PSAT

Power System Analysis Toolbox Documentation for PSAT version 2.0.0, February 14, 2008

Federico Milano

Copyright c 2003 - 2008 Federico Milano Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with the Invariant Sections being all sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in Appendix L entitled “GNU Free Documentation License”.

Ai miei genitori

Note
PSAT is a Matlab toolbox for static and dynamic analysis and control of electric power systems. I began writing PSAT in September 2001, while I was studying as Ph.D. student at the Universit´ degli Studi di Genova, Italy, and completed the first a public version in November 2002, when I was a Visiting Scholar at the University of Waterloo, Canada. I am currently maintaining PSAT in the spare time, while I am working as assistant professor at the Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real, Spain. PSAT is provided free of charge, in the hope it can be useful and other people can use and improve it, but please be aware that this toolbox comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type warranty at the Matlab prompt. PSAT is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions; for details refer to Appendix K of this documentation or type gnulicense at the Matlab prompt. PSAT is currently in a early stage of development and its features, structures and data formats may be partially or completely changed in future versions. Be sure to visit often my webpage in order to get the last version: http://www.uclm.es/area/gsee/Web/Federico/psat.htm If you find bugs or have any suggestions, please send me an e-mail at: Federico.Milano@uclm.es or you can subscribe to the PSAT Forum, which is available at: http://groups.yahoo.com/groups/psatforum

Acknowledgements
I wish to thank very much Professor C. A. Ca˜izares for his priceless help, teachings n and advises. Thanks also for providing me a webpage and a link to my software in the main webpage of the E&CE Deparment, University of Waterloo, Canada. Many thanks to the moderators of the PSAT Forum for spending their time on answering tons of messages: Luigi Vanfretti, Juan Carlos Morataya, Raul Rabinovici, ˇ Ivo Smon, and Zhen Wang. Thanks to Hugo M. Ayres, Marcelo S. Castro, Alberto Del Rosso, Jasmine, Igor Kopcak, Liu Lin, Lars Lindgren, Marcos Miranda, Juan Carlos Morataya, Difahoui Rachid, Santiago Torres, and Luigi Vanfretti for their relevant contributions, corrections and bug fixes.

Contents
I Outlines
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1 Introduction 1.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 PSAT vs. Other Matlab Toolboxes 1.3 Outlines of the Manual . . . . . . . 1.4 Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Getting Started 2.1 Download . . . . . . . 2.2 Requirements . . . . . 2.3 Installation . . . . . . 2.4 Launching PSAT . . . 2.5 Loading Data . . . . . 2.6 Running the Program 2.7 Displaying Results . . 2.8 Saving Results . . . . 2.9 Settings . . . . . . . . 2.10 Network Design . . . . 2.11 Tools . . . . . . . . . . 2.12 Interfaces . . . . . . . 3 News 3.1 News 3.2 News 3.3 News 3.4 News 3.5 News 3.6 News 3.7 News 3.8 News 3.9 News 3.10 News 3.11 News

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in in in in in in in in in in in

version version version version version version version version version version version

2.0.0 1.3.4 1.3.3 1.3.2 1.3.1 1.3.0 1.2.2 1.2.1 1.2.0 1.1.0 1.0.1

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CONTENTS

II

Routines
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27 27 27 28 29 30 30 31 39 40 40 40 41 43 43 44 45 46 53 53 54 54 54 56 57 57 58 63 63 66 69 70 72 75 75 76 76 76 79 82

4 Power Flow 4.1 Power Flow Solvers . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.1 Newton-Raphson Method . . . 4.1.2 Fast Decoupled Power Flow . . 4.1.3 Distributed Slack Bus Model . 4.1.4 Initialization of State Variables 4.2 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5 Bifurcation Analysis 5.1 Direct Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.1 Saddle-Node Bifurcation . . . . . . . . 5.1.2 Limit Induced Bifurcation . . . . . . . 5.2 Continuation Power Flow . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1 Predictor Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.2 Corrector Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.3 N-1 Contingency Analysis . . . . . . . 5.2.4 Graphical User Interface and Settings 5.3 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6 Optimal Power Flow 6.1 Interior Point Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 OPF Routines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 Maximization of the Social Benefit . . . . 6.2.2 Maximization of the Distance to Collapse 6.2.3 Multi-Objective Optimization . . . . . . . 6.2.4 Lagrangian Function . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 OPF Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Small Signal Stability Analysis 7.1 Small Signal Stability Analysis . 7.1.1 Example . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Power Flow Sensitivity Analysis . 7.2.1 Example . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Graphical User Interface . . . . . 8 Time Domain Simulation 8.1 Integration Methods . . . . . 8.1.1 Forward Euler Method 8.1.2 Trapezoidal Method . 8.2 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 Output Variable Selection . . 8.4 Snapshots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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CONTENTS

ix

8.5 8.6

Disturbances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82 84 89 89 90 90 90 91 91 91 92 92 97 97

9 PMU Placement 9.1 Linear Static State Estimation . . . . . . 9.2 PMU Placement Rules . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3 Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3.1 Depth First . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3.2 Graph Theoretic Procedure . . . . 9.3.3 Bisecting Search Method . . . . . 9.3.4 Recursive Security N Algorithm . . 9.3.5 Single Shot Security N Algorithm . 9.3.6 Recursive and Single-Shot Security 9.4 PMU Placement GUI and Settings . . . . 9.4.1 Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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III

Models
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10 Power Flow Data 10.1 Bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2 Transmission Line . . . . . . . . . . 10.3 Transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3.1 Two-Winding Transformers . 10.3.2 Three-Winding Transformers 10.4 Vθ and Slack Generator . . . . . . . 10.5 PV Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.6 PQ Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.7 PQ Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.8 Shunt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.9 Area & Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 CPF and OPF Data 11.1 Generator Supply . . . . . 11.2 Generator Reserve . . . . 11.3 Generator Power Ramping 11.4 Load Demand . . . . . . . 11.5 Demand Profile . . . . . . 11.6 Load Ramping . . . . . .

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12 Faults & Breakers 127 12.1 Fault . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 12.2 Breaker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 13 Measurements 131 13.1 Bus Frequency Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

. . . . . . .2 AVR Type II . . . . .8 Order VIII . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Center of Inertia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Type III . . . . . .4 Order V. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . 16. . . . . . . . . . 15.5 Thermostatically Controlled Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Type 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Phasor Measurement Unit .3 AVR Type III . . . . . . 135 135 136 137 138 140 142 143 144 147 147 154 154 154 155 155 156 157 157 158 158 159 161 162 165 165 166 168 169 169 170 171 174 176 176 177 177 177 180 183 185 . . 16. . . . . . .1. .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Type 2 . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 TG Type I . . . . . . . . . . .7 Order VI . 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . 16. . . . . .6 Jimma’s Load . . . . . . . . .2 Order III . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Type IV and V . . . . . . 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . .3 Order IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .2 Automatic Voltage Regulator 16. . . . . . . . . . . . 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . .2 TG Type II . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Frequency Dependent Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . .5 Order V. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Exponential Recovery Load . 16. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Voltage Dependent Load . . 15. . . .5 Secondary Voltage Control . . . . . . .6 Power Oscillation Damper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15. . . . . . . . . . 17 Regulating Transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Loads . .2. .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . 15. . . . . . . . .1 Type I . . . . . . . . . . . . . Type 3 . . 14. . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15. . . .4 Over Excitation Limiter . . . . . . . . . . 16. . . . . . . . . . 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.1. . 16. .1 Turbine Governor . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Order V. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .7 Mixed Load . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Induction Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . 132 14 Loads 14.1 AVR Type I . 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. . .1 Order II . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Synchronous Machine . . . . .8 Note on the Use of Non-conventional 15 Machines 15. . . 15. . . . 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Power System Stabilizer . . . . . . 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Order III (single cage) 15. 16. 16. . . . . . . . . . .1. . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 ZIP Load . . . . . . . . . .2 Type II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.x CONTENTS 13. .1.1 Order I . . . . . .3 Order V (double cage) 16 Controls 16. . . . .1. .3. .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Dynamic Shaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Wind Turbines 19. . . . . .1 Buses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Extracting Data from Simulink Models 21. . . .3. .6 HVDC . 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 UPFC . . .1 Under Load Tap Changer . . . . . .4 Breakers . . 19. . . . . . . . . . . . 189 18 FACTS 18. . . . . . . 233 20.5 Power Supplies and Demands 22. 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Examples . . . 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . 22. . .3 Displaying Results in Simulink Models 21. . .1. . . . . . . . . . .2 Doubly Fed Induction Generator . 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Direct Drive Synchronous Generator . . .3 Links . . 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Nonstandard Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22. .1 Wind Models . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Load Tap Changer With Embedded Load . . . . . 22 Block Usage 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Constant Speed Wind Turbine . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . .2.1 Weibull Distribution . . . . . . . . . .1 Block Connections . . . . . .3. . . . . . . .2 Composite Wind Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Goto and From Blocks . . . .3 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell . . . . .3. . . . 193 194 196 198 201 204 209 213 213 214 216 217 217 219 221 227 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. . . . 245 245 245 253 253 257 257 258 260 260 260 260 261 262 262 21 Network Design 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Generator Ramping . . 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. . . . . . . . . . . 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 17. . . . . . . . . 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22. . . . . . . . . 186 17. . . . . . . . . . 236 IV CAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Simulink Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Standard Blocks . . . .2 TCSC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Measurement Data . . . . . . . . . . 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Other Models 231 20. . . . .3 STATCOM 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 . . 18. . . . . . . . . .3 Phase Shifting Transformer . . . . . . .4 SSSC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19. . . . . . . .1 SVC . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Sub-synchronous Resonance Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.1. . . . . . . . .CONTENTS xi 17. . . . . .2 Wind Turbines . . . . . . 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . .

. . . .2 Mask Icon . .15 Dynamic Shafts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Block Masks 23. . . .13 SVCs & STATCOMs . . . . . . . . . . . . 22. . . .xii CONTENTS 22. . 26 Utilities 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Primary Regulators . 25. 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Secondary Voltage Regulation 22. . . . . . .12 Under Load Tap Changers . . . . . . . . . . . 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. .3 Command Line Options 27. . . . . Global Structures . . . .9 Synchronous Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 262 264 265 265 266 266 268 268 271 271 272 272 274 276 276 277 V Tools 281 283 . . . . . . .3 Parameter Settings . . . . .4 Example . . . . . . . . . 310 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23. . .3. . . . . 25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Editing Block Masks . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Themes . . . . . . 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells . .1 Basics . . . . .1 Blocks vs. . . . . .8 Non-conventional Loads . . .3 Syntax of Mask Parameter Names . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22. . . . .3 Limitations . . . . . 22. . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Remarks on Creating Custom Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Basic Commands . . . . . . . .2 Advanced Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . 27. . . . . . . . . . 28 Running PSAT on GNU Octave 309 28.2. . . .3. . . . . . . . . 23. . . . . . 25. . . . . . . . . . . . 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Mask Documentation . . . . . . . . . .2. 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Command History . . . . 26. .3. . .7 Generator Reserves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Command Line Usage 27. . . . . . . . . . . .2 State Variable Settings . . . . . . . . . . 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Mask Initialization . . . . .3. . . . 287 287 289 289 293 294 294 295 295 295 295 295 296 301 301 304 305 306 24 Data Format Conversion 25 User Defined Models 25.1 Installing and Removing Models 25. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Building p-code Archive . . . . . . . . .2 Sparse Matrix Visualization 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26. . . . . .4 Text Viewer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . 25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . .1 Component Settings .2 Creating a User Defined Model .3. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .1 Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 VI Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Results for a change of an exciter reference voltage 31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 GAMS Solvers . . . . .5 User Defined Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 UWPFLOW Interface 30. . . . . A. . . . . A. . 351 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General Settings . . . A. . VII Libraries . . . . . . . .4 PSAT-GAMS Models . . . .4 Example . . .2 Other Settings . . . .2 Model Equations and Constraints . . . . . A. . . . . . . . .8 Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29.5. . . 30. .3 Results for a change of governor reference speeds . . . . . . . . .1 Getting Started . . 29. . 31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . .3 System Properties and Settings A. . .2 Graphical User Interface 30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . 31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29. . . . . . . 339 . . . . . . .4 Outputs and Variable Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 28. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Limitations and ToDos . . . 315 315 316 316 317 320 320 321 323 331 331 332 332 334 29 GAMS Interface 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Command Line Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . 29. . . . . . . . . . . .3 PSAT-GAMS Interface . .5 Multiperiod Market Clearing Model . . 30. . 29. . . . .6 Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Test cases . . .1 Description . . . . . . . . . VIII Appendices . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29. . . . . . . . . 341 341 342 343 343 344 347 31 Numeric Linear Analysis 31.CONTENTS xiii 28. . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Models . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29. . . . . .3 ToDos . . . . . . . 313 . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Getting Started . . . . . . . . .1 Comparison of state matrices . . . . . . . . . 353 353 357 360 366 366 368 370 371 372 A Global Structures & Classes A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Plot Variables . . . . . .9 Classes .2. . . . . . .5.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Results for a change of a SVC reference voltage . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Books . . . G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Interfaces . . . . . . . . G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 409 409 410 410 413 417 425 443 G FAQs G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Journals . . . . . . . .xiv CONTENTS B Matlab Functions C Other Files and Folders D Third Party Matlab Code E Power System Softwares F Test System Data F. . . .2 Simulink Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 6-bus Test System F. . . . . . . . . . . I. . . . . . .4 Webpages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Optimal & Continuation Power Flow G. . . . . . . . . . . J Letters of Reference K The GNU General Public License L GNU Free Documentation License Bibliography .1 Getting Started . . . 375 381 385 387 389 389 390 391 394 397 397 399 400 401 401 402 403 405 . . . . . G. . . . . . . . . . .5 Time Domain Simulation .1 3-bus Test System F. .6 Data Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 9-bus Test System F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 14-bus Test System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Conference Proceedings I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Power Flow . . . . . H PSAT Forum I Citations & Links I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . .2 5. . . . . . Main graphical user interface of PSAT. . . . . . . Eigenvalue Analysis: QV sensitivity. . . . . . . . . . .2 8. GUI for plotting OPF Pareto sets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GUI for the small signal stability analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 4. . .3 8.4 5. . GUI for the optimal power flow. . . . . . . . . . . 5 8 13 32 33 37 38 41 42 43 44 45 47 48 49 50 58 59 62 65 65 70 73 77 79 81 82 85 86 87 GUI for saddle-node bifurcation settings. . . . . Eigenvalue Analysis: Z-domain. . . . . .3 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eigenvalue Analysis: S-domain.6 5. . . . . . . .2 7. . . . . . . . .8 5. . . 2D visualization of power flow results. . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . Continuation Power Flow: local parametrization . Generator rotor angles for the 9-bus test system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Time domain integration block diagram.List of Figures 1. GUI for plot variable selection. . . Nose curves for the 6-bus test system (SNB) . . .1 1. . . . xv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GUI for displaying power flow results. . . . . . . . . . Nose curves for the 6-bus test system (LIB) . . . . . . . GUI for plotting time domain simulations. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . Continuation Power Flow: perpendicular intersection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GUI for general settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 PSAT at a glance. . . . . . . . . .4 5. . . . . . . .3 5. . . . . . . . . . . .1 7. GUI for general settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 2. . . . GUI for the continuation power flow settings. . . . . Continuation Power Flow: tangent vector . . .2 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 7. . . .7 5. . . . . . .3 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 6. .6 8. . . . . . . . . . . . PSAT around the world. . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . . . . GUI for displaying OPF results. . . .5 5. . . . . . . . . . . Generator speeds for the 9-bus test system. . . . . . .1 5. . . . . . GUI for limit-induced bifurcation settings. . . . . . . . . . . . Snapshot GUI. . . . . . . . . . . .5 8. . . . GUI for plotting CPF results. .9 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. . 3D visualization of power flow results. . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 16.3 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 17. . . . . . .6 16. . . . .7 9. . .4 9. . . Single Shot N-1 Security Method. Order I induction motor: electrical circuit. . . . . . .9 16. 125 Bus frequency measurement filter. . Pseudo-code of the simulated Annealing Algorithm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 151 152 161 162 163 167 168 170 172 173 176 176 177 178 178 180 182 Under Load Tap Changer: equivalent π circuit. . . . . . . . . . .8 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Turbine governor type I. . . 105 Three-winding transformer equivalent circuit. . . . . . . . . . .3 16.7 16. . . .5 9. . .3 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Synchronous machine: block diagram of stator fluxes. . . . . . . .1 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power system stabilizer Type III. . . Exciter Type I. . . 187 . .8 9. . . . . . . . . . . . Over excitation limiter. . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 16. . . . . . . . . . 108 Example of daily demand profile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pure transit node filtering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 15. . . . . Flowchart of the Bisecting Search. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power system stabilizer Type II. . GUI for the PMU placement methods. Power system stabilizer Type V. . . . . 138 Thermostatically controlled load.5 15. . Search of alternative placement sets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 11. . . . . . . . .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 16. . . . . . .1 13. . . . . Turbine governor type II. .1 15. . . Order III induction motor: electrical circuit. . . . . .4 16. . . . . Power system stabilizer Type IV. . .10 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 91 92 93 94 95 95 95 96 97 98 99 Transmission line π circuit. . . . . . . . . .1 14. . . .9 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Field saturation characteristic of synchronous machines. Recursive N Security Method. . . . . . 142 Synchronous machine scheme. . . .8 9. . . . . . . .11 10. . . .2 15.xvi LIST OF FIGURES 8. . . 141 Jimma’s load. . . . . . . . . 131 Phasors from sample data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exciter Type II. . . . . . .2 14. .1 9. . . Flowchart of the Graph Theoretic Procedure.5 16. . . . . . Secondary voltage control scheme. . . . . . . . . . . PMU placement rules. .2 14. . . . . . Recursive N-1 Security Method. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Bus voltages for the 9-bus test system. . . . . Single-Shot N Security Method. .1 16. . . Exciter Type III. . . . . . . Power system stabilizer Type I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Measure of frequency deviation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 16. . . . . Order V induction motor: electrical circuit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .7 21. . Simulink library: Machines. . . . . .9 18. . . . . . .1 18. . . . . .3 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Generator with dynamic shaft and compensated line. . . . . . . . .5 21. . . . . . . . . Simulink library: Wind Turbines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 19. . . .14 21. . . . . . . . . . . .7 18.4 17. . .6 21. . . . . Phase shifting transformer circuit. . . . . . . . . . . . .8 18. . . . . . . . . . . Pitch angle control scheme. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . power controls. . . . . . . . . .10 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 20. . . Wind turbine types . . . . .4 19.3 18. . . . . . Simulink library: Main Window. . . . . . . . . . . . Synchronous machine mass-spring shaft model. . . . . . . . . .12 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Simulink library: Power Flow data. . . . .8 21. . . . . .2 17. SSSC control block diagram. . .16 Under Load Tap Changer: voltage and reactive Load Tap Changer with embedded load. Simulink library: Other models. . . . . .2 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Phase shifting transformer control scheme. . . . . . . . . . Power-speed characteristic. . .15 21. . .1 19. . . . . .5 18. . . . . . . . . . .4 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 189 191 191 194 195 197 200 202 203 206 206 207 210 211 214 218 224 225 225 225 232 234 239 241 241 246 246 247 248 248 248 249 249 250 250 251 252 252 253 254 255 Low-pass filter to smooth wind speed variations. . . . . . . . . . . . HVDC current control. . Rotor speed control scheme. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Simulink library: Regulators. . . . . . . TCSC Regulator. .2 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Simulink model of the WSCC 3-generator 9-bus test system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 19. . . . . . . . . . . . HVDC scheme. . . . .3 17. . . . UPFC circuit. . .4 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Simulink library: Measurements. . .3 20. .10 18. Voltage control scheme. . . . . . . . . . . . . Simulink library: FACTS controllers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AC voltage control for the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell. . . . . Simulink library: OPF & CPF data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solid Oxide Fuel Cell scheme. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 21. . . .1 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 19. . . . . . . . . .13 21. .4 18. . . . . . UPFC control block diagrams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solid Oxide Fuel Cell connection with the AC grid. . . . . . diagram. . .11 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SVC Type 2 Regulator. . . . . . GUI for Simulink model settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STATCOM circuit and control block SSSC circuit. . . . . .1 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Simulink library: Faults & Breakers. . SVC Type 1 Regulator. . Simulink library: Connections. . . . . Simulink library: Loads. . . . . . . . . . Simulink model of the IEEE 14-bus test system. . . Simulink library: Regulating Transformers. . . . .LIST OF FIGURES xvii 17. UPFC phasor diagram. . . .5 21. . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . PSAT global structures . . . . . . GUI for creating user defined models. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 29. . . .1 25. . Primary Regulator block usage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 25. . . . . .17 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 22. . . . . .13 22. . . . . . . . . . .7 22. . GUI for data format conversion. . .5 23. . . . . . . . Mask icon GUI of a PSAT-Simulink block. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GUI for sparse matrix visualization. . . . . . .1 25. . 256 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 22. . . . .3 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GUI for setting parameters properties. . . Dynamic Shaft block usage. .1 28. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 25. . . . . . . . . . . . . Secondary Voltage Regulation block usage. . . . . GUI for PSAT theme selection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Simulink model of the 6-bus test system. . . . . . . . .1 23. . . . . . . . Mask GUI of a PSAT-Simulink block. . . . . . . .15 22. . . . . . . . . . .8 22. . . . .16 22. . . .4 22. . . . . Generator Reserve block usage. . .4 23. . . .6 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Examples of standard blocks of the PSAT Simulink Examples of allowed connections. . .2 23. Goto and From block usage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . Simulink model underneath a mask of a PSAT block. . . . Non-conventional Load block usage. . . . . . .1 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bus block usage. . . Solid Oxide Fuel Cell block usage. .5 27. . .14 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . Generator Ramping block usage. . . . . . . . SVC block usage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supply and Demand block usage. . . . . .18 23. . . . .11 22. 258 259 259 259 260 261 261 262 263 263 264 265 266 267 267 268 268 269 272 273 274 275 276 279 Simulink blocks vs. . . . . . . . Mask documentation GUI of a PSAT-Simulink block. . . . . . . . . 318 . . . . . . . 288 290 291 292 293 296 297 298 299 299 Master-slave architecture. . . . . . . . Command history GUI. . . . . Mask initialization GUI for a PSAT-Simulink block. . . Examples of not allowed connections.1 22. . GUI for setting state variable properties. . . .3 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under Load Tap Changer block usage. . Synchronous Machine block usage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GUI for setting component properties. . . . . . . . .4 26. .5 22. . . . . . . 304 Example of graph obtained using GNU/Octave and gplot. . . . . . Examples of infeasible connections. . 285 Browser of user defined models. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GUI for p-code archive builder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Breaker block usage. . . . . . . .10 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 26. . . . . Library. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 25. . .xviii LIST OF FIGURES 21. . . . . .2 26. . 311 Structure of the PSAT-GAMS interface. . . . . . . . . GUI for text viewer selection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .LIST OF FIGURES xix 29. . . . . . system. . . . . . . . 407 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 F. . . . . .4 31. . . . . . Demand profile for the multiperiod auction. . . . . . . .4 29. .1 31. . . 338 Comparison of voltages at buses 6 and 7. . . . . . . . . . Comparison of reactive powers flows in lines 2-7 and 6-4. . . . . . .2 GUI of the PSAT-GAMS interface. max Multiperiod auction with Pmn limits. .7 31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Comparison of voltages at bus 8. . . . 406 PSAT Forum statistics . . . . . . .3 29. . . . . . . . . . . Comparison of SVC state variables. . .2 31. 345 345 346 348 348 349 350 350 390 392 394 396 PSAT Forum main page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 UWPFLOW nose curves for the 6-bus test systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-bus test system.4 H. . . PSAT-Simulink model of the three-bus test system. . . . . . . . . . .2 31. . . . . . . . . . . .5 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 H. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Comparison of active powers flows in line 2-7. WSCC 3-generator 9-bus test IEEE 14-bus test system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 31. . . . .3 31.6 30. . . . . . . .6 31. . . . . . . . . . . . Detail of the comparison of rotor speeds. . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-bus test system. . .3 F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Comparison of rotor speeds. . . . . . . . max Multiperiod auction without Pmn limits. . . . . . . . . . . .1 30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Comparison of active powers flows in line 2-7. .1 F. . . . . .2 29. . . . .8 F. . 319 324 328 329 330 GUI of the PSAT-UWPFLOW interface. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shunt Admittance Data Format . . . . . . . .1 10. . . .5 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PQ Generator Data Format . . . . . . N-1 Contingency Analysis Report . . . . . . .2 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 14. . . . . . . . . 136 137 139 139 140 142 143 .4 14. . .1 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 10. . . . . . . .1 11. . . . . . . .2 11. . . . . . .7 Matlab-based packages for power system analysis . . . . . . . Transformer Data Format . . . . . . . . . Load Ramping Data Format . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 12. . . . . . . . . . .9 10. .3 10. . . . . . . . . . Area & Regions Data Format . xx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exponential Recovery Load Data Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frequency Dependent Load Data Format . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 51 103 106 106 107 109 110 112 113 114 114 115 119 120 121 123 125 126 Bus Data Format . . . . .3 11. . . . . 132 Phasor Measurement Unit Data Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Demand Profile Data Format . . . . . . . . . . .6 14. . . . . . . . .11 11. . . . . . . Power Reserve Data Format . . . . . . . .2 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power Supply Data Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Breaker Data Format . . . . . . . . .5 10. . . . . . . Generator Power Ramping Data Format Power Demand Data Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 10. . .4 11. . . . .1 5. . . . Line Data Format . . . . . . . . . .10 10. . . . . . . . . . . . PV Generator Data Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 10. . . . ZIP Load Data Format . . . . 129 Bus Frequency Measurement Data Format . Fault Data Format . .6 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . PQ Load Data Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typical load coefficients . . . . . Thermostatically Controlled Load Data Format Jimma’s Load Data Format . . . . Alternative Line Data Format . .1 14. . . . .1 13. . . . . . . .8 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 14. . .2 14. . .List of Tables 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Three-Winding Transformer Data Format Slack Generator Data Format . . . . . . . . 134 Voltage Dependent Load Data Format . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Induction Motor Data Format . . . . . . . .1 18. . . . . . . . . . . . .9 16. . . . . . . . . 192 SVC Type 1 Data Format SVC Type 2 Data Format TCSC Data Format . . . . . Exciter Type III Data Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 18. . . . . . . 195 196 199 200 203 208 212 215 217 219 222 226 229 Wind Speed Data Format . . . .2 16.8 15. . . . . . . . . . . . Constant Speed Wind Turbine Data Format .3 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 23. . . . . . . .8 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HVDC Data Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 15. 303 . .1 16. Cluster Controller Data Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 16. . . . . . . 145 Synchronous Machine Data Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 18. . . . .2 23. . . .5 19. .1 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 Example of well formed mask variable names .6 16. 160 Turbine Governor Type I Data Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 SSR Data Format . .5 16. . . . 167 168 171 172 173 175 180 182 183 184 Load Tap Changer Data Format . . . . . Recent wind turbines . . . . . . . . 237 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Data Format . . . . . . . UPFC Data Format . . . . . . . . . .2 17. . . . . . 277 Mask parameter constants . . . . . . Power System Stabilizer Data Format . . . . . . 278 Functions and files to be modified for installing a UDM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 19.4 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Over Excitation Limiter Data Format . . . . .6 18. . STATCOM Data Format SSSC Data Format . . . . . . . . Power Oscillation Damper Data Format . . . . . . . . . 188 Tap Changer with Embedded Load Data Format . . . . . . . . . . .1 19. . .4 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Mixed Load Data Format . . .4 18.3 23. . Turbine Governor Type II Data Format Exciter Type I Data Format . . . . . . . . .1 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 Mask parameter symbols . .6 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 27. 287 Routine Conventional Names for Command Line Usage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 19. . . . . . . . Exciter Type II Data Format . . 149 Reference table for synchronous machine parameters. 190 Phase Shifting Transformer Data Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 18. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Direct Drive Synchronous Generator Data Format Dynamic Shaft Data Format . . . . . . . . .3 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 25. . . . . . . . Doubly Fed Induction Generator Data Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 19. . . . . . . . . .2 20.10 17. . . . . . . Roughness length for various ground surfaces . . . . . . . .LIST OF TABLES xxi 14. . . . Central Area Controller Data Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . .gms for the three-bus test system. .3 29. . . . . . . . . . . . .gms for the three-bus test system. . . PSAT-GAMS OPF report for the three-bus test system. . . . .xxii LIST OF TABLES 27. . . . . . . . . . .3 29.2 27.1 General Options for Command Line Usage. . . . . 305 PSAT IPM-based OPF report for the three-bus test system. . . . .1 30. .4 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .m for the three-bus test system. . . . . . 304 Structures to be modified to change default behavior. . IEEE CDF file to be used within UWPFLOW . Input file which defines power directions in UWPFLOW UWPFLOW output file with CPF results . 343 . . . . Output file psatsol. . 325 326 326 327 327 335 336 337 337 State matrix eigenvalues for the 9-bus test system . Input file psatdata. . .4 31. . . . .5 30. Input file psatglobs. . . . . .3 30. . UWPFLOW power flow results .2 30.2 29. . . . .1 29. . . . . . .

Part I Outlines .

.

5.1 Overview PSAT is a Matlab toolbox for electric power system analysis and control. 2.Chapter 1 Introduction This chapter provides an overview of PSAT features and a comparison with other Matlab toolboxes for power system analysis. generator ramping data. Time domain simulations. PSAT core is the power flow routine. Phasor measurement unit (PMU) placement. 4. The command line version of PSAT is also GNU Octave compatible. 3. transmission lines and transformers. In order to perform accurate power system analysis. continuation power flow. generator power reserves. and shunt admittances. 1. constant power loads. Once the power flow has been solved. All operations can be assessed by means of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) and a Simulink-based library provides an user friendly tool for network design. as follows: ⋄ Power Flow Data: Bus bars. 3 . Small signal stability analysis. further static and/or dynamic analysis can be performed. These routines are: 1. slack buses. PV generators. PSAT includes power flow. optimal power flow. Continuation power flow. ⋄ CPF and OPF Data: Power supply bids and limits. which also takes care of state variable initialization. and power demand bids and limits. Optimal power flow. The outlines of this documentation and a list of PSAT users around the world are also reported. small signal stability analysis and time domain simulation. PSAT supports a variety of static and dynamic component models.

5. Figure 1. ⋄ Loads: Voltage dependent loads. 3. 63]. and variable speed wind turbine with direct drive synchronous generator. Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitors. ⋄ Regulating Transformers: Load tap changer with voltage or reactive power regulators and phase shifting transformers. Constant speed wind turbine with squirrel cage induction motor. PSAT includes bridges to GAMS and UWPFLOW programs. 4. thermostatically controlled loads [57]. as follows: 1. One-line network diagram editor (Simulink library). frequency dependent loads. Static Synchronous Source Series Compensators. Filters for converting data to and from other formats. User defined model construction and installation. and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell. ⋄ FACTS: Static Var Compensators. ⋄ Machines: Synchronous machines (dynamic order from 2 to 8) and induction motors (dynamic order from 1 to 5). Command logs. GUI for plotting results. ⋄ Wind Turbines: Wind models. Automatic Voltage Regulators. ⋄ Other Models: Synchronous machine dynamic shaft. and High Voltage DC transmission systems.4 1 Introduction ⋄ Switching Operations: Transmission line faults and transmission line breakers. ⋄ Measurements: Bus frequency and phasor measurement units (PMU). 6. constant current and constant power) loads. ⋄ Controls: Turbine Governors. sub-synchronous resonance model. Jimma’s loads [61]. . Secondary Voltage Regulation (Central Area Controllers and Cluster Controllers). Unified Power Flow Controllers. and mixed loads. Besides mathematical routines and models. and a Supplementary Stabilizing Control Loop for SVCs. variable speed wind turbine with doubly fed induction generator. GUIs for settings system and routine parameters. 2.1 depicts the structure of PSAT. exponential recovery loads [55. Over-excitation limiters. PSAT includes a variety of utilities. Finally. which highly extend PSAT ability of performing optimization and continuation power flow analysis. Power System Stabilizer. ZIP (impedance.

Input Simulink Models Other Data Format Saved Results Data Files Simulink Library Simulink Model Conversion Power Flow & State Variable Initialization Conversion Utilities Settings User Defined Models Interfaces GAMS Static Analysis Optimal PF Continuation PF UWpflow PMU Placement Time Domain Simulation Dynamic Analysis Small Signal Stability PSAT Command History Plotting Utilities Output Text Output Save Results Graphic Output Figure 1. 5 .1: PSAT at a glance.

Matpower [132].1 depicts a rough comparison of the currently available Matlab-based software packages for power electric system analysis. Educational Simulation Tool (EST) [121]. Power Analysis Toolbox (PAT) [103]. .3 Outlines of the Manual This documentation is divided in seven parts. 33. Voltage Stability Toolbox (VST) [31.2 PSAT vs. Part I provides an introduction to PSAT features and a quick tutorial. 2. 3. 4. continuation power flow and/or voltage stability analysis (CPF-VS).1: Matlab-based packages for power system analysis Package PF CPF OPF SSSA TDS EMT GUI CAD EST MatEMTP Matpower PAT PSAT PST SPS VST 1. optimal power flow (OPF). Part III illustrates models and data formats of all components included in PSAT. MatEMTP [72]. 32] 5. 1 Since Matlab Release 13. Other Matlab Toolboxes Table 1. as follows. Power System Toolbox (PST) [35. Part II describes the routines and algorithms for power system analysis. 90]. small signal stability analysis (SSSA) and time domain simulation (TDS) along with some “aesthetic” features such as graphical user interface (GUI) and graphical network construction (CAD). SimPowerSystems has replaced the Power System Blockset package.6 1 Introduction Table 1. 1. The features illustrated in the table are standard power flow (PF). SimPowerSystems (SPS) [113]. These are: 1. 6.1 7.

along with test system data and frequent asked questions. functions. Slovenia. Netherlands. Philippines. Poland. Sudan. India. Mexico. Colombia. Switzerland. Tunisia. Czech Republic. Ecuador. Romau nia. Sweden. Australia. Germany.4 Users PSAT is currently used in more than 50 countries. El Salvador. Cuba. New Zealand.1. Nepal. Uruguay. Laos. Thailand. Argentina. These include: Algeria. . Venezuela. Hong Kong. Macedonia. Great Britain. Costa Rica. and Vietnam. Iran. Part VIII depicts a detailed description of PSAT global structures. Korea. Chile.2 depicts PSAT users around the world. Japan. Belgium. Part VI presents PSAT interfaces for GAMS and UWPFLOW programs. 1. Puerto Rico. China. Malaysia. USA. Part V provides a brief description of the tools included in the toolbox. Brazil. Austria. Figure 1. Norway. Per´. Croatia. Israel. Turkey. Nigeria. The GNU General Public License and the GNU Free Documentation License are also reported in this part. South Africa. Spain.4 Users 7 Part IV describes the Simulink library for designing network and provides hints for the correct usage of Simulink blocks. Egypt. Indonesia. Italy. Greece. France. Taiwan. Guatemala. Canada. Part VII illustrates functions and libraries contributed by PSAT users.

PSAT users Figure 1.2: PSAT around the world. 8 .

Mac OS X 10. The new PSAT 2.ca The latter link and is kindly provided by Prof.4 some of the latest Matlab features are disabled. uigetdir) and Perl modules.uclm. when I was a Visiting Scholar at the E&CE of the University of Waterloo.1 1 Perl filters for data file conversion can be used only with Matlab 6.0 has been developed using Matlab 7. Observe that in PSAT 1.0.3 (R11) and/or with GNU Octave should use PSAT 1. Older Matlab files such as fm cdf. This is the case of some built-in functions (e.0.4.0 makes use of the latest features of the current Matlab R14. PSAT 2.0 is not compatible with older version of Matlab.power.1 Download www.9). who has n been my supervisor for 16 months (September 2001-December 2002). User that needs compatibility with older Matlab versions back to 5. PSAT 2. thus it is not compatible with GNU Octave. Claudio A. Irix 6.4 and Windows XP platforms. 2. The structure of the toolbox and a brief description of its main features are also presented. install and run PSAT.3.2 Requirements PSAT 2.htm PSAT can be downloaded at: or following the “Downloads” link at: www. 2.3. Furthermore.0. such as physical components for the Simulink library.4 (R14) on Fedora Linux Core 4 for i686.0.0 makes use of classes.Chapter 2 Getting Started This chapter explains how to download.0.uwaterloo.g.es/area/gsee/Web/Federico/psat.5. Canada. Ca˜izares.5. It has also been tested on a Sun workstation (Solaris 2.m are still included in the PSAT distribution but will be no longer maintained. 9 .

3. If this is the case. Then type or browse the PSAT folder and save the session. Open the GUI available at the menu File/Set Path of the main Matlab window.x.y.zip where x and y are the current PSAT patch numbers.1. 2. If you started Matlab with the -nojvm option.4 routines and component models have been tested using version 2. On a Windows platform. use WinZip or similar program to unpack the PSAT tarball. Most recent releases of Windows zip programs automatically supports gunzip and tar compression and archive formats.06. On Unix or Unix-like environment.y.y.x.10 2 Getting Started In order to run PSAT. Some of these programs (e. the main PSAT 1.4 can work on GNU Octave as well.tar or. which requires the Symbolic Toolbox. The command line version of PSAT 1. except for compiling user defined models. If this is the case.2 2. use the addpath function. if the distribution archive comes in the zip format: $ unzip psat-pcode-1.3.13 of the octave-forge package on Fedora Linux Core 4 for i686.gz $ tar xvf psat-pcode-1. For example: 2 Refer to Chapter 28 for further information on the usage of PSAT on GNU Octave.3 Installation Extract the zipped files from the distribution tarball in a new directory (do not overwirte an old PSAT directory).x. the list of folders where Matlab looks for functions and scripts.tar or: $ tar zxvf psat-pcode-1.x. it is not allowed to overwrite the pathdef.m file and you will be requested to write a new pathdef.tar. In particular. only the basic Matlab and Simulink packages are needed. WinZip) ask for creating a temporary directory where to expand the tar file. In this case. which will do the same operation but at the Matlab prompt. Before you can run PSAT you need to update your Matlab path. Then open Matlab.y. This will create in the working directory a psat folder which contains all p-code files and all necessary directories. just accept it and extract the PSAT package. save it in a convenient folder but remember to start future Matlab session from that folder in order to make Matlab to use your custom path list. you cannot launch the GUI from the main window menu.g.72 and the version 2005. make sure the current path points at the folder where you downloaded the PSAT tarball and type at the terminal prompt: $ gunzip psat-pcode-1.m in a writable location. .e. i. Note that on some Unix platforms. You may proceed in one of the following ways: 1.

4 >> psat Launching PSAT After setting the PSAT folder in the Matlab path. Then launch PSAT as usual. just comment or remove the clear all statement at the beginning of the script file psat.2. You should also update the Matlab path or restart Matlab anytime you want to work with a different PSAT version. 3. If this is not desired. This works since PSAT checks the current Matlab path list definition when it is launched. However. 4. Furthermore. just expand the PSAT tarball on top of it. build. and filters).m.m file there is no PSAT folder.4 Launching PSAT 11 >> addpath /home/username/psat or: >> addpath ’c:\Document and Settings\username\psat’ For further information. themes. Observe that PSAT can work properly only if the current Matlab folder and the data file folders are writable. refer to the on-line documentation of the function addpath or the Matlab documentation for help. this solution is the best choice in case you wish maintaining different PSAT versions in different folders. Note 2: PSAT makes use of four internal folders (images. type from the Matlab prompt: This will create all the structures required by the toolbox. 2. it will use the addpath function as in the previous point. It is recommended not to change the position and the names of these folders. Just be sure that in your pathdef. Using this PSAT feature does not always guarantee that the Matlab path list is properly updated and is not recommended. If you have an older version of PSAT on your computer and this version is working fine. as follows:3 3 By default. Change the current Matlab working directory to the PSAT folder and launch PSAT from there. If PSAT does not find itself in the list. . all variables previously initialized in the workspace are cleared. also the PSAT folder should be writable if you want to build and install user defined components. Note 1: PSAT will not work properly if the Matlab path does not contain the PSAT folder.

the menu File/Open/Data File or the shortcut <Ctr-d> when the main window is active. 2.m data file. These are actually Matlab functions and are used for setting independent variables during time domain simulations (refer to Chapter 8 for details). To load a file simply double click on this edit text. i. If it is closed. There is a second class of files that can be optionally loaded.m file in PSAT format or a Simulink model created with the PSAT library. It is also possible to load results previously saved with PSAT by using the second button from the left of the tool-bar. All modules and procedures can be launched from this window by means of menus. the menu File/Open/Saved System or the shortcut <Ctr-y>. In this way. . or use the first button of the tool-bar.12 2 Getting Started >> who Your variables are: Algeb Area Breaker Bus Buses Busfreq CPF Cac Cluster Comp Cswt DAE Ddsg Demand Dfig Exc Exload Fault Fig File Fl GAMS Hdl History Hvdc Initl Jimma LIB Line Lines Ltc Mass Mixed Mn Mot NLA OPF Oxl PMU PQ PQgen PV Param Path Phs Pl Pmu Pod Pss Rmpg Rmpl Rsrv SAE1 SAE2 SAE3 SNB SSR SSSA SW Servc Settings Shunt Snapshot Sofc Source Sssc Statcom State Supply Svc Syn Tap Tcsc Tg Theme Thload Twt UWPFLOW Upfc Varname Varout Vltn Wind Ypdp ans clpsat filemode jay and will open the main user interface window4 which is depicted in Fig. Thus. it is not necessary to load a perturbation file. the . after loading saved system. The name of this file is always displayed in the edit text Data File of the main window.5 Loading Data Almost all operations require that a data file is loaded.e. 2. If the source is in a different format supported by the PSAT format conversion utility. In order to use the program. not only the visualization of results previously obtained. first perform the conversion in order to create the PSAT data file. all operations are allowed. The data file can be either a . To allow portability across different computers.out files used for saving system results include also the original data which can be saved in a new . it can be launched again by typing fm main at the prompt.1. push buttons and/or shortcuts. all data and global variables are preserved. 4 This window should always be present during all operations. perturbation or disturbance files.

