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RHEL Tuning Guide

RHEL Tuning Guide

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Published by: chasitb on May 28, 2012
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A

active dirty pages
definition, 27
active pages
definition, 27

Apache

alternativesfor static content, 53
compiling for your environment, 52
configuring for benchmark scores, 52
connection refused errors, 53
increasing file handles for, 53
proxy usage, 54
tuning, 52
applicationtuning
resources, 101
autobench

web server benchmarking utility, 8

B

batch server
tuning scenario, 41

bdflush

overview, 29
setting for server operation, 44
benchmarking utilities, 7
block reads/writes
measuring, 7

Boa

web server, 54

bonnie

benchmarking utility, 7
buddy allocator
definition, 23
bus capacity
and Ethernet cards, 4

C

character reads/writes
measuring, 7
compute server
tuning scenario, 41
core-dump analysis tool
JFormat, 92

CPUs

maximum number of, 57

D

data access time
by type, 34

dbench

benchmarking utility, 12
dcache_priority
overview, 29
Developer’sSuite
hardware prerequisites, 59
disk fragmentation,37
disk I/O

access speed, 34
benchmarking with dbench, 12
benchmarking with dt, 12
benchmarking with tiobench, 12
disk I/O elevators
tuning, 45
disk monitoring utilities, 12
disk tuning, 35
disk writes
reducing, 53
dkftpbench
ftp benchmarking utility, 8
system monitoring utility, 11

dklimits

benchmarking utility, 8
system monitoring utility, 11

DMA

definition, 24
drive performance
partition position affects, 40
driver performance
testing with bonnie, 7
dt (data test)
disk I/O benchmarking utility, 12

E

ElectricFence
measures memory usage, 17

elvtune

tuning disk I/O elevatorswith, 45
Ethernet cards
and bus capacity, 4
Ethernet channel bonding, 47
Ethernet rate
typical values, 4
evidence-basedanalysis
steps required for, 2
ext2 file system
tuning, 38
ext3 file system
tuning, 38

104

F

file descriptor
unable to open, 46
file descriptor limits
tuning, 46
file handles
increasing, 53
file server
tuning scenario, 41
file system
tuning, 38
file system fragmentation,37
free

memory monitoring utility, 13

free pages
definition, 27
ftp benchmarking
with dkftpbench, 8

G

GFS (Global File System), 40
Global File System (GFS), 40
gprof

graphs applicationtime usage, 16
indicates applicationtime usage, 16

H

hardware
limits, 57
hardware RAID
adding, 59
level definitions, 60
heapdump
diagnostic tool, 92
HIGHMEM
definition, 24

hoard

allocator for multiprocessors, 16
httpd processes
increasing backlog, 53

httperf

web server benchmarking utility, 8

http_load

http benchmarking utility, 8
hugetlb_pool
overview, 30

I

inactiveclean pages
definition, 28

inactivelaundered pages
definition, 28
inactive_clean_percent
specifies percentage of clean pages, 30

iostat

disk monitoring utility, 12
monitoring utility, 45

IOzone

disk I/O benchmarking utility, 12

ipcs

kernel monitoring utility, 12
IRQ binding
and high-throughput installation,1

iSCSI

not currently supported, 36

J

Java

tuning, 51
java diagnostic tool
heapdump, 92
javadump, 91
javadump
diagnostic tool, 91

JFormat

core-dump analysis tool, 92
examining core dump with, 92

JProbe Suite
and Java tuning, 51

K

kernel threads
overview, 25
kernel tuning, 42

kernel tuning tool, 42
kernel-tuning utilities
sysctl, 43
kswapd

not used in RHEL 3, 30

kupdated

flushing pages with, 43

105

L

LD_ASSUME_KERNEL
overview, 25
libhoard

allocator for multiprocessors, 16

Linux

tuning resources, 101
ListenBacklog
increasing, 53
LMbench

TCP benchmarking utility, 7

ltrace

lists shared library routines executed, 17

M

mathopd
web server, 54
max-readahead
affects the Virtual File System, 30
max_map_count
restricts VMAs, 30
md (multiple-device)
creating, 39
Memory Management Unit
enables the Virtual Memory system, 22
memory monitoring utilities, 13
memory problems in applications
overview, 63

metrics

choosing appropriate, 3
min-readahead
affects the Virtual File System, 31

mod_perl

tuning resources, 101
mod_proxy
resources, 102

mprof

measures memory usage, 15

mudflap

adding more tracing, 68
heuristics, 70
introspection, 70
overview, 67
reading the error report, 71
runtime options, 67
tuning, 70
using, 67
violation handling, 68
multithreadedprograms
improving with hoard, 16

N

net.ipv4.tcp_syn_retriesparameter,51
NetPerf

network monitoring utility, 15

NetPIPE

network monitoring utility, 16

netstat

network monitoring utility, 15
network interface cards
Ethernet channel bonding, 47
tuning, 47
network monitoring utilities, 15
network stack
definition, 26

