponding to the time stated by the Standard. is accepted.ρ is the conductor resistivity at 20 °C.U0 is the rated voltage between phase and ground. .a 50 % increasing of the conductors resistance. .a 80 % reduction of the supply voltage is considered as effect of the short-circuit current. .the conductor reactance is considered only for cross sections larger than 95 mm2. For the protection against indirect contact. .m= S⋅ n is the ratio between the total phase conductor cross section SPE (single phase conductor cross section S multiplied by n.72 182 ABB SACE . For the calculation of the minimum short-circuit current. an approximate method can be used. . number of conductors in parallel) and the protective conductor cross section SPE assuming they are made of the same conductor material.Ur is the rated voltage between phases.m1= SN ⋅ n is the ratio between the total neutral conductor cross section SPE (single neutral conductor cross section SN multiplied by n.0. assuming that: . due to the overheating caused by the short-circuit current.1. the Standards give indications about the maximum disconnecting time for the protective devices. .

8 ⋅ U 0 ⋅ S ⋅ k1 ⋅ k2 1.1.8 ⋅U 0 ⋅ S ⋅ k1 ⋅ k2 1.2 is the magnetic threshold tolerance allowed by the Standard.2 ⋅ ρ ⋅ (1 + m) ⋅ I k min L1 L2 L3 N PE PE PE Ik REN N L3 L2 L1 1SDC010043F0001 IT system The formulas below are valid when a second fault turns the IT system into a TN system.2 ⋅ ρ ⋅ (1 + m) ⋅ L L= Dy 0.5.8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings . ABB SACE .Electrical devices 183 . . It is necessary to separately examine installations with neutral not distributed and neutral distributed.5 ⋅1.5 ⋅ 1. TN system The formula for the evaluation of the minimum short circuit current is: I k min = and consequently: 0. obtainable by the following formula: k2 = 4 n−1 n where n is the number of conductor in parallel per phase.k2 is the correction factor for conductors in parallel.

5 ⋅1.5 ⋅1.5 ⋅1.5 ⋅1. the formula becomes: I k min = and consequently: 0.8 ⋅ U 0 ⋅ SN ⋅ k1⋅ k 2 2 ⋅ 1.2 ⋅ ρ ⋅ (1 + m) ⋅ L L= 0.8 ⋅U r ⋅ S ⋅ k1 ⋅ k2 2 ⋅1.2 ⋅ ρ ⋅ (1 + m1) ⋅ L L= 0.2 ⋅ ρ ⋅ (1 + m) ⋅ L L= Dy 0.8 ⋅U 0 ⋅ SN ⋅ k1⋅ k 2 2 ⋅1.5 ⋅ 1.Electrical devices 184 .2 ⋅ ρ ⋅ (1 + m) ⋅ I k min L1 L2 L3 PE PE Z Ik L3 L2 L1 PE Ik L3 L2 L1 1SDC010044F0001 PE REN Neutral distributed Case A: three-phase circuits in IT system with neutral distributed The formula is: I k min = and consequently: 0.8 ⋅ U 0 ⋅ S ⋅ k1⋅ k2 2 ⋅1.5.8 ⋅U r ⋅ S ⋅ k1⋅ k 2 2 ⋅1.2 ⋅ ρ ⋅ (1 + m) ⋅ I k min Case B: three-phase + neutral circuits in IT system with neutral distributed The formula is: I k min = and consequently: 0.5 ⋅ 1.8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings Neutral not distributed When a second fault occurs.8 ⋅ U 0 ⋅ S ⋅ k1⋅ k2 2 ⋅ 1.2 ⋅ ρ ⋅ (1 + m1) ⋅ I k min ABB SACE .

one cable per phase. for IT system only. it is necessary to verify that the tripping time is lower than the time value reported in Chapter 5.5. .neutral not distributed.Electrical devices 185 1SDC010045F0001 . .rated voltage equal to 400 V (three-phase system).6 Table 1 for IT systems.8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings Dy L1 L2 L3 N PE PE Z Ik L3 L2 L1 PE Ik N L3 L2 L1 PE REN A B Note for the use of the tables The tables showing the maximum protected length (MPL) have been defined considering the following conditions: . For conditions different from the reference ones. ABB SACE .5 Table 1 for TN systems and in Chapter 5. . .protective conductor cross section according to Table 1: Table 1: Protective conductor cross section Phase conductor cross section S [mm2] S ≤ 16 16 < S ≤ 35 S > 35 Protective conductor cross section SPE [mm2] S 16 S/2 Note: phase and protective conductors having the same isolation and conductive materials Whenever the S function (delayed short-circuit) of electronic releases is used for the definition of the maximum protected length.copper cables. the following correction factors shall be applied.

5 0.27 1.55 0.00 0.91 1.64 Correction factor for protective conductor cross section SPE different from the cross sections stated in Table 1: the value of the maximum protected length shall be multiplied by the coefficient corresponding to the phase conductor cross section and to the ratio between the protective conductor (PE) and the phase cross sections: SPE/S S ≤16 mm2 25 mm2 35 mm2 >35 mm2 0.2 0.87 0.3 7 3.20 1.4 8 3. Correction factor for aluminium cables: the value of the maximum protected length read in Table 2 (TN system) or Table 3 (IT system) shall be multiplied by the following factor: kAl 0.71 0.7 4 3 5 3.20 1.93 1.73 For 230 V single-phase systems.75 0.85 1.11 1.1 500 1.5.28 1.00 1.39 1 1. no correction factor is necessary.8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings Correction factors Correction factor for cable in parallel per phase: the value of the maximum protected length read in Table 2 (TN system) or Table 3 (IT system) shall be multiplied by the following factor: n kp 2 2 3 2.37 1.71 2.25 690 1.13 2.Electrical devices .33 1. 186 ABB SACE .80 1.02 1.42 1. Correction factor for three-phase voltage different from 400 V: the value of the maximum protected length read in Table 2 (TN system) or Table 3 (IT system) shall be multiplied by the following factor: voltage [V] kV 230 0.5 1.5 n is the number of conductors in parallel per phase.48 1.13 0.19 1.8 2 1.77 1.59 1.58 400 1 440 1.54 1.10 1.86 1.5 1.13 1.58.06 1.29 0.00 Correction factor for neutral distributed in IT system (for Table 3 only): the value of the maximum protected length shall be multiplied by 0.91 1.67 0.06 0.66 0.75 kPE 0.25 1.96 1.6 0.2 6 3.67 1.

5 4 6 10 16 25 35 C ≤3 30 SPE 1.5 4 6 10 16 25 Table 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 4 6 10 16 16 173 288 461 692 1153 1845 2250 58 92 138 231 369 450 45 72 108 180 288 352 Table 2.5 4 6 10 16 16 16 173 288 461 692 1153 1845 2250 C 4 40 130 216 346 519 865 1384 1688 C 6 60 86 144 231 346 577 923 1125 C 8 80 65 108 173 259 432 692 844 C C C C C C C C C C C C 10 13 16 20 25 32 40 50 63 80 100 125 100 130 160 200 250 320 400 500 630 800 1000 1250 52 86 138 208 346 554 675 40 67 106 160 266 426 519 32 54 86 130 216 346 422 26 21 16 13 43 35 27 22 17 14 69 55 43 35 28 22 104 83 65 52 42 33 173 138 108 86 69 55 277 221 173 138 111 88 338 270 211 169 135 107 17 26 43 69 84 95 14 21 35 55 68 76 11 17 28 44 54 61 ABB SACE .2: Curve B CURVE In I3 S 1.3: Curve C CURVE In I3 S 1.1: Curve Z Z ≤10 30 Z 13 39 133 221 354 532 886 1419 1730 Z 16 48 108 180 288 432 721 1153 1406 Z 20 60 86 144 231 346 577 923 1125 Z 25 75 69 115 185 277 461 738 900 Z 32 96 54 90 144 216 360 577 703 Z 40 120 43 72 115 173 288 461 563 Z 50 150 Z 63 189 SPE 1.5.5 4 6 10 16 16 16 B 8 40 B 10 50 B 13 65 B 16 80 65 108 173 259 432 692 844 B 20 100 52 86 138 208 346 554 675 B 25 125 42 69 111 166 277 443 540 B 32 160 32 54 86 130 216 346 422 B 40 200 26 43 69 104 173 277 338 B 50 250 B 63 315 B 80 400 B 100 500 173 130 104 80 288 216 173 133 461 346 277 213 692 519 415 319 1153 865 692 532 1845 1384 1107 852 2250 1688 1350 1039 35 55 83 138 221 270 27 44 66 110 176 214 35 52 86 138 169 190 28 42 69 111 135 152 Table 2.5 2.8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings TN system MPL by MCB CURVE In I3 S 1.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 B ≤6 30 SPE 1.5 2.5 2.Electrical devices 187 .

5 1.5 4 4 6 6 10 10 16 16 25 16 35 16 D ≤2 40 130 216 346 519 865 1384 1688 D 3 60 86 144 231 346 577 923 1125 D 4 80 65 108 173 259 432 692 844 D 6 120 43 72 115 173 288 461 563 D D 8 10 160 200 32 54 86 130 216 346 422 26 43 69 104 173 277 338 D 13 260 D 16 320 D D D D D D D D 20 25 32 40 50 63 80 100 400 500 640 800 1000 1260 1600 2000 13 10 8 22 17 14 35 28 22 52 42 32 86 69 54 138 111 86 169 135 105 6 11 17 26 43 69 84 20 16 33 27 53 43 80 65 133 108 213 173 260 211 9 14 21 35 55 68 7 11 16 27 44 54 9 13 22 35 42 47 7 10 17 28 34 38 188 ABB SACE .5 2.5 2.5 2.Electrical devices .5 2.8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings TN system MPL by MCB CURVE In I3 S SPE 1.5: Curve D CURVE In I3 S SPE 1.5.4: Curve K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K 4 4.5 1.8 6 8 10 11 13 15 16 20 25 26 32 37 40 41 45 50 63 56 59 81 84 112 140 154 182 210 224 280 350 364 448 518 560 574 630 700 882 92 88 154 146 246 234 369 350 615 584 984 934 1201 1140 64 106 170 255 425 681 830 62 103 164 246 410 656 800 46 77 123 185 308 492 600 37 62 98 148 246 394 480 34 56 89 134 224 358 437 28 47 76 114 189 303 369 25 41 66 98 164 263 320 23 38 62 92 154 246 300 18 31 49 74 123 197 240 15 25 39 59 98 158 192 14 24 38 57 95 151 185 12 19 31 46 77 123 150 10 17 27 40 67 106 130 9 15 25 37 62 98 120 15 24 36 60 96 117 14 22 33 55 88 107 20 30 49 79 96 16 23 39 63 76 Table 2.2 5.5 4 4 6 6 10 10 16 16 25 16 K ≤2 28 185 308 492 738 1231 1969 2401 K ≤3 42 123 205 328 492 820 1313 1601 Table 2.

