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DESIGNING A COURSE PACKET FOR Qualitative Research Methodology in Language & Communication Studies

Yu-Hsiu (Hugo) Lee (Ph.D., Indiana University, 2010) Lecturer, School of Language & Communication National Institute of Development Administration (NIDA), Bangkok, Thailand Affiliated Professional Developer/Educator Teachers College Columbia University, New York City U.S.A. To cite this course packet/teaching supplement: Lee Hugo, Y.-H. (2011). Designing a course packet for qualitative research methodology in language and communication studies: Together with a tipbook to write a fast qualitative research paper, Columbus, Ohio: The Educational Publisher, Inc. – An Affiliate of the Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, U.S.A. ISBN: 1-934849-50-2 ISBN13: 978-1-934849-50-7 To link to this course packet/teaching supplement online: https://edupublisher.com/EPBookstore/index.php?main_page=product_info&cPath=5&pro ducts_id=638&zenid=sr4v1jk5bmn0s57hbctffur3k1

DESIGNING A COURSE PACKET FOR
Qualitative Research Methodology in Language & Communication Studies

Dr. Hugo Yu-Hsiu Lee

i

International Edition

DESIGNING A COURSE PACKET FOR

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH M E T H O D O L O G Y
IN LANGUAGE & COMMUNICATION STUDIES
INTERNATIONAL EDITION

An Imprint of The Educational Publisher, Inc.

http://www.edupublisher.com/
Best Educational Practice 2010-2011

The Educational Publisher · Zip Publishing· Columbus, Ohio, The United States

International Edition

Designing a Course Packet for

In Language & Communication Studies

Yu-Hsiu Hugo Lee, Ph.D.
National Institute of Development Administration

The Educational Publisher · Zip Publishing· Columbus, Ohio, The United States

Zip Publishing

The Educational Publisher Inc.,

1313 Chesapeake Ave., Columbus, Ohio 43212 U.S.A https://www.edupublisher.com/authors.html DESIGNING A COURSE PACKET FOR QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY IN LANGUAGE & COMMUNICATION STUDIES Together with a tipbook to write a fast qualitative research paper
International Edition 2011

© 2011 by the Author No unauthorized photocopying. All rights reserved. Exclusive rights by The Educational Publisher Inc for manufacture and export from U.S.A. to other countries. No part of this course packet book may be reproduced in any forms or by any electronic or mechanical means, including information storage and retrieval systems, without permissions in email writing from the author and the publisher. To obtain permissions for any portions of reprints from this volume, please contact the author at YL15@umail.iu.edu (Umail at Indiana UniversityBloomington, USA) Cover Image: The Educational Publisher, Inc Interior Images & Graphic Credits: www.ingimage.com

Acquisition Editor: Bob Sims ISBN: ISBN: 1-934849-50-2 ISBN13: 978-1-934849-50-7

Printed in the United States of America
The Educational Publisher · Zip Publishing· Columbus, Ohio, The United States

Dedicated to my lovely doctoral students who are struggled to learn qualitative research methodology and write scholarly scientific papers using qualitative research approaches in their postgraduate language and communication studies.

v

Praises for the International Edition of this Course Packet & Tipbook
From current doctoral students & visiting lecturer from China (academic year 2010-2011)

“This text has provided me good-length coverage of qualitative research course packet with clarity and acumen. I'm sure it will become a key resource for M.A students, PhD. students, and scholars alike.” -----Jantarawan Samransamruajkit, an English lecturer, & Deputy Dean, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Chandrakasem Rajabhat University, Thailand “Dear Ajarn Hugo, Thank you very much for an e-copy of your tipbook. I really do appreciate this. I found it very helpful in doing my weekly assignment and I bet it will come in handy when I write my dissertation. Your tipbook is a wonderful asset for me. Thank you very much.” -----T.K. Pawachalotorn, A high school EFL teacher in Thailand "In my experience, this tipbook offers some greatly beneficial insights into how to succeed when filling the shoes of the Qualitative Reseacher....a valuable tool to say the least..." ----Yuth Thongcharoen, Assumption University (ABAC) Lecturer "I enjoyed every much of this course and found the tutorial support very helpful. The course was well set out and easy to understand. Thank Professor Hugo for providing such a wonderful service and opportunity." ----Monthira Tamuang Linguistics Department, Faculty of Humanities Naresuan University, Thailand “Dear Hugo, Thank you very much for giving me this tipbook. It is of great help for a novice researcher like me. Its conciseness and clearness make it easy to read. Moreover, all tips go directly to the point and very practical. ” -----Yan Zhao, a university teacher from China

vi

Contents Preface Introduction Overview About the Author PART I

vii ix xix xxii xxv 1

SAMPLE SYLLABUS DESIGN
CHAPTER

1

A Sample Syllabus Design for Qualitative Research Methodology in Language and Communication PART II

3

SAMPLE
CHAPTER

LESSON

PLANS

27

2
CHAPTER

What is qualitative research? Why qualitative research? Methodology and Methods

29

3
CHAPTER

Postgraduate-level qualitative works Paraphrasing vs. Plagiarism In-text citations and Reference lists

35

4

Writing as performance: Art of borrowing from expert’s writing A deductive/backward approach to a thesis/central argument/salient finding: make a case for your study Be like Beethoven; Do not be like Mozart; vii

41

Revise your draft multiple times

CHAPTER

5

First Draft of Research Topic, Research Purpose, Research Question, & Literature Review

53

CHAPTER

6
CHAPTER

Data Collection & Research Instruments

69

7
CHAPTER

First Draft of Data Analysis & Dissemination of Findings that Resulted

101

8
CHAPTER

Types of Qualitative Research: Case Studies & Action Research

107

9
CHAPTER

Types of Qualitative Research: Ethnography &Grounded Theory

115

10

Types of Qualitative Research: Narrative Research & How to Adapt Questionnaire and Survey into a Qualitative Study

125

Epilogue & Afterword

139 A Sample Final Paper 143

Appendix I

viii

Preface

W

hen I began to teach qualitative research methodology course for doctoral students in their international Ph.D. program in Thailand, I thought I had a pretty clear idea of what I can help my EFL doctoral students to survive

in their early inquiry course, conduct an empirical study in a field-site, and write a decent paper to report it. I had been trained by a leading research-based university in U.S.A for almost 6 years, and had worked in several research projects funded by higher education institutions in U.S.A, Taiwan, and Thailand, and published a number of scholarly scientific research papers, referred journal articles, proceedings in Australia, and monographs in Germany. However, while I was lecturing them and worked with them during mini-workshops, I was humbled and amazed by what I do not know to help my lovely doctoral students learn qualitative research methods in a less painful way. When teaching EFL postgraduate and doctoral students, lecturers in qualitative research methodology courses will continue, repeatedly if not daily, to be faced with challenges and questions such as: ix

Preface • What and how do I do if EFL doctoral students cannot write a research paper in good academic English? • What and how do I to help novice researchers plan and carry out their qualitative research projects? • What and how can I do if senior researchers among postgraduate and doctoral students don’t follow guidelines, comments, and feedback I gave to them? • What and how can I do if doctoral students in evening or weekend programs have a full-time day job and they cannot commit much time to conduct a research study and do not have time left to write a research paper?

It is with these challenges, possibilities, issues, concerns, and questions that this course packet book is produced. To better prepare our EFL doctoral students understand the complexity of qualitative research methodology and methods, what we need to offer to them is more than just qualitative research approaches. We must identify topics in need of greater coverage and tips including, for example, different formats of academic writing by which a qualitative research study is reported. We must also share with them and equip them with advises, experiences, suggestions, and techniques relevant to the rest of academic career adopting qualitative research methodology and methods.

x

Preface

TO INTENDED AUDIENCE

TO INSTRUCTORS & TO STUDENTS
This is a ready-to-use course packet without infringing copyright, a compilation (except two key texts and customized Power Points for weekly lectures) intended to provide lecturers and students with materials designed to support their teaching and learning. No license fees or copyright fees need to be paid for using this

publication. Course details, grading criteria, weekly assignments and final paper guidelines, information about 2 accompanied key texts (Please contact publishers online in Jossey-Bass at http://www.josseybass.com/WileyCDA/ and SAGE at http://www.sagepub.com/home.nav for two key texts), suggested reading lists, a number of URLs for accessing online free articles, timetables and weekly schedules for a 15-16 week-long semester/term, and student evaluation templates, and other licensed materials with copyrights owned by the author are printed and bound in this work. Unlike a full-length treatment in a standard qualitative research textbook, this book is both a course pack for instructors and a tipbook for students. This text is a short introduction to some crucial tips when writing a qualitative research paper by EFL and ESL graduate students. The emphasis of this course packet & tipbook is to be short, brief, and get to the points that really help EFL and ESL graduate students write a qualitative research paper: It sticks to some very basics and suggestions that EFL and ESL graduate students can directly benefit from. Often EFL and ESL graduate students just need a list of tips and reminders to help them every step a way as they write their research papers adopting qualitative approach. After reading lengthy introductory explanations from textbooks of xi

Preface qualitative research methodology, EFL and ESL graduate students might just need some tips, suggestions, and reminders to help them embark a journey to write and report their first- and painful qualitative inquiry. This course packet, combined with a tipbook, is served as both a graduatelevel instructor’s supplementary book and a resource book for EFL and ESL students to write their beginning-level qualitative research papers. It is primarily useful for first-year graduate students using English as a foreign language (EFL) or as a second language (ESL) and as an academic language in their introductory qualitative research courses. Thus, the whole text is written in easy-to-read

English. EFL learners may not get opportunities to learn English from native speakers of English in their home countries while pursuing a higher education degree. In addition, reading and writing in academic English require more

cognitive capacities than personal communication in English for EFL graduate students who unfortunately may not get adequate academic English training. As English has become globalish especially for academic purposes, master’s theses, doctoral dissertations, papers published in conference proceedings, and manuscripts published in international referred journals are usually written in English language to reach a broader readership from global-wide countries. In preparing EFL and ESL graduate students to use English for academic purposes, the organizing logic that guides this international edition is not to intimidate EFL and ESL graduate students by drawing overwhelming focus on theory oriented research methods. Instead, it strives to provide easy-to-follow tips of different components and sections that constitute a chronological procedure in a research paper using qualitative methods. It helps novice postgraduate and

doctoral students with EFL and ESL background reconceptualize their first qualitative research proposal in a way that builds up their competence. xii

Preface

TO INSTRUCTORS This course packet offers a framework for design
Teachers, instructors, and lecturers have long been recognized as directly linked to improving students’ learning outcomes and academic achievements throughout our human civilization, education, and history. Today’s postgraduate instructors

should equip master students and doctoral students to explore, describe, understand, explain, interpret, master, and apply advices from academic mentors, concepts, techniques, tips, suggestions, skills in disciplines of behavioral and social science, and become able problem solvers and qualitative inquirers. As an

instructor who plans and teaches an inquiry-based research methodology course in disciplines of humanity and social science and subfields such as language studies, as for future scholars’ and/or social scientists’ professional developments, you are in a very unique position to meet these needs and face these challenges by designing more inspiring and professional classes week after week throughout a semester—educational settings both inside and outside a university campus that deepen instructors’ lesson content, pedagogical techniques, improved technology use and e-learning for outreach and classroom facilitation, prompt students to brainstorm and see their potentials, and build a learning community both on-site and online for mutual growth between the instructor and students. Designing a course packet for qualitative research methodology in language and communication studies: Together with a tipbook to write a fast qualitative research paper now in its first paperback international edition, published by a leading course material publisher—The Educational Publisher, Inc, has long been a publishing service provider for professors at the Ohio State University, Columbus, xiii

Preface Ohio, USA, guides both lectures and postgraduate students particularly for those with EFL and ESL backgrounds to design, plan, lecture, seminar, and engage that quality-ensured teaching and learning experiences. This book is more than just a course packet for instructors and lecturers, but it is also served as a tipbook for EFL and ESL postgraduate and doctoral students (please refer to preface to students on page xv for more fully explanations), that offers a framework for designing, planning, lecturing, engaging, and learning in a qualitative research methodology course. This framework is aimed to enable professional

developments for today’s EFL and ESL postgraduate instructors by summarizing key sample scholarly scientific research articles and textbooks, presenting an engaging and accessible companion for university lecturers in behavioral and social science in general and language and communication studies in particular.

xiv

Preface

TO EFL & ESL POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS
Tips included in lecture contents in sample lesson plans offer

THE EASY WAY /TIPBOOK
to conduct a qualitative research and write a report about it Designing a course packet for qualitative research methodology in language and communication studies: Together with A tipbook to write a fast qualitative research paper (International Edition) is a quick how-to tipbook accessible for novice researchers and postgraduate students with EFL and ESL background using qualitative research methodology and methods. Tips included in this course packet can save your precious time to not make the same mistakes that novice EFL and ESL graduate students often times make. Users are advised to use this course packet & tipbook after reading through some introductory-level explanations in qualitative research methodology. Exercises in sample lesson plans are to help readers recap major points in what they have been reading from tips provided in lecture contents. This course packet & tipbook can do you a big favor by saving you from headache to actually conduct a qualitative research study and reports it in a paper, because it offers the easy way. Dear EFL and ESL postgraduate students, your journey to write an efficient EFL and/or ESL qualitative research paper starts right here—12 Tips to help EFL and ESL postgraduate students write a fast but decent qualitative research paper (Please refer to TIPS in Lecture Content & Key Concepts in chapter 4, 5, and 6 for more completed, theoretical, philosophical, and practical tips than page xvi):

xv

Preface Tip 1: Writing as performance: Art of borrowing from expert’s writing Tip 2: A deductive/backward approach to a thesis/central argument /salient finding: make a case for Timely-Efficient EFL and ESL your study qualitative research paper writing Tip 3: Be like Beethoven; Do not • How to write a qualitative be like Mozart; research paper faster in the starting Revise your draft multiple point and throughout your writing times process Tip 4: Formatting and Outlining • Not a step-by-step guide, but your paper at the same time unique tips to help you jump Tip 5: Replication and modification of research topics from literature Tip 6: Identify a research problem/knowledge gap needs to be filled in Tip 7: Research purposes reflect your inquiry as both basic/fundamental and applied research; Qualitative research confirms or disconfirms existing theories and finds out emerging thematic concept(s) Tip 8: Posing research questions to answer WHAT (descriptions), WHY and HOW (explanations) Tip 9: Borrowing and paraphrasing from already reviewed literature in dissertations and referred journal manuscripts to frame key elements in your literature review sections Tip 10: Binocular vs. Magnifier: Analogies of literature review and theoretical framework Tip 11: Select informed and impartial samples Tip 12: Handy templates to guide your data collection along the way xvi

Preface “I am hoping that university instructors teaching qualitative research methodologies & inquires in language & communication studies can find both guidance and inspiration from this course packet. EFL/ESL

postgraduate students and novice qualitative researchers can find handy tips (Please visit Lecture Content & Key Concepts included in chapter 4, 5, and 6) to write their qualitative research papers with clarity and acumen during their early stages of academic careers. This course packet & tipbook is designed to be a resource for both lecturers, students, and practitioners, presenting an engaging and accessible companion in language and communication studies in this international edition published by a leading course material publisher in U.S.A—The Educational Publisher, Inc.”

Sincerely,

Hugo Yu-Hsiu Lee
NIDA, Bangkok, Thailand March 19, 2011

xvii

Preface

Acknowledgements
To write this course packet & tipbook has been a challenging, difficult, and often times cumbersome course of action that has involved labors of many. I have been assisted by my lovely doctoral students in my qualitative research methodology course in their international PhD. Program. I am also grateful to my wife, Dr.

Araya Palachot, who took good care of me and our apartment as I did not commit much time to help her do heavy-duty household chores while writing this course packet & tipbook.

Hugo Yu-Hsiu Lee

xviii

Introduction

Introduction
PHILOSOPHY AND AIMS

T

his text is designed mostly for use in introductory-level courses in qualitative research methodology that is a basic requirement for many, if

not all, postgraduate EFL or ESL students to meet while experiencing their early scientific research inquiry. Originally designed for a course in qualitative research methodology in language and communication in Thailand, notice that because this topic coverage is generally broad, this course packet for instructors & tipbook for students may not be suited to provide any specific use in your EFL or ESL postgraduate or doctoral qualitative research courses. The philosophy that guided the development of this international edition is convincing evidence from real classroom experiences that an introductory-level qualitative research course for EFL or ESL students should be more skill, technique, and real-world-application oriented instead of theory-oriented.

ORGANIZATION & FEATURES This work has maintained its many unique features. This course packet & tipbook provides more than merely a sample syllabus with course outlines, objectives, learning contents, learning methods, learning outcomes, assessment methods, suggested key texts, recommended further readings, classroom discussion xix

Introduction exercises, sample power points, and mini-workshops to be incorporated into a course. But, it also includes TIPS in Lecture Content & Key Concepts in chapter 4, 5, and 6 to help EFL and ESL postgraduate and doctoral students write a timely-efficient qualitative research paper.

PROBLEM-, PROJECT-, AND CASE-BASED INQUIRY ARE MORE CLOSE TO TRUE LEARNING Traditionally, teaching and learning in almost all disciplines including social and behavioral sciences, and language and communication studies, have been defined and operated in a way that the teacher passes on or transmits knowledge to students sitting in a classroom setting. However, lecture alone is not our learning styles in social and behavioral sciences and applications to language and communication studies. We need to go out to field-sites to experience our target population’s communities in person. That’s why case-based learning, problembased learning, and project-based learning can more likely capture the enterprise of humanities and social sciences than traditional classroom-based on-site lectures. In an attempt consisted of scientific steps to investigate, describe, explain, and interpret a case, a problem, and a project is just another name for inquiry-oriented qualitative research, which is this course packet & tipbook all about to provide instructors a framework for design and tips to help students undertake a social science inquiry and write a report in a timely efficient manner.

After above-mentioned claims that case-based, problem-based, and projectbased inquire are emphasized as endeavors to embark true learning journeys for social- and behavioral scientists, why this course packet & tipbook puts its focus on language and communication studies? Asia and the Pacific Region, Middle xx

Introduction East, and Africa, with some major flashpoints of the world, have long been suffered by a continuum struggle caused by socio-cultural, economical, religious, and political conflicts. These phenomena are frequently intersected by challenging ethnic, language, linguistic, communicative, and religious issues. More often than not, language and communication are good starting points and core to view these issues critically. Designing, planning, teaching, and learning from this course packet & tipbook, along with its applications to courses in language and communication studies, can jointly produce ideas, tools, strategies, and resources to change, influence, shape, transform, and touch lives of both instructors and students who have a role to play in language and communication areas of study. (Continued to read Overview on page xxii) Brief Course Packet

PREVIEW
• • • • Key benefits include: Experience Language and Communication in Qualitative Inquiry Experience Qualitative Research in Real-World Field-Site Action A Website Companion PBWORK Supplement Packaged with this Course Packet & Tipbook Also Available to Help you Teach and Learn Qualitative Research in Language and Communication Studies: TIPS in Lecture Content & Key Concepts in Chapter 4, 5, 6 Key Readings & Suggested Readings in Each Chapter are Books of Related Interest Less Formal Writing Styles to Increase Accessibility to EFL/ESL Postgraduate Students Expanded Explanations in Lecture Contents & Key Concepts to Increase Accessibility to EFL/ESL Postgraduate Students Students receive instant feedback in MiniWorkShop . Both Print and Digitally Downloaded Format are Available for this Course Packet & Tipbook. Please visit https://www.edupublisher.com/EPBookstore/ xxi

• •

Overview of Philosophy, Features, and Challenges of this Course Packet Design

O

OVERVIEW

F 1.

FEATURES

of philosophy, goals, and challenges in designing this course packet & tipbook

qualitative course

research

P

PHILOSOPHY

To develop a framework for designing a qualitative research course packet, in combination with a tipbook, that helps ensure quality and knowledge for EFL and ESL postgraduate students in language and communication studies

A framework for design, 2. A tipbook, 3. Applications to EFL and ESL contexts, and 4. Elearning at home to supplement on-site learning Framework: Provides university instructors a quality framework for designing qualitative research methodology course in social science, language, and communication studies

Incorporation of Elearning: Educational technology, for example, PBWork/PBWIKI to enable distance education outside classrooms

5.

2.

C

CHALLENGES

G

G O A L S

to designing a framework for introductory qualitative research courses in language and communication in EFL countries & for ESL students:

A quality course packet & tipbook in qualitative research methodology in behavioral and social scientific fields in general and language and communication studies in particular with applicability to EFL and ESL postgraduate students To accomplish the major goal indicated above, this course packet & tipbook has 4 distinctive general features below:

3.

Tipbook: Offers valuable TIPS included

1. Academic cultures in
an EFL country, and

in Lecture Content & Key Concepts in chapter 3, 4, and 5 to
help EFL and ESL postgraduate students write a timely-efficient qualitative research paper faster than before

2. Student body A
Academia C u l t u r e s
Both EFL and ESL postgraduate students learn to write their qualitative research papers in academic English. However, ESL students, usually referred as international students in USA, UK, Canada, and Australia, might get more requirements and enroll in more credit hours in qualitative inquiry courses than EFL postgraduate students,

4.

