This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Dr. Peter L. Fuhr
Chief Scientist RAE Systems, Sunnyvale, CA firstname.lastname@example.org
Dr. Peter Fuhr, Presenter: 480+ publications&presentations in wireless sensor networking arena. Old-timer in this area…etc etc.
RAE Systems Inc.
• Pervasive Sensing Company based in Silicon Valley founded in 1991
– Radiation detection
• Gamma and neutron
– Chemical/vapor detection
• Toxic gas, VOC, combustible gas, oxygen, CWA, temperature, humidity, C02
– Redeployable sensor networks – Mobile and fixed wireless monitors – Cargo Container Sensor Systems
ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr
A number of individuals have provided “content” for these slides. They include: Wayne Manges, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Robert Poor, Ember Pat Gonia, Honeywell Hesh Kagan, Foxboro/Invensys Kang Lee, NIST Tom Kevan, Advanstar Ramesh Shankar, Electric Power Research Institute Larry Hill, Larry Hill Consulting Rob Conant, Dust Rick Kriss, Xsilogy Gideon Varga, Dept of Energy Jack Eisenhauser, Energetics Michael Brambley, Pacific Northwest National Labs David Wagner, UC-Berkeley
Undoubtedly, there are other contributors too (apologies if your name is not listed).
ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr 3
Fuhr 4 ... Wireless devices circa 1930 ISA Wireless Security. P.(and it just may be the next big thing) Each dot represents one cell phone tower.Wireless Sensor Networking …it’s not cellular telephony …it’s not just WiFi.
April 2002 ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr Slide courtesy of Rob Conant. P. Dust 5 .Sensor Market: $11B in 2001 Installation (wiring) costs: >$100B • Fragmented market platform opportunity • Installation cost limits penetration reducing installation cost increases market size Highly Fragmented Sensor Market Freedonia Group report on Sensors.
Xsilogy 6 . P. Preventative Maintenance. Asset Tracking.1 billion • Largest Application areas: – – 2002: Tank Level Monitoring. Fuhr Slide courtesy of Rick Kriss. Environmental Monitoring • Conclusions: – – – Rapid Growth in Industrial markets Tank Level Monitoring will remain a significant opportunity Key ‗ User‘ Needs: • • • Lower Costs over Wired (or Manual) Solutions Education of Potential Customers on the Technology Demonstration of Operational Reliability & Application ‗ Domain‘ Knowledge ISA Wireless Security.Industrial Market Sizing Sensor Networking Products • North American Market for Wireless products used in Applications where transmission distances are 1 mile or less: – – – 2002 Total: $107 million 2006 Forecast: $713 million 2010 Estimates: $ 2. Preventative Maintenance 2006: Tank Level Monitoring.
FLEX SAT. P.15.4. etc SPARSE Higher 3-Yr TOC $$$ Design For Here Installation Costs Lower Meters $ Radio RF Range (dB) Miles $$$$$ Lower ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr Slide courtesy of Rick Kriss.The True cost per monitored node – to the End User Higher Bluetooth. WiFi etc DENSE 1xRTT. Xsilogy 7 . 802.
What to do with the data? Chemical Electrical Mechanical Thermal Radiation Optical Magne tic Parameter of Interest Sensor Measurement System Modifier Output Signal Output Transducer Chemical Electrical Mechanical Thermal Radiation Optical Magne tic Power Supply Great! But how do you get the output signal from the sensor to the location where the information will be interpreted (used)? Traditionally the output of the sensor was hardwired to some form of interpretive device (e.. Fuhr 8 . PLC) perhaps relying on a 4-20mA signal… ISA Wireless Security. P.g.
Bluetooth.4. An Integrated Solution 6. modulation. WiFi. The Big Review ISA Wireless Security.Outline: 1. others…) 5. Security? Who needs it? 2. Spectrum. P. encryption. Security within various Wireless Delivery Schemes (cellular.15. spatial…) 4. 802. The Situation for Wireless (its RF in an industrial setting. How is security achieved in a wired channel? 3. Fuhr 9 .
Oh. Fuhr 10 . P. who needs security in a wireless channel anyway! (pretty ridiculous statement isn‟t it! ISA Wireless Security.
Fuhr 11 . Sept.org ISA Wireless Security.wireless4industrial. P. 2003 www.Let’s ask some experts: WINA meeting. Coral Gables.
NC on Feb 11/12 – right after the ISA Wireless Security Expo and conference.org for WINA meeting details AND www.org/wireless for the ISA Wireless Security conf details! ISA Wireless Security. WINA will be holding a 1.isa. Check out www. Fuhr 12 .wireless4industrial. P.What‘s a WINA? In the spring of 2003.5 day meeting at ISA-HQ in RTP. the Wireless Industrial Networking Alliance (WINA) was formed to promote the adoption of wireless networking technologies and practices that will help increase industrial productivity and efficiency.
P. Fuhr 13 .Back to the Question: Who needs security in a wireless channel anyway! ISA Wireless Security.
media. government. Fuhr . researchers) 14 ISA Wireless Security. P.Strategy Workshop Participants • Suppliers (13) • • System integrators (6) Industrial end users (10) – Chemicals – Energy/Utilities – Forest Products – Electronics – Petroleum – Automotive • Industry analysts/venture capitalists (3) • Others (associations.
P.End-User View of Industrial Wireless Likes • Mobility • Compactness Dislikes • Change to status quo • Complexity • High cost for coverage in large plants • Security issues • Portability issues (power) • Unproven reliability • Too risky for process control • Lack of experience in troubleshooting (staff) • Restricted infrastructure flexibility once implemented • Lack of analysis tools • Flexibility • Low cost • Capability to monitor rotating equipment • Short range (security) • Ease of installation • High reliability • Impetus to enhance electronics support ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 15 .
sensors. data.Technology Group: Key Issues • Security – Jamming. collectors.) • Assured performance & reliability/MTBA* • Software infrastructure. etc. P. technology • True engineered solution (sensors. environments) ISA Wireless Security. and eavesdropping • Power • Value (clear to customer) • Interoperability – Co-existence with other facility networks. collectors. hacking. Fuhr *mean time between attention 16 . & systems management • Robustness (at least as good as wired) • RF characterization (radios. receivers.
) Scalability (Max.Technology Group: Criticality Varies by Application (5 = most critical) Attributes Latency Device Reliability Raw Thru-put (node / aggr. P.5 Applications Alarm 5 5 1/4 Shutdown 5 5 1/1 Biz WLAN 1 1 1/5 5 1 4 5 4 5 1 5 2-3 2 Security Low Cost Gateway Technology Engineered Solution 1-5 5 5 1 5 2 1 5 5 1-3 3-4 4 5 1 1 5 5 2-3 1 3 ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 17 .# nodes) Data Reliability Monitor 2-3 2-3 2/5 Control 3-5 3-5 2.5 /2.
Fuhr 18 . P.Industrial CyberSecurity • The Case of Vitek Boden ISA Wireless Security.
Fuhr 19 . He was refused. P. causing millions of liters of sewage to be spilled. ISA Wireless Security. – Between Jan 2000 and Apr 2000 the sewage system experienced 47 unexplainable faults.• On October 31. – Vitek left the contractor in December 1999 and approached the shire for employment. 2001 Vitek Boden was convicted of: – 26 counts of willfully using a restricted computer to cause damage – 1 count of causing serious environment harm • The facts of the case: – Vitek worked for the contractor involved in the installation of Maroochy Shire sewage treatment plant.
P. controller programming software on a laptop and a fully operational controller. Fuhr . • Vitek is now in jail… Disgruntled Contractor Rogue Radio PLC PLC 20 Sewage Plant ISA Wireless Security.How did he do it? • On April 23. 2000 Vitek was arrested with stolen radio equipment.
Fuhr 21 .4 GHz Antenna ISA Wireless Security. P.A Favorite 2.
WarDriving – 802.11 HotSpots in Silicon Valley ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 22 . P.
Fuhr 23 .11 HotSpots in San Francisco ISA Wireless Security.WarDriving – 802. P.