5 4 6 10 16 16 16 25 35 50 12 18 31 49 60 67 102 142 200 10 14 24 38 47 53 80 112 157 8 12 19 31 38 42 64 90 126 6 9 15 25 30 34 51 72 101 7 12 19 23 26 40 56 79 Table 2.5.5 16÷50 63 80 100 125 160 10 In 10 In 10 In 10 In 10 In 10 In 10 In 10 In 500 A 10 In 10 In 10 In 10 In 10 In 157 262 419 629 1048 1677 123 205 328 491 819 1311 1598 98 164 262 393 655 1048 1279 79 131 210 315 524 839 1023 1151 62 104 166 250 416 666 812 914 49 82 131 197 328 524 639 720 1092 39 66 105 157 262 419 511 576 874 31 52 84 126 210 335 409 460 699 979 8 13 21 31 52 84 102 115 175 245 343 417 518 526 S 1.2 4 5 6.5 2.8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings TN system MPL by MCCB Table 2.5 246 197 2.5 2.5 410 328 4 655 524 6 983 786 10 1638 1311 16 2621 2097 16 16 25 35 50 70 95 95 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 2.3 8 10 12.7: Tmax T2 TMD T2 T2 In 1.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 In I3 SPE 1.6: TmaxT1 TMD T1 ≤50 500 A 6 10 15 23 38 62 75 84 128 179 252 T1 63 10 In T1 80 10 In T1 100 10 In T1 125 10 In T1 160 10 In S 1.5 2.6 2 I3 10 In 10 In SPE 1.Electrical devices 189 .5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 17 25 42 67 81 91 139 194 273 331 411 418 13 20 33 52 64 72 109 153 215 261 324 329 10 16 26 42 51 58 87 122 172 209 259 263 8 13 21 34 41 46 70 98 137 167 207 211 10 16 26 32 36 55 76 107 130 162 165 ABB SACE .5 3.

10 In 4…2 7…4 12…6 17…9 29…14 46…23 56…28 63…32 96…48 135…67 189…94 229…115 285…143 290…145 346…173 415…208 T4 T4 250 320 5..10 In 7…3 12…6 18…9 28…14 46…23 74…37 90…45 101…51 154…77 215…108 302…151 367…184 456…228 463…232 554…277 664…332 T4 160 5..5 2.5 23 23 4 36 36 6 54 54 10 90 90 16 144 144 16 176 176 16 198 198 25 300 300 35 420 420 50 590 590 70 717 717 95 891 891 95 905 905 120 1081 1081 150 1297 1297 T4 T4 50 80 10 In 5..10 In 9 14 23 35 58 92 113 127 192 269 378 459 570 579 692 830 11…5 18…9 29…14 43…22 72…36 115…58 141…70 158…79 240…120 336…168 472…236 574…287 713…356 724…362 865…432 1038…519 T4 100 5..10 In 3…2 3…1 6…3 5…2 9…5 7…4 14…7 11…5 23…12 18…9 37…18 29…14 45…23 35…18 51…25 40…20 77…38 60…30 108…54 84…42 151…76 118…59 184…92 143…72 228…114 178…89 232…116 181…90 277…138 216…108 332…166 259…130 S 1..Electrical devices ..10 In 5…3 9…5 14…7 22…11 36…18 58…29 70…35 79…40 120…60 168…84 236…118 287…143 356…178 362…181 432…216 519…259 T4 200 5..9: Tmax T4 TMD/TMA T4 T4 In 20 32 I3 320 A 10 In SPE 1....5.10 In 9…4 14…7 23…12 35…17 58…29 92…46 113…56 127…63 192…96 269…135 378…189 459…229 570…285 579…290 692…346 830…415 T4 125 5..5 14 14 2.10 In 5.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 190 ABB SACE ..8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings TN system MPL by MCCB In I3 SPE 4 6 10 16 16 16 25 35 50 70 95 95 120 Table 2...8: Tmax T3 TMD T3 63 10 In 17 25 42 67 81 91 139 194 273 331 411 418 499 T3 80 10 In 13 20 33 52 64 72 109 153 215 261 324 329 393 T3 100 10 In 10 16 26 42 51 58 87 122 172 209 259 263 315 T3 125 10 In 8 13 21 34 41 46 70 98 137 167 207 211 252 T3 160 10 In T3 200 10 In T3 250 10 In S 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 10 16 26 32 36 55 76 107 130 162 165 197 8 13 21 26 29 44 61 86 104 130 132 157 10 17 20 23 35 49 69 83 104 105 126 Table 2.

..10 In 1…1 2…1 4…2 5…3 9…5 15…7 18…9 20…10 31…15 43…21 60…30 73…36 91…45 92…46 110…55 132…66 S 1. ABB SACE .5.5 2.11: Tmax T2 with PR221 DS-LS In I3 SPE 1.5 2.5 In S 1..5 In 79 131 210 315 524 839 1023 1151 1747 2446 3434 4172 5183 5265 T2 25 5.5 2.5 4 6 10 16 16 16 25 35 50 70 95 95 T2 10 5.5 4 6 10 16 16 16 25 35 50 70 95 95 120 150 T5 320 5...5 2..10 In 2…1 3…1 5…2 7…3 12…6 18…9 23…11 25…13 38…19 54…27 76…38 92…46 114…57 116…58 138…69 166…83 T5 630 5.5 In T2 160 5.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 Table 2.5) the value of the MPL shall be multiplied by the ratio between the reference value and the set value.8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings TN system MPL by MCCB Table 2.5 In 31 52 84 126 210 335 409 460 699 979 1374 1669 2073 2106 T2 63 5.5 In 12 21 33 50 83 133 162 183 277 388 545 662 823 836 T2 100 5.10 In 3…1 5…2 7…4 11…5 18…9 29…14 35…18 40…20 60…30 84…42 118…59 143…72 178…89 181…90 216…108 259…130 T5 400 5.Electrical devices 191 ..5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 21 31 52 84 102 115 175 245 343 417 518 526 20 33 52 64 72 109 153 215 261 324 329 Note: if the setting of function I is different from the reference value (5..10 In 2…1 4…2 6…3 9…4 14…7 23…12 28…14 32…16 48…24 67…34 94…47 115…57 143…71 145…72 173…86 208…104 T5 500 5.10: Tmax T5 TMA In I3 SPE 1.

5 In S 1.12: Tmax T4-T5 with PR221 . Table 2.5 In T4 320 6.5 In T5 400 6.5 In T4 160 6.5 2.5 4 6 10 16 16 16 25 35 50 70 95 95 120 150 S6 800 6 In S7 1000 6 In S7 1250 6 In S7 1600 6 In S8 1600 6 In S8 2000 6 In S8 2500 6 In S8 3200 6 In S 2. 192 ABB SACE .5 In T5 320 6.5.5 In T4 250 6.PR212 In I3 SPE 2.5 4 6 10 16 16 16 25 35 50 70 95 95 120 150 29 48 77 94 106 161 226 317 385 478 486 581 697 18 30 48 59 66 101 141 198 241 299 304 363 435 19 31 38 43 65 90 127 154 191 194 232 279 24 30 33 50 71 99 120 150 152 181 218 24 30 33 50 71 99 120 150 152 181 218 19 24 27 40 56 79 96 120 121 145 174 15 17 26 36 50 61 76 77 92 111 Note: if the setting of function I is different from the reference value (6.8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings TN system MPL by MCCB Table 2.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 In I3 SPE 1.5) the value of the MPL shall be multiplied by the ratio between the reference value and the set value.5 2.5 In T5 630 6.PR222 T4 100 6.13: SACE Isomax S6÷S8 with PR211. Besides. using function S the MPL shall be multiplied by 1.Electrical devices .5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 20 28 39 48 59 60 72 86 22 31 38 48 48 58 69 18 25 31 38 39 46 55 14 20 24 30 30 36 43 14 20 24 30 30 36 43 16 19 24 24 29 35 13 15 19 19 23 28 10 12 15 15 18 22 Note: if the setting of function S or I is different from the reference value (6) the MPL value shall be multiplied by the ratio between the reference value and the set value.1.

2: Curve B CURVE In I3 S 1.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 B ≤6 30 SPE 1.5 150 112 2.5 2.Electrical devices 193 .5.5 2.5 1.5 4 6 10 16 16 16 150 250 400 599 999 1598 1949 B 8 40 112 187 300 449 749 1199 1462 B 10 50 90 150 240 360 599 959 1169 B 13 65 69 115 184 277 461 738 899 B 16 80 56 94 150 225 375 599 731 B 20 100 45 75 120 180 300 479 585 B 25 125 36 60 96 144 240 384 468 B 32 160 28 47 75 112 187 300 365 B 40 200 22 37 60 90 150 240 292 B 50 250 B 63 315 B 80 400 B 100 500 30 48 72 120 192 234 24 38 57 95 152 186 30 45 75 120 146 165 24 36 60 96 117 132 Table 3.5 250 187 4 4 400 300 6 6 599 449 10 10 999 749 16 16 1598 1199 25 16 1949 1462 35 16 C 6 60 75 125 200 300 499 799 974 C 8 80 56 94 150 225 375 599 731 C 10 100 45 75 120 180 300 479 585 C 13 130 35 58 92 138 230 369 450 C 16 160 28 47 75 112 187 300 365 C 20 200 22 37 60 90 150 240 292 C 25 250 18 30 48 72 120 192 234 C 32 320 14 23 37 56 94 150 183 C 40 400 11 19 30 45 75 120 146 C 50 500 C 63 630 C C C 80 100 125 800 1000 1250 15 24 36 60 96 117 12 19 29 48 76 93 15 22 37 60 73 82 12 18 30 48 58 66 10 14 24 38 47 53 ABB SACE .5 2.1: Curve Z Z 10 30 150 250 400 599 999 1598 1949 Z 13 39 115 192 307 461 768 1229 1499 Z 16 48 94 156 250 375 624 999 1218 Z 20 60 75 125 200 300 499 799 974 Z 25 75 60 100 160 240 400 639 780 Z 32 96 47 78 125 187 312 499 609 Z 40 120 37 62 100 150 250 400 487 Z 50 150 Z 63 189 50 80 120 200 320 390 40 63 95 159 254 309 Table 3.5 4 6 10 16 25 Z ≤8 30 SPE 1.5 4 6 10 16 16 150 250 400 599 999 1598 1949 Table 3.3: Curve C CURVE C C In ≤3 4 I3 30 40 S SPE 1.8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings IT system MPL by MCB CURVE In I3 S 1.5 2.5 2.

8 56 59 81 76 127 204 306 510 815 994 55 92 148 221 369 590 720 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K 6 8 10 11 13 15 16 20 25 26 32 37 40 41 45 50 63 84 112 140 154 182 210 224 280 350 364 448 518 560 574 630 700 882 54 89 143 214 357 571 696 40 67 107 161 268 428 522 32 54 86 128 214 342 418 29 49 78 117 195 311 380 25 41 66 99 165 263 321 21 36 57 86 143 228 278 20 33 54 80 134 214 261 16 27 43 64 107 171 209 13 21 34 51 86 137 167 12 21 33 49 82 132 161 10 17 27 40 67 107 130 9 14 23 35 58 93 113 8 13 21 32 54 86 104 107 80 178 134 285 214 428 321 713 535 1141 856 1392 1044 13 21 31 52 84 102 12 19 29 48 76 93 17 26 43 68 84 14 20 34 54 66 Table 3.5 161 2.5 1.5 112 75 2.8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings IT system MPL by MCB CURVE K In ≤2 I3 28 S SPE 1.5 2.Electrical devices .5 268 4 4 428 6 6 642 10 10 1070 16 16 1712 25 16 2088 K ≤3 42 Table 3.2 5.4: Curve K K K K 4 4.5 187 125 4 4 300 200 6 6 449 300 10 10 749 499 16 16 1199 799 25 16 1462 974 35 D 4 80 56 94 150 225 375 599 731 D 6 120 37 62 100 150 250 400 487 D 8 160 28 47 75 112 187 300 365 D 10 200 22 37 60 90 150 240 292 D 13 260 17 29 46 69 115 184 225 D 16 320 14 23 37 56 94 150 183 D 20 400 11 19 30 45 75 120 146 D 25 500 9 15 24 36 60 96 117 D 32 640 7 12 19 28 47 75 91 D D D D D 40 50 63 80 100 800 1000 1260 1600 2000 6 9 15 22 37 60 73 7 12 18 30 48 58 6 10 14 24 38 46 7 11 19 30 37 41 6 9 15 24 29 33 194 ABB SACE .5.5 1.5: Curve D CURVE D D In ≤2 3 I3 40 60 S SPE 1.5 2.