Applications relevant to EFL and ESL Countries: Culturally responsive and culturally aware of different academic cultures in a wide range of EFL and ESL countries; be adaptive and integrated into a

xxii

Overview of Philosophy, Features, and Challenges of this Course Packet Design
for example, Southeast Asia. in most of their students have a full-time day job, so they may not have time to do intensive study as most postgraduate students do in a regular program. These EFL doctoral programs often offer a (3 credit hours) course in qualitative research for a 3 year fast-track Ph.D. program or 4 year M.A./M.S. + Ph.D. program. Compared to 9 credit hours of inquiry training at research universities in U.S.A and in contrast to regular doctoral programs in EFL countries, EFL doctoral students in these fast-track weekday evening or weekend special programs may not get adequate inquiry training. They are therefore suggested to read more full-length textbooks in qualitative research accompanied with the use of this course packet, i.e., please be directed to SAGE publisher for a series of leading qualitative research textbooks. Moreover, some EFL countries may have long been put faith on quantitative research and developed a strong tradition to view what constitutes a valid research paper by incorporating, for example, SPSS, pre-test, post-test, standard deviation, statistics, numbers, and so forth, into their research papers. Thus, for some senior EFL professors in these above-mentioned EFL countries if they are to be referred journal editors and peerreviewers, a paper based on empirically grounded qualitative data, despite evidence of rigor, might not be seen as reliable as a quantitative paper to support any claims and thus subject to rejection. At any rate, some EFL qualitative researchers will have to learn how to live with that under these EFL academic cultures. Furthermore, a format of a qualitative research paper might vary from western countries to EFL countries. Often, EFL postgraduate students are exposed to read local EFL research articles that tend to outline and number a list of items with wider coverage in its topics, instead of formulating narrative layouts with singled out foci as one can see from publications in western countries, i.e., USA.

Curricular and course designs in EFL and ESL countries are reflective to academic cultures in a wide range of different EFL and ESL countries. Some EFL countries only offer a (3 credits) qualitative research course for their doctoral students but not for their master-level students, because master-level students do not value research but put focus on teaching or industryrelated skill development. In other words, it is not so much attention paid on academic rigor for a master’s degree. Thus, if a higher education institute in such EFL countries offers a qualitative research course as a requirement to meet for graduation, they may not attract a good number of masterlevel student applications and enrollments. Some EFL countries offer special postgraduate programs on weekday evenings and weekends, so long as students do not come to campus to study during day-time on weekdays. This means

xxiii

Overview of Philosophy, Features, and Challenges of this Course Packet Design

S

Student Body

A wide range of different background and prior experiences in qualitative research can be found in EFL (or ESL) postgraduate student bodies. For some, they learnt basics when they were master students and wrote their theses adopting qualitative research methodology and methods. Some even earned two master degrees before they pursued a doctoral degree. Some already published a good number of referred journal papers and articles in conference proceedings, whereas others might never learnt how to do a research study before. At any rate, for those smartest who might jump from a B.A. degree without master-level training in inquiry methodology to be admitted to a doctoral program, this might be their first time to actually learn how to conduct a scientific research study and write a qualitative paper to report it in his or her EFL or ESL doctoral program. Despite they are eligible to skip a M.A. or M.S. degree and

might be considered smarter than his or her peers in the same level of postgraduate programs given the fact that he/she can be admitted to a Ph.D. program without a M.S. or M.A. degree, he or she is still in need and highly recommended o build on field-site experiences and textbook-wise knowledge to catch up with his/her peers who already gone through various levels of inquiry research training in master programs. In addition, some EFL or ESL doctoral students might come from a different background than a field he or she is pursuing for his or her Ph.D. now. For instance, some EFL or ESL doctoral students majoring in language or linguistics studies might got his or her M.S. or M.A. in counseling psychology. However, these abovementioned challenges can turn out to be possibilities for these EFL or ESL doctoral students, dependent on how a qualitative research lecturer instructs his or her

students, students’ adapbility, and so on.

Key to the Symbols
TIPS Tips provided for postgraduate EFL/ESL students to write a timely-efficient and sound qualitative research paper.
At-Home Activity

Companion Website
PB Work is an online

forum 24/7 that enables discussion beyond on-site classroom settings. Please visit pbworks.com for further information.
MiniWorkShop

1.5 hours per week is given during class time to allow students to learn qualitative inquiry by actually doing it. Students can receive instant feedback from the instructor on their work.

xxiv

About the Author
Hugo Yu-Hsiu Lee, Ph.D. is a fellowship award-winning researcher at Indiana UniversityHe was acknowledged by Chronicle

of Higher Education for his
contribution in Skype distance education in 2007 and interviewed by The World, broadcasted by NPR and BBC in the same year. In addition, he was a nominated student president three times (appointments 2006-2010) for International Student Inc at Indiana University-Bloomington, U.S.A to acknowledge his services. He was sponsored by East Asian Studies Center (The leading center in U.S.A) at Indiana UniversityBloomington and TECO, Chicago, on behave of Ministry of Education in Taiwan, and recommended by the leading scholar in Sociolinguistics of Southern America—Asst. Prof. Dr. Serafín M. Coronel-Molina at Indiana University-Bloomington 2008 Princeton (appointments at

Bloomington, USA, in 2007-2008.
Hugo (American name) holds a Ph.D. from Department of Literacy, Culture, and Language Education at Indiana University-Bloomington, U.S.A (class of 2010), with professional development appointments at Columbia University, New York City, U.S.A. Yu-Hsiu (TaiwaneseChinese name) is an author of more than 20 scholarly articles, international referred journal papers, proceedings, monographs, and books. He has been publishing internationally in Australia, Germany, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, USA, and UK including Language and literacy in lives of Southeast Asian immigrant women: Lessons learned from Taiwan and voices from within and without (ISBN: 3843382018) and The study of language and communication in urban refugees (ISBN: 3639321936), Culturally responsive Chinese literacy pedagogy (ISBN: 1434816834) included in East Asian Studies Library at Princeton University, U.S.A, to name just a few.

University 2002-2008 ), to present
his scholarly scientific works in 2008 International Higher Education Conference (headquarter at Edith Cowan University in Australia) and first annual International Conference on Language, Society, and Culture in Asian Context 2010 (headquarter at Mahasarakham University in the Kingdom of Thailand).

xxv

About the Author
He was appointed to teach doctoral students in a qualitative research methodology course in international Ph.D. program in Graduate School of Language and Communication at National Institute of Development Administration (NIDA), Thailand, 2010-2011. He is currently an appointed associated editor for proceedings of International Conference on Language and Communication, 2010-2011. Recently, his influences on minority language studies, particularly with regard to his monographs published in Germany (also accessible to UK) and dissertation published in U.S.A. for immigrant women and refugees, have been recognized by International Conference on Diaspora and Development 2011 organizing committees (headquarter in New Deli, India) as a leading scholar in diasporic language & linguistic studies: “Given your profile, role and experience in the field of diaspora studies, we would like to invite you to take part in this event.”--- Dr. Sadananda Sahoo As busy preparing for his Post Doc Research in Linguistic Anthropology & Southeast Asian Minority Language Studies in U.S.A, he will also found and chair M.A. and Ph.D. in Chinese Studies at NIDA, Thailand, in the following academic year. He can be reached at YL15@umail.iu.edu (Umail at Indiana University-Bloomington, U.S.A)

xxvi

About the Publisher
Over twenty-five The years of create a course packet for experiences, Educational postgraduate and doctoral students studying qualitative research

Publisher, Inc & Zip Publishing, a division of The Educational Publisher, have been working with professors at the Ohio State University (top 10 public research universities in U.S.A) and neighboring schools to create customized course packets since the mid 1980's. by Course The packets

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For more information about Zip To create a course packet for nonAmerican students overseas is a new concept for The Educational Publishing, please visit http://www.zippublishing.com/

Publisher, Inc. However, as played a leading role in course packet

publishing at research universities in U.S.A, The Educational Publisher, Inc is currently in collaboration with Dr. Hugo Yu-Hsiu of Lee at National

Institute

Development

Administration (NIDA), Thailand, to xxvii

About the Publisher
NOTES TO READERS A course pack is usually a collection of published scientific articles (after paying copyright fees or reprinted with permissions from publishers), lecture notes, concept notes, and book excerpts selected by a lecturer, an instructor, or a professor and produced for his or her students by a publisher or a copy center. This present course packet & tipbook does NOT contain any illegal photocopying of reserve readings, i.e., referred journal articles that are NOT copyrightable. Thus, only reproducible materials are printed and bound in this course packet by The Educational Publisher. The author personally holds the copyright on proprietary information and materials in this course packet & tipbook except those are cited and quoted with resources and references. As for key texts assigned to accompany this course packet & tipbook, please visit publishers-Jossey-Bass/An imprint of WILEY at http://www.josseybass.com/WileyCD A/ for Merriam’s text and SAGE at http://www.sagepub.com/home.nav for Boeije’s text. Selected suggested readings are available online and free to download via google scholars or google. LIMIT OF LIABILITY/ DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY While the author has made his best efforts in an attempt to prepare this course packet & tipbook, he makes no any exact representations, no quality guarantees, and no warranties in regard to the correctness and completeness about the contents from this text. He also disclaims any applied warranties for any specific use of this text. The contents of this piece contained herein might not be suited for your particular use. The author is neither responsible and nor liable for any, included but not limited, commercial and/or consequential damages using his text. All rights reserved. Nothing in this volume may be copied or reproduced by any means without the email permission from the author at YL15@umail.iu.edu. Furthermore, readers should be aware too that any Internet resources provided as references for this course packet & tipbook might have been removed and/or altered between the time when this text was written and when it is read by you.

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PART

1
I

Sample Syllabus Design

Chapter 1: Sample Syllabus Design

2

Chapter 1: Sample Syllabus Design

Qualitative Research Methodology

For introductory-level EFL or ESL postgraduate or doctoral students in Language & Communication
A Sample Syllabus Design for a (15-16 weeks) course Source: PLA 6002 Qualitative Research in Language and Communication International Program · Ph.D. Program National Institute of Development Administration (NIDA), Thailand

Semester: -Class Schedule: -Classroom: -Lecturer: -Office: -Office Hours: -Tel: -Email: --

3

Chapter 1: Sample Syllabus Design BRIEF CONTENTS
Page 05 05 06 07 General Course Information Course Descriptions Course Objectives & Learning Outcomes Course Outline Learning Methods

08 09 09 10 12 12 13 15 16

Assessments & Evaluations (During the Semester/Term) Assessments & Requirements Submission Guidelines for Weekly Assignments and Final Papers Guidelines for Mini-Conference Paper Presentation I & II A Key Issue Inquiry Paper about Language and Communication, and Roundtable Power Point Presentation Peer Response Partner, Multiple-Drafting & Process-Writing Research Topics for Final Key Issue Papers Key Issue Final Paper Topics can be derived from Prominent Researchers in Language and Communication Studies Oral Presentation Template Presentation Rating Template

17 17 18

Readings Key Texts Further Readings Pre-Reading, While-Reading, & Post-Reading Activities

Schedule 19 Class Schedules Computer Assisted Learning Incorporation of E-Learning & Educational Technology

20

Grading & Evaluation (At the End of the Course) 21 21 22 22 26 Grades Sample Grading Systems Criteria for Class Assessments & Final Evaluations Sample Evaluation Survey Sample Evaluation Summary: Quantitative Measures of Student Evaluation Qualitative Measures of Peer & Student Evaluation

4

Chapter 1: Sample Syllabus Design General Course Information Course Descriptions: This course will introduce students to the basics, fundamental concepts, characteristics, and various approaches to designing, planning, conducting, and writing qualitative research projects in language and communication related fields. Students will gain hands-on experiences in various qualitative methods, data collection techniques, and analysis techniques, while carrying out their research projects related to their own areas of interests.

Course Objectives & Learning Outcomes: By the end of this course, students are expected to: • To become familiar with the basics, core concepts, characteristics, language/wording, and logics of qualitative research approach; • To understand techniques for planning and designing a qualitative research project, and learn tips to write their research papers/reports; • Situate in a research perspective(s) and within their disciplinary traditions; • Examine challenges and issues that confront qualitative researchers; • Adopt hands-on approaches in mini-workshops that build knowledge, develop understanding, and learn analytical skills in thematic (constant comparison/grounded theory) and narrative inquiry; • Critique, digest, synthesize, discuss, and reflect scholarly scientific articles that are the underpinnings of these various perspectives; • Explore various lenses for defending and evaluating qualitative inquiry • To understand techniques for qualitative data analysis; • To recognize, assess, and evaluate quality and rigor in a qualitative research study. 5

Chapter 1: Sample Syllabus Design Course Outline: This course examines qualitative research with emphasis on its applications in language and communication studies. In addition, students will be engaged in discussion of the variability of qualitative inquiries and their research design including case studies, action research, ethnography, grounded theory, applications of survey/questionnaire research to qualitative research, and narrative research. Students are trained to undertake a qualitative inquiry in real-world field-sites and write a report from choosing a research topic, reviewing relevant literature and theoretical framework, collecting and analyzing data, and disseminating findings that resulted.

Week 1-2: What and why qualitative research? Week 3: Graduate-level qualitative works; in-text citations and reference lists Week 4: Tips to help you start a qualitative inquiry/research project Week 5: Research Topics; Research Purposes; Research Questions; Literature Review and Theoretical/Conceptual Framework Week 6: Methodology; Data Collection; and Research Instruments Week 7: Data analysis; Findings that resulted; Conclusion and Discussion Week 8: Case Studies & Action Research Week 9: Ethnography & Grounded Theory Week 10: Questionnaire Design & Survey Research, and Narrative research Week 11-13: Second draft (learning to write an abstract, bio-sketch, and Curriculum Vita (CV)) Week 14-16: Weekly Assignments, Mini-Conference Paper Presentation and Final Paper

6

Chapter 1: Sample Syllabus Design Learning Methods: Included 1) on-site classroom learning, 2) online e-learning at home, and 3) fieldsite empirically grounded learning, the principal methods of learning on this course are not lecturers but seminars, discussions, real-world field-site experiences.
MiniWorkShop ((Learning

by Doing), and

Students will learn and develop social-scientific inquiry skills and knowledge through their “1) concrete experiences, 2) observations & reflections, 3) forming abstract concepts & generalizations, and 4) testing new behaviors & perceptions” (Sources: Brenda Cherednichenko, Edith Cowan University, Australia, plenary speaker of 2nd International Conference on Foreign Language Learning and Teaching/FLLT 2011) Instructors are prompted to reflect two questions as they plan to teach each week’s seminar and lecture using this course packet & tipbook: 1. What’s like to be a learner/student in my classroom? 2. What’s last thing you remember you were learning?

7

Chapter 1: Sample Syllabus Design Assessments & Evaluations (During the Semester/Term) Assessments & Requirements: Timetable for Assignments Important Dates Due days Weekly Assignment 1 5%
Submit a proposed research topic, research purpose, research question(s), and background review in an introduction section in your working paper

By dd/mm/yy

Weekly Assignment 2 5%
Submit literature review and theoretical/conceptual framework section in your working paper

By dd/mm/yy

Weekly Assignment 3 5%
Submit methodology section in your working paper including data collection methods such as research instruments and data analysis methods such as coding schemes

By dd/mm/yy

Weekly Assignment 4 5%
Submit a research proposal based on your working paper in progress

By dd/mm/yy

Weekly Assignment 5 5%
Submit finding report section, conclusion section, and discussion section in your working paper

By dd/mm/yy On dd/mm/yy On dd/mm/yy By Midnight on dd/mm/yy

Mini-Conference Paper 15% Presentation I Mini-Conference Paper Presentation II Final Paper 30%

(For a sample, please see Appendix I on page 143)

8

Chapter 1: Sample Syllabus Design Submission Guidelines for Weekly Assignments and Final Papers: • Please follow ethical guidelines for research in your institute. • All weekly assignments should be submitted to [lecturer’s email address] before class meets • Submissions must be in Microsoft Word document file format. • All submissions must be in APA format (American Psychological Association, 6th Edition or the latest edition). • Final papers should not exceed 4,000 words in total length excluding abstract, tables, figures and references. o Include the following information before abstract: Article title, your name, institutional affiliation, and contact information. o Include an abstract no more than 300 words. Writing your abstract by following this order: Introduction, Methods, Results and

Conclusion/Discussion. o Please include all related components: charts, graphs, endnotes, footnotes, references, appendices, or other relevant information. o Include a bio-sketch (biographical statement) of 60 words after your reference list.

Guidelines for Mini-Conference Paper Presentation I & II: • Prepare a PowerPoint (PPT) to present students’ final papers • In case students do not like traditional Power Point roundtable presentation, they can use VoiceThread to create an online presentation at http://voicethread.com/ • They only have 20 minutes to present your paper and 10 minutes for Q&A session 9

Chapter 1: Sample Syllabus Design A Key Issue Inquiry Paper about Language and Communication, and Roundtable Power Point Presentation An issue is a topic about which evidence or lack of evidence allows for differing points of view and controversy. There are a number of reasons for these differing viewpoints, including: o Situations where there is incomplete or mixed information regarding a topic in language and communication studies. This can allow dispute until more adequate information and complete evidence resolve that issue. o Situations whereby there is a conflict about goals of language and communication studies. Even if research evidence is sometimes part of this discussion, political arguments tend to play a larger role. o Situations where research data are interpreted from different conceptual or theoretical frameworks. Prepare a 8-10 paged paper, double-spaced, that articulates a major issue or controversy in the field of language and communication studies. Begin with an inquiry question concerning the issue and contrast two or more competing perspectives. Use at least 5 sources/references and a brief annotated bibliography. It will be helpful if the articles you read allow you to articulate specific points of view and the evidence that supports these positions. Your job is to inform us about differing

perspectives and why it is possible for thoughtful people to hold alternative perspectives on that issue.

10

Chapter 1: Sample Syllabus Design Key Issues Paper Tips • Carefully read the syllabus description of the key issue assignment Address the following in your paper: o A section that includes a statement of your inquiry question, your personal reason for selecting this issue or controversy, and the significance of the issue to the larger language and communication communities; o A comprehensible description of the issue or controversy that includes its background, context review, and history; o A articulation of both sides of the controversy that includes specific research and key players; o A section on how issues of diversity and difference are present or absent in this controversy; o Your conclusions and standpoint on the controversy. You are highly recommended to take stand. Don’t stand on the fence. o An annotated bibliography or references

Also, while presenting your paper with power points, prepare a handout for class members that include: o A statement of the issue or the controversy; o Points and evidence made by researchers on each of the sides of the controversy, and o An annotated bibliography with 3-5 sentences explaining each article or chapter. o Also prepare a 20-minute roundtable presentation with power points and plan 10 minutes for Q &A. 11

Chapter 1: Sample Syllabus Design Peer Response Partner, Multiple-Drafting & Process-Writing: For key issue final paper, you will be assigned a peer response partner. A week before each assignment is due, you will read your partner’s draft, make comments about the draft, and based on your partner’s comment you are to revise your draft during a writing workshop between you and your partner. Each draft submission will be commented by both the instructor and peer reviewers (classmates). A revision (a second draft or a final draft) should be made based on prompt feedbacks provided by both the instructors and peer-reviewers.

Research Topics for Final Key Issue Papers Should be related to language studies and/or communication studies Please see the following list for fields in language studies and communication studies (Note that this is NOT a comprehensive, complete, and exclusive list):
• • • • • • •

• • • • • •

First and second language acquisition Macro and Micro Sociolinguistics, and Sociology of Language Language Maintenance, Language Shift, Language Death, Language Revitalization and Documentation Linguistic Anthropology & Anthropological Linguistics Language Policy and Planning (from both local and global perspectives) Interlanguage Pragmatics & Intercultural Pragmatics Literacy Studies: Bi-literacy, Multi-literacy, Hybrid literacies, Multimodal literacy, The New Literacy Studies, Critical Literacy, and Home and Workplace Literacy Bilingual, Multilingual, Bilingual Education, Multilingual Education, and Multicultural Education Classroom Research or Action Research on language and communication Discourse Analysis & Critical Discourse Analysis Computer Assisted Language Learning, Technology in language teaching and learning, E-learning, and Computer Mediated Communication Language and Gender; Gender and Communication First, Foreign, and Second Language Teachers’ Education, Training, and Professional Development 12

Chapter 1: Sample Syllabus Design
• • • • • • •

Language related to Curriculum Design and Revision Language Testing, Assessment, and Evaluation English as a foreign and second language Heritage Language and Culture Maintenance and Loss Intercultural Communication Business Corporation Communication Multi-Media Communication

Source: Adapted from Working Papers in Literacy, Culture, and Language Education (WPLCLE), available online at the Web Site http://education.indiana.edu/Home/tabid/13967/Default.aspx

Key Issue Final Paper Topics can be derived from Prominent Researchers in Language and Communication Studies

Choose a key thinker or researcher in the field of language and communication (broadly conceived) and write a concise 8-10 page final paper, double-spaced, that describes the contribution of this researcher to the field of language and communication and what your qualitative inquiry can contribute to our current understanding of this field by either confirming or disconfirming some aspects of it. We will let you put the name of this researcher you choose in a sign-up sheet, so prominent figures won’t be duplicated for your final papers. In your manuscript, please provide: o a compelling introduction and the reasons why you select this person as the focus of your paper; o a brief biographical sketch for about 1 page; o a synthesis of key areas of scholarship, research body, and specific contribution to the field; o the controversies that surround the work of this leading researcher; 13

Chapter 1: Sample Syllabus Design o how issues of diversity or difference are present or absent in this corpus of work; and o implications for your own work or the work of other scholars. Cite at least 5 sources for the paper, with a minimum of 4 written by this particular researcher you are profiling. If you utilize an entire book, 3 sources are the minimum. Moreover, prepare a short handout and bibliography (one page double-sided) and stick to a 20 minute class Power Point presentation. You can use an innovative way of presenting this prominent scholar in your field of language and communication.