So…How do you provide the appropriate level of security within the acceptable price and “inconvenience” margin -> Risk Management! ISA Wireless Security. P. Fuhr 24 .The Question: Who needs security in a wireless channel anyway! The Answer: We do.
com/losses. Foreign Corp. Fuhr 25 % of Respondents .www. Disgruntled Competitors Employees 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 *Source: “2002 CSI/FBI Computer Crime and Security Survey” Computer Security Institute .Inside vs. ISA Wireless Security.S. P.gocsi. Hackers U. Outside? • Where do attacks come from? 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Foreign Gov.
An “Outside” Example. P. When? April 2001 ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 26 .
ISA Wireless Security.“Hacker War I” •In the Spring of 2001. P. Fuhr 27 . •Launched from overseas and targeted at US critical infrastructure. the US got it’s first a taste of a new form of warfare.
.." Wired..make use of their skills for China. Fuhr 28 .Honker Union •Chinese Hacker Group working to advance and in some cases impose it’s political agenda •During the spring of 2001.com Attack Methods: Denial of Service Attacks •Website Defacement •E-mailing viruses to US Government Employees •“KillUSA” package ISA Wireless Security. Honker Union worked with other groups such as the Chinese Red Guest Network Security Technology Alliance •Hackers were encouraged to ".. P.
ISA Wireless Security.Cyberwar • Cyber attacks and web defacements increased dramatically after the start of the war against Iraq. with many of the attacks containing anti-war slogans. • Security consultants state that the war against Iraq made March the worst month for digital attacks since records began in 1995. Fuhr 29 . P. • More than 1.000 sites were hacked in the first 48 hours of the conflict.
P. is a military academy specializing in electronic warfare • 100 potential cybersoldiers graduate every year ISA Wireless Security.Hacker School • North Korea's Mirim College. Fuhr 30 .
ISA Wireless Security. P. Fuhr 31 .The Question: Who needs security in a wireless channel anyway? The Answer: Everyone.
others…) 5. encryption. spatial…) 4. Security within various Wireless Delivery Schemes (cellular. The Big Review ISA Wireless Security. WiFi.15. 802. Security? Who needs it? 2. P. Spectrum.Outline: 1. An Integrated Solution 6. Fuhr 32 . The Situation for Wireless (its RF in an industrial setting. modulation.4. Bluetooth. How is security achieved in a wired channel? 3.
Fuhr 33 .A few details… Layered Communications ISA Wireless Security. P.
Fuhr Slide courtesy of Wayne Manges.) ISA Wireless Security. ORNL 34 .Encryption The “traditional” method involved encrypting the data prior to transmission over a potentially insecure channel. The level of protection rests on the encryption algorithm. (There are a few other factors…such as the physical media. P.Wired Data Security .
The Big Review ISA Wireless Security. 2. 802. An Integrated Solution 6.4. 3.Outline: 1. others…) 5. Bluetooth. 4. Security? Who needs it? How is security achieved in a wired channel? The Situation for Wireless Security within various Wireless Delivery Schemes (cellular. WiFi.15. Fuhr 35 . P.
From many perspectives. Fuhr Slide courtesy of Pat Gonia. P. Honeywell 36 . THIS is what a wireless sensor network can provide. Wireless Buildings Key to success: reduced installation costs ISA Wireless Security.
P. Fuhr 37 .Modulation E(t) = A(t) cos[wt + f(t)] Amplitude Modulation (AM) info is in A(t) Frequency Modulation (FM) info is in w Phase Modulation (PM) info is in f(t) Different vendors use different schemes . Phase = 0o Phase = 180o Phase = 360o (or back to 0o) Phase = 270o ISA Wireless Security.and they are not interoperable.
915 and 2400 MHz. P. Fuhr 38 . ISA Wireless Security.The FCC Frequency Assignment Different vendors may use different frequencies within the various ISM bands (green in the diagram). The ISM bands most commonly used are at 433.
TDMA and CDMA ISA Wireless Security. P. FDMA. Fuhr 39 .Multiple Sensors Sharing the Medium: Multiplexing.
Fuhr 40 . “1” in right) ISA Wireless Security.Binary Signaling Formats • Used to Improve Digital Signal Reception and Decision • NRZ: Non-Return to Zero • RZ: Return to Zero • Unipolar: Only one side of 0V • Bipolar: Both sides of 0V • Manchester: Bi-Phase (“0” in left 1/2 time slot. P.
F0. Fuhr 41 .Narrowband or Spread Spectrum? Narrowband uses a fixed carrier frequency. F0. P. The receiver then locks onto the carrier frequency. Prone to jamming or interference (two transmitters at the same carrier frequency. ISA Wireless Security. Easy to implement (inexpensive). F0. Least secure modulation scheme.
F0(t). Uses a carrier frequency that varies with time. Hopping rates may be ~1600 hops/second (ala Bluetooth). Very secure modulation scheme (used in military for decades). ISA Wireless Security. F0(t). Fuhr 42 . Prone to jamming or interference (two transmitters at the same carrier frequency.Narrowband or Spread Spectrum (cont.) ? Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum. Invented and patented by actress Heddy Lamarr and her pianist George Antheil. F0) during any single transmit interval. P. The receiver must track the time-varying carrier frequency. Relatively easy to implement (inexpensive).
ISA Wireless Security. More difficult to implement (more expensive). F0 but interleaves the data with a precise mathematical 0/1 data sequence. Highly robust technique. Fuhr 43 . F0 receives the signal and then must ―undo‖ the interleaving. The receiver then locks onto the carrier frequency. P. Most secure modulation scheme.Narrowband or Spread Spectrum (cont. (This increases the length of the transmitted information vector making it longer). the remainder “gets through”. so if one “lobe” of the information is jammed. Most complicated scheme (of these presented).) ? Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum uses a fixed carrier frequency. The information is replicated many times throughout the bandwidth.
Fuhr 44 .DIRECT-SEQUENCE SPREAD-SPECTRUM SIGNALS PN Clock Carrier PN Sequence Generator ±1 Data Local PN Clock PN Sequence Generator Wide BP Filter ±1 Narrow BP Filter Local Carrier Phase Demod Data Data Clock ±1 Power Spectral Density Power Spectral Density Power Spectral Density RFI “Spread” RFI Frequency fc Frequency fc Narrow spectrum at output of modulator before spreading Spectrum has wider bandwidth and lower power density after spreading with PN sequence (PN Rate >> Data Rate) Original narrowband. P. high power density spectrum is restored if local PN sequence is same as and lined up with received PN sequence Frequency fc ISA Wireless Security.
DSSS is best. Fuhr From a security standpoint. 45 .) ? Which is best? Each has its pluses and minuses…and each scheme has its share of diehard advocates and/or naysayers! Different vendors use these (and other) schemes at different frequencies within the various ISM bands. ISA Wireless Security. P.Narrowband or Spread Spectrum (cont.
Fuhr 46 .Reality DSSS FHSS ISA Wireless Security. P.
P.No Matter What…Its Just an Electromagnetic Field E(t) = A(t) cos[wt + f(t)] A(t): amplitude of the wave w: radian frequency of the wave f(t): phase of the wave ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 47 .
Fuhr 48 . size: 100m Wide Area Network: typical radiated power: >30 dBm. P. size: >2000m ISA Wireless Security. size: 10m Local Area Network: typical radiated power: 20 dBm.The RF ―Footprint‖ Network “Size” Personal Area Network: typical radiated power: 0 dBm.
P.There are SO many technical questions: such as… Network Topologies? Bus Network Tree Netw ork Ring Netw ork Star Network ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr Ad Hoc Network 49 .
The Real World Presents the Wireless Channel with Multipath and Attenuation…and… ISA Wireless Security. P. Fuhr 50 .
Fuhr 51 .Real World: Multipath The Effect The Cause ISA Wireless Security. P.
4 GHz Rayleigh Fading @ 2. P. Fuhr 52 .Real World: Atmospheric Attenuation at 2.4GHz ISA Wireless Security.
P.4 GHz ISA Wireless Security.Real World: Signal Attenuation at 2. Fuhr 53 .
the overall data rate. Fuhr 54 . (This plays havoc with the BER or for fixed BER.Real World: And Signal-to-Noise Ratios really do matter! Anecdotal Evidence: As Frankfurt has increased the deployment of 2. the background Noise level has increased by 12 dB.4 GHz wireless surveillance cameras.) ISA Wireless Security. P.