5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 170 136 284 227 454 363 681 545 1135 908 1816 1453 106 85 177 142 284 227 426 340 709 567 1135 908 1384 1107 14 22 36 58 70 79 120 168 236 287 356 362 11 17 28 45 55 62 95 132 186 226 281 285 9 14 23 36 44 50 76 106 149 181 224 228 7 11 9 18 14 29 23 35 28 40 31 61 47 85 66 119 93 145 113 180 140 182 142 ABB SACE .5 4 6 10 16 16 16 25 35 50 70 95 95 T2 T2 1.3 8 10 12.6: Tmax T1 TMD T1 ≤50 500 A 5 8 13 20 33 53 65 73 111 155 218 T1 63 10 In T1 80 10 In T1 100 10 In T1 125 10 In T1 160 10 In S 1.5 16÷50 63 80 10 In 10 In 10 In 10 In 10 In 10 In 500 A 10 In 10 In 68 113 182 272 454 726 886 997 54 90 144 216 360 576 703 791 43 71 113 170 284 454 554 623 946 34 57 91 136 227 363 443 498 757 27 45 73 109 182 291 354 399 605 847 7 11 18 27 45 73 89 100 151 212 297 361 449 456 T2 T2 T2 100 125 160 10 In 10 In 10 In S 1.5.5 2.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 11 16 26 42 52 58 88 123 173 8 12 21 33 41 46 69 97 136 7 10 17 27 32 37 55 78 109 5 8 13 21 26 29 44 62 87 6 10 17 20 23 35 49 68 Table 3.7: Tmax T2 TMD In I3 SPE 1.5 2.6 2 10 In 10 In 213 355 567 851 1419 2270 T2 T2 2.8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings IT system MPL by MCCB In I3 SPE 1.5 3.2 10 In 10 In T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 4 5 6.5 2.Electrical devices 195 .5 4 6 10 16 16 16 25 35 50 Table 3.5 2.

5 2.5 12 12 7 2.10 In 3…1 5…2 8…4 12…6 20…10 32…16 39…19 44…22 67…33 93…47 131…65 159…79 198…99 201…100 240…120 288…144 T4 320 5.10 In 4…2 6…3 10…5 15…7 25…12 40…20 49…24 55…27 83…42 117…58 164…82 199…99 247…123 251…125 300…150 360…180 T4 250 5..10 In 5…2 8…4 12…6 19…9 31…16 50…25 61…30 69…34 104…52 146…73 204…102 248…124 309…154 313…157 375…187 449…225 T4 200 5..8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings IT system MPL by MCCB In I3 S 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 Table 3......10 In 7…4 12…6 20…10 30…15 50…25 80…40 97…49 110…55 166…83 233…117 327…164 397…199 494…247 502…251 599…300 719…360 T4 125 5....10 In 2…1 4…2 6…3 9…5 16…8 25…12 30…15 34…17 52…26 73…36 102…51 124…62 154…77 157…78 187…94 225…112 S 1.9: Tmax T4 TMD/TMA T4 T4 T4 In 20 32 50 I3 320 A 10 In 10 In SPE 1..Electrical devices ..8: Tmax T3 TMD T3 63 10 In T3 80 10 In 11 17 28 45 55 62 95 132 186 226 281 285 340 T3 100 10 In 9 14 23 36 44 50 76 106 149 181 224 228 272 T3 125 10 In 7 11 18 29 35 40 61 85 119 145 180 182 218 T3 160 10 In T3 200 10 In T3 250 10 In SPE 4 6 10 16 16 16 25 35 50 70 95 95 120 14 22 36 58 70 79 120 168 236 287 356 362 432 9 14 23 28 31 47 66 93 113 140 142 170 7 11 18 22 25 38 53 74 90 112 114 136 9 15 18 20 30 42 59 72 90 91 109 Table 3.5 20 20 12 4 31 31 20 6 47 47 30 10 78 78 50 16 125 125 80 16 152 152 97 16 171 171 110 25 260 260 166 35 364 364 233 50 511 511 327 70 621 621 397 95 772 772 494 95 784 784 502 120 936 936 599 150 1124 1124 719 T4 80 5.10 In 9…5 16…8 25…12 37…19 62…31 100…50 122…61 137…69 208…104 291…146 409…204 497…248 617…309 627…313 749…375 899…449 T4 100 5..5..10 In 6…3 10…5 16…8 24…12 40…20 64…32 78…39 88…44 133…67 186…93 262…131 318…159 395…198 401…201 479…240 575…288 T4 160 5.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 196 ABB SACE .

5 4 6 10 16 16 16 25 35 50 70 95 95 120 150 T5 320 5.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 Table 3.5 2.5 In 68 113 182 272 454 726 886 997 1513 2119 2974 3613 4489 4559 T2 25 5.10 In 2…1 4…2 6…3 9…5 16…8 25…12 30…15 34…17 52…26 73…36 102…51 124…62 154…77 157…78 187…94 225…112 T5 400 5.5 2..5 2.10 In 2…1 3…2 5…2 7…4 12…6 20…10 24…12 27…14 42…21 58…29 82…41 99…50 123…62 125…63 150…75 180…90 T5 500 5..8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings IT system MPL by MCCB Table 3.Electrical devices 197 .5 In 11 18 29 43 72 115 141 158 240 336 472 573 713 724 T2 100 5.5) the MPL value shall be multiplied by the ratio between the reference value and the set value.10 In 1…1 2…1 3…2 5…2 8…4 13…6 15…8 17…9 26…13 37…18 52…26 63…32 78…39 80…40 95…48 114…57 S 1.5 In 27 45 73 109 182 291 354 399 605 847 1190 1445 1796 1824 T2 63 5.5.....5 4 6 10 16 16 16 25 35 50 70 95 95 T2 10 5.10: Tmax T5 TMA In I3 SPE 1.10 In 1…1 2…1 4…2 6…3 10…5 16…8 19…10 22…11 33…17 47…23 65…33 79…40 99…49 100…50 120…60 144…72 T5 630 5.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 18 27 45 73 89 100 151 212 297 361 449 456 17 28 45 55 62 95 132 186 226 281 285 Note: if the setting of function I is different from the reference value (5.5 In S 1.11: Tmax T2 with PR221DS-LS In I3 SPE 1.5 In T2 160 5.5 2.. ABB SACE ..

5 In T4 160 6.5.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 25 42 67 82 92 140 196 275 333 414 421 503 603 16 26 42 51 58 87 122 172 208 259 263 314 377 17 27 33 37 56 78 110 133 166 168 201 241 21 26 29 44 61 86 104 129 132 157 189 21 26 29 44 61 86 104 129 132 157 189 17 20 23 35 49 69 83 104 105 126 151 13 15 22 31 44 53 66 67 80 96 Note: if the setting of function I is different from the reference value (6.5 2. 198 ABB SACE .5 In T4 250 6.5 In T5 630 6.12: Tmax T4-T5 with PR221-PR222 T4 100 6.Electrical devices .5 In T5 320 6.5 In T4 320 6.5 In T5 400 6.5) the value of the MPL shall be multiplied by the ratio between the reference value and the set value.5 4 6 10 16 16 16 25 35 50 70 95 95 120 150 Table 3.5 2.5 In S 1.8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings IT system MPL by MCCB In I3 SPE 1.

Electrical devices 199 .5. ABB SACE .5 4 6 10 16 16 16 25 35 50 70 95 95 120 150 17 24 34 41 51 52 62 75 19 27 33 41 42 50 60 16 22 26 33 33 40 48 12 17 21 26 26 31 37 12 17 21 26 26 31 37 14 17 21 21 25 30 11 13 16 17 20 24 9 10 13 13 16 19 Note: if the setting of function S or I is different from the reference value (6) the MPL value shall be multiplied by the ratio between the reference value and the set value.1. the MPL shall be multiplied by 1. Besides.13: SACE Isomax S6-S8 with PR211-212 S6 800 6 In S7 1000 6 In S7 1250 6 In S7 1600 6 In S8 1600 6 In S8 2000 6 In S8 2500 6 In S8 3200 6 In S 2.8 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings 5 Protection of human beings IT system MPL by MCCB Table 3. using function S.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 In I3 SPE 2.

200 ABB SACE .Annex A: Calculation tools A. All the given information is connected to some general reference conditions. These two-sided slide rules are available in four different colors.1 Slide rules These slide rules represent a valid instrument for a quick and approximate dimensioning of electrical plants. . .green slide rule: protection coordination. easily identified by subject: . . the calculation methods and the data reported are gathered from the IEC Standards in force and from plant engineering practice.yellow slide rule: cable sizing.Electrical devices .blue slide rule: motor and transformer protection. The instruction manual enclosed with the slide rules offers different examples and tables showing the correction coefficients necessary to extend the general reference conditions to those actually required.orange slide rule: cable verification and protection.

In addition.1 Slide rules Annex A: Calculation tools Yellow slide rule: cable sizing Side Definition of the current carrying capacity.Electrical devices 201 1SDC008059F0001 .A. Side Calculation of the short-circuit current for three-phase fault on the load side of a cable line with known cross section and length. ABB SACE . a diagram for the calculation of the short-circuit current on the load side of elements with known impedance. impedance and voltage drop of cables.

Electrical devices 1SDC008060F0001 .A. 202 ABB SACE . Side Verification of cable protection against indirect contact and short-circuit with ABB MCBs (modular circuit-breakers).1 Slide rules Annex A: Calculation tools Orange slide rule: cable verification and protection Side Verification of cable protection against indirect contact and short-circuit with ABB SACE MCCBs (moulded-case circuit-breakers).

ABB SACE .1 Slide rules Annex A: Calculation tools Green slide rule: protection coordination Side Selection of the circuit-breakers when back-up protection is provided. Side Definition of the discrimination limit current for the combination of two circuitbreakers in series.A.Electrical devices 203 1SDC008061F0001 .

Electrical devices 1SDC008062F0001 . 204 ABB SACE .1 Slide rules Annex A: Calculation tools Blue slide rule: motor and transformer protection Side Selection and coordination of the protection devices for the motor starter. DOL start-up (coordination type 2 in compliance with the Standard IEC 60947-4-1). a diagram for the calculation of the short-circuit current on the load side of transformers with known rated power. In addition.A. Side Sizing of a transformer feeder.

Meshed networks can also be managed.2 DOCWin Annex A: Calculation tools A. • The program controls the coherence of drawings in real time. Network calculation • Load Flow calculation using the Newton-Raphson method. The software can manage networks with multiple slacks and unbalances due to single. Networks can be completely calculated through simple operations starting from the definition of the single-line diagram and thanks to the drawing functions provided by an integrated CAD software.or twophase loads. • Calculation of the active and reactive power required by each single power source. with low or medium voltage supply. ABB SACE . Drawing and definition of networks Creation of the single-line diagram. according to the requirements.A. for both MV as well as LV. with or without voltage regulator.2 DOCWin DOCWin is a software for the dimensioning of electrical networks. with no limits to the network complexity. MV/LV and LV/LV transformers. Supplies • There are no pre-defined limits: the software manages MV and LV power supplies and generators. • It is possible to define different network configurations by specifying the status (open/closed) of the operating and protective devices. Magnitude and phase shift of the node voltage and of the branch current are completely defined for each point of the network. • It is possible to enter and modify the data of the objects which form the network by using a table.Electrical devices 205 . • The diagram can be divided into many pages. with two or three windings.