14

Chapter 1: Sample Syllabus Design Oral Presentation Template

Name of Presenters_________________ Research Topic____________________________________________________ Introduction: Greetings to audience and attendees, attention getter, and preview/outline of main points and presentation agenda Body (background & context review, relevant literature and theoretical frameworks, methodology and methods including data collection and analysis, dissemination of findings that resulted including salient points, statistically significant facts, examples, and information logically organized and explained) Because each presenter is only given 20 minutes to present their inquiry work, notice that salient findings should be the major and longest part of a presentation in this mini-conference. Claims must be explained in a good-length and

supported by empirically grounded data. Discussion of first salient finding Transition Discussion of second salient finding Third Major Point, if any

Conclusion (summary of salient findings, concluding comments that might include recommendations, local and global implications, suggestions, and final statement(s))

Source: Adapted from Ian J Brown, Easy Online Presentations with Recorded Voice, parallel session in FLLT 2011 Conference 15

Chapter 1: Sample Syllabus Design Presentation Rating Template (For both Power Points and Voice Thread) 1. Overall, is the presentation well prepared? 1 2 3 4 5 2. Is the presentation well researched and provided information beyond common knowledge? In other words, this presentation advances our knowledge by filling a knowledge gap. 1 2 3 4 5 3. Does the introduction part of this presentation catch audience attention and is it clear by providing sufficient background knowledge necessary to understand the context of this study? 1 2 3 4 5 4. Are salient findings in the body of this presentation clear with relevant examples and presented results in a logical order with clarity? 1 2 3 4 5 5. Is the conclusion part of this presentation clear by wrapping up the speech, providing practical applications and theoretical implications to different contexts, offering suggestions to solve existing or emerging problems and issues, giving ways to improve current practices for practitioners, and getting the message of the oral presenter across to audience? 1 2 3 4 5 6. Is the balance of tables, figures, diagrams, narratives, and speech okay? 12345 7. Is the speaker’s voice clear, accent of English understandable, speed of speech okay? 1 2 3 4 5 8. Is the presentation intriguing, enjoyable, informative/information-rich? 12345

Source: Adapted from Ian J Brown, Easy Online Presentations with Recorded Voice, parallel session in FLLT 2011 Conference 16

Chapter 1: Sample Syllabus Design Readings Key Texts: Merriam, B. S. (2009). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Boeije, H. (2010). Analysis in qualitative research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Further Readings: Recommended readings will be assigned differently from week to week dependent on different schedules in each week. Recommended classics of related interests in language and communication studies: Ex. Delpit, L., & Dowdy, J. K. (Eds.) (2008). The Skin That We Speak: Thoughts on Language and Culture in the Classroom (New Edition), New York City: New Press.

17

Chapter 1: Sample Syllabus Design Pre-Reading, While-Reading, & Post-Reading Activities Before attending any class discussions, students are to articulate the research methodology of each weekly assigned article(s) and sample research from book chapter(s), if any, general comments on them, what are illuminated, what are disappointed, and what are compelling to them personally. They are asked to bring their feedback and comments to seminar for classroom discussions.

Journal Article: General Comments

What was illuminated?

Research Methodology: What was What was disappointed? compelling?

Source: Adapted from Prof. Dr. Mitzi A Lewison’s L600 (2006-2007) course material in Department of Literacy, Culture, and Language Education at Indiana University-Bloomington, U.S.A

18

Chapter 1: Sample Syllabus Design Schedule Class Schedules: Week 1-2 Course Structure: Foundation Period 3 Seminar Content What and why qualitative research? Different formats of qualitative research papers; Paraphrasing vs. Plagiarism; APA format (American Psychological Association, 6th Edition) for in-text citations and reference list Arts of borrowing experts’ writings; A deductive approach; Multiple draft process: be like Beethoven; do not be like Mozart Research Topics; Research Problems; Research Purposes; Research Questions; Literature Review (First Draft) Methodology/Methods and Research Instruments (First Draft) Data Analysis and Findings (First Draft)

4

5

6

7

Course Structure: Deepening Period

8 9 10

Case Studies and Action Research Ethnography and Grounded Theory Narrative Research; Applications of Questionnaire Design & Survey Research in qualitative research Research Topics, Research Purposes, Research Questions (Second Draft) and Learning to write a Abstract Literature Review & Theoretical/Conceptual Framework (Second Draft); and Learning to write a Bio-Sketch Data Collection & Research Instruments (Second Draft); and Learning to design a Curriculum Vita (CV) Data Analysis and Findings/Results (Second Draft) 19

11

12

13

14

Chapter 1: Sample Syllabus Design (Class Schedule Continued) 15 16 Mini-Conference Presentation Mini-Conference Presentation Final Paper Submission Electronically (Final draft) Computer Assisted Learning Incorporation of E-Learning & Educational Technology:
A t -H o me A cti vi t y

For further discussions extended beyond our class time or to start a new topic of discussion in an online forum among the lecturer and students, please post your comments, feedback, and your new topic for discussion in our PBWORKS online at pbworks.com. (Register a username and passphrase to log in) Companion Website: Originally named PB wiki, PB WORKS provide a handy online course workplace for both instructors and students to facilitate their elearning and promote the use of educational technology, traditionally known as Instructional System Technology, including the following main features:

• • • • • • • • • 20

Syllabus Course Activity Tracking Assignments Meeting Agenda Front Page Blank Page SideBar Upload files

Chapter 1: Sample Syllabus Design Grading & Evaluation (At the End of the Course) Grades: 30% of your final grades will be based on regular attendance, active participation in seminars, and comprehension as evidenced by numerous weekly assignments and your final paper. Criteria Attendance and Active Participation Weekly Assignments Mini-Conference Paper Presentation Final Paper Total Marks Marks 30 25 15 30 100

Sample Grading Systems Score % 94-100 88-93 80-87 70-79 65-69 60-64 55-59 50-54 45-49 0-44 Grade A AB+ B BC+ C CD F I (Incomplete) Point 4.0 3.7 3.3 3.0 2.7 2.3 2.0 1.7 1.0 0.0

21

Chapter 1: Sample Syllabus Design Criteria for Class Assessments & Final Evaluations: Instructors set their standards and rubrics for the quality and validation of content in students’ weekly assignments and final papers. Instructors value integrity and academic rigor evidenced by students’ scholarly scientific works combining both creativity and innovation by reporting salient findings that grounded in empirical data and resulted from rigorous analysis.

Sample Evaluation Survey
Students are an important source of information about the effectiveness of a qualitative inquiry course, its instructor, and its next generations of students. Please respond candidly to the following questions. You are particularly encouraged to offer constructive suggestions that may help to improve both the course design and the teaching of the instructor. To the students of this course: Thank you for taking the time and effort to respond to this questionnaire. Please give your most candid and thorough response to the questions below. Rest assured that the information you share here is confidential. The survey is divided into three sections: 1. About the student 2. Evaluation of the course 3. Evaluation of the instructor This course is your

Core Course Early Inquiry Requirement Elective Uncertain

22

Chapter 1: Sample Syllabus Design
What Class Year are you in? 1st year Master 2nd year Master 1st year Doctoral 2nd year Doctoral 3rd year Doctoral Part-time matriculated

Rate the amount of work you did in this course Almost none What was assigned More than just what was assigned

Rate the level of your involvement in the activities of this course. Very uninvolved Somewhat involved Enthusiastically involved I. Yourself as a Student How much practical knowledge have you gained from this qualitative inquiry course?

A great deal Some practical knowledge None

23

Chapter 1: Sample Syllabus Design
II. General Evaluation of the qualitative inquiry course Strongly Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Agree Disagree The course objectives is clear The course procedures and assignments support course objectives The amount of reading you were asked to do was appropriate The amount of writing you were asked to do was enough

What overall rating would you give this course? Excellent Good Average Poor Very Poor What are the major strengths of this qualitative inquiry course?

What are the major weaknesses of this qualitative inquiry course?

24

Chapter 1: Sample Syllabus Design
III. General Evaluation of the Instructor Never Sometimes Usually Most Always of the time Could you get clear answers to your questions from the instructor? Was the instructor considerate to you? Was the instructor effective in teaching in the course? Was the instructor enthusiastic about the course?

What overall rating would you give to the instructor? Excellent Good Average Poor Very poor

What would you recommend to improve the instructor's teaching approaches?

25

Chapter 1: Sample Syllabus Design Sample Evaluation Summary
Quantitative Measures of Student Evaluation
Student Numerical Evaluation (Let students circle an option) Rate the amount of work you do in this course More than just what was assigned Just what was assigned Rate the level of your participations in the classroom activities of this course As a student and learner, how much useful knowledge and skills you gain from this course Enthusiastically Involved Involved Less Involved A great deal Enough Not Enough

%

%

%

General Evaluation of the Course Designed and Developed by [the name of the instructor] The objective of this course is clear The course procedures and assignments support course content and objectives The amount of reading and writing you are assigned to do is appropriate What overall rating you would give to this course Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Excellent Good So So % % % %

General Evaluation of the Instructor Can you give clear answers to any questions asked by this instructor? Is this instructor considerate to you? Is this instructor effective in teaching this course? Is the instructor enthusiastic about this course? What overall rating you would give to this instructor? Always Always Always Always Excellent Often Often Often Often Not Often Not Often Not Often Not Often % % % % %

Good Not Good Enough

Qualitative Measures of Peer & Student Evaluation: Peer Comments: Observations from Peers

-----Student Comments

------

26

PART

2

II Sample Lesson Plans

Sample Syllabus Design

28

A Course Packet & A Tipbook: THE EASY WAY
CHAPTER What is qualitative research?

2
Lesson Design Outline 1. Greetings, Get to Know Each Other, & Preview of this Semester 2. Objectives & Class Agenda 3. Lecture Content & Key Concepts 4. Suggested Readings

Why qualitative research? Methodology and Methods

5. Seminars & Class Discussion Exercises 6. Incorporation of E-Learning & Educational Technology 7. Sample Power Points

Week 1-2 Objectives: This seminar is aimed to introduce students with what and why qualitative research in behavioral and social scientific research, and applications to language and communication studies. Key Readings: HB, pp. 1-19 Class Agenda: Lecture &Seminar 1 (40 min), Break (10 min), and Lecture & Seminar 2 (40 min) 29

Foundation Period: Chapter 2 Lecture Content & Key Concepts: Fig 2.1: The scientific approach in general
Induction Theories Deduction

Facts

Research Methodology & Methods

Phenomena of Interests

Experimentations

Predictions

Note: A common scientific approach is “a systematized form of reflective thinking and inquiry.” In his influential work entitled How We Think, Dewey (1933/1991) outlined a broad paradigm of scholarly scientific inquiry. A qualitative research is an outgrowth of this basis.

What and why qualitative research? “Qualitative research spans a continuum of perspectives and approaches that include those that lie toward the realist/positivist end to those post-modern researchers that embrace pragmatist, constructivist and feminist epistemologies. The more “positivist” qualitative researchers build their work on conceptual frameworks and from the perspective of a more objective stance. Post-modern and feminist qualitative researchers, on the other hand, embrace subjectivity in research emphasizing the position and voice of the researcher in the process, and the participatory and collaborative nature of research. They embrace a range of perspectives and approaches that may be categorized as thematic, narrative, and arts-informed inquiry, and choose those that will best tell the stories of people who have been silenced. They seek to redress social justice issues and to make research accessible and useful.” –Source: Taken from Dr. Lynn Butler-Kisber, Interpretive Inquiry, online at the Web Site:

http://www.thelivingclassroom.com/content/syllabus.html 30

What and why qualitative research? One of the major things noticeable as you can visit and work with inquiry-based research programs and departments around different countries is how crucial it is that these institutes actively recognize the vital link between behavioral and social science learning and a broader agenda of field-site experiences for postgraduate students. However, there are still a whole lot qualitative research methodology courses that essentially exist as a class within a university building, and not quite much emphasis outside of that classroom boundary. You will see that those most successful and dynamic programs in behavioral and social science research methodology consistently make connections for postgraduate students between what they are learning from lectures, textbooks, and discussions within a classroom and what they are actually doing in their life beyond university campuses— learning from undertaking an inquiry-based research project.

A qualitative research course designer and/or planner should think of making these connections—understanding multiple perspectives from both classroom settings and outside classrooms and negotiate meaning across different socio-cultural identified target populations—as core parts of field-site competence. To prepare postgraduate students with field-site competence, instead of textbook knowledge, is what and why qualitative research in behavioral, social-scientific, and humanityfocused real-world learning all about.

For a lot of EFL and ESL postgraduate students coming from the quantitative tradition in Asian academia and having spent a good bit of their former graduate training and school years studying mathematics and statistics, the concept of qualitative research and field-site competence—understanding comes from insiders’ viewpoints from a target population and its local community—is in some 31

Foundation Period: Chapter 2 ways as still very quantitative notion. To clarify, qualitative research does not merely refer to the ways in which anthropologists, sociologists, and scholars in behavioral and social science will conduct their inquiry to find knowledge and understanding that resulted, but to a large and somewhat diverse body of disciplinary that has developed this line of research. Qualitative researchers are not just referring to certain fields of research, but to a wide range group of philosophers, social scientist, linguists, and so forth that identified with these knowledge gainers and reacted to their scholarly inquiry, writing, sharing, and dissemination of knowledge. Methodology and Methods “Methodology/paradigm is the theory of knowledge that underpins a research project and hence is the framework that guides a particular research project. While methods refer to the ways and techniques of gathering evidence for the research project (i.e., an interview protocol, an observation protocol, and a questionnaire).” ---Alister Jones, University of Waikato Suggested Readings: For further readings including 1) characteristics of qualitative research, 2) the nature of qualitative research, 3) six general steps in qualitative research, and 4) qualitative research approaches Please refer to the following text for a more fully and comprehensive description and explanation: Gay, L.R., & Airasian, P. (2003) (7th ed). Educational research: Competencies for analysis and applications, pp. 163-169, Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. 32

What and why qualitative research? Seminars & Class Discussion Exercises: Q: What were your perceptions toward language and communication research using qualitative research before you took this class? Q: In what ways qualitative research inquiries are different than traditional classroom lectures? • Summary of main points: Students are prompted to pause, ponder, and reflect what they have learnt from this lesson.

Companion Website: Incorporation of E-Learning & Educational Technology:
A t -H o me A ct i vi t y

• This online workplace, username, and passphrase are created by instructors who use this course packet & tipbook. • For further discussions extended beyond class time or to start a new topic of discussion in an online forum among the lecturer and students, please post comments, feedback, and new topic for discussion in PBWORKS online at pbworks.com. • Digital downloads for class materials, such as syllabus, sample scholarly articles, and weekly assignment guidelines, are accessible online for both instructors and students at pbworks.com Sample Power Points (Due to space limitation, do not include all power points):

WHAT and WHY do qualitative research? Research methodology/paradigms vs. methods

33

Foundation Period: Chapter 2 (Sample Power Points Continued)

WHAT is qualitative research? What is a scientific research in general? What is a qualitative research to you? Why should we do it?

WHY do qualitative research? Explore phenomena of interests Fill in knowledge gap

METHODOLOGY AND METHOD “Methodology is the theory of knowledge and the framework that guides a particular research project.” “Method refers to ways for gathering evidence,” including interviews, observations, surveys, ethnography, grounded theory, and so on ---Alister Jones, University of Waikato

34

A Course Packet & A Tipbook: THE EASY WAY
CHAPTER Postgraduate Qualitative Papers

3
1. Review Last Week’s Lesson 2. Key Readings

Paraphrasing vs. Plagiarism In-Text Citations and Reference Lists

Lesson Design Outline 6. Supplementary Readings 7. Seminars & Class Discussion Exercises 3. Objectives 8.Work-Integrated MiniWorkshops & Skill Building MiniWorkShop 4. Class Agenda 9. Incorporation of E-Learning & Educational Technology 5. Lecture Content & Key Concepts 10. Sample Power Points

35

Foundation Period: Chapter 3 Week 3 Key Readings: Readings due before class meets: HB, pp. 1-41

Objectives: 1. To understand social-scientific methods and their applications in language and communication discipline-related inquiry is one thing, but to enable students to be familiar with different formats and types of qualitative research papers in postgraduate-level is another. Thus, this class describes the main types and formats of postgraduate qualitative papers including master’s thesis, doctoral dissertations, referred journal papers, and so on. 2. Aim to introduce the difference between paraphrasing (cite other scholars’ works in other words) and plagiarism (use any portions of other scholars’ works without a proper acknowledgement) 3. Discussing how and what to cite other scholars’ works including in-text citations and ending reference lists, students apply the skills, techniques, and knowledge acquired in lecture to use and evaluate their in-text and ending reference citations during mini-workshops.

36

Different Types and Formats of Postgraduate-level Qualitative Papers Class Agenda: Lecture & Seminar 1: 7 graduate-level qualitative works (40 min) A. Master’s theses (60 pages) B. Qualifying papers (3 essay questions) C. Doctoral dissertations (6 chapters) D. International referred journal papers (4000-7000 words excluding reference list) E. Conference papers in proceedings (2000-3000 words excluding reference list) F. Book chapters G. Monographs Lecture & Seminar 2: (40 min) H. Paraphrasing vs. Plagiarism I. Permission summary; publication agreement, i.e., copyright J. APA format (American Psychological Association, 6th Edition) for in-text citations and reference list http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/ Break (10 min) Mini-workshop on APA style in-text citation and reference list (90 min)

Lecture Content & Key Concepts: 1. The lecturer selects and delineates different types and formats of qualitative research papers in postgraduate-levels. 7 different types of postgraduate qualitative papers: K. Master’s theses (60 pages) L. Qualifying papers (3 essay questions for take-home exams) 37

Foundation Period: Chapter 3 M. Doctoral dissertations (6 chapters) N. International referred journal papers (4000-7000 words excluding reference list) O. Conference papers in proceedings (2000-3000 words excluding reference list) P. Book chapters (45 pages) Q. Monographs 2. To exemplify what constitutes a paraphrased sentence and a plagiarized sentence from someone else’ scholarly works. This course values academic integrity. Thus, all students must understand the meaning and consequences of cheating, plagiarism, and other academic offences under the code of student conduct. 3. To exemplify in-text citations as well as ending reference lists from APA manual styles (American Psychological Association, 6th Edition or the latest edition) Supplementary Readings: http://www.indiana.edu/~citing/APA.pdf http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/

Seminars & Class Discussion Exercises: Q: What is the most important type and format of qualitative research paper for you now in this stage of your master level or doctoral level study? Q: Can you tell us briefly what is the fundamental difference between paraphrasing and plagiarizing someone’s scholarly work? Q: What should we pay close attention while citing someone’s scholarly works in in-texts and ending reference lists? 38

Different Types and Formats of Postgraduate-level Qualitative Papers • Summary of main points: Students are prompted to pause, ponder, and reflect what they have learnt from this lecture.

MiniWorkShop Work-Integrated Mini-Workshops & Skill Building: 1. Students practice outlining different formats (i.e., headings and subheadings) in different types of postgraduate qualitative papers 2. Students practice paraphrasing (or citing) 1-2 sentences from a scholarly work 3. Students practice in-text citations and ending reference list citations

Companion Website: Incorporation of E-Learning & Educational Technology:
A t -H o me A ct i vi t y

• This online workplace, username, and passphrase are created by instructors who use this course packet & tipbook. • For further discussions extended beyond class time or to start a new topic of discussion in an online forum among the lecturer and students, please post comments, feedback, and new topic for discussion in PBWORKS online at pbworks.com. • Digital downloads for class materials, such as syllabus, sample scholarly articles, and weekly assignment guidelines, are accessible online for both instructors and students at pbworks.com

39

Foundation Period: Chapter 3 Sample Power Points (Due to space limitation, do not include all power points):

Different types and formats postgraduate qualitative papers
1. Master’s thesis 2. Qualifying papers 3. Doctoral dissertations 4. Papers in conference proceedings 5. International referred journal papers 6. Monographs 7. Book chapters

of

PARAPHRASING VS. PLAGIARISM What is paraphrasing? What constitutes plagiarism?

IN-TEXT CITATIONS & REFERENCE LISTS APA format (American Psychological Association, 6th Edition) for in-text citations and reference list http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/5 60/01/

40

A Course Packet & A Tipbook: THE EASY WAY
CHAPTER Writing as performance:

4
Lesson Design Outline 1. Review Last Week’s Lesson

Art of borrowing from expert’s writing

A deductive/backward approach to a thesis/central argument/salient finding: make a case for your study Be like Beethoven; Do not be like Mozart; Revise your draft multiple times

5. Work-Integrated Mini-Workshops & Skill Building MiniWorkShop

2. Objectives & Class Agenda

6. Incorporation of E-Learning & Educational Technology

3. Lecture Content & Key Concepts: TIPS 4. Seminars & Class Discussion Exercises

7. Sample Power Points

41

Foundation Period: Chapter 4 Week 4 Lecture &Seminar 1 (40 min), Break (10 min), and Mini-Workshop (40 min)

Objectives: Students will be provided with TIPS in this lecture and seminar that may be useful when designing, conducting, and reporting a field research in writing, including 1) writing as performance: art of borrowing from expert’s writing, 2) A deductive/backward approach to a thesis/central argument/salient finding: make a case for your study, and 3) multiple draft process writing: be like Beethoven; do not be like Mozart; revise your draft multiple times.

Lecture Content & Key Concepts: TIPS ____________________________________________________________

1. Arts of borrowing from experts’ writings

You can be a good writer in EFL and ESL academic writing and just be a mediocre researcher to get your papers published. However, you cannot be a good

researcher but a bad writer to get your papers published.

For novice researchers who use English as a foreign or a second language, writing an academic paper might be challenging because they are unfamiliar with scholarly wordings/jargons used in academic-oriented referred manuscripts published in journals, conference proceedings, master’s thesis, and doctoral dissertations. They are highly recommended to read, borrow, and paraphrase manuscripts, no matter

42

Three Tips to Begin your Qualitative Inquiry publications in referred journals, monographs, and dissertations, and learn from experienced scholars’ wordings. Below is an example:

Ex. This work on [your target population’s] developments in [your phenomenon of interests] presents theoretical developments and empirical findings that have been yielded from [WHERE/a country your study undertakes]. A central theme—[your thesis/central argument/a salient finding]— and some accompanying sub-themes [………] are explored in detail: ………………………………………….