Fuhr 55 . ISA Wireless Security.Real World: Which Frequency is Best? ALERT! ALERT!! Notice that the operation at 2.45 GHz is WORSE than at 900MHz (which is worse than 433 MHz). P.
encryption.4. others…) 5. WiFi. modulation.Outline: 1. spatial…) 4. Security? Who needs it? 2. The Situation for Wireless (its RF in an industrial setting. The Big Review ISA Wireless Security. P.15. How is security achieved in a wired channel? 3. Bluetooth. 802. Security within various Wireless Delivery Schemes (cellular. Fuhr 56 . An Integrated Solution 6. Spectrum.
ISA Wireless Security. These techniques can make the signal virtually undetectable without prior knowledge about the network.Wireless Data Security: Encryption. Fuhr Slide courtesy of Wayne Manges. This can improve the security of the network by orders of magnitude. Interleaving Wireless networks use a variety of techniques to enhance security. ORNL 57 . such as spreading and interleaving. P. Spreading.
The Wireless Market
TEXT LONG GRAPHICS INTERNET HI-FI AUDIO STREAMING VIDEO DIGITAL VIDEO MULTI-CHANNEL VIDEO
802.11b 802.11a/HL2 & 802.11g Bluetooth 2
ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr
Bluetooth vs. the Rest (cont‘d)
Parameter Technology 802.11 2.4 GHz, DSSS 11 chips/bit Data Rate 11Mbps Power +20 dBm Range 50m Topology 128 devices CSMA/CA Security Optional WEP Voice Channel Optional HomeRF 2.4GHz, FHSS 50 hops/s 1 Mbps +20 dBm 50m 128 devices CSMA/CA Optional Optional Bluetooth 2.4 GHz, FHSS 1000+hops/s 1Mbps 0, +20dBm 1-10m, 50m 8 devices, Piconet Encryption Yes ZigBee (proposed) 2.4 GHz,DSSS 15 chips/bit 40 kbits/s 0dBm 100m 100s devices, CSMA/CA Not yet No
Bluetooth – aka IEEE 802.15.1
ZigBee – aka IEEE 802.15.4
ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr 59
Side by Side
ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr
11? ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 61 . P.802.
11 Spectral Space ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 62 .The Worldwide View of the 802. P.
Fuhr 63 . P.Radiated Field from a single AP (Kansas City) ISA Wireless Security.
20dB Attenuation Profile for Univ of Kansas Eng Bldg. Fuhr 64 . Mesh and AP deployments ISA Wireless Security.. P.
WEP (encrypted traffic) • The industry‘s solution: WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) – Share a single cryptographic key among all devices – Encrypt all packets sent over the air. using the shared key – Use a checksum to prevent injection of spoofed packets ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 65 . P.
2001 Feb 5. WSJ break the story Borisov. P. Aboba. Moore: some weaknesses Walker: Unsafe at any key size Oct 2000 Jan 30.Early History of WEP 1997 802. Fuhr NY Times. Wagner: 7 serious attacks on WEP 66 . 2001 ISA Wireless Security.11 WEP standard released Mar 2000 Simon. Goldberg.
Mantin. Fuhr 67 Borisov. Mishra: still more attacks Feb 2002 ISA Wireless Security.Subsequent Events Jan 2001 Mar 2001 Arbaugh: Your 802. Goldberg.11 network has no clothes May 2001 Jun 2001 Aug 2001 Newsham: dictionary attacks on WEP keys Fluhrer. Wagner Arbaugh: more attacks … . Shamir: efficient attack on way WEP uses RC4 Arbaugh. P.
net • WEPCrack – http://sourceforge.thehackerschoice. P.com/releases. • THC-RUT – http://www. Fuhr 68 .php ISA Wireless Security.net/projects/wepcrack/ – To brute force enter into WLAN.WEP Attack Tools • Downloadable procedures from the Internet – To crack the Key: • AirSnort – http://airsnort.sourceforge.
outstanding issues.11i standard for enhanced wireless security Addresses weak data encryption and user authentication within existing 802. (keys no longer than 40 bits).11 standard.flaws include weak encryption. ISA Wireless Security. – IEEE developing 802. possibly early 2004 . lack of key distribution method. – 802.11i standard (Draft 3.0). •WPA provides stronger data encryption (weak in WEP) and user authentication (largely missing in WEP).11i standard will not be ratified until late 2003. static encryption keys. – WPA standard joint effort between Wi-Fi Alliance and IEEE . P. Fuhr 69 .WPA a subset of IEEE 802.Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) – Flaws in WEP known since January 2001 .
k. ensures messages haven‟t been tampered with during transmission. Extended 48-bit Initialization Vector (IV) and IV sequencing rules (compared to the shorter 24-bit WEP RC4 key). Fuhr 70 .11b hardware compared to other available cipher suites. – TKIP based on RC4 stream cipher algorithm. 2.a. surrounds WEP cipher engine with 4 new algorithms. A message integrity check (MIC) . addresses known vulnerabilities in WEP. Derivation and distribution method . New per-packet key mixing function. 1.k. 4.a. •TKIP chosen as primary encryption cipher suite Easily deployed and supported in legacy 802. re-keying.WPA – Data Encryption – WPA uses Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) . „Michael‟. P.a.stronger data encryption.a. ISA Wireless Security. 3.
Phase 1 key mixing WEP seed(s) (represented as WEP IV + RC4 key) Temporal Key TA TTAK Key TSC MIC Key Plaintext MSDU + MIC Phase 2 key mixing SA + DA + Plaintext MSDU Data MIC Fragment(s) Plaintext MPDU(s) WEP Encapsulation Ciphertext MPDU(s) •DA – Destination Address •ICV– Integrity Check Value •MPDU – Message Protocol Data Unit •MSDU – MAC Service Data Unit •RSN – Robust Security Network •SA – Source Address •TA – Transmitter Address ISA Wireless Security.WPA – Data Encryption. cont‘d • the Temporal Key Integrity Protocol. P. Fuhr TKIP – Temporal Key Integrity Protocol TSC – TKIP Sequence Counter TTAK– result of phase 1 key mixing of Temporal Key and Transmitter Address WEP – Wired Equivalent Privacy WEP IV – Wired Equivalent Privacy Initialization Vector 71 .
cont’d – TKIP implements countermeasures .WPA – Data Encryption. Fuhr 72 . P.reduces rate which attacker can make message forgery attempts down to two packets every 60 seconds. – After 60 second timeout new PMK or Groupwise Key generated. ISA Wireless Security. •TKIP eliminates having to replace existing hardware or having to purchase new hardware. – Countermeasures bound probability of successful forgery and amount of information attacker can learn about a key. – TKIP is made available as firmware or software upgrade to existing legacy hardware. depending on which attacked – ensures attacker cannot obtain information from attacked key.
P. Fuhr 73 .Bluetooth? ISA Wireless Security.
BlueTooth.Some Specifications • Uses unlicensed 2.2. Fuhr 74 . ISA Wireless Security.480 GHz frequency range • Frequency hopping spread spectrum 79 hops separated by 1 MHz • Maximum frequency hopping rate: 1600 hops/sec • Nominal range: 10 cm to 10 meters • Nominal antenna power: 0 dBm • One complete Bluetooth data packet can be transmitted within each 625 msec hop slot. P.402 .
Potential Bluetooth Markets ISA Wireless Security. P. Fuhr 75 .
Bluetooth Market Forecast Nov‘03: 100M Bluetooth compliant devices worldwide ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 76 . P.