Figure 2. 13 .1: Main graphical user interface of PSAT.

look for the menu View/Static Report or use the shortcut <Ctr-v>). Other results requiring a graphical output. such as continuation power flow results.g. Refer to the chapters where these topics are discussed for details and examples.6 Running the Program Setting a data file does not actually load or update the component structures. The small signal stability and the PMU placement GUIs have similar behaviors. These messages/results are displayed one at the time in the static text banner at the bottom of the main window. PMU placement (Chapter 9). etc. multi-objective power flow computations or time domain simulations. Thus it is not necessary to load again the file every time it is modified. Time Domain Simulation (Chapter 8). By double clicking on this banner or using the menu Options/History a user interface will display the last messages. can be inspected with a GUI (in the main window. The data are updated also in case of changes in the Simulink model originally loaded. To do this. This utility can be useful for debugging data errors or for checking the performances of the procedures.7 Displaying Results Results can be generally displayed in more than one way. Some computations and several user actions result also in messages stored in the History structure. . can be depicted and saved in . Refer to Chapter 4 for details. look for the menu View/Plotting Utilities or use the shortcut <Ctr-w>). the program is ready for further analysis. 2. by the shortcut <Ctr-p>). but are due to wrong sequence of operations or inconsistencies in the data. Small Signal Stability Analysis (Chapter 7). such as Continuation Power Flow (Chapter 5). 2. which can be launched in several ways from the main window (e. The last version of the data file is read each time the power flow is performed.5 5 All errors displayed in the command history are not actually errors of the program.eps files with the plotting utilities (in the main window. the GUI allows to save the results in a text file. errors and warnings that are displayed on the Matlab prompt are more likely bugs and it would be of great help if you could report these errors to me whenever you encounter one.14 2 Getting Started not even for running a time domain simulation. one has to run the power flow routine. After solving the first power flow. For example power flow results. Then. Optimal Power Flow (Chapter 6). either by means of a graphical user interface in Matlab or as a ascii text file. or whatever is the actual solution of the power flow equations of the current system. On the other hand. Each of these procedures can be launched from the tool-bar or the menu-bar of the main window.

The report file name are built as follows: [data file name] [xx]. fully or in part. can be modified in a separate windows (in the main window. after writing the 99th file. All global structures used by PSAT are stored in this file which is placed in the folder of the current data file and has the extension . 6 Well. The extensions for these files are as follows: . static and dynamic tolerance and maximum number of iterations. the continuation power flow analysis refers to the structure CPF and the optimal power flow analysis to the structure OPF. Customized settings can be saved and used as default values for the next sessions by means of the menu File/Save/Settings. thus it is important to be sure to have the authorization for writing in that folder. A . in a [data file name] [xx].txt for reports in plain text. all static computations allow to create a report in a text file that can be stored and used later. Also the text contained in the command history can be saved. Computations requiring additional settings have their own structures and GUIs for modifying structure fields. Furthermore. . thus previous report files will not be overwritten. For example. 2. look for the menu Edit/General Settings or use the shortcut <Ctr-k>). The default values for some fields of the Settings structure can be restored by means of the menu Edit/Set Default. the file with the number 01 is actually overwritten without asking for any confirmation.8 Saving Results At any time the menu File/Save/Current System or the shortcut <Ctr-a> can be invoked for saving the actual system status in a . These structures are described in the chapters dedicated to the corresponding topics.mat file. Also the data file itself is saved.xls for reports in Excel.8 Saving Results 15 2.6 All results are placed in the folder of the current data file.out.9 Settings The main settings of the system are directly included in the main window an they can be modified at any time. These settings are the frequency and power bases. to ensure portability across different computers.2. .tex for reports in L TEX. Other general settings.log file. All these settings and data are stored in the Settings structure which is fully described in Appendix A. such as the fixed time step used for time domain simulations or the setting to force the conversion of PQ loads into constant impedances after power flow computations.[ext] where xx is a progressive number. starting and ending simulation times.

16 2 Getting Started A different class of settings is related to the PSAT graphical interface appearance. the routine which compiles model functions is not complete so far. as follows: 1. If the component is not needed any longer it can also be “uninstalled” in a similar way. However.10 Network Design The Simulink environment and its graphical features are used in PSAT to create a CAD tool able to design power networks. PSAT simply reads the data from the Simulink model and writes down a data file. by means of an automatic procedure. observe that in some cases the conversion cannot be complete since data defined for commercial software have more features than the ones implemented in PSAT. and it is intended only for creating a first draft of the component function. visualize the topology and change the data stored in it. data format conversion functions and user defined model routines. These features are described in Chapter 26.7 3. 4. the preferred text viewer for the text outputs and the settings for the command history interface. However. Create the Matlab function of the model. The construction of a user defined model can be yielded in few steps. . Thus. Simulink has been thought for control diagrams with outputs and inputs variables. hopefully. 2.m file. user defined models can be shared easily by simply providing the component function and the component structure stored in a Matlab script file. e. A full description of this library an its interactions with the rest of the program is presented in Chapter 21. Save the model in a . facilitating contributions. Define parameters and differential and algebraic equations by means of a GUI. Thus. The data format conversion routines (see Chapter 24) allow importing data files from other power system software packages. PSAT static data files can be converted into the IEEE Common Data Format. Install the model in the program.g. the menu Edit/Network/Edit Network/Simulink Library or the shortcut <Ctr-s>. The library can be launched from the main window by means of the button with the Simulink icon in the menu-bar. However. without the need of directly dealing with lists of data. 2. and this is not the best way to approach a power system network.11 Tools Several tools are provided with PSAT. the time domain routines that come with Simulink and its ability to build control block diagrams are not used. 2. 7 The Symbolic Toolbox is required for building the new component function. User defined model routines (see Chapter 25) provide a simple way for extending the capabilities of PSAT and.

which highly extend PSAT ability to perform OPF and CPF analysis respectively. FACTS and secondary voltage control. It consists of a language compiler and a variety of integrated high-performance solvers. and the text viewer selector are described in Chapter 26.12 Interfaces 17 Other PSAT tools and utilities. GAMS is specifically designed for large and complex scale problems. Refer to Chapter 29 for a more detailed description of the routine and the GUI which interfaces PSAT to GAMS. including voltage dependent loads.2. The interface is currently in an early stage. It consists of a set of C functions and libraries designed for voltage stability analysis of power systems. which allows exporting PSAT models to UWPFLOW.12 Interfaces PSAT provides interfaces to GAMS and UWPFLOW. the theme selector.3 for limitations and ToDos. Refer to Chapter 30 for a more detailed description of the PSAT-UWPFLOW interface. . 2. The General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) is a high-level modeling system for mathematical programming problems. refer to Section 30. and allows creating and maintaining models for a wide variety of applications and disciplines [17]. the sparse matrix visualization GUI. HVDC. UWPFLOW is an open source program for sophisticated continuation power flow analysis [22]. such as the command history.

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C. Added a structure for Interchange Area definition. SSSA and TD algorithms. Castro and A.0. 6. 12.0 beta 1. The check of component bases has been improved to take into account voltage rates (see function fm base) of several components. Ayres. M. First version of PSAT which uses classes. Note that this version is not compatible with Octave. currently this structure is idle but will be used in future version of PSAT. 3. S. 5. This is a development version and is only compatible with Matlab 7. 4. 9. This version has been tested using a 15000 bus test network.0 or newer. Added the possibility of monitoring voltage evolution on Simulink models during time domain simulations. New Simulink library with physical components. 3. Corrected the way shunts are included in the admittance matrix.Chapter 3 News This chapter lists new features of the current release of PSAT with respect of older versions. 7. Added the status field of several components. Morataya. 11. Del Rosso. Improved PF. 10. OPF. 8. New more reliable versions of FACTS and Power Oscillations damper model for FACTS by H. Several new filters for data format conversion by J. 2. 19 .1 News in version 2. CPF. so that more than shunt is allowed per bus.

9. Changed the logo of PSAT. fm pss. .6). 5. Corrected the Jacobian and hessian matrix of apparent power flows in transmission line for OPF routine. 2. fm cdf. It is now allowed using bus names with carriage return characters. In the case that no PV or slack generator are found a warning message is displayed. These are: fm breaker. Added the function fm connectivity to detect separation in areas following a breaker operation during time domain simulation (by courtesy of Laurent Lenoir). 3. fm int. 8. These new features are available from within the GUI for plotting results. 3. Added mixed load model (see Section 14. resulting in faster but likely imprecise continuation analysis. 4.5). Added Jimma’s load model (see Section 14. fm snb. fm m2cdf. 6. fm m2wscc. 14.2 News in version 1.2). Added a filter to convert data file in NEPLAN format (see Chapter 24). Added a better step control for the continuation power flow analysis. Added the possibility of exporting plots as MTV plot files and as Matlab scripts.3. Observe the initalization routine does not fail.20 3 News 13. Added Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) model (see Section 13. fm opfsdr.7). but the machine is likely not properly initialized. Added a check during the initialization of synchronous machines to see if a PV or slack generator are connected to the machine bus. 11. Added the option of stopping time domain simulations when the machine angle degree is greater than a given ∆δmax (default value 180◦ ). 10. fm ncomp.4 1. 12. The step control can be disabled (menu Options of the CPF GUI). Patched the fm sim function. Added unit commintment and multiperiod market clearing models for the PSAT-GAMS interface (see Section 29. 7. fm opfm. Many minor function patches.

3.5. Minor release with a few bug fixes and a revision of PSAT documentation.3. Fixed some bugs in the filter for PSS/E 29 data format. First release fully tested on Matlab 7.5 (by Randall Smith). 2.3. 4. The corresponding component structure has been renamed Exload.3 News in version 1. 3. Fixed a bug in time domain simulation which produced an error when handling snapshots. Corrected several minor bugs in the functions and typos in the documentation (the latter thanks to Marcos Miranda).3 News in version 1. Fixed a bug which did not allow setting fault times t = 0 in dynamic simulations.4 News in version 1. 9.57 & octave-forge 2004-07-07 for MAC OS X 10.3.0 (R14). Added the possibilities of exporting time domain simulations as ascii files. Successful testing on Matlab 7. 3.0 and octave 2. 2.2 1.3 1. 8.3. Added base conversion for flow limits of transmission lines.1 or greater).5 News in version 1. Corrected a bug in the fm pq function (computation of Jacobian matrices when voltage limit control is enabled). 6. Modified the TCSC control system (the first block is now a wash-out filter). Added a filter for PSS/E 29 data format. AVRs and PSSs. 5. Improved models of synchronous generators (which now include a simple qaxis saturation). 3.1.3. 7. Added a Physical Model Component Library for Simulink (Only for Matlab 6.1 1. 4.3 21 3. 3. 5. . Added a numeric linear analysis library (contribution by Alberto Del Rosso). The linear recovery load has been renamed exponential recovery load in order to be consistent with the definition given in [63]. 2. Added a new wind turbine model with direct drive synchronous generator (development). 6.

3.0 1. 5. TEX or plain text formats. Corrected several minor bugs in the functions and typos in the documentation. Reactive power output is now included in the converted model. 5.2. Corrected a few bugs in the PSS function.22 3 News 7. 8. The continuation power flow routine allows now using dynamic components (experimental). i. Fixed a few Octave compatibility issues. Discrete tap ratio is now better supported and includes a time delay. 10. Wind measurement data are supported as well. PMU placement reports can be exported to Excel. 7. Improved PSAT/GAMS interface.3. 11.e. Basic compatibility with GNU/Octave (only for command line version). Bus frequency measurement block.m function which allows launching any routine without solving the power flow analysis first. 4. Added the autorun. Results and settings are now contained in the structure SSSA.2 1. Improved continuation power flow routine. 3.6 News in version 1. 4. 6. Output can be exported to Excel. Added the command line version. Improved the routine for small signal stability analysis. Overall improvement of the toolbox and its documentation. TEX or plain text formats. Weibull distribution and composite wind model. 9. 3. 9. 2. Added filters to convert data files into BPA and Tshingua University formats. TEX or plain text formats. 3. Power flow reports can be exported to Excel. 2. Improved continuation and optimal power flow routines. Improved model of solid oxide fuel cell. 8.7 News in version 1. Added wind turbine models (constant speed wind turbine and doubly fed induction generator). Added wind models. . The stablest release so far. Improved model of LTC transformers.

0 1. Installation of PSAT folder is now not required. 2. 5.m and fm sim. These improvements remove simulation errors which occurred in previous PSAT versions. 2. Created the PSAT Forum (http://groups.m. Added filter for CYMFLOW data format.2. Added phase shifting transformer model.11 News in version 1. Added PSAT/UWPFLOW interface. Main improvements are in functions psat. Corrected some bugs in the filter for MatPower data format.8 News in version 1.9 News in version 1. 6. 3.10 News in version 1. 3. Main improvements are in functions fm fault. Improved fault computation for time domain simulations. Several bugs and typos were removed thanks to Liulin.1 23 3.m.3. First PSAT release which is Matlab version independent.0. .8 News in version 1. 5. 6.1 Minor bug-fixing release.com/group/psatforum).1 Minor bug-fixing release.m and in the documentation. 4. 4.yahoo. Added PSAT/GAMS interface. 3. 3.0 1.2.1.2. Added a new filters in Perl language for data format conversion. although recommended. Several bug fixes in continuation and optimal power flow routines. fm base. 3.

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Part II Routines .

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Refer to Section 4. AVR reference voltages. The standard Newton-Raphson method [116] and the Fast Decoupled Power Flow (XB and BX variations [111.1) 27 .g. Observe that algebraic variables and equations are at least twice the number of buses defined in the network. etc.4 for the complete list of components that are included in or initialized after the power flow solution. 118]) are implemented. synchronous machines and regulators). y) where y (y ∈ Rm ) are the algebraic variables. 110. A power flow with a distributed slack bus model is also included. induction motors and load tap changers) during power flow computations. (4. i. x (x ∈ Rn ) are the state variables.1) 4..g. voltage amplitudes V and phases θ at the network buses and all other algebraic variables such as generator field voltages. Differential equations are included in (4. Other state variables and control parameters are initialized after solving the power flow solution (e. 4.g. [116]).1.e.1 Newton-Raphson Method Newton-Raphson algorithms for solving the power flow problem are described in many books and papers (e.1 Power Flow Solvers The power flow problem is formulated as the solution of a nonlinear set of equations in the form: x ˙ = 0 = f (x.1. y) 0 = g(x.Chapter 4 Power Flow This chapter describes routines.1) since PSAT initializes the state variables of some dynamic components (e. settings and graphical user interfaces for power flow computations. At each iteration. g (g ∈ Rm ) are the algebraic equations and f (f ∈ Rn ) are the differential equations. the Jacobian matrix of (4.

this formulation is not computationally expensive. These assumptions are equivalent to the equations: θslack VG = θslack0 = V G0 (4.Diagonal elements at the intersections of the columns and the rows described above are set to one. Although forcing the dimensions of Gy to be always maximum (i. . the following conditions applies: . .1.The row of the derivatives of the slack bus active power balance gPslack is set to zero. If the variable increments ∆x and ∆y are lower than a given tolerance ǫ or the number of iteration is greater than a given limit (i > imax ) the routine stops.e. 4.The rows of the derivatives of generator reactive power balances gQ are set to zero.The column of the derivatives with respect to the reference angle is set to zero. .The columns of the derivatives with respect to generator voltages are set to zero. . since the properties of Matlab sparse matrices are used. Fy = ∇y f . Observe that the standard power flow Jacobian matrix JLF V is a submatrix of Gy (see also next section).28 4 Power Flow is updated and the following linear problem is solved: ∆xi ∆y i xi+1 y i+1 = − = i Fx Gi x i −Fy Gi y −1 fi gi (4.3) where θslack is the voltage phase of the reference bus and VG the vector of generator voltages.2) ∆xi xi + ∆y i yi where Fx = ∇x f . m). . Gx = ∇x g and JLF V = ∇y g. PSAT uses the XB and BX methods presented in [118]. Furthermore. .2 Fast Decoupled Power Flow The Fast Decoupled Power Flow (FDPF) was originally proposed in [111] and has been further developed and generalized in several variations.The elements of the vector g associated with the generator reactive powers and the slack bus active power are set to zero.

as follows: XB: line resistances are neglected when computing B ′ .5) = 0 ≈ B′ ≈ B ′′ where B ′ and B ′′ can be thought as admittance matrices with the following simplifications: 1. Gy = JLF V . The XB and BX variations differ only in further simplifications of the B ′ and B ′′ matrices respectively.1. as this reduces the number of iterations.3 Distributed Slack Bus Model The distributed slack bus model is based on a generalized power center concept and consists in distributing losses among all generators [12]. as follows: i ∆gP /V i ′ ′ = B ′ ∆θi ′′ ′ (4.1 Power Flow Solvers 29 This method can be used if algebraic variable are only voltage magnitudes and phases. Thus the FDPF consists in turn of solving two systems at each iteration. If other components are present in the network. JP V = ∇V gP . The basic assumptions of FDPF methods are: JP V JQθ JP θ JQV = 0 (4. 4. 2. shunts and transformer tap ratios are neglected when computing B ′ . The power flow Jacobian matrix JLF V can be decomposed in four sub-matrices: JLF V = JP θ JQθ JP V JQV (4. BX: line resistances are neglected when computing B ′′ . the standard Newton-Raphson routine is used. JQθ = ∇θ gQ . In this case. and JP θ = ∇V gQ . The solution of the active equations is used as input to the reactive ones. Line charging. PQ loads and one slack bus.6) i′′ ′′ i′′ ∆gQ /V i = B ∆V where ∆gP and ∆gQ are the active and reactive power flow equation mismatches. Phase shifters are neglected and line charging and shunts are doubled when computing B ′′ .4) where JP θ = ∇θ gP . This is practically obtained . PSAT allows using FDPF methods for system which contain only PV generators.4.

4.1. The following components are included in the power flow equation set: Hvdc Phs Lines Pl Ltc SAE1 Mn SAE2 Mot SAE3 PQ SW PV Tap whereas the following ones are initialized after solving the power flow problem: Busfreq Fl Pss Tcsc Cac Exload SSR Tg Cluster Mass Sofc Thload Cswt Mn Statcom Upfc Ddsg Oxl Sssc Wind Dfig Pl Svc Exc Pod Syn Voltage dependent and ZIP loads (Mn and Pl) appears in both lists since their inclusion in the power flow computation is an available option. γ = 0 for all generators but one.30 4 Power Flow by including in (4. Refer to the specific descriptions of each component for details.2 Settings General settings for power flow computations. 4.1) a variable kG and rewriting the system active power balance as follows: nG i nP i (1 + kG γi )PGi − PLi − Plosses = 0 (4. which is depicted in Fig.e. 4.) When the distributed slack bus flag is active. Other parameters can be customized in the GUI for general settings (menu Edit/General Settings or shortcut <Ctr-k> in the main window).1. FDPF methods are automatically disabled. The additional parameter γ is also included in order to allow tuning the weight of the participation of each generator to the losses. i.2) are modified by adding to the Jacobian matrix JLF V the row of the derivatives of the slack bus active power balance and a column for the derivatives of differential and algebraic equations with respect to kG .7) Equations (4.4 Initialization of State Variables Dynamic components and non-conventional loads can be included in or initialized after the power flow solution. (In the single slack bus model. power and frequency rates of the system. The following options are available for power flow analysis: . convergence tolerance and maximum number of iterations used for the Newton-Raphson/FDPF techniques can be set in the main window.

3 Example Figure 4. Observe that only the NR method is available if the distributed slack bus option is enabled or if there are dynamic component included in the power flow analysis. More precise results can be obtained using the continuation power flow analysis. dynamic components initialized after the power flow are discarded. For example. Angles can be expressed either in radiants or degrees.m. Check Component Bases: enable checking component power and voltage ratings. i. Discard Dynamic Comp. this option is disabled if there are dynamic component included in the power flow analysis. not only the reference angle bus.4. which contains also general settings and parameters for time domain simulations. Power flow settings are stored in the structure Settings. If the loaded system presents state and control variables. the PV bus is converted into a PQ bus. The GUI reports the bus names and their correspondent voltages and total power injections.e. Only a reduced number of component are checked.2 depicts the GUI for power flow results. If a limit is reached. Excel) and displayed with the selected viewer (see Section 26. Voltage profiles can be plotted using the buttons on top of the lists for voltage magnitudes and angles. Power flow results can be saved using the Report button. Use Distributed Slack Bus: this option allows using distributed slack bus model. the plain text power flow solution for the WSCC 9-bus test system is as follows: .: if this option is enabled. these are reported in the GUI as well. No voltage recovery is taken into account. The check of the consistency of component ratings is made by the function fm base.4 for details).3 Example 31 Power Flow Solver: these are the Newton-Raphson (NR) method. all PV buses contributes to system losses. Refer to the code for details. Show Power Flow Results: open the static report GUI and display power flow results when power flow analysis has completed. 4. the fast decoupled XB and BX methods. Observe that dynamic components that are included in the power flow analysis are retained. A log file will be created using the selected format A (plain text. L TEX. This structure is fully described in Appendix A. Show Iteration Status: display the absolute minimum convergence error in the main window during power flow analysis. Check PV Reactive Limits: this option forces checking reactive power limits of PV buses. Data refer to a 9-bus test system presented and discussed in [101].

1: GUI for general settings. 32 .Figure 4.

2: GUI for displaying power flow results.Figure 4. 33 .

71641 1.] 0.u.62424 0.5 0.0127 0.] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1.06962 -0.34 4 Power Flow POWER FLOW REPORT P S A T 1.uwaterloo.63 0.06258 1 1.u.08142 -0.025 1.] Maximum Q mismatch [p.16197 0.1086 0 0 0 0 0 0 P load [p.06492 0.78817 0.6222 0.0258 0.25 0.0127 1.06436 0.u.76786 0.] 0.u. (c) 2002-2005 e-mail: fmilano@thunderbox.u.99563 1.27046 0.0324 phase [rad] 0 0.0564 0 1.3 0 0.06654 -0.0258 1.03869 -0.ca website: http://thunderbox.ca/~fmilano File: Date: ~/psat/tests/d_009.4 Author: Federico Milano.u.85 0 0 0 0 0 0 Q gen [p.mdl 26-Oct-2003 12:53:43 NETWORK STATISTICS Bus: Lines: Transformers: Generators: Loads: SOLUTION STATISTICS Number of Iterations: Maximum P mismatch [p.04 1.0159 1.3.025 1.] 0 0 0 0 1.u.uwaterloo.] Power rate [MVA] POWER FLOW RESULTS Bus V [p.] 0 0 0 0 0.0664 1 0.03433 P gen [p.9 0 1 0 Q load [p.35 0 4 0 0 100 9 6 3 3 3 Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus STATE VECTOR delta_Syn_1 omega_Syn_1 e1q_Syn_1 e1d_Syn_1 delta_Syn_2 omega_Syn_2 e1q_Syn_2 e1d_Syn_2 delta_Syn_3 omega_Syn_3 e1q_Syn_3 e1d_Syn_3 vm_Exc_1 1.025 .94486 1 0.

11502 -0.63 0.24095 -0.03123 Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus 8 8 6 5 4 4 7 9 4 Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus 9 7 9 7 5 6 2 3 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .32208 1.403 1.3 Example 35 vr1_Exc_1 vr2_Exc_1 efd_Exc_1 vm_Exc_2 vr1_Exc_2 vr2_Exc_2 efd_Exc_2 vm_Exc_3 vr1_Exc_3 vr2_Exc_3 efd_Exc_3 1.31531 -0.00475 0.u.4.63 0.22893 0.] -0.8662 -0.03123 1.24183 0.01354 0.00166 0 0 0 Q Loss [p.15832 0.00797 -0.71641 Q Flow [p.11313 0.00258 0.04096 0.15513 0.23923 P Loss [p.0973 1.60817 0.00088 0.023 0.] -0.30704 -1.] -0.] 0.71641 Q Flow [p.19479 1.85 -0.8432 0.01354 0.14955 -0.] 0.24296 -0.u.15832 0.7893 1.85 0.u.0822 Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus 9 7 9 7 5 6 2 3 1 Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus 8 8 6 5 4 4 7 9 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 LINE FLOWS From Bus To Bus Line P Flow [p.18075 -0.27046 P Loss [p.38687 -0.u.11502 -0.446 -0.09178 0.15794 -0.59463 -0.u.u.0103 0.08381 -0.1198 1.023 0.u.00166 0 0 0 Q Loss [p.7638 0.] 0.00475 0.30537 1.00258 0.1086 0.06654 -0.71641 1.21176 -0.u.025 1.] -0.25254 1.403 1.40937 0.63 -0.4068 -0.19694 -0.04096 0.00088 0.19694 -0.31531 -0.0312 -0.75905 -0.85 0.15513 0.1006 -0.21176 -0.8951 -0.0822 MECHANICAL POWERS & FIELD VOLTAGES Pmech_1 Pmech_2 Pmech_3 Vfd_1 Vfd_2 Vfd_3 EXCITER REFERENCE VOLTAGES Vref_1 Vref_2 Vref_3 LINE FLOWS From Bus To Bus Line P Flow [p.10704 -0.16543 0.7893 1.15794 -0.04 1.13457 -0.] 0.095 1.

1964 0. The variables that can be displayed are voltage magnitudes and angles.] TOTAL LOAD REAL POWER [p.36 4 Power Flow GLOBAL SUMMARY REPORT TOTAL GENERATION REAL POWER [p.] TOTAL SHUNT REAL POWER [p.u.] REACTIVE POWER [p.u.u.] REACTIVE POWER (IND) [p.3 and 4.] 0. and generator rotor angles and speeds.u.] REACTIVE POWER [p.u. The same GUI can be used to create movies for CPF analysis and time domain simulations.2284 Results can also be displayed using a two or three-dimensional colored map (see Figs. transmission line apparent flows.4).9216 0 0 0 3.u. . The GUI for network visualization is available from the menu View / Network Visualization of the main PSAT window.04641 -0.u.u.u.15 3.] REACTIVE POWER (CAP) [p.] TOTAL LOSSES REAL POWER [p. 4.] REACTIVE POWER [p.15 1.

37 .3: 2D visualization of power flow results. Voltage magnitudes for the 9-bus test system.Figure 4.

4: 3D visualization of power flow results.Figure 4. Voltage angles for the 9-bus test system. 38 .

Bifurcation analysis requires steady-state equations of power system models.2) (5.2) and (5. a scalar variable which multiplies generator and load directions. as follows: x ˙ = 0 = f (x. Power directions are defined in the structures Supply and Demand (see also Sections 11. PL0 and QL0 are the “base case” generator and load powers. y. the base case powers are used as load directions and (5. and a Continuation Power Flow (CPF) technique based on [20]. whereas PS0 . PG0 .1) In (5.e.3) used in the bifurcation analysis differ from (6.3). λ) 0 = g(x. y the algebraic variables (voltage amplitudes and phases) and λ is the loading parameter.3) Observe that power directions (5.2). The CPF analysis is more general than DMs. i. PD0 and QD0 are the generator and load power directions. 39 . i. y. as follows: PG PL QL = PG0 + (λ + γkG )PS0 = PL0 + λPD0 = QL0 + λQD0 (5.2) become: PG PL QL = (λ + γkG )PG0 = λPL0 = λQL0 (5.4 for more details).Chapter 5 Bifurcation Analysis This chapter describes Direct Methods (DM) for computing Saddle-Node Bifurcation (SNB) points and Limit-Induced Bifurcation (LIB) points. voltage limits and flow limits of transmission lines.1 and 11. If these data are not defined. The distributed slack bus variable kG and the generator participation coefficients γ are optional. λ) where x are the state variables. the power directions used in the voltage stability constrained OPF described in Chapter 6. and can be used also for determining generator reactive power limits.e.

and the complete Jacobian matrix is computed explicitly:   ∇y g 0 ∇λ g ∇yy gv ∇y g 0  (5. 5. The Euclidean norm reduces the sparsity of the Jacobian matrix. this method can be applied only to a limited number of components. In PSAT.1) reduce to the algebraic set g. and the Euclidean norm is used for the | · | operator. but allows to avoid re-factorizations (as happens in the case of ∞-norm) and is numerically more stable than the 1-norm.5) where v and w are the right and the left eigenvectors respectively.4) The conditions for a SNB point are as follows: ∇y g(y. 5.7) Limit Induced Bifurcation points are defined as the solution of the following system: . Before running any direct method routine. The solution for (5. λ) = 0 0 1 (5. the power flow analysis has to be run first to initialize the algebraic variables. (5.2 Limit Induced Bifurcation 0 = g(y. PQ and Line).6) 0 ∇v (|v|) 0 Since the Hessian matrix ∇yy g is computed analytically.e. The SNB routine searches a “good” initial guess for the eigenvectors v and w. Figure 5. i. λ) = 0 ∇y g(y.5) are obtained by means of a Newton-Raphson technique . PV .1 Saddle-Node Bifurcation g(y. λ)v = |v| = or g(y. λ) 0 = ρ(y) (5. Thus.40 5 Bifurcation Analysis 5. which anyway are the standard models used in power flow analysis.1. make use of static power flow models (see Chapter 10).1 Direct Methods Direct Methods which are implemented in PSAT allow to compute the value of the loading parameter λ for at Saddle-Node Bifurcation points and at Limit-Induced Bifurcation points.4) and (5. A complete description of SNB settings is reported in Appendix A. λ)T w = 0 |w| = 1 (5. However the best way to initialize the SNB routine is to run first a CPF analysis. namely (SW. Direct Methods can perform only “static” bifurcation analysis.1 depicts the GUI for SNB settings.1.

. A complete description of LIB structure is reported in Appendix A. where ρ(y) is an additional constraint that can be: QG = QGlim for slack or PV generator buses . 5.8) for PQ load buses .1: GUI for saddle-node bifurcation settings. that are associated to a maximum loading condition.2 depicts the GUI for LIB settings.5.2 Continuation Power Flow 41 Figure 5. or VL = VLlim (5.9) (5. Figure 5.2 Continuation Power Flow The Continuation Power Flow method implemented in PSAT consists in a predictor step realized by the computation of the tangent vector and a corrector step that can be obtained either by means of a local parametrization or a perpendicular intersection. Observe that only reactive power limits of generator buses can lead to saddle limit induced bifurcation (SLIB) points.

2: GUI for limit-induced bifurcation settings. 42 .Figure 5.

λ) = = 0 0 (5. λp + ∆λp ) τp (yp . along with a normalization to avoid large step when |τp | is large: ∆λp k |τp | ∆yp kτp |τp | (5. 5.2.3: Continuation Power flow: predictor step obtained by means of tangent vector. λp ) g(y.12) A step size control k has to be chosen for determining the increment ∆yp and ∆λp .2.11). λ) ρ(y.10) and (5. λ) = 0 Figure 5. λp ) = 0 ⇒   dλ p dλ p ∂λ p and the tangent vector can be approximated by:  dy   ≈ ∆yp τp = dλ p ∆λp τp ∆yp = −∇y g|−1 p = τp ∆λp (5.14) In the corrector step. as follows: . Figure 5.1 Predictor Step At a generic equilibrium point.13) where k = ±1.2 Corrector Step g(y. the following relation applies:      dg   = 0 = ∇y g|p dy  + ∂g  g(yp .3 presents a pictorial representation of the predictor step.2 Continuation Power Flow 43 (yp + ∆yp .5. a set of n + 1 equations is solved. 5.11) From (5. and its sign determines the increase or the decrease of λ. one has:  ∂g   ∂λ p (5.10) (5.

15) whereas for the local parametrization. 5. Then all the contingencies are sorted in a “worst line . as depicted in Fig.4: Continuation Power flow: corrector step obtained by means of perpendicular intersection. that line outage is neglected.5. (5. the expression of ρ becomes: ρ(y. Note that if the line outage leads to an unfeasible base case (λmax < 1). 5. In case of perpendicular intersection.3 N-1 Contingency Analysis PSAT is provided with a N-1 contingency analysis which allows computing active power flow limits in transmission lines and transformers taking into account security limits (transmission line thermal limits. where the solution of g must be in the bifurcation manifold and ρ is an additional equation to guarantee a non-singular set at the bifurcation point. λ) = λc − λp − ∆λp or ρ(y.44 5 Bifurcation Analysis π/2 (yc − (yp + ∆yp ). λp ) g(y. As for the choice of ρ.4. λ) = yci − ypi − ∆ypi (5.16) 5.17) The choice of the variable to be fixed depends on the bifurcation manifold of g. λc ) (yp . generator reactive power limits and voltage security limits) and voltage stability constraints. λc − (λp + ∆λp )) τp (yc . it is performed a continuation power flow analysis for each line outage. either the parameter λ or a variable yi is forced to be a fixed value: ρ(y. λ) = 0 Figure 5. there are two options: the perpendicular intersection and the local parametrization. At this aim. whose pictorial representation is reported in Fig. λ) = ∆yp ∆λp T yc − (yp + ∆yp ) =0 λc − (λp + ∆λp ) (5.2.

As in the case of Optimal Power Flow routine. Thus. It is also possible to set the tolerances required to determine the voltage. complete nose curve: the routine terminates when the maximum number of point is reached or when λ becomes negative.5. 5. The N-1 contingency analysis can be run for all networks for which the continuation power flow routine will work.5: Continuation Power flow: corrector step obtained by means of local parametrization.4 Graphical User Interface and Settings Figure 5. contingency” order looking for the minimum power flows in each transmission line and transformers. both Φij and Φji are checked. To launch the N-1 contingency analysis. in general. dynamic components are not supported so far. and the total number of points determined by the routine. λ) = yci − ypi − ∆ypi λ Figure 5.2. Furthermore. Three stopping criteria are available: 1. It is possible to set the tolerance of the convergence test of the Newton-Raphson technique in the corrector step. and flow limits in the transmission lines and transformers. reactive power and flow limits. .2 Continuation Power Flow 45 yi corrector ρ(y. Several options allow adjusting the performance and customing routine outputs. generator reactive power limits. select the menu Run/N-1 Contingency Analysis in the main window or in the GUI for continuation power flow analysis. the step size of the predictor step.6 depicts the user interface for continuation power flow analysis. the routine can use a single slack bus or a distributed slack bus model and check for voltage limits. active powers or apparent powers. For all of these flows. λ) = λc − λp − ∆λp corrector ρ(y. These minimum power flows are the power flow limits and are thus the output of the N-1 contingency analysis. flow limits can be current amplitudes.

if either a bifurcation point or a limit is encountered. In this example.8 and 5. Figures 5. while. Negative loads are typically of two kinds: pure reactive compensators or constant PQ generators. 3. See also the discussion above. by default. If the step size control is disabled.9 are obtained with and without generator reactive power limits and show a limit-induced bifurcation and a saddle-node bifurcation. if either a SNB or a LIB point is encountered: the LIB that causes the end of the routine corresponds also to the maximum loading parameter.3). This option can be useful if one wants to study the effects of increasing the production of PQ generators on the network. . negative active power loads will be included in (5.46 5 Bifurcation Analysis 2. respectively.3).3 Examples Figure 5. Enforce the step size control during the CPF analysis. Figures 5. while. the CPF analysis will be faster but likely less accurate close to the maximum loading point. If this option is enabled. This feature is still experimental. 2. negative active power loads will be included in (5. Enforce the check for Hopf bifurcations. 3.4). as defined in the slack and PV generators and PQ load data. base powers are used. the power directions are defined in the Supply and Demand data. Step size control is enforced by default. 5. by default. Include only negative active power loads in CPF analysis.con for load directions.9 depict CPF results for the 6-bus test system (see Appendix F. All outputs can be plotted versus the loading parameter λ using the Plotting Utilities. This option only takes effects if the user does not define the structure Demand.2) with distributed slack bus model. In the menu Options of the CPF GUI. The option will look for only negative active power loads. they would be excluded. The figure refers to three load voltages of the IEEE 14-bus test system (see Appendix F.7 depicts CPF nose curves as displayed by means of the PSAT GUI for plotting results. Checking for Hopf bifurcations is disabled by default. Since no power directions are defined in the Supply and Demand data. If this option is enabled. they would be excluded. Pure reactive compensators will not be used in CPF analysis. the following options can be selected: 1. The trace of the CPF computations is stored in the Command History. This option only takes effects if the user does not define the structure Demand. Include negative active power loads in CPF analysis.con for load directions. In the latter case it may make sense to include them in the CPF analysis. 4. Appendix A fully illustrates the CPF structure.8 and 5. as the support ofr dynamic components in the CPF analysis is not fully supported yet.

6: GUI for the continuation power flow settings.Figure 5. 47 .

respectively. The nose curves refers to three load voltages of the IEEE 14-bus test system. The output is organized in four columns: the first column depicts the transmission line or transformer while the second one shows for which line outage it has been found the minimum power in that line. in the transmission line or transformer.1 illustrates the results of the N-1 contingency analysis for the 6-bus test system. .48 5 Bifurcation Analysis Figure 5.7: GUI for plotting CPF results. Table 5. The last two columns depict the actual power flow and the power flow limit.

u.5 0.1.7 0.1 1 0.3 VBus 1 VBus 2 VBus 3 VBus 4 VBus 5 VBus 6 0.9 0. 49 .2 0 0.5 3 3.6 0.8: Nose curves for the 6-bus test system with generator reactive power limits.5 4 4.] 0.5 2 2.5 Loading Parameter λ Figure 5.5 1 1.5 5 5.8 Voltages [p. The maximum loading condition is due to a saddle limit-induced bifurcation.4 0.

8 Voltages [p.] 0. 50 . The maximum loading condition is due to a saddle-node bifurcation.1 0.4 0.6 0.9: Nose curves for the 6-bus test system without generator reactive power limits.2 VBus 4 VBus 5 VBus 6 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Loading Parameter λ Figure 5.u.

ca/~fmilano File: Date: ~/psatd/tests/d_006.1899 0.uwaterloo.2 Author: Federico Milano.50879 0.u.51417 0.0199 0.40302 0.50254 0.07867 0.mdl 25-Nov-2004 17:28:02 POWER FLOW LIMITS Line Line Outage 1-5 2-5 3-5 1-5 1-2 3-5 2-4 2-5 2-5 2-4 1-2 Pij [p.38453 0.Table 5.u.31823 0.uwaterloo.47836 0.1: N-1 Contingency Analysis Report for the 6-bus test system N-1 CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS P S A T 1.62959 0.22452 0.44108 0. (c) 2002-2004 e-mail: fmilano@thunderbox.24653 0.3.11511 0.30954 Pij max [p.11245 0.72198 0.] 0.36198 2-3 3-6 4-5 3-5 5-6 2-4 1-2 1-4 1-5 2-6 2-5 51 .] 0.ca website: http://thunderbox.60904 0.02523 0.15013 0.

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Both methods which were described in [117] are implemented in the IPM-NLP problem. Non-linear optimization techniques have also been shown to be adequate for addressing a variety of voltage stability issues.1 Interior Point Method In [58]. accounting somewhat for system security. as discussed in [60]. The latter highly reduces the number of iterations to obtain the final solution. In [94] and [117]. The OPF routines implemented in the program also uses the techniques proposed in [24] and [79]. 4]. The Interior Point Method (IPM) is used for solving the nonlinear set of equations of the OPF problem as described in [117]. Finally. as the number of iterations increase slightly with the number of constraints and network size. such as the maximization of the loading parameter in voltage collapse studies. In [71] and [70]. especially in large networks. several strategies were proposed for an OPF with active power dispatching and voltage security using an IPM that proved to be robust. but it is 53 .Chapter 6 Optimal Power Flow This chapter describes the Optimal Power Flow (OPF) problem and its implementation in PSAT. Most implementations of IPM for solving market problems. the authors present a comprehensive investigation of the use of IPM for non-linear problems. [18]. where the authors proposed diverse methods to account for system security through the use of voltage stability based constraints in an OPF-IPM market representation. typically determined off-line. 6. so that security is not simply modeled through the use of voltage and power transfer limits. [26] and [25]. use a linear programming technique [112. A discussion of diverse objective functions and OPF models used in the program is presented along with a detailed description of the structures and the data needed to solve the OPF. a simple 6-bus system example is presented and the graphical user interface and text outputs are described. non-linear IPM techniques are applied to the solution of diverse OPF market problems. 84. and describe the application of Newton direction method and Merhotra’s predictor-corrector to the OPF.