2. A deductive approach to center your whole research project on a thesis/central argument/salient finding (start from a thesis, then conduct your inquiry and formulate your whole paper backward)

Once upon a time, qualitative researchers were discouraged to review literature and formulate their theoretical frameworks before they entered into their field-sites, because their knowledge about relevant literature and theories can affect and shape what they see and what they not see in the field-sites. However, an inductive approach—thematic concepts/findings are unknown for qualitative researchers— might cause anxiety because of this uncertainty. An inductive approach to collect data and analyze data might be time-consuming and labor-intensive.

To do yourself a big favor and to save your time, you better explore your target population deductively if you undertake an empirical study. When you pilot your study, you better find out what is going to be your potential salient finding/a

43

Foundation Period: Chapter 4 thesis/a central argument. You are suggested to center on your central argument/a salient finding to formulate your whole paper.

For example, if you study trafficked child slaves from Cambodia to beg money in Bangkok, Thailand, and after you hang out with them for a while, you can center your whole paper on a thematic concept/a thesis/a central argument—trafficked child labors learn how to communicate in Thai language from streets instead of taking formal Thai language courses in schooling settings, and such informal street-based language and communication learning is more effective because it is context-embedded. Then, you can conduct your inquiry and write your paper backwardly to reframe your introduction section, background, context review, literature review, methodology and methods, finding reports, and conclusions.

Remember all you need is just one salient finding to make your research paper great. Often a salient finding comes from mundane things but never or rarely documented in literature before. Despite it might be documented before in a publication, you might find something different in your context.

When you analyze data, please do not use open coding schemes or even do coding at all. You only need to find out what can answer your research question(s) from your already managed data—what is your emerging central thematic concept/a thesis/a central argument/a salient finding.

Often times, your central argument is accompanied by other sub-thematic concepts. You will need to link them thematically together under a big thematic umbrella—your thesis/central argument/a salient finding. 44

Three Tips to Begin your Qualitative Inquiry

Remember your central argument is the cornerstone in your study. You always sit on your cornerstone wherever you go either to formulate introduction, background, literature review, methodology, finding report, conclusion, and discussion.

2.1: Argument for a correlation/causality

Every so often, a thesis in a qualitative research paper is to argue a causality/correlation, that means A leads to/correlates to B. You need to convince and persuade your readers that your central argument makes sense by presenting your evidence. Reading some books that show you how to make your argument strong is surely helpful for your academic career.

You can find this suggested book online in Amazon: Weston, A. (2000). A rulebook for arguments (third edition). Indianapolis/Cambridge: Hackett Publishing Company.

45

Foundation Period: Chapter 4 III. Theorizing Patterns a emerge after connecting two or more categories Multiplerecursive data narrowing cycles by constant comparison II. Categories Literature Review & and Theoretical Lens Research Questions Findings as final patterns

derived pattern

Initial

data

narrowing cycle by constant comparison I. Data set Inductive Interviews Diagram 4.1: A diagram of traditional procedure in qualitative data analysis 46 Inductive Observations

Three Tips to Begin your Qualitative Inquiry

I. Identification of a Salient Finding

When you enter field-sites, you hang out with participants and identify some potential salient findings for your study. Come up with a central argument based on your field experiences.

II.

Center

Center on your intriguing finding

Skip the step to categorize different around your to formulate your corresponsive themes central argument review relevant literature and recognize theoretical lens a to research question(s)

III. Selection of few cases/data/participants Selective that best exemplify to your desired Interviews and Selective Observations

results/findings observe them

interview

Diagram 4. 2: A diagram of backward qualitative study --reversal/deductive approach 47

Foundation Period: Chapter 4

3. Multiple draft process: be like Beethoven; do not be like Mozart

The analogy of writing a qualitative research paper can be better understood by introducing two prominent musicians at all times, namely Mozart and Beethoven. Most of us are like Beethoven who revised songs he composed over and over again until he finished his final draft. As such, “process writing,” as it was typically called in the field of second language writing, takes multiple drafts to write a research paper. As process writers, we tend to write a rough first draft. After we receive feedback and comments from our academic advisors and peer reviewers, we revise our draft based on their feedback and comments. After we are done couple revisions, we may submit our final drafts to our academic advisors, course instructors, thesis directors, and dissertation chairs. Mozart, on the other hand, (according to legends) is gifted to write a song without revisions as “product writing.” However, we are not as talented as Mozart was. We definitely need to take multiple drafts of time to write a research paper.

Mozart 48

Beethoven

Three Tips to Begin your Qualitative Inquiry The implication of Mozart as a product writer and Beethoven as a process writer to us is that when an college-level and postgraduate level instructor designs a syllabus for his/her students, he/she should let his/her students draft their final paper at least two runs before they submit to him/her. In other words, students write their first draft as a midterm paper. After receiving feedback and comments from their academic advisors, course instructors, and peers, they revise their papers based on these suggestions and prompt feedback they receive in their first run of multiple draft process writing. They, then, submit their second draft as a prior-final paper to let their academic advisors, course instructors, and peers comment and critique on it. Students may refine their content of their papers after they receive feedback, comments, and suggestions from their academic advisors, course instructors, and peers in their second round of multiple draft process writing. Thus, their final papers have been refined couple times through multiple draft process writing and are about ready to submit as their final assessment or evaluation from their course instructors.

We are process writers rather than product writers. Similar to Beethoven, we cannot finish a research paper all at once. We are not as talented as Mozart was to write a song without revisions. A qualitative research paper needs lots of

revisions. We should expect a time length that allows multiple drafts before our final draft is completed. After we write our first draft, we might read it over, and wait for feedback and comments from our peer reviewers and advisors. Based on these feedback and comments we received pertaining our first draft, we revise our paper. This recursive way of multiple drafts writing process should go on and on until we are done our final draft.

49

Foundation Period: Chapter 4 Reminder: College-level as well as postgraduate level lecturers and instructors in research methodology courses are recommended to design their syllabi that allow their students to write a research paper multiple times before they are confident to submit their final draft/final paper.

Seminars & Class Discussion Exercises: • Summary of main points: Students are prompted to pause, ponder, and reflect what they have learnt TIPS from this lecture.

MiniWorkShop Work-Integrated Mini-Workshops & Skill Building: Students are guided to apply what they learnt TIPS from this lecture and seminar to borrow and paraphrase from senior scholars’ writings, and conduct a multiple-draft process writing.

Companion Website: Incorporation of E-Learning & Educational Technology:
A t -H ome A ct i vi t y

• This online workplace, username, and passphrase are created by instructors who use this course packet & tipbook. • For further discussions extended beyond class time or to start a new topic of discussion in an online forum among the lecturer and students, please post comments, feedback, and new topic for discussion in PBWORKS online at pbworks.com. • Digital downloads for class materials, such as syllabus, sample scholarly articles, and weekly assignment guidelines, are accessible online for both instructors and students at pbworks.com Students are asked to post what do they find out any potential salient finding/thesis/central argument in PB wiki and share with the whole class online

50

Three Tips to Begin your Qualitative Inquiry in a forum after they entered into a field-site to study their target populations and. Sample Power Points (Due to space limitation, do not include all power points):

Writing as performance: Art of borrowing from expert’s writing

A deductive/backward approach to a thesis/central argument/salient finding: make a case for your study

MULTIPLE DRAFT PROCESS WRITING Be like Beethoven; Do not be like Mozart; Revise your draft multiple times

51

Foundation Period: Chapter 4

52

A Course Packet & A Tipbook: THE EASY WAY
CHAPTER First Draft of

5
Lesson Design Outline 1. Review Last Week’s Lesson

Research Topic, Research Purpose, Research Question, and Literature Review

6. Reminder: Common Challenges to Literature Review

2. Key Readings

7. Seminars & Class Discussion Exercises

3. Objectives

8. Work-Integrated Mini-Workshops & Skill Building MiniWorkShop

4. Class Agenda

9. Incorporation of E-Learning & Educational Technology

5. Lecture Content & Key Concepts

10. Sample Power Points

TIPS
53

Foundation Period: Chapter 5 Week 5

Key Readings: Readings due before class meets: SM, pp. 55-76 & HB, pp. 19-33

Objectives: 1. This lesson is aimed to produce students who not only have firm grounding, but also have tips to formulate research topics, research problems, research purposes, and research questions. 2. By the end of this class, students will be able to review relevant literature and theoretical framework/conceptual framework with analogies: Binoculars vs. magnifiers—analogies of the literature review and the theoretical framework/conceptual framework

Class Agenda: Lecture & Seminar 1: Introduction & Research Topic (40 min) A. Find your fields of study; locate journals in academic citation indexes (i.e., SSCI and EBSCO) and Academic Publishing Houses (i.e., London and New

54

First round of research topic, purpose, question, and literature review York: Routledge, Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, Wily-Blackwell, and University of Oxford Press). http://library.nida.ac.th/index.php?lang=en B. Identify an under addressed issue that is researchable; Formulate a research topic C. Background of your study; Context review chronically

Lecture & Seminar 2: Literature Review (40 min) A. Research perspectives that best frame your study B. Analogy of literature review as a binocular C. Analogy of a theoretical framework or conceptual framework as a magnifying glass Break (10 min) Mini-workshop on Research Topics, Research Purposes, Research Questions, and Literature Review Outline (Learning Methods: Learning by Doing) (90 min)

Lecture Content & Key Concepts:

TIPS ____________________________________________________
1. Replication and modification of research topics from literature

A qualitative research topic should be a singled out-, full-length-, and state-of-art treatment. Avoid using jargons (no one knows what you meant but only people in your fields of study), big words, i.e., those in GRE, in your research topic. If your research topic exceeds more than 15 words, please edit your title so that it has 1214 words. 55

Foundation Period: Chapter 5 While formulating your research topic(s), you can search for current issues and past issues in achieves from referred journals in your areas of study, finding literature/journal manuscripts and existing theories that can be modified to fit your hunches regarding thesis/central arguments on your target population.

It is nearly impossible to select a totally new research topic. However, to replicate an old research topic in a different context can find something different and add to our current knowledge. For example, some scholars did a study in U.S.A. You might replicate his or her study and modify it to fit into your country.

No leading researchers can ever exhaust any given fields of study. Thus, possibly you might study something unnew but never documented before in a formal research paper.

A research topic should reflect on WHO, WHAT, and WHERE as well as paraphrasing your salient finding/thesis/central argument. To select a research topic might start from WHO/target population you want to study, for example, you might study refugee youth, trafficked street child slaves, teenage mothers, immigrant women, orphans, to name few, in the field of social and behavioral sciences. As WHO is under study appears in your research topic, you can borrow these templates, for example: Ex. voices from homeless Ex. lessons learned from transnational marriage couples Ex. the case of hill tribal indigenous youth

56

First round of research topic, purpose, question, and literature review As qualitative approach explores WHAT (descriptive) a phenomenon of interest is and WHY (explanatory; interpretive) it is so, one of the TIPS for selecting a research topic may consider WHAT you want to study in your target population, for instance: Ex. rethinking narrative stories of teenage mothers Ex. examining code-switch to hip-hop terms among street dance crews Ex. exploring learning styles adopted by students with disability Ex. conceptualizing the discourse of trafficked child slaves

Another tip to formulate your research topic is to name WHERE/a country your study takes place.

Combined with above-mentioned TIPS, the following templates might be useful to formulate your research topic(s): Ex. Exploring WHAT in WHO/target population: The case of WHERE/a country wherein your study conducts Ex. Examining WHAT among WHO/target population: Lessons learned from WHERE/a country whereby your research project carries out Ex. WHAT leads to/correlates with WHAT in WHERE/a country where your study undertakes: Voices from WHO/subjects

2. A research problem/knowledge gap needs to be filled in

In formulating your research problem(s), it is safe to identify a knowledge gap that needs to be addressed and use the following templates, for example: Ex. Little is known about the phenomenon of interest 57

Foundation Period: Chapter 5 Ex. The phenomenon is often hidden from its outsiders Ex. There is a scarcity of knowledge on WHOM/your target population from their insider’s view.

3. Research purposes reflect your inquiry as both basic/fundamental and applied research;

Qualitative research confirms or disconfirms existing theories and finds out emerging thematic concept(s)

Your research purposes should be both basic/fundamental and applied.

A

basic/fundamental research project should contribute to our knowledge base by filling in a knowledge gap. An applied field of study should provide suggestions, implications, and recommendations to policy makers, practitioners, to name few. A study using qualitative approach is usually aimed at confirming and/or disconfirming existing theories as well as finding out emerging thematic concept(s) (emerging theories are difficult to be emerged).

The following templates might be helpful to formulate your research purposes: Ex. This inquiry is aimed to describe (WHAT/description/ethnography-oriented) your phenomenon of interests. Ex. This study is strived to understand and explain

(WHY/explanation/interpretation/grounded theory-oriented) your phenomenon of interests.

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First round of research topic, purpose, question, and literature review 4. Posing research questions to answer WHAT, WHY and HOW

Your research questions should be both descriptive (ethnography-oriented— WHAT) and explanatory/interpretive—seeking for understanding (grounded theory-oriented—WHY and HOW). In formulating your research question(s), these following templates might be helpful: Ex. WHAT are your target populations’ perceptions and experiences of ….? Ex. In what ways/under what circumstances/HOW your target populations develop…..

Reminder: To be safe, your research purpose(s), answer(s) to your research question(s) and finding (s) that resulted can be to confirm findings from other scholarly works that are previously published. However, a salient finding/a

thesis/a central argument/ the cornerstone for your entire research paper will be significant if it is somehow different than other works done in different contexts than yours or it disconfirms and/or contradicts to other early works in your fields of interest.

5. No matter what formats and types of qualitative research paper you are writing, your paper should be able to answer the following two questions:

1) How is your study contributed to and add to our current understanding in a body of literature/a field of study/a discipline? 2) How is your research findings supported or contradicted by

literature/research perspectives?

59

Foundation Period: Chapter 5 Note: Your salient findings might disconfirm or contradict to some common notions and beliefs in some established fields.

That’s why you need to review existing literature/other scholarly works published to see what your contribution in your undertaking is. Below is an example of how comparing existing literature and empirical data from a qualitative inquiry can find salient research results. Ex. Some scholars agree that women tend to be more innovative linguistically than men and utilize more advanced, newer, and prestigious forms of languages (Gal, 1978, pp. 1-16; Smith-Hefnir, 2009, pp. 57–77). For instance, Gal studied 18 women and 14 men in Oberwart, a German-Hungarian bilingual town located in the province of Burgenland in eastern Austria, and found that young women influenced the whole community into a language shift from German- Hungarian bilingualism toward monolingual German. Linguistic code change symbolizes social change. The speech choices of Hungarian-German bilingual women indicate their social positions. Those men speaking the Hungarian language are considered farmers and identified with local agricultural and negative connotations. However, those speaking the German language have a more affluent status, and, even though they are employed in factories, represent money and prestige (Gal, 1978, pp. 1-16). Therefore, women in this town did not want to associate with Hungarian speaking men and attempted to speak German to signal that they were superior working class than Hungarian speaking male farmers. Coupled with Susan Gal’s observation, Smith-Hefner’s (2009) study in the city of Yogyakarta in Indonesia shows that young women tried to speak the 60

First round of research topic, purpose, question, and literature review national language—Indonesian—to signalize their new working class, contrasted to Java (indigenous language) speaking men. In other words, these German

speaking women and Indonesian speaking young women did not want to speak like some men in their countries. In the above-mentioned two cases, women chose to speak a prestigious language, i.e., German and Indonesian, to distinguish themselves from men’s languages which are in close association with farming/agriculture (Hungarian language in Gal’ study context) and primitive living (Java language in SmithHefner’s study context). However, in a ongoing research inquiry conducted by a current doctoral student in Thailand show somehow contradictory to this trend: empirical and convincing data from her study show wives (women) of physicians/medical doctors (men) in Thailand code-switched to their husband’s medical- and English terminologies in more than one conversation event as to signalize their higher social status in association with their husbands. In remark contrast to Gal’s and Smith-Hefner’s findings, these wives/women of medical doctors want to speak like some men (their husbands) in their country.

References: Gal, S. 1978. Peasant men can’t get wives: Language change and sex roles in a bilingual community. Language in Society 7/1: 1–16. Smith-Hefner, N. J. 2009. Language Shift, Gender, and Ideologies of Modernity in Central Java, Indonesia. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 19 /1: 57–77.

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Foundation Period: Chapter 5 6. Borrowing and paraphrasing from already reviewed literature in dissertations and referred journal manuscripts to frame key elements in your literature review sections

You start reviewing relevant literature from macro-level contexts to micro-level individual practices. For instance, let’s say, if you study e-portfolio assessments, you probably begin to review what does existing literature say about portfolio assessments in general and then you shift over to review what is e-portfolio assessments in particular.

To do yourself a big favor and save your precious time, you can borrow some already reviewed literature form dissertations and referred journal manuscripts if you and the dissertation’s and journal papers’ authors share the same and/or similar line of research topics. However, you do not copy and paste word-to-word of literature review sections from their dissertations and journal manuscripts to yours. You will need to paraphrase them and modify them to fit into your manuscripts. Microsoft Word Document has a function to help you find synonyms in replacement of some words you borrow and paraphrase from someone else’s works to avoid plagiarism.

Definition of a theoretical/conceptual framework Every research study is an outgrowth of its disciplinary orientation. The

theoretical underpinnings that serve as an underlying structure to frame your study are theoretical frameworks or conceptual frameworks. Note that these two terms are inter-changeable.

62

First round of research topic, purpose, question, and literature review Fig 5.1: The theoretical framework
Theoretical Framework

Problem Statement Purpose of Study

Source: Taken from Merriam, 2009, p. 68

In Merriam’s interlocking frames as visually demonstrated in Fig 4.1, the purpose of study is lodged within the problem of statement. Moreover, the problem of statement is lodged within the theoretical framework.

Reference: Merriam, S. B. (2009). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey- Bass.

63

Foundation Period: Chapter 5 7. Analogies for the literature review and the theoretical framework/the conceptual framework: Binocular versus Magnifier

To distinguish literature review from theoretical framework, two analogies might be helpful: Disciplinary orientation that frames your study is like a landscape and/or a big picture. Literature review will be like to view your studies relevant to the big picture/background/context/landscape and identify gaps that need filling.

Fig 5.2: Analogy of literature review

Photo credits: Taken from the Web Site at http://www.binoculars.com/

A theoretical framework and/or a conceptual framework are like a magnifying glass/magnifier to look into how this lens zooms in to see the research study. Fig 5.3: Analogy of the theoretical framework or the conceptual framework

64

First round of research topic, purpose, question, and literature review Photo credits: Taken from the Web Site at http://www.photoshopcstutorial.com/beginner-photoshop-tutorials/magnify-photozoom-effect.php

Source: These two analogies are taken from Assistant Professor Dr. Peter Cowan (Ph.D., University of California at Berkley) in the Department of Literacy, Culture and Language Education in the School of Education at the Indiana UniversityBloomington, Indiana, USA

Note: Prof. Dr. Merriam at University of Georgia and Asst. Prof. Dr. Peter Cowan at Indiana University share different views on what constitutes the theoretical framework.

BOX 5.1: Reminder of Common Challenges to Literature Review The literature review section should not only include works from before a certain year without any updates, because it is too narrow a coverage for a subject. If there is no evidence that any newer works have been surveyed and included in a literature review section, your work will fail to identify a knowledge gap that needs to be filled in.

Seminars & Class Discussion Exercises: • Talk and share your proposed research topic • Talk and share what is an emerging issue identified in your area of study and a knowledge gap needed to be filled in • Talk and share your research purposes 65

Foundation Period: Chapter 5 • Summary of main points: Please pause, ponder, and reflect what you have learnt TIPS from this lecture & seminar

MiniWorkShop Work-Integrated Mini-Workshops & Skill Building: Students will draft their research topics, research purposes, research questions, and literature review (Learning Methods: Learning by Doing)

Companion Website: Incorporation of E-Learning & Educational Technology:
A t -H o me A cti vi t y

• This online workplace, username, and passphrase are created by instructors who use this course packet & tipbook. • For further discussions extended beyond class time or to start a new topic of discussion in an online forum among the lecturer and students, please post comments, feedback, and new topic for discussion in PBWORKS online at pbworks.com. • Digital downloads for class materials, such as syllabus, sample scholarly articles, and weekly assignment guidelines, are accessible online for both instructors and students at pbworks.com

Sample Power Points (Due to space limitation, do not include all power points):

TIPS
Replication and modification of research topics from literature

66

First round of research topic, purpose, question, and literature review (Sample Power Points Continued)

TIPS
A research problem/knowledge gap needs to be filled in

TIPS
Research purposes reflect your inquiry as both basic/fundamental and applied research

TIPS
Posing research questions to answer WHAT, WHY and HOW

67

Foundation Period: Chapter 5 (Sample Power Points Continued)

TIPS
No matter what formats and types of qualitative research paper you are writing, your paper should be able to answer the following two questions:

(Cont) 1) How is your study contributed to and add to our current understanding in literature/a field of study? 2) How is your research findings supported or contradicted by literature/research perspectives?