Bluetooth Protocol Stack
• Adopted Protocols – PPP(Point-To-Point Protocol) – TCP/UDP/IP – OBEX-Session Protocol for IrDA(Infrared Data Association) – Contents Fromat(e.g. vCard, vCalendar) – WAP-Wireless Application Protocol
ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr
• Supports Unidirectional or Mutual Encryption based on a Secret Link key Shared Between Two Devices • Security Defined In 3 modes: – Mode1- No Security – Mode 2 - Service Level Security: Not Established Before Channel is Established at L2CAP – Mode 3 - Link Level Security: Device Initiates Security Before LMP Link is Setup
• Devices and Services can be Set for Different Levels of Security – Two Trust Levels are Set for Devices • Trusted Device: Fixed Relationship and Unrestricted Access to All Services • Untrusted: No Permanent relationship and Restricted Services
ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr 78
• Devices and Services can be Set for Different Levels of Security – Two Trust Levels are Set for Devices • Trusted Device: Fixed Relationship and Unrestricted Access to All Services • Untrusted: No Permanent relationship and Restricted Services
ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr
Fuhr 80 .Bluetooth Security • 3 Levels of Service Access – Require Authorization and Authenication – Require Authentication Only – Default Security for Legacy Applications ISA Wireless Security. P.
But is this Wireless Link Secure? Newsflash: Jan 2001: Norwegian “hackers” crack a Bluetooth transmission ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 81 . P.
Analysis of a BlueTooth Transmission High overhead? ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 82 . P.
15.4/Zigbee? ISA Wireless Security.802. Fuhr 83 . P.
1 (Bluetooth) ISA Wireless Security.2 beacon management. ACK. Type I • Low complexity: 26 primitives IEEE 802.4 MAC versus 131 primitives for IEEE 802. Fuhr 84 .1 • Supports multiple network topologies including Star.IEEE 802. channel scan IEEE 802. frame validation. Data Link Controller (DLC) IEEE 802. Cluster Tree and • Features of the MAC: Mesh ZigBee Application Framework Association/dissociation. channel access Networking App Layer (NWK) mechanism.15.4 LLC LLC.15.15. frame delivery.4 IEEE 802.15. guaranteed time slot management. P.15.4 868/915 MHz PHY 2400 MHz PHY 802.15.4 standard • Includes layers up to and including Link Layer Control – LLC is standardized in 802.
Fuhr 85 .1 FHSS – 802. P.3 DSSS ISA Wireless Security.11b DSSS – 802.15. 40 or 250 kbps • Channels – 1 channel in the 868MHz band – 10 channels in the 915MHz band – 16 channels in the 2.PHY overview • Speed – 20.15.4GHz band • Modulation – BPSK (868MHz/20kbs) – BPSK (915MHz/40kbps) – O-QPSK (2.4GHz/250kbps) • Coexistence w/ – 802.
Fuhr 86 . P.MAC overview • Security support • Power consumption consideration • Dynamic channel selection • Network topology – Star topology – p2p topology – cluster-tree network topology ISA Wireless Security.
• Reduced Function Device (RFD) – Limited to star topology – Can only talk to an FFD (coordinator) – Cannot become a coordinator – Unnecessary to send large amounts of data – Extremely simple – Can be implemented using minimal resources and memory capacity ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 87 . P.Device classification • Full Function Device (FFD) – Any topology – Can talk to RFDs or other FFDs – Operate in three modes • PAN coordinator • Coordinator • Device.
Fuhr 88 .Transmission management • Acknowledgement –No ACK –ACK –Retransmission –Duplicate detection • Indirect transmission ISA Wireless Security. P.
Security • Unsecured mode • ACL mode – Access control • Secured mode – Access control – Data encryption – Frame integrity –Sequential freshness ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 89 . P.
they ACK the ―health inquiry‖ as if everything was OK – but they do not forward to the rest of the net • The rest of the network is virtually cut off from inspection by controller • Need secure key and a random seed that changes at each round ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 90 .Scalable Security • Assume the attacker can deploy own nodes (can create a ―ring‖ at some distance from controller)[Wisenet 2003] • Enemy nodes ―mimick‖ the mesh nodes. P.
P. Fuhr 91 .What About: 1451.5? 1xRTT? SAT? CDPD? Others? No time this morning! ISA Wireless Security.
others…) 5. Fuhr 92 . Security? Who needs it? 2. Spectrum. spatial…) 4.4. Security within various Wireless Delivery Schemes (cellular. WiFi. The Situation for Wireless (its RF in an industrial setting. How is security achieved in a wired channel? 3. modulation. Bluetooth. P. 802.15.Outline: 1. An Integrated Solution 6. encryption. The Big Review ISA Wireless Security.
ISA Wireless Security.There are SO many technical questions: such as… Integrated Industrial Networks? If the sensor network is to integrate into an industrial setting. P. then you should be cognizant of the Industrial Networking arena. Fuhr 93 .
which supply strategic data to the enterprise. links sensors and smart devices. Fuhr . three layers of networking make up enterprisewide networks. or fieldbus. P. and it's linked to controllers or industrial PCs. Ethernet acts as the company's intranet backbone. An industrial network.Industrial Device Network Topology • Typically. 94 ISA Wireless Security. A gateway (not uncommon in a large system with lots of devices) links devices that have only RS-232 or RS485 ports to the fieldbus system.
• General characteristics for industrial device networks have arisen. Fuhr . 95 ISA Wireless Security. P. Industrial Device Networks • Obviously the complexity of the network increases as the functionality is increased.
Classification of Industrial Networks • Three logical groupings of instrumentation networks used in an industrial setting. • There are over 100 different proprietary networks in the field. P. Fuhr 96 . ISA Wireless Security.
Fuhr 97 .Inside Security Incident • Employee attacks PLC in another plant area over PLC highway. • Password changed to obscenity. P. Plant Highway Disgruntled Employee PLC PLC PLC PLC Steam Plant Paper Plant * Source: BCIT Industrial Security Incident Database (ISID) ISA Wireless Security. blocking legitimate maintenance and forcing process shutdown.
- ISA Wireless Security. RS485 etc. Fuhr Cost + 98 . Hardwiring. Seriplex. P.Network Positioning + Data Ethernet TCP/IP ControlNet Foundation Fieldbus H2 Profibus-FMS Profibus-DP Data Highway+ Interbus-S Modbus Plus Remote I/O DeviceNet Other CAN SDS Fieldbus H1 Profibus-PA Modbus HART + + Functionality Complexity - ASi.
Fuhr 99 . ISA Wireless Security. P. • Myth #2: Our Internet firewall will protect our control systems.Too Focused on Internet Issues? • Myth #1: Our SCADA/PLC/DCS is safe if we don‘t connect to the Internet. • Myth #3: Our IT department understands process control issues and security.
2002 100 .11 WLAN Field Devices OEM Source (used by permission): Interface Technologies. CT. P. Windsor.Is Industrial Comm Security Too Focused on Internet Issues? Internet Remote Engineering Firewall Enterprise Resource Planning Manufacturing Logistics Production Planning Enterprise Network Production Networks Ethernet Programming Stations SCAD A Control Network PLC Modem Process Historian WarDialing Attack PLC Handheld Operator Terminal ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 802.
4. WiFi. modulation.Outline: 1. The Big Review ISA Wireless Security. Security within various Wireless Delivery Schemes (cellular. How is security achieved in a wired channel? 3. An Integrated Solution 6. The Situation for Wireless (its RF in an industrial setting. 802. spatial…) 4. Fuhr 101 . Security? Who needs it? 2. encryption. Bluetooth. others…) 5. P.15. Spectrum.
Fuhr 102 .Bit Rate vs. P. the more power you consume! ISA Wireless Security. Quality of Service How Many Bits are Needed? The more bits you xmit.
Quality of Service Is Coding Really Necessary? ISA Wireless Security.Coding vs. Fuhr 103 . P.
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum ISA Wireless Security. P. Fuhr 104 .
Comparing Wireless Tech. P. Fuhr Medium Low Long High longest Short short High Medium High 105 Medium Lowest . Range RF Power Battery life Numbers In Area DSSS FHSS UWB ISA Wireless Security.
