Design and Application Manual



6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4

Introduction Design Parameters Operating Method Selection

© Copyright 1999 Pipeline Engineering & Supply Co Ltd

Page 1

Section 6

Declined. pig traps allow pigs to be inserted into and removed from a pipeline which is to undergo a pigging program and which is likely to be under pressure. Universal Traps. h. giving a clue to its intended purpose: Vertical. For large diameter pipelines this results in pig traps up to 56” (nominal pipeline diameter) weighing many tonnes and represent a significant capital investment. referred to by different names some of which may be no more than alternatives and some which more accurately describe the trap’s function. Horizontal. Inclined.Design and Application Manual PIG TRAPS INTRODUCTION 6. If a pipeline is to be pigged. launching and receiving facilities (pig traps) must be provided. Pipeline Engineering’s technical engineers have many years of experience in pig trap design and are fully conversant with all the major design codes and make full use of state-of-the-art CAD facilities. Temporary. Scraper Barrels.1 INTRODUCTION As part of a complete pigging system. Key a. b. g. Receivers. both in its equipment and its staff Entrusting the design of these systems to non-specialists armed with a few proprietary catalogues is a short-sighted and all too frequent shortlived economy. i. Sphere Traps. Bi-Directional Traps. Popular alternatives are: Launchers. The name may also describe the orientation of the trap. Trap Types & Orientation type of equipment requires the scope and experience to do so and must possess excellent engineering resources. and frequently are. Any company that manufactures this Fig 2. c. Scraper Traps. e. Pressure Gauge Vent Pressure Relief Drain Pig Signaller Kicker Valve (Launcher) Bypass Valve (Receiver) Mainline Bypass Valve Mainline Trap Valve Quick Release Closure Fig 1. f. Typical Trap Configuration (Horizontal Launcher/Receiver) Pig traps can be. d. All welders are fully qualified to both American and British welding codes while the Inspection and Quality Assurance systems ensure control at every stage of the manufacturing process from order to delivery. © Copyright 1999 Pipeline Engineering & Supply Co Ltd Page 2 Section 6 .

b) Although the definitions are simple. supports and earthing lugs © Copyright 1999 Pipeline Engineering & Supply Co Ltd Page 3 Section 6 . or out of.Design and Application Manual PIG TRAPS 6. or is associated with. IV. A reducer – normally eccentric on a launcher. VI. Provides a means by which this access can be closed between the surroundings and full pressure capability of the pipeline. release. convenience and safety. pressure and/or mechanical movement to give the pigs a positive driving force into or out of the pipeline. referred to as the Barrel. the pipeline. pressure indicator. A major diameter section. II. III. A minor diameter section corresponding to the line pipe size and referred to as the Neck Pipe. a means of controlling flow. concentric on receiver. Includes. What does a Pig Trap comprise of – simplistically: I. V. Various nozzles such as vent. in reality it is quite different because a Pig Trap is a vessel that:• • • • • • • • Gives access to or from a pipeline.1 DESCRIPTION AND PURPOSE a) What is a Pig Trap? A simple definition is – a piece of pipeline equipment that allows easy loading or unloading of a pig into. from the pipeline and its associated systems. Provides a means of converting the pig from its free expanded state into its compressed travelling state. or bypass. What is its purpose? To provide in a safe manner and without flow interruption the means to either insert and launch a pig into the pipeline or receive and retrieve a pig from a pipeline. equalising and pig signaller Lifting lugs. Has properly engineered safe and practical provisions for connecting to the pipeline. Is properly supported in a way which will neither impose excessive strains on the pipeline nor will accept more force than it is safe. drain. or desirable.1. Provides for the access to be opened or closed with speed. Provides and internal holding or storage position in which pigs may rest until the desired travel movement is achieved or after travel is terminated. kicker. A quick opening closure or blanked flanged end.