1) g(δ. In practice. s. V. together with line current Iij and Iji thermal limits and bus voltage limits. V ) |≤ Pijmax | Pji (δ. and PS and PD represent bounded supply and demand power bids in MW. 6. V “security” lim. V ) |≤ Pjimax → → → → → → QGmin ≤ QG ≤ QGmax Vmin ≤ V ≤ Vmax where CS and CD are vectors of supply and demand bids in $/MWh. (6. which is typically referred to as a security constrained OPF.2. QG .1 Maximization of the Social Benefit The OPF-based approach is basically a non-linear constrained optimization problem.2. Pij and Pji represent the powers flowing through the lines in both directions. . 6.54 6 Optimal Power Flow properly represented in on-line market computations. and model system security by limiting the transmission line power flows. A typical OPF-based market model can be represented using the following security constrained optimization problem (e. PS . based on what was proposed 1 Some additional constraints can be included or will be included in future versions. the maximization of the distance to the maximum loading condition and also a multi-objective approach similar to the one proposed in [25]. PD ) = 0 0 ≤ PS ≤ PSmax 0 ≤ PD ≤ PDmax | Pij (δ. In this model.t.2. bid blocks Power transfer lim. V and δ represent the bus phasor voltages. 6. bid blocks Dem. Q lim. Pij and Pji limits are obtained by means of off-line angle and/or voltage stability studies. these limits are usually determined based only on power flow based voltage stability studies [49] and can be determined using the continuation power flow routines described in Chapter 5.2 Maximization of the Distance to Collapse The following optimization problem is implemented to properly represent system security through the use of voltage stability conditions.2 OPF Routines In the program three different objective functions are available: the maximization of the social benefit. respectively.1 Section 6. [127]): Min.g. Gen. and consists of a scalar objective function and a set of equality and inequality constraints. The following sections describe each model and the constraints implemented and tested so far. − (ΣCDi (PDi ) − ΣCSi (PSi )) → Social benefit PF equations Sup. QG stand for the generator reactive powers.4 presents the Lagrangian function which is minimized by means of the IPM-NLP method.

the power directions used in the bifurcation analysis presented in Chapter 5.. Vc ) ≤ Ijimax QGmin ≤ QG ≤ QGmax QGmin ≤ QGc ≤ QGmax Iji (δ.2 OPF Routines 55 in [26]. and kGc represents a scalar variable which distributes system losses associated only with the solution of the critical power flow equations in proportion to the power injections obtained in the solution process (distributed slack bus model). for the current and maximum loading conditions. Q limits → V “security” lim.2) → PF equations g(δc . QGc . a second set of power flow equations and constraints with a subscript c is introduced to represent the system at the limit or ”critical” conditions associated with the maximum loading margin λc in p. the generator and load powers are defined as follows: PG PL P Gc PLc = P G0 + P S = PL0 + PD = = (1 + λc + kGc )PG (1 + λc )PL (6. bid blocks → Thermal limits Vmin ≤ V ≤ Vmax Vmin ≤ Vc ≤ Vmax Iji (δc . PS .2). The maximum or critical loading point could be either associated with a thermal or bus voltage limit or a voltage stability limit (collapse point) corresponding to a system singularity (saddle-node bifurcation) or system controller limits like generator reactive power limits (limit induced bifurcation) [20.u. [25]. i. λc . Thus.3) where PG0 and PL0 stand for generator and load powers which are not part of the market bidding (e. V. Observe that power directions (6. bid blocks 0 ≤ PS ≤ PSmax 0 ≤ PD ≤ PDmax Iij (δ.2) are distributed among all generators. It is assumed that the losses corresponding to the maximum loading level defined by λc in (6. [24]: Min. PS . → loading margin λcmin ≤ λc ≤ λcmax → Sup.3) used in the voltage stability constrained OPF differ from (5.g. V ) ≤ Iijmax → Dem. g(δ.98].t.6.e. inelastic loads). where λ is the parameter that drives the system to its maximum loading condition. must-run generators. QG . PD ) = 0 → Max load PF eqs. V ) ≤ Ijimax Iij (δc . G = −λc s. Vc . In this case. . Vc ) ≤ Iijmax → Gen. PD ) = 0 (6.

V ) ≤ Ijimax QGmin ≤ QG ≤ QGmax QGmin ≤ QGc ≤ QGmax Vmin ≤ V ≤ Vmax Vmin ≤ Vc ≤ Vmax Iij (δc . rendering it useless. bid blocks → Dem. ω2 > 0). Q limits → V “security” lim. Vc ) ≤ Ijimax → Gen. as this simplifies the optimization problem without losing generality. The first term represents the social benefit. since for ω1 = 0 there would be no representation of the market in the proposed OPF formulation. V ) ≤ Iijmax Iji (δ. whereas the “security” term would be in p. it is possible to assume that ω1 = (1−ω) and ω2 = ω. bid blocks → Thermal limits Iij (δ.56 6 Optimal Power Flow 6.4) is the same as in (6. . PS . based on what was proposed in [79]. V. which will basically affect the chosen values of ω1 and ω2 (typically. two terms are present.3). G = −ω1 (ΣCDi (PDi ) − ΣCSi (PSi )) − ω2 λc s.2. Vc ) ≤ Iijmax Iji (δc . with their influence on the final solution being determined by the value of the weighting factors ω1 and ω2 (ω1 > 0. PS . PD ) = 0 g(δc ..4) → PF equations → Max load PF eqs. The representation of the generator and load powers in (6. Notice that the two terms of the objective function are expressed in different units. otherwise λc will not necessarily correspond to a maximum loading condition of the system. since the social benefit would be typically in $/h. with proper scaled values of ω for each system under study (0 < ω < 1). ω1 ≫ ω2 ). λc . QGc . Observe that ω1 > 0. whereas the second term guarantees that the ”distance” between the market solution and the critical point is maximized [26]. However. ω2 > 0. Furthermore. g(δ.u.3 Multi-Objective Optimization A multi-objective optimization is also implemented. In the multi-objective function G.t. PD ) = 0 λcmin ≤ λc ≤ λcmax 0 ≤ PS ≤ PSmax 0 ≤ PD ≤ PDmax (6. Vc . QG . → loading margin → Sup. so that system security which is modeled through the use of voltage stability conditions is combined with the electricity market: Min.

For a detailed description of the parameters used for the IPM refer to [117]. ∀i) correspond to the Lagrangian multipliers.3 OPF Settings Figure 6.2. QG . QGc . The s variables form the slack vector whose non-negativity condition (si > 0. PS . Vc . PD ) − (6. and all the other µ (µi > 0.1).1 depicts the GUI for settings OPF parameters (menu Edit/OPF Settings or shortcut <Ctr-z> in the main window). λc . PS . PD ) c − µT D min (PD − sPD min ) P − µT D max (PDmax − PD − sPD max ) P − µT S min (PS − sPS min ) P − µT S max (PSmax − PS − sPS max ) P − µλc max (λcmax − λc − sλc max ) − µλc min (λc − sλc min ) − µT G min (QG − QG min − sQG min ) Q − µT G max (QGmax − QG − sQG max ) Q − µT Gc max (QGmax − QGc − sQGc max ) Q − µTjic max (Imax − Ijic − sIjic max ) I − µTijc max (Imax − Iijc − sIijc max ) I − µTji max (Imax − Iji − sIji max ) I − µTij max (Imax − Iij − sIij max ) I − µTmin (V − Vmin − sVmin ) V − µTmax (Vmax − V − sVmax ) V − µT Gc min (QGc − QG min − sQGc min ) Q − µTc min (Vc − Vmin − sVc min ) − µs ( V − µTc max (Vmax − Vc − sVc max ) V ln si ) i where µs ∈ R. The following Lagrangian function is minimized: Min. the program represents the previous problems (6. and ρ and ρc ∈ Rn . ∀i) is ensured by including the logarithmic barrier terms i ln si . L = G − ρT f (δ.4) in the same way.2) and (6. 6. µs > 0.4 Lagrangian Function Internally. is the barrier parameter. V.6.3 OPF Settings 57 6.5) ρT f (δc . The parameters and the results of OPF . (6. ignoring the constraints that are not used or assuming proper values for the parameters that are not defined.

A log file will be created A using the selected format (plain text. (c) 2002-2005 . Excel) and displayed with the selected viewer (see Section 26. as well as the current voltages and power flows.4 Example This section depicts OPF results for a 6-bus test system.3. which is described in Appendix A. OPF results can be saved using the Report button. L TEX. 6. computations are contained in the structure OPF.4 for details). The complete set of data for the 6-bus test system are reported in Appendix F. The GUI will display the total transaction level and total bid losses. OPF results can be displayed in the same GUI which is used for power flow results.3 Federico Milano. the plain text power flow solution for the 6-bus test system with ω = 0 (standard OPF) is as follows: OPTIMAL POWER FLOW REPORT (Standard OPF) P S A T Author: 1. For example.1: GUI for the optimal power flow.58 6 Optimal Power Flow Figure 6.

Figure 6. 59 .2: GUI for displaying OPF results.

001 Ps [MW] 0.42491 0 REACTIVE POWERS Bus mu min Qg min [MVar] -150 -150 -150 Qg [MVar] 76.001 0.001 0.] V max [p.0844 Qg max [MVar] 150 150 150 mu max Bus2 Bus1 Bus3 VOLTAGES Bus 0 0 0 0 0 0 mu min V min [p.0968 mu min Pd min [MW] 0.65773 0 0 0 0.001 0.0694 Pd max [MW] 25 10 20 mu max Bus4 Bus5 Bus6 0 0 0 2.uwaterloo.uwaterloo.304 0.60 6 Optimal Power Flow e-mail: fmilano@thunderbox.u.ca website: http://thunderbox.u.u.ca/~fmilano File: Date: ~/psatd/tests/d_006_mdl 10-Mar-2005 19:41:11 NETWORK STATISTICS Buses: Lines: Generators: Loads: Supplies: Demands: SOLUTION STATISTICS Objective Function [$/h]: -121.001 25 20 Ps max [MW] 20 25 20 mu max 6 11 3 3 3 3 Bus1 Bus2 Bus3 POWER DEMANDS Bus 0.17662 2.001 Pd [MW] 25 10 8.] V [p.001 0.6233 72.] mu max phase [rad] .6493 Active Limits: 8 Number of Iterations: 13 Barrier Parameter: 0 Variable Mismatch: 0 Power Flow Equation Mismatch: 0 Objective Function Mismatch: 0 POWER SUPPLIES Bus mu min Ps min [MW] 0.206 44.

9 0.9805 9.1 1.001 164.29043 0.9 0.51836 0.1 1.563 9.4327 0.6585 0.74506 0.06342 0.u.05066 -0.35683 I_ij max [p.0211 1.8478 0.1 1.6.3973 0.0844 -76.21472 NCP [$/MWh] -0.1455 9.8581 0.4284 rho Q [$/MVArh] 0 0 0 0.69913 0.665 -77 -62.] 0.20737 0.11693 0.0693 Q [MVar] 44.36729 0.807 .84775 0.49408 0.9147 0.9 0.39306 0.1 1.6898 rho P [$/MWh] 9.] 0.206 72.9 0.36 0.07148 0.08127 0.6535 9.374 0.6233 76.1 1.7114 mu I_ji Bus3 Bus6 Bus5 Bus5 Bus6 Bus4 Bus2 Bus4 Bus5 Bus6 Bus5 TOTALS Bus2 Bus3 Bus4 Bus3 Bus5 Bus2 Bus1 Bus1 Bus1 Bus2 Bus2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 TOTAL LOSSES [MW]: 11.] 0.3779 I_ji max [p.0676 P [MW] 90.1796 0.8478 0.013 1.0635 0.3082 1.6585 0.4 Example 61 Bus1 Bus2 Bus3 Bus4 Bus5 Bus6 POWER FLOW Bus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.06232 0.u.1 1.2591 0.1 1.2591 0.9193 0.] 0.374 0.3082 1.23945 Pay [$/h] -812 -1481 -732 1100 1062 925 Bus1 Bus2 Bus3 Bus4 Bus5 Bus6 FLOWS IN TRANSMISSION LINES From bus To bus I_ij [p.04872 0 0.45115 0.10451 0.07648 0.9147 0.9193 0.01405 0 -0.2 1.1 1.731 0.40762 0.3973 0.1796 0.0204 8.33729 0.39214 0.u.02463 -0.2 1.1 1.9 1.11578 0.0404 1.07318 -0.29865 0 0 0 0.u.7114 mu I_ij Bus2 Bus3 Bus4 Bus3 Bus5 Bus2 Bus1 Bus1 Bus1 Bus2 Bus2 Bus3 Bus6 Bus5 Bus5 Bus6 Bus4 Bus2 Bus4 Bus5 Bus6 Bus5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 FLOWS IN TRANSMISSION LINES From bus To bus I_ji [p.42224 0.8754 80 -115 -110 -98.9 0.

1219 Figure 6. which is placed in the folder of the current data file and automatically named with a progressive number (from 00 to 99). which can be obtained by setting a vector of values for the weighting factor ω.0694 323.3: GUI for plotting OPF Pareto sets. The GUI permits tuning a variety of parameters and settings.932 43.eps file. adding and modifying a legend of the plotted variables and saving the graph to a color .62 6 Optimal Power Flow Figure 6. customizing the graphical appearance.3 depicts the graphical user interface for plotting the Pareto set. .0694 62. BID LOSSES [MW] TOTAL DEMAND [MW]: TTL [MW]: IMO PAY [$/h]: 1. such as choosing the variables to plot.

59].2) Hereinafter. that is defined by the linearization of the DAE system equations (7. in the form: x = f (x. and for three different types of power flow Jacobian matrices (QV sensitivity analysis) [128]. The eigenvalues can be computed for the state matrix of the dynamic system (small signal stability analysis) [101. The state matrix AS is thus computed by manipulating the complete Jacobian matrix AC . the Jacobian matrices which form the AC matrix.Chapter 7 Small Signal Stability Analysis This chapter describes small signal stability analysis available in PSAT and the associated graphical user interface.1) where x is the vector of the state variables and y the vector of the algebraic variables.1 Small Signal Stability Analysis The system used for the small signal stability analysis is a differential algebraic equation (DAE) set. After solving the power flow problem. which in PSAT are only the voltages amplitudes V and phases θ. it is possible to compute and visualize the eigenvalues and the participation factors of the system. The following sections describe the main features of the small signal stability analysis and of the power flow Jacobian eigenvalue analysis. will be referred to 63 . y) (7. y) ˙ 0 = g(x. 7.1): ∇x f ∆x ˙ = ∇x g 0 ∇y f ∇y g ∆x ∆x = [AC ] ∆y ∆y (7.

especially in case of unstable equilibrium points with only one eigenvalue outside the unit circle.e. . the amplitude of each element of the eigenvectors is used: |wij ||vji | pij = n (7. if the system is stable.. a bilinear transformation is performed: AZ = (AS + ρIn )(AS − ρIn )−1 (7. which are described in the next section. It is sometime useful to compute the eigenvalues in the Z-domain. that are evaluated in the following way. and thus implicitly assuming that JLF V is non-singular (i. all the eigenvalues are inside the unit circle.4) leads to the computation of the eigenvalues in the Sdomain.5) wj vj In case of complex eigenvalues. AZ can be useful for fastening the determination of the maximum amplitude eigenvalue (by means for example of a power method). absence of singularityinduced bifurcations): AS = Fx − Fy G−1 Gx (7. it is also possible to obtain the participation factors. namely JLF and JLF D . and contains the power flow Jacobian matrix.3) where Gy is the complete gradient of the algebraic equations. the system is stable if the real part of the eigenvalues is less than 0. which can also ease the visualization of very stiff systems.4) y The computation of all eigenvalues can be a lengthy process if the dynamic order of the system is high. The state matrix in (7.7) where ρ is a weighting factor. then the participation factor pij of the ith state variable to the j th eigenvalue can be defined as: wij vji pij = t (7.64 7 Small Signal Stability Analysis as follows: Fx Fy Gx Gy ∇x f ∇y f ∇x g ∇y g (7. it is possible to compute only a few eigenvalues with a particular property.6) k=1 |wjk ||vkj | No normalization of the participation factors is performed.e. The state matrix AS is simply obtained by eliminating the algebraic variables. When all the eigenvalues are computed. such that Λ = W AS V and W = V −1 . Let V and W be the right and the left eigenvector matrices respectively. Even though more expensive. In this way. At this aim. Other two types of power flow Jacobian matrices are defined in PSAT. i. largest or smallest magnitude.e. that in the program is set to 8. largest or smaller real or imaginary part. i. For the Z-domain eigenvalue computation.

2 −0.4 0.6 0.8 −1 −1 −0.2 0 0.6 −0.6 −0.8 0.2 Imag 0 −0.1: Eigenvalue Analysis: S-domain.8 1 Real Figure 7.4 0. 1 0. 65 .2: Eigenvalue Analysis: Z-domain.8 −0.4 −0.4 −0.2 0.6 0.15 10 5 Imag 0 −5 −10 −15 −6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 Real Figure 7.

e1q_Syn_2 e1q_Syn_1.9197 -7.9465 -7. delta_Syn_2 vr1_Exc_2.00677 . Part 0 0 0 12.2605 0 0 0.74006 0.00022 0. omega_Syn_3 delta_Syn_3.3996 -0.01789 0.3181 -5.8127 -7.00462 0.212 0.1 and 7.00102 0.00015 0.00021 0.00014 4e-05 4e-05 0.3314 1.44307 -0.00021 0. vf_Exc_2 vr1_Exc_2. delta_Syn_2 omega_Syn_2.72015 -0.00462 0.00462 0.2.4818 -5.2171 -5.mdl 20-Sep-2005 18:52:53 STATE MATRIX EIGENVALUES Eigevalue Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Most Associated States vm_Exc_1 vm_Exc_1 vm_Exc_3 delta_Syn_3.4 Author: Federico Milano.00111 0.ca website: http://thunderbox.00102 0. refer to Subsection F.19077 -0.42503 0 0 -3.212 -1.3. omega_Syn_3 omega_Syn_2.43845 -0.2434 1.9197 0 0 1.00021 0.00015 0. vf_Exc_2 vr1_Exc_1.7454 -12. and the small signal stability report depict the eigenvalue analysis for the WSCC 9-bus test system and have been generated with the Eigenvalue Analysis interface available in the View menu of the main window.8127 7.00019 0.3657 7.00015 0. vf_Exc_1 vr1_Exc_1.4818 -5.3. vr2_Exc_3 delta_Syn_1 omega_Syn_1 e1d_Syn_1 Real part -1000 -1000 -1000 -0. vr2_Exc_1 e1q_Syn_1.49669 -0.74006 -0. vf_Exc_3 vr1_Exc_3.1. 7.3314 1.uwaterloo.9465 7. vf_Exc_1 vr1_Exc_3.00015 0.19077 -5.00019 0.00019 2e-05 omega_Syn_1 0 0 0 0.3657 -8.00019 2e-05 e1q_Syn_1 0 0 0 1e-05 1e-05 4e-05 4e-05 0.11778 0.44307 -0.30889 0. e1q_Syn_2 e1q_Syn_3.00462 0.2647 1.07905 0.00021 0.2605 1. vr2_Exc_1 e1q_Syn_1.42503 -0.43845 -0.3181 -5.66 7 Small Signal Stability Analysis 7.12947 0. vr2_Exc_3 e1q_Syn_3.12947 0. EIGENVALUE REPORT P S A T 1.19289 0.49669 0 0 0 Frequency 0 0 0 2. For the static and dynamic data of the network.12947 0.0285 1.2258 Imag.2434 1.08564 0.00022 0.11778 0.7454 8.01789 0. vf_Exc_3 e1d_Syn_2 e1d_Syn_3 e1q_Syn_1.12947 0.19289 0.ca/~fmilano File: Date: ~/psatd/tests/d_009.1 Example The following Figs.00014 0.0285 2.uwaterloo.2171 -5.72015 -0.00111 0 e1d_Syn_1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 delta_Syn_2 0 0 0 0.07905 0 0 0 PARTICIPATION FACTORS (Euclidean norm) delta_Syn_1 Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig As As As As As As As As As As As As As As 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 0 0 0 0.08564 0.30889 0. (c) 2002-2005 e-mail: fmilano@thunderbox.2647 1.178 -3.

00073 0.00023 0.00117 0.00018 0.00021 0.00609 0.00332 0.04918 0.00687 0.30889 0.00151 0.00068 0.08564 0.00023 0 0 0 vr2_Exc_1 0 0 0 0 0 1e-05 1e-05 0.0003 0.38243 0.00068 0.00017 1e-05 1e-05 0 1e-05 0.00274 0.00117 0.0053 0.06428 0 0 0.09334 0.00453 0.01106 0.01082 0.01186 0.34841 0.00021 0.00555 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.01367 0.00229 0.00068 0.36233 0 0.00195 0.0104 0.00055 0.06428 0.30889 0.00031 0.00033 0.00025 0 0 0.00622 0.4859 0.00055 0.00025 0 0 0.24352 0.00098 0.00117 0.1 Small Signal Stability Analysis 67 Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig As As As As As As As As As As 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 0.00017 0.10666 0.00195 0.01186 0.04918 0.01082 0.00453 0.00384 0.44865 0.00274 0.00948 0.00511 0.09334 0 e1q_Syn_2 0 0 0 0.0018 0.50149 0.00384 0.0021 0 0 0 .36233 0.00035 0.01367 0.00902 0 0 0 delta_Syn_3 0 0 0 0.38243 0.02221 0.0007 0.00041 0.32212 0.23861 0.01876 0.0021 0.18935 0.00025 0.00117 0.00073 0.00041 0.03092 0.00121 0.09334 0.00031 0.00677 0.05439 0.01498 0.01326 0.00014 4e-05 4e-05 0.23861 0.00088 0.00622 0.00171 0.00778 0.04432 0.16014 0.00019 0 0 0 0 0 vr1_Exc_1 0 0 0 1e-05 1e-05 3e-05 3e-05 0.00492 0.00492 0.0003 0.01106 0.0007 0.00046 0.00068 0.36233 0 0.00052 0.00018 0.00948 0.00061 0.09174 0.7.02221 0.18935 0.38243 0.00018 0.00117 0.02477 0.10666 0.00121 0.00061 0.00055 0.04918 0.13702 0.00902 0.24352 0.00121 0.44691 0.00055 0.09174 0.00511 0.00046 0.00033 0.00018 0.0007 0.0018 0.00229 0.0007 0.05439 0.00171 0.17649 0.00014 0.0003 0.0053 0.58338 0.18919 0.0365 0 0 0 vm_Exc_1 0.16014 0.41106 0.00052 0.02477 0.00019 0.00033 0.00102 0.00265 0.00265 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0.00687 0.36233 0.00041 0.17649 0.01326 0.01284 0.34841 0.00098 0.09334 0 PARTICIPATION FACTORS (Euclidean norm) omega_Syn_2 Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 0 0 0 0.00117 0.00162 0.00041 0.13702 0 0 0 e1d_Syn_2 0 0 0 0.0365 0.00025 0.04432 0 PARTICIPATION FACTORS (Euclidean norm) e1q_Syn_3 Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 0 0 0 0.0003 0.00035 0.04432 0 omega_Syn_3 0 0 0 0.18919 0.03092 0.04918 0.00021 0.32212 0 0 0 e1d_Syn_3 0 0 0 0.00609 0.00033 0.00055 0.00121 0.38243 0.00055 0.08564 0.00021 0.00102 0.00162 0.0104 0.01876 1e-05 0.04432 0.

01429 0.2681 0 0 0 vf_Exc_3 0 0 0 0.10129 0.00016 8e-05 8e-05 0 0 0 vr1_Exc_2 0 0 0 0.00062 0.60445 1e-05 1e-05 0 0 1e-05 1e-05 4e-05 4e-05 0.01856 0.00018 0 0 0 vr1_Exc_3 0 0 0 0.0204 0.01904 0.03415 0.39 0 0 1e-05 1e-05 0.00017 0.38115 0.38115 0.02092 0.38763 0.04361 0.00031 0.05721 0.03607 0.04642 0.03415 0.0065 0.12803 0.00026 0.33712 3e-05 3e-05 0.11574 0.14627 0.00661 0.02202 0.00021 0.03164 0.05593 0.04361 0.00113 0.00016 0.14627 0.05593 0.33712 0.00036 0.11574 0.33901 0.0264 0.03164 0 0 0 vr2_Exc_3 0 0 0 4e-05 4e-05 7e-05 7e-05 0.00665 0.00994 0.0204 0.00033 0.0176 0.05721 0.0001 2e-05 1e-05 0.01429 0 0 0 vr2_Exc_2 0 0 0 1e-05 1e-05 0.03708 0.00018 0.03607 0.06244 0 4e-05 0.00119 0.0176 0.11196 0.00508 0.02202 3e-05 3e-05 0.0054 0.00036 0 0 0 vm_Exc_2 0.00013 2e-05 2e-05 2e-05 2e-05 2e-05 1e-05 0.03708 0.00012 4e-05 4e-05 0.26752 0.00062 0.0106 0.0065 0.3454 0.03708 0.00889 0.04642 0 0 0 STATISTICS DYNAMIC ORDER # OF EIGS WITH Re(mu) < 0 # OF EIGS WITH Re(mu) > 0 # OF REAL EIGS # OF COMPLEX PAIRS # OF ZERO EIGS 24 22 0 8 8 2 .68 7 Small Signal Stability Analysis PARTICIPATION FACTORS (Euclidean norm) vf_Exc_1 Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 0 0 0 1e-05 1e-05 3e-05 3e-05 0.32142 0.06744 0.02065 0.11196 0.00018 1e-05 0.33901 0.00033 0.01417 0.00994 0.00016 0.0001 0.00012 0.0006 0.01904 0.0006 0.00016 0.02233 0.10722 0 0 0 vf_Exc_2 0 0 0 0.00113 0.01006 0.38763 0.02431 0.01856 0 0 0 PARTICIPATION FACTORS (Euclidean norm) vm_Exc_3 Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 0.3454 0.03708 0.00013 0.00119 0.06744 0.00028 0 0.00017 0.00661 0.00026 0.28859 0.0054 0.00031 0.06244 0.00787 0.00021 0.02065 0.10129 0.01417 0.00441 0.0106 0.00665 0.0264 0.00787 0.2681 0.10722 0.02431 0.02233 0.02092 0.

10) The matrix JLF D can be defined in a similar way as JLF V in (7.m2 ) ]−1 G(m2 . F is conditioned x x by adding a small value on the diagonal before computing the inverse. the reduced matrix is defined as follows: −1 JLF r = JQV − JQθ JP θ JP V (7. and is generally defined as the standard power flow Jacobian matrix.11) In case of the standard Jacobian matrix JLF .m ) (7.12) JQθ JQV ∆V ∆Q Then.e.9) where m1 is twice the number of the buses of the system and m2 = m−m1 .m ) Gy 1 2 (m . these are removed from the Jacobian matrix as follows: (m JLF V = G(m1 .2 Power Flow Sensitivity Analysis 69 7. since it can be obtained by the linearization of the power flow equations with constant power injections: ∆P J JP V ∆θ = Pθ (7. which is obtained from the static equations (10. i.m2 ) [Gy 2 .1) of power flows in transmission lines and transformers. Let’s assume that the power flow Jacobian matrix is divided into four sub-matrices: JLF = JP θ JQθ JP V JQV (7. as follows. Thus Gy is as follows: Gy = Gy 1 1 (m .2 Power Flow Sensitivity Analysis For the power flow (or QV ) sensitivity analysis. In this case.9).m ) Gy 2 1 (m .m1 ) − G(m1 .1 Observe that in the previous definitions.m1 ) y y y (7. 2. which is computed from the complete matrix AC : −1 JLF D = JLF V − Gx Fx Fy (7. .m ) Gy 2 2 (m . 3. this has also a physical meaning. JLF V = Gy . Observe that the first m1 rows of Gy corresponds to the active and reactive power equition gradients. which is the complete Jacobian matrix of the power flow equations of the system. JLF . F can be singular. JLF V . Once the power flow Jacobian matrix has been selected and computed.7. it has been assumed that the algebraic variables are only bus voltage magnitudes and phases. If there are other algebraic variables. three matrices can be used: 1. the eigenvalue analysis is performed on a reduced matrix.13) 1 If there are pure integrators in the system. JLF D .8) and can thus be considered a dynamic power flow Jacobian matrix.

8 0. For the static data of the network.4.1 Example The following Fig.2 −0.3 and QV sensitivity report depicts the QV sensitivity analysis for the IEEE 14-bus test system and have been generated with the GUI for Small Signal Stability Analysis available in the View menu of the main window.0 Author: Federico Milano. 7.3: Eigenvalue Analysis: QV sensitivity.ca/~fmilano . EIGENVALUE REPORT P S A T 1.4 −0. even though it lacks the rigorous physical meaning of (7. which represent the constant voltage buses of the five generators.6 0.uwaterloo. 7.2. refer to Section F. the reduced matrix is defined as in (7. That can thus be used for a QV sensitivity analysis.14). if one assumes that ∆P = 0 and that the sub-matrix JP θ is non-singular: ∆Q = JLF r ∆V (7.2 Imag 0 −0. The report shows five high eigenvalues (µ = 999).uwaterloo.6 −0.13). The report refers to the JLF matrix.ca website: http://thunderbox.14) For JLF V and JLF D .70 7 Small Signal Stability Analysis 1 0. (c) 2002-2004 e-mail: fmilano@thunderbox.4 0. but since the system has only constant power loads and generators and there are no dynamic components.8 −1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Real Figure 7.3. one has JLF = JLF V = JLF D .

2394 0.0691 0.23981 0 0 0 0 0 Bus 08 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Bus 09 0.03173 4e-05 0.02216 0.0085 .28196 0.2207 999 999 999 999 999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Imaginary Part PARTICIPATION FACTORS (Euclidean norm) Bus 01 Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Jlfv1 Jlfv2 Jlfv3 Jlfv4 Jlfv5 Jlfv6 Jlfv7 Jlfv8 Jlfv9 Jlfv10 Jlfv11 Jlfv12 Jlfv13 Jlfv14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 Bus 02 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 Bus 03 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Bus 04 0.9803 39.00136 0 0.00065 0.00823 0.6017 11.0364 0.00443 0.11939 0.07934 0.6984 5.00012 0.2929 21.06726 0 0 0 0 0 PARTICIPATION FACTORS (Euclidean norm) Bus 06 Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Jlfv1 Jlfv2 Jlfv3 Jlfv4 Jlfv5 Jlfv6 Jlfv7 Jlfv8 Jlfv9 Jlfv10 Jlfv11 Jlfv12 Jlfv13 Jlfv14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Bus 07 0.16526 0.5274 7.00396 0 0 0 0 0 PARTICIPATION FACTORS (Euclidean norm) Bus 11 Eig Jlfv1 Eig Jlfv2 0 0.10371 0 0 0 0 0 Bus 10 1e-05 0.00246 1e-05 0.15554 0.00013 0.00759 Bus 12 0 0 Bus 13 0 0.61494 0.00397 0.7.53957 3e-05 0.00653 0.00038 0.2706 2.2 Power Flow Sensitivity Analysis 71 File: Date: ~/psatd/tests/d_014.49063 0.45377 0.01672 3e-05 0.8536 16.31696 0.21327 0.1549 0.08802 0 0 0 0 0 Bus 05 0.21787 0.00012 Bus 14 0 0.19882 0.00048 0.00015 0.04693 0.7272 18.00357 0.mdl 16-Mar-2004 14:47:53 EIGENVALUES OF THE COMPLETE POWER JACOBIAN MATRIX Eigevalue Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Jlfv1 Jlfv2 Jlfv3 Jlfv4 Jlfv5 Jlfv6 Jlfv7 Jlfv8 Jlfv9 Jlfv10 Jlfv11 Jlfv12 Jlfv13 Jlfv14 Real part 64.

4 depicts the user interface for small signall stability analysis.42848 0 0 0 0 0 3e-05 0.72 7 Small Signal Stability Analysis Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Eig Jlfv3 Jlfv4 Jlfv5 Jlfv6 Jlfv7 Jlfv8 Jlfv9 Jlfv10 Jlfv11 Jlfv12 Jlfv13 Jlfv14 0.00192 0.31905 0.00499 0.00213 0 0 0 0 0 0.766 0. Several options are available for adjusting the performance and the changing the output of the routine. Z-map of participation factor map).04716 0.11026 0.03394 0.01 0 0 0 0 0 0.05254 0.0022 0.2109 0.15559 0. The “Graph” and the “Report” pushbuttons will export the eigenvalue analysis in a new Matlab figure and write the small signall stability analysis report. It is possible to set the output map (S-map. JLF V r or JLF Dr ).00031 0.03232 0. and the number and the kind of eigenvalues to be computed.01886 0.05664 0 0 0 0 0 STATISTICS NUMBER OF BUSES # OF EIGS WITH Re(mu) < 0 # OF EIGS WITH Re(mu) > 0 # OF REAL EIGS # OF COMPLEX PAIRS # OF ZERO EIGS 14 0 14 14 0 0 7.16032 0.3535 0.46399 0.11208 0.32558 0.3 Graphical User Interface Figure 7. .00018 0.00395 0. respectively. A complete description of SSSA settings is reported in Appendix A.17934 0.13155 0. the Jacobian matrix (state matrix AS or one of the power flow Jacobian matrices JLF r .

Figure 7.4: GUI for the small signal stability analysis. 73 .

.

static and dynamic data can be defined in the same data file. Observe that several programs for power system analysis make a distinction between power flow (static) data and dynamic ones. i. f (t)) 0 = g(x(t + ∆t). How to include disturbances is also described in this chapter. forward Euler and trapezoidal rule. and assumed a time step ∆t. in PSAT. while a generic disturbance can be created writing an user defined function. Finally.e.1) where f and g represent the differential and algebraic equations and fn is a function that depends on the integration method. which are implicit A-stable algorithms and use a complete Jacobian matrix to evaluate the algebraic and state variable directions at each step. y(t + ∆t). For a generic time t. These methods are well known and can be found in many books (e.1 Integration Methods Two integration methods are available. y(t + ∆t)) (8. Equations (8.Chapter 8 Time Domain Simulation This chapter describes the time domain integration methods used in PSAT and their settings.g. On the contrary.1) are nonlinear and their solution is obtained by means of a Newton-Raphson technique which in turn consists of computing iteratively the increment ∆xi and ∆y i of the state and algebraic 75 . [16]). Then PSAT makes use of static and/or dynamic data depending on the kind of the currently running simulation. 8. the plotting utilities for time domain simulations are briefly described by means of simple examples. A particular class of settings are the snapshots that allows computing specific points during the time simulations. one has to solve the following problem: 0 = fn (x(t + ∆t). Three phase faults and breaker operations are supported by means of specific functions and structures.

and the other matrices are the Jacobian matrices of the algebraic differential equations. Gx = ∇x g and Gy = ∇y g. In any case it must be t0 > 0. At a generic iteration i. the initial1 and final times. in most commercial and non-commercial power system software packages. .5∆tFy i JLF V (8.2) ∆xi xi + ∆y i yi where Ai is a matrix depending on the algebraic and state Jacobian matrices of the c system.3) = xi − x(t) − ∆tf i where In is the identity matrix of the same dimension of the dynamic order of the system.e. and maximum number of iterations of the Newton-Raphson 1 Although the initial time could be assigned any value.1 depicts the block diagram of the time domain integration. Fy = ∇y f . Fx = ∇x f . c 8.e. i the following sections report the expressions of Ai and fn for each method. It is generally faster i but less accurate than the trapezoidal method. and is widely used.3). The version implemented in PSAT is probably the simplest one. In the latter case the time step ∆t is reduced and the Newton-Raphson technique repeated again. The loop stops if the variable increment is below a certain fixed tolerance ǫ0 or if the maximum number of iteration is reached. Ai and fn are as follows: c Ai c i fn = i In − 0. i.4) = xi − x(t) − 0.1. in a variety of flavors. convergence tolerance. 8. i At a generic iteration i.1 Forward Euler Method The forward Euler integration method is a first order method.5∆tFx i Gx i −0. For sake of completeness. 8.76 8 Time Domain Simulation variables and updating the actual variables: ∆xi ∆y i xi+1 y i+1 = −[Ai ]−1 c = i fn gi (8. i.1.2 Settings General settings for time domain simulations. Figure 8. but proved to be very robust and reliable for several test cases.2 Trapezoidal Method The trapezoidal method is the workhorse solver for electro-mechanical DAE.5∆t(f i + f (t)) where the notation is the same as in (8. it is recommended to use t = 0 as 0 other values have not been tested. Ai and fn c are as follows: Ai c i fn = i In − ∆tFx i Gx i −∆tFy i Gy (8.

77 . |∆y i | < ǫ yes Integration method Update x & y Output Recompute ∆t no t + ∆t ≥ tf yes END Figure 8.1: Time domain integration block diagram.Power Flow & Initial State Variables t = t0 Evaluate initial time step ∆t i=0 i=i+1 no yes i > imax Reduce ∆t ∆t < ∆tmin yes Evaluate disturbance END Singularity likely Evaluate system equations & Jacobians Compute ∆x and ∆y no no |∆xi |.

Other parameters can be customized in the GUI for general settings (menu Edit/General Settings or shortcut <Ctr-k> in the main window). Stop TDs at Max Delta: this option makes possible to stop the time domain simulation when the maximum machine angle difference is greater than a given ∆δmax . Plotting Variables: this pop-up menu allows selecting plotting variables that will be displayed during time domain simulations.6 and 14. it is typically a time consuming operation and it is disabled by default. Convert PQ bus to Z: if this option is enabled.9 for details.1. This will help convergence if there are fault occurrences and breaker interventions during the time domain simulation. The trapezoidal rule is the workhorse of time domain simulations of power electric systems. The default value is 180◦ . Observe that these are not the variables that will be stored in the output. The following options are available for time domain simulations: Fixed Time Step: one can enable the use of a fixed time step. this can be useful for “critical” simulations were the automatic time step flaws. Use Center of Inertia (COI): enforce the use of the Center of Inertia for synchronous machines.2.3 Max. Both methods are implicit and A-stable. PSAT will computes a reasonable initial time step based on the eigenvalues of the system at the initial time. which is depicted in Fig. Refer to Sections 10. See Section 15. this option only works if the data are loaded from a Simulink model.2 Observe that this procedure can be time-consuming for systems with an high number of state variables. This option won’t work if on Octave and for the command line usage of PSAT. Delta Diff. Time Step [s]: the value of the time step in seconds. 8.78 8 Time Domain Simulation technique for each time step can be set in the main window.1 for details on the conversion of PQ loads to constant impedances. ´ option has been added by Laurent Lenoir. 2 this 3 This operation is performed in the function fm tstep. Plot during Simulation: to enforce this option will generate a graphic of selected variables (see item Plotting Variables) during time domain simulations. PQ buses are converted to constant impedances right before beginning the time domain simulation. [deg]: the maximum machine angle difference in degree for which the time domain simulation will be stopped. If the option of the fixed time step is disabled. The default value is 0. Ecole Polytechnique de Montr´al. e . See Section 8. Integration Method: one can choose in between Trapezoidal Rule (default) and Forward Euler.3 for more details on output variable selection.001 s. Update Simulink during TD: this option allows displaying and updating voltages in Simulink models during time domain simulations.

Settings for time domain simulations are stored in the structure Settings. the user can select any of the following variables: 1. This behavior can be changed by means of the GUI for plot variable selection (see Fig. 2. By default. Bus voltage magnitudes and angles. which contains also general settings and parameters for power flow computations.3 Output Variable Selection 79 Figure 8. By this GUI. This structure is fully described in Appendix A. . 8. State variables. PSAT stores only state variables.8. bus voltage magnitudes and bus voltage angles.2: GUI for general settings.3 Output Variable Selection During time domain simulations (and also for CPF analysis).3). 8. Further details on this structure are given in the Appendix A. PSAT stores output variables in the structure Varout.

n + 1) to (DAE. .n + 1) to (DAE.n + nL) active power flows i-j. The GUI allows selecting variables one by one or by packages. Bus voltage angles.n + DAE.n + DAE.n + DAE. Generator mechanical powers and field voltages. selection can be done by assigning a vector of indexes to Varout.m + 2*Bus.from (DAE. . .from (DAE. 5.n + 1) to (DAE.n + Bus.n + DAE. Over-excitation limiter currents. .n + DAE. OXL field currents.m) all other algebraic variables.from (DAE. .m + 4*nL) reactive power flows j-i. AVR reference voltages.n + DAE.m + 2*Bus.n) active power injections at buses. .n) reactive power injections at buses.from (DAE.m + 5*Bus.n + DAE.n + DAE. including generator field voltages and mechanical powers.n + 2*Bus.m + 6*nL) current flows j-i.n + DAE. Active and reactive power flows in transmission lines.n + 3*nL + 1) to (DAE.n + DAE.n + DAE. .m + Bus. etc. .n + DAE.n + DAE.m + 2*Bus.n + 5*nL + 1) to (DAE.n + DAE.n + 2*nL + 1) to (DAE.80 8 Time Domain Simulation 3.n + Bus.m + 2*Bus.m + 2*Bus.m + 2*Bus.n + DAE.n + 2*Bus.n) bus voltage angles. The variable indexes are as follows: . The selection must be done after running the power flow analysis and before running the time domain simulation.m + 1) to (DAE.n + DAE.idx.from (DAE.n + 1) to (DAE.from (DAE.from (DAE.m + 2*Bus.from (DAE.from (DAE.n + 1) to (DAE.n + 4*nL + 1) to (DAE. 4.n + 3*nL) current flows i-j. 8. When using the command line version of PSAT.n) bus voltage magnitudes.n + DAE.from (1) to (DAE.m + 2*Bus.m + Bus.n + nL + 1) to (DAE.from (DAE. . AVR reference voltages.n + 2*nL) active power flows j-i.n) state variables. . .from (DAE.m + 2*Bus. . Active and reactive power injections at buses.n + 3*nL) reactive power flows i-j. 7. 6.m + 2*Bus.

the index assignment will be as follows: >> Varout.m+4].n + 6*nL + 1) to (DAE.n + 7*nL + 1) to (DAE. DAE.m + 2*Bus.idx = [DAE.n + Ltc. .from (DAE. If this assignment is done in a function. where nL = Line.n + DAE.n + DAE. .m + 7*Bus.m + 2*Bus.n + Phs.n+DAE.n + DAE.from (DAE.n + Lines. .n+3. remember to declare as global all needed structures.n + Hvdc.n + 3*nL) apparent power flows i-j. The assignment must be done after running the power flow analysis and before running the time domain simulation.n + DAE.m + 8*nL) apparent power flows j-i.3 Output Variable Selection 81 Figure 8. For example if one wants to plot only the voltage magnitude of the third bus and the active power injections at the fourth bus.8.n.3: GUI for plot variable selection.

