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• You need to fry 3 pieces of fish in exactly 15 min • Each side of fish requires 5 min • But you are given a frying pan which can only load 2 pieces of fish at a time
Strategic Importance of Short-Term Scheduling
• By scheduling effectively, companies use assets more effectively and create greater capacity per dollar invested, which, in turn, lowers cost • This added capacity and related flexibility provides faster delivery and therefore better customer service • Good scheduling is a competitive advantage which contributes to dependable delivery
Short-Term Scheduling • Deals with timing of operations • Short run focus: hourly. weekly • Types Forward Scheduling Backward Scheduling B Today E Due Date Today B E Due Date 4 . daily.
Short-Term Scheduling Examples • Hospital – Outpatient treatments – Operating rooms • University – Instructors – Classrooms • Factory – Production – Purchases © 1984-1994 T/Maker Co. 5 .
Forward Scheduling • Forward scheduling: begins the schedule as soon as the requirements are known – jobs performed to customer order – schedule can be accomplished even if due date is missed – often causes buildup of WIP 6 .
Backward Scheduling • Backward scheduling: begins with the due date of the final operation. scheduling surgery 7 . catering. schedules jobs in reverse order – used in many manufacturing environments.
MRP 2. Master Schedule. Facility utilization 2. Personnel needs 3. Equipment procurement Aggregate Planning 1. Job sequencing Long-term Intermediate-term Intermediate-term Short-term 8 .Capacity Planning. Work center loading 2. Aggregate Planning. Facility size 2. Disaggregation of master plan Short-term Scheduling 1. and Short-Term Scheduling Capacity Planning 1. Subcontracting Master Schedule 1.
The Goals of Short-Term Scheduling • Minimize completion time • Maximize utilization (make effective use of personnel and equipment) • Minimize WIP inventory (keep inventory levels low) • Minimize customer wait time 9 .
Choosing a Scheduling Method • Qualitative factors – Number and variety of jobs – Complexity of jobs – Nature of operations • Quantitative criteria – – – – Average completion time Utilization (% of time facility is used) WIP inventory (average # jobs in system) Customer waiting time (average lateness) 10 .
Scheduling Methods Differ by Process ProcessFocused (low volume) RepetitiveFocused (intermediate volume) ProductFocused (high volume) Variety of Methods Level Material Use Methods 11 .
Scheduling in Low-Volume Systems • Schedule incoming orders without violating capacity constraints of individual work centers • Check availability of tools and materials before releasing an order to a department • Establish due dates for each job and check progress against need dates and order lead times • Check work-in-progress as jobs move through the shop • Provide feedback on plant and production activities • Provide work-efficiency statistics and monitor operator times for payroll and labor distribution analyses 12 .
Low-Volume Systems • High variety. low volume systems • Products made to order • Products need different materials and processing • Complex production planning and control • Production planning aspects – Shop loading – Job sequencing 13 .
g. due date) – Capacity • Work center hours available • Hours needed for job • Approaches – Gantt charts (load & scheduling) .capacity – Assignment method .Loading Jobs in Work Centers • Assigning jobs to work centers • Considerations – Job priority (e.job to specific work center 14 ..
Gantt Load Chart • Shows relative workload in facility • Disadvantages – Does not account for unexpected events – Must be updated regularly Work Center Sheet Metal Mechanical Electrical Painting M Job A T Job D W Th Job F Job G Job H F Job B Job C Job E Job I 15 .
Gantt Scheduling Chart Used to monitor job progress Job S M Day T W T F S Job A Job B Repair Job C Today 16 .
Assignment Method • Assigns tasks or jobs to resources • Type of linear programming model – Objective • Minimize total cost..g.g. – Constraints • 1 job per resource (e. time etc. machine) per job 17 . machine) • 1 resource (e..
Attorney Client Divorce Felony Discrimi nation 1 $800 $500 $500 2 $1. Cost data are presented below: • Use the assignment algorithm to solve this problem.• Ex.200 $1.600 $1. Ravi Behara. the managing partner at a large law firm in Virginia.000 3 $1.100 $1.300 18 .300 $2. must assign three clients to three attorneys.
MAKESPAN – time to process a set of jobs – Obj.THREE PRINCIPAL CRITERIA IN EVALUATING JOB SHOP PROBLEMS • 1. minimize the maximum tardiness 19 . TARDINESS – the amount by which completion time exceeds due date of jobs – Obj.: minimize makespan • 2. of tardy jobs.: minimize no.: minimize average flowtime • 3. FLOWTIME – time a job spends in the shop – Obj.