4. 5. A short minor diameter pipe section. often referred to as the NECK PIPE A REDUCER.2 FUNCTION AND CONSTRUCTION Figures 3a and 3b show typical components found in most types of trap and which include: 1. This may be eccentric or concentric A longer major diameter pipe section. 3. 2. often referred to as the BARREL NOZZLES.1. Horizontal Pig Launcher Fig 3b. SUPPORTS and LIFTING LUGS An END CLOSURE or a blanked. Horizontal Pig Receiver © Copyright 1999 Pipeline Engineering & Supply Co Ltd Page 4 Section 6 . removable flange Fig 3a.Design and Application Manual PIG TRAPS 6.

the designer must ensure all appropriate loadings and conditions are addressed to produce a safe working design. Blast and Seismic loadings Ice and Snow loadings Inspection and Welding requirements Transportation loads Design Codes can be any of the National or International standards. © Copyright 1999 Pipeline Engineering & Supply Co Ltd Page 5 Section 6 . ASME VIII. 8. BS 8010. Stoomwezen (Dutch). resulting in a trap design which must meet pressure vessel codes such as ASME VIII or BS 5500. Design Code. However. Pressure and Temperature Materials and Certification requirements External loadings from pipework or external pressure (e. sub-sea) Cyclic requirements and nozzle reinforcements Support and lifting lug design Wind. as such. pressure vessel design parameters must apply. pig traps must be capable of retaining line pressure whilst allowing pigs to be launched and received. 5. As the code states that the nozzle should not exceed one third of the ‘run’ size some form of compromise is required. Basic Design Parameters cover the following aspects of pig trap design: 1.g. BS 4515. It is the type of pigs to be used which determine the overall trap dimensions.Design and Application Manual PIG TRAPS DESIGN PARAMETERS 6. Metal bodied intelligent pigs are both heavy and long and must be considered along with the internal pressure requirements when designing supports.2 DESIGN PARAMETERS We have already said that pig traps are pressure vessels and. 2. Whichever approach is used. Pig traps are designed and manufactured within the limits set by the Design Parameters. One frequent example is that of a trap having a design code of BS 5500 with a requirement for a full line size kicker connection. AD Merkblatte or DIN Standards (Germany). 9.3/4 or 8. 2. In this case a full or reducing tee – designed to one of the major pipeline codes – is often acceptable. the design pressure of the trap should never be less than that of the pipeline. 6. unlike pressure vessels that contain only fluids. Basic design parameters Functional design parameters There are instances where the requirements of the basic and functional design parameters are not compatible and a compromise must be reached. Pressures can be client specific or based upon the ASME/ANSI Pressure/Temperature ratings. in which case the trap is treated as part of the pipeline or there may be a specification ‘break’ between the pipeline and trap. ANSI B31. Trap design must also satisfy applicable codes. 4. However. lifting lugs and assessing foundation loadings. 7. These may be piping codes. These are: 1. 3. such as: BS 5500.

In the case of material traceability.25 times the design pressure. Pressure Testing: • • Hydrostatic – upon completion. toxic or corrosive. However. certificates verified by an independent third party inspection authority may be required. This will influence the selection of not only the metallic elements. including operators of automatic welding equipment. typically. Materials are often specified by the client.1. This approach ensures that the most suitable. should be examined by radiographic methods.3. Welds that cannot easily be radiographed should be examined ultrasonically or by magnetic particle inspection. Certification can apply to just materials or extend as far as the manufacturing and design appraisal.5 times the maximum working pressure should not be allowed to exceed wither intentionally or accidentally to the degree that the vessel is subjected to visible. start-up or shut-down. NDE/NDT (Non-Destructive Examination. in which case they are issued in accordance with BS EN 10204. wall thickness and material grade. Welding should conform to procedures in accordance with the design code used for the trap whilst all welders. each vessel should be subject to a hydrostatic test pressure at least equal to 1. cost effective and readily available materials are always selected. usually appointed by the end client. the line product must always be specified and whether it is ‘sour’. with the scope of inspection being against an agreed quality control/inspection plan. © Copyright 1999 Pipeline Engineering & Supply Co Ltd Page 6 Section 6 . All completed welds should be examined by a qualified weld inspector. this is carried out by an independent third party inspection authority. any pressure above 1. where practical. Where certification is to cover manufacture and design appraisal. however. • • • For materials only – this is usually limited to a certificate showing the chemical and mechanical properties of the materials being used and issued by the suppliers.Design and Application Manual PIG TRAPS Temperature is also client specific but it should be remembered that the maximum design temperature should not be less than the maximum temperature which the pig trap system could attain. it is better to allow the manufacturers of the pig trap to select the trap materials. Finally.C. constitute the sealing elements. particularly with regard to its weldability. Generally there is no upper limit for the hydrostatic test pressure. but of the elastomeric materials which. or to which it could be exposed during operation. also known as Non-Destructive Testing) requires that all circumferential and longitudinal butt weld. should be qualified in the procedures used. All components in sour service should be resistant to HIC (Hydrogen Induced Cracking) and conform to NACE specifications. all materials should be compatible with its mating material. permanent distortion. To aid the selection process.