8GHz 5.4GHz 5.8GHz 900MHz NA 900MHz 5.8GHz 5. P.8GHz 900MHz 5.8GHz 5. Fuhr 106 .8GHz Power Harvesting NA NA yes NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Embedded Intelligence Diversity NA yes NA NA yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes NA yes NA yes NA NA NA NA FEC yes NA yes NA NA NA yes NA yes NA NA ISA Wireless Security.Technology Beats Marketing in Performance! Technology versus Attributes Summary Chart Technology Low Mobile Power Ad Hoc Designs Networks NA yes NA NA yes NA yes yes NA NA yes NA NA NA NA yes NA yes yes NA yes NA DSSS FHSS UWB Attribute Long Range NA Plug-and-Play DSSS Long Battery life FHSS Low RFI risk DSSS Self Locating DSSS Secure UWB High throughput UWB non line-of-sight UWB robust connections DSSS low cost FHSS small size FHSS CDMA TDMA FDMA NA CDMA FDMA NA CDMA CDMA NA NA CDMA FDMA TDMA BPSK Open QPSK Standards M-ary NA NA yes NA NA M-ary NA NA NA NA NA NA NA M-ary NA NA NA BPSK yes BPSK NA BPSK 900MHz 2.8GHz 900MHz 5.
gocsi. P.Statistics on Types of Attacks Denial of Service Laptop Theft Active Wiretap Telecom Fraud Unauthorized Insider Access Virus Finacial Fraud Insider Abuse of Net Access System Penetration Telecom Evesdropping Sabotage Theft of Propriety Info 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 % of Respondents *Source: “2002 CSI/FBI Computer Crime and Security Survey” Computer Security Institute .com/losses.www. Fuhr 107 . ISA Wireless Security.
Optimization of Security vs. Fuhr 108 . P. Optimal Level of Security at Minimum Cost Cost ($) Cost of Security Breaches Cost of Security Countermeasures Security Level ISA Wireless Security. Cost • Risk reduction is balanced against the cost of security counter measures to mitigate the risk.
P. Risk in Security • Safety Definition: “Risk is a measure of human injury.Risk in Safety vs. environmental damage.” *Source: CSPP Guidelines For Analyzing And Managing The Security Vulnerabilities Of Fixed Chemical Sites ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 109 . or economic loss in terms of both the incident likelihood and the magnitude of the loss or injury.” • Security Definition: “Risk is an expression of the likelihood that a defined threat will exploit a specific vulnerability of a particular attractive target or combination of targets to cause a given set of consequences.
Firewall Architectures • The external router blocks attempts to use the underlying IP layer to break security (e. packet fragments. Internet External Router Internal Router ISA Wireless Security. • The proxy firewall handles potential security holes in the higher layer protocols.g. source routing. IP spoofing. etc) and forces all traffic to the proxy. P. • The internal router blocks all traffic except to the proxy server. Fuhr 110 .
There‘s lot of ―Wireless‖ • From cellphones to PDAs to WiFi to Satellite-based ISA Wireless Security. P. Fuhr 111 .
Fuhr 112 .Wireless LAN Standards ISA Wireless Security. P.
11i – 802.Existing/Developing IEEE 802. P.11e – 802.16 – Frequency Hopping/DSSS 54Mbps / HyperLAN (1999) 11Mbps Quality of Service Point 2 Point Roaming (2003) 54Mbps European Inspired Changes (Q2.11 Standards • • • • • • • • • • • 802.11802.11f – 802.1x – 802.2004) Port Based Network Access Personal Area Network (WPAN) Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (WMAN) 113 ISA Wireless Security.11b – 802.11g – 802.11a – 802.15 – 802.2004) New Encryption Protocols (Q2.11h – 802. Fuhr .
P. Fuhr …and we haven’t even touched on RFID! 114 .Wireless Backbone for Inflight “Entertainment” On-Board Network Integration PicoCell BTS PicoCell BTS Noise Floor Lifter 6 MCU GSM SERVER SDU ISA Wireless Security.
Fuhr 115 .There‘s lot of ―Wireless‖ • And it all needs to feel more Secure! ISA Wireless Security. P.
Fuhr 116 .For a real review of networking security… • Take Eric Byrnes ISA course IC32C… ISA Wireless Security. P.
BGW] 2001 2002 Proprietary systems 2002 2003 1451.11 analog cloning.: 3GPP. P. Fuhr 2003 WPA Future: ??? 117 . GSM 1990 TDMA eavesdropping [Bar] sensor networks WEP broken [BGW] WEP badly broken [FMS] attacks pervasive more TDMA flaws [WSK] GSM cloneable [BGW] GSM eavesdropping [BSW.4. WEP 2000 digital: TDMA. … ISA Wireless Security.11. TinyOS Future: 802. scanners fraud pervasive & costly wireless networks 1999 802.Will History Repeat? Cellular networks 1980 analog cellphones: AMPS wireless security: not just 802.11i 2000 Future: 3rd gen. 802.15.
P.PATRIOT Act • PATRIOT (Provide Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism) • Legally classifies many hacking attacks as acts of terrorism ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 118 .
P. at least PLEASE do this for your WiFi System! • Conduct site survey • • • • WLAN Security Countermeasures Identify areas of signal strength and weakness Do a “walkaround” with NetStumbler Document and shut down rogue access points Document and shut down unauthorized wireless NICs • AND TURN ON SOME LEVEL OF THE PROVIDED PROTECTION! ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 119 .So… If Nothing else.
So if your wireless network has primepower (a. But if you’re going off a battery then it’s a tradeoff of security versus Power Consumption You Choose that one! ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 120 .Oh… And don’t forget that as you layer in all of these wacky encryption schemes and CDMA and DSSS and…and… that it takes some joules to actually implement this. P. AC) you’re ok.k.a.
HoneyBee with RFID Two potential forms of wireless sensor networks. Fuhr 121 . P.......or.and in the end... BumbleBee with RF xcvr . And they should both be secure! ISA Wireless Security..
802. others…) 5.4. The Big Review 7. encryption. P. Bluetooth. modulation. WiFi.Outline: 1. Security? Who needs it? 2. An Integrated Solution 6. Fuhr 122 . How is security achieved in a wired channel? 3. The Situation for Wireless (its RF in an industrial setting.15. Glossary and References ISA Wireless Security. spatial…) 4. Security within various Wireless Delivery Schemes (cellular. Spectrum.
10BASE-T: IEEE 802.3 standard for a twisted-pair Ethernet network. 10 Mbps transmission rate over baseband using unshielded, twistedpair cable. 802.11: The IEEE 802.11 standard defines both frequency hopping and direct sequence spread spectrum solutions for use in the 2.4-2.5 MHz ISM (Industrial, Scientific, Medical) band. 802.11a: The Global System for Mobile Communications standard for worldwide wireless communications on wide area networks (WANs). 802.11b: The portion of the 802.11 specification that defines the 11 Mbps data rate. A Access Point: Provides a bridge between Ethernet wired LANs and the wireless network. Access points are the connectivity point between Ethernet wired networks and devices (laptops, hand-held computers, point-of-sale terminals) equipped with a wireless LAN adapter card. Analog phone: Comes from the word "analogous," which means similar to. In telephone transmission, the signal being transmitted from the phone—voice, video or image—is analogous to the original signal. Antenna-Directional: Transmits and receives radio waves off the front of the antenna. The power behind and to the sides of the antenna is reduced. The coverage area is oval with the antenna at one of the narrow ends. Typical directional antenna beam width angles are from 90° (somewhat directional) to as little as 20°(very directional). A directional antenna directs power to concentrate the coverage pattern in a particular direction. The antenna direction is specified by the angle of the coverage pattern called the beam width. Antenna-Omni-directional: Transmits and receives radio waves in all directions. The coverage area is circular with the antenna at the center. Omni-directional antennas are also referred to as whip or low-profile antennas. Association: The process of determining the viability of the wireless connection and establishing a wireless network's root and designated access points. A mobile unit associates with its wireless network as soon as it is powered on or moves into range. ATM: Asynchronous Transfer Mode. A type of high-speed wide area network.
ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr
B Backbone: A network that interconnects other networks, employing high-speed transmission paths and often spanning a large geographic area. Bandwidth: The range of frequencies, expressed in hertz (Hz), that can pass over a given transmission channel. The bandwidth determines the rate at which information can be transmitted through the circuit. Bandwidth Management: Functionality that allocates and manages RF traffic by preventing unwanted frames from being processed by the access point. BC/MC: Broadcast frames; Multicast frames Beacon: A uniframe system packet broadcast by the AP to keep the network synchronized. A beacon Includes the Net_ID (ESSID), the AP address, the Broadcast destination addresses, a time stamp, a DTIM (Delivery Traffic Indicator Maps) and the TIM (Traffic Indicator Message). BFA Antenna Connector: Miniature coaxial antenna connector manufactured by MuRata Manufacturing Corporation. Bluetooth: See Wireless Personal Area Networks. Bridge: A device that connects two LANs of the same or dissimilar types. It operates at the Data Link Layer, as opposed to routers. The bridge provides fast connection of two collocated LAN segments that appear as one logical network through the bridge. Buffer: A segment of computer memory used to hold data while it is being processed.
ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr
CAM: Continuously Aware Mode: Mode in which the adapter is instructed to continually check for network activity. Card and Socket Services: Packages that work with the host computer operating system, enabling the Wireless LAN adapter to interface with host computer configuration and power management functions. Cellular Phone: Low-powered, duplex, radio/telephone that operates between 800 and 900 MHz, using multiple transceiver sites linked to a central computer for coordination. The sites, or "cells," cover a range of one to six or more miles in each direction. Centrex: Business telephone service offered by a local telephone company from a local telephone company office. Centrex is basically a single line phone system leased to businesses as a substitute for a business that is buying or leasing its own on-premises phone system or PBX. CDMA and TDMA: The Code Division Multiple Access and Time Division Multiple Access standard for wireless communications on wide area networks (WANs) in North America. Circuit switching: The process of setting up and keeping a circuit open between two or more users so that users have exclusive and full use of the circuit until the connection is released. Client: A computer that accesses the resources of a server. Client/Server: A network system design in which a processor or computer designated as a server (such as a file server or database server) provides services to other client processors or computers. CODEC: Coder-Decoder. Audio compression/decompression algorithm that is designed to offer excellent audio performance. Converts voice signals from their analog form to digital signals acceptable to modern digital PBXs and digital transmission systems. It then converts those digital signals back to analog so that you may hear and understand what the other person is saying. Computer Telephony Integration: Technology that integrates computer intelligence with making, receiving, and managing telephone calls. Computer telephony integrates messaging, real-time connectivity, and transaction processing and information access.
ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr
P. Alternatively. wider range and is upgradable in the 2. The second antenna is used only for receiving radio signals." this bit pattern numbers 10 chips to one per bit of information. Direct Inward Dialing: DID. Most data terminals provide a user interface to a more capable host computer. The same device. Driver: A program routine that links a peripheral device. Commonly referred to as a "chip" or "chipping code. which then completes the call. Compared with frequency hopping. and then converts those digital signals back to analog. In large PBX systems. Direct-Sequence (DS) Spread Spectrum: Direct sequence transmits data by generating a redundant bit pattern for each bit of information sent. host computer or front-end processor. direct sequence has higher throughput. Fuhr 126 . such as a mainframe or midrange computer. including a wide variety of dumb terminals or terminals without embedded intelligence in the form of programmed logic. such as AT&T. Decryption: Decryption is the decoding and unscrambling of received encrypted data. while the primary is used for both transmitting and receiving. Desktop Conferencing: A telecommunications facility or service on a PC that permits callers from several diverse locations to be connected together for a conference call. Northern Telecom. Diversity Reception: The use of two antennas attached to a single access point to improve radio reception. and so on. The system can consist of a proprietary PBX system that converts voice signals from their analog form to digital signals. Mitel. ISA Wireless Security.Glossary D Data Terminal: Computer transmit and receive equipment. such as a mobile unit's radio card.4GHz band. The signal being transmitted in a digital phone system is the same as the signal being transmitted in an analog phone system. The ability for a caller outside a company to call an internal extension without having to pass through an operator or attendant. usually performs both encryption and decryption. Digital Phone System: Proprietary phone system provided by a vendor. the conversion from analog-to-digital can occur in a digital phone. to the computer system. the dialed digits are passed from the PSTN to the PBX.
with 1 Gbps speeds coming soon.Element-level Management: Level of technologies aimed at small or medium-sized businesses. Frequency Hopping (FH) Spread Spectrum: Hedy Lamarr. each channel occupying 1MHz of bandwidth.323 conference. expressed in decibels referenced to a theoretical isotropic radiator. is credited in name only for inventing frequency hopping during World War II. GHz: International unit for measuring frequency is Hertz (Hz). Glossary Encryption: Entails scrambling and coding information. It uses TCP/IP commands. Fragmentation Threshold: The maximum size for directed data packets transmitted over the radio. Ethernet: A local area network used for connecting computers. there has also been a greater selection of WLAN products from which to chose. frequency hopping transmits using a narrowband carrier that changes frequency in a given pattern. Ethernet operates over twisted wire and over coaxial cable at speeds up to 100 Mbps. Frame Mode: A communications protocol supported by the OEM Modules. Gain. Gain. terminals.45 GHz. before the information is transmitted over a network. Frequency hopping technology is recognized as superior to direct sequence in terms of echo resistance. dBic: Antenna gain. One Gigahertz (GHz) is one billion Hertz. expressed in decibels referenced to a half wave dipole. The frame protocol implements asynchronous serial Point-to-Point (PPP) frames similar to those used by serial Internet protocols. dBi: Antenna gain. interference immunity. There are 79 channels in a 2. GSM: The Global System for Mobile Communications standard for worldwide wireless communications on wide area networks (WANs). Gateways are not required if connections to other networks or non-H. expressed in decibels referenced to a theoretical isotropic radiator that is circularly polarized. Microwave ovens typically operate at 2. A minimum hop rate of 2. The receiving station reassembles the transmitted fragments. typically with mathematical formulas called algorithms. and multimedia formats. the actress. Filtering: Prevents user-defined frames from being processed by the access point. workstations. and so on. which is equivalent to the older unit of cycles per second. P. FTP (File Transfer Protocol): A common Internet protocol used for transferring files from a server to the Internet user. As its label suggests. Gatekeeper: Software that performs two important functions to maintain the robustness of the network: address translation and bandwidth management.4GHz ISM band.5 hops per channel per second is required in the United States. within the same building or campus. cost and ease-of-installation.323 conferences to other networks. Gateway: Optional element in an H. Gain. Fuhr 127 . dBi: Antenna gain. communications protocols. Gatekeepers map LAN aliases to IP addresses and provide address lookups when needed. Gateways bridge H. To date. printers. ISA Wireless Security. servers.323 compliant terminals are not needed. Larger frames fragment into several packets this size or smaller before transmission over the radio.
and Internet malls. and bandwidth management for point-to-point and multi-point conferences. The Internet is a virtual network based on packet switching technology. Handheld PC (HPC): The term adopted by Microsoft and its supporters to describe handheld computers employing Microsoft's Windows CE operating system. speaker. ISDN: Integrated Services Digital Network.323: An umbrella standard from the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) that addresses call control. computer telephony. bypassing the traditional PSTN and saving money in the process.4835GHz). Provides the basis of the Internet connection-less.best-effort packet delivery service. Enabled by the IEEE 802. ISM Band: ISM bands--instrumental (902-928MHz). an intranet is a private Internet reserved for use by people who have been given the authority and passwords necessary to use that network. Internet: World's largest network. Interactive Voice Response: System used to access a database access application using a telephone. In essence. and medical (5. The Internet protocol suite is often referred to as TCP/IP because IP is one of the two fundamental protocols. causing potential phase distortions and bit errors. multimedia management. Samples of Internet commerce applications include electronic banking. For instance. Standards body that defined H.Glossary H.. Emerging network technology offered by local phone companies that is designed for digital communications. The most recent band approved by the FCC for WLANs was the medical band in January 1997. ISA Wireless Security. DTMF (touch tone) input of a Personal Identification Number can be required for access or more unusual and expensive techniques such as voice recognition and voice print matching.4-2. International Roaming: Ability to use one adapter worldwide. Fuhr 128 . often referred to as the Information Superhighway. P. and voice processing systems. and modem. IP (Internet Protocol): The Internet standard protocol that defines the Internet datagram as the unit of information passed across the Internet. Intranet: A private network that uses Internet software and Internet standards.725-5.850GHz)--are the radio frequency bands allocated by the FCC for unlicensed continuous operations for up to 1W. as well as interfaces between LANs and other networks. The voice processing acts as a front-end to appropriate databases that reside on general purpose computers. Jitter: Noise on a communications line which is based on phase hits. The participants on the Internet and its topology change on a daily basis.323 and other international standards. Internet Commerce: Electronic business transactions that occur over the Internet. The most popular standard currently in use.11 open standard. airline reservation systems. Internet Phone: Device used to transmit voice over the Internet. Interoperability: The ability of equipment or software to operate properly in a mixed environment of hardware and software. ITU: International Telecommunications Union. science (2. An Internet phone can be a small phone (such as the NetVision Phone) or a multimedia PC with a microphone. from different vendors.