TIPS
Borrowing and paraphrasing from already reviewed literature in dissertations and referred journal manuscripts to frame key elements in your literature review sections

68

A Course Packet & A Tipbook: THE EASY WAY
CHAPTER Data Collection

6
Lesson Design Outline 1. Review Last Week’s Lesson 2. Key Readings 6. Seminars &

& Research Instruments

5. Lecture Content & Key Concepts TIPS

Class Discussion Exercises 3. Objectives 7. Work-Integrated Mini-Workshops & Skill Building MiniWorkShop 4. Class Agenda 8. Incorporation of E-Learning & Educational Technology 9. Sample Power Points

69

Foundation Period: Chapter 6 Week 6

Key Readings: Readings due before class meets: SM, pp. 76-137 & HB, pp. 34-74

Objectives: 1. Students will learn to gather informed and impartial data sources in an ethical manner. 2. Students will be provided with handy templates to help them collect and manage empirical data. 3. Students will be given suggestions to help them analyze data.

Class Agenda: Lecture & Seminar (80 min) A. Ethical guidelines; human subject offices; Relationship between a researcher and his/her research participants B. Access to research sites; the communities that are of interest to you C. Sampling; participants/informants/subjects D. Recruitment scripts; informed consent statements 70

First round of data collection & research instruments E. Primary and secondary data sources F. Interview protocol; observation protocol G. Validity and reliability of data; peer debriefing; member checks; triangulation Break (10 min) Mini-workshop (90 min)

Lecture Content & Key Concepts: TIPS____________________________________________________________

1. Select informed and impartial samples

Government might try to limit the information about what is really happening in some sensitive places whereby your study is carried out. Thus, you do not merely rely on the government officials for information. People other than government who have the most at stake are usually not the best sources of information about issues involved. Thus, informed and impartial data sources should be including: Representative examples from former and current members in your field-sites and independent service people—NGOs (if applicable to your study context). Data in your inquiry cannot be in support of a generalization. Also note that names of participants cannot be revealed for protection reasons. You should not allow few vivid examples and striking cases outweigh careful annual reports. The researcher also carefully triangulates empirical data with existing literature and/or other scholarly works that document the same or similar issues among your target population.

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Foundation Period: Chapter 6 Despite information might be fragmentary due to limited accessibilities created by government and NGOs for protection reasons and quantity of information might not guarantee quality and comprehensibility of your data, you still need to strive to seek informed and impartial data sources including information-rich cases (a case is defined as a bounded system; see Merriam, 2009, pp. 40-43, emphasis in original) through ongoing snowball, chain and/or network sampling. A key

informant usually refers the inquirer to other potential participants. Data sources such as key informants should be qualified to make the statements they make. Thus, criteria are established for selecting purposive samples or purposeful sampling: seek representative samples who represent a typical and/or most likely case, seek independent data sources who are unaffiliated with government and who do not be in support of or oppose to any specific government, consider countersamples but do not allow one vivid example outweigh other typical cases.

Gathering data through interviews, observations, and documents is about asking, watching, and reviewing (Wolcott, 1992). Pilot interviews need to be tried out in few earlier informal visits with respondents, i.e., on-site administrators, on-site members, to name a few. Person-to-person, focus group, and electronic In basic and applied fields of practice,

interviewing can be conducted.

interviewing is probably a common data collection technique, because the inquirer cannot observe how informants interpret their behaviors in relation to your study and past events occurred to them with regard to activities relevant to your study are impossible to replicate now. Placed in a continuum, a range of interview structure adopted varies from wording of interview questions predetermined (highly structured interviews), questionnaire-based interviews/oral surveys to semistructured and/or open-ended conversational interviews used flexibility (less and/or 72

First round of data collection & research instruments no structured interviews). In addition to person-to-person interviews, focus group interviews allow informants to hear each other’s responses and to make additional reflections and comments, which go beyond their own initial responses and thoughts. Finally, the interviewer-respondent interaction through electronic

interviews with one or two key informants, along with post-interview notes, yields meaningful data. Interview verbatim transcriptions should be prepared to enable intensive analysis.

In addition to interview data, being an observer to jot down field-notes renders the inquirer with observational data which can provide firsthand encounter with the phenomenon of interest. Those observed and consented are referred as

participants, whereas those observed but un-consented walking in and going out field-sites are referred as subjects in a qualitative study. On-site observation is needed when respondents may be unwilling to and/or may not feel free to talk about and discuss with sensitive topics. The focus paid by the observer allows events and episodes to emerge over the course of on-site observation, while observing the physical setting, the participants and subjects, interactions, and spontaneous conversations until saturation of information. The observer switches his or her role back and forth between and among complete participant, participant as observer, observer as participants/an insider’s identity, to complete observer from time to time to be responsive to the observed. Notice that the task of on-site observation and an observer’s presence may or may not be likely to disrupt and/or alter the “custom and practice built up over years” in a setting (Frankenberg, 1982, p. 51). This issue about an observer’s presence, then, is open to debate.

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Foundation Period: Chapter 6 Combined with interview data and observational data, documents or documentary materials, nevertheless, are not produced with the researcher’s aims of study in mind. Even so, public/official records that report annually published are readymade sources and easily accessible online. Moreover, electronic newspapers

and/or media coverage of incidents featuring your target population are also served as stimulus to direct paths of this current inquiry. Incorporated as document-typed data sources too are films, videos produced by NGOs concerned with your target population, and participant-generated and/or non-participant-generated

photographs—visual documents retrieved online through the world wide website. Despite their various forms, the data obtained from documents—official documents and personal documents—afford stability, supplement descriptive narratives to disseminate findings, verify emerging hypotheses, and further advance the flow of this study.

Besides data collection, data analysis consists of a non-linear and non-step-by-step process. Data collection and analysis are seen as simultaneous activity in a

qualitative study. Emerging hunches and tentative hypotheses derived from every new set of data lead to the next round of data collection, which in turn results in reconfiguration of new data set, reinterpretation of perceptions as well as refinement of data analysis. Coding schemes are employed to ensure easier data management and analysis, enabling pieces of data retrievable. Category schemes emerged are utilized to answer the research question(s). Though there is always a temptation to pursue more participants to be interviewed, another on-site phenomenon of interest to be observed, and another document to be reviewed, category schemes are ultimately merged under a big umbrella theme—a thesis/a

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First round of data collection & research instruments central argument/the cornerstone to base your whole study—indicating their saturation toward the end of this data collection.

References: Frankenberg, R. (1982). Participant observers. In R. G. Burgess (Ed.), field manual (pp. 50-52).

Field research: A sourcebook and London: Allen & Unwin.

Wolcot, H.F. (1992). Posturing in qualitative inquiry. In M. W.L. Millroy, & J. Preissle

D.

LeCompte,

(Eds.), The handbook of qualitative

research in education (pp. 3-52). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.

2. Handy templates to guide your data collection and data management along the way

The section below provides some convenient templates of tables to help EFL/ESL postgraduate students and novice qualitative inquirers gather and manage data. Data sources are tied with research sites. If compared a single research site with multiple research sites, multiple-site approach will be more valid because a single research site cannot adequately reflect a trend. For example, if a scholar from Japan wants to study what college-level students do in Thailand after 6PM, he/she is recommended to visit several university campuses. Students from researchfocused universities are engaged in academic activities, whereas students from community-based universities might join social clubs to dance hip-hop, sing pop songs in karaoke, and playing online games. A researcher, ideally speaking, should visit multiple sites before he/she can draw any conclusions.

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Foundation Period: Chapter 6 In considering data sources, a planned time table for data collection is needed to help you obtain data. You better set a completion time for each different data set. This is just a plan, because when actually collecting data, you might need to extend or shorten your time for gathering data. You probably need to draw a table of data sources and a table of planned time schedule for data collection in your doctoral dissertation, because a dissertation is supposed to be in details. However, due to space constrain and word limit, you do not need them in a conference paper and in a journal paper. Please see a sample of data source table and a sample of planned timeline for data collection below: Data Sources Primary Data Sources: • Individual interview participants **The secondary data sources • Focus group interview are used as references in the data discussion only and may not be included as actual data. ** • Focal field-notes from observing participants in multiple sites one-on-one data from Secondary Data Sources: • Literature in ……fields of study/discipline

Table 6.1: A sample table of data sources Reminder: You do not gather anything in everything from interviews and observations for your data, but only collect those best exemplify the case/the central argument/the thesis you want to make in your research paper. 76

First round of data collection & research instruments
Planned Collection Timeline for Data By the end By the end By the end By the end of month: …year • Initial sites • Obtaining informed consent • Data collection for a small-scale pilot study that tries out part of or the whole research plan • Searching and reading literature that relates to …fields of study • Digital-audio interviews participants • Focus group interviews • Focal field-notes from observing participants interacting with one another, dialoguing with ● ● from recorded individual ● meeting with the ● … of month: …year … of month: …year … of month: …year …

administrator of multiple field-

administrators and listening to spontaneous conversations multiple sites Completion of data collection 30% 50% 80% 100% in

Table 6.2: A sample table of planned timeline for data collection

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Foundation Period: Chapter 6 Handy templates for designing your research instruments: Recruitment scripts, informed consent statements, interview protocols, and observation protocols

You do not need to include these above forms in a conference paper and in a journal paper because of space constrain and word limit. However, you need to include them in your dissertation because your dissertation should be written in detail describing how your data are gathered. Research instruments are what you use to collect data. Recruitment scripts and informed consent statements can be your research instruments too. The purpose of a recruitment script is to help you communicate effectively with your potential research participants/target population when trying to recruit them for your study. You do not come into a field-site without preparing what to say to your potential participants. Thus, type your recruitment scripts, print them out, and bring them with you to your field-sites. Do not be overly confident about what are you going to say in recruiting your potential research participants. A hard copy of your recruit scripts can help you calm down (though you are still nervous) when trying to talk to strangers who are your potential research respondents and convincing them to take part in your study. Normally in your recruitment scripts, you include following messages to announce to your potential research participants: purpose of study, how much time commitments, potential risks and benefits, your contact information, i.e., address, email address, and cell phone number. When recruiting potential

informants, you better let them know that you will give them some small door prizes or gifts, i.e., coupons that they can use to buy stationary or school supplies for their children, chocolates, snacks, and so on in a local grocery store. see a sample of recruitment scripts below: 78 Please

First round of data collection & research instruments You are invited to participate in a research study entitled, “...”

The purpose of this study is to……This study acknowledges that ….. Therefore, the intent of this study is to explore daily interaction with …. It particularly aims at examining how they develop in learning …. It investigates how their ….. Participation in this study requires at least ___ minute time commitment. During this time, you will participate in a one-on-one face-to-face interview with … for one hour and group interviews. Each interview usually lasts for one hour. You will be observed by … for …. months of time.

The interview questions are about your experiences as an ….. in your daily life. Your participation is voluntary. You may decide to stop participating and withdraw from this study at any time. It is your right to refrain from answering any questions you do not want to answer on either group interviews or an individual interview.

The potential benefits of your participation are several. First, you will have an opportunity to reflect on your experiences in …….. This reflection may help you to be a more effective ….user by raising your awareness and areas for potential sociocognitive growth. Secondly, many …. report that they experience a sense of relief when given the opportunity to share their narrative stories regarding their concerns in …… development. Lastly, your participation may benefit other individuals who have the same background as you have to help them reconceptualize …and meet their various needs related to ….. The potential risks of this study are experiencing discomfort as you address issues related to your daily interaction with ……. 79

Foundation Period: Chapter 6 (continued)

If you are interested in being interviewed as a part of this study, please contact: Name(s) of researcher(s) Local address of researcher(s) Cell phone#: ………..; telephone #: …….; Email address:

Table 6.3: A sample of recruitment scripts

Similar to a recruitment script mentioned above, an informed consent statement also provides information about purpose of your study, potential risks and benefits. However, you need to stress in your informed consent statement that confidentiality of your participants is your first priority and only you can access their data. No one else can access their data including their administrators,

teachers, friends, and family members. Included in an informed consent statement is the voluntary nature of participating in your study. Your human subjects can drop from participating in your study anytime they want and does not affect your relationship with him/her. Do not worry about some participants dropping out from taking part in your study. Because when your research results emerged, you do not need a whole stack of data but few that can best exemplify some salient research findings—A big thematic concept. Different than a recruitment script, you need to describe what participants do in your study in an informed consent statement. You better describe clearly what is step 1, step 2, step 3 and so forth. Moreover, at the end of your informed consent statement, you need to let your participants and yourself sign, and print out one copy to let your participant keep it for himself/herself and you keep your own hard copy of this signed informed 80

First round of data collection & research instruments consent statement. In case your informants cannot sign a written consent with you, you can get a verbal consent from them. If you need to conduct in a huge field-site and it is not feasible to let every participant consents, you at least get permission from the head of administration to allow you undertaking your study in his/her field-site. And, your contact information including your address, email address, and cell phone numbers are the must in your informed consent statement. Please see a sample of informed consent statements below:

INFORMED CONSENT STATEMENT Research title:…… You are invited to participate in a study of exploring …. development ….among [target population/participants] in [multiple sites in what city and what country]. You have been asked to participate, because this study focuses on hearing voices of …... We ask that you read this form and ask any questions you may have before agreeing to be in the study. The study is being conducted by ….. with the department of [your affiliation] at ……. University.

STUDY PURPOSE The intent of this study is to explore daily interaction with …. among communities of ….. in …..[name of city and country]. It particularly aims to examine how you jointly develop the …. and ….. in transnational contexts. In other words, it investigates how your ….., , shape your … experiences in [name of field-sites].

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Foundation Period: Chapter 6 (Continued) NUMBER OF PEOPLE TAKING PART IN THE STUDY: If you agree to participate, you will be one of …. …. who will be participating in this study. You and other …. in these field-sites represent ….. communities in the range of potential ….. in …. with ages ranging from the early … to late ….

PROCEDURES FOR THE STUDY: If you agree to be in the study, you will do the following things: • You will meet ….. privately, one-on-one, in a classroom at this field site without any other people present. This interview is scheduled for one hour in length. Frequent barriers preventing you from attending this field-site are lack of transportation, child care, program locations, and schedules. Interviews should be scheduled to avoid times participants would have the normal family responsibilities of children, older family members, or jobs to help support the family. So, the procedure of your individual interview will not be given to you until an appointment time and place has been arranged and mutually agreed upon between [name(s) of researcher(s)] and you in this field-site. • Focus group interviews: This type of interview is scheduled for one hour in length. The schedule of the group interviews with other participants in the field-site will be as follows: The first group interview is at the end of ….. month. The second group interview is by the end of … month. The third group interview is toward the end of .. month .

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First round of data collection & research instruments (Continued) • Your interaction with each other, dialogues with teachers, and spontaneous conversations in this field site will be observed by [name(s) of researcher(s)] for … hours a day, …. days a week, and last for …. months.

RISKS OF TAKING PART IN THE STUDY: Any participation in this research study might risk the loss of privacy. Thus, to protect the privacy of you and to minimize any external influences on your responses, interviews will be conducted individually in a classroom separated from other members involved in this study at this field site. However, focus group

interviews will be inevitably conducted in a group setting. After each group interview, follow-up interviews will be conducted in private setting only between me and you. For your privacy protection, you make an appointment with ___ for individual follow-up interviews to express freely and clarify what you meant during group interviews. Before an interview begins, [name(s) of the

researcher(s)] will confirm that you understand your confidentiality is protected.

Another potential risk of this study in experiencing discomfort as you address issues related to your daily interaction with [WHAT/research topic] in [WHERE/your inquiry takes place].

BENEFITS OF TAKING PART IN THE STUDY: The potential benefits of your participation are several. First, you will have an opportunity to reflect on your experiences in …. development as an ….. in …[WHERE/name of country where you conduct your study]. This reflection may help you to be a more effective …. user by raising your awareness and areas 83

Foundation Period: Chapter 6 (Continued)

for potential socio-cognitive growth. Secondly, many …. report that they experience a sense of relief when given the opportunity to share their narrative stories regarding their concerns in ….development in ….. Lastly, your participation may benefit other individuals who have the same …. background as you have to help them conceptualize …. and meet their various needs related to ….

CONFIDENTIALITY Efforts will be made to keep your personal information confidential. We cannot guarantee absolute confidentiality. Your personal information may be disclosed if required by law. Collected interview data will be stored securely. Only ….., the primary investigator, will have access to it. Real names will not be used, when interview data is transcribed and analyzed. You will be identified by a pseudonym, a fictitious name in this study. The researcher(s) will keep documents in a locked case. He/she will never permit the documents to be out of his/her possession, while he/she is at the site. Your administrator and teachers in this site WILL NOT have access to your individual data.

Organizations that may inspect and/or copy your research records for quality assurance and data analysis include groups such as the study investigator and his/her research associates, the Institutional Review Board (IRB) or its designees, and (as allowed by law) state or federal agencies, specifically the Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP).

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First round of data collection & research instruments (Continued) CONTACTS FOR QUESTIONS OR PROBLEMS You may ask any questions about this study at any time. If you have questions about the study, you should contact …at Phone #: ……..;Email address:………… For questions about your rights as a research participant or to discuss problems, complaints or concerns about a research study, or to obtain information, or offer input, contact the Human Subjects office, address:………… or by email at …

VOLUNTARY NATURE OF STUDY Taking part in this study is voluntary. You may choose not to take part or may leave the study at any time. Leaving the study will not result in any penalty or loss of benefits to which you are entitled. Your decision whether or not to participate in this study will not affect your current or future relations with the investigator(s).

SUBJECT’S CONSENT In consideration of all of the above, I give my consent to participate in this research study. I will be given a copy of this informed consent document to keep for my records. I agree to take part in this study. Subject’s Printed Name: _____________ Subject’s Signature: ________________ (must be dated by the subject)

Date: ____

Printed Name of Person Obtaining Consent: ____________ Signature of Person Obtaining Consent: _________Date: ___ Table 6.4: A sample of informed consent statements 85

Foundation Period: Chapter 6 Along with your recruitment scripts and informed consent statements mentioned above, your interview protocol/interview topic list, observation protocol, and survey/questionnaire protocol are your research instruments that help you gather data. An interview protocol is to help you ask interview questions that elicit desired answers to help answer your research questions and fulfill research purposes. However, you better do a qualitative paper backward. After you hang out with your participants for a while, you will have in mind about what is going to be your salient research finding(s). Centering on this significant research result to design your research purpose, research question as well as interview questions, you will save a whole lot of time and energy. If you try to come up with a whole bunch interview questions that probe something else but not related to your final intriguing finding emerged from the communities under study, you will have to spend time to align your whole study with this research results. In other words, you need to re-write your whole study in accordance with your research findings if you conduct your qualitative inquiry inductively.

The traditional approach in a qualitative study is to presume that you know nothing about your participants. A qualitative researcher might have a research topic in mind when he/she enters a field-site. He/she is ready to ask interview questions, because his/her interview questions are framed by some research perspectives that have been established by other scholars and published in existing literature. However, what frequently happens is that what you find out from your target population/ informants do not match literature you already reviewed, because you have different patterns from your participants/researched populations in their local socio-cultural contexts. Thus, you better wait until at least one potential research

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First round of data collection & research instruments finding emerged, then you can design your whole study based on this salient finding.

Returning to our discussion in an interview protocol, again, do not you type a whole bunch unrelated interview questions that waste your time and waste your participants’ time, should you type your few key interview questions based on what you observed as a potential salient finding/a thesis/a central argument from your participants.

“The chief goal of interviewing …is to ascertain the nature and extent of an individual’s knowledge about a particular subject or domain and the perceived relationships among these conceptions.” ---Alister Jones, University of Waikato

You better print out few copies of your interview protocol and bring them with you to your field-sites. If you interview more than 10 interviewees, you at least print out 3-5 copies. Because you might write some notes on the margin space of your interview protocol and very soon you will find out that you are running out of margin space. In addition, you might need to mark or circle on some interview questions that best gather your desired data while you might discard some interview questions.

Bringing a digital recorder with you to interview your informants is a plus, even if you are confident about your memory.

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Foundation Period: Chapter 6 You should not let published literature/studies dictate what your expected responses might be from interviewees. You better let voices of your informants take over what other scholars try to convince you about your participants’ behaviors. Again your data should speak louder than literature.

When designing your interview protocol, you better start from asking some questions that can elicit personal information from your participants, if you are not familiar with them. Though most qualitative research textbooks suggest you to get familiar with your participants and earn their trust (rapport) before you interview them, in reality it is not realistic. Because their administrators might introduce you to interview them and they are strangers to you, given the fact that this is your first time to meet with them and their first time to meet with you too. After asking questions that elicit personal information, you can start to ask questions that allow participants to clarify their certain daily activities and behaviors that are chosen by you as a significant and salient finding.

You are suggested to prepare the same (or similar) questions when interviewing individuals as well as groups of interviewees, because you might be surprised that exactly the same questions can get different responses from individual interviewees to groups of interviewees. Often individual participants can express honestly and freely what they really think about. However, in a group setting, they might feel embarrassed and shame, so they do not tell you the truth and sometimes provide dishonest responses that they want their peers to know about them. In a group interview, participants get opportunities to discuss with one another before they can give you a response of what they seem to agree with each other.

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First round of data collection & research instruments However, participants might tell you different answers during individual interviews in response to the same questions asked during group interviews.

There might be some particular individual interviewees who are more dominant than their peers during interviews or try to dominant your whole focus group interview. They may occupy the whole time when you conduct group interviews, because they want to impress you or their peers. In which case, you need to let all interviewees take turns to express themselves freely. Without turning taking, some participants’ voices are silenced by those who tend to dominant group interviews.

Moreover, you do not always rigidly follow your interview questions typed in your protocol. Be flexible when your informants want to share more about something else which might be off topics. Let him/her express freely, because you might

find something more intriguing than what your presumed as a significant finding before you interview him/her. In other words, you can ask some context-based or context-dependent questions that echo immediate responses from your informants.