IEC 60092 (naval installations) and IEC 60890. as additional calculation criterion. • Short-circuit current calculation for three-phase. . phase-toneutral.current / let-through energy curves (I-I2t). VDE 2984.time / current curves (I-t).A. as additional calculation criterion. • Possibility of setting. Cable line sizing • Cable line sizing according to thermal criteria in compliance with the following Standards: CEI 64-8 (tables CEI UNEL 35024-35026). Curves and verifications • Representation of: . • Possibility of setting. . • Management of the demand factor for each single node of the network and of the utilization factor on the loads.current limiting curves (peak): visual check of the effects of the settings on the trip characteristics of protection devices. in compliance with the Standards IEC 60909-1. The power dissipated by the single apparatus is automatically derived by the data files of the software. • Automatic sizing of busbar trunking system. 206 ABB SACE .2 DOCWIN Annex A: Calculation tools • Management of local (motors) and centralized power factor correction with capacitor banks. NFC 15-100. the economic criteria stated in the Standard IEC 60827-3-2. • Sizing and check on the dynamic withstand of busbars in compliance with the Standard IEC 60865. the maximum allowed voltage drop. phase-to-phase. taking into account also the time-variance contribution of rotary machines (generators and motors). phase-to-ground faults. IEC 61363-1 (naval installations) or with the method of symmetric components. and can be considered as a function of the rated current or of the load current. IEC 60364.Electrical devices . • Calculation of switchboard overtemperature in compliance with Standard IEC 60890. The calculation is also carried out for MV sections.

motors and generators. transformers. with discrimination level adjustable for each circuit-breaker combination.2 DOCWin Annex A: Calculation tools • Representation of the curves of circuit-breakers. • Possibility of entering the curve of the utility and of the MV components point by point. • Discrimination and back-up verification also through quick access to coordination tables.Electrical devices 207 . • Verification of the maximum voltage drop at each load. to verify the tripping discrimination of protection devices.A. • Verification of the protection devices. cables. Selection of operating and protection devices • Automatic selection of protection devices (circuit-breakers and fuses) • Automatic selection of operating devices (contactors and switch disconnectors) • Discrimination and back-up managed as selection criteria. ABB SACE . with control over the setting parameters of the adjustable releases (both thermomagnetic as well as electronic).

2 DOCWIN Annex A: Calculation tools • Motor coordination management through quick access to ABB tables.Electrical devices . • All information can be exported in the most common formats of data exchange. Printouts • Single-line diagram.A. • All print modes can be customized. curves and reports of the single components of the network can be printed by any printer supported by the hardware configuration. 208 ABB SACE .

83 400 0.04 0.06 116.21 8.12 154.86 4.2 0.92 46.30 144.94 ABB SACE .98 89.58 29.45 256.69 21. • cosϕ is the power factor.03 0.80 334.79 5.08 48.89 55. for single-phase systems it is the phase voltage).27 111.95 216.Electrical devices 209 .32 72.66 38.48 418.53 96.16 43.04 0.07 2.75 415 0.04 32.78 83.08 42.05 0.79 179.28 0.02 16.58 13.31 0.64 115.80 160.67 111.73 1.11 218.46 167.97 102.32 64.95 27.59 27.29 0.92 117.19 96.24 223.66 139.74 58.9 230 P [kW] 0.46 2.38 176.49 51. Table 1: Load current for three-phase systems with cosϕ = 0.14 5.84 85.90 87.68 160.29 92.70 362.39 2.42 12.64 131.86 130.69 291.56 320.06 0.23 112.48 102.29 14.58 170.89 37.09 0.05 0.55 3.08 0.09 7.75 108.47 128. for three-phase systems.83 77.60 600 0.38 174.08 74.11 64.17 0.30 138.1 for single-phase systems or for direct current systems.23 106.04 0.06 0.02 278.10 0. Table 1 allows the load current to be determined for some power values according to the rated voltage.41 231.30 18.03 0.06 0.45 208.15 74.61 128.60 3.46 30.80 1.57 6. for different power factors.35 195.56 1.26 128.49 224.59 390.13 153.37 61.95 189. the value from Table 1 must be multiplied by the coefficient given in Table 2 corresponding to the actual value of the power factor (cosϕact).99 149.49 200.64 1.78 65.11 0.03 0.77 1.13 251. The table has been calculated considering cosϕ to be equal to 0.30 141.81 102.06 0.08 0.06 0.41 192.59 500 0.46 0.13 0.5 1 2 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 200 0.26 0.93 1.Annex B: Calculation of load current Ib Generic loads The formula for the calculation of the load current of a generic load is: Ib = P k ⋅ U r ⋅ cos ϕ where: • P is the active power [W].46 64.91 306.57 120.22 145.9.15 0.34 160.19 0.04 0.92 7.06 0.32 0.53 204.62 192.15 76.65 9.15 80.16 Ur [V] 440 Ib [A] 0.19 46.67 92.1 0.73 15.20 123.05 0.83 25.15 0.35 10.09 0.37 557.16 139. • Ur is the rated voltage [V] (for three-phase systems it is the line voltage.46 185.38 213.53 240.38 83.16 0.87 309.53 1.57 139.77 53. • k is a coefficient which has the value: .11 0.83 690 0.09 0.04 185.04 0.49 55.28 2.96 166.21 0.38 32.

17 0.08 0.75 384.90 449.10 962.85 1.33 0.10 22.77 947.89 850.71 1069.76 2510.25 1026.99 210 ABB SACE .08 0.14 2.42 801.125 0.96 500 320.10 0.82 4.31 641.38 1523.12 0.95 898.70 1218.07 0.09 0.40 1.14 0.81 1283.88 874.00 2.76 1082.31 695.58 588.50 25.95 0.48 86.25 14.71 Table 2: Correction factors for load current with cosϕ other than 0.45 500 0.34 557.19 1443.07 0.Calculation of load curremt Ib Annex B: Calculation of load current Ib 230 P [kW] 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 697.91 325.57 1534.059 0.06 0.00 4.74 883.88 855.47 1166.69 801.02 1673.23 929.57 1093.947 0.1 0.10 0.48 0.33 908.26 0.43 0.28 583.20 577.28 743.08 728.18 927.29 320.20 1115.80 697.65 769.67 1020.05 0. for different power factors.21 427.92 1391.13 0.07 0.63 1202.9 cos ϕ act Table 3 allows the load current to be determined for some power values according to the rated voltage.68 2789.22 2649.05 1159.50 721.50 1.37 464.77 790.49 437.88 418.40 371.75 415 386.03 0.94 1952.36 1239.33 8.00 1363.55 12.Electrical devices .5 1 2 5 10 20 0.24 0.50 705.72 1.06 0.55 1154.67 481.06 0.75 1.20 0.34 1236.45 463.11 1394.9 1 0.75 374.25 1015.7 1.10 0.06 962.39 2091.96 748.88 882.28 836.00 10.44 1122.87 2.14 0.9 cosϕact kcosϕ* * 1 0.45 1.60 772.49 1545.74 541. Table 3: Load current for single-phase systems with cosϕ = 1 or dc systems 230 P [kW] 0.65 1255. the value from Table 3 must be multiplied by the coefficient given in Table 4 corresponding to the actual value of the power factor (cosϕact).47 1004.33 16.67 3.00 50.80 833.31 650.94 481.00 20.83 1.23 0.8 1.16 1385.98 801.18 656.96 400 0.21 1468.45 2.48 1812. kcosϕ = 0.26 1312.13 561.27 4.02 618.41 2.43 278.31 2370.78 Ur [V] 440 Ib[A] 364.33 690 0.00 12.04 641.2 0.17 0.50 694.79 962.39 510.56 1603.00 600 267.13 534.40 1090.35 641.20 1.25 0.90 7.25 1042.35 8.49 28.17 690 232.04 0.67 33.36 24.73 48.00 600 0.19 45.06 1457.85 2231.86 511.74 43.50 5.83 604.14 0.00 Ur [V] 415 440 Ib [A] 0.25 836.70 21.25 2.13 400 400.29 0.2 0.05 513.17 4.85 1283.00 40.74 976.286 For cosϕact values not present in the table.15 0.63 1313.04 0.09 0. The table has been calculated considering cosϕ to be equal to 1.05 11.9 0.

00 180.57 942.45 318.00 1700.83 391.00 1363.00 150.91 2391. • kN is a coefficient which has the value: .00 250.41 722.57 1086.18 681.00 583.67 1000.96 265.74 565.00 220.09 181.9 for lamps with compensation.00 1875.33 1166.00 1100.49 1086.67 233.4 for lamps without compensation.00 1625.00 700.09 2272.78 1566.00 260.55 1818.25 579.26 3695.7 1.03 1014.55 568.45 481.91 1704.48 57.78 478.00 900.00 1300.00 833.00 1000.00 2375.00 2000.18 90. for delta-connected lamps.00 1500.37 963.00 1500.429 For cosϕact values not present in the table.00 2500.00 116.19 2168.18 1931.46 86.93 159.96 1304.00 1333.87 240.1 for star-connected lamps.00 400 Ur [V] 415 440 Ib [A] 72.30 1445.00 66.00 80.27 250.00 2250.94 130. ABB SACE .45 909.00 300.00 1400.67 2289.30 434.00 200.33 666.0.00 1375.00 1125.22 608.00 1900.00 625.33 916.00 1250.00 160.82 204. .39 260.64 1477.41 202.8 1.00 125.9 1.23 1927.88 1304.00 175.67 750.176 0.70 652.09 3043.87 3478.96 1159.33 1666.64 797.97 72.00 2000.00 375.64 136.78 507.77 216.35 1521.16 313.25 for lamps which need auxiliary starters.45 115.00 500.00 750.00 875.111 0.73 1136.86 362.00 500.58 168.0.35 1376.86 1084.00 100.09 1022.00 600 50.67 183. or approximately calculated using the following formula: Ib= where: • PL is the power of the lamp [W].16 2409.91 113.34 1204.04 4130.95 1.43 173.17 869.39 289.00 1000.43 144.13 1956.33 150.00 225.48 3260.33 1416.00 1200.333 0.36 1250.71 2048. .89 843.00 280.33 100.10 869.26 521. • nL is the number of lamps per phase.27 1686. • cosϕ is the power factor of the lamps which has the value: .00 120.91 188.053 0.1.83 75.17 724.67 133.Calculation of load curremt Ib Annex B: Calculation of load current Ib 230 P [kW] 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 130.65 3913.00 240.39 120.06 289.67 1250.33 200.00 1750.00 1083.00 600.18 340.48 144.73 500 60.67 500.73 295.96 101.35 347.00 1800.00 200.71 652.29 96.00 350.42 173.85 1.30 2608.33 416.90 217.91 454.1 for lamps which do not need any auxiliary starter.36 159.75 1.67 1500.87 304.67 83.64 68.35 361.91 217.81 1449.55 227.00 166.32 434.00 300.00 800. • kB is a coefficient which has the value: .00 1583.93 602.00 2125.52 2173.45 2159.28 Table 4: Correction factors for load current with cosϕ other than 1 cosϕact kcosϕ* * 1 1 0. kcosϕ = Lighting circuits 1 cos ϕ act The current absorbed by the lighting system may be deduced from the lighting equipment catalogue.00 275.00 1600.00 325.82 795.25 0.43 4347.67 690 43.74 1739.25 337.70 2826.00 140.00 100.00 333.00 216.82 2045.42 1231.82 1325.Electrical devices PL nL kBkN U rL cos ϕ 211 .27 1590.00 400. • UrL is the rated voltage of the lamps.75 1807.33 250.67 192.00 272.