Sequencing • Specifies order of jobs that will be worked • Sequencing rules – – – – – – First come. first served (FCFS) Shortest processing time (SPT) Earliest due date (EDD) Longest processing time (LPT) Critical ratio (CR) Johnson’s rule 20 .
21 . first served The first job to arrive at a work center is processed first Earliest due date The job with the earliest due date is processed first Shortest processing time The job with the shortest processing time is processed first Longest processing time The job with the longest processing time is processed first Critical ratio The ratio of time remaining to required work time remaining is calculated.Priority Rules for Dispatching Jobs FCFS EDD SPT LPT CR First come. and jobs are scheduled in order of increasing ratio.
First Come. First Served Rule • Process first job to arrive at a work center first • Average performance on most scheduling criteria • Appears „fair‟ & reasonable to customers – Important for service organizations • Example: Restaurants 22 .
Earliest Due Date Rule • Process job with earliest due date first • Widely used by many companies – If due dates important – If MRP used • Due dates updated by each MRP run • Performs poorly on many scheduling criteria 23 .
Today' s date = Work (lead ) time remaining • Process job with smallest CR first • Performs well on average lateness 24 .Critical Ratio (CR) Ratio of time remaining to work time remaining Time remaining CR = Work days remaining Due date .
Advantages of the Critical Ratio Scheduling Rule Use of the critical ratio can help to: – determine the status of a specific job – establish a relative priority among jobs on a common basis – relate both stock and make-to-order jobs on a common basis – adjust priorities and revise schedules automatically for changes in both demand and job progress – dynamically track job progress and location 25 .
Criteria to Evaluate Priority Rules Average completion time Utilization = = Flow times # Jobs Process time Flow time = Average number of jobs in system Average job lateness Flow time Processing time Late times = Number of Jobs 26 .
Johnson‟s Rule • Used to sequence N jobs through 2 machines in the same order Jobs (N = 3) Saw Drill Job A Job B Job C © 1995 Corel Corp. 27 . © 1995 Corel Corp.
Apply steps 2-3 to the remaining jobs. 28 . the job is scheduled last. eliminate it. Once a job is scheduled. if with the second machine. Select the job with the shortest activity time. working toward the center of the sequence. and the time each requires on a machine shown. If the shortest time lies with the first machine.Johnson's Rule . the job is scheduled first.Scheduling N Jobs on Two Machines All jobs are to be listed.
conditions are met.Sequencing N Jobs on Three Machines • If either or both of the ffg. – The smallest duration on machine 3 is at least as great as the largest duration on machine 2. the solution is possible by Johnson‟s rule: – The smallest duration on machine 1 is at least as great as the largest duration on machine 2. 29 .
Example • Consider the ffg. jobs and their processing times at corresponding machines: Job M1 M2 M3 A 13 5 9 B 5 3 7 C 6 4 5 D 7 2 6 30 .
product mix. therefore. rules need to be revised to adjust to changes in process. equipment. etc.Limitations of Rule-Based Dispatching Systems • Scheduling is dynamic. idle resources and bottleneck resources in other departments may not be recognized • Rules do not look beyond due dates 31 . • Rules do not look upstream or downstream.
5 32 .Figure 15.
– the timing of jobs.Scheduling in Intermediate Volume Systems • Three basic issues are – the run size of jobs. 33 . & – the sequence in which jobs should be processed.
Example • A softdrink manufacturer bottles six flavors on a single machine. 34 . Relevant data are given: – See whiteboard • Using the smallest run-out time rule. which flavor should be produced first? What will be the resulting inventory levels? Assume 3 shifts per day.
releasing capital for other uses • Faster product throughput • Improved component quality and hence improved product quality • Reduced floor space requirements • Improved communication among employees because they are closer together • Smoother production process because large lots have not “hidden” the problems 35 .Intermediate Volume Systems Advantages of Level Material Use • Lower inventory levels.
g. 36 . & – reliability and timing of supplies. – preventive maintenance.Scheduling in High-Volume Systems • Flow-shop scheduling – e. – optimal product mixes. assembly line balancing • Determinants of success: – process and product design. – rapid repair when breakdown occurs. – minimization of quality problems.
first served .restaurant.doctor‟s office • Reservations systems .Scheduling for Services • Appointment systems .hospital trauma room 37 . car rental • First come.deli • Most critical first .
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