Combined with questions that elicit personal information, clarify their certain behaviors that are tied with your potential research findings, and context-dependent questions, you need to prepare some questions that keep dialogues going between you and your interviewees. For example, you might ask: can you be more specific about that? Can you give me a real example of that? That sounds interesting, can you tell me more about it?

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Foundation Period: Chapter 6 Do not trust data obtained from participants who are not collaborative in interviews. They probably want to protect themselves by not telling you their honest answers. They may lie to you sometimes. Due to peer pressure or pressure from their administrators, they may agree to let you interview him/her because you know his/her family member or friend. However, you might have difficult time trying to keep conversation going between you and him/her.

At the end of your interview, you better ask if there is anything else you would like to add, but I did not ask you about. Always say “thank you” to your informants for participating in individual and focus group interviews. Before you let your interviewees leave, you better emphasize again that their data are confidential, because only you can access their data and no one else can. Please see a sample of an interview protocol below:

Interview Protocol Interview # (for data management): Name of the project/study: Date: Setting:

Duration of interview (indicate starting time and ending time): Interviewer(s): Interviewee(s): Position(s) of Interviewee(s):

Briefly describe the purpose of this interview: Help understand how …. learners among .. communities develop .. in …. These are the questions [name(s) of researcher(s)] would ask you during your individual interviews and group interviews. questions. 90 He/She would record your answers to these

First round of data collection & research instruments (Continued) Interview Questions that Elicit Personal Background: 1. Tell me what you like about your communities? 2. What do you remember the most when your first time came to this community?

Interview Questions that explore [WHAT & HOW]…development: In developing this interview protocol, researcher(s) started with a list of important topics and information he/she needs to obtain, including …. and ... He/she then focuses on this list of topics to cover during interviews. Hence, the questions now become more specific. Researcher(s) will strive to ask open-ended questions, so interviewees can feel comfortable in saying whatever they wish to say. Researcher(s) will avoid asking questions that require only a yes or no answer.

3. What has been the greatest challenge in practicing ______?

Context-based Interview Questions: In addition to interview questions listed in this sample protocol, other interview questions are highly context-dependent. Those questions should emerge from the situations. Because researcher(s) will be interviewing many different individuals and groups, he/she will need to prepare follow-up questions whose answers will give more information or explanations. Context-based interview questions are prepared for this unexpected variability.

Probes that keep interviews going: Researcher(s) may need to ask participants to clarify unclear claims and provide further detailed information. If participants tend to give one or two word answers, 91

Foundation Period: Chapter 6 (Continued) or not give reasons for their answers, these questions or probes will be asked to elicit more specific answers. 4. Can you be more specific about that? 5. Could you give me a real example of that? 6. That sounds really interesting! Would you explain more about that? 7. Is there anything else about that you think might be interesting about that?

Ending question(s): 8. Is there anything else you would like to add that I didn’t ask you about?

Researcher(s) will always thank interviewees for their participation and reassure individual and group participants that all answers in any interviews will be held in the strictest confidential.

Table 6.5: A sample of an interview protocol /interview topic list

Besides an interview protocol, an observation protocol is to help you observe participants. Usually, you leave two spaces in an observational protocol. One side in your observational protocol, for instance, on the left side of your observation sheet, is to describe occurred key events thematically or chronologically. Again, these events have to align with a potential research finding/your thesis/your 92

First round of data collection & research instruments central argument you have in mind before the day you conduct observations. Centering on a significant finding/potential thesis you discover from your fieldexperiences by hanging out with participants, you reversely design what are foci in your observations. The other side of your observational protocol, for example, on the right side of your observation sheet, is to write down your reflections on key events occurred. You do not come into your field-sites without any ideas about things you observe. What you observe should not let what existing literature explain to you, despite you are constantly informed by these scholarly published works in your discipline/areas of study. You better let event actors/actresses clarify to you what they performed in their events or episodes observed. Your subjective thoughts are unavoidable as you reflect on key events occurred during your field-site observations.

Why observing phenomena of interests with research instruments? The relationship between perception and knowledge has been studied and debated for centuries by those great minds, scientists, scholars, and the like. However, if you randomly ask any people from streets, most of them accept the following statement that “seeing is believing.” This implies that if you cannot see a

phenomenon, then you cannot obtain any true knowledge from that event. Contemporary scientific observation is informed by theories that enable an observer to understand and reason in structured ways that can somehow justify an incident under observation. Again, observations can be unstructured, thus a

theory-laden observation can to some degree increases the reliability of observation. Please see a sample of an observation protocol as a scientific instrument below:

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Foundation Period: Chapter 6 Observation Protocol
(Source: Adapted from Gay & Airasian, 2003) Observation # (for managing data): Date/Time: Place/Field-Site(s): Researcher/Observer: Purpose of Field Visit: Duration of Observation (indicate beginning and ending times): Individual(s) or group(s) observed: Observer’s Involvements (participant or non-participant): Drawing a Diagram of the Setting :


Entrance Descriptive Notes (emic data) (Thick description of what occurs, is seen, and heard at the site chronologically or thematically)

Classrooms

Bedrooms

Reflective Notes (etic data) (Concurring personal reflections, thoughts, and ideas of the observer for events and episodes occurred)

Fig 6.1: A sample of an observation protocol

Coupled with an interview protocol and an observation protocol, a table or log of participants’ information or profile is needed to help you index them. You need to 94

First round of data collection & research instruments let your readers know your participants’ age in the year you conduct your study and their gender as well. Please see a sample of participant log below: A Log of Digital-Audio Data: One-On-One Individual Interviews and Follow-Up Interviews with Members in the Field-Site

MP3# and Interviewee Pseudonyms

Nationalities Gender Age of participants

Dates of

Memberships

2010 Interviews and Titles and follow-up interviews in the Site

B1

Burmese

M

33

May, 5, 2010

Director of the Center Junior Member Senior Member Senior Full Member

B2

Burmese

F

35

May, 11, 2010

C1

Cambodian

M

27

May, 21, 2010

F1

Filipino

M

28

May, 26, 2010

Table 6.6: A sample log of participant information 95

Foundation Period: Chapter 6 Besides interview data, you do not include all your field-notes in your dissertation appendix. You can select some from them as focal field-notes to be included. Please see a sample of log for focal/focused observational field-notes below:

Focal Observational Field-Notes Field-Notes # Members Dates of Memberships and

Present in the Site Observation Titles Observed O1 O2 One Burmese (B1) Two Cambodians (C1&C2) O3 Three Filipinos (F2,F3& F4) in the Site May, 5, 2009 Director of the Center May, 11, 2009 May 26, 2009 F2 is an Emeritus Member, F3 is a Junior Member and F4 is a Junior Member O4 One Indonesian (I5) O5 Two Taiwanese June, 23, 2009 June, 24, 2009 O6 One Female Taiwanese June, 30, 2009 Research Assistants(RAs) Faculty Member Senior Member Senior Members

Table 6.7: A sample log of focal observational field-notes 96

First round of data collection & research instruments Seminars & Class Discussion Exercises: • Let students talk and share what types of data they are going to gather • Let students talk and share what instruments they use to collect data • Summary of main points: guide students to pause, ponder, and reflect what they have learnt TIPS from this lecture & seminar

MiniWorkShop Work-Integrated Mini-Workshops & Skill Building: Students will work on their data collection instruments/research instruments, i.e, interview protocol/topic list, observation protocol, and questionnaire.

Companion Website: Incorporation of E-Learning & Educational Technology:
A t -H ome A ct i vi t y

• This online workplace, username, and passphrase are created by instructors who use this course packet & tipbook. • For further discussions extended beyond class time or to start a new topic of discussion in an online forum among the lecturer and students, please post comments, feedback, and new topic for discussion in PBWORKS online at pbworks.com. • Digital downloads for class materials, such as syllabus, sample scholarly articles, and weekly assignment guidelines, are accessible online for both instructors and students at pbworks.com

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Foundation Period: Chapter 6 Sample Power Points (Due to space limitation, do not include all power points):

ETHNICS Informed consent • Explanation of procedures • Description of benefits and risks • Confidentiality and Anonymity • Rights to withdraw from study anytime

ETHINICS cont. Gaining access • Snow ball sampling

TIPS
Select informed and impartial samples

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First round of data collection & research instruments (Sample Power Points Continued)

RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS

TIPS
Handy templates to guide your data collection and data management along the way

INTERVIEWS & INTERVIEWING
Group Interviews: Less intimidating for some, extended ideas, wider range of responses Focus Group: Developing themes, generating hypothesis, basis for further interviews and questionnaires, generating and evaluating data

Source: Retrieved from Alister Jones, University of Waikato, workshop on qualitative research in science education, 2005

OBSERVATIONS & FIELD-NOTES

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Foundation Period: Chapter 6

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CHAPTER First Draft of

7
Lesson Design Outline 1. Review Last Week’s Lesson 2. Key Readings 7. Seminars &

Data Analysis & Dissemination of Findings that Resulted

6. Common Challenges to Results and Conclusion Sections

Class Discussion Exercises 3. Objectives 8. Work-Integrated Mini-Workshops & Skill Building MiniWorkShop 4. Class Agenda 9. Incorporation of E-Learning & Educational Technology 5. Lecture Content & Key Concepts 10. Sample Power Points

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Foundation Period: Chapter 7 Week 7

Key Readings: Readings due before class meets: SM, pp. 165-264 & HB, pp. 75-165

Objectives: 1. To help postgraduate EFL & ESL students understand the fundamental nature of data analysis process in a qualitative research study 2. This lesson is also intended for postgraduate EFL & ESL postgraduate students who want to learn how to disseminate findings and further discussions that resulted from rigorous qualitative data analysis.

Class Agenda: Lecture & Seminar 1: Data Analysis (40 min) A. Coding schemes B. Categories C. Patterns

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First round of data analysis & finding reports Lecture & Seminar 2: Findings (40 min) A. Grouping findings on the basis of their themes emerged B. Extracts that best exemplify a pattern C. Challenging traditional notions of A and B, salient findings from your study show that... D. Results and discussion E. Conclusion and implications F. Limitations and contributions Break (10 min) Mini-Workshop on Data Analysis, Findings and Discussion, and Conclusion (90min)

Lecture Content & Key Concepts: • From key reading/text--SM, pp. 165-264 “Beginning analysis during data collection” pp, 170-173 “Managing your data” pp. 173-175 “How to analyze qualitative data” pp. 175-193 • From key reading/text--HB, pp. 75-165 “Segmenting data” and “reassembling data”

BOX 7.1: Common Challenges to Results and Conclusion Sections The results and conclusion cannot be too brief and fail to deliver much data or discuss the data analysis. If there are insufficient details to allow readers to examine results and data to judge the validity of the author’s claims and conclusions, findings and conclusions are not valid. However, due to space limits in referred journals, how lengthy an author should modify, expand, or reduce his or 103

Foundation Period: Chapter 7 (Continued) her finding report section and conclusion section will be dependent on this particular referred journal’s internal editor-in-chief or external peer-reviewers’ judges.

Seminars & Class Discussion Exercises: • Let students talk and share what instruments and techniques they use to analyze data, i.e., look for themes emerged that can answer research questions or coding schemes they adopt to analyze raw data • Let students talk and share what findings that resulted they are going to disseminate in their finding report sections • Summary of main points: guide students to pause, ponder, and reflect what they have learnt from this lecture and seminar

MiniWorkShop Work-Integrated Mini-Workshops & Skill Building: Data analysis, dissemination of findings that resulted, and drawing conclusions

Companion Website: Incorporation of E-Learning & Educational Technology:
A t -H ome A ct i vi t y

• This online workplace, username, and passphrase are created by instructors who use this course packet & tipbook. • For further discussions extended beyond class time or to start a new topic of discussion in an online forum among the lecturer and students, please post comments, feedback, and new topic for discussion in PBWORKS online at pbworks.com. • Digital downloads for class materials, such as syllabus, sample scholarly articles, and weekly assignment guidelines, are accessible online for both instructors and students at pbworks.com 104

First round of data analysis & finding reports Sample Power Points (Due to space limitation, do not include all power points):

TRANSCRIBING
What are you trying to find out from transcriptions? 1. Just narratives, words, or key words that answer your research questions 2. Tones, pauses, and moods 3. Who is speak to whom and when they spoke to each other

ANALYZING TRANSCRIPTIONS
1. Analyze transcripts from your interview data/interviewees’ responses 2. Do you all see the same things from the same transcriptions? 3. How would you report your findings from analyzing transcriptions

QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS
1. Depends on research questions and research purposes 2. Look for answers and responses for research questions 3. Categorization/Segregating data 4. Incubation—reflection and interpretation 5. Synthesis/Reassembling

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Foundation Period: Chapter 7 (Sample Power Points Continued)

QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS (Cont) 1st phase: A three-stage categorization Before, during, and after field-visits Separating and organizing raw data

QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS (Cont) 2nd phase: Themes for grouping and analyzing
1. Sites: Where target themes occurred 2. Participants and Subjects: Who to Whom did what in events and episodes 3. Tools: what things are utilized for allowing events and episodes happened 4. Personal Factors and Motivations: 5. Outcomes:

Source: Retrieved and taken from Alister Jones, University of Waikato, workshop on qualitative research in science education, 2005

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Lesson Design Outline 1. Review Last Week’s Lesson 6. Seminars &

Qualitative Research: Case Studies & Action Research

Class Discussion Exercises 2. Key Readings 7. Work-Integrated Mini-Workshops & Skill Building MiniWorkShop 3. Objectives 8. Incorporation of E-Learning & Educational Technology 4. Class Agenda 5. Lecture Content & Key Concepts 107 9. Sample Power Points

Deepening Period: Chapter 8 Week 8

Key Readings: Readings due before class meets: SM, pp. 39-54

Supplementary Readings To a better grasp of the field of Action Research, please read pp. 261-271 from Gay, L.R., & Airasian, P. (2003) (7th ed). Educational research: Competencies for analysis and applications, Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

Objectives: 1. The organization of this sample lesson reflects the process of undertaking a qualitative case study investigation in language and communication studies. 2. Positions students within action research in general and discuss the roots of action research in language and communication related fields.

Class Agenda: Lecture & Seminar 1: (40 min) A. Case study who? One or two individuals A family; compared few families A community; similar communities across a country A country; compared among two or more countries 108

Types of Qualitative Research: Case Studies & Action Research

B. Case studies can be a working paper, a conference paper, a journal paper, a thesis, a dissertation, a book chapter, and a monograph. C. The case of……. Introduction/Background/ Context Review section or chapter: What are rationales and purposes for examining your case? What are some current and historical developments of your case? D. Literature Review section or chapter: What existing literature/other scholarly work say about your case? E. Methodology/Method section or chapter: Sites & Participants F. Action Research: Defined? Examples? Break (10 min) Mini-Workshop on Case studies (90min)

Lecture Content & Key Concepts: From key reading/text--SM, pp. 39-54 “Case study defined” “A bounded system” p. 40 “Special features” p. 43 “Types of qualitative case studies” pp. 46-50 “Strengths and limitations of case studies” pp. 50-54

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Deepening Period: Chapter 8 Seminars & Class Discussion Exercises: Case Studies: Let students talk and share what cases they are going to make out of their fieldsites and raw data. Summary of main points: guide students to pause, ponder, and reflect what they have learnt from this lecture and seminar

Action Research: Q: What existing or emerging issue you want to solve and investigate in your current workplace or a field-site/target population? Q: What is a current educational or academic-focused practice you want to improve with likely-minded co-workers? Q: Who are also involved in decision making about how your collected data going to be analyzed?

MiniWorkShop Work-Integrated Mini-Workshops & Skill Building: Case Studies: Introduction/Background/Context Review section or chapter: What are rationales and purposes for examining your case? What are some current and historical developments of your case? Literature Review section or chapter What existing literature/other scholarly work say about your case? Methodology/Method section or chapter Research sites Participants

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Types of Qualitative Research: Case Studies & Action Research Action Research: Investigate a problem in your classroom or workplace and find out how can you solve it or improve its current practices

Companion Website: Incorporation of E-Learning & Educational Technology:
A t -H o me A ct i vi t y

• This online workplace, username, and passphrase are created by instructors who use this course packet & tipbook. • For further discussions extended beyond class time or to start a new topic of discussion in an online forum among the lecturer and students, please post comments, feedback, and new topic for discussion in PBWORKS online at pbworks.com. • Digital downloads for class materials, such as syllabus, sample scholarly articles, and weekly assignment guidelines, are accessible online for both instructors and students at pbworks.com

Sample Power Points (Due to space limitation, do not include all power points):

CASE STUDIES Studies of bounded systems Definitions? Examples?

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Deepening Period: Chapter 8 (Sample Power Points Continued)

CASE STUDIES (Cont)
• • • • • • • A study of a bounded system Observe effects in natural contexts Report on complex and dynamic systems Provides chronological narratives Description of people-events with analysis Highlights of particular events Portray the richness of a system

TYPES OF CASE STUDIES
1. Singled out in-depth case studyethnography 2. Examination of a particular issue 3. Collective or multiple-sited case studies— groups of individual studies to get a fuller picture

PROS & CONS OF CASE STUDIES 1. Strong in reality 2. Shows complexity 3. Easily understood by others 4. Embrace unexpected events 5. Not generalizable 6. Not open to cross checking 7. Subject to observer bias

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Types of Qualitative Research: Case Studies & Action Research (Sample Power Points Continued)

ACTION RESEARCH 1. Practitioners and teachers identify problems and issues 2. Target populations/participants under study make decisions about the study format and data analysis 3. Results and feedback translated into actions to solve an issue or improve current practices

SEMINAR ON ACTION RESEARCH
1. When and where would you conduct an action research in language and communication related studies? 2. What problems you seek to solve? 3. What current practices you want to improve?

Source: Taken and adapted from Alister Jones, University of Waikato, workshop on qualitative research in science education, 2005

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CHAPTER Types of

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Lesson Design Outline 1. Review Last Week’s Lesson 6. Seminars &

Qualitative Research: Ethnography & Grounded Theory

Class Discussion Exercises 2. Key Readings 7. Work-Integrated Mini-Workshops & Skill Building MiniWorkShop 3. Objectives 8. Incorporation of E-Learning & Educational Technology 4. Class Agenda 5. Lecture Content, Key Concepts, & Supplementary Readings 115 9. Sample Power Points

Deepening Period: Chapter 9 Week 9

Key Readings: Readings due before class meets: SM, pp. 27-32, & HB, pp. 75-165

Objectives: 1. Enunciate certain principles and advises that should guide a novice ethnographer. 2. To familiarize students with a main criterion of a grounded theory research Design; learn how to identify a big thematic scheme from data

Class Agenda: A. Lecture & Seminar on Ethnography (40 min) B. Lecture & Seminar on Grounded Theory (40 min) C. Break (10 min) D. Mini-Workshop (90 min)

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Lecture Content & Key Concepts: Lecture on Ethnography From key reading/text— SM, pp. 27-29 (Ethnography: Descriptive Research) SM, pp. 29-32 (Grounded Theory: Explanatory/Interpretive Research)

What constitutes ethnographic studies? 1. Natural settings 2. Intimate face-to-face interaction with participants 3. Represent accurate reflection of participants’ perspectives 4. Recursive data collection and analysis to build local cultural theories. 5. Multiple data sources 6. Frames all human behavior and belief within a socio-political and historical context 7. Uses the concept of culture as a lens through which to interpret results Source: Taken from Gay., & Airasian(2003). Educational research: Competencies for analysis and applications, p. 167, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. Sample journal papers that adopt ethnography: o Draper, J.C. (2010). Inferring ethnolinguistic vitality in a community of Northeast Thailand, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 31 (2), 135-147. New York and London: Routledge o Howard, K. M. (2010). Social relations and shifting languages in Northern Thailand. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 14(3), 313–340. Oxford: Blackwell A sample paper in conference proceedings that adopts ethnography:

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Deepening Period: Chapter 9 Guerrero, Alba-Lucy. (2008). Internally displaced children constructing identities within and against cultural worlds: The case of “shooting cameras for peace in Colombia,” Oxford University Annual Ethnography Conference Proceeding BOX 9.1: What is ethnography? The fields of social sciences, along with interdisciplinary areas, are more aware of how institutions and social structures are framed at interpersonal levels in localized contexts (Canagarajah, in Ricento, 2006, pp. 156-157). Echoing trends in social sciences, ethnography by and large is an approach of qualitative studies. It makes grounded assumptions and premises concerning languages and

communications, as employed in localized contexts. Ethnographic studies can simultaneously explore a community of members and their natural settings when and where they act together. Researchers investigate participants in ordinary cultural activities and settings. They aim at utilizing first-hand, naturalistic data without manipulations and well-contextualized emic orientations to examine literacy practices and generate hypotheses. Ethnography investigates micro-levels of conversations, dialogues, everyday life, narratives, interpersonal relationships, and how languages and communications are lived out by community members. Its conventional emphasis is on a specific site, or sites, that provide researchers with the background and context to explore participants residing in settings (Gay and Airasian, 2003, p. 173). Researchers typically stay for an extensive period of time in a target community (Canagarajah, in Ricento, 2006, pp. 156-157). The rationales of researchers are to capture first-hand records of languages and communication, attempting to comprehend how languages and communications are worked in dayto-day life. They strive neither to modify nor to influence the natural setting of the target community where cultures, life and social interactions are interplayed. Even 118

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(Continued) if they are informed by some widely acceptable theories regarding languages and communications obtained from other settings or etic views, they endeavor to be aware of ways community insiders identify with the emic view of things (Hornberger, 1988, pp. 4-11, cited in Canagarajah, in Ricento, 2006, pp. 156-157). In other words, they undertake studies without allowing prior suppositions to interfere as much as possible with interviews and observations. Researchers might utilize a wide range of data collection instruments (Canagarajah, in Ricento, 2006, pp. 156-157). Observations from outside the target community contexts might not afford compelling insights into a community’s ways with descriptive reports. Thus, although an ethnographic study strives to adopt non-participant observations in order to not alter the natural flow of a target population or a target community, participant observations could still remain an alternative option. Researchers gain deeper and richer insights from inside target communities by living the lifestyle, gaining insider perspectives and what participant observations could achieve. Researchers complement participant and non-participant observations with a variety of instruments such as interviews, questionnaires, and surveys. They could utilize audio and video tapes, field-notes, digital photograph images to obtain salient data sets. They may analyze collected data with quantitative, qualitative or a mixture of both approaches. Researchers member-check and triangulate data to obtain findings and results because the multiplicity of the means and types concerning data collection is essential. Sub-fields of ethnography have been framed for particular study goals. In light of descriptive approaches to ethnography, researchers report concrete details with thick narrative descriptions. The refined instruments of direct, immediate and personal interviews and observations should ensure authentic representations of 119

Deepening Period: Chapter 9 (Continued) genuine employments regarding languages and communications in target communities (Canagarajah, in Ricento, 2006, pp. 156-157).