should form a data dossier for presentation to the client with the completed vessel. For receivers.5 x pig length. available space. measured from the kicker connection to the reducer weld. However. For multiple sphere launchers or receivers. The barrel comprises the major diameter section of the trap. Fig 5. flaps or valves).5 x pig length. other client specified documents and “as built” drawings. in detail. Recommended angles for Inclined/declined traps The barrel is also equipped with a reducer that is either concentric or eccentric. for launchers deploying conventional pigs. trap barrels have been inclined at angles anywhere between10° and 45°. is fitted to horizontal traps. along with a mechanism for releasing the spheres (e.g. Barrel length is dependent on operating procedures. It is usually equipped with a quick opening end closure or. examinations and inspection reports. it is recommended that the diameter of the barrel is at least 4” larger than that of the line pipe. service. together with weld procedures. the recommended length of the barrel should be 1. for intelligent pigs. It is strongly recommended that special precautions be taken when air or gas is used for test purposes. 1. Functional Design Parameters can be explained most effectively by describing. depending upon the client’s preference. this dimension is measured from the kicker connection to the closure weld. fingers. barrel length should be decided only after consultation with the pig manufacturer. When deploying intelligent pigs. However. Pipeline Engineering recommend that barrels be inclined between 2° and 5°. the diameter of the barrel is generally 2” larger than the diameter of the line pipe whilst. Data Dossiers: Copies of all certificates. Types of Reducer © Copyright 1999 Pipeline Engineering & Supply Co Ltd Page 7 Section 6 . However. a blind flange. 2°-5° Fig 4. each of the trap components. or basket. designed to be oversize so that the pigs can be easily loaded and unloaded. an eccentric reducer allows pigs to be loaded more easily and is recommended for horizontal traps whilst a concentric reducer is preferred for vertical traps or when an internal tray. again. inclined or declined trap barrels should be considered. Historically. the recommended barrel length is. pig type. etc.Design and Application Manual PIG TRAPS • Pneumatic Test – Some codes allow for the vessels to be pneumatically tested in lieu of hydrostatic testing. For conventional pigs. it should be noted that AIR or GAS is highly hazardous when used as a testing medium. However. for temporary traps. However.

Design and Application Manual PIG TRAPS Neck Pipe is the minor diameter section of the pig trap and is usually only between 500 and 1000mm in length (with the exception of intelligent pig receivers where it may be as long as 4 meters) and is positioned between the reducer and the pig trap valve. the diameter of the kicker nozzle should not exceed 25% of the main line pipe diameter. during pressurisation. Drain connections should be provided near the end closure for horizontal launchers and near the pig trap valve for vertical launchers. The bypass is the off-take after the trap valve on the main pipeline. kicker connections are attached to the barrel near the closure end whilst for receivers. © Copyright 1999 Pipeline Engineering & Supply Co Ltd Page 8 Section 6 . Nozzles is the collective term for the connections from the trap to its associated piping system. Pipeline Engineering defines the kicker nozzle as the off-take on the trap barrel which connects the barrel to the bypass line pipe. Universal and Bi-directional traps incorporate a single connection located midway along the barrel. Ideally. or twin connections with one connection in the launch position and the other in the receive position. For receivers on liquid or gas lines where liquids could be present. prevents contact between the steel nose of the pig and the trap valve. Kicker connections should not be positioned at the 6 o’clock position. On simple traps there are normally only 3 nozzles: • • • Kicker Drain Vent On more complex traps. For launchers. the connection is made near the reducer end. For traps above 14” ns the diameter should be 4”. This prevents the drains being blocked by the spheres. For traps above 24”. historically this position causes most damage to pigs. a drain point should be provided near the trap valve. additional nozzles are incorporated for: • • • • Blowdown Balance lines Pressurising lines Thermal relief valves The kicker nozzle is usually the largest nozzle on a trap and is often referred to as the ‘bypass’ or ‘bridle’. For receivers that are sloped for the use of spheres. which may be damaged if struck by a pig under sufficient pressure. the diameter of the drain nozzle should be 2”. connections to the pipeline system are usually welded. two drain points may be located together near the end closure but should be separated by half a sphere diameter. the neck pipe is usually attached to the pipeline system by a flanged connection. the neck pipe usually incorporates a pig signaller. For traps up to and including 14”ns (nominal diameter of the pipeline). the neck pipe provides head space for the pig and. For traps up to and including 24” line size. For receiving traps. On launchers.