This option allows starting the time domain simulation without actually recomputing the power flow. A sequence of snapshots can be also visualized in the GUI for plotting variables (menu View/Plotting Utilities or shortcut <Ctr-w> in the main window).4: Snapshot GUI. The GUI allows also to set the currently selected snapshot as the “initial time” for the next time domain simulation. When running the time domain simulation. A snapshot defined as initial time can be visualized by the GUI for power flow reports (menu View/Static Report or shortcut <Ctr-v> in the main window). 8. This option can be useful for being sure that the time domain simulation will compute a point for a determined time at which a disturbance is applied or for fitting the time steps in delimited regions of the simulation time interval. This GUI is displayed only after solving the power flow and always contains a snapshot called Power Flow Result.82 8 Time Domain Simulation Figure 8. although they might require some programming skill. 8. The GUI allows to set any number of snapshots at desired times.4 Snapshots Figure 8.4 depicts the graphical user interface for setting the snapshots (menu Tools/Snapshots or shortcut <Ctr-n> in the main window).5 Disturbances Disturbances are fully supported in PSAT. . The most common perturbations for transient stability analysis. the integration routine will compute a point for each time defined in the snapshots and store the system variables in the structure Snapshot.

the time domain simulation will provide constant values for all variables. . one has to call fm y in order to rebuild the admittance matrix. faults and breaker interventions. It does not even matter if there is no dynamic component in the actual network.. define the desired time in the Snapshot structure.. after modifying a transmission line impedance. % criterion % actions else % actions end The function must accept as an input the current simulation time (scalar value) and may include any global structure of the system for taking the desired actions. Observe that one does not need to load a perturbation file/function when using faults and/or breakers models. whereas a generic perturbation requires the definition of an user defined function.5 Perturbation files are loaded in the main window as described in Section 2.. It does not matter if there is no perturbation file and no fault and breaker components loaded. In order to force the integration routine to evaluate a particular point. For example. are handled by means of special structures and functions. For the same reason. Of course in the latter cases... 5 Step perturbations can also be obtained by changing parameter or variable values at the Matlab prompt after solving the power flow computation and before starting the time domain simulation. 6 Observe that it may be necessary to call other functions. Only one (or none) perturbation file at a time can be loaded. thus it may be convenient to reduce the number of operations within the disturbance function.5 Disturbances 83 i. Fault and breaker models are described in Chapter 12.4 Generic disturbances are supported by means of user defined functions. if .6 Observe that the time domain integration calls the disturbance file at each iteration..e. Observe that running a trivial time domain simulation could be useful to test the initialization of dynamic components and regulators. Their structure should be as follows: function pert(t) global global_variable_name1 global_variable_name2 . it is better set disturbance actions some time after the intial simulation time.8. 4 One could run a time domain simulation just after the power flow analysis for any system. % criterion % actions elseif .

After solving the power flow.7. Fouad [6]. 41-46.3. ω model).u. at bus 7. A three phase fault occurs at t = 1 s.95 p.7. The data for this system are reported in Appendix F.6-2. as described in the examples 2. The data for this system are reported as well in Appendix F. As an example the figure depicts the speeds ω for the three generators of the WSCC 9-bus test system.3. Anderson and A. A. . The fault is then cleared by opening the line 4-7 at t = 1. pp. “Power System Control and Stability”. the rotor speed of one generator is set to 0. 8. Finally the line 4-7 is reclosed at t = 4 s. as follows: >> DAE. adding and modifying a legend of the plotted variables and saving the graph to a color . Figures 8.8 depict generator speeds. which is placed in the folder of the current data file and automatically named with a progressive number (from 00 to 99). then the time domain simulation is performed.x(Syn. and 8.95. The GUI allows a variety of settings. setting in detail the graphical appearance. Generators are represented by means of a fourth order model with automatic voltage regulation (IEEE type I) [101]. generator rotor angles and bus voltages for the 9-bus test system with simplified synchronous machine models (δ.083 s. by P.eps file.omega(2)) = 0.84 8 Time Domain Simulation 8.6. M.6 Examples Figure 8.5 depicts the graphical user interface for plotting time domain simulation results. such as choosing the variables to plot.

85 .5: GUI for plotting time domain simulations.). The perturbance is obtained by varying the speed of generator 2 at the Matlab prompt (ω2 (t0 ) = 0. In this example.95 p.Figure 8. the speeds refer to the 9-bus test with IV order generator models and AVRs type II.u.

6: Generator speeds for the 9-bus test system with II order generator models and a fault applied at bus 7.02 1.] 1.005 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Time [s] Figure 8.01 ωGen 1 ωGen 2 ωGen 3 1.1.u.025 1. 86 .035 Rotor Speeds [p.015 1.045 1.04 1.03 1.

7: Generator rotor angles for the 9-bus test system with II order generator models and a fault applied at bus 7. 87 .40 35 30 Rotor Angles [rad] 25 20 15 10 5 δGen 1 δGen 2 δGen 3 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Time [s] Figure 8.

] 0.6 0.u.8: Bus voltages for the 9-bus test system with II order generator models and a fault applied at bus 7.2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Time [s] Figure 8.8 Voltages [p. 88 .1 0.4 VBus 1 VBus 2 VBus 3 VBus 4 VBus 5 VBus 6 VBus 7 VBus 8 VBus 9 0.

graph theoretic procedures and bisecting search-simulated annealing which were proposed in [11]. as well as recursive and single shot N security and recursive and single shot N-1 security algorithms which were proposed in [42].1 Linear Static State Estimation This section briefly describes basic concepts of power system static state estimation based on what was proposed in [102] and [38]. 85]. as follows: z = h(x) + ǫ (9.1) where: z (z ∈ Rm ): measurement vector. Typically m > n. Equation (9.2) where H (H ∈ Rm×n ) is the “state” matrix of the system. ǫ (ǫ ∈ Rm ): measurement errors vector. 89 .2) is obtained by a least mean square technique [115]. 9. 3. such as PMUs.1) is typically solved by means of a Newton-Raphson technique [102. h (h : Rn → Rm ): vector of the relationships between states and measurements. x (x ∈ Rn ): state vector. as follows: z = Hx + ǫ (9. and the solution of (9. Using devices able to provide voltage and current phasors.Chapter 9 PMU Placement This chapter describes seven methods for Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) placement with the aim of linear static state estimation of power system networks. yields a linear relationship between state variables and measurements variables. These methods are depth first. The static state estimation problem is generally formulated as a non-linear set of equations. A description of the PMU placement GUI and an example of report file for the 14-bus test system are reported at the end of this chapter.

the last current can be computed by difference). Rule 4: Assign one current pseudo-measurement to each branch where current can be indirectly calculated by the Kirchhoff current law (Fig.3 9. YIC are submatrices whose elements are series and shunt admittances of the network branches.90 9 PMU Placement By splitting the vector z into the mV × 1 voltage and mI × 1 current subvectors.3) where I is the identity matrix. if the node has no power injections (if N-1 currents incident to the node are known. Rule 2: Assign one voltage pseudo-measurement to each node reached by another equipped with a PMU.b).3. Neglecting shunts. The first PMU is placed at the bus with the largest number of connected branches. and the vector x into the nM × 1 and nC × 1 non-measured subvectors. 9. VM and VC . including one current measurement to each branch connected to the bus itself (Fig.a). and AM B and ACB are the nM × b and nC × b calculated node-tobranch incidence submatrices. This rule applies when the current balance at one node is known. 9. Rule 3: Assign one current pseudo-measurement to each branch connecting two buses where voltages are known (Fig. YBB is the b × b diagonal matrix of the branch admittances.4) where MIB is the mI × b measurement-to-branch incidence matrix associated with the current phasor measurements.1. the matrix H is as follows: H= I MIB YBB AT B M 0 MIB YBB AT CB (9.1 Algorithms Depth First This method uses only Rules from 1 to 3 (it does not consider pure transit nodes). 9. 9.2) becomes zV zI = I YIM 0 YIC VM ǫ + V VC ǫC (9. zV and zI . 9. and YIM . relationship (9. respectively [11.c).2 PMU Placement Rules The following PMU placement rules were proposed in [11]: Rule 1: Assign one voltage measurement to a bus where a PMU has been placed. 37].e.1. . i.1. This allows interconnecting observed zones.

The algorithm is performed N times (N being the number of buses). using as starting bus each bus of the network. each PMU of each set is replaced at the buses connected with the node where a PMU was originally set.1 9.3 Bisecting Search Method Figures 9. If there is more than one bus with this characteristic. 9. Following PMUs are placed with the same criterion.9.1: PMU placement rules. as depicted in Fig. Refer to [11] for the complete description of this method. PMU placements which lead to a complete observability are retained.2 Graph Theoretic Procedure This method was originally proposed in [11] and is similar to the depth first algorithm.3 Algorithms 91 pure transit node (a) (b) (c) Figure 9.3 and 9.5 depicts the flow chart of the minimum spanning tree generation algorithm.2. b) Search of alternative patterns: The PMU sets obtained with the step (a) are reprocessed as follows: one at a time. c) Reducing PMU number in case of pure transit nodes: In this step it is verified if the network remains observable taking out one PMU at a time from each set. 9. 9. . one is randomly chosen. except for taking into account pure transit nodes (Rule 4). as depicted in Fig. the procedure ends at step (b). 9. until the complete network observability is obtained. If the network does not present pure transit nodes.7. 9.6.3.4 depict the flowchart of the bisecting search method and the pseudo-code of the simulated annealing procedure.3.4 Recursive Security N Algorithm This method is a modified depth first approach. as depicted in Fig.3. 1 The depth first and the graph theoretic procedures do not ensure a minimum PMU placement. The procedure can be subdivided into three main steps: a) Generation of N minimum spanning trees: Fig. 9.

The placement sets which present the minimum number of PMUs are finally selected. Figures 9.5 Single Shot Security N Algorithm This method was proposed in [42]. 9. 9.10 depict the algorithms for obtaining the N-1 security placement proposed in [42].2: Flowchart of the Graph Theoretic Procedure. and determines a single spanning tree. as illustrated in Fig.8. Rule 2: the node is connected at least to two nodes equipped with a PMU.9 and 9. The algorithm is based only on topological rules. Rule 2 is ignored if the bus is connected to single-end line.6 Recursive and Single-Shot Security N-1 Algorithms The rules for minimal PMU placement assume a fixed network topology and a complete reliability of measurement devices. Simple criteria which yield a complete observability in case of line outages (N-1 security) are proposed in [42] and are based on the following definition: A bus is said to be observable if at least one of the two following conditions applies: Rule 1: a PMU is placed at the node. 9.3.3. The first method is a slightly different version of the recursive technique described .92 9 PMU Placement Start Place a PMU at the bus with the most branches in the unobservable region Determine the system’s coverage with the placed PMU’s No Is the system observable? Yes End Figure 9.

93 .3: Flowchart of the Bisecting Search.Start Initiate search range upper and lower limits Is the lower limit = 0? Yes No Select test point at the midpoint of interval Select test point at the 85% of the interval Select randomly a placement set Execute simulated annealing-based proc. Is the system observable? Yes No Set new lower limit at test point Set new upper limit at test point No Search interval length = 1? Yes End Figure 9.

879T od return with ‘system not observable’ end Figure 9.002 νtest . 94 .4: Pseudo-code of the simulated Annealing Algorithm. Mmax } for i := 1 to 40 do for j := 1 to M do randomly select a PMU save the bus location of the selected PMU randomly select a non-PMU bus evaluate coverage of the modified placement set Enew := N − number of buses in the observed region if Enew = 0 then return with ‘system observable’ and the modified placement set fi ∆E := Enew − E if ∆E > 0 then generate a random accept/reject value with a probability exp(−∆ET ) if reject then return selected PMU to previous bus location fi fi od T := 0.begin evaluate coverage of PMU placement set S E := N − number of buses in the observed region T := 15 N M := min{0.

7: Pure transit node filtering. A pure transit node D B C C D B A pure transit node Figure 9.5: Recursive N Security Method. A A A D B C (a) D B C (b) D B C (c) Figure 9. 95 .Start Starting bus with PMU Find bus j which maximizes the coverage of the network with the existing PMU’s Place PMU at bus j No Is the system observable? Yes End Figure 9.6: Search of alternative placement sets.

8: Single-Shot N Security Method.Start Placement of PMUs at buses with h = 1 h=h+1 Yes h > hmax ? No Complete spanning tree Find buses with h connections End Find buses connected to the ones previously determined No num{w > 100} > 0 & num{w < 100} = 1? Yes Assign PMUs and recompute w at nodes Figure 9. 96 .

which allows to select the PMU placement method and enable to write result in a report file.3. 9. as well as the position of the PMUs.11 depicts the GUI for PMU placement.9: Recursive N-1 Security Method.4.9. in Section 9. All PMU settings and results are set in the structure PMU.4 PMU Placement GUI and Settings 97 Start Starting bus with PMU Find buses connected to the current placed PMUs Find buses connected to the buses determined in the previous step Place PMUs at the closer buses No Is the N-1 criterion satisfied? Yes End Figure 9. Refer to Appendix A for details. whereas the second method is a variant of the algorithm described in Section 9.5.4 PMU Placement GUI and Settings Figure 9. The listboxes report the voltages obtained with the power flow and the ones determined with the linear static state estimation based on the current PMU set.4.1 Example An example of report text file of PMU placement is as follows: .3. 9.

Start Placement of PMUs at buses with h = 1 h=h+1 Yes h > hmax ? No Complete spanning tree with N-1 security Find buses with h connections End Find buses connected to the ones previously determined No num{w > 100} < h & num{w < 100} = 1? Yes Assign PMUs and recompute w at nodes Figure 9. 98 .10: Single Shot N-1 Security Method.

PMU PLACEMENT REPORT P S A T 1.11: GUI for the PMU placement methods.4 PMU Placement GUI and Settings 99 Figure 9.ca website: http://thunderbox.uwaterloo. (c) 2002-2004 e-mail: fmilano@thunderbox.9.59293s Placement Method: Elapsed Time: STATISTICS Buses Lines PMUs PMU Sets Meas.uwaterloo. Currents PMU PLACEMENT Bus Name Set 1 14 20 3 1 12 20 .0 Author: Federico Milano. Currents Pseudo-Meas.3.mdl 15-Mar-2004 17:39:21 Annealing Method 0h 0m 0.ca/~fmilano File: Date: ~/psatd/tests/d_014.

100 9 PMU Placement Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 .

Part III Models .

.

) Unit int kV p. and θ = 0). rad int int 103 . a flat start is used (V = 1 at all buses except for the PV and slack generator buses.. 10..1. and voltage ratings Vb are mandatory.u. whose data format is depicted in Table 10.1 Bus numbers.) Region number (not used yet. as follows: 1 In this table and in the following tables of this chapter. These are: buses. constant active power and constant voltage generators (PV). constant admittances. fields marked with a † are optional. Data associated with area and region numbers are optional. constant power loads (PQ). slack buses. and interchange areas. transformers. Bus components are defined in the structure Bus.con) Column 1 2 †3 †4 †5 †6 Variable Vb V0 θ0 Ai Ri Description Bus number Voltage base Voltage amplitude initial guess Voltage phase initial guess Area number (not used yet.. constant power generators.. which can be in any order. Table 10. and will be used in future PSAT versions. If voltages are not specified.1: Bus Data Format (Bus. transmission lines.1 Bus The network topology is defined by the “bus” components. Once the power flow has been solved. Voltage magnitudes V0 and phases θ0 can be optionally set if the power flow solution is known or if a custom initial guess is needed. voltage values can be saved in the data file using the File/Save/Append Voltages menu in the main window.Chapter 10 Power Flow Data This chapter describes basic static components for power flow analysis.

7. Pl: active power absorbed from the network by loads. standard components can be connected to any bus in any number and type. Table 10.1 depicts the circuit used for defining the transmission line lumped model. Qg: reactive power injected in the network by generators. The user can define data in absolute values or in p.104 10 Power Flow Data 1. Refer to Chapter 22 for a detailed description of component connection rules in PSAT. The line equations are as follows: Pk Qk Pm Qm 2 = Vk (gkm + gk0 ) − Vk Vm (gkm cos(θk − θm ) + bkm sin(θk − θm )) (10. 6. . i. since they fix a constant power injection or consumption at the island bus. which is used also for transformers (see Section 10. n: total number of buses. Pg: active power injected in the network by generators. 4. 2. as described in many power system text books. the length ℓ of the line has to be ℓ = 0. The field island depends on breaker interventions: if a bus is disconnected from the grid after one or more breaker interventions. 9. 3. island: indexes of island buses. In the latter case. PSAT is component oriented. In the fields Pl and Ql shunt power consumptions are not included.3). since the shunt admittances are included in the admittance matrix.e. These are PV generators and PQ buses. names: bus names. This means that only buses that would create convergence problems are included in the island vector. Imax .u. 8. con: bus data. The definition of the island vector is done in the method connectivity of the transmission line class @LNclass. If ℓ = 0.1) 2 = −Vk (bkm + bk0 ) − Vk Vm (gkm sin(θk − θm ) − bkm cos(θk − θm )) 2 = Vm (gkm + gm0 ) − Vk Vm (gkm cos(θk − θm ) − bkm sin(θk − θm )) 2 = −Vm (bkm + bm0 ) + Vk Vm (gkm sin(θk − θm ) + bkm cos(θk − θm )) Transmission lines are defined in the structure Line. it is assumed that parameters are expressed in unit per km.2 depicts the data format of transmission lines. The only exception is the slack generator (SW) that has to be unique for each bus. 10. Qg. 5. Ql: reactive power absorbed from the network by loads. Pl and Ql are a byproduct of the power flow solution. 10. The fields Pg.2 Transmission Line Fig. the resulting island is properly handled by the time domain simulation routine. int: bus indexes. Pmax and Smax define the limits for currents.

u: connection status. It is also possible to define lines not to be included in admittance matrix. Y: admittance matrix of the network. Refer to Chapters 5 and 6 for details.10. .e. fr: indexes of buses at which lines begin. con: data chart of the Lines components. Transmission line data contained in the structure Lines organized as follows: 1. All lines included in the structure Line are used for building the network mittance matrix Y . 1. These limits are not required in power flow analysis. 2. whose data format is picted in Table 10. by means of the structure Lines.3. 3. bus2: indexes of buses m at which the lines end. two-winding transformers and three-winding transformers. i. active power flows and apparent power flows (S = P 2 + Q2 ). 6.3 Transformers 105 Vk ∠θk R jX Vm ∠θm B/2 B/2 Figure 10. 4. con: transmission line data. 5. but can be used for CPF and OPF analyses. 5. n: total number of lines. to: indexes of buses at which lines end. 3.1: Transmission line π circuit. n: total number of alternative lines.3 Transformers Two kinds of static transformers can be defined. 2. bus1: indexes of buses k at which the lines begin. u: connection status. Refer to Chapter 17 for models of regulating transformers. adthe deare 10. 4.

u.u.3: Alternative Line Data Format (Lines. 1} Table 10. p. 1} 106 .u.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 † 11 † 12 † 13 † 14 † 15 † 16 Variable k m Sn Vn fn ℓ r x b Imax Pmax Smax u Description From Bus To Bus Power rating Voltage rating Frequency rating Line length not used Resistance Reactance Susceptance not used not used Current limit Active power limit Apparent power limit Connection status Unit int int MVA kV Hz km p.Table 10. p.u.u. {0.u.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Variable k m Sn Vn fn r x b u Description From Bus To Bus Power rating Voltage rating Frequency rating Resistance Reactance Susceptance Connection status Unit int int MVA kV Hz p. p. (H/km) p. (Ω/km) p.u.u.u.2: Line Data Format (Line. p. (F/km) p. {0.

PSAT processes three-winding transformer data before running the power flow for the first time and adds one bus in the Bus structure and three new lines in the Line structure.3.2.10. if kT = 0.4: Transformer Data Format (Line.u.u.4 depicts the transformer data format which is included in the structure Line. deg p.u. area and region as the primary winding bus.u. 10. whose relationships with the resulting star impedances are as follows: z12 ¯ z13 ¯ z23 ¯ = z1 + z2 ¯ ¯ = z1 + z3 ¯ ¯ = z2 + z3 ¯ ¯ (10.1 Two-Winding Transformers Two-winding transformers are modeled as series reactances without iron losses and their equations are included in (10. p.u.2 Three-Winding Transformers Three-winding transformers are internally modeled as three two-winding transformers in a Y connection.3. even if ℓ = 0. Observe that the new bus will get same voltage rating. 10.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 † 11 † 12 † 13 † 14 † 15 † 16 Variable k m Sn Vn fn kT r x a φ Imax Pmax Smax u Description From Bus To Bus Power rating Voltage rating Frequency rating not used Primary and secondary voltage ratio Resistance Reactance not used Fixed tap ratio Fixed phase shift Current limit Active power limit Apparent power limit Connection status Unit int int MVA kV Hz kV/kV p.1). The primary and secondary voltage ratio kT allows distinguishing between transmission lines and transformers: if kT = 0.2) . p. as depicted in Fig. {0. Table 10.u. When kT = 0. 1} 10. p.u.3 Transformers 107 Table 10. The data format of three-winding transformers allows setting impedances of the triangle branches. PSAT takes the component as a line. the component is taken as a transformer./p. the line length ℓ is neglected. The fixed tap ratio a and the fixed phase shift ratio φ are optional parameters. p.

constant voltage magnitude and phase generators. . Vn1 /Vn2 ¯ 2 z3 . Observe that PSAT clears the Twt. If not specified.4) Each network must contain at least one slack generator. con: slack generator data. 2 Observe that PSAT allows defining several networks in the same data file.4 Vθ and Slack Generator Slack generators are modeled as V θ buses. as follows: 1. which has only the con field. γ is assumed to be γ = 1. the last two parameters Pg0 and γ are mandatory and the following additional equation holds: P = (1 + γkG )Pg0 (10. In case of distributed slack bus model. 10.e. Thus.con matrix after processing it and that there is no function associated with three-winding transformer components. Vn1 /Vn1 ¯ z2 .5 depicts the three-winding transformer data format. one has: z1 ¯ z2 ¯ z3 ¯ = (¯12 + z13 − z23 )/2 z ¯ ¯ = (¯12 + z23 − z13 )/2 z ¯ ¯ (10. as follows: V θ = V0 = θ0 (10.5) where kG is the distributed slack bus variable. only one can be chosen as the reference bus. which also contains data used in optimal power flow and continuation power flow analysis.2: Three-winding transformer equivalent circuit. One slack bus must be defined for each network.2 Table 10.3) = (¯13 + z23 − z12 )/2 z ¯ ¯ Three-winding transformers are defined in the structure Twt. Vn1 /Vn3 ¯ 3 Figure 10. Slack generators are defined in the structure SW.6 depicts the slack generator data. The angle θ0 is assumed to be the reference angle of the system.108 10 Power Flow Data 2 Vn1 z12 ¯ z23 ¯ 1 z13 ¯ Vn3 3 1 a:1 0 Vn2 z1 . If several slack generators are defined. Table 10. i.

p. p.u.u. 1} 109 .u. p.u.Table 10.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 † 15 † 16 † 17 † 18 † 19 † 20 † 21 † 22 † 23 † 24 † 25 Variable Sn fn Vn1 Vn2 Vn3 r12 r13 r23 x12 x13 x23 a Imax1 Imax2 Imax3 Pmax1 Pmax2 Pmax3 Smax1 Smax2 Smax3 u Description Bus number of the 1th winding Bus number of the 2nd winding Bus number of the 3rd winding Power rating Frequency rating Voltage rating of the 1th winding Voltage rating of the 2nd winding Voltage rating of the 3rd winding Resistance of the branch 1-2 Resistance of the branch 1-3 Resistance of the branch 2-3 Reactance of the branch 1-2 Reactance of the branch 1-3 Reactance of the branch 2-3 Fixed tap ratio Current limit of the 1th winding Current limit of the 2nd winding Current limit of the 3rd winding Real power limit of the 1th winding Real power limit of the 2nd winding Real power limit of the 3rd winding Apparent power limit of the 1th winding Apparent power limit of the 2nd winding Apparent power limit of the 3rd winding Connection status Unit int int int MVA Hz kV kV kV p.5: Three-Winding Transformer Data Format (Twt. p. p.u. p. {0.u.u.u.u.u. p./p.u. p. p. p. p. p.u.u.u.u.u. p. p.u. p.

u.u.u. 5.u. which include reactive power and voltage limits needed for optimal power flow and continuation load flow analysis.5 PV Generator PV generators fix the voltage magnitude and the power injected at the buses where they are connected. store: copy of the slack generator data. Table 10.7) where kG is the distributed slack bus variable and γ is the loss participation factor.6: Slack Generator Data Format (SW.u. refbus: indexes of buses used as phase reference. p. p.6) In case of distributed slack bus model. 1} 2. p. {0. 1} {0. p. 7. 10.7 depicts PV generator data. p. the active power equation becomes: P = (1 + γkG )Pg (10. as follows: P V = Pg = V0 (10. p. vbus: indexes of voltage buses of slack generators. u: connection status. Refer to . 4. bus: indexes of buses to which slack generators are connected.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 †6 †7 †8 †9 † 10 † 11 † 12 † 13 Variable Sn Vn V0 θ0 Qmax Qmin Vmax Vmin Pg0 γ z u Description Bus number Power rating Voltage rating Voltage magnitude Reference Angle Maximum reactive power Minimum reactive power Maximum voltage Minimum voltage Active power guess Loss participation coefficient Reference bus Connection status Unit int MVA kV p. n: total number of slack generators.u. 3. 6.u.110 10 Power Flow Data Table 10. This field is used only in the command line version of PSAT (see Chapter 27).

This field is used only in the command line version of PSAT (see Chapter 27). 6. 3. u: connection status. bus: numbers of buses to which PV generators are connected. which is depicted in Fig. con: PV generator data. 2. (c) bus: numbers of buses to which PQ loads are connected. When a limit is violated. If the check of PV reactive limits is enforced (see GUI for General Settings.8) After solving the power flow. store: copy of the PV generator data. pq: internal PQ bus data (used when generator reactive power limits are encountered): (a) con: PQ load data. If a voltage limit is violated. the PQ buses are switched again to PV buses. However.1). the PV generator is switched to a PQ bus. The user can define multiple PV generators at each bus. PSAT defines a unique compound PV generator per bus. as follows: P = Pg Q = Qmax. PV generators are defined in the structure PV. 5. as follows: P Q 2 = −P V 2 /Vlim 2 (10.10) = −QV 2 /Vlim .6 PQ Load P = −PL Q = −QL (10. assuming V0 = V at the bus where the PV generators are connected. PQ loads are converted into constant impedances. (b) n: total number of PQ loads. 4.9) PQ loads are modeled as constant active and reactive powers: as long as voltages are within the specified limits. 10. Inactive PV generators are discarded.10. n: total number of PV generators. as follows: 1. reactive power limits are used in power flow analysis as well.6 PQ Load 111 Chapters 6 and 5 for details. 4.min (10. during the initialization step of the power flow analysis.

5. p. gen: 1 if it is a PQ generator. u: connection status. bus: numbers of buses to which PQ loads are connected. n: total number of PQ loads. p. PQ loads are defined in the structure PQ.8 p. store: copy of the PQ load data. . 6. 8.u. as follows: 1. con: PQ load data. respectively. 7.u.11) −QL /V02 where V0 is the voltage value obtained with the power flow solution.u.2 and 0. 1} where Vlim is Vmax or Vmin depending on the case. If the option for changing the constant power loads into constant impedance is enabled. Q0: initial reactive power (used with non-conventional loads of Chapter 14).8 depicts the PQ load data format. Table 10.7: PV Generator Data Format (PV. P0: initial active power (used with non-conventional loads of Chapter 14). However.2). p. p. as follows: P0 Q0 = = −PL /V02 (10. voltage limit control is disabled. during the initialization step of the power flow analysis. p. By default. 2. Inactive PQ loads are discarded. PQ loads can be converted to constant impedances after the power flow solution (see Section 8. 3. maximum and minimum voltage limits are assumed to be 1. 0 otherwise. PQ loads are forced to switch to constant admittances.u.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 †6 †7 †8 †9 † 10 † 11 Variable Sn Vn Pg V0 Qmax Qmin Vmax Vmin γ u Description Bus number Power rating Voltage rating Active Power Voltage Magnitude Maximum reactive power Minimum reactive power Maximum voltage Minimum voltage Loss participation coefficient Connection status Unit int MVA kV p. If z = 0. PSAT defines a unique compound PQ load per bus.u. This field is used only in the command line version of PSAT (see Chapter 27).u.u. The user can define multiple PQ loads at each bus. Other static and dynamic load models are discussed in Chapter 14.112 10 Power Flow Data Table 10. {0. 4.

12) PQ generators are modeled as constant active and reactive powers: as long as voltages are within the specified limits.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 †6 †7 †8 †9 Variable Sn Vn PL QL Vmax Vmin z u Description Bus number Power rating Voltage rating Active Power Reactive Power Maximum voltage Minimum voltage Allow conversion to impedance Connection status Unit int MVA kV p. since PQ generators are internally treated as negative PQ loads.u. 1} {0. p. 10. 1} 10.14) = −Qg The field gen of the PQ structure says if the load was converted from a PQ generator (see Section 10. p. voltage limit control is disabled.u. with the only field con. Observe that PQ generators are not converted into constant impedances after the power flow solution. PQ generators are converted into constant impedances.u.6).13) Q = QV where Vlim is Vmax or Vmin depending on the case. it is not allowed connecting a PQ load at the same bus as a PQ generator. {0. as follows: P 2 = P V 2 /Vlim 2 2 /Vlim (10.8: PQ Load Data Format (PQ. PQ generators are defined in the structure PQgen. If z = 0.7 PQ Generator P = Pg Q = Qg (10. PSAT translates PQ generators into PQ loads with: PL QL = −Pg (10. p.8 Shunt P = −gV 2 2 Shunt impedances are described by the following equations: (10. maximum and minimum voltage limits are assumed to be 1.15) Q = −bV . Observe also that.10. Internally.7 PQ Generator 113 Table 10.u. respectively.8 p. Table 10. By default.2 and 0. If a voltage limit is violated.9 depicts the PQ generator data format.u.

Each area (region) is defined by a unique number. positive for capacitive ones. p. 4. p.u. .u. 3. p. bus: numbers of buses to which shunt are connected. u: connection status. These are currently used only for grouping variables to be plotted (see Section 8. 2. 1} Table 10. Areas correspond to loss zone data.u. The susceptance b is negative for inductive charges.con data.9 Area & Regions PSAT allows defining areas and regions.10: Shunt Admittance Data Format (Shunt.114 10 Power Flow Data Table 10.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 †7 Variable Sn Vn fn g b u Description Bus number Power rating Voltage rating Frequency rating Conductance Susceptance Connection status Unit int MVA kV Hz p.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 †6 †7 †8 †9 Variable Sn Vn Pg Qg Vmax Vmin z u Description Bus number Power rating Voltage rating Active Power Reactive Power Maximum voltage Minimum voltage Allow conversion to impedance Connection status Unit int MVA kV p. 1} and are included in the network admittance matrix Y . which has to correspond to one of the numbers defined in the column 5 (6) of the Bus. 10. b: column vector of the susceptances at each bus of the network. {0.3 for more details).u. {0. as follows: 1. p. con: shunt impedance data. Shunts are defined in the structure Shunt. 1} {0.u.9: PQ Generator Data Format (PQgen.u. g: column vector of the conductances at each bus of the network. 5.

% while regions correspond to the interchange area data in the IEEE common data format [126]. 5. 3. 4.9 Area & Regions 115 Table 10. p.con and Regions. con: area/region data. names: area/region names. as follows: 1.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 Variable Sn Pex Ptol ∆P% Description Area/region number Slack bus number for the area/region Power rate Interchange export (> 0 = out) Interchange tolerance Annual growth rate Unit int int MVA p.u. bus: cell array of bus indexes within each area/region.con data. slack: indexes of slack buses within each area/region. This slack bus is just a “suggestion” and does not affect or redefine the SW. 6. respectively.u.11: Area & Regions Data Format (Areas. Areas and regions are defined in the class Areas and Regions. A slack bus can be defined for each area and region. . The slack bus number can be zero. 2. n: number of areas/regions. int: area/region indexes.10.

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2) where Ng is the total number of generators given by the sum of the slack and PV generators. generator power directions and limits. the PV generator and the PQ load. Rsrv: power reserve data. active power or apparent power).6. 10. the flow type can be specified and selected in a popup menu.con chart. Finally the flows constraints are: Φi ≤ Φmaxi i = 1. i.e. . As defined in Tables 10. . The basic components are the slack generator. in the OPF window.3) If no constraint is defined for lines or transformers. a “huge” limit for the flow is used.Chapter 11 CPF and OPF Data This section describes the components needed for the OPF routines. the user can define the reactive power and voltage limits for the generation. the 13th . The cost parameters and additional market constraints are defined in other structures.1) whereas the limits for the generation are the following: Qmini ≤ Qgi ≤ Qmaxi i = 1. NL (11. . For the generation three structures can be defined: 1.8. Supply: power bids. Ng (11. Furthermore. PV . Then. . in the definition of transmission lines and transformers. . that are specifically used for the OPF routines. described below. . 3.7 and 10. . 2. . . . and the voltage limits for the loads. . PQ and Line allow to define only some security limits. . Rmpg: power ramping data. 117 . it is possible to set a limit for a maximum flow (current. one has: Vmini ≤ Vi ≤ Vmaxi i = 1. N (11. For the voltages at all the N network buses. 14th or 15th element is left blank or set to zero in the Line. The components SW.

2.e. . 3. Each structure is composed of at least the following fields: 1.1 Generator Supply The Supply structure defines the basic data for generations bids and costs.con. the resulting PS is set up in the matrix Supply. . . con: data.4) C(Qg ) = i=1. 2. It is also possible to set an unit commitment variable u.1. Thus two otherwise tied energy offers will be scheduled to the point 1 The unit commitment could be added in future versions. .6) CT B = kT B S PSmax If the generator does not supply power. Rmpl: power ramping data. this cost is zero. . Demand: power bids. The user has to define the range of the power bid and the cost parameter that can be both for active and reactive power generation.118 11 CPF and OPF Data whereas for the load side the following two structures are available: 1. as defined by the following equations: C(PS ) = i=1. bus: number of buses at which elements are connected. 4. i. whereas if PS is close to the maximum power the tie breaking cost increases quadratically and penalizes the generator. the status of the generators.NS CQ0i + CQ1i Qgi + CQ2i Q2i g Then the power supply inequalities are: PSmin i ≤ PSi ≤ PSmax i i = 1. the user can just put zeros in the 6th column of the matrix Supply.con. n: total number of elements.NS 2 CP0i + CP1i PSi + CP2i PSi (11. as depicted in Table 11. The tie breaking involves a penalty cost kT B prorated by the amount scheduled over the maximum amount that could be scheduled for the generator by means of a quadratic function added to the objective function: P2 (11. This structure is always required for running the OPF. the user can set a tie breaking cost kT B .1 Finally. 11.5) ∗ Once the OPF analysis has been completed. u: connection status. While setting up data. NS (11. load power directions and limits.

u. 11.u.u.u. effectively achieving a prorated result. Generally the value of kT B should be small (e. 1} † This field is used only for the CPF analysis. $/h $/MWh $/MW2 h $/h $/MVArh $/MVAr2 h boolean $/MWh p. p.2 Generator Reserve 119 Table 11.u.11. ‡ This field is an output of the OPF routines and can be left zero. In case of Qmax = 0 g g g and Qmin = 0. The structure Supply is also used in the continuation power flow (see Chapter 5) for defining the pattern of generator increase with respect to the base case.g. where their modified costs are identical. C upS and C dwS are the costs for increasing and decreasing the current accepted supply bid. the reactive power limits are shared among the suppliers using Qmax and Qmin data. g Congestion up and down costs are used in the congestion management.con) Column 1 2 †3 4 5 ‡6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Variable Sn P S0 max PS min PS ∗ PS CP0 CP1 CP2 CQ0 CQ1 CQ2 u kT B γ Qmax g Qmin g C upS C dwS u Description Bus number Power rating Active power direction Maximum power bid Minimum power bid Actual active power bid Fixed cost (active power) Proportional cost (active power) Quadratic cost (active power) Fixed cost (reactive power) Proportional cost (reactive power) Quadratic cost (reactive power) Commitment variable Tie breaking cost Loss participation factor Maximum reactive power Qmax g Minimum reactive power Qmin g Congestion up cost Congestion down cost Connection status Unit int MVA p. p. The . 0. For optimal power flow computation this value can be left zero. p. In case there are more than one supply block for bus. The default value is zero.u. p. $/h $/h {0.1: Power Supply Data Format (Supply.2 Generator Reserve The operating reserve of a system is associated with the power that is not directly used by loads but can be requested and generators have to provide quickly. In this case the active power direction PS0 has to be set.0005). slack and PV generator reactive power limits will be used.

2 The parameters used in the optimization routine are the up and down ramp rates. . . .u.e.2. $/MWh {0.10) constraints have not been implemented yet but will be included soon in future versions. . as reported in Table 11. . .ND i = 1. . . 1} power reserve has an associated cost: C(PR ) = i=1.NR CRi PRi (11. The structure Rmpg defines the generator ramping data. . NS (11.7) and limits as for the power supplies: PRmin i ≤ PRi ≤ PRmax i i = 1.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 Variable Sn max PR min PR CR u Description Bus number Power rating Maximum power reserve Minimum power reserve Reserve offer price Connection status Unit int MVA p. The power reserve vector PR as obtained by OPF routines are stored in the field Pr. NR P Di (11. . . The constraints are the following: t−1 t P Si − P Si t −PSi 2 These + t−1 P Si ≤ PSmax i Rdowni ∆t ≤ PSmax i Rupi ∆t i = 1.3 Generator Power Ramping Generation facilities have limits on their ability to move from one level of production to another. and these limits are generally taken in account by the so called ramping constraints. as reported in Table 11. p. . 11. These quantities express the amount of power that can be moved each minute up or down by the generator and are associated to technical limits of the generation plants.9) The structure Rsrv defines these data.u. Rup and Rdown .3. i.NR ≤ PSmax i ≤ i+1. . NR (11.120 11 CPF and OPF Data Table 11.2: Power Reserve Data Format (Rsrv.8) along with the inequalities for ensuring that the sum of the power supply and the max power reserve is less than the total available power supply PS and that the total power reserve must be less than the total power demand: PSi + PRi PRi i=1.

/h p.ND 2 CP0i + CP1i PDi + CP2i PDi 2 CQ0i + CQ1i PDi tan(φi ) + CQ2i PDi tan(φi )2 i=1. . .u. 1} Along with these ramp limits. and the operating reserve loading point PRLP allows to reduce the power reserve for low outputs: RRmax i ∆t PRi ≤ PSi i = 1.11) If the generator output is low. .11.11) and (11.13) C2 (PD ) = where tan φi = As for the constraints. . are: C1 (PD ) = i=1. one has: QD0i PD0i i = 1. 11. The cost functions. the power reserve PR will be the minimum between (11. .14) PRmin i ≤ PRi ≤ PRmax i (11./h h h int int $ {0. as well as the cost coefficients that can be both for active and reactive powers.ND (11. . . NR (11. . NR (11. the user can define also a maximum reserve ramp rate RRmax . expresses the maximum amount of power that can be dedicated to the reserve.u. The user has to define the maximum and minimum power bids.12).3: Generator Power Ramping Data Format (Rmpg. as presented in Table 11. . also the operating reserve can decrease.4 Load Demand The Demand structure defines the basic data for load demand bids and costs. thus: PRi ≤ RRmax i ∆t i = 1.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Variable Sn Rup Rdown UT DT U Ti DTi CSU u Description Supply number Power rating Ramp rate up Ramp rate down Minimum # of period up Minimum # of period down Initial # of period up Initial # of period down Start up cost Connection status Unit int MVA p. NR (11. . that multiplied by the time interval ∆t. .4.12) PRLPi Thus.15) . .4) for the power supplies.4 Load Demand 121 Table 11. similar to (11.