Modulation: Any of several techniques for combining user information with a transmitter's carrier signal. and other Mobile Unit Mode: In this mode. the boundaries of the cell are established by some rule or convention. MMCX Antenna Connector: Miniature coaxial antenna connector in use by several major wireless vendors. Modems are used to send digital data signals over the analog PSTN. the WLAN adapter connects to an access point (AP) or another WLAN installed system. MIB (Management Information Base): An SNMP structure that describes the specific device being monitored by the remote-monitoring program. Microcell: A bounded physical space in which a number of wireless devices can communicate. after changing its point of attachment to the Internet and intranet. Key Telephone System: A system in which the telephone has multiple buttons permitting the user to directly select central office phone lines and intercom lines. Multipath Fading: A type of fading caused by signals taking different paths from the transmitter to the receiver and.Glossary Kerberos: A widely deployed security protocol that was developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to authenticate users and clients in a wired network environment and to securely distribute encryption keys. Multipath: The signal variation caused when radio signals take multiple paths from transmitter to receiver. Modem: Equipment that converts digital signals to analog signals and vice versa. Layer: A protocol that interacts with other protocols as part of an overall transmission system. Mobile units appear as network nodes to other devices. bar-code scanner. Because it is possible to have overlapping cells as well as isolated cells. Key phone systems are most often found in relatively small business environments. Data is received from the network connection and sent out over the serial port. Mobile IP: The ability of the mobile unit to communicate with the other host using only its home IP address. allowing the device to roam freely between AP cells in the network. third-party device. Mobile Unit (MU): May be a Symbol Spectrum24 terminal. MAC (Media Access Control): Part of the Data Link Layer. MD5 Encryption: An authentication methodology when MU is in foreign subnet. Fuhr 129 . PC Card and PCI adapter. P. this sublayer contains protocols for gaining orderly access to cable or wireless media. LPD (Line Printer Daemon): A TCP-based protocol typically used between a Unix server and a printer driver. ISA Wireless Security. consequently. interfering with each other. typically around 50 telephones. as defined by the IEEE.
Power Management: Algorithms that allow the adapter to sleep between checking for network activity. Peer-to-peer Network: A network design in which each computer shares and uses devices on an equal basis. and access to the public switched telephone network. no circuit is left open on a dedicated basis. memory. have less range. When a mobile unit in PSP mode associates with an access point.S. requires less user interaction and minimizes hardware conflicts. thus conserving power. PBX Phone System: Private Branch eXchange. PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network): Refers to the worldwide voice telephone network accessible to all those with telephones and access privileges.8 GHz range. In the U. The idea with PCS is that the phone are cheaper. P. lower powered. This device may be connected to a bar code reader and it may query a central computer for the current price of that item. Small version of the phone company's larger central switching office. Packet switching is a data switching technique only.. Point-of-Sale Device: A special type of equipment that is used to collect and store retail sales data. Fuhr 130 . POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service): The basic service supplying standard single line telephones. Whereas cellular typically operates in the 800900 MHz range. telephone lines. Plug and Play: A feature that allows a computer to recognize the PCI adapter and configure the hardware interrupt. and airtime is cheaper.5 to 1. the PSTN is provided by AT&T. higher-frequency competitive technology to cellular.Node: A network junction such as a switch or a routing center. it notifies the AP of its activity status. and are digital. PLD (Data Link Protocol): A raw packet protocol based on the Ethernet frame format. PCS operates in the 1. Glossary Packet Switching: Refers to sending data in packets through a network to some remote location. PSP (Power Save Polling): stations power off their radios for long periods. ISA Wireless Security. All frames are sent to the wireless network verbatim--should be used with care as improperly formatted data can go through with undesirable consequences. In a packet switched network. Ping: A troubleshooting TCP/IP application that sends out a test message to a network device to measure the response time. The cells are smaller and closer together. and device recognition addresses. PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) PC Card: A credit card-size device used in laptop computers and available as removable network adapters. The AP responds by buffering packets received for the MU. PCS (Personal Communications Service): A new. Pocket PC: The term adopted by Microsoft and its supporters to describe handheld computers employing Microsoft's Pocket PC operating system. An alternative to a PBX is to subscribe to a local telephone company's Centrex service.
Roaming: Movement of a wireless node between two microcells. Spread Spectrum: A transmission technique developed by the U. Scanning: A periodic process where the mobile unit sends out probe messages on all frequencies defined by the country code. the signal sounds like background noise. to them. military in World War II to provide secure voice communications.S. The statistics enable a mobile unit to reassociate by synchronizing its frequency to the AP. QoS refers to things like: Is the call easy to hear? Is it clear? Is it loud enough? RBOC (Regional Bell Operating Company): One of the seven Bell operating companies set up after the divestiture of AT&T. Two types of spread spectrum exist: direct sequence and frequency hopping. P. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol): The network management protocol of choice for TCP/IP based intranets. It provides security by "spreading" the signal over a range of frequencies. each of which own two or more Bell Operating Companies (BOCs). Stream Mode: A communications protocol supported only by the Telnet and TCP protocols. De-spreading the signal is impossible for those not aware of the spreading parameters. The signal is manipulated in the transmitter so that the bandwidth becomes wider than the actual information bandwidth. It functions as an addressable entity on the LAN and is the basic building block of the Internet. Repeater: A device used to extend cabling distances by regenerating signals. Site Survey: Physical environment survey to determine the placement of access points and antennas. Fuhr 131 . Stream mode transfers serial characters as they are received by encapsulating them in a packet and sending them to the host. ISA Wireless Security. as well as the number of devices necessary to provide optimal coverage. The MU continues communicating with that access point until it needs to switch cells or roam. Router: The main device in any modern network that routes data blocks from source to destination using routing tables and determining the best path dynamically. in a new or expanding installation. change parameters for routers and gateways. Defines the method for obtaining information about network operating characteristics. Roaming usually occurs in infrastructure networks built around multiple access points.Glossary QoS (Quality of Service): Measure of the telephone service quality provided to a subscriber. Interference from narrowband signals is also minimized to background noise when it is de-spread by the receiver. spread spectrum is the most commonly used WLAN technology today.
Video Conferencing: Video and audio communication between two or more people via a video CODEC (coder/decoder) at either end and linked by digital circuits. TCP/IP is used in the industry to refer to the family of common Internet protocols. gateway. and various operating systems. retries. and Japan. TCP (Transport Communication Protocol): Controls the transfer of data from one client to one host. The two types of voice mail devices are those which are "stand alone" and those which offer some integration with the user's phone system. two-way communications with another terminal. each one digitized at 64 Kbps. it can handle more voice channels. Wireless AP Support: Access Point functions as a bridge to connect two Ethernet LANs. Token ring is the technique used by IBM and others. or token. Canada. between computers with diverse hardware architectures. must be received by an attached terminal or workstation before that terminal or workstation can start transmitting. Considered extremely stable.11b. T1 is the standard for digital transmission in the U. Hong Kong. Token Ring: A ring type of local area network (LAN) in which a supervisory frame. Telnet (Terminal Emulation Protocol): A protocol that uses the TCP/IP networking protocol as a reliable transport mechanism. flow control. P. Terminal: An endpoint. Only select wireless networking products possess this characteristic of IEEE802.S. providing the mechanism for connection maintenance. stores. provides low overhead and fast response and is well suited for high-bandwidth applications. TCP/IP: Networking protocol that provides communication across interconnected networks. Fuhr 132 . Voice Mail System: Device or system that records. or mobile unit. UDP (User Datagram Protocol): UDP/IP is a connection-less protocol that describes how messages reach application programs running in the destination machine.Glossary T1: A type of dedicated digital leased-line available from a public telephone provider with a capacity of 1. With more advanced digital voice encoding techniques. and time-outs.544 Mbps. and retrieves voice messages. A T1 line can normally handle 24 voice conversations. Wi-Fi: A logo granted as the "seal of interoperability" by the Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance (WECA). which provides for real-time. ISA Wireless Security.