Pressurising Lines may be required around kicker valves for several reasons: • • • Speed of operation Control of barrel pressurisation To avoid damage to the kicker valve seats or other internals Pressurising lines around bypass valves should also be considered to equalise possible high pressure differentials. They should be designed to carry the weight of the pig trap system filled with water (or other fluid if their density is greater). Thermal Relief Valve connections can be provided at locations where the anticipated shut-in pressure of trapped fluid could exceed the design pressure. and possibly damaging. consideration should be given to the provision of a blowdown line incorporating a globe valve or restriction orifice for controlled depressurisation. Gauge dial to be 4” or 6” size. the trap valve or moving backwards and losing the seal in the reducer. Where cathodic protection isolation joints are used. Lifting Lugs are designed to facilitate the lifting of the complete trap during installation stage. On high pressure gas systems. © Copyright 1999 Pipeline Engineering & Supply Co Ltd Page 9 Section 6 . as the name suggests.Design and Application Manual PIG TRAPS Vent connections should be provided near the closure end or highest point. they are not proof tested. Balance line connections are approximately 2” in diameter. Size should be in the region of ½” to 1”. Where isolation joints are not used the supports may need to be electrically isolated. Other supports may be fixed if the design calculations indicate that sufficient flexibility is incorporated in the pipework to compensate for any axial and transverse movements. Size should not exceed 2” ns. Unless specifically requested. May be incorporated with the vent connection. This prevents a pig moving forward from the launch position hitting. the supports should allow sufficient movement to avoid stressing of the joint above its design limits. should permanently support and restrain the Pig Trap. A further connection may be considered near the trap neck end flange to ensure depressurisation behind the pig in the event of it becoming stuck in the neck pipe. Balance Lines can be provided on launchers to enable the barrel to be filled and pressurised on both sides of the pig at the same time. Other items that may be fitted to the Pig Traps: Supports. Pressure Indicator (Pressure Gauge) should be fitted towards the closure end and visible to the operator. For receivers. Supports under the barrel should normally be of the sliding type to compensate for expansion of the unrestrained part of the pipeline. Blowdown. together with the weight of the associated heaviest pig. Pressurising line connections are usually smaller than balancing line diameters. Size of vent connections should not be less that ½” ns. balance lines will prevent any possible pressure differential across the pig and should always be considered for inclusion.