The power factor angle is obtained using power directions PD0 and QD0 . 90. the status of the loads.5 Demand Profile The structure Ypdp defines the demand profile for multiperiod market clearing models. 11. 0. The percentage multiplies the base case powers PL0 (if 3 The 4 Multiperiod unit commitment could be added in future versions. The default value is zero. The free format is simply a vector (of any length = 206) of numbers representing the percentage of power demand for the period t.3 Finally. Each element of the vector defines a period t. Thus two otherwise tied energy demands will be scheduled to the point where their modified costs are identical. the user can set a tie breaking cost kT B . and the whole vector length represent the time horizon of the market clearing model. The structure Demand is also used in the continuation load flow (see Chapter 5) for defining the pattern of load increase with respect to the base case. The CPF routine uses PD0 and QD0 to define the active and reactive power directions. market clearing models are currently available only for the PSAT-GAMS inter- face. respectively.16) PDmax If the load does not consume power.g. their ratio can be different from the power factor of the base case load defined in the PQ structure . this cost is zero. respectively. 100. The tie breaking involves a penalty cost kT B prorated by the amount scheduled over the maximum amount that could be scheduled for the load by means of a quadratic function added to the objective function: P2 CT B = kT B D (11.e. i. ∗ Once the OPF analysis has been completed. C upD and C dwD are the costs for increasing and decreasing the current accepted demand bid. effectively achieving a prorated result.122 11 CPF and OPF Data The power factor angle φ is used for computing reactive power costs. whereas if PD is close to the maximum power the tie breaking cost increases quadratically and penalizes the load. For example: Ypdp.0005). namely free format and yearly profile. Generally the value of kT B should be small (e. It possible to set an unit commitment variable. for which the percentage ξ t of the demand is 80. . Observe that.4 The user can input data using two different formats. 110 and 100%. the user can just put zeros in the 7th column of the matrix Demand.con. Congestion up and doen costs are used in the congestion management.con = [80 90 100 110 100].con. defines 5 time periods. the resulting PD is set up in the matrix Demand. While setting up data.

p.4: Power Demand Data Format (Demand.Table 11.u.con) Column 1 2 †3 †4 5 6 ‡7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Variable Sn P D0 QD0 max PD min PD ∗ PD CP0 CP1 CP2 CQ0 CQ1 CQ2 u kT B C upD C dwD u Description Bus number Power rating Active power direction Reactive power direction Maximum power bid Minimum power bid Optimal active power bid Fixed cost (active power) Proportional cost (active power) Quadratic cost (active power) Fixed cost (reactive power) Proportional cost (reactive power) Quadratic cost (reactive power) Commitment variable Tie breaking cost Congestion up cost Congestion down cost Connection status Unit int MVA p. 123 .u.u. p.u. p. $/h $/MWh $/MW2 h $/h $/MVArh $/MVAr2 h boolean $/MWh $/h $/h {0. 1} † These fields are used for both the CPF analysis and the OPF analysis.u. ‡ This field is an output of the OPF routines and can be left blank. p.

2. β and γ are as follows: α: index of the kind of the day in the range from 1 to 6. kβ (scalar) and kγ (scalar) are in % and represent the kind of the day. 11. The user can tune the coefficients by chosing the the season and the day of the week. . Rup and Rdown .18) (11. respectively. the 24 coefficients ξ t are computed as follows: ξt = t kα (α) kβ (β) kγ (γ) · · 100 100 100 100 (11. the day of the week and the week of the year. i. and the indexes α.6 Load Ramping Although less commonly used than the generation ramp rate. so that: PL0 (t) PDmax (t) PDmin (t) = = = ξt PL0 ∀t ∈ T 100 ξt ∀t ∈ T PD 100 max t ξ ∀t ∈ T PD 100 min (11. 4.17) (11. These quantities express the amount of power that can 5 These constraints have not been implemented yet but will be included in future versions. These take in account the load ability to move from one level of consumption to another. 3. The structure Rmpl defines the load ramping data.6.124 11 CPF and OPF Data used) and demand bid limits PDmax and PDmin . γ: week of the year in the range from 1 to 52.19) where T = {1. as reported in Table 11.20) t where kα (24 elements).5 The parameters used in the optimization routine are the up and down ramp rates. with the following notation: 1: winter working day 2: winter weekend 3: summer working day 4: summer weekend 5: spring/fall working day 6: spring/fall weekend β: day of the week in the range from 1 (Monday) to 7 (Sunday). it is possible to define load ramp rates. Thus. The yearly demand profile is used to define a database for a one day long time horizon (T = 24 hours).e. 5} for this example.

.Table 11.con) Column 1-24 25-48 49-72 73-96 97-127 121-144 145-151 152-203 204 205 206 Variable t kα (1) t kα (2) t kα (3) t kα (4) t kα (5) t kα (6) kβ kγ α β γ Description Daily profile for a winter working day Daily profile for a winter weekend Daily profile for a summer working day Daily profile for a summer weekend Daily profile for a spring/fall working day Daily profile for a spring/fall weekend Profile for the days of the week Profile for the weeks of the year Kind of the day Day of the week Week of the year Unit % % % % % % % % {1. . 6} {1. . . . . . .5: Demand Profile Data Format (Ypdp. 7} {1. 52} 105 100 95 demand profile % 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 hour Figure 11.1: Example of daily demand profile. . . . 125 . .

u./min p. ND (11.u. .10) for the generation ramp rate. .21) These equations are conceptually similar to (11./min min min int int {0.126 11 CPF and OPF Data Table 11. . . and uses the same time interval ∆t defined in the OPF window. . 1} be moved each minute up or down by the load and are associated to technical limits in load facilities as follows: t−1 t PDi − P Di t −PDi + t−1 P Di ≤ PDmax i Rdowni ∆t ≤ PDmax i Rupi ∆t i = 1.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Variable Sn Rup Rdown Tup Tdown nup ndown u Description Bus number Power rating Ramp rate up Ramp rate down Minimum up time Minimum down time Number of period up Number of period down Connection status Unit int MVA p.6: Load Ramping Data Format (Rmpl.

e. 12. dat: internal data. the shunt admittances of the network are modified and the admittance matrix is recomputed. a time vector for computing a point slightly before and slightly after the fault occurrences is created.Chapter 12 Faults & Breakers This chapter describes symmetrical three phase faults and breakers. 12. When the faults or the fault clearances occur. During time domain simulations.2 depicts the data format for transmission line breakers. con: Fault data. 7. kV and Hz ratings. delta: mean of synchronous machine rotor angles.1 depicts data for three phase faults.2 Breaker Table 12. i. 2. V: vector of pre-fault voltages. Besides MVA.1 Fault Table 12. 127 . 3. 5. bus: vector of bus numbers to which faults are connected. the user can set up two intervention times and a status for the breaker. n: total number of faults. the time tf of occurrence of the fault. 6. as follows: 1. ang: vector of pre-fault angles. the clearance time tc and the internal impedance of the fault rf and xf . 4. Three phase faults are defined in the Fault structure.

g.u. 4.u. 2. line: vector of line numbers to which breakers are connected. the line status is set to open. syncrhonous machines) is not allowed and will lead to errors or unpredicatble results. The admittance matrix is rebuilt after each breaker intervention. transmission line parameters are used as they are. The status u is used for the construction of the network admittance matrix Y . During time domain simulations. con: Breaker data. the integration method computes one point slightly before and one slightly after (t = 10−6 s) each breaker intervention. 5. as follows: 1.1 Only one breaker is needed for each line and its position (at the beginning or at the end of the line) is not relevant. If u = 1.1: Fault Data Format (Fault. If u = 0.128 12 Faults & Breakers Table 12. . p. Connecting breakers to other components (e. n: total number of breakers. 1 Observe that disabling single-end lines leads to islanded buses and can result in convergence problems.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Variable Sn Vn fn tf tc rf xf Description Bus number Power rating Voltage rating Frequency rating Fault time Clearance time Fault resistance Fault reactance Unit int MVA kV Hz s s p. Breakers works properly only if connected to transmission lines. bus: vector of bus numbers to which breakers are connected. Refer to Chapter 22 for more details. status: boolean vector indicating the status of the breaker. 3. Breakers are defined in the class Breaker.

Table 12.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Variable Sn Vn fn u t1 t2 Description Line number Bus number Power rating Voltage rating Frequency rating Connection status First intervention time Second intervention time Unit int int MVA kV Hz {0. 1} s s 129 .2: Breaker Data Format (Breaker.

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Differential equations are as follows: x = ˙ ω ˙ where ∆ω is: ∆ω = −x + = 1 1 1 (θ − θ0 ) − x Tf 2πf0 Tf (∆ω + 1 − ω)/Tω 1 1 (θ − θ0 ) 2πf0 Tf (13.1: Bus frequency measurement filter. with the following fields: 1. θ + − θ0 1 2πf0 s 1 + sTf ∆ω + + ωn = 1 1 1 + sTω ω Figure 13. con: Bus frequency measurement data. 131 . Measurement devices currently implemented in PSAT are the bus frequency measurement and the Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU).1) (13.1 Bus Frequency Measurement The bus frequency measurement is obtained by means of a high-pass and a low-pass filter. 13. as depicted in Fig.1.2) Bus frequency measurement data are stored in the structure Busfreq.Chapter 13 Measurements This chapter describes components intended for measurements of non-standard quantities during time domain simulations. 13.

the phasor X is given by: 1 2 (Xc − jXs ) X=√ 2N (13. 13. Using a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). u: connection status. In the case of x(t).5) .1 depicts the data format for the bus frequency measurement components. 4. 3. x: indexes of state variables x. 13. 1} 2. Let define a sinusoidal quantity: x(t) = XM cos(ωt + φ) its phasor representation is: XM X = √ ejφ 2 (13. dat: Bus frequency measurement parameters. where τ is the sampling interval.con) Column 1 2 3 4 Variable Tf Tω u Description Bus number Time constant of the high-pass filter Time constant of the low-pass filter Connection status Unit int s s {0.2). but it can also be used for transients.1: Bus Frequency Measurement Data Format (Busfreq. Basic concepts. 5. definitions and applications about PMUs can be found in [125].3) The phasor is defined for a pure constant sinusoid. n: total number of components.132 13 Measurements Table 13. assuming that the phasor is the fundamental frequency component of a waveform over a finite interval (observation window). Table 13. we can define the samples signal xk at t = kτ .2 Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) A Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) is a device able to measure the magnitude and the angle of a phasor.4) (13. w: indexes of state variables ω. 6. PMUs works on sampled measures (see Fig.

. r + 1. the moving window detects the amplitude and angle variations with a delay which depends on the time sample rate . . and let a new data sample be obtained to produce a new data set x{k = r + 1. 720 Hz for a 60 Hz power system). .13.8) A typical sampling rate in many relaying and measurements functions is 12 times the power system frequency (e.9) A recursive calculation through a moving window data sample is faster than a nonrecursive one.g. The recursive phasor corresponding to the new data window X r+1 is as follows: 1 2 (xN +r − xr )e−jrθ X r+1 = X r + √ 2N (13.7) and θ is the sampling angle associated with the sampling interval τ . Let X r be the phasor corresponding to the data set x{k = r.6) = (13. needs only two sample data at each calculation (xN +r and xr ) and provides a stationary phasor. r + 2. .2: Phasors from sample data. .5) represents a non-recursive DFT calculation. where N is the number of samples in one period of the nominal fundamental frequency f0 . . Equation (13. If the quantity x(t) undergoes a transient. N + r − 1}. and: N Xc Xs = k=1 N xk cos kθ xk sin kθ k=1 (13. . . N + r}.2 Phasor Measurement Unit 133 1 2 N N +1 Figure 13. as follows: θ= 2π = 2πf0 τ N (13. A recursive calculation is an efficient method for time varying phasors.

13) where V and θ are the voltage magnitude and phase.11) The PMU model implemented in PSAT is used for bus voltage magnitude and phase measurements. 3.134 13 Measurements Table 13. the positive sequence of the phasor undergoes the following change. The measurement is modeled as a simple low pass filter. 1} τ . n: total number of components.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 Variable Vn fn Tv Tθ u Description Bus number Voltage rate Frequency rate Voltage magnitude time constant Voltage phase time constant Connection status Unit int kV Hz s s {0. respectively. 1 Do not confuse the structure Pmu for PMU devices models with the structure PMU which is used in the PMU placement algorithms illustrated in Chapter 9. 2. u: connection status. con: PMU data. . dat: PMU parameters. If the system frequency f0 undergoes a variation ∆f .10) thus. vm: indexes of state variables vm . PMU data are stored in the structure Pmu. 6. as follows: vm ˙ ˙ θm = = (V − vm )/Tm (θ − θm )/Tθ (13. Table 13. at each rth time sampling: X r (f0 + ∆f ) = Xe−j(N −1)π∆f ∆t sin(N ∆f ∆t) j2πr∆f ∆t e N sin(∆f ∆t) (13. the rate of change of the phasor angle is as follows: dψ = 2π∆f dt (13.12) (13. thetam: indexes of state variables θm .2: Phasor Measurement Unit Data Format (Pmu.2 depicts the data format for the PMU components. 5. 4.1 with the following fields: 1.

the VDL is included in the power flow analysis. If z = 1. the inital voltage is not known V0 ..1) Q = Q0 (V /V0 )αQ where V0 is the initial voltage at the load bus as obtained by the power flow solution. exponential recovery load.1 Voltage Dependent Load Voltage dependent loads (VDL) are loads whose powers are monomial functions of the bus voltage. active and reactive load powers P and Q are positive if absorbed from the network. and P0 and Q0 are in percentage of the PQ load power connected at the VDL bus. and P0 and Q0 are in p. These models requires a PQ load in order to initialize parameters and state variables. Jimma’s load . In this case.1. the VDL is initialized after the power flow analysis. Voltage dependent and ZIP loads can be optionally included in the power flow analysis. 14. frequency dependent load. 135 . Note: in the following models. If u = 0. VDLs can also be included directly in the power flow analysis. thermostatically controlled load. thus the following equations will be used: P = P0 V αP αQ (14. In this case it is not necessary to connect a PQ load at the VDL bus. Observe that if z = 1. it is mandatory to connect a PQ load at the VDL bus. as follows: P = P0 (V /V0 )αP (14.u.Chapter 14 Loads This chapter describes static and dynamic nonlinear loads.2) Q = Q0 V The units of P0 and Q0 depends on the parameter z. They are voltage dependent load. Other parameters are defined in Table 14. ZIP load. which depicts the VDL data format. and mixed load.

4.4) Q = bV + IQ V + Qn . ZIP loads can also be included directly in the power flow analysis. init: status for power flow computations. n: total number of voltage dependent loads. the inital voltage is not known V0 . 6.1) are a simplification of the nonlinear general exponential voltage frequency dependent load described in Section 14. which depicts the ZIP load data format. This field is used only in the command line version of PSAT (see Chapter 27). as follows: P = g(V /V0 )2 + IP (V /V0 ) + Pn 2 (14. con: voltage dependent load data.) % (p.136 14 Loads Table 14.u. Voltage dependent loads are defined in the structure Mn. 2. 0} {1. u: connection status.1: Voltage Dependent Load Data Format (Mn.u. 3. 5. as follows: 1. thus the following equations will be used: P = gV 2 + IP V + Pn 2 (14.3. Other parameters are defined in Table 14. 0} Observe that equations (14.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Variable Sn Vn P0 Q0 αP αQ z u Description Bus number Power rating Voltage rating Active power rating Reactive power rating Active power exponent Reactive power exponent Initialize after power flow Connection status Unit int MVA kV % (p.) {1.3) Q = b(V /V0 ) + IQ (V /V0 ) + Qn where V0 is the initial voltage at the load bus as obtained by the power flow solution. In this case. 14. store: copy of the voltage dependent load data. bus: numbers of buses to which voltage dependent loads are connected.2 ZIP Load The polynomial or ZIP loads are loads whose powers are a quadratix expression of the bus voltage.2.

If z = 0. init: status for power flow computations.2: ZIP Load Data Format (Pl.) {1.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Variable Sn Vn fn g IP Pn b IQ Qn z u Description Bus number Power rating Voltage rating Frequency rating Conductance Active current Active power Susceptance Reactive current Reactive power Initialize after power flow Connection status Unit int MVA kV Hz % (p. and P0 and Q0 are in percentage of the PQ load power connected at the ZIP load bus. the ZIP load is included in the power flow analysis.) % (p. u: connection status. 4.5) Q = αQ . and P0 and Q0 are in p. 2. con: ZIP load data. 0} The units of P0 and Q0 depends on the status parameter z. In this case it is not necessary to connect a PQ load at the ZIP load bus.u. it is mandatory to connect a PQ load at the ZIP load bus. n: total number of ZIP loads. 3.3 Frequency Dependent Load 137 Table 14. If z = 1.u.) % (p.) % (p. the ZIP load is initialized after the power flow analysis.) % (p.14. bus: bus numbers to which ZIP loads are connected.u.3 Frequency Dependent Load A generalized exponential voltage frequency dependent load is modeled as follows [57]: P = kP 100 kQ 100 V V0 V V0 αP (1 + ∆ω)βP (1 + ∆ω)βQ (14.u. 5.u. ZIP loads are defined in the structure Pl. 14. 0} {1.u. as follows: 1.) % (p. Observe that if z = 1.u.

where ∆ω represents the frequency deviation at the load bus. as follows: 1.7) .3 reports the data format for the component whereas Table 14. 4. Dw: bus frequency deviations ∆ω. 2. 14. 63]. 6.4 Exponential Recovery Load An exponential recovery load is included in PSAT based on what was proposed in [55. 14.1: Measure of frequency deviation. 5. u: connection status. determined by filtering and differentiating the bus voltage phase angle θ as follows (see Fig. x: indexes of filter state variables x.138 14 Loads θ + − θ0 1 2πf0 s 1 + sTF ∆ω Figure 14. n: total number of polynomial power loads. and its power and voltage ratings will be inherited by the frequency dependent load. a0: initial bus voltage phase angles.1): x = − ˙ ∆ω 1 1 1 (θ − θ0 ) + x TF 2πf0 TF 1 1 = x+ (θ − θ0 ) 2πf0 TF (14. con: frequency dependent load data. Table 14. 7. Frequency dependent loads are defined in the structure Fl. A PQ load must be connected to the same bus. 3.6) and V0 and θ0 are the voltage magnitude and phase angle determined in the power flow solution. Equations are as follows: xP ˙ P = −xP /TP + Ps − Pt = xP /TP + Pt (14.4 depicts some typical coefficients for characteristic loads [13]. This component is initialized after power flow computations. bus: bus numbers to which frequency dependent loads are connected.

6 where Ps and Pt are the static and transient real power absorptions. as follows: . which depend on the load voltage: Ps Pt = P0 (V /V0 )αs = P0 (V /V0 )αt (14.5 2.9) Q = xQ /TQ + Qt and: Qs Qt = Q0 (V /V0 )βs = Q0 (V /V0 )βt (14.14. Q0 and V0 .3: Frequency Dependent Load Data Format (Fl.6 0. A PQ load has to be connected to the exponential recovery load bus. Exponential recovery loads are defined in the structure Exload.1 2.2 βP 0 -0.5 -0.8 αQ 0 3.6 1.2 0. 0} Table 14.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Variable kP αP βP kQ αQ βQ TF u Description Bus number Active power percentage Active power voltage coefficient Active power frequency coefficient Reactive power percentage Reactive power voltage coefficient Reactive power frequency coefficient Filter time constant Connection status Unit int % % s {1.6 2.1 1.8) Similar equations hold for the reactive power: xQ ˙ = −xQ /TQ + Qs − Qt (14.5.2 2. The data format is depicted in Table 14.4: Typical load coefficients [13] Load Filament lamp Fluorescent lamp Heater Induction motor (half load) Induction motor (full load) Reduction furnace Aluminum plant αP 1.9 1.8 0 -0.3 1.1 0 1.10) The power flow solution and the PQ load data are used for determining the values of P0 .8 -0.0 0 1.3 βQ 0 2.0 0.8 0 0.4 Exponential Recovery Load 139 Table 14.

Q0 and V0 ).2 which represents the following equations: ˙ T = (Ta − T + K1 P )/T1 (14. con: Exponential recovery load data.140 14 Loads Table 14. 7.5 Thermostatically Controlled Load The Thload structure defines a dynamic load with temperature control [57]. dat: initial powers and voltages (P0 . 14. 0} 1.5: Exponential Recovery Load Data Format (Exload. 14. This component is initialized after the power flow solution and needs a PQ load connected at the same bus. n: total number of exponential recovery loads. 6. u: connection status. 2. 3. xp: indexes of the state variable xP . The control diagram block is depicted in Fig. xq: indexes of the state variable xQ .11) x = Ki (Tref − T )/Ti ˙ G = Kp (Tref − T ) + x P = GV 2 where the state variable x undergoes an anti-windup limiter and the algebraic variable G undergoes a windup limiter. 4.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Variable Sn Vn fn TP TQ αs αt βs βt u Description Bus number Power rating Active power voltage coefficient Active power frequency coefficient Real power time constant Reactive power time constant Static real power exponent Dynamic real power exponent Static reactive power exponent Dynamic reactive power exponent Connection status Unit int MVA kV Hz s s {1. bus: number of buses to which the exponential recovery loads are connected. . 5.

If no constant PQ load is connected at the same bus of the thermostatically controlled load a warning message is displayed and P0 = 0 is used. When computing the active power.14. n: total number of components. 5. the value of Gmax is defined by the user in the component data matrix (see Table 14. bus: bus number to which the components are connected. Gmax and K1 are computed and stored in the data matrix during the initialization step.6 depicts the data format for this component. The ambient and reference temperatures must be expressed in the same units. u: connection status. 4. only PQ components are considered.6).2: Thermostatically controlled load. con: data of the Thload components. as follows: K1 Gmax = Tref − T0 P0 = KL G0 (14. G: indexes of the state variable G. 3. . 2.12) where G0 = P0 /V02 and KL (KL > 1) is the ceiling conductance output ratio.5 Thermostatically Controlled Load 141 Kp Tref + Gmax − T Ki Ti s 0 x + 0 + Gmax G 1 T1 s + 1 + + K1 Ta P V2 Figure 14. The power flow solution provides the initial voltage V0 and active power P0 which are used for determining the gain K1 and the maximum conductance Gmax . 6. The structure Thload is organized as follows: 1. Table 14. If KL = 0. T: indexes of the state variable T .

/p.3). Since PSAT do not allow to define bus voltages as state variables. {0.13) + PLI 2 VL VL0 VL VL0 + PLP + QLP + KV dVL dt (14. 122]. p.6 Jimma’s Load The Jimma structure defines a load similar to a ZIP model.u. 1} V s 1 + sTf dV /dt Figure 14.3: Jimma’s load.14) (14. the time derivative is defined using a service state variable x and a high-pass filter (see Fig.6: Thermostatically Controlled Load Data Format (Thload. The structure Jimma is organized as follows: . The differential equation is as follows: x = (−V /Tf − x)/Tf ˙ dV = x + V /Tf dt The power injections are defined as follows: P = PLZ VL VL0 VL VL0 2 (14./p. 14.u. (◦ F or ◦ C)/p./p.u.u.u. In addition. p./p.u.u. s s ◦ F or ◦ C ◦ F or ◦ C p. This component is initialized after the power flow solution and needs a PQ load connected at the same bus.u.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Variable Kp Ki Ti T1 Ta Tref Gmax K1 KL u Description Bus number Percentage of active power Gain of proportional controller Gain of integral controller Time constant of integral controller Time constant of thermal load Ambient temperature Reference temperature Maximum conductance Active power gain Ceiling conductance output Connection status Unit int % p.u. 14. the reactive power depends on the time derivative of the bus voltage [61.142 14 Loads Table 14.15) Q = QLZ + QLI The power flow solution provides the initial voltage V0 that is needed for computing the power injections.

dat: vector of initial voltages V0 . Table 14. 4. only PQ components are considered.7 depicts the data format for this component.7 Mixed Load The Mixload structure defines a load similar to a frequency dependent load. When initializing the load.7: Jimma’s Data Format (Jimma. 6. u: connection status. In addition. bus: bus number to which the components are connected. n: total number of components.14.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Variable Sn Vn fn Tf PLZ PLI PLP QLZ QLI QLP KV u Description Bus number Power rate Voltage rate Frequency rate Time constant of the high-pass filter Percentage of active power ∝ V 2 Percentage of active power ∝ V Percentage of constant active power Percentage of reactive power ∝ V 2 Percentage of reactive power ∝ V Percentage of constant reactive power Coefficient of the voltage time derivative Connection status Unit int MVA kV Hz s % % % % % % 1/s {0. If no constant PQ load is connected at the same bus of the Jimma’s load a warning message is displayed and it is assumed that P = 0 and Q = 0. 5. 14. Since PSAT do not allow to define bus voltages as state variables. 3. 1} 1. This component is initialized after the power flow solution and needs a PQ load connected at the same bus. 2.7 Mixed Load 143 Table 14. con: data of the Jimma components. x: indexes of the state variable x. the active and the reactive powers depend on the time derivative of the bus voltage. the time derivatives of the voltage magnitude and angle are defined through two service state variables x and y and high-pass filters (see .

14. u: connection status. 4. 5.8 depicts the data format for this component.19) Q = Kqf ∆ω + Kqv The power flow solution provides the initial voltage V0 that is needed for computing the power injections. Table 14. n: total number of components. the PQ load is removed from the data.17) ⇒ The bus power injections P and Q are defined as follows: P = Kpf ∆ω + Kpv V α dV + Tpv V0 dt dV V β + Tqv V0 dt (14. 14. con: data of the Mixload components. 2.144 14 Loads Figs. The differential equations are as follows: x = (−V /Tf v − x)/Tf v ˙ dV = x + V /Tf v dt 1 1 1 y = − ˙ (θ − θ0 ) + y Tf t 2πf0 Tf t 1 1 ∆ω = y + (θ − θ0 ) 2πf0 Tf t (14.16) ⇒ (14. dat: vector of initial voltages V0 and θ0 . The structure Mixload is organized as follows: 1. bus: bus number to which the components are connected. 7.3 and 14. If the sum of all percentages is 100%. When initializing the load.1). If no constant PQ load is connected at the same bus of the mixed load a warning message is displayed and it is assumed that P = 0 and Q = 0. all non-conventional loads need a PQ load connected at the same bus. Observe that PSAT does not check . in general. The powers used for initializing non-conventional loads but the exponential recovery loads are a percentage of the PQ load powers. 3. only PQ components are considered. 6. y: indexes of the state variable y. Only voltage dependent and ZIP loads can be used alone if the “Initialize after power flow” parameter is set to zero.8 Note on the Use of Non-conventional Loads Observe that. x: indexes of the state variable x.18) (14.

clearing the PQ load powers.8 for details on the usage of non-conventional load within Simulink models. observe that exponential recovery loads are processed last. Thus. Refer to Section 22.14. . % s s s {0.u. 1} if the total sum of non-conventional load percentages is greater than 100%.3. the actual powers used by exponential recovery loads are the powers remaining after the initialization of the other loads (not the initial PQ load powers). be aware that when exponential recovery loads and other non-conventional loads are used together. % s p.8 Note on the Use of Non-conventional Loads 145 Table 14.8: Mixed Data Format (Mixload. When this happens the resulting PQ load will show negative powers.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Variable Sn Vn fn Kpv Kpv α Tpv Kpv Kpv β Tqv Tf v Tf t u Description Bus number Power rate Voltage rate Frequency rate Frequency coefficient for the active power Percentage of active power Voltage exponent for the active power Time constant of dV /dt for the active power Frequency coefficient for the reactive power Percentage of reactive power Voltage exponent for the reactive power Time constant of dV /dt for the reactive power Time constant of voltage magnitude filter Time constant of voltage angle filter Connection status Unit int MVA kV Hz p. Finally.u.

.

Once the power flow solution has been determined.1) are included in the power flow analysis. and equations (15. Refer to Chapter 16 for a detailed description of generator control systems. u) ˙ P = gP (x. P0 and Q0 at the generation bus are used for initializing the state and input variables.1. V0 . y) Q = gQ (x. u (i. y. V and θ) and u input variables.1 Synchronous Machine The Park-Concordia model is used for synchronous machine equations. Thus. the following system is solved: 0 P0 Q0 = f (x. from the 147 . the PV and/or slack generators connected at the generator buses are removed. Various simplification levels are applied. With regard to the induction motor models. the mechanical torque Tm ) is set by the user.e. θ0 . y0 ) = gQ (x. y the algebraic variables (i. the latter being the field voltage vf and the mechanical torque Tm . y0 ) (15. A PV or a slack generator are required to impose the desired voltage and active power at the machine bus. 15.Chapter 15 Machines This chapter describes the synchronous machine and the induction motor models.1) At the end of the initialization procedure. 15. y0 .e. y) where x are the state variables. Synchronous machines controls such as AVRs or Turbine Governors are not included in the machine models. whose scheme is depicted in Fig. These components are described by the general equations: x = f (x.2) (15. The synchronous machines are initialized after power flow computations. u) = gP (x.

θ) 0 = g2 (x. Coefficients γP and γQ are used in case of multiple generators connected to the same bus.u. it is assumed TAA = 0.1. V.9) whre P0 is the initial electric power generated by the machine. the mechanical power in p. 15.6) (15. V. and field voltage vf . namely active power P . and in general terms are defined as follows: 0 = g1 (x. Each machine model has also 6 algebraic equations: two are the power injection P and Q at the network buses. By default.3). respectively. Table 15. in the following models. When a time constant or a reactance is not used.u. id .3 illustrates the field saturation characteristic of the synchronous machine. and pm0 and vf 0 are the mechanical power and the field voltage algebraic variables. reactive power Q. In this case the amount of active and reactive power that each machine has to provide should be specified. 15.2 and VI. Fig. For models III. thus.1 depicts the complete synchronous machine data format. Equation (15. Observe that.8) 0 = vq id − vd iq − Q 0 = pm0 − pm 0 = vf 0 − vf where vd and vq are defined in (15.5) (15. V. V. γP and γQ are set to 1. is approximately equal to the mechanical torque in p. id . bus voltage magnitude V and angle θ. if needed . PSAT checks time constants and reactances when initializing machine state variables.3) The expressions of d and q-axis currents depend on the model. mechanical power pm .7) (15. V. IV. it can be zero. θ) − P0 ) (15. the field voltage includes a feedback of the rotor speed and the active power produced by the machine: ∗ vf = vf + Kω (ω − 1) − KP (P (x. The link between the network phasors and the machine voltage is as follows: vd vq = V sin(δ − θ) = V cos(δ − θ) (15. id .4) Each machine model includes 6 algebraic variables. and the other four equations are: 0 = vd id + vq iq − P (15.148 15 Machines classical swing equations to an eight order model with field saturation. θ) (15.9) ∗ implements a simple oscillation stabilizer and is implied where the notation vf is used. it is assumed that the speed variations are small. PSAT does not check the consistency of these coefficients. If the d-axis additional leakage time constant TAA is omitted.2 depicts the d and q-axis block diagrams of stator fluxes for the VI order model while Fig. Table 15. id .2 depicts a quick reference card for the usage of time constants and reactances within synchronous machine models. The sum of these coefficients for the machines connected to the same bus has to be one.

1.2) nCOI u Description Bus number Power rating Voltage rating Frequency rating Machine model Leakage reactance Armature resistance d-axis synchronous reactance d-axis transient reactance d-axis subtransient reactance d-axis open circuit transient time constant d-axis open circuit subtransient time constant q-axis synchronous reactance q-axis transient reactance q-axis subtransient reactance q-axis open circuit transient time constant q-axis open circuit subtransient time constant Mechanical starting time (2 × inertia constant) Damping coefficient Speed feedback gain Active power feedback gain Active power ratio at node Reactive power ratio at node d-axis additional leakage time constant First saturation factor Second saturation factor Center of inertia number Connection status Unit int MVA kV Hz p. VI. III. V.2. IV. IV. V.1. V. V. V. p.u. VI.1] [0.2. p.3. V.3. V. IV. VI. VI.u.2.1. VIII V. V. V. VI. IV.u. VI. IV. V.u. V.1.2. V.1. VIII IV.u. VI all all V.1: Synchronous Machine Data Format (Syn.1.1. IV.1.2.3. VIII III. p. V. V.2. VI. VI. p. VIII V. 1} Model all all all all all all all III. VI.2. V.0) S(1. VIII V. VIII III. V. s s p. VIII II. VI. V.u.2.1. s s kWs/kVA − gain gain [0. p. VI.3.2. V. V.u. VIII IV. V. p. VIII all all † optional fields 149 . VI. IV. V.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 † 20 † 21 † 22 † 23 † 24 † 25 † 26 † 27 † 28 Variable Sn Vn fn xl ra xd x′ d x′′ d ′ Td0 ′′ Td0 xq x′ q x′′ q ′ Tq0 ′′ Tq0 M = 2H D Kω KP γP γQ TAA S(1. V.1] s int {0.1. VIII all all III. VI III. VIII III.u. VIII III. V.2. VIII V.2. IV.2. VI.2.1.Table 15.

Table 15.1: Synchronous machine scheme.2: Reference table for synchronous machine time constants and reactances. ′ ′ ′′ ′′ Order Td0 Tq0 Td0 Tq0 xd x′ x′′ xq x′ x′′ q q d d II III IV V.b q a d c f ω b b δ a f c a c Figure 15.2 V.3 VI VIII 150 .1 V.

2: d and q-axis block diagrams of the stator fluxes for the most detailed synchronous machine model.id (xd − x′ ) − γd d (x′ − x′′ ) + γd d d x′′ − xl d − + + 1 ′ sTd0 e′ q + − + + − 1 ′′ sTd0 e′′ q + − ψd − 1− vf TAA ′ Td0 TAA ′ Td0 d-axis q-axis iq (xq − x′ ) − γq q (x′ − x′′ ) + γq q q x′′ − xl q + 1 ′ sTq0 e′ d + + + 1 ′′ sTq0 e′′ d + + −ψq − − Figure 15. Coefficients γd and γq are defined as follows: γd = γq = ′′ Td0 x′′ d (xd − x′ ) d ′ Td0 x′ d ′′ Tq0 x′′ q (xq − x′ ) q ′ Tq0 x′ q 151 .

e′ q Air gap line 1. Saturation factors are defined as follows: ia1 ib1 ia1.2 1.8.2) should hold to ensure the right convexity of the saturation curve.2 = 1− S(1.2 xad if Figure 15.2 = 1− ib1.0 0. S(1.2) Note: the saturation curve is linear for e′ q < 0. the d-axis additional leakage time constant is assumed TAA = 0.2 ib1. whereas it is approximated by means of a quadratic interpolation for e′ q ≥ 0.0) and/or S(1. Observe that if the saturation factors S(1.0) S(1.2) are given.8.8 ia1 ib1 ia1. 152 .0) < S(1.3: Field saturation characteristic of synchronous machines.

e1d: d-axis transient voltage e′ indexes. 2. J22: Jacobians of algebraic equations. pm0: initial mechanical power pm0 . Iq: direct and quadrature currents. delta: rotor angle δ indexes. e2q: q-axis subtransient voltage e′′ indexes. d 10. . The synchronous machine is defined in the Syn structure. 3. PSAT will automatically set default values and display warning messages. q 9. 17. 6. 7. q 11. 21. 4. Id. 16. J12. con: Synchronous machine data. pm: mechanical power pm indexes. psid: d-axis flux ψd indexes.1 Synchronous Machine 153 time constants and/or reactances are negative or zero. omega: rotor speed ω indexes. d 12.15. 13. vf: field voltage vf indexes. Pg0: initial active power generated by the machine. with the following fields: 1. n: total number of synchronous machines. psiq: q-axis flux ψq indexes. J11. bus: numbers of buses to which synchronous machines are connected. 18. 8. q: reactive power Q indexes. e1q: q-axis transient voltage e′ indexes. 20. e2d: d-axis subtransient voltage e′′ indexes. vf0: initial field voltage vf 0 . 14. 19. J21. 5. p: active power P indexes. 15. u: connection status.

ω and e′ are described by the following differential equations: q ˙ δ ω ˙ e′ ˙q = = = Ωb (ω − 1) (15.154 15 Machines 15. The q state variables are δ and ω.1 Order II This is the classic electro-mechanical model. whereas a leadlag transfer function is used for the d-axis inductance.2 Order III In this model all the q-axis electromagnetic circuits are neglected.1. The differential equations are as follows: ˙ δ ω ˙ = = Ωb (ω − 1) (15.11) The q-axis transient voltage e′ is constant and is stored in the field vf of the Syn q structure as if it were a field voltage.1.11) and the voltage and current link is described by the equations: 0 = vq + ra iq − e′ + (x′ − xl )id d q (15. Automatic Voltage Regulators should not be connected to order II synchronous machines.f.1. thus leading to a fourth order system in the state variables δ. the following relationships between voltages and currents hold: 0 = vq + ra iq − e′ + (x′ − xl )id q d 0 = vd + ra id − (x′ − xl )iq d (15. The three state variables δ. e′ q .14) 0 = vd + ra id − (xq − xl )iq This model is the simplest one to which an Automatic Voltage Regulator can be connected. lead-lag transfer functions are used for modeling the d and q-axis inductances. with constant amplitude e.m.3 Order IV In this model.12) (15. 15. ω.10) (pm − pe − D(ω − 1))/M where the electrical power pe is defined as follows: pe = (vq + ra iq )iq + (vd + ra id )id Finally.13) (pm − pe − D(ω − 1))/M ∗ ′ (−fs (e′ ) − (xd − x′ )id + vf )/Td0 q d where the electrical power pe is (15. The effects of the leakage reactance and the armature resistance can be included. e′ . 15.

1. Type 2 A second type of fifth order model can be obtained assuming only one additional circuit on the d-axis. ω.17) 15.5 Order V.11) and the voltage and current link is as follows: 0 0 = vq + ra iq − e′ + (x′ − xl )id q d e′′ d − (x′ q (15.15.4 Order V.1 Synchronous Machine 155 and e′ : d ˙ δ ω ˙ e′ ˙q e′ ˙d = Ωb (ω − 1) = (pm − pe − D(ω − 1))/M ∗ ′ = (−fs (e′ ) − (xd − x′ )id + vf )/Td0 q d ′ (−e′ + (xq − x′ )iq )/Tq0 q d (15. The d-axis transient and q subtransient dynamics are used.16) = vd + ra id − e′ − (x′ − xl )iq d q A similar fourth order model can be formulated using the subtransient d-axis voltage e′′ instead of e′ . e′ . e′ and e′′ and is described by the equations: q d d ˙ δ ω ˙ e′ ˙q e′ ˙d e′′ ˙d = = = = = Ωb (ω − 1) (pm − pe − D(ω − 1))/M (15. it is assumed: which leads to a single d-axis equation for the variable e′ . The corresponding differential equation is: d d ′′ e′′ = (−e′′ + (xq − x′′ )iq )/Tq0 ˙d d q (15.20) = vd + ra id − − xl )iq 15. e′′ and q q .19) ∗ ′ (−fs (e′ ) − (xd − x′ )id + vf )/Td0 q d (−e′ + (xq − x′ − d q ′′ Tq0 x′ ′ d (xq − x′ ))iq )/Tq0 q ′ Tq0 x′ q ′′ Tq0 x′ ′′ d (xq − x′ ))iq )/Tq0 q ′ Tq0 x′ q (−e′′ + e′ + (x′ − x′ + d d q d where the electrical power pe is (15.11) and the voltage and current link is described by the equations: 0 0 = vq + ra iq − e′ + (x′ − xl )id q d (15.1.18) In this model. e′ .15) = where the electrical power pe is (15. The model is a fifth order in the variables δ. The resulting model has five state variables δ. ω. Type 1 x′ ≈ x′′ ≈ x′′ d d q (15.

Thus. ψq and ψd and the differential equations: ˙ δ ω ˙ ˙f ψ ˙ ψq ˙ ψd = = = = = (pm − pe − D(ω − 1))/M ′ (vf − e′ )/Td0 q Ωb (vd + ra id + ωψq ) Ωb (ω − 1) (15.1.25) (15. ω.21) (pm − pe − D(ω − 1))/M T ′′ x′′ TAA ∗ ′ (−fs (e′ ) − (xd − x′ − d0 d (xd − x′ ))id + (1 − ′ )vf )/Td0 q d d ′ Td0 x′ Td0 d ′′ TAA ∗ Td0 x′′ ′′ ′′ ′ ′ ′′ (−eq + eq − (xd − xd + ′ d (xd − x′ ))id + ′ vf )/Td0 d Td0 x′ Td0 d ′′ (−e′′ + (xq − x′′ )iq )/Tq0 d q where the electrical power pe is (15. three algebraic constraints are needed: ψf ψd ψq = e′ − (xd − xl )id q = −(xq − xl )iq = e′ − (xd − x′ )id q d (15. e′ .22) 15.6 Order V. the system presents five state variables δ. ψq and ψd . The effects of speed variation on fluxes are considered along with the field flux dynamic.24) These equations can be rewritten in order to obtain a differential equation for e′ . q thus eliminating from the system the field flux ψf : e′ = ˙q xd − xl 1 xd − x′ ˙ ′ d ′ − x ( T ′ (vf − eq ) − x − x ψd ) xd l d l d0 (15.11) and the voltage and current link is as follows: 0 = vd + ra id − 0 = vq + ra iq − e′′ + (x′′ − xl )id q d e′′ d − (x′′ q − xl )iq (15. . ω.23) Ωb (vq + ra iq − ωψd ) where the electrical power pe is: pe = ψd iq − ψq id To complete the model.156 15 Machines e′′ and the following differential equations: d ˙ δ ω ˙ e′ ˙q e′′ ˙q e′′ ˙d = = = = = Ωb (ω − 1) (15. ψf .26) The state variables used in PSAT are δ. this model should be used in networks where a slack bus is present. In order to compute q correct eigenvalues for the small signal stability analysis. Type 3 This model is the basic model for electromechanical and electromagnetic studies.