NFS

tuning, 50
tuning buffer sizes, 50
tuning NFS over UDP, 51
tuning resources, 101
nfsd threads

controlled by RPCNFSDCOUNT, 50

noatime

reducing disk writes with, 53
NORMAL memory
definition, 24

NPTL

tools for, 18
NPTL Test and Trace Project, 18
NPTL threading library
affects performance, 25
NPTL Trace Tool, 18

O

O/S version
affects performance, 57
OpenLDAP
tuning, 55
OProfile

cautions about, 85
collects data on executables, 16
configuring, 77
Eclipse plug-in
configuring oprofiled, 85
data analysis, 87
installing, 75
overview, 75
resources, 102
using, 78
Optimizeit
and Java tuning, 51
overcommit_memory
affects the Virtual File System, 31
overcommit_ratio
affects the Virtual File System, 31

106

P

packet loss
tuning for, 51
page-cluster
avoid excessive disk seeks, 32

pagecache

affects the Virtual File System, 31
parameter definitions, 31
setting with vm.pagecache,41

pages

overview, 26
partition position
affects drive performance, 40

pchar

network monitoring utility, 16

pdflush

flushing pages with, 43
performance

affected by NPTL threading library, 25
affected by O/S version, 57
establishing goals, 1
performance tuning
risks, 5
performance tuning tools
benchmarking utilities, 7
PerformanceAnalysisScript.sh
benchmarking utility, 11, 97

pmap

memory monitoring utility, 14

porting

may reveal applicationlimits, 3
proc file system
tunes Virtual Memory system, 28

proxy usage
and dynamic web content, 54

ps

example, 91
system monitoring utility, 10
using, 34

pstree

utility, 10

ptys

can limit server performance, 35

R

RAID level definitions, 60
RAM

access speed, 34
Developer’s Suite prerequisite amount, 59
increase to avoid swapping, 52
maximum amount of, 57
random seeks
measuring, 8
read-ahead, 37

readprofile

kernel monitoring utility, 12
Red Hat Global File System (GFS), 40
rewrites

measuring, 7
RPCNFSDCOUNT
controls nfsd threads, 50

S

Samba

and IRQ binding, 1
reducing disk writes with noatime, 53
tuning, 54
tuning resources, 102
using with a RAID, 61

sar

memory monitoring utility, 5, 14
monitoring utility, 3
reports memory usage, 14
SCSI tuning, 36
benchmarking with dt, 12
segmentationviolation
definition, 23
shared memory
tuning resources, 101
slab allocator
definition, 24
SMP systems
and IRQ binding, 1
enabling pagetable caches, 35
have OProfile enabled, 75
software RAID, 39
(See Also hardware RAID)
creating, 39
level definitions, 60
tuning, 40

sprof

profiles a shared library, 16
standard C library
uses VM system, 26
static content web servers, 53
stress the network and RAM, 52

strace

kernel monitoring utility, 11
swapped out
definition, 23
swapping
avoiding, 34
improving performance of, 34
monitor with PerformanceAnalysisScript.sh,3
monitoring with vmstat, 9
sar reports, 14
tuning parametersthat affect, 35
swap_cluster

107

controls swap attempts, 35

sysctl

monitoring utility, 43
tunes Virtual Memory system, 28

sysctl.conf

tunes Virtual Memory system, 28

sysstat

performance monitoring tools, 101
system monitoring utilities, 9
system tuning
overview, 33

T

TCP

tuning, 49
tuning resources, 101

thttpd

web server, 54
tiobench

disk I/O benchmarkingutility, 12

top

system monitoring utility, 11
system tuning with, 33
translation look-aside buffer (TLB)
caches virtual address translations, 30

tries_base

increases swap bandwidth, 35

tries_min

controls swap attempts, 35

TTCP

network monitoring utility, 15

ttys

can limit server performance, 35

TUX

web server, 54

U

ulimit

sets user file descriptor limits, 46

uptime

system monitoring utility, 9

V

valgrind

limitations, 65
overview, 64
processing options, 65
reading the error report, 66
recompiling applicationsfor, 65
running, 65
using, 63

virtual file system
definition, 26
virtual memory
tuning resources, 101
Virtual Memory system
components, 21
introduction, 21
MMU, 22
overview, 21
tuning, 28
tuning scenarios, 41
virtual-to-physicalmemory translation
overview, 22

vmstat

disk I/O monitoring utility, 13
interpreting results, 4
sample results, 9
system monitoring utility, 9

vtad

system monitoring utility, 11

W

watch

with ps benchmarking utility, 10
web server benchmarking
with autobench, 8
with httperf, 8
with http_load, 8
with WebStone, 9
web servers
Boa, 54
mathopd, 54
reducing disk writes with noatime, 53
static content servers, 53
thttpd, 54
TUX, 54
WebStone

web server benchmarking utility, 9

X

xload

system monitoring utility, 9

Z

zoned buddy allocator
definition, 23

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