9 10.1 5.33 0.26 3.Electrical devices .5 11.5 5 5.33 0.48 2.16 3.6 11.5 14 15.6 33 38 44 54 60 64.5 15 17 20 25 27 30 34 40 50 54 60 70 75 80 100 110 125 136 150 175 180 190 200 220 245 250 270 300 340 350 400 430 480 545 610 645 680 760 810 910 220-230 V [A] 0.24 0.8 4.5 8 9 11 12.5 13.76 1.22 1.9 83.8 52.67 2.31 4.9 123 131 146 162 178 209 214 227 236 256 289 295 321 353 401 412 473 505 549 611 688 730 770 860 920 1030 500 V [A] 0.7 6.56 0.1 54.4 27.1 4.3 4.3 21.7 63.4 10.9 10.42 0.25 0.5 20 22 25 30 37 40 45 51 55 59 75 80 90 100 110 129 132 140 147 160 180 184 200 220 250 257 295 315 355 400 450 475 500 560 600 670 PS = hp 1/12 1/8 1/6 1/4 1/3 1/2 3/4 1 1.55 0.6 7.38 0.9 37.9 21.7 10.1 19.6 14.3 23.1 42.76 1.4 4 5 5.75 1.9 26.5 8.1 2.60 0.7 0.6 64.3 3.5 73.5 16.8 7.5 2 3 3.7 18.8 32 39.55 0.68 1 1.4 66.5 15 18.2 61.2 48.8 11.5 7.5 28.3 12 13.6 8.6 37.4 2.77 1.6 14.1 90.5 3 3.8 24.3 75.5 5 5.6 23.15 1.1 1.22 3.7 114 123 136 154 166 178 226 241 268 297 327 384 393 416 432 471 530 541 589 647 736 756 868 927 1010 1130 1270 1340 1420 1580 – – Rated current of the motor at: 380-400 V [A] 0.1 1.5 6.06 1.09 0.7 4 5 5.3 18.6 13 14 17.1 16.46 0.1 6.50 0.40 2 2.9 3.2 15.40 0.9 1.5 6.6 3.9 20.88 1.59 0.8 15.7 13.27 0.30 0.2 6.9 5.5 2 2.3 32 34.3 96.1 7.8 7.2 18.55 0.7 8.9 6.9 10.5 30.2 84.2 8.5 2.5 4.22 0.4 29.6 3.7 19 22.2 2.7 9.5 25.37 0.85 1.6 13 15 17.5 8.06 0.2 30.8 26.9 7.37 0.8 10 11 12.8 19.7 3.4 15.1 8.9 69.9 16.12 0.3 40.9 8.40 0.7 79 85.64 0.1 50.03 4.25 1.5 2 2.18 0.20 1.20 0.4 49.2 71.93 2.2 58.5 10.5 7.5 21 23 25 28 33 42 44 49 56 60 66 82 86 98 107 118 135 140 145 152 170 190 200 215 235 268 280 320 337 366 410 460 485 510 570 610 680 212 ABB SACE .3 96.1 9 9.59 4.22 1.4 101 124 134 150 168 181 194 245 260 292 325 358 420 425 449 472 502 578 590 626 700 803 826 948 990 1080 1250 1410 1490 1570 1750 – – 240 V [A] 0.3 106 112 128 143 156 184 186 200 207 220 254 259 278 310 353 363 416 445 483 538 608 645 680 760 810 910 600 V [A] 0.35 0.1 61.5 8.4 28.Calculation of load curremt Ib Annex B: Calculation of load current Ib Motors Table 5 gives the approximate values of the load current for some three-phase squirrel-cage motors.1 45.8 90.5 3.02 1.2 43.5 8.21 0.2 8.66 2.25 5.9 67 73.6 9.6 6.38 1.3 35.4 68 77.5 14.1 1.2 92.4 10 11 12.19 0.3 3.16 0.3 107 119 131 153 157 167 173 188 212 217 235 260 295 302 348 370 405 450 508 540 565 630 680 760 660-690 V [A] – – – – – 0.3 5. and may vary according to the motor manifacturer and depending on the number of poles Table 5: Motor load current Motor power [kW] 0.4 17 21 23 28 35 37 40 47 55 66 72 80 90 96 105 135 138 165 182 200 230 242 250 260 280 320 325 340 385 425 450 500 535 580 650 740 780 830 920 990 1100 440 V [A] 0.28 0.12 0.85 1.3 22 25 30 37 40 44 50 60 72 79 85 97 105 112 140 147 170 188 205 242 245 260 273 295 333 340 370 408 460 475 546 580 636 710 800 850 890 1000 1080 1200 415 V [A] 0.9 12.4 4. Note: these values are given for information only.7 27.2 5. 1500 rpm at 50 Hz.5 6.1 2.4 11.7 9. according to the rated voltage.9 6 6.

Electrical devices 213 . the use of DOCWin software is recommended. • phase to PE fault. • two phase fault. The following table briefly shows the type of fault and the relationships between the value of the short-circuit current for a symmetrical fault (three phase) and the short-circuit current for asymmetrical faults (two phase and single phase) in case of faults far from generators. • ZPE protective conductor impedance. • ZN neutral conductor impedance. the following symbols are used: • Ik short-circuit current.Calculation of short-circuit current Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current A short-circuit is a fault of negligible impedance between live conductors having a difference in potential under normal operating conditions. In the formulas. • phase to neutral fault. For more accurate calculation. • Ur rated voltage. Three phase fault ZL ZL ZL ZN IkLLL IkLLL 2 2 ZC = R C + X C IkLLL Two phase fault ZL ZL ZL ZN IkLL IkLL = Ur 3 = IkLLL = 0. • ZL phase conductor impedance.87 IkLLL 2Z L 2 ABB SACE . Fault typologies In a three-phase circuit the following types of fault may occur: • three phase fault.

5 IkLLL 3( ZL + ZN ) 3(2ZL ) Ur Ur = = 0.87IkLLL Phase to neutral short-circuit IkLN ILN=0.5IkLLL (ZL = ZN) ILN=0.33IkLLL (ZL = 0.58IkLL (ZL = ZN) IkLN=0.73IkLN (ZL = ZN) IkLL=2.33IkLLL 3( ZL + ZN ) 3(3Z L ) Ur Ur = = I kLLL 3( ZL + ZN ) 3( ZL ) If Z N = 2Z L (cross section of neutral conductor half the phase conductor one): IkLN = If Z N ≅ 0 limit condition: IkLN = Phase to PE fault IkLPE = ZL ZL ZL ZPE IkLPE Ur 3( ZL + ZPE ) If Z L = Z PE (cross section of protective conductor equal to the phase conductor one): IkLPE = Ur Ur = = 0.16IkLL (ZN ≅ 0) - Phase to PE short-circuit (TN system) IkLPE ILPE=0.5I kLLL 3( ZL + ZPE ) 3(2ZL ) Ur Ur = = 0.5ZN) ILN=IkLLL (ZN ≅ 0) IkLN=0.33IkLLL (ZL = 0. Note Three-phase short-circuit IkLLL Two-phase short-circuit IkLL IkLL=0.33I kLLL 3(ZL + ZPE ) 3(3ZL ) Ur Ur = = IkLLL 3( ZL + ZPE ) 3 (ZL) If Z PE= 2Z L (cross section of protective conductor half to the phase conductor one): IkLPE = If Z PE ≅ 0 limit condition: IkLPE = The following table allows the approximate value of a short-circuit current to be found quickly.16IkLL IkLLL=2IkLN (ZL = ZN) IkLLL=3IkLN (ZL = 2ZN) IkLLL=IkLN (ZN ≅ 0) IkLL=1.16IkLL (ZPE ≅ 0) IkLLL - IkLL IkLLL=1.Calculation of short-circuit current Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current Phase to neutral fault ZL If IkLN = Ur 3( ZL + ZN ) Z L = Z N (cross section of neutral conductor equal to the phase conductor one): ZL ZL ZN IkLN IkLN = Ur Ur = = 0.5ZPE) IkLPE=1.6IkLN (ZL = 2ZN) IkLL=0.87IkLN (ZN ≅ 0) IkLN 214 ABB SACE .38IkLL (ZL = 0.5ZN) IkLN=1.38IkLL (ZL = 0.Electrical devices .5ZPE) ILPE=IkLLL (ZPE ≅ 0) IkLPE=0.58IkLL (ZL = ZPE) IkLPE=0.5IkLLL (ZL = ZPE) ILPE=0.

For more accurate calculation. the use of DOCWin software for the dimensioning of installations is recommended. the resultant value is generally acceptable. motors. generators. Calculation of the short-circuit power for the different elements of the installation The short-circuit apparent power Sk shall be determined for all the components which are part of the installation: Network An electrical network is considered to include everything upstream of the point of energy supply. motors and large section cables etc. the more similar the power factors of the considered components are (network. To determine the short-circuit apparent power Sk. this method is not conservative and gives more accurate values. The procedure for the calculation of the short-circuit current involves the following steps: 1. However.Calculation of short-circuit current Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current Determination of the short-circuit current In order to determine the short-circuit current the “short-circuit power method” can be used.Electrical devices 215 . ABB SACE . 2. all the elements of the network shall be taken into account. calculation of the short-circuit power for the different elements of the installation. which may be: • elements which contribute to the short-circuit current: network. calculation of the short-circuit current. generators. • elements which limit the value of the short-circuit current: conductors and transformers. calculation of the short-circuit power at the fault point. 3. transformers.). • Ur is the rated voltage. This method allows the determination of the approximate shortcircuit current at a point in an installation in a simple way. The “short-circuit power method” calculates the short-circuit current Ik based on the formula: Three-phase short-circuit Ik = Sk 3 ⋅ Ur Sk 2 ⋅ Ur Two-phase short-circuit Ik = where: • Sk is the short-circuit apparent power seen at the point of the fault.

for three-phase systems.Calculation of short-circuit current Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current Generally. that being the subtransient reactance.0 20.0 5. . .6 3.0 2.0 25. the energy distribution authority supplies the short-circuit apparent power (Sknet) value at the point of energy supply.4 8.3 1. However.6 2.8 16.0 216 ABB SACE . according to the instant in which the value of the short-circuit power is to be evaluated.5 %): Sr [kVA] Skgen [MVA] 50 0. if the value of the short-circuit current Iknet is known. Normally. The following table gives the approximate values of the short-circuit power of generators (Xd” = 12.Xd” from 10 % to 20 %.0 12. the values for Sknet given in the following table can be taken as reference values: Net voltage Ur [kV] Up to 20 Up to 32 Up to 63 Short-circuit power Sknet [MVA] 500 750 1000 Generator The short-circuit power is obtained from: Skgen = Sr ⋅100 X* d% where X*d% is the percentage value of the subtransient reactance (Xd”) or of the transient reactance (Xd’) or of the synchronous reactance (Xd). the value of the power can be obtained by using. In general. the following formula: S knet = 3Ur Iknet where Ur is the rated voltage at the point of energy supply.4 63 0.Electrical devices .5 125 160 200 250 320 400 500 630 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500 3200 4000 1. the reactances are expressed in percentages of the rated impedance of the generator (Zd) given by: Zd = Ur Sr 2 where Ur and Sr are the rated voltage and power of the generator. Typical values can be: .0 6.0 1.0 10.6 32.Xd’ from 15 % to 40 %. the worst case is considered. If the aforementioned data are not available.Xd from 80 % to 300 %.2 4.

according to the supply voltage (cable length = 10 m): ABB SACE . at 50 and 60 Hz.3 8 10 12.6 125 160 200 250 320 400 500 630 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500 3200 4000 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 3.3 63 4 1.1 4 5 6.3 Cables A good approximation of the short-circuit power of cables is: S kcable = Ur Zc 2 where the impedance of the cable (Zc) is: ZC = RC + X C 2 2 The following table gives the approximate values of the short-circuit power of cables.Calculation of short-circuit current Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current Asynchronous three phase motors Under short circuit conditions. by using the following expression: Skmot = 3 ⋅U r ⋅ I k Typical values are: Skmot= 5÷7 Srmot (Ik is about 5÷7 Irmot: 5 for motors of small size. electric motors contribute to the fault for a brief period (5-6 periods).5 15. and 7 for larger motors). The power can be calculated according to the short circuit current of the motor (Ik). Transformers The short circuit power of a transformer (Sktrafo) can be calculated by using the following formula: Sktrafo = 100 ⋅ Sr uk % The following table gives the approximate values of the short circuit power of transformers: Sr [kVA] 50 uk% 4 Sktrafo [MVA] 1.8 16 20 25 26.7 33.Electrical devices 217 .