ωψd ≈ ψd and ωψq ≈ ψq .1.28) This model is basically the same of the VIII order one. The state variables are δ. e′ . e′ . but including electromagnetic flux dynamics.8 Order VIII This model is obtained with the same assumption of model VI.15. ω. but with the assumptions ˙ ˙ ψd = ψq = 0. e′′ and e′′ ) and the following equations: q q d d ˙ δ ω ˙ e′ ˙q e′ ˙d e′′ ˙q e′′ ˙d Ωb (ω − 1) (15. e′′ .7 Order VI The sixth order model is obtained assuming the presence of a field circuit and an additional circuit along the d-axis and two additional circuits along the q-axis. The system has six state variables (δ. ψd and ψq .1. e′′ .27) (pm − pe − D(ω − 1))/M T ′′ x′′ TAA ∗ ′ = (−fs (e′ ) − (xd − x′ − d0 d (xd − x′ ))id + (1 − ′ )vf )/Td0 q d d ′ Td0 x′ Td0 d ′′ Tq0 x′′ q ′ = (−e′ + (xq − x′ − ′ ′ (xq − x′ ))iq )/Tq0 q d q Tq0 xq = = = = (−e′′ + e′ − (x′ − x′′ + q q d d ′′ Td0 x′′ TAA ∗ ′ ′′ d ′ x′ (xd − xd ))id + T ′ vf ))/Td0 Td0 d d0 ′′ Tq0 x′′ q ′′ (−e′′ + e′ + (x′ − x′′ + ′ ′ (xq − x′ ))iq )/Tq0 q d d q q Tq0 xq where the electrical power pe is (15. e′ . e′ . 15.29) (pm − pe − D(ω − 1))/M TAA T ′′ x′′ ′ = (−fs (e′ ) − (xd − x′ − d0 d (xd − x′ ))id + (1 − ′ )vf )/Td0 d q d ′ x′ Td0 d Td0 ′′ Tq0 x′′ q ′ = (−e′ + (xq − x′ − ′ ′ (xq − x′ ))iq )/Tq0 q d q Tq0 xq = = = = = = ′′ Td0 x′′ TAA ′′ d (xd − x′ ))id + ′ vf )/Td0 d ′ Td0 x′ Td0 d ′′ Tq0 x′′ q ′′ (−e′′ + e′ + (x′ − x′′ + ′ ′ (xq − x′ ))iq )/Tq0 q d d q q Tq0 xq (−e′′ + e′ − (x′ − x′′ + q q d d Ωb (vq + ra iq − ωψd ) Ωb (vd + ra id + ωψq ) .11) and the algebraic constraints are as follows: 0 = vq + ra iq − e′′ + (x′′ − xl )id q d 0 = vd + ra id − e′′ − (x′′ − xl )iq d q (15.1 Synchronous Machine 157 15. ω. q q d d with the following equations: ˙ δ ω ˙ e′ ˙q e′ ˙d e′′ ˙q e′′ ˙d ˙ ψq ˙ ψd Ωb (ω − 1) (15.

and double cage rotor model. Three models are defined for the induction motor. the COI is defined by the structure COI. as follows: ˙ δ = Ωb (ω − 1) (15. which is a weighted sum of all machine angles and speeds: δCOI ωCOI Then.9 Center of Inertia In the previous models. one has to set >> Setting.158 15 Machines where the electrical power pe is (15. this model should be used in networks where a slack bus is present. PSAT allows defining any number of COIs. all machines belong to the same COI. These are pure mechanical model.2 Induction Motor The models used for the induction motors are defined with an approach similar to what was described for the synchronous machine. the rotor angle and speed are relative to reference angle and speed of a hypotetical machine with infinite inertia. 15.31) becomes: = = i Mi δ i i Mi i Mi ω i i Mi (15.24). 15. The expression used for the torque/speed characteristic is a composite load model: Tm = a + bω + cω 2 (15. This structure is created by the class CIclass. (15.35) .33) ˙ δ = Ωb (ω − ωCOI ) (15.34) To enable the usage of the COI.31) In some applications. one has to set COI numbers nCOI in the definition of synchronous machines (see Table 15. The following algebraic relationship complete the model: ψd ψq = e′′ − (x′′ − xl )id q d = −e′′ − (x′′ − xl )iq d q (15.30) In order to compute correct eigenvalues for the small signal stability analysis. To define several COIs. In PSAT. it is useful to refer machine angles and speeds to the Center of Inertia (COI).1).32) (15. By default. However.1. Use same COI numbers to group synchronous machines in the same COI. or checking the box “Use Center of Inertia (COI)” in the general settings GUI. Each number defines a COI.coi = 1. single cage rotor model.

2 Induction Motor 159 and given the relationship between the slip σ and the speed ω in p. The differential equation is as follows: σ= ˙ 1 rR1 V 2 /σ Tm (σ) − 2Hm (rS + rR1 /σ)2 + (xS + xR1 )2 (15. Only the mechanical state variable is considered. e.4. 2.37) . r 7.36) = c Table 15. being the circuit in steady-state condition. con: induction motor data. e2m: imaginary part of 2st cage voltage e′′ indexes. r 9.15. e1m: imaginary part of 1st cage voltage e′ indexes. e1r: real part of 1st cage voltage e′ indexes. Following subsections describe the detailed models of the three induction motor models. 4. slip: slip σ indexes. If the machine is marked for start up. n: total number of induction motors. σ = 1 for t ≤ tup . The induction machine is defined in the Mot structure. dat: induction motor parameters. bus: numbers of buses to which induction motors are connected. m 10. which has the following fields: 1.2. 15. m 8. 3..g. e2r: real part of 2st cage voltage e′′ indexes. u: connection status. 6. The iser can decide if connecting the induction machine directly in the power flow (sup = 0) or start up the machine at a given time tup (sup = 1). the torque/slip characteristic becomes: Tm = α + βσ + γσ 2 where α β γ = a+b+c = −b − 2c (15.u. σ = 1−ω. 5.3 depicts the data format of the induction machine.1 Order I The electrical circuit used for the first order induction motor is depicted in Fig. 15.

p. p.u.u.u. kWs/kVA p.u. p.u. p. 1} {0.u.u. of Tm (ω) 2nd coeff. p. V all all all V V all all all all all all all all 160 .u.u.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Variable Sn Vn fn sup rS xS rR1 xR1 rR2 xR2 xm Hm a b c tup u Description Bus number Power rating Voltage rating Frequency rating Model order Start-up control Stator resistance Stator reactance 1st cage rotor resistance 1st cage rotor reactance 2nd cage rotor resistance 2nd cage rotor reactance Magnetization reactance Inertia constant 1st coeff.u. p.Table 15. 1} all all all all all all III. s {0. p. of Tm (ω) 3rd coeff.3: Induction Motor Data Format (Mot. of Tm (ω) Start up time Allow working as brake Connection status Unit int MVA kV Hz int boolean p. p.

38) 15.42) vm − e′ m = rS im + x ir . the link between the network and the stator machine voltages is as follows: vr vm = −V sin θ = V cos θ (15.15.41) − (e′ m − (x0 − x ′ ′ )ir )/T0 whereas the link between voltages. The equations are formulated in terms of the real (r) and imaginary (m) axis.39) Using the notation of Fig. with respect to the network reference angle.5.4: Order I induction motor: electrical circuit.40) The differential equations in terms of the voltage behind the the stator resistance rS are: e′ ˙r e′ ˙m = = −Ωb σe′ r ′ Ωb σe′ − (e′ + (x0 − x′ )im )/T0 m r (15. In a synchronously rotating reference frame.5. 15.2. the power absorptions are: P = −(vr ir + vm im ) Q = −(vm ir − vr im ) (15. 15.2 Induction Motor xS xR1 161 V xm rR1 /σ Figure 15. currents and state variables is as follows: vr − e′ r = rS ir − x′ im ′ (15. whereas the power injections are: rR1 V 2 /σ (rS + rR1 /σ)2 + (xS + xR1 )2 (xS + xR1 )V 2 V2 − Q = − xm (rS + rR1 /σ)2 + (xS + xR1 )2 P = − (15.2 Order III (single cage) The simplified electrical circuit used for the single-cage induction motor is depicted in Fig.

machine real and imaginary axis are defined with respect to the network reference angle. where x0 . 15.47) vm − e′′ m = rS im + x ir .45) (15. Two voltages behind the stator resistance rS model the cage dynamics.3 Order V (double cage) The electrical circuit for the double-cage induction machine model is depicted in Fig.39) and (15.2. In analogy with the single-cage model.46) = ′ = −Ωb σe′ − (e′ − (x0 − x′ )ir )/T0 m r ′′ = −Ωb σ(e′ − e′′ ) + e′ − (e′ − e′′ − (x′ − x′′ )im )/T0 ˙r m m r m ′′ Ωb σ(e′ − e′′ ) + e′ − (e′ − e′′ + (x′ − x′′ )ir )/T0 ˙m r r m r and the links between voltages and currents are: vr − e′′ r = rS ir − x′′ im ′′ (15.5: Order III induction motor: electrical circuit.44) 15.6. as follows: e′ ˙r e′ ˙m e′′ ˙r e′′ ˙m = ′ Ωb σe′ − (e′ + (x0 − x′ )im )/T0 m r (15.40) apply.43) Finally.162 rS xS xR1 15 Machines vr vm ir im xm rR1 /σ Figure 15. and (15. the mechanical equation is as follows: σ = (Tm (σ) − Te )/(2Hm ) ˙ where the electrical torque is: Te = e′ ir + e′ im r m (15. x′ and T0 can be obtained from the motor parameters: x0 x ′ ′ T0 = xS + xm xR1 xm = xS + xR1 + xm xR1 + xm = Ωb rR1 (15.

44).43) and: x′′ ′′ T0 = xS + = xR1 xR2 xm xR1 xR2 + xR1 xm + xR2 xm xR2 + xR1 xm /(xR1 + xm ) Ωb rR2 (15.48) The differential equation for the slip is the (15.6: Order V induction motor: electrical circuit.49) r m .15.2 Induction Motor rS xS 163 ir vr vm im xR1 xR2 xm rR1 /σ rR2 /σ Figure 15. where the parameters are determined from the circuit resistances and reactances and are given by equations (15. while the electrical torque is defined as follows: Te = e′′ ir + e′′ im (15.

.

These are Turbine Governor (TG). Power System Stabilizer (PSS). and zout are the output variables (e. zin ) (16. 165 .g. as follows: x = f (x. the rotor speed in case of TGs). y. 7. 4. y the algebraic variables (e. n: total number of TGs. Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR). and a Power Oscillation Damper. as follows: 1.g. tg: indexes of state variable tg . TG data are stored in the structure Tg.1 Turbine Governor Turbine Governors (TGs) define the primary frequency regulation of synchronous machines. Over Excitation Limiter (OXL). 16. dat1: computed parameters for TG type 1. dat2: computed parameters for TG type 2. 3. zin ) ˙ zout = zout (x. 5.1) where x are the state variable of the component. the synchronous machine field voltage and mechanical torque). Control models are described by means of a set of differential equations. zin are the input variables (e. con: Turbine Governor data. syn: generator numbers.Chapter 16 Controls This chapter describes regulators and controllers included in PSAT.g. 2. y. Secondary Voltage Control system which includes Central Area Controllers (CACs) and Cluster Controllers (CCs) for coordinating AVRs and SVCs. 6. bus voltages in case of AVRs). tg1: indexes of state variable tg1 .

as follows: Rsystem = Ssystem Rmachine Smachine (16. the droop are converted to the system power base.7)). 9. If a limit is violated.1.3) represents the link in between the turbine governor and the synchronous machines.1 TG Type I 1 (ωref − ω) R ∗ if Tmin ≤ Tin ≤ Tmax ∗ if Tin > Tmax ∗ if Tin < Tmin The TG type I is depicted in Fig.4) where (16. 10. pm: indexes of algebraic variable pm . wref: indexes of algebraic variable ωref . Equation (16. 12. Each turbine governor model has two algebraic equations. as follows: 0 = pm − psyn m 0 = ωref0 − ωref (16.4) defines the turbine governor reference rotor speed. u: connection status. During initialization.1 and described by the following equations: ∗ Tin Tin ˙ tg1 ˙ tg2 ˙ tg3 Tmech = Torder +  ∗ Tin  = T  max  Tmin = (16. 11.1 depicts the data format of the TG type I.u. 16. an error message is displayed and the associated state variables are not properly initialized.166 16 Controls 8. tg2: indexes of state variable tg2 . tg3: indexes of state variable tg3 .2) Mechanical torque limits are checked at the initialization step. . The droop R and mechanical torque limits are in p.5) (Tin − tg1 )/Ts T3 = ((1 − )tg1 − tg2 )/Tc Tc T4 T3 = ((1 − )(tg2 + tg1 ) − tg3 )/T5 T5 Tc T3 T4 = tg3 + (tg2 + tg1 ) T5 Tc Table 16.3) (16. being psyn the algebraic variable that defines the synchronous m machine mechanical power (see also (15. with respect to the machine power rating. 16.

u. p.Torder Tmax ωref + 1/R − ω + + ∗ Tin Tin 1 Ts s + 1 T3 s + 1 Tc s + 1 Servo T4 s + 1 T5 s + 1 Reheat Tmech Tmin Governor Figure 16. s s s s s {0. 1} 167 .1: Turbine Governor Type I Data Format (Tg.u.u. Table 16.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Variable 1 ωref0 R Tmax Tmin Ts Tc T3 T4 T5 u Description Generator number Turbine governor type Reference speed Droop Maximum turbine output Minimum turbine output Governor time constant Servo time constant Transient gain time constant Power fraction time constant Reheat time constant Connection status Unit int int p.u. p. p.1: Turbine governor type I.

168

16 Controls

Tmech0 + 1/R − ω T1 s + 1 T2 s + 1 + Tmin
∗ Tmech

Tmax Tmech

ωref

+

Figure 16.2: Turbine governor type II.

Table 16.2: Turbine Governor Type II Data Format (Tg.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Variable 2 ωref0 R Tmax Tmin T2 T1 u Description Generator number Turbine governor type Reference speed Droop Maximum turbine output Minimum turbine output Governor time constant Transient gain time constant Not used Not used Not used Connection status Unit int int p.u. p.u. p.u. p.u. s s {0, 1}

16.1.2

TG Type II

The TG type II is depicted in Fig. 16.2 and described by the following equations: T1 1 (1 − )(ωref − ω) − tg )/T2 R T2 1 T1 = tg + (ωref − ω) + Tmech0 R T2  ∗ ∗ Tmech if Tmin ≤ Tmech ≤ Tmax  ∗ = T if Tmech > Tmax  max  ∗ Tmin if Tmech < Tmin (

˙ tg
∗ Tmech

=

(16.6)

Tmech

Table 16.2 depicts the data format of the TG type II.

16.2 Automatic Voltage Regulator

169

16.2

Automatic Voltage Regulator

Automatic Voltage Regulators (AVRs) define the primary voltage regulation of synchronous machines. Several AVR models have been proposed and realized in practice. PSAT allows to define three simple different types of AVRs. AVR Type I is a standard Italian regulator (ENEL), whereas AVR Type II is the standard IEEE model 1. AVR Type III is the simplest AVR model which can be used for rough stability evaluations. AVRs are stored in the structure Exc, which has the following fields: 1. con: data chart of the Exc components. 2. n: total number of automatic voltage regulators. 3. syn: generator numbers. 4. vref: indexes of algebraic variable vref . 5. vref0: reference voltage vref0 (initial value). 6. vr1: indexes of state variable vr1 . 7. vr2: indexes of state variable vr2 . 8. vr3: indexes of state variable vr3 . 9. vm: indexes of state variable vm . 10. vf: indexes of state variable vf . 11. u: connection status. The reference voltages vref are initialized after the power flow computations. Limits are checked at the initialization step. In case of violation, a warning message is displayed and AVR state variables are not correctly initialized. Each AVR model has two algebraic equations, as follows:
syn 0 = vf − vf

(16.7) (16.8)

0 = vref0 − vref

where (16.7) represents the link in between the AVR and the synchronous machines, syn being vf the algebraic variable that defines the synchronous machine field voltage (see also (15.8)). Equation (16.8) defines the AVR reference voltage.

16.2.1

AVR Type I
vm ˙ vr1 ˙ = = (V − vm )/Tr T2 (µ0 (1 − )(vref − vm ) − vr1 )/T1 T1 (16.9)

The AVR Type I is depicted in Fig. 16.3 and described by the following equations:

170

16 Controls

Se

vr max
∗ vr

vref

+ µ0 − vm

(T2 s + 1)(T4 s + 1) (T1 s + 1)(T3 s + 1)

vr +

1 Te s + 1

vf

vr min 1 Tr s + 1

V

Figure 16.3: Exciter Type I. T2 T3 )(vr1 + µ0 (vref − vm )) − vr2 )/T4 T4 T1 T2 T3 = vr2 + (vr1 + µ0 (vref − vm ) + vr1 ) T4 T1  ∗ ∗ vr if vr min ≤ vr ≤ vr max ,  ∗ = v if vr > vr max ,  r max  ∗ vr min if vr < vr min . ((1 −

vr2 ˙
∗ vr

=

vr vf ˙

= −(vf (1 + Se (vf )) − vr )/Te

where the ceiling function Se is: Se (vf ) = Ae (eBe |vf | − 1) Table 16.3 depicts the data format of AVR Type I. (16.10)

16.2.2

AVR Type II

The AVR Type II is depicted in Fig. 16.4 and described by the following equations: vm ˙ vr1 ˙ = (V − vm )/Tr (16.11)

vr

Kf = (Ka (vref − vm − vr2 − vf ) − vr1)/Ta Tf  vr1 if vr min ≤ vr1 ≤ vr max ,  = vr max if vr1 > vr max ,   vr min if vr1 < vr min .

16.2 Automatic Voltage Regulator

171

Table 16.3: Exciter Type I Data Format (Exc.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Variable 1 Vr max Vr min µ0 T1 T2 T3 T4 Te Tr Ae Be u Description Generator number Exciter type Maximum regulator voltage Minimum regulator voltage Regulator gain 1st pole 1st zero 2nd pole 2nd zero Field circuit time constant Measurement time constant 1st ceiling coefficient 2nd ceiling coefficient Connection status Unit int int p.u. p.u. p.u./p.u. s s s s s s {0, 1}

vr2 ˙ vf ˙

= −(

Kf vf + vr2 )/Tf Tf = −(vf (1 + Se (vf )) − vr )/Te

where the ceiling function Se is (16.10). The amplifier block is subjected to an anti-windup limit. Table 16.4 depicts the data format of AVR Type II.

16.2.3

AVR Type III

The AVR Type III is depicted in Fig. 16.5 and described by the following equations: vm ˙ vr ˙ vf ˙ = = = (V − vm )/Tr T1 (µ0 (1 − )(vref − vm ) − vr )/T2 T2 V T1 ((vr + µ0 (vref − vm ) + vf 0 ) − vf )/Te T2 V0 (16.12)

The initial field voltage Vf0 and bus voltage V0 are set at the initialization step. The field voltage vf is subjected to an anti-windup limiter. Table 16.5 depicts the data format of AVR Type III. The signal V /V0 is disabled if the value of V0 is set to zero.

Se vr max − +

vref

+ − vm 1 Tr s + 1

+ − vr min

Ka Ta s + 1

vr

1 Te s + 1

vf

Kf s Tf s + 1

V

Figure 16.4: Exciter Type II.

Table 16.4: Exciter Type II Data Format (Exc.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Variable 2 Vr max Vr min Ka Ta Kf Tf Te Tr Ae Be u Description Generator number Exciter type Maximum regulator voltage Minimum regulator voltage Amplifier gain Amplifier time constant Stabilizer gain Stabilizer time constant (not used) Field circuit time constant Measurement time constant 1st ceiling coefficient 2nd ceiling coefficient Connection status Unit int int p.u. p.u. p.u./p.u. s p.u./p.u. s s s {0, 1}

172

1/V0

vf max

V

1 Tr s + 1

vm − +

T1 s + 1 µ0 T2 s + 1

+ +

1 Te s + 1

vf

vref

vf 0

vf min

Figure 16.5: Exciter Type III.

Table 16.5: Exciter Type III Data Format (Exc.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Variable 3 vf max vf min µ0 T2 T1 vf 0 V0 Te Tr u Description Generator number Exciter type Maximum field voltage Minimum field voltage Regulator gain Regulator pole Regulator zero Field voltage offset Bus voltage offset Field circuit time constant Measurement time constant Not used Not used Connection status Unit int int p.u. p.u. p.u./p.u. s s p.u. p.u. s s {0, 1}

173

174

16 Controls

16.3

Power System Stabilizer

Power System Stabilizers (PSSs) are typically used for damping power system oscillations and many different models have been proposed in the literature. In addition to the simple PSS embedded in the synchronous machine equations (models III, IV, V.1, V.2 and VI), five models of PSS are implemented in PSAT. All models accept as input signals the rotor speed ω, the active power Pg and the bus voltage magnitude Vg of the generator to which the PSS is connected through the automatic voltage regulator. The PSS output signal is the state variable vs , which modifies the reference voltage vref of the AVR. the output signal vs is subjected to an anti-windup limiter and its dynamic is given by a small time constant Tǫ = 0.001 s.1 Note that PSSs cannot be used with order II generators. Each PSS model has two algebraic equations, as follows: 0 = gs (x, y) − vss 0 = vref0 − vref + vss (16.13) (16.14)

where (16.13) defines the PSS signal vss , and (16.14) sums the signal vss to the AVR reference voltage (see also (16.8)). PSSs are defined by the structure Pss, as follows: 1. con: PSS data. 2. n: total number of PSSs. 3. bus: bus numbers. 4. syn: synchronous machine numbers. 5. exc: automatic voltage regulator numbers. 6. v1: indexes of the state variable v1 . 7. v2: indexes of the state variable v2 . 8. v3: indexes of the state variable v3 . 9. va: indexes of the state variable va . 10. vss: indexes of the algebraic variable vss . 11. vref: indexes of the algebraic variable vref . 12. s1: current status of switches s1 . 13. u: connection status. The complete PSS data format is depicted in Table 16.6.
1 Observe that T is not defined by the user. However it can be changed directly in the function ǫ fm pss.m

Table 16.6: Power System Stabilizer Data Format (Pss.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Variable vsmax vsmin Kw Tw T1 T2 T3 T4 Ka Ta Kp Kv vamax ∗ vamin ∗ vsmax ∗ vsmin ethr ωthr s2 u Description AVR number PSS model PSS input signal 1 ⇒ ω, 2 ⇒ Pg , 3 ⇒ Vg Max stabilizer output signal Min stabilizer output signal Stabilizer gain (used for ω in model I) Wash-out time constant First stabilizer time constant Second stabilizer time constant Third stabilizer time constant Fourth stabilizer time constant Gain for additional signal Time constant for additional signal Gain for active power Gain for bus voltage magnitude Max additional signal (anti-windup) Max additional signal (windup) Max output signal (before adding va ) Min output signal (before adding va ) Field voltage threshold Rotor speed threshold Allow for switch S2 Connection status Unit int int int p.u. p.u. p.u./p.u. s s s s s p.u./p.u. s p.u./p.u. p.u./p.u. p.u. p.u. p.u. p.u. p.u. p.u. boolean {0, 1} all all III, IV, all all all all III, IV, III, IV, III, IV, III, IV, IV, V IV, V I I IV, V IV, V IV, V IV, V IV, V IV, V IV, V all

II,

V

175

II, II, II, II,

V V V V

176

16 Controls

ω Kw Pg Kp + Vg Kv vs min + + Tw s Tw s + 1 1 Tǫ s + 1

vs max

vref0 + +

vs

vref

Figure 16.6: Power system stabilizer Type I.
vs max vSI Kw Tw s Tw s + 1 T1 s + 1 T2 s + 1 T3 s + 1 T4 s + 1 1 Tǫ s + 1 vs min vs

Figure 16.7: Power system stabilizer Type II.

16.3.1

Type I

PSS Type I is depicted in Fig. 16.6, and is described by the following differential equation: v1 ˙ vs ˙ = −(Kw ω + Kp Pg + Kv Vg + v1 )/Tw (16.15)

=

(Kw ω + Kp Pg + Kv Vg + v1 − vs )/Tǫ

where ω, Pg and Vg are the rotor speed, the active power and the voltage magnitude of the generator to which the PSS is connected through the AVR.

16.3.2

Type II

The PSS Type II is depicted in Fig. 16.7, and is described by the equations: v1 ˙ v2 ˙ v3 ˙ vs ˙ = −(Kw vSI + v1 )/Tw T1 = ((1 − )(Kw vSI + v1 ) − v2 )/T2 T2 T1 T3 = ((1 − )(v2 + ( (Kw vSI + v1 ))) − v3 )/T4 T4 T2 T1 T3 = (v3 + (v2 + (Kw vSI + v1 )) − vs )/Tǫ T4 T2 (16.16)

S1 closes if the machine field voltage is lower than a threshold value vf < ethr and remains closed even after vf ≥ ethr .3.3.4 Over Excitation Limiter 177 vs max vSI Kw Tw s Tw s + 1 T1 s2 + T3 s + 1 T2 s + T4 s + 1 vs min 2 1 Tǫ s + 1 vs Figure 16. The OXL is modeled as a .8: Power system stabilizer Type III.4 Over Excitation Limiter Over excitation limiters (OXLs) provide an additional signal vOXL to the reference voltage vref0 of automatic voltage regulators (AVRs).17) The PSS Type III is depicted in Fig. being the switch S1 open. 16. 16. It is possible to enable the action of a second switch S2 after the lag block of the additional signal va .18) 16.10. The block diagrams are depicted in Figs. The additional signal va is generally disabled.16. 16. S2 closes when the rotor speed deviation ∆ω < 0 and remains closed even after ∆ω ≥ 0. S1 opens if the rotor speed is lower than a threshold value ω < ωthr .8.9 and 16. If S2 is enabled.3 Type III v1 ˙ v2 ˙ v3 ˙ vs ˙ = −(Kw vSI + v1 )/Tw = a1 v3 + a2 (Kw vSI + v1 ) = −v2 + a3 v3 + a4 (Kw vSI + v1 ) T3 = (v2 + (Kw vSI + v1 ) − vs )/Tǫ T4 1 T4 T3 1 (T1 − T2 ) = T4 T4 T2 = − T4 T2 T3 T3 = 1− − (T1 − T2 ) T4 T4 T4 = (16.4 Type IV and V PSS Type IV and V are a slight variation of Type II and III respectively. 16. it stays generally open. and is described by the equations: where a1 a2 a3 a4 (16.

178 .9: Power system stabilizer Type IV. va max ∗ va max Ka S1 Ta s + 1 S2 0 ∗ vs max vs max + 1 Tǫ s + 1 vs min vSI Kw Tw s Tw s + 1 T1 s2 + T3 s + 1 T2 s2 + T4 s + 1 ∗ vs min vs + Figure 16.va max ∗ va max Ka S1 Ta s + 1 S2 0 ∗ vs max vs max + 1 Tǫ s + 1 vs min vSI Kw Tw s Tw s + 1 T1 s + 1 T2 s + 1 T3 s + 1 T4 s + 1 ∗ vs min vs + Figure 16.10: Power system stabilizer Type V.

5. Observe that the definition of the current limiter needs the values of the reactances xd and xq of the generator at which the OXL is connected through the AVR. v: indexes of the state variable vOXL . as follows: 0 = 2 (Vg + γq )2 + Pg + ( γq (Vg + γq ) + γp xd − if + 1) xq 2 (Vg + γq )2 + Pg (16. This regulator is generally sleeping. It is implicitely assumed that at the initial condition given by the power flow solution.19) Each OXL model has also two algebraic equations. unless the field current is greater than its thermal limit (if > if lim ). i.syn are connected. exc: index of AVR to which the OXL is connected. as illustrated in Table 16. 2. These values can be automatically grabbed from the synchronous machine data or set by the user along with the other data. n: total number of over excitation limiters. Equation (16. and (16. vref: indexes of the algebraic variables vref . a warning message is shown and the initialization is not correctly completed. vOXL = 0.16. 16. with anti-windup hard limits (see Fig. 4. bus: index of bus at which the generators Oxl. If: indexes of the algebraic variables If . . respectively. all if <= if lim .7.11).21) sums the signal vOXL to the AVR reference voltage (see also (16. that has the following fields: 1. 3. syn: index of synchronous machine to which the OXL is connected through the AVR. 6.4 Over Excitation Limiter 179 pure integrator.20) (16. If the filed current exceeds its limits. The differential equation for the OXL is as follows: vOXL = (if − if ˙ vOXL = 0 ˙ lim )/T0 if if > if if if ≤ if lim lim (16. con: data chart of the Oxl components. thus leading to vOXL = 0 at t = 0.20) approximates the synchronous machine field current if . and Pg and Qg are the active and the reactive power of the generator.8)). OXLs are stored in the structure Oxl. 7.21) 0 = vref0 − vref + vOXL where γp γq = xq Pg /Vg = xq Qg /Vg and Vg is the voltage at the generator bus. 8.e.

180 16 Controls vref0 − + if 0 if (Pg . Vg ) + − if lim 1 T0 s vOXL vref AVR Generator Network Figure 16.D.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Variable T0 xd xq If lim vmax u Description AVR number Integrator time constant Use estimated generator reactances d-axis estimated generator reactance q-axis estimated generator reactance Maximum field current Maximum output signal Connection status Unit int s {0.11: Over excitation limiter. p. p.7: Over Excitation Limiter Data Format (Oxl.u.u. 16. 1} 9. 1} p. . {0. p. Qg .5 Secondary Voltage Control A Secondary Voltage Control is included in PSAT by means of a Central Area Controller (CAC) which controls the voltage at a pilot bus.22) 2 These models were realized in collaboration with Sameh Kamel Mena Kodsi. candidate at University of Waterloo.2 Figure 16.u.12 depicts the secondary voltage control scheme.u. The output signal vOXL is added to the reference voltage vref0 of the AVR to which the OXL is connected. the default value (T0 = 10s) will be used. which compare the CAC signal with the reactive power generated by synchronous machines and/or SVCs and modify the reference voltages of AVRs and SVCs. Table 16. CAC equations are as follows: q1 ˙ q = KI (VPref − VP ) = q1 + KP (VPref − VP ) (16. u: connection status. and Cluster Controllers (CC). If no value is set for T0 . Ph.

syn: indexes of generators 5. u: connection status Tables 16.9 depicts the data format of Central Area and Cluster Controllers. Central Area and Cluster Controllers are stored in the structures CAC and Cluster. Vs: indexes of the state variable Vs 8. bus: indexes of generator or SVC buses 4. svc: indexes of SVCs 7. u: connection status Cluster Controller Data 1. xtg are the reactances of the transformers connected to the generators and xeqg and xeqsvc are equivalent reactances computed considering the pilot bus and the generator or the SVC bus. n: total number of CC 3.23) where vsg and vssvc are the output signals of CCs for AVR and SVC regulators respectively.5 Secondary Voltage Control 181 whereas the CC equations are: vs g = ˙ vssvc ˙ 1 (xtg + xeqg )(Qgr q − Qg ) Tg 1 = xeq (Qsvcr q − Qsvc ) Tsvc svc (16. con: Cluster Controller data 2. There is no limitation in the number of CC connected to a CAC.8 and 16. bus: indexes of pilot buses 4.16. as follows: Central Area Controller Data 1. CAC and CC integrators are subjected to anti-windup limiters. q1: indexes of the state variable q1 5. avr: indexes of AVRs 6. n: total number of CAC 3. con: Central Area Controller data 2. . Each CAC has to be connected at least to one CC.

8: Central Area Controller Data Format (CAC.12: Secondary voltage control scheme. p. {0.u.u. Table 16.Central Area Controller q1max VPref + KP + KI /s − q1min Network q VP Pilot Bus Cluster Controllers vsg max vgref q Qgref + xtg + xeq vs g + + AVR _ Qgr Qg vsg min sTg vssvc max + vsvcref + + SVC Control q Qsvcref xeq vssvc _ Qsvcr Qsvc vssvc min sTsvc Figure 16. p.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Variable Sn Vn VPref KI KP q1max q1min u Description Pilot bus number Power rating Voltage rating number of connected CC Reference pilot bus voltage Integral control gain Proportional control gain Maximum output signal Minimum output signal Connection status Unit int MVA kV int p. p.u.u.u. p. 1} 182 .

(2) SVC Integral time constant Generator transformer reactance Equivalent reactance Reactive power ratio Maximum output signal Minimum output signal Connection status Unit int int int s p. the controlled bus can be any “controllable” bus.u.u. Alberto Alberto Del Rosso. Line reactive power flow Qij . 16.16) and Fig. STATCOM.br and mcastro@dsce. 6.unicamp. that has the following fields: 3 Hugo M.6 Power Oscillation Damper 183 Table 16. Line active power flow Pij . Brasil.6 Power Oscillation Damper This section describes a Power Oscillation Damper (POD). Line active power flow Pji . where i and j indicates “from bus” and “to bus”.u. SSSC and UPFC components (see Chapter 18 for details). Line current flow Iji .9: Cluster Controller Data Format (Cluster. 2. 4.16. and with National University of Technology. Washington D. 7. 5. Madrid. 1} 16. E-mail: adelrosso@mercadosenergeticos. An important contribution was given also by Dr. The input signal vSI can be as follows: 1. TCSC. Buenos Aires. The controlled line can be any transmission line and any not regulated transformer.C. Bus voltage magnitude V . The output signal fo the POD can be used with SVC. 3.br 4 Dr. p.com . Ayres and Marcelo S. any bus which is not controlled by other control loops such as LTC transformers. Line reactive power flow Qji . PODs are stored in the structure Pod. Buenos Aires.3 .con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Variable Tg (Tsvc ) xtg xeqg (xeqsvc ) Qgr (Qsvcr ) Vsmax Vsmin u Description Central Area Controller number AVR or SVC number Control type (1) AVR. Line current flow Iij . i.u. p. UNICAMP. respectively. Castro. This model has been implemented by Hugo M.u.unicamp.7). Alberto Del Rosso is with Mercados Energeticos. {0. Ayres and Marcelo S.fee.fee. Castro are with Faculdade de Engenharia El´trica e e de Computa¸ao. p.e.4 The differential equations as well as the control scheme of the POD are the same as the PSS Type II (see equations (16. c˜ E-mail: hmayres@dsce. p.

/p. 3. n: total number of PODs. v: indexes of the state variable v1 .10. v: indexes of the state variable v2 . p. s s s s s s {0.u.u. v: indexes of the state variable v3 .u. u: connection status. 8. 2. 7. 5.184 16 Controls Table 16. 6. svc: index of SVCs to which the PODs are connected. p. 4.10: Power Oscillation Dampe Data Format (Pod. . The data format of PODs components is depicted in Table 16.con) Column 1 2 Variable Description Bus or line number FACTS number 1 Bus voltage V 2 Line active power Pij 3 Line active power Pji Input signal 4 Line current Iij 5 Line current Iji 6 Line reactive power Qij 7 Line reactive power Qji 1 SVC 2 TCSC FACTS type 3 STATCOM 4 SSSC 5 UPFC Max stabilizer output signal Min stabilizer output signal Stabilizer gain (used for ω in model I) Wash-out time constant First stabilizer time constant Second stabilizer time constant Third stabilizer time constant Fourth stabilizer time constant Low pass time constant for output signal Connection status Unit int int 3 - int 4 - int 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 vsmax vsmin Kw Tw T1 T2 T3 T4 Tr u p.u. 1} 1. con: data chart of the Pod components. Vs: indexes of the state variable vs .

The tap ratio is subjected to an anti-windup limiter. the reactive power Qm (type 2).1. the ULTC model is continuous and differential equations are used for the controls.2 depicts the ULTC control block diagrams. The voltage control equation is as follow: m = −Hm + K(Vm(r) − vref ) ˙ (17. Figure 17.1 Under Load Tap Changer The equivalent π circuit of the Under Load Tap Changer (ULTC) transformer is depicted in Fig. For the reactive power control. Three quantities can be controlled. The algebraic equations of the power injections are as follows: Pk Qk Pm Qm 2 = Vk gT − mVk Vm (gT cos θkm + bT sin θkm ) 2 = −Vk bT − mVk Vm (g sin θkm − b cos θkm ) (17. the secondary voltage Vm (type 1). If the tap ratio step ∆m = 0. 185 . a similar equation holds: m = −Hm + K(Qref + Qm ) ˙ (17.1) 2 = m2 Vm gT − mVk Vm (gT cos θkm − bT sin θkm ) 2 = −m2 Vm bT + mVk Vm (gT sin θkm + bT cos θkm ) where θkm = θk − θm and gT + jbT = 1/(rT + jxT ) is the series admittance of the transformer.Chapter 17 Regulating Transformers This chapter describes dynamic models and data formats of the Under Load Tap Changer (ULTC) and the Phase Shifthing Transformer (PST).2) where the negative sign for the error Vm(r) −vref is due to the stability characteristic of the non-linear control loop. 17. No magnetising shunt is considered. The presented models are included in power flow analysis and do not need refactorization. i. 17.e. and the remote voltage Vr (type 3).3) where it is assumed that Qm is inductive and injected at the bus m.

1) and voltage dependent loads (Section 14. The algebraic equations of the component are as follows: P = −Pn V m V m α (17. 6. a discrete model is used. as follows: mk+1 = mk + ∆mR where R is a relay type function:  1  R = −1   0 (17.4) if u − uref > ∆u if u − uref < −∆u if |u − uref | ≤ ∆u (17.1 The transformer model consists of an ideal circuit with tap ratio m and the voltage on the secondary winding is modeled as Vs = V /m.186 17 Regulating Transformers If the tap ratio step ∆m > 0.6) β Q = −Qn 1 A similar. 5. 17. 7. m: indexes of the state variable m.3 depicts a simplified model of ULTC with embedded voltage dependent load. n: total number of ULTCs.1). the power flow routine does not reach any convergence.2. The data format is reported in Table 17. Table 17. as follows: 1. The bus number r can be r = 0 if local voltage or reactive power control are used. dat: ULTC parameters. If this control is set. 2. the tap ratio is considered equal to 1.1 reports the ULTC data format. more detailed model can be obtained using ULTCs (Section 17. or the message badly scaled Jacobian matrix is displayed. 3. u: connection status. . It is not allowed to control the voltage on a PV generator or the reactive power of a PQ load. bus2: numbers of buses m (secondary winding).u. con: ULTCs data. The voltage control is obtained by means of a quasi-integral anti-windup regulator. and in nominal condition. uref the reference signal and ∆u the error tolerance.2 Load Tap Changer With Embedded Load Figure 17. The data used for the transformer and the control are in p. bus1: numbers of buses k (primary winding)..5) where u is the input signal (voltage or reactive power). ULTC are defined in the structure Ltc. 4.

2: Under Load Tap Changer: voltage and reactive power controls.1: Under Load Tap Changer: equivalent π circuit.¯ Vk m¯ y ¯ Vm (1 − m)¯ y (m2 − m)¯ y Figure 17. mmax Vref − + K H +s LTC & Network Vm (Vr ) mmin mmax Qref + + K H +s LTC & Network Qm mmin Figure 17. 187 .

1} 188 .u. 1/s p. p.1: Load Tap Changer Data Format (Ltc.u.u.u. p. p./p.u. p. int int {0.u.u.Table 17./p.u.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Variable k m Sn Vn fn kT H K mmax mmin ∆m Vref (Qref ) xT rT r u Description Bus number (from) Bus number (to) Power rating Voltage rating Frequency rating Nominal tap ratio Integral deviation Inverse time constant Max tap ratio Min tap ratio Tap ratio step Reference voltage (power) Transformer reactance Transformer resistance Remote control bus number 1 Secondary voltage Vm Control 2 Reactive power Qm 3 Remote voltage Vr Connection status Unit int int MVA kV Hz kV/kV p.u./p.u. p.

17. bus: number of buses to which the ULTCs are connected. n: total number of ULTCs.5 depicts the PST control block diagrams. The algebraic equations of the power injections are as follows: Pk Qk Pm Qm 2 = Vk gT − mVk Vm (gT cos(θkm − α) + bT sin(θkm − α)) 2 = −Vk bT − mVk Vm (g sin(θkm − α) − b cos(θkm − α)) (17. The measure . u: connection status. 2. con: ULTC with embedded load data.7) ULTCs with embedded voltage dependent load are defined in the structure Tap. No magnetising shunt is considered. 4. 17. 17.3 Phase Shifting Transformer The equivalent circuit of the Phase Shifting Transformer (PST) is depicted in Fig.8) 2 = m2 Vm gT − mVk Vm (gT cos(θkm − α) − bT sin(θkm − α)) 2 2 = −m Vm bT + mVk Vm (gT sin(θkm − α) + bT cos(θkm − α)) where θkm = θk − θm and gT + jbT = 1/(rT + jxT ) is the series admittance of the transformer. 5.3: Load Tap Changer with embedded load. 3. Figure 17.4. as follows: 1. and the scalar differential equation is: m = −hm + k ˙ V − vref m (17. m: indexes of the state variable m.3 Phase Shifting Transformer 189 mmax V ∠θ m:1 1 h + ks Vs P = Pn Vsα Q = Qn Vsβ mmin Figure 17.

n: total number of PSTs. 7.u.u. p.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Variable Sn Vn h k mmin mmax vref Pn Qn α β u Description Bus number Power rating Voltage rating Deviation from integral behaviour Inverse of time constant Maximum tap ratio Minimum tap ratio Reference voltage Nominal active power Nominal reactive power Voltage exponent (active power) Voltage exponent (reactive power) Connection status Unit int MVA kV p. 3.u. as this would lock the total real power transfer between the two areas.2: Tap Changer with Embedded Load Data Format (Tap. The data format is reported in Table 17. 1} Pmes of the real power flow Pk is compared with the desired power flow Pref and a PI controller is used for varying the phase angle α./p.9) = The phase angle α is subjected to an anti-windup limiter. p. 6. . p. Differential equations are as follows: α ˙ ˙ Pmes = Kp (Pk − Pmes )/Tm + Ki (Pmes − Pref ) (Pk − Pmes )/Tm (17. u: connection status.u.3. p. Pm: indexes of the state variable Pmes . con: PST data.190 17 Regulating Transformers Table 17.u.u. It is not allowed to connect two areas of a network only by means of PSTs. 2. Phase angle regulating transformers are defined in the structure Phs./p. p. 1/s p.u. alpha: indexes of the state variable α. as follows: 1. {0. bus2: numbers of buses m (secondary winding). 5.u.u. p.u. bus1: numbers of buses k (primary winding). 4.