BOX 9.2: What is grounded theory?

“The shift from grand theories to grounded theories:
In general, grand theories attempt to explain reality of all humanities. Evolution theory is an example. Differences in humanities have been proposed to be due to different stages of development from primitive to more advanced, form simple to more complex structure, and from inferior to superior forms. This theoretical framework appears to be looking at forms or outward appearance more than inner feelings or essence of the human beings. As researchers explore social issues more and more and discover the complexities and diversity of society, the application of grand theories to specific communities became problematic. Grounded theories emerged as a more appropriate explanatory model. One theory cannot provide explanations to all society. The debate is on whether there is a general grand theory which provides explanation to all society and humankind or whether there need[s] to be many theories to describe specific cases. Grounded theory is introduced as a research methodology in search for theory; it is not a theory in itself. Grounded theory methodology is an explanation based on empirical data collected. It adopts an inductive approach starting from data of specific case studies, follows with analysis, hypothesizing, and deriving at a theoretical explanation called “grounded” theory. While grand theory is a general knowledge which has been proven to be true and can be applied to all cases; grounded theory is knowledge derived from particular cases to be generalized into theory at a later stage. Grounded theory may also be called middle range theory.”
Source: Taken from Pongapich, A. (2010). The world of imbalance: Conflict between powered vs. powerless. Sasin Journal of Management, p. 11, Bangkok: Thailand.

“Grounded theory is one of the most common approaches in practitioner-oriented
fields, such as education. Glaser and Strauss (1967) developed this analysis as a way to generate theory from data that are grounded in the lived experiences of individuals. The inductive nature of a grounded theory approach enables researchers to begin with an area of study and what may be relevant to that area is allowed to emerge (Strauss & Corbin, 1990). This approach to data analysis 120

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embraces an interpretive stance where contextual nuances are considered, rather than an objectivist stance where the focus is on generalized knowledge and typical behaviors (Piantanida, Tananis, & Grubs, 2004). As Piantanida et al. commented, “the procedures of grounded theory provide interpretive researchers with a disciplined process, not simply for generating concepts, but more importantly for coming to see possible and plausible relationships among them” (p. 335).”
Source: Taken from Van Sluys, Katie, Lewison, Mitzi and Flint, Amy Seely (2006). Researching Critical Literacy: A Critical Study of Analysis of Classroom Discourse, Journal of Literacy Research, 38:2, p. 213

Seminars & Class Discussion Exercises: Q: Talk and share how can you describe your target population/community from an insider’s perspective and through their cultural lenses? (Ethnography) Q: Talk and share what is a big thematic scheme emerged from your field-site experiences hanging out with your participants? (Grounded theory) MiniWorkShop Work-Integrated Mini-Workshops & Skill Building: Describing your research sites, participants, data collection, and data analysis as an ethnographer and examine your working paper with: A. Carried out in a natural setting without manipulation B. Participants trust you; Face-to-face interaction with participants C. From insiders’ perspectives; interpreted from local cultural norms D. Recursive data collection processes Companion Website: Incorporation of E-Learning & Educational Technology:

A t -H o me A ct i vi • This online workplace, username, and passphrase are created by instructors who uset y this course packet & tipbook. • For further discussions extended beyond class time or to start a new topic of discussion in an online forum among the lecturer and students, please post comments, feedback, and new topic for discussion in PBWORKS online at pbworks.com. • Digital downloads for class materials, such as syllabus, sample scholarly articles, and weekly assignment guidelines, are accessible online for both instructors and students at pbworks.com

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Deepening Period: Chapter 9 Sample Power Points (Due to space limitation, do not include all power points):

ETHNOGRAPHY defined
“Ethnography is the scientific study of human social phenomena and communities, through means such as fieldwork. It is considered a branch of cultural anthropology, the branch of anthropology which focuses on the study of human societies. Some people use “ethnography” and “cultural anthropology” interchangeably, although cultural anthropology includes more research techniques than just ethnography. The practice of ethnography usually involves fieldwork in which the ethnographer lives among the population being studied. While trying to retain objectivity, the ethnographer lives an ordinary life among the people, working with informants who are particularly knowledgeable or well placed to collect information. This fieldwork may last for extended period of time; usually over a year, and sometimes much longer. At the conclusion of a period of fieldwork, the ethnographer writes about his or her experiences. This writing includes a catalog of daily life, along with a discussion of rituals, phenomena, and an assortment of other events. Many people who work in the field of ethnography integrate multiple disciplines; using biology, for example, to analyze available food supplies, or geology to study the terrain and environment.”

Source: Taken from What is Ethnography? Available online at the Web Site http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-ethnography.htm

ETHNOGRAPHY Dos and donts in conducting an interview 1. Video-taping vs. digital recording 2. Check list, Protocol, Topic list 3.Avoid interruptions and awkward questions 4. Probing

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(Sample Power Points Continued)

ETHNOGRAPHY (cont) 1. Find out what interviewees really believe is not an easy task. 2. Interviewees might want to please interviewers. 3. Verbal and non-verbal cues can influence responses from interviewees 4. Effective probing of interviewees’ ideas requires a conscious value-free approach.

ETHNOGRAPHY (cont) Unstructured/Naturalistic Observation 1. Reflective process 2. Foreshadowed problems 3.Selection of sites and cases 4. Gaining access 5. Field roles

ETHNOGRAPHY (cont) Ethnographer’s Roles/ Roles of a qualitative researcher 1. Complete Participant 2. Participant Observer 3. Observer as Participant 4. Complete Observer

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Deepening Period: Chapter 9 (Sample Power Points Continued)

GROUNDED THEORY “Qualitative research methods reflect an inductive mode of analysis or a process of moving from specific observations to a general theory.(1) This mode of analysis is in contrast to quantitative research methods, which rely on deductive thinking or a process of moving from a general theory to specific observations. Grounded theory, a mode of inductive analysis, can be thought of as a theory that is derived from or "grounded" in everyday experiences. Grounded theory strategies first were reported and attributed to sociologists Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss in 1967.(2) The foundations of grounded theory are embedded in symbolic interactionism, which assumes that one's communications and actions express meaning.”

Source: Taken directly from Byme, M. (2001). Grounded theory as a qualitative research methodology - Brief Article, AORN Journal.

Available online at the Web Site: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FSL/is_6_73/ai_75562157/

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10 0
Lesson Design Outline 1. Review Last Week’s Lesson 6. Seminars & 2. Key Readings & Supplementary Readings 3. Objectives

Qualitative Research: Narrative Research & How to Adapt

Questionnaire and Survey into a Qualitative Study

Class Discussion Exercises 7. Work-Integrated Mini-Workshops & Skill Building MiniWorkShop 8. Incorporation of E-Learning & Educational Technology 4. Class Agenda 5. Lecture Content, Key Concepts, & Suggested Readings 125 9. Sample Power Points 10. Sample Beliefs and Practices Questionnaire

Deepening Period: Chapter 10 Week 10

Key Readings: Readings due before class meets: SM, pp. 32-34

Objectives: 1. To familiarize students with some online survey tools and questionnaire designs that can help elicit responses from target population/informants in a community under study. 2. To equip students with hands-on knowledge and techniques about how to cite and quote narratives (both few sentences and a whole paragraph) from a scholar’s statements in a published work or informants in field-sites /interviewees’ responses to back up claims/thesis/central arguments made in a qualitative research paper.

Class Agenda: A. Lecture & Seminar on Questionnaire Design & Survey Research (40 min) B. Lecture & Seminar on Narrative Research (40 min) C. Break (10 min) D. Mini-Workshop (90 min) 126

Types of Qualitative Research: Narrative Research & Questionnaire Survey Lecture Content & Key Concepts: Lecture on Questionnaire Design & Survey Research Despite statistical surveys to gather data from respondents about their reflections are frequently adopted in a quantitative research study, survey and questionnaire can also be useful to gather qualitative data and integrated into a qualitative study.

Supplementary Readings I: See real examples of survey research and questionnaire design from international referred journals: Ex. Gal, S. (1978). Peasant Men Can't Get Wives: Language Change and Sex Roles in a Bilingual Community, Language in Society, 7 (1), pp. 1-16, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Emily, M.F. (2010). Ideology, affect, and socialization in language shift and revitalization: The experiences of adults learning Gaelic in the Western Isles of Scotland. Language in Society, 39, 27-64. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Lecture on Narrative Research Supplementary Readings II: See real examples of narrative research from international referred journals and classic qualitative research textbooks: Ex. Merriam, B. S. (2009). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Reminder: ONLY RECAP WHAT MERRIAM SAID ABOUT NARRATIVE APPROACH IN HER BOOK

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Deepening Period: Chapter 10 Notice: Merriam equates narratives as stories. However, this might not always be the case. Narratives can be defined as events and episodes people talk about in a logical order.

Supplementary Readings III: Emily, M.F. (2010). Ideology, affect, and socialization in language shift and revitalization: The experiences of adults learning Gaelic in the Western Isles of Scotland. Language in Society, 39, pp. 27-64. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ONLY READ PP. 39-44

Baynham, M. (2006). Agency and contingency in the language learning of refugees and asylum seekers. Linguistics and education, 17, pp. 24-39. Amsterdam: Elsevier. ONLYREAD PP. 30-34

BOX 10.1: Procedures of Narrative Data Analysis Qualitative data are analyzed in an inductive fashion. Qualitative researchers give meanings of findings based on participants’ voices. A good qualitative researcher should be open to alternative explanations during the data analysis procedure instead of insisting on his/her preferred explanations (Gay and Airasian, 2003, p. 169). A qualitative researcher does not interpret the context and draw conclusions too early. He/she should keep in mind that findings are holistically descriptive, interpretive, and narrative. Data analysis procedures are in a circular and recursive manner in this study. At the end of first round of data collection and data analysis, initial interpretations concerning the natural context and the participants from interviews and observations are made. More data should be collected to reexamine and refine 128

Types of Qualitative Research: Narrative Research & Questionnaire Survey (Continued) initial interpretations by the end of second round of data collection. A qualitative researcher should continually gather data and refine previous interpretations until he/she reaches a profound understanding of the setting and participants by the end of few rounds of data collection and data analysis. Although a qualitative study is situated within interpretive ethnographic perspective (Spindler and Spindler, 1987), data interpretation is unavoidable going beyond meanings within immediate contexts. Meanings and interpretations of obtained data is influenced by larger political-level power structures outside any site under study. Nakoechny (2008, p.1) utilizes post-structuralism to assert that interpretive meanings of ethnographic data lie in interactions between readers and writers instead of meanings objectively existing in the text, justifying a philosophical turn in ethnographic studies. Meanings can be negotiable for readers of a qualitative study. Meanings of interview data are jointly constructed between the interviewers and the interviewees. Even so, a qualitative researcher has to emphasize that he/she makes every effort to ensure that the interpretive meanings of data obtained come directly from the voices of participants and vigorous data analysis. Predefined categories that differentiate among concepts and characteristics of data are recommended by Cain and Labov’s analytic strategies as data are broken down into smaller units to be classified during qualitative data analysis (Riessman, 2008, p. 53 and p. 77). That is to say, all data gathered from interviews and field-notes exist in two stages of analyses. The first stage is thematic analysis, adapted from Cain’s thematic analysis techniques. Initial impressions are

identified after reviewing the transcriptions of the data. Main points (MP), turning points (TP), propositions (Prop), episodes and events are highlighted (Riessman, 2008, p. 53). The objective is to search for reappearances manifested in regular 129

Deepening Period: Chapter 10 (Continued) activities among propositions, assumptions, episodes, and events. As a result, common patterns of assumptions from MPs, Props and identified regular sequences from predictable episodes and events are revealed. The second stage is structure analysis. For this, Labov’s structure analysis strategy and some Riessman’s adaptations from Labov’s are adopted to code data, looking for structures that hang narrative texts together (Riessman, 2008, p. 77). However, A qualitative researcher should be open to add the new coding on top of his/her list previously established by Labov in order to meet the new demands of obtained narrative data. In other words, a qualitative researcher does not force the data to fit into pre-existing categories. See sample coding schemes for narrative data analysis below: AB CA abstracts, concise synopses and points of narrative texts complicating actions that carry actions forward “are those things in a narrative which creates problems for the ongoing trajectory of the main character and were in need of resolution EV evaluative commentaries made by participants, such as the importance, meanings of events and significance behind certain socio-cultural behaviors as well as narrator’s attitudes toward some certain topics and issues OR background information, characters and settings, i.e., time, places, conditions and participants RE resolutions for problems and tensions

Source: Taken from Riessman, C, K. (2008). Narrative Methods for the Human Sciences, SAGE Publications, Inc

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Types of Qualitative Research: Narrative Research & Questionnaire Survey Suggested Readings Riessman, C, K. (2008). Narrative Methods for the Human Sciences, SAGE Publications, Inc See the book profile from its publisher online at the Web Site http://www.uk.sagepub.com/books/Book226139

Seminars & Class Discussion Exercises: Q: What and how to use narratives from any scholarly published works or your informants/interviewees’ responses as convincing evidence to support claims you make as your thesis in your qualitative research paper?

MiniWorkShop Work-Integrated Mini-Workshops & Skill Building: Create your account (fill in usernames and passphrases) in some handy online survey tools and questionnaire design provided below and practice designing questionnaire questions and survey questions that can help you elicit responses from your target population/members from your target community of people under study http://www.qualtrics.com/ http://www.surveymonkey.com/

For samples from different types of survey, please visit this website below http://www.accesswave.ca/~infopoll/Library.htm

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Deepening Period: Chapter 10 (Mini-Workshop Continued) Use narratives from respondents to support your claim/thesis/central argument Use informants’/respondents’ narratives (after transcribed from your digitally recorded verbal narratives into written narratives) to back up/support your claims Reminder: YOU ONLY NEED TO CITE/QUOTE FEW (ONE-THREE OR FOUR) SENTENCES/CONVERSATIONS THAT BEST EXEMPLIFY THE CASE YOU WANNA MAKE

Companion Website: Incorporation of E-Learning & Educational Technology:

A t -H o me A ct i vi t y

• This online workplace, username, and passphrase are created by instructors who use this course packet & tipbook. • For further discussions extended beyond class time or to start a new topic of discussion in an online forum among the lecturer and students, please post comments, feedback, and new topic for discussion in PBWORKS online at pbworks.com. • Digital downloads for class materials, such as syllabus, sample scholarly articles, and weekly assignment guidelines, are accessible online for both instructors and students at pbworks.com

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Types of Qualitative Research: Narrative Research & Questionnaire Survey Sample Power Points (Due to space limitation, do not include all power points):

SURVEY RESEARCH
“Survey research is one of the most important areas of measurement in applied social research. The broad area of survey research encompasses any measurement procedures that involve asking questions of respondents. A "survey" can be anything form a short paper-and-pencil feedback form to an intensive one-on-one in-depth interview.”

Source: Taken directly from Research Methods Knowledge Base Available online at the Web Site http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/survey.php

SURVEY RESEARCH (cont)
“Survey research a research method involving the use of questionnaires and/or statistical surveys to gather data about people and their thoughts and behaviours.”

Source: Taken directly from Wikipedia Available online at the Web Site http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Survey_research

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Deepening Period: Chapter 10 (Sample Power Points Continued)

NARRATIVE RESEARCH • • • Describe the major types of narrative studies. Define what it means to explore the experiences of an individual. Describe the type of information that goes into building a chronology of an individual's experiences. Identify the aspects of a "story" and the types of data used to report the "story." Describe the process of restorying in narrative research Identify the use of themes in a narrative study. Define the setting or context that goes into a narrative study. Identify strategies for collaboration with participants in narrative research. Identify several types of issues that may arise in gathering narrative stories. Describe the steps used in conducting a narrative study. List criteria for evaluating a narrative study.

• • • • • • • •

Source: Taken from chapter objectives in narrative research design online at the Web Site http://wps.prenhall.com/chet_creswell_educational_2/24/6313/161616 0.cw/index.html

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Types of Qualitative Research: Narrative Research & Questionnaire Survey Sample Beliefs and Practices Questionnaire
DISTRIBUTING TO ORPHAN EFL STUDENTS IN THAILAND Tabulating Questionnaire Responses: (Continued to read 3. Likert Scale) Each number represents a score (counted 1-100) in association with a point value. Every score you circle will be tabulating into both your total degree (scaled 1-100) of commitment to learn English language and an indicator to show your beliefs and practices that support or not support the central hypothesis together with 3 sub-hypotheses, formulated and stated in this inquiry study. 1. Demographic Information (Required) For each of the following items, put an beside the choice that best describes you. Do you have one or more disabilities Yes___ No___ Do you exhibit higher level of awareness on your disabilities Yes___ No____ Do reminders that help raise your awareness of disable conditions from your Christian EFL teachers also help you to be more committed to learn English language Yes___ No___ 2. Checklist (Required) Below is a list of a central hypothesis together with three sub-hypotheses. Put a check mark in front of each hypothesis you think is supported by your beliefs, perceptions, and experiences in your orphanage. ____Awareness of disable conditions among orphans with disabilities affect, cause, and influence their commitment to learn English language, because English ability can make them more employable and reduce poverty created by physical constraints. ____Orphans with disabilities are more committed to learn English language than those without disabilities. ____Orphans exhibited higher levels of awareness on their disabilities are more committed to learn English language than those exhibited lower levels of awareness on their disabilities. ____Orphans reminded (with reminder intervention) their disabilities are more committed to learn English language than those not reminded (without reminder intervention). Below is a list of educational resources to help you learn English language. Put a check mark in front of each resource you think is available in your orphanage. _____paperback textbooks or student workbooks _____children’s trade books or children’s literature _____VCRs _____Computers _____Internet _____Others, please specify_______ 3. Likert Scale (Required) (Tabulating Questionnaire Responses Continued) Read each statement and circle a number that measures whether you Strongly Disagree (SD), Disagree (D), Uncertain/Undecided (U), Don’t Mind (DM), Don’t’ Like (DL), Like (L), Agree (A), Prefer (P), and Strongly Agree (SA). Every response is assigned by a point value, and a

135

Deepening Period: Chapter 10
(CONTINUED) respondent’s total score (scored 1-100) is determined by summing the point values of numbers circled: SD=1, D=2 or 3, U=4, DM=5, DL=6, L=7, A=8, P=9, SA=10. Q: How FREQUENT you commit yourself to spend time on learning English language? (10%)
Please circle a number

Survey Questions for orphan EFL learners

1
Never

2

3

4

5
Sometimes/ About Once a Week

6

7

8
Often/ More Than 10 Times a Week

9

1

0

Rarely/ About Once a Month

Often/ 2-6 Times a Week

Very Often/ Many Hours A Day and Every Day

Circle how many hours each time you typically spend to learn English language (10%)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 Circle how many of the educational resources (available in your orphanage) you make the most use of them to help you learn English language (10%) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 Q: The Central Hypothesis: Do you agree with the idea that awareness of your disable condition and constraints created by disability can affect, cause, and influence your commitment to learn English language for better employment opportunities and reduce poverty when you grow up? (10%) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 SD D U DM DL L A P SA Sub-hypothesis 1: Orphans with disabilities are more committed to learn English language than those without disabilities. (10%) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 SD D U DM DL L A P SA Sub-hypothesis 2: Orphans exhibited higher levels of awareness on their disabilities are more committed to learn English language than those exhibited lower levels of awareness on their disabilities. (10%) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 SD D U DM DL L A P SA Sub-hypothesis 3: Orphans reminded (with reminder intervention) their disabilities are more committed to learn English language than those not reminded (without reminder intervention). (10%) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 SD D U DM DL L A P SA

Survey Questions for orphan EFL learners

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Types of Qualitative Research: Narrative Research & Questionnaire Survey
(CONTINUED) Circle the IMPORTANCE of English language for you personally (10%) 1 2 Not important 3 4 So So 5 6 Just Important 7 8 Important 9 1 Very Important 0

Circle your COMMITMENT of English language learning by percentage of efforts you put (10%) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0
Less than 50% 50-60% 60-70% 70-80% 80-90% 100%

Circle your EXPECTATIONS of using your English ability in the future when you grow up to find a job that can help you financially independent from social welfare workers’ supports (10%) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0
Very Low Low Lower So So High Getting Higher Very High

4. Free Responses (Optional) Q: How would you rate the quality and trustworthiness of the central hypothesis and 3 sub-hypotheses, formulated and tested in this research study? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 Very Poor Bad So So Good Very Good Excellent
Survey Questions for orphan EFL learners

Write and share with your explanations: why you say so (Note that you can also talk and share with the researcher during your interviews.) Ans:

Q: If you were Christian EFL teachers, what would you do to encourage orphans like you to learn English language? Ans:

Source: The promise of EFL teaching to reduce poverty among orphans with disabilities in Thailand, a Research Proposal submitted to NIDA Research Center in April 2011

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Deepening Period: Chapter 10 Suggested Readings for Questionnaire Design Available online at the Web Site http://www.cc.gatech.edu/classes/cs6751_97_winter/Topics/quest-design/

138

Epilogue H
opefully, this course packet & tipbook comes just in time. Although we live in an age of inquiry in social science and humanity, EFL and ESL postgraduate students struggle daily to conduct a qualitative study and write a qualitative report. Every so often, professors and lecturers in postgraduate level research methodology courses try to overwhelm and intimidate novice scholars with too much information about different traditions in qualitative research methodology, i.e., ethnography, grounded theory, narrative analysis and so on. However, when it comes to actually conduct an inquiry and write a paper, students lack streetwise suggestions and templates. After reading introductory explanations from formal- and/or standard textbooks in qualitative research methodology, they need some tips to help them undertake their inquiry and write their reports. With a light tone throughout this accessible and engaging course packet & tipbook, the foci of this text to instructors have been on a model that offers a framework for designing qualitative research course in language and communication studies. Included too are TIPS that EFL and ESL graduate

students are encouraged to directly apply and use in their research undertaking and paper writing, using good examples and templates to speed up their inquiry in a timely-efficient fashion. Because this publication is designed as a course packet for instructors and as a tipbook for students, a formal introduction of qualitative research, 139

Epilogue & Afterword literature review and theoretical framework/conceptual framework, data collection, data analysis and finding dissemination is thus not included in this text. However, so long as EFL/ESL postgraduate students and novice qualitative inquirers are guided by TIPS suggested in this course packet, they can easily single out a salient finding/a thesis/a central argument. In other words, they do not need to worry too much about data analysis and finding report, because everything is centered around their thesis—a cornerstone for their entire research paper. A deductive and/or backward approach makes data management easier than ever to get ready for analysis and finding dissemination.