8 125.44 0.3 40.Calculation of short-circuit current Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current 230 [V] S [mm2] 1.1 176.2 30.2 400 [V] 440 [V] 500 [V] Skcable [MVA] @50 Hz 1. This must be done to ensure the correct choice of protection devices installed in the branches. 218 ABB SACE .0 89.4 47.0 13.50 5.5 31.5 229.1 269.6 400.0 90.32 1.5 49.7 75.5 34.6 49.66 3.66 3.2 42.9 21.8 223.20 2.5 231.7 134.9 16.75 2.0 147.2 114.2 48.6 132.3 400 [V] 440 [V] 500 [V] Skcable [MVA] @60 Hz 1.44 3.6 94.29 6.2 10.6 13.0 382.26 8.26 5.1 63.32 1.3 109.5 48.94 6.44 0.1 77.4 326. seeing the circuit from the fault point.50 5.7 13.4 34.2 90.8 24.16 1.5 141.16 1. In particular: • the power of elements in series is equal to the inverse of the sum of the inverses of the single powers (as for the parallel of impedances).2 90.Electrical devices .9 21.4 256.5 200.3 39.9 4.47 15.1 54.7 68.7 88.9 26.7 117.8 164.6 171.2 36.6 186.8 21.2 10.7 434.8 90.5 109.8 10.7 With n cables in parallel.26 5.1 36.3 441.73 1. it is necessary to multiply the value given in the table by the following coefficient: 10 L act Calculation of the short-circuit power at the fault point The rule for the determination of the short-circuit power at a point in the installation.6 119.4 19.1 25.75 2. it is necessary to multiply the value given in the table by n. according to the short-circuit power of the various elements of the circuit.2 128.94 6.47 15. Sk = 1 ∑S 1 i • the short-circuit power of elements in parallel is equal to the sum of the single short-circuit powers (as for the series of impedances). the distribution of the current between the different branches shall be calculated once the short-circuit current at the fault point has been calculated.55 10.5 155.2 41.9 26.2 690 [V] 3.5 488.4 57.6 162.29 6.20 2.8 168.5 2.2 41.8 228. is analogue to that relevant to the calculation of the equivalent admittance.2 119.3 690 [V] 3.55 10.2 93.0 13.3 18. Sk = ∑ S i The elements of the circuit are considered to be in series or parallel.8 171.9 34.5 44.0 230 [V] 0.0 198.8 355.40 8.07 2.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 0.60 2.52 4.2 36.6 69.8 14.8 29.0 120.52 4.4 179.07 2.5 144.4 146.8 10.60 2.6 7.1 30.0 40.5 65.6 47.7 62. If the length of the cable (Lact) is other than 10 m.26 8.9 56.7 280.74 26.0 210.73 1.73 26.4 308. In the case of different branches in parallel.8 148.0 16.9 4.6 7.6 13.4 120.5 65.5 103.8 21.40 8.7 163.44 3.

Electrical devices 1SDC010050F0001 . the contribution of the motors shall be taken into account. If appropriate. for circuit-breaker CB1. the worst condition occurs when the fault is right upstream of the circuit-breaker itself.Calculation of short-circuit current Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current Calculation of the short-circuit current To determine the short-circuit current in an installation. Fault right downstream of CB1 CB1 Fault CB2 CB3 Fault right upstream of CB1 (worst condition for CB1) Fault CB1 CB2 CB3 1SDC010051F0001 Once the short-circuit power equivalent at the fault point has been determined. For example. the short-circuit current can be calculated by using the following formula: Three-phase short-circuit Ik = Sk 3 ⋅ Ur Sk 2 ⋅ Ur 219 Two-phase short-circuit Ik = ABB SACE . both the fault point as well as the configuration of the system which maximize the short-circuit current involving the device shall be considered. in the case detailed below. To determine the breaking capacity of the circuit-breaker. the contribution of two transformers in parallel must be considered.

knowing the short-circuit power upstream of the object (SkUP). it is possible to evaluate the three phase short-circuit current downstream of an object with short-circuit power (SkEL) known. expressed in kA.Electrical devices .Calculation of short-circuit current Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current As a first approximation. by using the following graph. Figure 1: Chart for the calculation of the three phase short-circuit current at 400 V Ik [kA] 150 140 SkUP = 1000 MVA 130 120 110 SkEL 100 90 Ik 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 SkEL [MVA] SkUP = 50 MVA SkUP = 100 MVA SkUP = 250 MVA SkUP SkUP = ∞ SkUP = 750 MVA SkUP = 500 MVA SkUP = 40 MVA SkUP = 30 MVA 1SDC010052F0001 SkUP = 20 MVA SkUP = 10 MVA 220 ABB SACE . at 400 V. the value of Ik can be read on the y-axis. corresponding to this value.

ABB SACE .917 IrL= 1443. the worst condition arises when the fault occurs right downstream of the circuit-breaker itself.9 η = 0.76 MVA for the first 5-6 periods (at 50 Hz about 100 ms) Calculation of the short-circuit current for the selection of circuit-breakers Selection of CB1 For circuit-breaker CB1.6 cosϕr = 0. Example 1 Upstream network: Ur = 20000 V Sknet = 500 MVA Transformer: Sr = 1600 kVA uk% = 6% U1r / U2r =20000/400 Pr = 220 kW Ikmot/Ir = 6.9 M CB2 U A CB1 B 1SDC010053F0001 Motor: CB3 Generic load: L Calculation of the short-circuit power of different elements Network: Sknet= 500 MVA 100 ⋅ S r = 26.6.7 MVA uk % Transformer: S ktrafo = Motor: S rmot = Pr = 267 kVA η ⋅ cos ϕ r Skmot = 6.Calculation of short-circuit current Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current Examples: The following examples demonstrate the calculation of the short-circuit current in some different types of installation.4 A cosϕr= 0. which is remarkably smaller than the network contribution.Electrical devices 221 . In the case of a fault right upstream. the circuit-breaker would be involved only by the fault current flowing from the motor.Srmot = 1.

6 kA 3 ⋅ Ur The transformer LV side rated current is equal to 2309 A.5 kA 40 1SDC010054F0001 SkUP = 500 MVA 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 SkUP = 26.35 MVA S knet + S ktrafo the maximum fault current is: IkCB1 = S kCB1 = 36. According to the previous rules. it is possible to find IkCB1 from the curve with SkUP = Sknet = 500 MVA corresponding to SkEL = Sktrafo = 26. Using the chart shown in Figure 1. seen from the fault point.7 MVA: Ik [kA] 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 Ik = 36.7 MVA 100 SkEL [MVA] 222 ABB SACE . therefore the circuitbreaker to select is an Emax E3N 2500. is represented by the series of the network with the transformer.Calculation of short-circuit current Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current The circuit. the short-circuit power is determined by using the following formula: S kCB1 = S knet ⋅ S ktrafo = 25.Electrical devices .

the worst condition arises when the fault occurs right downstream of the circuit-breaker itself. IkCB1 = Selection of CB3 For CB3 too. the circuit-breaker to select is a SACE Isomax S7S 1600.Electrical devices 223 1SDC010055F0001 . The circuit. seen from the fault point. Load L2: Sr = 1000 kVA.9.9. the short circuit power is determined by using the following formula: Motor // (Network + Transformer) 1 S kCB3 = Skmot + = 27. The short-circuit current is the same used for CB1. According to the previous rules. the circuit-breaker to select is an Isomax S5H 400. cosϕ = 0. Load L3: Sr = 50 kVA. is represented by the series of the network with the transformer. is represented by two branches in parallel: the motor and the series of the network and transformer.Calculation of short-circuit current Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current Selection of CB2 For circuit-breaker CB2. cosϕ = 0.13 kA 3 ⋅ Ur The rated current of the load L is equal to 1443 A. the worst condition arises when the fault occurs right downstream of the circuit-breaker itself.6 kA 3 ⋅ Ur The rated current of the motor is equal to 385 A. L1 Trafo 1 CB1 Trafo 2 CB2 B CB3 CB4 CB5 L2 L3 ABB SACE . SkCB1 = 36. seen from the fault point. cosϕ = 0. The circuit. Example 2 The circuit shown in the diagram is constituted by the supply.11 MVA 1 1 + S knet Sktrafo IkCB3 = SkCB3 = 39. two transformers in parallel and three loads. or an Emax E2N1600.9. U A Upstream network: Ur1=20000 V Sknet = 500 MVA Transformers 1 and 2: Sr = 1600 kVA uk% = 6% U1r /U2r =20000/400 Load L1: Sr = 1500 kVA.

the circuit seen from the fault point. This current.56 kA The circuit-breakers to select. with reference to the rated current of the transformers. is distributed equally between the two branches (half each).2 MVA S knet + (Sktrafo1 + S ktrafo2 ) S kbusbar 3 ⋅ Ur S kbusbar = Ikbusbar = = 69.56 kA IkCB1(2) = Ikbusbar = 34.Electrical devices .7 MVA uk % Transformers 1 and 2 S ktrafo = Selection of CB1 (CB2) For circuit-breaker CB1 (CB2) the worst condition arises when the fault occurs right downstream of the circuit-breaker itself. The short-circuit current obtained in this way corresponds to the short-circuit current at the busbar.78 kA 2 The circuit-breakers CB1(CB2) to select. with reference to the current of the loads. S knet ⋅ (Srtrafo1 + S ktrafo2 ) = 48. According to the previous rules. is equivalent to the parallel of the two transformers in series with the network: Network + (Trafo 1 // Trafo 2). are: CB3: Emax E3S 2500 CB4: Emax E3S 1600 CB5: Tmax T2H 160 224 ABB SACE . are Emax E3N 2500. 100 = 26.Calculation of short-circuit current Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current Calculation of the short-circuit powers of different elements: Network Sknet = 500 MVA Sr . Therefore. Selection of CB3-CB4-CB5 For these circuit-breakers the worst condition arises when the fault occurs right downstream of the circuit-breakers themselves. the short-circuit current to be taken into account is that at the busbar: IkCB3 = Ikbusbar = 69. The current which flows through CB1 (CB2) is therefore equal to half of that at the busbar. given the symmetry of the circuit.