4: Phase shifting transformer circuit. 191 . αmax Pref − + K p s + Ki s PHS & Network Pkm αmin Pmes 1 Tm s + 1 Figure 17.5: Phase shifting transformer control scheme.¯ Vk m¯ y ¯′ Vm 1ejα : 1 ¯ Vm (1 − m)¯ y (m2 − m)¯ y Figure 17.

u.u.u./p.Table 17. rad rad p. p.3: Phase Shifting Transformer Data Format (Phs. {0. 1} 192 .u.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Variable k m Sn Vn1 Vn2 fn Tm Kp Ki Pref rT xT αmax αmin m u Description Bus number (from) Bus number (to) Power rating Primary voltage rating Secondary voltage rating Frequency rating Measurement time constant Proportional gain Integral gain Reference power Transformer resistance Transformer reactance Maximum phase angle Minimum phase angle Transformer fixed tap ratio Connection status Unit int int MVA kV kV Hz s p.u. p.

TCR are represented by Static Var Compensator (SVC) and Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC) . which is the output of the Power Oscillation Damper described in Section 16.fee.1) Q = gp (xc .br and mcastro@dsce. firing angles). the PV generator must be placed at the sending end bus. Since version 2. xs . SVC. u) = fs (xc . xs are the controlled state variables (e. Ayres and Marcelo S. i. θ) where xc are the control system variables.unicamp. they are vectors in case of series components. In particular. V. STATCOMs and UPFCs. such as reference voltages or reference power flows. xs . PSAT is provided with new FACTS models. θ) (18. V. An important contribution was given also by Dr.fee.g. require a PV generator to be properly initialized. Ayres and Marcelo S. Alberto 1 Hugo M. These new models have been implemented by Hugo M.e. Castro. SVCs. xs .br 193 .6. xs . Shunt components. SSSC and UPFC models have an additional stabilizing signal vPOD . the variables u represent the input control parameters. V. and the algebraic variables V and θ are the voltage amplitudes and phases at the buses at which the components are connected. TCSC. STATCOM. the Static Synchronous Source Series Compensator (SSSC) and the Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) .1 . θ. c˜ E-mail: hmayres@dsce. which basically substitute the old ones. V.Chapter 18 FACTS This chapter describes the models of Thyristor Controlled Reactor (TCR) and Voltage Sourced Inverter (VSI) based Flexible ac Transmission System (FACTS) Controllers and High Voltage dc (HVDC) transmission system. Castro are with Faculdade de Engenharia El´trica e e de Computa¸ao. Each model is described by a set of differential algebraic equations: xc ˙ xs ˙ P = fc (xc . In the case of UPFCs. Finally. θ) = gp (xc .unicamp. Brasil. whereas VSI are the Static Var Compensator (STATCOM). UNICAMP.

Washington D. The first one assumes a time constant regulator. E-mail: adelrosso@mercadosenergeticos. Alberto Del Rosso. the model can be developed with respect to a sinusoidal voltage. a PV generator with zero active 2 Dr. The SVCs state variables are initialized after the power flow solution. 18.1: SVC Type 1 Regulator. fundamental frequency operation. Thus. Table 18. The second model takes into account the firing angle α. as depicted in Fig. a total reactance bSVC is assumed and the following differential equation holds: ˙ bSVC = (Kr (Vref + vPOD − V ) − bSVC )/Tr (18. Buenos Aires. Madrid. assuming a balanced. Buenos Aires.1. To impose the desired voltages at the compensated buses.3) The regulator has an anti-windup limiter.1 reports the data and control parameter format for the SVC type 1. In this model.2 18. and with National University of Technology.4) T1 (vM − KM V ) + K(Vref + vPOD − vM ))/T2 α = (−KD α + K ˙ T2 TM 2α − sin 2α − π(2 − xL /xC ) 2 Q = V = bSVC (α)V 2 πxL = The state variable α undergoes an anti-windup limiter.C.com . thus the reactance bSVC is locked if one of its limits is reached and the first derivative is set to zero. The differential and algebraic equations are as follows: vM ˙ (KM V − vM )/TM (18. Alberto Del Rosso is with Mercados Energeticos.1 SVC Two SVC regulators are implemented in the program.194 18 FACTS vPOD + bmax V − Kr Tr s + 1 bSVC + Vref bmin Figure 18.2) The model is completed by the algebraic equation expressing the reactive power injected at the SVC node: Q = bSVC V 2 (18.

After the power flow solution the PV bus is removed and the SVC equations are used. . {0.1: SVC Type 1 Data Format (Svc. Table 18.1 and Fig. 5.u. 2. 4. During the state variable initialization a check for SVC limits is performed.2: SVC Type 2 Regulator.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 17 Variable Sn Vn fn 1 Tr Kr Vref bmax bmin u Description Bus number Power rating Voltage rating Frequency rating Model type Regulator time constant Regulator gain Reference Voltage Maximum susceptance Minimum susceptance Connection status Unit int MVA kV Hz int s p. 18. p. p./p. bcv: indexes of the state variable bSVC . Finally. p. n: total number of SVC. 6. The SVC components are defined in the structure Svc with the following fields: 1.u. 1} power should be used. alpha: indexes of the state variable α.1 SVC αmax 195 vPOD vM + V KM TM s + 1 − K(T1 s + 1) T 2 s + KD α + Vref αmin Figure 18. 3.replacemen 18.u. vbus: indexes of bus voltages.2 report the complete data format and the control block diagram for the SVC model 2.u. bus: SVC bus numbers. con: SVC data.u. Table 18.

vm: indexes of the state variable vM . rad rad p. 18. vref: indexes of the algebraic variable Vref .196 18 FACTS Table 18.u.2: SVC Type 2 Data Format (Svc. The TCSC differential equation are as follows: . 10. p. s p.u.u.3. {0.u./p.u.2 TCSC TCSC regulator is depicted in Fig. 9./p. The system undergoes the algebraic equations: Pkm Pmk Qkm Qmk = Vk Vm (Ykm + B) sin(θk − θm ) (18.u.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Variable Sn Vn fn 2 T2 K Vref αf max αf min KD T1 KM TM xL xC u Description Bus number Power rating Voltage rating Frequency rating Model type Regulator time constant Regulator gain Reference Voltage Maximum firing angle Minimum firing angle Integral deviation Transient regulator time constant Measure gain Measure time delay Reactance (inductive) Reactance (capacitive) Connection status Unit int MVA kV Hz int s p. and Ykm is the admittance of the line at which the TCSC is connected. s p. p. 18. 1} 7. 8.u. u: connection status.u.5) = −Pkm 2 = Vk (Ykm + B) − Vk Vm (Ykm + B) cos(θk − θm ) 2 = Vm (Ykm + B) − Vk Vm (Ykm + B) cos(θk − θm ) where the indexes k and m stand for the sending and recieving bus indices. Be: equivalent admittances bSVC . respectively.

αmax Pkm + − KP + KI /s xc0 . α0 − Kr + Pref 1 Tr s + 1 xc . α0 }.8) {xc0 . α0 } = KP (Pkm − Pref ) + x2 (18.18. as follows: B(xc ) = − or xc /xkm xkm (1 − xc /xkm ) (18.10) . depending on the TCSC model. The PI controller is enabled only for the constant power flow operation mode.3: TCSC Regulator.9) kx = xC xL During the power flow analysis the TCSC is modeled as a constant capacitive reactance that modifies the line reactance xkm . αmin Figure 18.6) The state variable x1 = {xc . x1 ˙ x2 ˙ where = = KI (Pkm − Pref ) ({xc0 . as follows: x′ = (1 − cp )xkm km (18. α) B xc min . α0 } + Kr vPOD − x1 )/Tr (18. The output signal is the series susceptance B of the TCSC.2 TCSC 197 vPOD xc max .7) 4 2 B(α) = π(kx − 2kx + 1) cos kx (π − α)/ 4 xC πkx cos kx (π − α) 4 − π cos kx (π − α) − 2kx α cos kx (π − α) 2 4 + 2αkx cos kx (π − α) − kx sin 2α cos kx (π − α) 2 3 + kx sin 2α cos kx (π − α) − 4kx cos2 α sin kx (π − α) 2 − 4kx cos α sin α cos kx (π − α) (18. α B(xc .

18. The dynamic model is shown in Fig. 4. 2. The STATCOM current is always kept in quadrature in relation to the bus voltage so that only reactive power is exchanged between the ac system and the STATCOM.3 STATCOM The implemented STATCOM model is a current injection model which is based on [36. 53]. The TCSC data format is depicted in Table 18. B: series admittance B. x2: indexes of state variables x2 . respectively. 7. Table 18. 11. bus2: bus numbers m (to). 6. The Tcsc class has the following public fields: 1. 18. The differential equation and the reactive power injected at the STATCOM node are given.198 18 FACTS where cp is the percentage of series compensation.12) Q = iSH V .3. At this step. x0: initial series reactance x0 . 95. 14. Pref: reference power flow Pref . Cp: amount of series compensation cp .4 where it can be seen that the STATCOM assumes a time constant regulator like SVC. 10. line: line number i. u: connection status. 5. by: ˙ iSH = (Kr (Vref + vPOD − V ) − iSH )/T r (18. n: total number of TCSCs. The TCSC state variables are initaliazed after the power flow analysis as well as the reference power of the PI controller Pref . con: TCSC data. 3.3 reports the data format of TCSCs components. bus1: bus numbers k (from). In case of limit violation a warning message is displayed. a check of xc and/or α anti-windup limits is performed.11) (18. 9. 13. sscl: indexes of the SSCL connected to the TCSC. y: line admittance 1/xkm . x1: indexes of state variables x1 . 12. 8.

u.u. 1} 199 .3: TCSC Data Format (Tcsc.Table 18.u./p.u.u./p.u. p./p. p. {0. p.u.u.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Variable i Sn Vn fn Cp Tr xmax (αmax ) C xmin (αmin ) C KP KI xL xC Kr u Description Line number Reactance xC Firing angle α 1 Constant xC Operation mode 2 Constant Pkm 1 Constant Pkm Scheduling strategy 2 Constant θkm Power rating Voltage rating Frequency rating Percentage of series compensation Regulator time constant Maximum reactance (firing angle) Minimum reactance (firing angle) Proportional gain of PI controller Integral gain of PI controller Reactance (inductive) Reactance (capacitive) Gain of the stabilizing signal Connection status Model type 1 2 Unit int int int int MVA kV Hz % s rad rad p. p.

4: STATCOM Data Format (Statcom. {0. n: total number of STATCOM. 3.4. Table 18./p. p.u.200 18 FACTS Vk ∠θk vPOD + imax V ¯SH i − Kr Tr s + 1 iSH + Vref imin Figure 18.u. and its components are defined in the structure Statcom with the following fields: 1. 4. 7.4: STATCOM circuit and control block diagram. Table 18. 1} The regulator has an non-windup limiter. bus: STATCOM bus numbers.4 reports the data and control parameters format for the STATCOM block.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Variable k Sn Vn fn Tr Kr Imax Imin u Description Bus number Power rating Voltage rating Frequency rating Regulator time constant Regulator gain Maximum current Minimum current Connection status Unit int MVA kV Hz s p. 5. Vref: reference voltage of the STATCOM regulator. The STATCOM data format is depicted in Table 18.u. 2. con: STATCOM data. ist: indexes of the state variable iSH . 6. sscl: indexes of the SSCL connected to the STATCOM. u: connection status. thus the current iSH is locked if one of its limits is reached and the first derivative is set to zero. . p.u.

Three different control modes are implemented for the SSSC: 1) constant voltage. The voltage vS is always ¯ ¯ kept in quadrature with line current. 67. so the input vS0 = const. 2) constant reactance. 3) Constant power flow: Constant power control mode: In this mode.4 SSSC The implemented SSSC model is based on [109.13) = −Pkm = = Vk (Vk − Vm cos(θk − θm ) xkm Vm (1 + ǫ) (Vm − Vk cos(θk − θm ) xkm (1 + ǫ) vS 2 2 Vk + Vm − 2Vk vm cos θkm (18.6.6 and the differential equation that describes the dynamic behavior of the SSSC is: vS = (vS0 + vPOD−vS )/Tr ˙ (18.18.15) The input vS0 determines the SSSC operation mode which in turn determines the value of the SSSC voltage vS in steady-state. Two strategies are implemented for the constant power flow control mode: .4 SSSC 201 18. 2) Constant reactance: The magnitude of the voltage vS varies proportionally to the line current keeping constant the total impedance (reactance in fact) of the transmission line where the SSSC is installed.14) The SSSC dynamic model is illustrated in Fig. In this operation mode the input vS0 is as follows: vS0 = kxkm Ikm (18. the voltage vS0 is the output of a PI controller used to control the power flow in transmission systems. 18. The total active and reactive power flows in a transmission line with a SSSC are as follows: Pkm Pmk Qkm Qmk where ǫ= = (1 + ǫ) Vk Vm sin(θk − θm ) xkm (18..5. and xkm is the reactance of the transmission line.16) where k is the degree of series compensation. as shown in Fig. 74]. For each control mode. Ikm is the magnitude of the line current. and 3) constant power flow. 18. The SSSC is represented by a series voltage source vS . Thus the only controllable parameter is the magnitude vS . 18. the input voltage vS0 is given as follows: 1) Constant voltage: The magnitude of the voltage vS at steady-state is kept constant independently of the line current. as depicted in Fig.

5 reports the complete data format for the SSSC. The SSSC components are stored in the structure Sssc. xcs: compensation reactance (1 − cp )xkm . 4. bus2: bus numbers m (to). . 3. 6. 3. 7. Pref: reference power flow Pref . vpi: indexes of the state variable of the PI controller. 14. V0: initial compensation voltage vS0 . vcs: indexes of the state variable vS . 9. n: total number of SSSC. 5.a) Constant line power : This control strategy is used to keep constant the power flow in the transmission line where the SSSC is installed. line: line numbers i. 12. u: connection status. bus1: bus numbers k (from). 3.b) Constant angle: This control strategy is used to control the power flow in a parallel transmission line. 13. 11. 8. Table 18. 10. which has the following fields: 1. sscl: indexes of the SSCL connected to the SSSC. y: line admittance 1/xkm . Cp: amount of series compensation cp . 2.202 ¯′ Vk + 18 FACTS Vk ∠θk − ¯ Ikm vS ¯ jxkm ¯ Imk Vm ∠θm Figure 18. con: SSSC data.5: SSSC circuit.

u. Table 18. p. int p.u./p.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 10 11 11 12 13 Variable i Sn Vn fn Cp Tr max vs min vs KP KI u Description Line number 1 Constant voltage Operation mode 2 Constant reactance 3 Constant power Power rating Voltage rating Frequency rating Percentage of series compensation Regulator time constant Maximum series voltage vs Minimum series voltage vs 1 Constant Pkm Scheduling type 2 Constant θkm Proportional gain of PI controller Integral gain of PI controller Connection status Unit int int MVA kV Hz % s p.u.6: SSSC control block diagram. {0.u.u.vPOD Pkm − + vS0 KP + KI /s − + vS max Pref 1 Tr s + 1 vS vS min Figure 18. p./p. 1} 203 .5: SSSC Data Format (Sssc.u.

18) 2 = brVk cos γ − iq Vk = −brVk Vm sin(γ + θk − θm ) = −brVk Vm cos(γ + θk − θm ) The UPFC dynamic model has a 3rd order.9. 18. The circuital model of the UPFC is obtained from the STATCOM and SSSC. . the input vp0 is set to zero so that the exchange of active power between the UPFC and the ac system only takes place when this variable is modulated by the POD controller (i. The input vq0 determines the value of the variable vq in steady-state. ¯ i The series voltage source and the shunt current source are defined as follows: vS ¯ ¯SH i = = ¯ (vp + vq )ejφ = rVk ejγ (ip + iq )ejθk (18. 66. 73].19) where u1 .7. as depicted in Fig.8. Two control modes are implemented for this variable: 1. 18.204 18 FACTS 18. and the power equations that describe the power injection model of the UPFC are: Pkm Qkm Pmk Qmk = brVk Vm sin(γ + θk − θm ) (18.5 UPFC The implemented UPFC model is based on [89. 18. vq . vq : This variable represents the component of series voltage vS that is in quadra¯ ture with line current. 0 otherwise. It is represented by one series voltage source vS and by one shunt current source ¯SH . as depicted in Fig. iq ). Constant voltage: the magnitude of voltage vq is constant independently of the line current. during transients). UPFC State Variables vp : This variable represents the component of the series voltage vS that is in ¯ phase with the line current.17) The equivalent circuit vector diagram of series voltage source is shown in Fig. In steady-state. u2 and u3 are 1 if the correspondent stabilizing POD signal is enabled. The set of differential equations are as follows: vp ˙ vq ˙ ˙ iq = = = 1 (vp0 + u1 vPOD − vp ) Tr 1 (vq0 + u2 vPOD − vq ) Tr 1 [Kr (Vref + u3 vPOD − Vk ) − iq ] Tr (18.e. Observe that the POD controller can be used to modulate whatever of UPFC variables (vp .

9. 8. 7. 11. constant reactance: the magnitude of the voltage vq varies proportionally to the line current keeping constant the total impedance (the resitance is actually neglected) of the transmission line.6 illustrates the complete UPFC data format. 14. which has the following fields: 1. The UPFC components are stored in the structure Upfc. 6. 3.5 UPFC 205 2. xcs: compensation reactance (1 − cp )xkm . n: total number of UPFC. 5. This current keeps the bus voltage around a specified level through the regulator gain Kr . 4. 16. vq: indexes of the state variable vq . iq: indexes of the state variable iq . u: connection status. y: line admittance 1/xkm . Cp: amount of series compensation cp . vp: indexes of the state variable vp . gamma: relative UPFC angle γ. vp0: initial compensation voltage vp0 . 12. Table 18. vq0: initial compensation voltage vq0 . 15. 2. 13. 17. 10.18. line: line numbers i. bus2: bus numbers m (to). . Vref: reference voltage Vref . bus1: bus numbers k (from). iq : This variable represents the component of shunt current ¯SH which is in i ¯ quadrature with the bus voltage Vk . con: UPFC data. sscl: indexes of the SSCL connected to the UPFC.

Vk ∠θk − ¯ Ikm vS ¯ + ¯′ Vk jxkm ¯ Imk Vm ∠θm ¯SH i Figure 18. vq vS ¯ ¯ Vk θk − φ ref.8: UPFC phasor diagram.7: UPFC circuit. ¯ Ikm γ vp Figure 18. 206 .

9: UPFC control block diagrams.vp0 + max vp vPOD u1 + 1 Tr s + 1 vp min vp max vq vq0 + vPOD u2 + 1 Tr s + 1 vq min vq Vref + imax q vPOD u3 + Kr Tr s + 1 iq − Vk imin q Figure 18. 207 .

u. p. {0. p. p. s p.u.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Variable i Sn Vn fn Cp Kr Tr max vp min vp max vq min vq max iq imin q u Description Line number Operation mode 1 2 Constant voltage Constant reactance Unit int int MVA kV Hz % p.u.Table 18.u.6: UPFC Data Format (Upfc.u. p. 1} {0.u./p. 1} Power rating Voltage rating Frequency rating Percentage of series compensation Regulator gain Regulator time constant Maximum vp Minimum vp Maximum vq Minimum vq Maximum iq Minimum iq Stabilizing vp signal Stabilizing vq signal Stabilizing iq signal Connection status 208 . 1} {0.u. p.u. 1} {0.

the dc current Idc is assumed to flows fomr the rectifier to the inverter. VRdc and VIdc are the dc voltages on the dc terminals. VR and VI are the ac primary voltages at the transformer terminals of the rectifier and inverter sides. 18. mR and mI are tap ratio of the transformers that connects the converter and the inverter to the ac grid. The normal operation mode is Idc ≥ 0 and αmin ≤ α ≤ αmax . Idc is the dc current in the dc transmission line. The line is modeled as a dynamic RL circuit. representing two ac/dc converters connected by a single dc line (see Fig. In normal operation mode. whereas the firing angle α and the extinction angle γ are controlled by PI regulators. the inverter controller is inactive and γ = γmin . 18. yR and yI are the controller input signals for the rectifier . The controllers regulate the current or the power flow in the dc line.6 HVDC 209 18. as depicted in Fig. ¯ ¯ SR = PR + jQR and SI = PI + jQI are the compex power injected from the ac grid at the rectifier and the inverter sides.6 HVDC A simple HVDC system is implemented in PSAT. The differential and algebraic equations of the HVDC are as follows: ˙ Idc xR ˙ xI ˙ PR QR PI QI cos α VRdc SR yR cos(π − γ) VIdc SI yI = (VRdc − VIdc − Rdc Idc )/Ldc (18.11. By default.20) = KI (yR − Idc ) = KI (Idc − yI ) Vndc Indc = VRdc Idc Sn = = = Vndc Indc VIdc Idc Sn 2 2 S I − PI 2 2 S R − PR = xR + KP (yR − Idc ) √ 3 3 2 VR cos α − XtR Idc = π π √ 3 2 Vndc Indc VR Idc = π Sn = uP Pord /VRdc + uI Iord + uV Vord = xI + KP (Idc − II0 ) √ 3 2 3 = VI cos(π − γ) − XtI Idc π π √ 3 2 Vndc Indc = VI Idc π Sn = uP Pord /VIdc + uI Iord + uV Vord where the index R is used for the rectifier quantities and I for the inverter ones.18.10).

xi: indexes of the state variable xi . Vidc: indexes of the algebraic variable VIdc . 15. uI and uV are 1 or 0. 2. xr: indexes of the state variable xr . 4. 6.210 18 FACTS ¯ SR + − Idc + ¯ SI VRdc VIdc − VR mR mI VI Figure 18. Ii0: indexes of the algebraic variable II0 . bus1: converter bus numbers R. Si: indexes of the algebraic variable Si . Ir0: indexes of the algebraic variable IR0 . The HVDC components are stored in the structure Hvdc. 7. con: HVDC data. Idc: indexes of the state variable Id . 11. depending of the selected control type. Other parameters are defined in Table 18. cosg: indexes of the algebraic variable cos π − γ. and the inverter controllers. dat: HVDC parameters.7. bus2: inverter bus numbers I. Table 18. which has the following fields: 1. 3. u: connection status u. 13. .10: HVDC scheme. cosa: indexes of the algebraic variable cos α. 9. 8. 16. Vrdc: indexes of the algebraic variable VRdc . 5. 17. Sr: indexes of the algebraic variable SR . uP . 14.7 reports the complete data format for the HVDC. 10. n: total number of HVDC. 12.

e. Before running the power flow analysis. base The ac power rate is considered equal to the ac one.21) In Table 18. . Note on the per unit system for dc quantities In [68].6 HVDC 211 Rectifier yRmax yR + − Idc .11: HVDC current control. the following per unit system is defined for the the dc quantities: √ 3 2 base base Vdc = V π ac base rate n Idc = Idc = Idc base base base Sdc = Vdc Idc base base base Zdc = Vdc /Idc (18. In order to n n avoid inconsistencies.18. i. Sdc = Sn . data to system bases. dc p. data are referred to the dc voltage and the dc current rates. it should be Sn ≈ Vdc Idc .u.7. VIdc KP s + KI s cos(π − γmin ) cos(π − γmax ) cos(π − γ) Figure 18. VRdc KP s + KI s cos(αmin ) cos(αmax ) cos(α) yRmin Inverter yImax yI − yImin + Idc .u. PSAT converts all ac and dc p.

con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Variable R I Sn n VR VIn fn n Vdc n Idc XtR XtI mR mI KI KP Rdc Ldc αR max αR min γI max γI min yR max yR min yI max yI min Iord Pord Vord u Description Bus number (rectifier) Bus number (inverter) Power rate ac voltage rate at rectifier side ac voltage rate at inverter side Frequency rate dc voltage rate dc current rate Transformer reactance (rectifier) Transformer reactance (inverter) Tap ratio (rectifier) Tap ratio (inverter) Integral gain Proportional gain Resistance of the dc connection Inductance of the dc connection Maximum firing angle α Minimum firing angle α Maximum extinction angle γ Minimum extinction angle γ Maximum reference current or voltage (rectifier) Minimum reference current or voltage (rectifier) Maximum reference current or voltage (inverter) Minimum reference current or voltage (inverter) Control type (1: current.u. Ω H deg deg deg deg p.u.u. p.u.u. 1} 212 .u.u.u. p. p. p.u. p.u.u. p. int. 2: power) dc current order dc active power order dc voltage order Connection status Unit int int MVA kV kV Hz kV kA p.u.7: HVDC Data Format (Hvdc. p. p.Table 18. 1/s p./p.u. {0. p.

variable speed wind turbine with doubly fed (wound rotor) induction generator and variable speed wind turbine with direct drive synchronous generator. V0 .g. Air density ρ at 15◦ C and standard atmospheric pressure is 1.Chapter 19 Wind Turbines This chapter describes wind turbines and wind speed models. gust and turbulence. To visualize these sequences. the first value of the wind speed sequence will be the initial average speed (vw (t0 ) = vwa ) as computed at the initialization step of the wind turbines (see Section 19.2).1 depicts the data format for wind speed models. Three models of wind turbines are included: constant speed wind turbine with squirrel cage induction generator. ramp. type fm wind(-1) at the Matlab prompt or use the menu View/Plot wind speeds in the main PSAT window. Wind speed models are a Weibull distribution and a wind model composed of average speed. During time domain simulations.225 kg/m3 . Wind turbine models presented here were mostly based on models discussed in [108]. Once the power flow solution has been determined. at 2000 m ρ is 20% lower than at the sea level). Table 19. θ0 . and depends on the altitude (e. P0 and Q0 at the generation bus are used for initializing the state and input variables. ramp. the latter being the wind speed vw0 . Real measurement data can be used as well. Wind speed time sequences are calculated after solving the power flow and initializing wind turbine variables. 19. the actual wind speed values which are 213 . Observe that. Wind turbines are initialized after power flow computations and a PV generator is needed to impose the desired voltage and active power at the wind turbine bus. which is used as the average wind speed vwa for the wind speed models.1 Wind Models Wind speed models included in PSAT are the Weibull distribution and a composite model which includes average speed. regardless the wind speed model. Wind speed measurement data can be used as well. gust and turbulence. Controls and converter models are included in the wind turbine equations.

. Finally.2) f (vw . c.vw: wind speed vector. as follows: 1 lnι(t) k (19. con: Wind data. 6. speed.4) νw (t) = − where νw is the mean value of νw (t). 3. speed.1 Weibull Distribution A common way to describe the wind speed is by means of the Weibull distribution. vwa: average (initial) wind speed. 4. 5.time: time vector. while k > 3 approximates the normal distribution and k = 1 gives the exponential distribution.3) c where ι(t) is a generator of random numbers (ι ∈ [0. Usually the shape factor k = 2. Time variations νw (t) of the wind speed are then obtained by means of a Weibull distribution. 10). n: total number of wind components.1) As all other state variables.1: Low-pass filter to smooth wind speed variations. 1]). used for calculating the mechanical power of wind turbines are the output of a lowpass filter with time constant τ (see Fig. which is as follows: vw k k k−1 (19. vw: indexes of state variable vw . the filtered wind speeds can be plotted in the plotting GUI only after running the time domain simulation. Wind data are stored in the structure Wind. which leads to the Rayleigh distribution. the wind speed is computed setting the initial average speed vwa determined at the initialization step as mean speed: vw (t) = (1 + νw (t) − νw )vwa ˇ (19. with the following fields: 1. 19. k) = k vw e−( c ) c where vw is the wind speed and c and k are constants as defined in the wind model data matrix.214 19 Wind Turbines Wind Time Sequence vw ˇ 1 1 + τs vw Figure 19.1. in order to simulate the smoothing of high-frequency wind speed variations over the rotor surface: vm = (ˇw (t) − vw )/τ ˙ v (19. 19.1). 2. The scale factor c should be chosen in the range c ∈ (1.

Table 19.1: Wind Speed Data Format (Wind.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Variable vwN ρ τ ∆t c k tsr ter vwr tsg teg vwg h z0 ∆f n Description 1 Measurement data Wind model 2 Weibull distribution 3 Composite model Nominal wind speed Air density Filter time constant Sample time for wind measurements Scale factor for Weibull distribution Shape factor for Weibull distribution Starting ramp time Ending ramp time Ramp speed magnitude Starting gust time Ending gust time Gust speed magnitude Height of the wind speed signal Roughness length Frequency step Number of harmonics Unit int m/s kg/m3 s s s s m/s s s m/s m m Hz int

215

216

19 Wind Turbines

19.1.2

Composite Wind Model

A composite wind model is also included in PSAT similar to what proposed in [124, 5]. This model considers the wind as composed of four parts, as follows: 1. average and initial wind speed vwa ; 2. ramp component of the wind speed vwr ; 3. gust component of the wind speed vwg ; 4. wind speed turbulence vwt ; thus the resulting wind speed vw is: ˇ vw (t) = vwa + vwr (t) + vwg (t) + vwt (t) ˇ (19.5)

where all components are time-dependent except for the initial average speed vwa . Wind Ramp Component The wind ramp component is defined by an amplitude Awr and starting and ending times, tsr and ter respectively: t < tsr : tsr ≤ t ≤ ter : t > ter : Wind Gust Component The wind gust component is defined by an amplitude Awg and starting and ending times, tsg and teg respectively: t < tsg : tsg ≤ t ≤ teg : t > teg : vwg (t) = 0 t − tsg Awg 1 − cos 2π vwg (t) = 2 teg − tsg vwg (t) = Awg (19.7) vwr (t) = 0 vwr (t) = Awr vwr (t) = Awr t − tsr ter − tsr (19.6)

Wind Turbulence Component The wind turbulence component is described by a power spectral density as follows: Swt =
1 (ln(h/z0 ))2 ℓvwa

1 + 1.5 vℓf wa

5 3

(19.8)

where f is the electrical frequency, h the wind turbine tower height, z0 is the roughness length and ℓ is the turbulence length scale: h < 30 : h ≥ 30 : ℓ = 20h ℓ = 600 (19.9)

19.2 Wind Turbines

217

Table 19.2: Roughness length z0 for various ground surfaces [92, 107] Ground surface Open sea, sand Snow surface Mown grass, steppe Long grass, rocky ground Forests, cities, hilly areas Roughness length z0 [m] 10−4 ÷ 10−3 10−3 ÷ 5 · 10−3 10−3 ÷ 10−2 0.04 ÷ 0.1 1÷5

Table 19.2 depicts roughness values z0 for various ground surfaces. The spectral density is then converted in a time domain cosine series as illustrated in [108]:
n

vwt (t) =
i=1

Swt (fi )∆f cos(2πfi t + φi + ∆φ)

(19.10)

where fi and φi are the frequency and the initial phase of the ith frequency component, being φi random phases (φi ∈ [0, 2π)). The frequency step ∆f should be ∆f ∈ (0.1, 0.3) Hz. Finally ∆φ is a small random phase angle introduced to avoid periodicity of the turbulence signal.

19.1.3

Measurement Data

Measurement data can be used for wind speed time sequence simply by defining in the PSAT data file the field Wind.speed(i).vw as a two column array, where the first column is the time and the second one the wind speed in m/s, and i is the wind speed number. If no wind speed data are found in the file, the Weibull distribution model will be used. Observe that measurement data cannot be set with a Simulink model. Thus one first should convert the Simulink model into a PSAT data file and then add the wind speed data editing the file itself.

19.2

Wind Turbines

This section describes the three wind turbine types as implemented in PSAT: the constant speed wind turbine with squirrel cage induction generator, the variable speed wind turbine with doubly fed (wound rotor) induction generator and the direct drive synchronous generator. These configurations were chosen as they are widely used nowadays and their models are mostly based on the models discussed in [108]. Figure 19.2 depicts three wind turbines types, while Table 19.3 illustrates a few recent wind turbines data as documented in [46].

Squirrel cage induction generator Gear box ¯ Vs ¯ Is Grid

(a)

Rotor Capacitors

Doubly fed induction generator Gear box ¯ Vs ¯ Is Grid

(b)

Rotor

Converter ¯ Vr ¯ Ir

¯ Ic

Direct drive synchronous generator ¯ Vs ¯ Is

Converter ¯ Vc ¯ Ic

Grid

(c)

Rotor

Figure 19.2: Wind turbine types. (a) Constant speed wind turbine with squirrel cage induction generator; (b) Variable speed wind turbine with doubly fed induction generator; (c) Variable speed wind turbine with direct drive synchronous generator.

218

19.2 Wind Turbines

219

Table 19.3: Recent wind turbines [46] Type Bonus NEC NM 1500/72 Nordex N-80 Vestas V-80 Enercon e-66
GD TS

Power [MW] 2 1.5 2.5 2 1.5
DD PC

Diam. [m] 86 72 80 80 66

Height [m] 80 98 80 78 85
VS PS

Control GD/TS/PS GD/TS/PS GD/VS/PC GD/VS/PC GD/VS/PC

Speed [rpm] 17 17.3 19 19 22

gearbox drive two speed

direct drive pitch control

variable speed shift pitch by stall

19.2.1

Constant Speed Wind Turbine

The simplified electrical circuit used for the squirrel cage induction generator is the same as the one for the single-cage induction motor, depicted in Fig. 15.5, the only difference with respect to the induction motor being that the currents are positive if injected in the network. The equations are formulated in terms of the real (r) and imaginary (m) axis, with respect to the network reference angle. In a synchronously rotating reference frame, the link between the network and the stator machine voltages is as follows: vr vm and the power absorptions are: P = vr ir + vm im 2 2 Q = vm ir − vr im + bc (vr + vm ) (19.12) = V sin(−θ) = V cos(θ) (19.11)

where bc is the fixed capacitor conductance which is determined at the initialization step. The differential equations in terms of the voltage behind the stator resistance rS are: e′ − vr r e′ − vm m = rS ir − x′ im = rS im + x′ ir (19.13)

whereas the link between voltages, currents and state variables is as follows: e′ ˙r e′ ˙m =
′ Ωb (1 − ωm )e′ − (e′ − (x0 − x′ )im )/T0 m r

(19.14)

= −Ωb (1 −

ωm )e′ r

(e′ m

+ (x0 − x

′ )ir )/T0

220

19 Wind Turbines

where ωm is the rotor angular speed, and x0 , x′ and T0 can be obtained from the generator parameters: x0 x

′ T0

= xS + xm xR xm = xS + xR + xm xR + xm = Ωb rR

(19.15)

The mechanical differential equations which take into account the turbine and rotor inertias Ht and Hm , respectively, and shaft stiffness Ks are as follows: ωt ˙ ωm ˙ γ ˙ = = = (Tt − Ks γ)/(2Ht ) (Ks γ − Te )/(2Hm ) Ωb (ωt − ωm ) (19.16)

where ωt is the wind turbine angular speed, and the electrical torque Te is defined as: Te = e′ ir + e′ im (19.17) r m The mechanical torque Tt is: Pw (19.18) ωt where Pw is the mechanical power extracted from the wind. The latter is a function of both the wind and the rotor speeds and can be approximated as follows: Tt = Pw = ρ 3 cp (λ)Ar vw 2 (19.19)

in which ρ is the air density, cp the performance coefficient or power coefficient, λ the tip speed ratio and Ar the area swept by the rotor. The speed tip ratio λ is the ratio between the blade tip speed vbt and the wind upstream the rotor vw : λ= vbt 2Rωt = ηGB vw pvw (19.20)

where ηGB is the gear box ratio, p the number of poles of the induction generator and R the rotor radius. Finally, the cp (λ) curve is approximated as follows: cp = 0.44 with λi =
1 λ

125 − 16.5 − 6.94 e λi λi 1 + 0.002

(19.21)

(19.22)

To simulate the tower shadow effect, a periodic torque pulsation is added to Tt , whose frequency depends on the rotor speed ωt , the gear box ratio ηGB , and the number of blades nb , as follows: Tt = Tt 1 + 0.025 sin ηGB Ωb ωt t nb (19.23)

19.2 Wind Turbines

221

where the torque pulsation amplitude is fixed to 0.025 according to what was presented in [2]. The constant speed wind turbine with squirrel cage induction generator is defined in the Cswt structure, which has the following fields: 1. con: constant speed wind turbine data. 2. n: total number of constant speed wind turbines. 3. bus: numbers of buses to which wind turbines are connected. 4. wind: numbers of wind speed models to which wind turbines are connected. 5. dat: wind turbines parameters. 6. omega t: indexes of the state variable ωt . 7. omega m: indexes of the state variable ωm . 8. gamma: indexes of the state variable γ. 9. e1r: indexes of the state variable e′ . r 10. e1m: indexes of the state variable e′ . m 11. u: connection status. Table 19.4 depicts the data format of the constant speed wind turbine with squirrel cage induction generator.

19.2.2

Doubly Fed Induction Generator

Steady-state electrical equations of the doubly fed induction generator are assumed, as the stator and rotor flux dynamics are fast in comparison with grid dynamics and the converter controls basically decouple the generator from the grid. As a result of these assumptions, one has: vds vqs vdr vqr = −rS iqs − ((xS + xm )ids + xm idr ) = −rR idr + (1 − ωm )((xR + xm )iqr + xm iqs ) = −rS ids + ((xS + xm )iqs + xm iqr ) (19.24)

= −rR iqr − (1 − ωm )((xR + xm )idr + xm ids ) vds vqs = V sin(−θ) = V cos(θ) (19.25)

where the stator voltages are functions of the grid voltage magnitude and phase:

The generator active and reactive powers depend on the stator and converter currents, as follows: P = vds ids + vqs iqs + vdc idc + vqc iqc (19.26) Q = vqs ids − vds iqs + vqc idc − vdc iqc

222

19 Wind Turbines

Table 19.4: Constant Speed Wind Turbine Data Format (Cswt.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Variable Sn Vn fn rS xS rR xR xm Ht Hm Ks R p nb ηGB u Description Bus number Wind speed number Power rating Voltage rating Frequency rating Stator resistance Stator reactance Rotor resistance Rotor reactance Magnetizing reactance Wind turbine inertia Rotor inertia Shaft stiffness Rotor radius Number of poles Number of blades Gear box ratio Connection status Unit int int MVA kV Hz p.u. p.u. p.u. p.u. m/s kWs/kVA kWs/kVA p.u. m int int {0, 1}

Due to the converter operation mode, the power injected in the grid can be written as a function of stator and rotor currents. The converter powers on the grid side are: Pc Qc whereas, on the rotor side: Pr Qr = vdr idr + vqr iqr = vqr idr − vdr iqr (19.28) = vdc idc + vqc iqc = vqc idc − vdc iqc (19.27)

Assuming a lossless converter model, the active power of the converter coincides with the rotor active power, thus Pc = Pr . The reactive power injected into the grid can be approximated neglecting stator resistence and assuming that the d-axis coincides with the maximum of the stator flux. Therefore, the powers injected in the grid result: P = vds ids + vqs iqs + vdr idr + vqr iqr xm V idr V − xS + xm xm
2

(19.29)

Q = −

The generator motion equation is modeled as a single shaft, as it is assumed that the converter controls are able to filter shaft dynamics. For the same reason,

19.2 Wind Turbines

223

no tower shadow effect is considered in this model. Thus one has: ωm ˙ Te = (Tm − Te )/2Hm (19.30)

= ψds iqs − ψqs ids

where the link between stator fluxes and generator currents is as follows: ψds ψqs = −((xS + xm )ids + xm idr ) (19.31)

= −((xS + xm )iqs + xm iqr )

Thus the electrical torque Te results: Te = xm (iqr ids − idr iqs ) (19.32)

To simplify computations, the electrical torque Te is approximated as follows: Te ≈ − xm V iqr ωb (xS + xm ) (19.33)

where ωb is the system frequency rate in rad/s. The mechanical torque is: Tm = Pw ωm (19.34)

being Pw the mechanical power extracted from the wind. The latter is a function of the wind speed vw , the rotor speed ωm and the pitch angle θp . Pw can be approximated as follows: ρ 3 Pw = cp (λ, θp )Ar vw (19.35) 2 in which parameters and variables are the same as in (19.19) and the speed tip ratio λ is defined as in (19.20). The cp (λ, θp ) curve is approximated as follows: cp = 0.22 with 116 − 12.5 − 0.4θp − 5 e λi λi (19.36)

1 1 0.035 = − 3 λi λ + 0.08θp θp + 1

(19.37)

Converter dynamics are highly simplified, as they are fast with respect to the electromechanical transients. Thus, the converter is modeled as an ideal current source, where iqr and idr are state variables and are used for the rotor speed control and the voltage control respectively, which are depicted in Figures 19.3 and 19.4. Differential equations for the converter currents are as follows: ˙ iqr ˙ idr 1 xs + xm ∗ Pw (ωm )/ωm − iqr xm V Tǫ = KV (V − Vref ) − V /xm − idr = − (19.38)

39) Finally the pitch angle control is illustrated in Fig. n: total number of doubly fed induction generators. and assuming bus voltage V ≈ 1 as follows: iqrmax iqrmin idrmax idrmin ≈ − xS + xm Pmin xm xS + xm Pmax ≈ − xm xS + xm xS + xm ≈ − Qmin − xm x2 m xS + xm xS + xm Qmax − ≈ − xm x2 m (19. Both the speed and voltage controls undergo anti-windup limiters in order to avoid converter over-currents.u.5).3: Rotor speed control scheme. if ωm > 1 p. 2. which has the following fields: 1.40) where φ is a function which allows varying the pitch angle set point only when the difference (ωm − ωref ) exceeds a predefined value ±∆ω.u. and that Pw = 1 p. Rotor current limits are computed based on active and reactive limits. An anti-windup limiter locks the pitch angle to θp = 0 for sub-synchronous speeds. 19. 19. . ∗ ∗ It is assumed that Pw = 0 if ωm < 0.6 and described by the differential equation: ˙ θp = (Kp φ(ωm − ωref ) − θp )/Tp (19. con: doubly fed induction generator data. Thus.224 19 Wind Turbines iqrmax ωm ∗ Pw ∗ Pw ∗ Tm −(xS + xm ) xm V (1 + sTǫ ) iqr ωm iqrmin Figure 19. the rotor speed control only has effect for sub-synchronous speeds. The wind turbine with doubly fed induction generator is defined in the Dfig structure. ∗ where Pw (ωm ) is the power-speed characteristic which roughly optimizes the wind energy capture and is calculated using the current rotor speed value (see Fig.u. The pitch control works only for super-synchronous speeds.5 p.