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Afterword T
he chapters in this course packet for instructors & tipbook for students are served in an introductory-level qualitative research course in language and

communication studies. To mention something new and different in the Afterword is not easy. To meet it, some important aspects of what constitutes unique features this course packet has are included below: This text will be of interest to a wide readership. In order to increase the accessibility of this text for postgraduate students with EFL and ESL background, expanded explanations in lecture contents & key concepts are lucid throughout chapters. Expanded lecture contents provided in this course packet are accompanied by key readings, suggested readings, and supplementary readings. Moreover, this international edition maintains good-

length treatments yet accessible coverage (i.e., discussion exercises and miniworkshops) a university instructor expects to adopt for teaching postgraduate-level qualitative research in language and communication. The Educational Publisher, Inc published this international edition for the benefits of university lecturers and EFL/ESL postgraduate students in the field of language and communication studies, offering tips, handy templates, stimulations, insights, reflections, less formal writing styles, and online supports from e-learning and distance education 141

Epilogue & Afterword Web Site to help students grasp the fundamentals of this subject faster and better than before.

Hugo Yu-Hsiu Lee
NIDA, Bangkok, Thailand March 10th, 2011

142

APPENDIX I: A Sample Final Paper in Language and Communication Studies Using Qualitative Research Methodology and Methods

Social Relation Affects Language Learning in Urban Refugee Societies
VOICES FROM THAILAND AND BEYOND

Hugo Yu-Hsiu Lee

Bangkok Thailand NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION 2011
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A Sample Final Report

Lecturer’s Note
A WORKING PAPER IN PROGRESS At this stage, a student’s final report on his/her inquiry-based project using qualitative research methodology and methods learnt from this course is still a working paper in progress. For next step, a student will receive feedback and comments from his/her lecturer to refine the content and revise the form (corrections of grammatical errors) of his/her final paper. Then, s/he might turn his/her term paper into a conference presentation and publish it in conference proceedings. In addition, a final paper from this course can turn into a doctoral dissertation. After successfully defending his/her dissertation, this continuum work can also turn into a referred journal paper to impact on wider academic communities.

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Social Relation Affects Language Learning in Urban Refugee Societies Abstract Though a large body of scholarly works has proved the positive relation between linguistic diverse groups sharing life together in communal levels and their increasingly growing bi/multilingual developments, data from adult urban refugees in this study show discouraging findings. This paper offers state-of-art snapshot and evidence of the role of social relation, and how it is effective on urban refugee’s foreign and/or second language learning, capturing refugee children, adolescents and adults in regard to their varied bi/multilingual developments. Evidenced by 40 urban refugee adults and 40 urban refugee children (middle childhood/6-8 years old) and adolescents, this study reflects that continues, discontinues, collapses and revivals of bi/multilingual developments are by-products of to what degree their dynamic social relationships are: whether more interactive or less interactive with heterogeneous peers. Findings are organized around two central themes—more social interactions among heterogeneous urban refugee (middle childhood) children and adolescents resulted in enhancement of bi/multilingual developments, whereas less social interactions among heterogeneous urban refugee adults lead to hindrance of foreign and/or second language learning. Keywords: Social relation, Urban refugee societies, Foreign/Second language learning, Bi/multilingual and bi/multiliteracy developments
Introduction

A fundamental puzzle in bi/multilingual studies lies in to what extent an increase of linguistic heterogeneity and diversity resulted in continues and revival of bi/multilingual developments. For those who celebrate linguistic diversity leading to mutual linguistic growth, data gathered from adult urban refugees in this study present disappointing research results. By recasting the debate between the increase of linguistic diversity and foreign/second language learning, data from this study asserted that non-interactive or less interactive social relationship(s) among ethnically and linguistically diverse adult refugees has become an unbreakable constrain that enormously hinders their bi/multilingual developments. Central argument of this present inquiry lies in that social relationship(s) does not limit to social interaction alone, but it extends beyond to bi/multilingual learning particularly in regard to transnational urban refugees in Thailand. That is to say, more interactive or less interactive social relation among linguistically heterogeneous refugee groups is predictive to their potential bi/multilingual developments and effectiveness of foreign/second language learning. Noninteractive or less interactive relationship(s) among linguistically heterogeneous urban refugee adults reduces their likelihood to learn each other’s native languages. In marked contrast, relatively more interactive relationship(s) among heterogeneous urban refugee children and adolescents enhance their foreign and/or second language learning from each other.
Background of the Study: Transnational Asylum Seekers and Refugees Resettle in Urban Thailand

In the world we are living today approximately eleven million people are displaced at a domestic level and transnational level (UNHCR, 2006). Those seeking asylum hope for refugee status being granted and individuals “owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his/her nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear is unwilling, to avail 145

A Sample Final Report himself of the protection of that country” are categorized as refugees by the United Nations (Huguet & Punpuing, 2005). Some asylum seekers from different countries come to Thailand and take residence in urban areas, because it has comparatively easy-to-meet visa requirements than other countries (Jesuit Refugee Service, n.d, online). Most of them come from countries of Afghanistan, Congo, Mainland China, Nepal, North Korea, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Vietnam. Though two main types of refugees currently resettle in Thailand—urban refugees and camp based refugees, i.e, Burmese and Lao, this study has limited its focus to urban asylum seekers and refugees.
Literature Review

Factors that affect language learning in adults versus children: Perspectives from the field of linguistics and language studies With respect to multidisciplinary fields of foreign and second language learning, bi/multilingual and bi/multiliteracy developments have recently gained prominence. Most scholarly works document foreign and second language learners’ interactions with multiple languages and demonstrate ways in which local and global influences are intertwined with bi/multilingual, bi/multiliteracy and foreign and second learning. One puzzling between adults and children has to do with their differences in foreign and second language learning. A large variety of proposals have been put forth to explain differences in bi/multilingual and L2 learning between older learners and younger learners. To not go beyond the scope of this paper, only few are listed below without formal analysis within each theory. A large amount of emphasis in language and linguistic studies has been given to understanding the key role of age that plays in L1 and L2 acquisition. Most studies agree that children acquire a foreign and/or second language or a new language faster than adults, despite there are a huge many dissimilarity among adults versus older children versus younger children regarding amount of target language exposure, forms of exposure, and their motivations to become competent in target languages (McLaughlin, 1978). Ervin-Trip’s (1974) study shows that older children (older than 11 years old) learn L2 faster than younger children (younger than 11 years old). While older children and adults might learn a L2 faster than younger children in their initial state, their phonological and morphological mastery of a target language may be in less level than younger children at their final stage(s) (Lieberman, 1984). A related wide-spread theory in this line of argument has claimed that younger children acquire a L2 faster than older children and adults, because they are during a certain critical period from about 2 to 11 years old. In discussing of natural language acquisition, Chomsky’s (1965) observation has claimed that an underlined language faculty/universal grammar/parameter setting that governs our L1 and L2 acquisition and whether faster or slower in language learning has to do with accessibility to this innate mechanism. With Chomsky’s language universal theory, all possibilities of language learning are natural languages, because all linguistic inputs have to match what already existed uniformities and near-uniformities in our universal grammar. Accompanied with these convincing proposals that explain the connection between age and language learning from perspectives of critical period hypothesis and universal grammar theory 146

Social Relation Affects Language Learning in Urban Refugee Societies as briefly reviewed above, data from this present inquiry would argue that another quality should be associated with foreign and/or second language learning differences occurred to adults and children among linguistically diverse populations. This study does not repeat what other scholarly works have offered to us regarding the role of age, critical period, and universal grammar in foreign and second language learning, but address the relation between social relationship(s) and bi/multilingual developments among linguistically diverse urban refugee communities. Social relationship(s) during middle childhood (6-8 years old) and adolescenthood: Perspectives from the field of psychology Scholarly works in both child language developments and child-to-adolescent psychological developments concur in considering social relationship(s) as central to affect language developments for middle childhood children and adolescenthood teens. Elementary school-age children often seek for supports from their parents, whereas children during middle childhood and adolescenthood turn to their peers for social supports and security (Slavin, 2000, pp. 88-89; p.95). During middle childhood, conceptions of friendship among children become gradually matured. Friendship is seen as the essential social relationship(s) among peers when they enter middle childhood. Friendships between peers are built on the basis of mutual supports such as mutual give-and-take, loyalty to each other and so forth. As children enter adolescenthood, peer acceptance has become one of the most important things in their world(s). Thus, adolescents spent a huge amount of time to hang out with their friends. Later, findings of this work correspond to literature in cognitive studies that linguistic repertoire a refugee child and a refugee adolescent builds are largely resulted from their language contacts with linguistically diverse peers while seeking for their social supports in urban refugee shelters. There are some limitations of literature review section in this working paper: Review of relevant literature in this working paper consists of merely two aspects of the study that can better frame this study to be suited to its aim and scope. These two sections above do not constitute a formal literature review of this paper in progress, but provide theoretical perspectives that frame this study within certain disciplines (1. Factors that affect language learning in adults vs. children: perspectives from the field of linguistics and 2. Social relationship(s) during middle childhood (6-8 years old) and adolescenthood: Perspectives from the field of psychology). Moreover, these two aspects do not represent a literature review of the main thesis, because the main thesis is a knowledge gap—dynamics of social interaction among heterogeneous refugees in the context of Thailand affects their foreign and second language learning—to be filled in by undertaking this inquiry. The literature review only included works from few citations. This might be too narrow a coverage for such a subject. Thus, there will be evidence that newer works have been surveyed and cited in its final report instead of in this paper in progress.

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A Sample Final Report
Methodology and Methods

It is within the local and global context of immigration that this inquiry was undertaken. Though this paper is conducted in different local socio-cultural linguistic landscapes and discourses in Thailand, it is also part of global phenomena of transnational trajectories through asylum seeking. Located in Southeast Asia Thailand is a beautiful kingdom and consists of 60 million people with the strongest economy in its region. Visitors to Thailand cannot help but be impressed by its rich cultural heritages demonstrated by Grand Palace, temples, floating markets, ancient sites in Ayutthaya and so on. Numerous green rice plants are ripen to golden at harvest time. When you get a sightseeing tour in their “Big Mountain,” you will experience thick, abundant forests cover the mountain sides. The lush green growth of the fields and mountains are refreshing when compared to Thailand’s the most crowded city--Bangkok. Bangkok is considered the largest metropolitan area in the “Land of Smiles” and is also one of the multiple urban sites where this present inquiry conducted. More than ninety percent of Bangkok City’s population speaks Central Thai, linguistically close to Zhuang language in today’s Guanxi Province, Mainland China. The city of Bangkok has long been considered a stronghold of Central Thai language, and both Thai cultures and Western values. Urbanized cities in rural provinces in Thailand provide rich sites for language and communication studies, because residents here are known for their close-knit family structure and urban refugee shelters. Local communities where urban refugees live throughout Thailand remain relatively conservative as its core, despite the fact that Thailand is today the most modern and cosmopolitan center in its region of Southeast Asia. Eighty participants were selected on the basis of their accessibility to the researcher and their willingness to collaborate in this study. All participants have fairly similar diasporic backgrounds with other urban refugee communities throughout Thailand. Participants chosen represent seven different countries in the range of potential urban refugees in Thailand with ages ranging from six years old to sixty years old. The researcher digitally recorded and observed them over a period of eight months. This study turned out to be well-timed, because when it was conducted there was a rise in the number of Pakistan population in Thailand. Participants were interviewed and observed in multiple sites including humanitarian based education programs, shelters, workplaces, households, and service centers. Analysis of this present inquiry is based on multiple urban refugee communities across Thailand. These urban refugee communities vary in locations, sizes, ethnicities, and native languages. Representative samples ranging from 6 years old to 60 years old were drawn from each urban refugee community. Participants were asked to measure their degree of social interaction(s) with refugee peers who both come from the same countries of origin and not, and were asked to number an averaged amount of utterances including one-word utterances, two-word utterances and multiword utterances they learn from their heterogeneous refugee peers.

148

Social Relation Affects Language Learning in Urban Refugee Societies Data from this study asserted that just because transnational displacement changes their language environment from home countries to Thailand does not entail any differences in their intra-ethnic communication among urban refugee adults. This kind of change without difference in their daily language and communication practices with homogeneous urban refugee adults isolate them into their circle(s) of social group(s) that hinders them from interacting with heterogeneous refugee adults, and further reduces frequencies and possibilities of language contacts with foreign and second languages spoken by linguistically different urban refugee groups. Only one interview for each of the 80 subjects does not constitute interview data set, so a number of fellow-up individual interviews and follow-up group interviews are to ensure the methodological rigor. Each interview lasted approximately one hour, so the digital-recordings of the interviews yielded a significant amount of data. Self-reported interview data can be inaccurate and unreliable. Thus, personal reports are supplemented by observations. The observation data yielded considerable data in the absence of digital-recorder. Although the main informants of this study were restricted to a small sample size—80 participants, the researcher has a fairly representative sample by combining interview data, observation data and data gathered from secondary sources, i.e., leading researcher’s peer debriefing and website information updated by humanitarian based organizations that provide assistance to refugees in Thailand. The researcher is careful to triangulate all different data sets. Even so, data are restricted to reflect local contexts in different urban refugee shelters. They are by no means fixed but changeable. Some findings shown in preceding sections cannot and should not be generalized to other contexts. As this inquiry comes to current stage, it is still considered a working paper.

Findings

Data from this paper show the emerging importance of moving away from (but not excluded) age-, critical period- and universal grammar- related differences to examine adults and children in their varied foreign and/or second language learning by moving into social relationship(s) among heterogeneous groups to explore their bi/multilingual and bi/multiliteracy developments. Table 1: The difference between urban refugee adults and urban refugee children and adolescents in regard to their bi/multilingual developments and effectiveness of foreign and/or second language learning over a period of 2 years staying in multiple urban refugee shelters in Thailand, measured by estimated amount of L2 one- two- and/or multiword utterances acquired (See the page below)

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A Sample Final Report

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1st phase 2nd phase 3rd phase 4th phase I. Urban refugee children's and adolescents' bilingual/biliteracy developments in Thailand II. Urban refugee adults' bilingual/biliteracy developments in Thailand

Y axis represents an estimated total number of L2 utterances including one-word utterances, twoword utterances and multiword utterances, i.e., phrases, sentences and conversations, in two or more foreign and second languages acquired through social interactions with fellow heterogeneous refugees. I. An estimated (not fixed) amount of one-, two- and/or multiword [L2] utterances in foreign and/or second languages learned by urban refugee children and adolescents through social interactions with linguistically diverse refugee peers II. An estimated (not fixed) amount of one-, two- and/or multiword [L2] utterances in foreign and/or second languages learned by urban refugee adults through social interactions with ethnolinguistically heterogeneous refugee peers. 1st phase: from first arrival to an urban refugee shelter up to 6 months of stay 2nd phase: from staying in an urban refugee shelter for 6 months up to 12 months 3rd phase: from staying in an urban refugee shelter for 1 year up to 1.5 years 4th phase: from staying in an urban refugee shelter for 1.5 years up to 2 years

Note that in most heterogeneous urban refugee shelters, English language as medium of communication is adopted and Thai language is an immediate second language for learning. Findings in this study reveal that some well-established models and theories of bi/multilingual and bi/multiliteracy, i.e., influential work by Nancy Hornberger’s continua of biliteracy, might have suffered constrains and proved failure derived from less interactive social relationship(s) among ethnically and linguistically diverse urban refugee adults, because adult informants show little hard evidence to draw on all possible linguistic resources to develop bilingual and biliteracy. In marked contrast, easy-friendship building among urban refugee children and adolescents helps them develop more bi/multilingual competencies than their adult counterparts who are reluctant and unwilling to break their constrains created by their uncross-able social boundaries between them and different adult refugee peers. 150

Social Relation Affects Language Learning in Urban Refugee Societies

This study therefore gave a sobering observation that the increase of linguistic heterogeneity and diversity might potentially lead to less bi/multilingual developments among adult foreign and/or second learners. In exploring reasons from L2 learning participants, conflicting visions, different enduring concerns and conflicts in value systems among urban refugee adults often resulted in less language contacts with each other, despite they live in the same shelter and share life together.
Concluding Remarks and Final Comments

By displaying empirical grounding and methodological rigor, this present inquiry presents updated view of a refreshing aspect in foreign and/or second language learning within urban refugee societies. Although proposals from age differences, critical period hypothesis and universal grammar theory in adult versus children’s foreign and second language learning might partially explain variations occurred in their bi/multilingual and bi/multiliteracy developments, the degree of social interaction among heterogeneous refugee groups is also crucial. Urban refugee children and adolescents are more involved in interacting with heterogeneous refugee peers than their adult counterparts. This leads to their more advanced bi/multilingual and bi/multiliteracy developments than urban refugee adults. This study thus concludes that the amount of social interactions urban refugees engaged in is predictive of their bi/multilingual and bi/multiliteracy developments. As evidenced from data, the acknowledged factor of social interaction among heterogeneous urban refugees directly impacts on the outcome of their foreign and second language learning. Some theoretical, empirical and pedagogical implications are surfaced from data in this present inquiry. Models of L2 learning often fails to take into accounts social relationship(s) among linguistically diverse social groups. To avoid this above pitfall, models of foreign and second language learning and theories of bi/multilingual and bi/multiliteracy developments should reckon with social relationship(s) among ethnically and linguistically heterogeneous groups. Moreover, to break the prior and current constrains created by different social and linguistic groups in urban refugee communities might need to take the first step to build their healthy social relationship(s). Data from this study also ensure that urban refugees normally trust their homogeneous groups more often than heterogeneous groups. Bridging between linguistically different urban refugee groups might be resulted in not only the growth of their social relationship(s), but also their foreign and second language learning. This article makes recommendations and suggests that interventions from administrators and social workers who provide humanitarian based assistance to urban refugees are needed to build their social relation(s) if taking into consideration bi/multilingual and bi/multiliteracy developments for urban refugees. There are some limitations of results and conclusions in this working paper: The results and conclusion in this paper in progress are too brief and fail to deliver much data or discuss the data analysis. There are insufficient details to allow readers to examine results and data and to judge the validity of the author’s claims and conclusions due to space limit in this working paper. However, this inquiry contributes to our current understanding on the casual relationship between social interaction and bilingual/biliteracy development among linguistically diverse L2 151

A Sample Final Report learners. That is to say, social interaction is close to the heart of this social-scientific investigation. It is also fundamental to understand the dynamics of foreign and second language learning outcomes in urban refugee communities with homogeneous, heterogeneous and multiage groups. One the one hand, easier friendship building, more trusts between heterogeneous groups, and more cross-linguistic interaction among younger urban refugee children and adolescents leads to more L2 acquisition and learning. On the other hand, harder friendship building, isolated social networks within homogeneous groups and lack of trust among heterogeneous urban refugee adults result in lesser bilingual/biliteracy learning. References Chomsky, N. (1965). Aspects of the theory of syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Ervin-Tripp, S. M. (1974). Is second language learning like the first? TESOL Quarterly, 8, pp. 111-127. Huguet, J., & Punpuing, S. (2005). International migration in Thailand [Electronic Version].Bangkok, Thailand: International Organization for Migration. Retrieved on Oct 13, 2010, from the Web Site: http://www.iom-

seasia.org/resource/pdf/SituationReport.PDF Jesuit Refugee Service. (n.d.). Urban refugee program, Bangkok. Retrieved December 18, 2010, from the Jesuit Refugee Service Web Site: http://jrs.or.th/thai/ Lieberman, P. (1984). The biology and evolution of language. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. McLaughlin, B. (1978). Second-language acquisition in childhood. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Slavin, R.E. (2000). Educational psychology: Theory and practice (Sixth edition). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon. UNHCR. (2006). The 1951 refugee convention: Questions & answers [Brochure]. Geneva: Archives of the United Nations.

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