.4 2.6 2.9 4. Known values: .5 7.8 6.4 14 23 37 58 80 113 154 200 240 281 320 366 400 481 563 5.0 2.9 43 42 40 38 36 32 28 26 23 21 17 13 11 9.1 10 12 14 16 18 21 24 1.8 2.2 1.3 1.9 65 61 57 53 47 41 34 31 27 23 18 14 11 9.9 6.2 5.4 9 12 16 19 23 26 29 32 38 45 51 58 68 77 0.3 1.4 2.3 3.4 2 2.7 4 4.3 1.1 4 4.2 1.7 3.7 3.0 3.4 10 0.5 11 11 10 10 10 10 10 10 9.3 3.9 5.9 1.9 60 57 53 49 45 39 33 30 26 22 18 14 11 9.4 2.the three phase short-circuit current upstream of the cable.1 1.3 1.5 5.7 12 17 23 30 36 42 48 55 60 72 84 96 108 127 144 1 1.4 2.0 6.5 2.6 5.4 3.3 2.9 3 4.4 1.8 2.4 10 11 12 14 17 19 22 25 29 0.8 4.6 2.2 1.4 7.9 2.8 8 11 15 20 24 28 32 37 40 48 56 64 72 84 96 1.0 8.8 3.1 5.9 1.1 1.6 5.1 1.7 5.6 6.7 7.6 4.8 3.2 7.2 1.2 8.2 4.9 3. Cable section [mm2] 1.3 5.7 2.3 3.2 10 14 19 25 30 35 40 46 50 60 70 80 90 105 120 Ik upstream [kA] 100 96 90 86 80 77 70 68 60 58 50 49 40 39 35 34 30 30 25 25 20 20 15 15 12 12 10 10 8.5 3.9 4.0 3.9 2.8 2.7 3.6 2.5 2.8 14 21 35 56 87 121 170 231 300 360 422 480 549 7 12 19 28 47 75 116 161 226 308 400 481 9.9 ABB SACE .5 6.1 2.2 4.6 6.0 89 81 73 65 56 47 38 34 29 24 20 15 12 10 7.8 5.7 2.2 3.5 3.8 2 2.5 5.9 1.5 4.3 1.2 2.5 4.5 2.6 9.7 7.6 10 16 26 41 56 79 108 140 168 197 224 256 280 336 394 448 505 3.0 4.8 5.8 1.0 3.4 5.2 1.3 7.3 3.8 5.0 5.9 5.1 6.7 5.9 1.3 9.0 7.8 2.7 5.6 2.8 4.6 1.6 3.7 5.3 1.3 1.5 6.9 3.6 2.5 2.9 Ik downstream [kA] 36 31 27 24 35 31 27 24 34 30 27 24 33 29 26 23 31 28 25 23 29 26 23 21 26 24 22 20 24 22 20 19 22 20 19 18 19 18 17 16 16 15 15 14 13 12 12 12 11 10 10 10 8.2 1.4 7.1 1.4 7.9 4 5.0 2.2 8.0 2.9 1.5 6 7.7 2.4 7.8 2.8 4.2 3.7 20 20 20 19 19 18 17 16 16 14 13 11 9.0 85 78 71 63 55 46 38 33 29 24 19 15 12 10 7.4 10 11 13 14 1.9 9.2 5.4 3.1 0.7 7.2 8.9 1.6 7.4 1.3 8.2 4.1 5.1 3.8 2.8 5.9 3.2 8 10 11 13 15 16 19 23 26 29 34 38 1.7 2.8 7.4 3.7 2.2 1.7 4. of the threephase short-circuit current at a point in a 400 V network downstream of a single pole copper cable at a temperature of 20 °C.6 5.7 3.7 2.6 2.8 7.3 3 3.8 2.1 2.4 4.6 3.3 1.2 4.5 5.3 6.6 4.0 1.3 8 10 11 13 14 17 19 0.8 1.5 5.the length and cross section of the cable.6 6.2 1.6 1.9 1.7 2.8 2.1 6.5 2 2.0 4.5 4.8 9.6 13 13 13 13 12 12 12 11 11 11 10 8.7 3.8 9.8 2.Calculation of short-circuit current Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current Determination of the short-circuit current Ik downstream of a cable as a function of the upstream one The table below allows the determination.5 2.0 1.7 17 17 17 16 16 15 15 14 14 13 12 10 8.0 6.7 3.3 8.0 2.8 3.0 8.0 5.3 5.2 4.3 3.7 2.9 1.5 7.4 7.9 50 48 46 43 40 35 31 28 25 21 18 14 11 9.8 2.7 7.3 1.1 7.2 7 11 17 24 34 46 60 72 84 96 110 120 144 169 192 216 253 288 1.7 5.8 3.0 78 72 66 60 53 44 37 32 28 24 19 14 12 10 7.9 5.9 1.1 6.1 7.8 5.7 7 12 19 29 40 57 77 100 120 141 160 183 200 240 281 320 360 422 480 2.6 2.0 2.Electrical devices 225 .8 6.9 1.8 6.7 1.3 1.8 7.5 12 16 23 31 40 48 56 64 73 80 96 113 128 144 169 192 0.5 2.5 5.0 6.2 5.1 2.6 8.3 1.2 1.8 5 6 7 8 9.6 2.3 1.9 2.5 10 14 20 27 35 42 49 56 64 70 84 98 112 126 148 168 1.2 3.4 2.7 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 28 32 36 42 48 0.4 2.0 82 76 69 62 54 45 37 33 28 24 19 15 12 10 7.5 5.3 1.2 7.5 8.7 7.0 92 83 75 66 57 48 39 34 29 24 20 15 12 10 7.9 5.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 2x120 2x150 2x185 3x120 3x150 3x185 Length [m] 0.2 12 14 17 19 22 24 29 34 38 43 51 58 1.6 2.9 3.0 71 67 62 56 50 43 35 32 28 23 19 14 12 10 7.7 2.5 4.8 1.4 15 23 32 45 62 80 96 113 128 146 160 192 225 256 288 338 384 1.5 5.0 2.4 2. in a conservative way.3 7.3 3.8 1 1.4 5.8 5.4 2.9 1.6 4.1 7.4 2.0 2.6 6 7.7 6.8 8.5 3.4 5.9 2.2 3.3 14 20 28 38 50 60 70 80 91 100 120 141 160 180 211 240 1.6 7.9 3.4 16 25 38 63 100 155 216 303 413 14 24 38 56 94 150 233 324 455 0.1 2.

it is necessary to consider: the value right above Ik upstream. 226 ABB SACE . it is possible to find the column for a length equal to 29 m or right below (in this case 24). • In the case of cables in parallel not present in the table. Example Data Rated voltage = Cable section = Conductor = Length = Upstream shortcircuit current = 400 V 120 mm2 copper 29 m 32 kA 400 V Ik upstream = 32 kA QF A 120 mm2 L = 29 m Ik downstream = ? 1SDC010056F0001 Cu/PVC QF B QF C Procedure In the row corresponding to the cable cross section 120 mm2. From the intersection of this last row with the previously identified column. the value right below for the cable length. In the column of upstream short-circuit current it is possible to identify the row with a value of 32 kA or right above (in this case 35).Calculation of short-circuit current Annex C: Calculation of short-circuit current Note: • In the case of the Ik upstream and the length of the cable not being included in the table. the value of the downstream shortcircuit current can be read as being equal to 26 kA.Electrical devices . the length must be divided by the number of cables in parallel. These approximations allow calculations which favour safety.

θi B+θi ) (2) Table 1: Value of parameters for different materials Material Copper Aluminium Lead Steel B [°C] 234. k can be evaluated using the tables 2÷7 or calculated according to the formula (2): k= where: • Qc is the volumetric heat capacity of conductor material [J/°Cmm3] at 20 °C.241⋅10-6 28.Electrical devices 227 . • I is the value (r. √ Qc (B+20) ρ20 ln 1+ ( θf .s) of prospective fault current for a fault of negligible impedance. • ρ20 is the electrical resistivity of conductor material at 20 °C [Ωmm].45⋅10-3 3. it is possible to determine the conductor minimum section S.8⋅10-3 ρ20 [Ωmm] 17.5⋅10-3 1. Table 1 shows the values of the parameters described above. • t is the operating time of the protective device for automatic disconnection [s]. in the hypothesis that the generic conductor is submitted to an adiabatic heating from a known initial temperature up to a specific final temperature (applicable if the fault is removed in less than 5 s): S= √I t 2 k (1) where: • S is the cross section [mm2].Calculation for the cables Annex D: Calculation of the coefficient k for the cables (k2S2) By using the formula (1). • θf final temperature of conductor [°C].45⋅10-3 2. • θi initial temperature of conductor [°C].264⋅10-6 214⋅10-6 138⋅10-6 √ Qc (B+20) ρ20 226 148 41 78 ABB SACE . • B is the reciprocal of temperature coefficient of resistivity at 0 °C for the conductor [°C]. which can flow through the protective device [A].m.5 228 230 202 Qc [J/°Cmm3] 3.

Temperature limits for various types of insulation are given in IEC 60724.Electrical devices . 228 ABB SACE .Calculation for the cables Annex D: Calculation of the coefficient k for the cables (k2S2) Table 2: Values of k for phase conductor Conductor insulation PVC ≤ 300 mm2 70 160 115 76 115 a Initial temperature °C Final temperature °C Material of conductor: copper aluminium tin-soldered joints in copper conductors PVC ≤ 300 mm2 70 140 103 68 - EPR XLPE 90 250 143 94 - Rubber 60 °C 60 200 141 93 - Mineral PVC 70 160 115 Bare 105 250 135/115 a - This value shall be used for bare cables exposed to touch. Table 3: Values of k for insulated protective conductors not incorporated in cables and not bunched with other cables Temperature °C b Copper Conductor insulation 70 °C PVC 90 °C PVC 90 °C thermosetting 60 °C rubber 85 °C rubber Silicone rubber a Material of conductor Aluminium Value for k 95/88 a 95/88 a 116 105 110 133 Steel 52/49 a 52/49 a 64 58 60 73 Initial 30 30 30 30 30 30 Final 160/140 a 160/140 a 250 200 220 350 143/133 a 143/133 a 176 159 166 201 b The lower value applies to PVC insulated conductors of cross section greater than 300 mm2 . Table 4: Values of k for bare protective conductors in contact with cable covering but not bunched with other cables Temperature °C a Copper Cable covering PVC Polyethylene CSP a Material of conductor Aluminium Value for k 105 91 110 Steel 58 50 60 Initial 30 30 30 Final 200 150 220 159 138 166 Temperature limits for various types of insulation are given in IEC 60724.

Electrical devices 229 .. Table 6: Values of k for protective conductors as a metallic layer of a cable e. Temperature °C Copper Conductor insulation 70 °C PVC 90 °C PVC 90 °C thermosetting 60 °C rubber 85 °C rubber Mineral PVC covered a Mineral bare sheath a Material of conductor Aluminium Lead Value for k 93 85 85 95 93 26 23 23 26 26 Steel 51 46 46 52 51 - Initial 60 80 80 55 75 70 105 Final 200 200 200 200 220 200 250 141 128 128 144 140 135 135 This value shall also be used for bare conductors exposed to touch or in contact with combustible material.Calculation for the cables Annex D: Calculation of the coefficient k for the cables (k2S2) Table 5: Values of k for protective conductors as a core incorporated in a cable or bunched with other cables or insulated conductors Temperature °C b Copper Conductor insulation 70 °C PVC 90 °C PVC 90 °C thermosetting 60 °C rubber 85 °C rubber Silicone rubber a Material of conductor Aluminium Value for k 76/68 a 66/57 a 94 93 89 87 Steel 42/37 a 36/31 a 52 51 48 47 Initial 70 90 90 60 85 180 Final 160/140 a 160/140 a 250 200 220 350 115/103 a 100/86 a 143 141 134 132 b The lower value applies to PVC insulated conductors of cross section greater than 300 mm2 . concentric conductor. etc. Table 7: Value of k for bare conductors where there is no risk of damage to any neighbouring material by the temperature indicated Material of conductor Copper Aluminium Steel Maximum Maximum Maximum Initial temperature temperature temperature temperature k value °C k value °C k value °C °C 228 500 125 300 82 500 30 159 200 105 200 58 200 30 138 150 91 150 50 150 30 Conductor insulation Visible and in restricted area Normal conditions Fire risk ABB SACE . armour. Temperature limits for various types of insulation are given in IEC 60724.g. metallic sheath.