Static is a seriously under-estimated yet ever present hazard. which provide quick and easy access to the barrel when open and which seal the barrel when closed. to relax back into equilibrium. including removable parts and assemblies. can impose. Fingers and flaps can also be used in traps intended for conventional and intelligent pigs. Pig Signallers (also known as Pig/Scraper Detectors) are devices set on or into the pipeline which indicate the momentary presence of a pig at a precise location. it is common to fit a single finger to prevent the sphere from rolling onto the operator as the closure door is opened. the signaller should be positioned on the neck pipe and separated from the pig trap valve by a distance that is equal to the length of the longest pig. Signallers should be installed on both sides of the trap valve. © Copyright 1999 Pipeline Engineering & Supply Co Ltd Page 10 Section 6 . Yet an undischarged build-up of electrostatic can take hours. along with a system of interlocks sequencing the operation of the various valves and end closures. Fig 6. even days. it tends to be ignored. Sphere Release Mechanisms may involve any of the following: • • • Mechanical fingers Flaps Valves Mechanical Fingers are the most popular but are not really practical for use with traps in which the spheres exceed 20”ns. is designed to ensure the safety of personnel operating the trap. On rotation back through 180 degrees the valve is reloaded. For launchers. A sphere enters the valve and on rotation through 180 degrees the sphere drops out to roll and engage with an inclined tee for pick up by the product flow. weighing up to 500 kilos. For receivers. End Closures are fittings. resulting in a potentially lethal workplace. For declined receivers. All closures should be fitted with a vent/safety bleed device that forms part of the door locking mechanism and which. at a predetermined rate. by sequencing the operation of the fingers or flaps. Being invisible to the naked eye. the signaller should be sited on the main pipeline and separated from the pig trap valve by a distance that is at least the length of the longest pig. Sphere Valves are basically ball valves where the hole in the ball does not go all the way through. Above this diameter it is more practical to use flaps which are designed to absorb the high loads that a large sphere. the resulting spark may easily act as the ignition source for an explosion. Sphere Release Fingers It is normal to fit two fingers or flaps to launchers so that multiple spheres can be loaded into the barrel after which single spheres can then be launched.Design and Application Manual PIG TRAPS Earthing Lugs are designed to help prevent the build-up of static electricity. If the accumulated static is suddenly discharged within a hazardous atmosphere.

For positive launching. This will minimise any damage resulting from the unlikely event of a pig being ejected from the trap whilst under pressure. the pig is inserted into the reducer by a winch-operated pusher mechanism on the cradle bench. Naturally this method is both costly and bulky. benches and vehicles. With the correct equipment. These are related to: • • Layout Ancillary Facilities Layout involves the siting of pig trap systems and the possible adverse environmental effects that could result during construction and operation. At the receiving trap the pig is attached by cable to the winch and withdrawn onto the cradle bench. Handling equipment should always be designed as an integral part of trap installations.Design and Application Manual PIG TRAPS If pigging facilities are required then consideration had to be given to providing vertical launcher for the pigs with the sphere valve and its storage magazine forming an angled branch into this. offer a solution to the problem of limited space on offshore platforms. © Copyright 1999 Pipeline Engineering & Supply Co Ltd Page 11 Section 6 . to the launcher for re-loading. all traps can be served by a single mobile handling system. The free-standing jib crane is used for hoisting and positioning of pigs. On multiple trap installations. free of the danger and dirty conditions usually associated with manual operations and the largest pigs and spheres can be correctly and safely handled into. Typical arrangements are as follows: • • • Davit and Bench Cassettes Cradles Davit and Bench refers to a manually operated system consisting of a cradle bench with a winch and a free-standing swing jib crane. Pig traps should also be sited so that the end closures are pointing away from personnel areas and critical items of equipment. their traps. Other factors also influence pig trap design. The cassette is loaded into the launching trap from where the pig or spheres can then be launched at a pre-determined rate. The cradle bench can be either trolley mounted or suitable for fixing to the floor next to the end closure door. At the receiving trap the loaded cassette is removed and the complete unit can again be transferred. Cassettes. after inspection. also known as magazines. and out of. Ancillary Facilities generally refer to pig handling equipment and systems. safety and cleanliness of pigging operations than a purpose designed system. They enable pig or spheres to be pre-loaded in multiples at the onshore terminal and then transported to the platform as a single unit. Nothing does more to improve efficiency. heavy pigs and spheres can be moved efficiently between traps.