mobile phones. your corporate intranet. or printer-to-hub) and point-to-point (LAN-to-LAN) connectivity within a building or campus. WLANs perform traditional network communications functions such as file transfer. e-mail. P. PIMs. this cable-replacement technology wirelessly and transparently synchronizes data across devices and creates access to networks and the Internet. Bluetooth is ideal for mobile professionals who need to link notebook computers. WLANs transmit and receive data over electromagnetic waves. ISA Wireless Security. Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN): Personal area networks are based on a global specification called Bluetooth which uses radio frequency to transmit voice and data. and other hand-held devices to do business at home.Glossary Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN): A wireless LAN is a data communications system providing wireless peer-to-peer (PC-to-PC. and database access as well as augmenting wired LANs. and for campus communications building-to-building (LAN-LAN) bridges. Fuhr 133 . PDA. Wireless Wide Area Network (WWAN): Wide area networks utilize digital mobile phone systems to access data and information from any location in the range of a cell tower connected to a data-enabled network. on the road. PC-to-hub. Over a short range. peripheral sharing. Using the mobile phone as a modem. and in the office. WLANs must include NICs (adapters) and access points (in-building bridges). or a device with a stand-alone radio card. PDAs. or the Internet. a mobile computing device such as a notebook computer. In place of TP or coaxial wires or optical fiber as used in a conventional LAN. can receive and send information from a network.
1999. Bonfig K. PTB. VDE Verlag 1991. Springer Verlag. ISA 1993. Chapmann & Hall 1997.A changing future". Ref. Black U. Franzis Verlag 2001. University of South-Carolina 1998. Delta Press 1989. Johannsmeyer."Industrial Fiber Optic Networks". McGraw-Hill 1993. Report DISC PD0014:2000. Frankort.. Färber. "Feldbusse und Geräte-Kommunikationssysteme". R. ISA Press 1995. ISBN 1-55617-521-3-G. "Bussysteme . ISBN 0-07-005592-0. Baran-Harper 1991. "Datenübertragung auf Fahrzeugen mittels serieller Bussysteme". Gruhler. VDE Verlag. ETG Fachbericht 37. ISBN 0-8186-8824-6. Fachzeitschrift DE. ISBN 90-6674-726-9. Operation. Dietrich D. "A distributed control & diagnostic architecture for railway maintenance". Hulsebos. P. ISBN 3-7723-4621-9.und Anlagentechnik". ISBN 1-55617-317-2. 1994/236. ISA 1997.. Borst W. Centrum voor Micro-elektronica. "The V-series recommendations".. "Standardisierung der Prozeßdatenkommunikation". ISBN 90-557-6059-5. McGraw-Hill. issues of 1994 and 1995. Holzmann. IEE. Oldenbourg Verlag. "Intelligente sensornetwerken". Prentice-Hall. ISA Press 2002. "Feldbus-Systeme".parallele und serielle Bussysteme in Theorie und Praxis". "Feldbustechnik in Forschung."Fieldbuses for Process Control: Engineering. ISBN 3-89429-310-1. "Fieldbus series". ISA Wireless Security. Brown. ISBN 3-7723-5745-8. Fuhr 134 . Expert Verlag 1992. "Der Feldbus in der Maschinen. Jordan.. "Veldbussen". "Guide to the evaluation of fieldbus protocols". "Design and validation of computer protocols". "The ISA Fieldbus Guide". "Colloquium: Fieldbus devices .. "Bussysteme für die Gebäudeinstallation. "Fieldbus for Industrial Control Systems". "How to automate your home". Huber J. ETZ Report 27. ISA. "Serial networked field instrumentation". "Investigation into the intrinsic safety of fieldbus systems (FISCO)". ISBN 0-412-57890-5.. Wiley 1995. ISBN 3-8007-1829-4. Burton. "Physical Level Interfaces and Protocols". Hüthig & Pflaum. "The OSI Dictionary of acronyms". 3-8169-0771-7. ISBN 3-486-28581-5. ISBN 0-13-539834-7.A Few References Berge J. 1996 Control Engineering. "Digitale Communicatie". 1997. Maintenance". G. ISBN 0-471-95236-1. IEE 1994. ISBN 1-55617-637-6. Franzis Verlag. Gladdis. "Fieldbus Standard for use in industrial control systems". ISBN 1-55617-760-7. Entwicklung und Anwendung". Black U. IEEE... report W53. ISBN 0-07-057601-7. 1993. ISA. Kluwer 1996. ISBN 0-9632170-0-3. British Standard Institute. Hill.
Phoenix. ISA 1993. Texas Instruments. Physikalische Technische Bundesanstalt.and Prozesstechnik" (4th Ed. Vieweg Verlag 1999. Wrobel. Thompson. ISBN 3-486-24536-8. Kluwer 2000. PTB 1994. "Performance evaluation of control networks for manufacturing systems". ISBN 3-540-63880-6. Kriesel. Hüthig Verlag 2000. Mikrocentrum Nederland. "Demanding measurements on the factory floor". Springer Verlag 1999.References (cont. ISA Wireless Security. Reinert. Vogel Verlag 2000. "Industrial Data Communications: Fundamentals And Applications" 3rd Edition. ISBN 90-5404-628-7. ISBN 1-55617-767-4-G. G. B. Svacina. ISBN 3-8023-1708-4. Turck. Scherff. ISBN 3-7785-2638-3. Kluwer. "Gebäudesystemtechnik: Datenubertragung auf dem 230V Netz". VDI/VDE. ISBN 3-7785-2797-5. "OSI-Protocollen lagen 1 t/m 4". Wybranietz. "Investigations into the intrinsic safety of fieldbus systems". ISBN 1-55617-231-1. Kluwer Telematica..) Keithley Instruments. "Grundkurs Feldbustechnik". Newman. ISBN 3-8023-1813-7. ISBN 3-52836569. Oldenbourg Verlag. Fuhr 135 . Hüthig Verlag 1998. "Richtlinien 3687: Auswahl von Feldbussysteme durch Bewertung ihrer Leistungseigenschaften für verschiedene Anwendungsbereiche". 1999. 1997. ISBN 3478-93185-1. "RS422 and RS485 Application Guide". "Grundkurs Sensor/Aktor-Feldbustechnik". Lian. "Multicast-Kommunikation in verteilten Systemen". "Bustechnologien für die Automation. ISBN 90-201-2388-2. "Basic course in sensor/actuator fieldbus technology". "Optische übertragungstechnik in der Praxis. "Digitale Schnittstellen und Bussysteme". "Feldbussysteme in der Praxis". Springer Verlag 1987. Rikkert de Koe. ISBN 3-7785-2778-9. 1994. "Real-time control networks". 1993-2001. "Bussysteme in der Automatisierungs. "Understanding Device Level Buses". 2nd Ed. Phoenix. Syllabi themadagen "Industriële netwerken". "Direct digital control of building systems". F. ISBN 3-89429-512-0. P. Rosch. Wittgruer.". Phoenix. "Handboek Industriële Netwerken". Vogel Verlag.). ISA Press 2002. Schnell. Reißenweber B.". Vogel Verlag. 2002. ISBN 3-540-52551-3. Vieweg Verlag 2000. Miklovic. Proceedings of the ASME (Dynamics and Control Division). Wiley. "Sichere Bussysteme für die Automation" Hüthig Verlag 2001. VDI/VDE. ISBN 0-471-51696-1. 2nd Ed. "Feldbussysteme". Verlag Moderne Industrie 1998.
Fuhr 136 .Questions? Comments? ISA Wireless Security. P.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.