Electrical devices .Main physical quantities Annex E: Main physical quantities and electrotechnical formulas The International System of Units (SI) SI Base Units Quantity Length Mass Time Electric Current Thermodynamic Temperature Amount of Substance Luminous Intensity Symbol m kg s A K mol cd Unit name metre kilogram Second ampere kelvin mole candela Metric Prefixes for Multiples and Sub-multiples of Units Decimal power 1024 1021 1018 1015 1012 109 106 103 102 10 Prefix yotta zetta exa peta tera giga mega kilo etto deca Symbol Y Z E P T G M k h da Decimal power 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-6 10-9 10-12 10-15 10-18 10-21 10-24 Prefix deci centi milli mikro nano pico femto atto zepto yocto Symbol d c m µ n p f a z y 230 ABB SACE .

Main physical quantities Annex E: Main physical quantities and electrotechnical formulas Main quantities and SI units Quantity Symbol Name Length.2777 m/s 1 mile/h = 0.45359 kg 1°= 180 π .7 W T[K] = 273.4 mm i ft = 30.15 + T [°C] T[K] = 273. volume SI unit Symbol Name Other units Symbol Name in ft fathom mile sm yd a ha l UK pt UK gal US gal ° inch foot fathom mile sea mile yard are hectare litre pint gallon gallon degrees Conversion l length m metre A V area m2 square metre volume m3 cubic metre 1 in = 25.7855 dm3 Angles α.80665 N 1 Pa = 1 N/m2 1 bar = 105 Pa 1 J = 1 W⋅s = 1 N⋅m 1 Hp = 745.44 cm 1 a = 102 m2 1 ha = 104 m2 1 l = 1 dm3 = 10-3 m3 1 UK pt = 0. area.Electrical devices 231 . weight density specific volume moment of inertia duration frequency angular frequency speed rad sr kg kg/m3 m3/kg kg⋅m2 s Hz 1/s m/s radian steradian kilogram kilogram cubic metre for kilogram kilogram for square metre second Hertz reciprocal second metre per second km/h mile/h knot g acceleration m/s2 metre per second squared newton kgf p pressure/stress Pa J W K J J/K cd cd/m2 lm lux pascal bar W energy. work P power Temperature and heat T temperature joule watt kelvin joule joule per kelvin candela candela per square metre lumen Hp °C °F bar horsepower Celsius Fahrenheit 1 N = 1 kg⋅m/s2 1 kgf = 9. power F force N Q quantity of heat S entropy Photometric quantities I luminous intensity L luminance F luminous flux E illuminance 1 lm = 1 cd⋅sr 1 lux = 1 lm/m2 ABB SACE .8288 m 1 mile = 1609. β.5461 dm3 1 US gal = 3.48 cm 1 fathom = 6 ft = 1.5144 m/s Force. energy.5683 dm3 1 UK gal = 4.344 m 1 sm = 1852 m 1 yd = 91.15 + (5/9)⋅(T [°F]-32) kilometre per hour mile per hour kn lb pound 1 lb = 0. rad 1 Hz = 1/s ω = 2pf 1 km/h = 0.4470 m/s 1 kn = 0. γ Ω Mass m ρ υ M Time t f ω v plane angle solid angle mass.

8⋅10-3 4.43 0.016 0.5⋅10-4 2.067 0.9⋅10-3 4.5 16.5 10 to 6.81 23.Electrical devices .8⋅10-3 4.1⋅10-3 4⋅10-6 9.2⋅10-3 Aluminium Brass.15 0.33 62.0175 0. conductivity and temperature coefficient at 20 °C of the main electrical materials conductor conductivity resistivity ρ20 [mm2Ω/m] 0.023 0.0287 ≤ 0.2⋅10-4 2.50 0.84 ≥ 15 2 57.33 1.3⋅10-4 3.043 0.06 1 2.14 43.1 to 0.95⋅10-3 3.208 0. CuZn 40 Constantan Copper Gold Iron wire Lead Magnesium Manganin Mercury Ni Cr 8020 Nickeline Silver Zinc 232 ABB SACE .43 0.7 temperature coefficient α20 [K-1] 3.941 1 0.8⋅10-3 2⋅10-3 -3⋅10-4 3.26 2.Main physical quantities Annex E: Main physical quantities and electrotechnical formulas Main electrical and magnetic quantities and SI units Quantity Symbol I V R G X B Z Y P Q S Q E C H B L Name current voltage resistance conductance reactance susceptance impedance admittance active power reactive power apparent power electric charge SI unit Symbol Name A ampere V volt Ω ohm S siemens Ω S Ω S W var VA C ohm siemens ohm siemens watt reactive volt ampere volt ampere coulomb volt per metre farad ampere per metre tesla henry G gauss 1 F = 1 C/V 1 T = 1 V⋅s/m2 1 G = 10-4 T 1 H = 1 Ω⋅s Ah ampere/hour 1 C = 1 A⋅s 1 Ah = 3600 A⋅s Other units Symbol Conversion Name G = 1/R XL = ωL XC =-1/ωC BL = -1/ωL BC = ωC electric field V/m strength electric capacitance F magnetic field A/m magnetic induction T inductance H Resistivity values.06 χ20=1/ρ20 [m/mm2Ω] 34.5⋅10-3 3.7 4.

Electrical devices 233 .Electrotechnical formulas Annex E: Main physical quantities and electrotechnical formulas Main electrotechnical formulas Impedance resistance of a conductor at temperature ϑ Rθ=ρθ⋅ l S conductance of a conductor at temperature ϑ Gθ= 1 = χθ ⋅ S l Rθ resistivity of a conductor at temperature ϑ capacitive reactance inductive reactance impedance module impedance phase impedance conductance capacitive susceptance inductive susceptance admittance module admittance phase admittance ρϑ= ρ20 [1 + α20 (ϑ – 20)] 1 XC= -1 = .⋅ 2 ⋅π ⋅f ⋅C ω ⋅C XL= ω ⋅ L = 2 ⋅ π ⋅ f ⋅ L Z = R + jX Z = R2 + X2 ϕ = arctan R X G= 1 R BC= -1 = ω ⋅ C = 2 ⋅ π ⋅ f ⋅ C XC 1 BL= -1 = – 1 = – 2 ⋅π ⋅f ⋅L ω ⋅L XL Y = G – jB Y = G2 + B2 ϕ = arctan B G + Z jXL R R U – + Y jBC G U G B – + -jBL X + -jXC ABB SACE .

Electrotechnical formulas Annex E: Main physical quantities and electrotechnical formulas Indipendences in serie Z = Z 1 + Z2 + Z3 + … Admittances in serie 1 Y= 1 1 1 + + +… Y1 Y2 Y 3 Indipendences in parallel Z= 1 1 1 1 + + +… Z1 Z2 Z3 Z1 Z2 Z3 Z1 Z2 Z3 Y1 Y2 Y3 Admittances in serie Y = Y1 + Y 2 + Y 3 + … Y1 Y2 Y3 Delta-star and star-delta transformations 1 Z1 Z13 Z3 0 Z2 Z12 3 Z23 Y→∆ Z12 = Z1 + Z2 + Z 1 ⋅ Z2 Z3 Z 2 ⋅ Z3 Z1 Z 3 ⋅ Z1 Z2 ∆→Y 2 Z1 = Z12 ⋅ Z13 Z12 + Z13 + Z23 Z12 ⋅ Z23 Z12 + Z13 + Z23 Z23 ⋅ Z13 Z12 + Z13 + Z23 Z23 = Z2 + Z3 + Z2 = Z3 = Z13 = Z3 + Z1 + 234 ABB SACE .Electrical devices .

Electrotechnical formulas Annex E: Main physical quantities and electrotechnical formulas Transformers Two-winding transformer rated current short-circuit power short-circuit current longitudinal impedance longitudinal resistance longitudinal reactance Ir = Sk = Ik = ZT = RT = XT = Sr 3 ⋅ Ur Sr uk% Sk 3 ⋅ Ur uk% 100 pk% 100 ⋅ 100 = ⋅ ⋅ Ir ⋅ 100 uk% Sr u% U2r = k ⋅ 100 3 ⋅ I2r Sr U2r Sr p% = k ⋅ 100 3 ⋅ I2r Sr 2 2 ZT – RT Three-winding transformer 1 Z1 Z3 3 Z12 = u12 100 u13 100 u23 100 ⋅ Ur2 Sr12 Ur2 Sr13 Ur2 Sr23 2 Z1 = 1 2 1 2 1 2 Z2 (Z12 + Z13 – Z23) Z13 = ⋅ Z2 = (Z12 + Z23 – Z13) Z23 = ⋅ Z3 = (Z13 + Z23 – Z12) ABB SACE .Electrical devices 235 .

Electrical devices .Electrotechnical formulas Annex E: Main physical quantities and electrotechnical formulas Voltage drop and power single-phase voltage drop perceutage voltage drop active power reactive power apparent power power factor power loss ∆U = 2 ⋅ I ⋅ l ⋅ (r ⋅ cosϕ x ⋅ sinϕ) ∆u = ∆U Ur ⋅ 100 three-phase ∆U = 3 ⋅ I ⋅ l ⋅ (r ⋅ cosϕ x ⋅ sinϕ) ∆u = ∆U Ur ⋅ 100 continuous ∆U = 2 ⋅ I ⋅ l ⋅ r ∆u = ∆U Ur ⋅ 100 P = U ⋅ I ⋅ cosϕ Q = U ⋅ I ⋅ sinϕ S=U⋅I= P +Q cosϕ = P S 2 2 P = 3 ⋅ U ⋅ I ⋅ cosϕ Q = 3 ⋅ U ⋅ I ⋅ sinϕ S= 3⋅U⋅I= P +Q cosϕ = P S 2 2 P= U⋅I – – – ∆P = 2 ⋅ l ⋅ r ⋅ I2 ∆P = 2 ⋅ l ⋅ r ⋅ I2 ∆P = 3 ⋅ l ⋅ r ⋅ I2 Caption ρ20 resistivity at 20 °C l total length of conductor S cross section of conductor α20 temperature coefficient of conductor at 20 °C θ temperature of conductor ρθ resistivity against the conductor temperature ω angular frequency f frequency r resistance of conductor per length unit x reactance of conductor per length unit uk% short-circuit percentage voltage of the transformer Sr rated apparent power of the transformer Ur rated voltage of the transformer pk% percentage impedance losses of the transformer under short-circuit conditions 236 ABB SACE .

Breakers Via Baioni.395. 35 24123 Bergamo .111 .Due to possible developments of standards as well as of materials.A.395.Telefax: +39 035.com 1SDC010001D0202 Printed in Italy 02/04 . ABB SACE S. An ABB Group Company L.p. the characteristics and dimensions specified in this document may only be considered binding after confirmation by ABB SACE.abb.Italy Tel.306-433 http://www.: +39 035.V.

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