The systems described are designed to provide a cost-effective means of handling pigs and spheres throughout the operational lifetime of the pipeline. Their design and configuration shows very little difference to that of horizontal traps. the only major differences occur in the design of the supports and of the end closure hinging.Design and Application Manual PIG TRAPS Cradles. The following are examples: • • • • Vertical traps Temporary traps Bi-directional traps Sphere Launcher and Receiver Vertical Traps are usually used where space is at a premium (e. However. the cradle is loaded externally and then moves the pig or sphere into its launch position inside the trap. Vertical Trap with Stepped Basket (and pig) Vertical receivers are usually fitted with an internal stepped basket into which the pig arrives. End closures swing to the side on horizontal traps but. where there is less incentive towards the time and labour saving properties of modern quick opening closures. In fact. can handle pigs or spheres of any type. temporary traps can be designed and made Fig 8. © Copyright 1999 Pipeline Engineering & Supply Co Ltd Page 12 Section 6 . For receivers. Remember – pressure can kill.g. offshore platforms). fitted with a counterweight or jacked out on a davit and screwed rod). also known as half baskets or trays. the incoming pig comes to rest on the cradle that can then be withdrawn from the trap. Fig 7. Temporary Launcher to less stringent codes than those required for long (With Pig) term capital equipment – although quality assurance must never be neglected. Any debris collected in the trap as a result of pigging will also be removed. Temporary Pig Traps should never be used as an excuse to avoid the design parameters previously discussed as most of them still apply with equal force. for vertical traps they have to be either sprung. There are several types of trap which do not confirm to the conventional horizontal layout and which are known as Special traps. Because of the circumstances which prevail on construction sites (where there is often an absence of trained routine) greater attention must be given to safety. It is important that all pig handling systems are manufactured as an integrated part of the trap in order to preserve its integrity as a pressure vessel. As the pig cups expand. A free-standing jib crane can be sited next to the trap to handle and position the pigs. When used with launching traps. The basket also allows the pigs to be removed easily. the step prevents the pig dropping back into the reducer.

Design and Application Manual PIG TRAPS Bi-Directional Traps. Fig 9. Initially. as already described. the barrel is declined and it is best to have a horizontal pup pipe near the closure with a sphere stop fitted so that incoming spheres do not impact against the closure door and also to prevent spillage onto the operator when he opens the closure door for unloading. The rolling feature of the spheres makes them readily adaptable to unmanned faciliti4es in that the operator can load a trap with several spheres and the launching can be activated either manually or automatically. These units comprise a sliding sleeve inside the major barrel that can be positioned so that a single pig or sphere can be pre-loaded and held in the trap until it is ready for launch. Bi-Directional Trap Sphere Launchers and Receivers (Automated Pig Traps) Automatic pig launching and. to a lesser extent. However. the sleeve is positioned so that flow passes through it (the sleeve) until the pig arrives. At the receiving end. receiving may be considered for unmanned installations where there is a requirement for frequent pigging of lines. were originally designed for shuttling spheres back and forth but are equally suitable for use with bi-directional pigs. The incoming pig is then captured by the sleeve and moves along the trap until the flow can bypass the pig. bearing in mind the design constraints of each. Pig launching is usually achieved from a vertical launcher whilst for sphere launching vertical or inclined can be utilised. Various launching mechanisms are available. with sleeves. and the selection is largely a matter of client preference. advantage is taken of the spheres ability to roll. the flow inside the trap bypasses the pig until the sleeve is moved into the launch position at which point the flow is directed behind the pig launching it into the pipeline. The types of pigs used are either sphere or batching pigs. © Copyright 1999 Pipeline Engineering & Supply Co Ltd Page 13 Section 6 . In the case of sphere receivers. The general principle for the handling of each is the same.

By establishing safety guidelines. it becomes impossible to load or retrieve a pig without first depressurising the pig trap. it can involve a high risk of human error. Probably the greatest associated danger is when a trap is opened accidentally whilst still under pressure – usually to insert or remove a pig. the use of trapped key interlocks in pig trap operations will limit the sequence of valve and end closure operations to a single. Even in a basic system. no matter how complex. IF these guidelines are contravened due to human error. pig traps and handling equipment. © Copyright 1999 Pipeline Engineering & Supply Co Ltd Page 14 Section 6 . a certain level of control over pig trap operations can be imposed but these usually rely on the voluntary compliance of personnel operating the plant. or malicious malpractice. The many separate operations involved when launching and receiving pigs must be made to follow a safe. The pig trap line valve governs the piping connection between the pig trap and the main pipeline whilst the kicker valve is on a secondary piping connection used to move the pig into and out of the trap. cleaning or surveying. high enough to warrant pig traps being described as ‘primary grade sources of hazard’. as well as to the end closures. without dependence on human judgement.Design and Application Manual PIG TRAPS Safety and Interlock Systems Safety issues are always at the heart of pig trap design. safe operation of the closure require it to be correctly sequenced with certain valves which are incorporated into the trap – these being the pig trap valves. drain and kicker valves. before the trap is drained. isolating the trap from the main pipeline. the need for a safety system that positively controls the entire process. Both valves must be closed. key transfer interlocking provides a logical method or controlling pig launching and receiving procedures. predetermined path and the most widely accepted and reliable method for achieving this is by Key Transfer Interlocking. procedures. Mechanical key transfer interlocking has developed from the principle that actions performed in the correct sequence are safe but potentially lethal if performed out of sequence. Venting depressurises the trap and removes the force necessary to propel the pig. It ensures that procedures can only be performed in the correct sequence and eliminates the possibility of human error. Accordingly. is clear. Whilst pigging is a common procedure. unchanging path. To overcome this danger it is vital that a system is incorporated which ensures that the trap is fully vented before the door can be opened. In summary. By fitting interlocks to all relevant valves. Therefore. typically carried out when a pipeline needs purging. Pig trap systems also involve other more complex. serious accidents will occur.

When the pig signaller (e) has indicated that the pig has left the trap. 6. open the closure door and push the pig into the trap until the first cup (or seal) forms a tight fit in the reducer Close and secure the closure door. When the trap is full. 3. Assumptions prior to launching: • • • Trap is full (of pipeline product) and is under pressure Valves (f). They (the sequences) are not definitive and should not be used for training pig trap operators. © Copyright 1999 Pipeline Engineering & Supply Co Ltd Page 15 Section 6 . Close valves (f) and (h) Open valve (d) followed by valve (b). 5. 7. Pressure Gauge Vent Pressure Relief Drain Pig Signaller Kicker Valve Mainline Bypass Valve Mainline Trap Valve Quick Release Closure i. Continue to close valve (g) until the pig signaller (e) indicates that the pig has moved out of the trap into the mainline stream. d. Slowly continue to fill the trap. 1. Launching Key a. fully open valve (g) 10. and close valve (d) Open valve (f) slowly. The trap will begin to fill and any residual air will be forced out through valve (b). nor should they form any part of the operating procedures for specific launching and receiving installations. The liquid flow through valve (f) behind the pig will increase. The sequences are general in nature and are intended solely as a means of explaining the working principles of some of the many types of trap in existence. (h) are open Valves (d) and (b) are closed Launching Procedure: 1. When the trap has been fully drained (0 psig). following the manufacturer’s operating procedure. (g). 8. 4. c. 9. b. Air will displace the liquid and the trap will drain.3 OPERATING METHOD The following section describes typical operating sequences for launching and receiving pigs in liquid service pipelines. e. close valve (b) and allow the pressure to equalise. 2. Close valve (f) Open valve (h) and then open valve (f). g. f.Design and Application Manual PIG TRAPS OPERATING METHOD 6. h. The pig is now ready for launching Partially close valve (g).

Th trap will begin to fill and any residual air will be vented through valve (b) Close valve (b) and allow trap pressure to equalise through valve (f) Open valve (h). partially close valve (g). Trap is now ready to receive pig On its arrival. d. f.Design and Application Manual PIG TRAPS 3. Increased flow through valve (f) will force the pig into the trap When the pig signaller (e) indicated that the pig has entered the trap. 6. b. Pressure Gauge Vent Pressure Relief Drain Pig Signaller Bypass Valve Mainline Bypass Valve Mainline Trap Valve Quick Release Closure Assumptions Prior to Receiving: • • • • Trap is empty of all product and is at atmospheric pressure Valves (b). h. (d) and (g) are open Valve (f) and (h) are closed Closure door is closed in accordance with the manufacturer’s operating procedures Receiving Procedure: 1. 3. temperature and product Design requirements: code. g. pressure and temperature Inspection/certification requirements © Copyright 1999 Pipeline Engineering & Supply Co Ltd Page 16 Section 6 . if the pig stops at the point marked ‘X’. fully open valve (g) and close valve (f) and (h) Open valves (d) and (b). Receiving Key a. e. 6. 5. 4.4 Close valve (d) and slowly open valve (f). Pipeline Engineering would appreciate the following information: • • • • Pipeline diameter and wall thickness Pipeline pressure. 2. c. The trap will drain SELECTION To provide the user with the most suitable equipment for their application. i.

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