4 0.6 0. 1 0.] 0.1 ωm [p.u.5 0.7 0.] Figure 19. ωm + Kp − ωref 0 1 + Tp s θp Figure 19.9 1 1.8 0. 225 .4: Voltage control scheme.u.2 0 0.5: Power-speed characteristic.4 0.8 ∗ Pw [p.idrmax Vref − + + KV + idrmin −1 xm V idr 1 1+s Figure 19.6 0.6: Pitch angle control scheme.

Table 19. p. p. 7. p.u. bus: numbers of buses to which generators are connected.u.u.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Variable Sn Vn fn rS xS rR xR xm Hm Kp Tp KV Tǫ R p nb ηGB Pmax Pmin Qmax Qmin u Description Bus number Wind speed number Power rating Voltage rating Frequency rating Stator resistance Stator reactance Rotor resistance Rotor reactance Magnetizing reactance Rotor inertia Pitch control gain Pitch control time constant Voltage control gain Power control time constant Rotor radius Number of poles Number of blades Gear box ratio Maximum active power Minimum active power Maximum reactive power Minimum reactive power Connection status Unit int int MVA kV Hz p. 4. p.5: Doubly Fed Induction Generator Data Format (Dfig. u: connection status. 6. dat: generator parameters. 8. p.u. {0. 5. wind: numbers of wind speed models to which generators are connected. 9.5 depicts the data format of the wind turbine with doubly fed induction generator. idr: indexes of the state variable idr . p.226 19 Wind Turbines Table 19.u. theta p: indexes of the state variable θp .u.u. . 1} 3. 10.u. m/s kWs/kVA s s m int int p. omega m: indexes of the state variable ωm . iqr: indexes of the state variable iqr .

as the stator and rotor flux dynamics are fast in comparison with grid dynamics and the converter controls basically decouple the generator from the grid. no tower shadow effect is considered in this model.47) where the link between stator fluxes and generator currents is as follows: ψds ψqs (19. which allows rewriting the second equation of (19.19. As a result of these assumptions.46) cos(θ) The generator motion equation is modeled as a single shaft. For the same reason.44) Assuming a lossless converter and a power factor equal to 1. The active and reactive power of the generator are as follows: Ps Qs = vds ids + vqs iqs = vqs ids − vds iqs (19.48) = −xq iqs .2. as follows: vdc vqc = V sin(−θ) = V cos(θ) (19. as follows: 1 Qc = V idc + tan(θ)Ps (19. one has: vds vqs = −rs iqs − ωm (xd ids − ψp ) = −rs ids + ωm xq iqs (19.2 Wind Turbines 227 19.42) while the active and reactive powers injected into the grid depend only on the grid side currents of the converter: Pc Qc = vdc idc + vqc iqc = vqc idc − vdc iqc (19.45) Furthermore.43) where the converter voltages are functions of the grid voltage magnitude and phase. the reactive power injected in the grid is controlled by means of the converter direct current idc . Thus one has: ωm ˙ Te = (Tm − Te )/2Hm = ψds iqs − ψqs ids = −xd ids + ψp (19.43).3 Direct Drive Synchronous Generator Steady-state electrical equations of the direct drive synchronous generator are assumed.41) where a permanent field flux ψp is used here to represent the rotor circuit. as it is assumed that the converter controls are able to filter shaft dynamics. the output powers of the generator becomes: Ps Qs = Pc = 0 (19.

It is assumed that Pw = 0 if the ωm < 0. Both the speed and voltage controls undergo anti-windup limiters in order to avoid converter over-currents. con: direct drive synchronous generator data. 3. where iqs .u. Current limits are approximated as follows: iqsmax iqsmin idsmax idsmin = −Pmax = idcmax = −Qmin = idcmin = −Qmax = −Pmin (19.49) = (KV (Vref − V ) − idc )/TV (19.51) Finally the pitch angle control is illustrated in Fig.u. thus equations from (19.37) apply. wind: numbers of wind speed models to which generators are connected. 5. the converter is modeled as an ideal current source. 6. and that Pw = 1 p. Converter dynamics are highly simplified. dat: generator parameters.34) to (19. The wind turbine with direct drive synchronous generator is defined in the Ddsg structure. Differential equations of the converter currents are as follows: ˙ iqs ˙ ids ˙ idc where iqsref idsref = = ∗ Pw (ωm ) ωm (ψp − xd ids ) = (iqsref − iqs )/Tǫp = (idsref − ids )/Tǫq (19. the rotor speed control only has effect for sub-synchronous speeds. n: total number of direct drive synchronous generators. Thus. 4.5).5 p.228 19 Wind Turbines The mechanical torque and power are modeled as in the doubly fed induction motor. 19. bus: numbers of buses to which generators are connected. 19. omega m: indexes of the state variable ωm .u.6 and described by the differential equation (19.50) ψp − xd 2 ψp Qref 2 − ω x xd m d ∗ where Pw (ωm ) is the power-speed characteristic which roughly optimizes the wind energy capture and which is calculated using the current rotor speed value ∗ ∗ (see Fig. ids and idc are state variables and are used for the rotor speed control and the reactive power control and the voltage control. Thus. 2. . as they are fast with respect to the electromechanical transients.40). respectively. if ωm > 1 p. which has the following fields: 1.

ids: indexes of the state variable ids .6: Direct Drive Synchronous Generator Data Format (Ddsg. kWs/kVA s s s s m int int p. p.u.5 depicts the data format of the wind turbine with direct drive synchronous generator.u. p. 1} 7. p.u.2 Wind Turbines 229 Table 19.19. p. 8. theta p: indexes of the state variable θp . iqs: indexes of the state variable iqs . 11. 9.u.u.u. u: connection status. idc: indexes of the state variable idc .u. . 10. p. p. {0.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Variable Sn Vn fn rs xd xq ψp Hm Kp Tp KV TV Tǫp Tǫq R p nb ηGB Pmax Pmin Qmax Qmin u Description Bus number Wind speed number Power rating Voltage rating Frequency rating Stator resistance d-axis reactance q-axis reactance Permanent field flux Rotor inertia Pitch control gain Pitch control time constant Voltage control gain Voltage control time constant Active power control time constant Reactive power control time constant Rotor radius Number of poles Number of blades Gear box ratio Maximum active power Minimum active power Maximum reactive power Minimum reactive power Connection status Unit int int MVA kV Hz p.u. Table 19.

.

The complete set of differential equations which describe the dynamic shaft is as follows: ˙ δHP ωHP ˙ ˙ δIP ωIP ˙ ˙ δLP ωLP ˙ = = Ωb (ωHP − 1) (20. Turbine governors can be connected to dynamic shafts. A nominal frequency (ω = 1) is assumed when the shaft speeds are initialized. The state variables are initialized after solving the power flow. Figure 20. Table 20.1 Dynamic Shaft A dynamic mass-spring model is used for defining the shaft of the synchronous machine.1 depicts the shaft scheme (springs are in solid black). The dynamic shaft has to be connected to a synchronous machine.1 depicts the dynamic shaft data format. and solid oxide fuel cell. sub-synchronous resonance generator model.1) (Tm − DHP (ωHP − 1) − D12 (ωHP − ωIP ) +KHP (δIP − δHP ))/MHP = Ωb (ωIP − 1) = = = (−DIP (ωIP − 1) − D12 (ωIP − ωHP ) − D23 (ωIP − ωLP ) +KHP (δHP − δIP ) + KIP (δLP − δIP ))/MIP Ωb (ωLP − 1) (−DLP (ωLP − 1) − D23 (ωLP − ωIP ) − D34 (ωLP − ω) +KIP (δIP − δLP ) + KLP (δ − δLP ))/MLP 231 . 20. The rotor mass is dashed since it is not actually part of the model. The power and frequency ratings of the shaft are inherited from the synchronous machine associated with the shaft. These are synchronous machine dynamic shaft. and a PV or a slack generator are required at the machine bus.Chapter 20 Other Models This chapter describes additional components useful to represent particular dynamic phenomena.

syn: indexes of generators to which the shafts are connected.1: Synchronous machine mass-spring shaft model. delta IP: indexes of the state variable δIP . omega EX: indexes of the state variable ωEX . delta EX: indexes of the state variable δEX . omega HP: indexes of the state variable ωHP . 5. 4. 10.232 20 Other Models Tm Te 11 00 11 00 HP IP LP rotor EX Figure 20. ˙ δ ω ˙ ˙ δEX ωEX ˙ = = = = Ωb (ω − 1) (−Te − D(ω − 1) − D34 (ω − ωLP ) − D45 (ω − ωEX ) +KLP (δLP − δ) + KEX (δEX − δ))/M Ωb (ωEX − 1) (−DEX (ωEX − 1) − D45 (ωEX − ω) +KEX (δ − δEX ))/MEX Dynamic shafts are defined in the structure Mass. delta HP: indexes of the state variable δHP . delta LP: indexes of the state variable δLP . 6. 2. u: connection status. 3. 12. 9. 7. as follow: 1. 11. 8. n: total number of dynamic shafts. . omega IP: indexes of the state variable ωIP . omega LP: indexes of the state variable ωLP . con: data of the Mass components.

p. Exciter angle coefficient Connection status Unit int kWs/kVA kWs/kVA kWs/kVA kWs/kVA p. For typical values of the inductive and capacitive reactances.u. the machine may experiment a negative damping of one of the mechanical modes that results in dangerous stresses on the shaft. p.u. iq . beyond a certain value of the compensation level. p. p. 96].u. if . The model used for representing the machine and the line is the same used in [130].2 Sub-synchronous Resonance Model Figure 20.2 depicts a generator with shaft dynamics and compensated line.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Variable MHP MIP MLP MEX DHP DIP DLP DEX D12 D23 D34 D45 KHP KIP KLP KEX u Description Synchronous machine number High pressure turbine inertia Intermediate pressure turbine inertia Low pressure turbine inertia Exciter inertia High pressure turbine damping Intermediate pressure turbine damping Low pressure turbine damping Exciter damping High-Interm.u.u. p.u.u.u.u.1 and are modeled as high.2 Sub-synchronous Resonance Model 233 Table 20.-low pressure turbine damping Low pressure turbine-rotor damping Rotor-exciter damping High pressure turbine angle coeff. 83]. intermediate and low pressure turbine masses. the lower of these two frequencies can be close to one of the mechanical oscillations of the generator shaft. This phenomenon can be also described in terms of the bifurcation theory [82. Low pressure turbine angle coeff. vdc . p. 97. {0. which represents a simple model for studying the sub-synchronous resonance (SSR) problem.u. pressure turbine angle coeff. It presents five electrical state variables (id . This is one of the simplest models [129] which presents the sub-synchronous resonance (SSR) phenomenon. The dynamics of the RLC circuit cannot be neglected since the line presents two modes whose frequency can be roughly estimated as Ωb (1 ± xC /xL ). vqc ) which can be . a well known problem of undamped oscillations that may occur when the transmission line to which the machine is connected is compensated by a series capacitor [48. The shaft dynamics are similar to what described in Section 20. exciter mass and machine rotor. p. p. p. p.1: Dynamic Shaft Data Format (Mass. 1} 20. pressure turbine damping Interm.20.u.u. Thus. p. Intermed.

5) = +KLP (δ − δLP ))/MLP = Ωb (ω − 1) Ωb (ωLP − 1) (−DLP (ωLP − 1) + KIP (δIP − δLP ) (−Te − D(ω − 1) + KLP (δLP − δ) .4) Finally. a five mass system is used for describing the shaft dynamics: ˙ δHP ωHP ˙ ˙ δ IP = = = = = = ωIP ˙ ˙ δLP ωLP ˙ ˙ δ ω ˙ Ωb (ωIP − 1) (−DIP (ωIP − 1) + KHP (δHP − δIP ) +KIP (δLP − δIP ))/MIP Ωb (ωHP − 1) (Tm − DHP (ωHP − 1) + KHP (δIP − δHP ))/MHP (20. determined by the machine differential equations: ˙ ψf ˙ ψd ˙ ψq the line differential equations: ˙ id ˙ iq vdc ˙ vqc ˙ = Ωb (iq + (vd − rid − vdc − V sin(δ − θ))/xL ) = Ωb (−id + (vq − riq − vqc − V cos(δ − θ))/xL ) (20.2: Generator with dynamic shaft and compensated line.3) = = = ′ (vf d − if )/Td0 (20. ω EX id + jiq vdC + jvqC Figure 20.234 20 Other Models Tm Te V ∠θ r xL xC vd + jvq HP IP LP δ.2) Ωb (ra id + ωψq + vd ) Ωb (ra iq − ωψd + vq ) = Ωb (xC id + vqc ) = Ωb (xC iq − vdc ) along with the algebraic constraints that link the time derivatives of the generator fluxes and of the line currents: ˙ ψf ˙ ψd ˙ ψq ˙ ˙ = if − (xd − x′ )id d ˙ ˙ = if − xd id ˙ = −xq iq (20.

8. 4. 10. the field reactance xf . delta LP: indexes of the state variable δLP . delta HP: indexes of the state variable δHP . 5. n: total number of SSRs. 12. . 11. Id: indexes of the state variable id . The algebraic equations for the power injections P = −V id sin(δ − θ) − V iq cos(δ − θ) (20. bus: indexes of buses to which SSRs are connected. con: SSR data. as follows: 1. 6. 2. the field ′ resistance rf and the d-axis reactance xad are used instead of x′ and Td0 . 3. Tm: mechanical torque Tm . delta IP: indexes of the state variable δIP . 14. with the d following relationships: ′ Td0 = x′ d xf Ωb rf = xd − xad (20. 15. 13.2 Sub-synchronous Resonance Model 235 ˙ δEX ωEX ˙ +KEX (δEX − δ))/M = Ωb (ωEX − 1) = (−DEX (ωEX − 1) + KEX (δ − δEX ))/MEX where the electrical torque is Te = ψd iq − ψq id . In the implemented code. Iq: indexes of the state variable iq . Efd: field voltage vf d . omega HP: indexes of the state variable ωHP . Edc: indexes of the state variable vdc . omega IP: indexes of the state variable ωIP . 7.20.7) The sub-synchronous resonance generator model is defined in the structure SSR. If: indexes of the state variable if .6) Q = −V id cos(δ − θ) + V iq sin(δ − θ) complete the model. 9. Eqc: indexes of the state variable vqc .

21. and [64].10) (20. T the absolute gas temperature.1 Figure 20. If the input signal exceeds the dynamic limits proportional to the fuel flow. [54]. omega: indexes of the state variable ω. omega EX: indexes of the state variable ωEX . 20. delta EX: indexes of the state variable δEX . 19.314 [J/(mol K)]). Royal Institute of Technology. which is based on the following equations: pH2 ˙ pH2 O ˙ pO2 ˙ qH2 ˙ ˙ Vk = = = = = ((qH2 − 2Kr Ik )/KH2 − pH2 )/τH2 (20. Sweden. and Tǫ is a “small” time constant which does not affects the fuel cell dynamics. u: connection status. 20.9) where Vk0 is the initial fuel cell DC voltage.3 depicts the fuel cell scheme. F is the Faraday constant (F = 96487 [C/mol]).2. The fuel cell current Ik can be subjected to a constant power control: ˙ Ik = (Pref /Vk − Ik )/Te or a to constant current control: ˙ Ik = (Pref /V(k0 ) − Ik )/Te (20. omega LP: indexes of the state variable ωLP . . The SSR data format is depicted in Table 20.11) 1 This model was realized in 2002 in collaboration with Valery Knyazkin. 18.236 20 Other Models 16.8) (2Kr Ik /KH2 O − pH2 O )/τH2 O ((qH2 /rHO − Kr Ik )/kO2 − pO2 )/τO2 (2Kr Ik /Uopt − qH2 )/Tf (−Vk − rIk + N0 (E0 + RT √ ln(pH2 pO2 /pH2 O )))/Tǫ 2F where R is the gas constant (R = 8. [131].3 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) model is included in PSAT based on what was proposed in [91]. 17. The SSR state variables are initialized after solving the power flow and either a PV or a slack generator is needed at the SSR bus. delta: indexes of the state variable δ. one has: Ulim qH2 ˙ Ik = ( − Ik )/Te 2Kr (20.

Intermed. p. p.u. p.u.u. p.u. p.2: SSR Data Format (SSR.u. p.u.u.u. p. {0.u.Table 20. p. p. p. p. p.u.u. kWs/kVA kWs/kVA kWs/kVA kWs/kVA kWs/kVA p.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Variable Sn Vn fn xd xq ra xad r xL xC rf xf MHP MIP MLP M MEX DHP DIP DLP D DEX KHP KIP KLP KEX u Description Bus number Power rating Voltage rating Frequency rating d-axis synchronous reactance q-axis synchronous reactance Armature resistance d-axis reactance Line resistance Line inductive reactance Line capacitive reactance Field resistance Field reactance High pressure turbine inertia Intermediate pressure turbine inertia Low pressure turbine inertia Rotor inertia Exciter inertia High pressure turbine damping Intermediate pressure turbine damping Low pressure turbine damping Rotor damping Exciter damping High pressure turbine angle coeff. p.u. 1} 237 .u. p.u.u.u. p.u. pressure turbine angle coeff. p. Exciter angle coefficient Connection status Unit int MVA kV Hz p. Low pressure turbine angle coeff.u.

as follows: m0 Vref = xt Vs kVk 2 Pg + Qg + Vg2 xT 2 (20. the fuel cell needs a PV generator connected at the same bus (slack generators are not allowed). Ik: indexes of the state variable Idc . Pg and Qg are the PV generator voltage. 5.16) = Vg + m/Km where Vg . Thus. 3. one has: θt = θs + asin xT Ik kmVs 2 (20. con: Solid Oxide Fuel Cell data. The SOFC model is defined in the structure Sofc. 20.13) 3/8. k = = = Vt Vs sin(θt − θs ) = Vk Ik xT V2 Vt Vs cos(θt − θs ) − s xT xT (20. .15) The reference voltage Vref and the initial value of the inverter amplitude m0 are computed based on the power flow solution. n: total number of SOFCs.12) The amplitude control has anti-windup limiters and is depicted in Fig. Umin ). 20. pH2: indexes of the state variable pH2 . as depicted in Fig. as follows: 1.14) and.238 20 Other Models where Ulim is the maximum or the minimum fuel utilization (Umax . The connection with the network is assumed to be realized by means of an ideal inverter and a transformer with reactance xT . The AC voltage is regulated by means of the inverter modulating amplitude m. 6. bus: indexes of buses to which SOFCs are connected. active power and reactive power respectively. Vk: indexes of the state variable Vdc . 4. The DC power of the fuel cell (Pk = Vk Ik ) is considered to be the real power injected in the network (Ps = Pk ). Observe that to be properly initialized. finally: Qs = − Vs kmVk Vs2 + xT xT (1 − xT Ik kmVs (20.5. Thus the link with the AC network is as follows: Ps Qs where Vt = kmVk .4. 2. as follows: m = (Km (Vref − Vs ) − m)/Tm ˙ (20.

3: Solid Oxide Fuel Cell scheme. 2Kr 1 Tf s + 1 qH2 rHO qO2 1 + Uopt 239 1/KH2 τH2 s + 1 1/KH2 O τH2 O s + 1 pH2 pH2 O N0 E0 + RT 2F ln Ik _ 1/KO2 τO2 s + 1 pO2 √ pH2 pO2 pH2 O + _ Vk Pk .qH2 1/Vk 1 Ik Te s + 1 2Kr Kr Umin /2Kr r Umax /2Kr Pref qH2 _ + Figure 20.

p.u. p. p.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 † 21 † 22 † 23 † 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Variable Sn Vn Te τH2 KH2 Kr τH2 O KH2 O τO2 KO2 rHO Tf Uopt Umax Umin r N0 E0 T Pref Vref PB VB xT Km Tm mmax mmin u Description Bus number Power rating Voltage rating Electrical response time Response time for hydrogen flow Valve molar constant for hydrogen Constant Response time for water flow Valve molar constant for water Response time for oxygen flow Valve molar constant for oxygen Ratio of hydrogen to oxygen Fuel processor response time Optimal fuel utilization Maximum fuel utilization Minimum fuel utilization Ohmic losses Number of cells in series in the stack Ideal standard potential Gas Absolute temperature Reference power Reference AC voltage Base power Base voltage Control mode (1) current. MW kV int p.u.u.u./p./p.u. {0. (0) power Transformer reactance Gain of the voltage control loop Time constant of the voltage control loop Maximum modulating amplitude Minimum modulating amplitude Connection status Unit int MW kV s s s s s Ω p.3: Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Data Format (Sofc.u. 1} Note: fields marked with a † are not set by the user.Table 20.u. 240 .u. V K p. s p.u.

4: Solid Oxide Fuel Cell connection with the AC grid.5: AC voltage control for the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell. 11. u: connection status. 7. m: indexes of the state variable m. 8. . qH2: indexes of the state variable qH2 . 10. pH2O: indexes of the state variable pH2 O . mmax Vs − + Vref Km Tm s + 1 m mmin Figure 20.20. 9.3 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell 241 Ik Vt ∠θt Vk Vs ∠θs Figure 20. pO2: indexes of the state variable pO2 .

.

Part IV CAD .

.

21. Furthermore.0.9. 21. 21. whereas following Figures 21. machines. i.11. thus allowing bidirectional connections.e.2.3.0.8.13 illustrate the complete set of Simulink blocks for network design.7. OPF & CPF data. Since PSAT 2. 21. since no Simulink dynamic model is associated with PSAT blocks. controls. 21.12. 21. FACTS. which are grouped as follows: connections. 21. The interaction between PSAT and the Simulink models is also briefly discussed.6. only the blocks contained in the PSAT library should be used for building the network. one has to extract the data from the model and create 1 The function Create Subsystem available in Simulink model menu is fully supported. regulating transformers. 21.5. such as the time domain simulation. Observe that running time domain simulations from the Simulink model menus produces no effect. 245 . Finally.10. 21. wind turbines and other models respectively. 9-bus and 6-bus test systems. and 21. which is defined in the file fm lib. Other Simulink features. 21. power flow data. measurements.2 Extracting Data from Simulink Models The Simulink models are used only as a graphical user interfaces.4 depicts the Simulink models of three test systems used in this documentation.4.1 21.mdl. faults & breakers. 21. are not used by PSAT. Section 21. 14-bus.1 depicts the main frame of the PSAT Simulink library. the Simulink library makes use of Physical Model Components (PMCs). Physical connectors are represented by means of circles. After completing the network model.Chapter 21 Network Design This chapter describes the graphic library for network design which is built in Simulink and contains all components defined in the toolbox. loads.1 Simulink Library Figure 21.

Figure 21. Buses & Connections Bus [A] Goto Bus Link Bus Link Bus [A] From Bus Figure 21. 246 .1: Simulink library: Main Window.2: Simulink library: Connections.

Static Components & Devices Slack Bus PV Generator PQ Generator Constant PQ Load Vθ Generator Transformer Transmission Line Static Condenser Shunt Admittance Three-Winding Transformer Cable Tap Ratio and Phase Shifter Tap Ratio Transformer Transformer Phase Shifter Transformer Extra Model for Transmission Line Static Compensator Autotransformer Figure 21.3: Simulink library: Power Flow data. 247 .

4: Simulink library: OPF & CPF data. 248 .5: Simulink library: Faults & Breakers.OPF & CPF Data Power Supply Bids and Generator Power Directions Power Demand Bids and Load Power Directions Generator Ramping Generator Reserve Bids Violation Penalty Factors Fixed Yearly Power Demand Profile Load Ramping Custom Figure 21. Measurements Bus Frequency Measurement Phasor Measurement Unit Figure 21. Faults & Operations Fault Breaker Figure 21.6: Simulink library: Measurements.

Loads Voltage Dependent Load ZIP Load Thermostatically Controlled Load Frequency Dependent Load Exponential Recovery Load Jimma’s Load Mixed Load Figure 21. 249 . Electrical Machines Synchronous Generator Induction Motor Figure 21.7: Simulink library: Loads.8: Simulink library: Machines.

9: Simulink library: Regulators. Regulating Transformers Under Load Tap Changer Phase Shifting Transformer Under Load Tap Changer with Embedded Load Under Load Tap Changer with Remote Voltage Control Figure 21.Controls Turbine Governor Automatic Voltage Regulator Cluster Controller Power System Stabilizer Over Excitation Limiter Central Area Controller Power Oscillation Damper Figure 21. 250 .10: Simulink library: Regulating Transformers.

11: Simulink library: FACTS controllers. 251 .Flexible AC Transmission Systems SVC (model 1) HVDC Transmission Line SVC (model 2) TCSC (model 1) TCSC (model 2) StatCom UPFC SSSC Figure 21.

Wind Turbines Wind Model Constant Speed Wind Turbine with Squirrel Cage Induction Generator Variable Speed Wind Turbine with Doubly Fed Induction Generator Variable Speed Wind Turbine with Direct Drive Synchronous Generator Figure 21.12: Simulink library: Wind Turbines. Other Models + Solid Oxyde Fuel Cell Subsynchronous Resonance Model Dynamic Mass-Spring Shaft Model Figure 21.13: Simulink library: Other models. 252 .

21.3 Displaying Results in Simulink Models

253

Figure 21.14: GUI for Simulink model settings. a PSAT data file. This operation is performed by the function fm sim that is automatically called when a Simulink file is loaded as data file. Files created from Simulink models are marked with the flag (mdl).2 When the loaded data file is generated from a Simulink model, a check of the model status is performed each time the power flow routine is launched. If the model has been changed, the data are extracted again from the model.

21.3

Displaying Results in Simulink Models

After solving the power flow, it is possible to display bus voltage and power flow values within the Simulink model of the currently loaded system. The GUI associated with this utility is depicted in Fig. 21.14 and is available in the menu Edit/Simulink Model Settings of the main window. Finally, Simulink models can be exported to Encapsulated Post Script files by clicking on the Simulink logo or using the menu File/Export Network to EPS. This utility allows removing the annoying black arrows from the resulting .eps file (see examples depicted in the next Section 21.4).

21.4

Examples

Figures 21.15, 21.16 and 21.17 depict the Simulink models of the 9-bus, 14-bus and 6-bus test systems.3 Figure 21.16 depicts also the bus voltage report generated using the GUI for Simulink settings.
2 It is possible to convert a Simulink model without actually loading the data file, using the Edit/Simulink Model Conversion menu in the main window. 3 The models are available in the subfolder tests of the main PSAT folder.

Bus 7

Bus 9

Bus 8 Bus 2 Bus 3

Bus 5 Bus 1

Bus 6

Bus 4

Figure 21.15: Simulink model of the WSCC 3-generator 9-bus test system.

254

Bus 13
|V| = 1.047 p.u. <V = −0.2671 rad

Bus 14 Bus 10
|V| = 1.0318 p.u. <V = −0.2622 rad |V| = 1.0207 p.u. <V = −0.2801 rad

Bus 12
|V| = 1.0534 p.u. <V = −0.2664 rad

Bus 11
|V| = 1.0471 p.u. <V = −0.2589 rad

Bus 09
|V| = 1.0328 p.u. <V = −0.2585 rad

Bus 07
|V| = 1.0493 p.u. <V = −0.2309 rad

Bus 06
|V| = 1.07 p.u. <V = −0.2516 rad

Bus 08 Bus 04
|V| = 1.012 p.u. <V = −0.1785 rad |V| = 1.09 p.u. <V = −0.2309 rad

Bus 05
|V| = 1.016 p.u. <V = −0.1527 rad

Bus 01
|V| = 1.06 p.u. <V = 0 rad

Bus 02
|V| = 1.045 p.u. <V = −0.0871 rad

Bus 03
|V| = 1.01 p.u. <V = −0.2226 rad

Figure 21.16: Simulink model of the IEEE 14-bus test system.

255

GENCO 3 GENCO 2 ESCO 3

Bus 3

Bus 6

Bus 2

ESCO 1 GENCO 1

ESCO 2

Bus 4

Bus 5 Bus 1

Figure 21.17: Simulink model of the 6-bus test system.

256

Chapter 22

Block Usage
This chapter describes how to use and connect blocks of the Simulink library provided with PSAT.

22.1

Block Connections

Generally speaking, a well formed PSAT Simulink model is a set of interconnected blocks with the following properties: 1. all connections are “allowed”; 2. all connections are “feasible”. The first property depends on PSAT internal structures and routines, while the latter depends on mathematical or physical issues. In some cases not allowed connections will result in error messages when compiling the data file from the Simulink model, while infeasible connections will typically cause singularities or unpredictable results when running PSAT routines. A connection can be allowed but not be feasible (e.g. a slack bus and a PV generator with different desired voltages connected at the same bus). In other cases, one connection could be feasible in theory but is not allowed by PSAT (e.g. two or more PQ loads connected to the same bus). As a general rule, PSAT should take care of all not allowed connections,1 while the user should check for possible infeasible conditions. Following Sections 22.2 and 22.3 mostly explains how to set up Simulink models with all allowed connections, i.e. models which will result in working PSAT data files. When possible, hints to avoid infeasible conditions are provided as well. In the following, blocks are subvided in two main groups: standard and nonstandard. Standard blocks must be connected only to buses, while nonstandard blocks can be connected to other blocks or may need another block at the same bus. Observe that well formed models must contain only blocks which are provided with the PSAT Simulink library.
1 There

is still some work to do on this issue.

257

258

22 Block Usage

Figure 22.1: Examples of standard blocks of the PSAT Simulink Library.

22.2

Standard Blocks

Standard blocks only need to be connected to one bus for each input/output port. Blocks which do not follow this rule are described in the following Section 22.3. Some examples of standard blocks are depicted in Fig. 22.1. In most cases, any number of the same standard block can be connected to the same bus, with the only exceptions of slack generators,2 PV generators, and constant PQ loads (see Figs. 22.2 and 22.3). PSAT assumes that these blocks are unique for each bus. Connecting more than one slack bus, more than one PV generator, or more than one PQ load to the same bus would lead to unpredictable results. However, PSAT will display an error message and will not try to solve the power flow. Future versions of PSAT could include warning messages in case of other not allowed or infeasible combinations of multiple blocks being connected to the same bus. Observe that connecting several components to the same bus, although permitted, can be sometimes inconsistent from the mathematical point of view. For example connecting one PV and one slack generator at the same bus or two under load tap changers in parallel may lead to unpredictable results or to singularities (see Fig. 22.4). This kind of inconsistency cannot be easily checked automatically. A particular care should be devoted to avoid infeasible constraints.

2 Note that the number of slack generators may be greater than one. This may occur if one defines two or more disconnected networks within the same Simulink model. However this usage is not recommended, since not all routines have been checked with a multiple network test case.

Figure 22.2: Examples of allowed connections of slack generators, PV generators and PQ loads.

Figure 22.3: Not allowed connection of slack generators, PV generators and PQ loads.

Figure 22.4: Infeasible or “likely” infeasible block connections.

259

260

22 Block Usage

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 22.5: Bus block usage. (a) Minimal working network; (b) Not allowed bus connections; (c) Unused bus ports are allowed but not recommended.

22.3

Nonstandard Blocks

PSAT blocks are nonstandard if they cannot be directly connected to buses (this is the case of all synchronous machine regulators), need the presence of other blocks to work properly, or have input/output signals. Another way to define nonstandard blocks could be “dependent” blocks, as their usage depends on variables and parameters of other components and/or devices inserted in the network. Following subsections describes the usage of all nonstandard blocks.

22.3.1

Buses

Bus blocks are the basic elements of each model. A PSAT network has to contain at least one bus. Observe that Bus blocks cannot be connected directly one to another. The number of input and output ports is variable. It is not mandatory to use all ports, but the habit of leaving unused bus ports is not recommended. To avoid Simulink overflows as a consequence of typing errors, the maximum number of input and output ports is limited to 10 for each. This value can be changed by modifying the function fm inout.m. Figure 22.5 illustrates the bus block usage.

22.3.2

Goto and From Blocks

Goto and From blocks are inherited from the Simulink standard library and can connect any two blocks of the PSAT library. In practice they can be useful to draw neater schemes. Figure 22.6 illustrates the usage of Goto and From blocks.

22.3.3

Links

The Link block is a special kind of connection which is used only within a Secondary Voltage Regulation control system. See Section 22.3.11 for details.

22.3 Nonstandard Blocks

261

[B] [A]

[C]

[B] [A] [C]

Figure 22.6: Goto and From block usage.

(a)

(c)

(b)

(d)

Figure 22.7: Breaker block usage. (a) Correct usage of a breaker block; (b) Same as case (a); (c) Not allowed usage of a breaker to disconnect a synchronous machine; (d) Correct usage of a breaker to disconnect a synchronous machine.

22.3.4

Breakers

Breaker blocks works only when connected to one line and one bus. The relative position with respect to the line does not matter. It is not allowed to use breaker to disconnect other components than lines; thus in order to simulate a switch for a generator, a load or any other component, one has to insert a new bus and a “dummy” line (low impedance). Future versions of PSAT could include switches which avoid including new buses and new lines. Figure 22.7 illustrates the usage of breaker blocks.

3.6 Generator Ramping Generator Ramping blocks must be connected to Supply blocks. (c) Incorrect usage of Supply blocks. The input port is needed only when connecting the Ramping block. 22.9 illustrates the Ramping block usage.3. 22.8: Supply and Demand block usage. Figure 22.7 Generator Reserves Generator Reserve blocks must be connected to a bus and need either one PV or one slack generator and Supply block connected to the same bus. Observe that Generator Ramping data only have effects when used with the PSAT-GAMS interface (multiperiod and unit commitment methods). (e) Incorrect usage of Demand blocks.5 Power Supplies and Demands Supply blocks must be connected to one bus and need either one PV or one slack generator connected to the same bus.8 illustrates Supply and Demand block usage. Demand blocks must be connected to one bus and need one PQ load connected to the same bus. 22. Jimma’s Load. The first two . Thermostatically Controlled Load. Figure 22.e.262 22 Block Usage (a) (b) (d) (c) (e) Figure 22. Figure 22.10 illustrates the Reserve block usage.3. Supply block mask allows having zero or one input port. Observe that Generator Reserve data only have effects when used with the PSAT OPF routine. Exponential Recovery Load. Frequency Dependent Load. it is not recommended to leave unused input ports in Supply blocks. i. and Mixed Load. (a) and (b) Correct usage of Supply blocks. ZIP Load. Voltage Dependent Load. (d) Correct usage of Demand blocks.8 Non-conventional Loads Non-conventional load blocks are those described in Chapter 14.3. 22.

9: Generator Ramping block usage. 263 . (a) and (b) Correct usage of Ramping blocks. (a) (b) (c) Figure 22. (c) Incorrect usage of Ramping blocks. (c) Incorrect usage of Reserve blocks.10: Generator Reserve block usage. (a) and (b) Correct usage of Reserve blocks. (d) Not recommended usage of Supply blocks.(a) (b) (c) (d) Figure 22.

It is allowed to connect multiple non-conventional loads at the same bus. (a) and (b) Correct usage of non-conventional load blocks. the sum of parameters “Percentage of active and reactive power at bus” must be 1. See Section 14. in general.11 illustrates non-conventional loads usage within Simulink models. The power used for . synchronous machine state variables will not be not properly initialized.264 22 Block Usage (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Figure 22. Observe that when connecting multiple synchronous machine to the same bus. observe that it does not make sense to connect two exponential recovery loads at the same bus. (d) Correct usage of voltage dependent and ZIP load blocks when the “Initialize after power flow” parameter is set to 0. all non-conventional loads need a PQ load at the same bus. (e) Incorrect usage of non-conventional load blocks. ones can be used as standard blocks when the “Initialize after power flow” parameter is set to 0. it is not recommended to leave unused input ports in Synchronous Machine blocks.3. If no PV or slack generator is present. however.8 for a few remarks on the usage of non-conventional loads. Synchronous machine block mask allows having zero to two input ports. Figure 22.11: Non-conventional Load block usage. PSAT does not check the consistency of active and reactive fraction used by Synchronous machines. 22. However. The input ports are needed only when using regulators. (c) Incorrect usage of exponential recovery load.9 Synchronous Machines Synchronous machine blocks must be connected to a bus and need either one PV or one slack generator connected to the same bus.

(c) Not recommended usage of synchronous machine blocks. and can be in any number. (a) and (b) Correct usage of synchronous machine blocks. OXLs. while there is no limit to the number of CC blocks for each SVR system.13 illustrates the usage of the primary regulator blocks. Figure 22. and Over Excitation Systems must be connected to an Automatic Voltage Regulator. It is not allowed to use CAC or CC blocks alone.3. Figure 22.12 illustrates the Synchronous Machine block usage. Figure 22. In the latter case the Link block is needed to add the CC control channel to the SVC. or Secondary Voltage Regulator blocks.10 Primary Regulators Primary Regulator blocks such as Automatic Voltage Regulators and Turbine Governors must be connected to a synchronous machine. (d) Incorrect usage of synchronous machine blocks.11 Secondary Voltage Regulation Secondary Voltage Regulation (SVR) blocks are the Central Area Controller (CAC) and the Cluster Controller (CC) blocks. It is not recommended to leave unused output ports in CAC blocks. it is not recommended to leave unused input ports in AVR blocks. any model or control type of SVCs and AVRs is allowed. CC .22.12: Synchronous Machine block usage. while Power System Stabilizers. The CAC input port has to be connected to a bus (pilot bus) where the voltage is controlled. For each SVR system there can be only one CAC block. AVR block mask allows having zero to three input ports. Only one kind of regulator is allowed for each machine. computing the Synchronous machine power injections are those of PV or slack bus generators. 22. The input ports are needed only when using PSSs. Furthermore. CC blocks can be connected directly to AVR blocks or to SVC blocks. 22. The CAC output ports must be connected to CC blocks.3 Nonstandard Blocks 265 (c) (a) (b) (d) Figure 22.14 illustrates the usage of CAC.3. Any number of SVCs or AVRs can be included in a SVR system.

If no PV generator is present. Observe that the ULTC is a standard block when using control types 1 and 2.3. it is a nonstandard one since the remote bus provides a signal. Note that slack generator blocks are not allowed in this case. and Link blocks. . (a) and (b) Correct usage of regulator blocks. 22. 22. (c) Not recommended usage of automatic voltage regulator blocks.12 Under Load Tap Changers Under Load Tap Changer (ULTC) blocks can be connected to two or three buses depending on the selected control type. SVC or STATCOM state variables are not properly initialized and a warning message is displayed.13: Primary Regulator block usage. When control type three is selected the shape of the ULTC block changes in order to allow a second input port.266 22 Block Usage (a) (c) (b) (d) (e) Figure 22. Figure 22. Any other usage of these blocks is not allowed and would lead to unpredictable results or to error messages. Secondary voltage and reactive power controls (types 1 and 2) need only two buses.13 SVCs & STATCOMs SVC & STATCOM blocks must be connected to a bus and need one PV generator block connected to the same bus.3.15 illustrates the usage of ULTC blocks. (d) and (e) Incorrect usage of regulator blocks. In the case of control type 3. not a topological connection. Remote voltage control (type 3) requires a connection to a third bus.16 illustrates the usage of SVC and STATCOM blocks. as the controlled bus is the secondary winding of the transformer. Figure 22.

15: Under Load Tap Changer block usage.Pilot Bus Figure 22. Remote voltage control Secondary voltage and reactive power control Figure 22.14: Secondary Voltage Regulation block usage. 267 .

15 Dynamic Shafts Dynamic Shaft blocks must be connected to a synchronous machine. note that the interactions between AVRs and dynamic shaft when connected to the same generators have not been tested so far. Note that slack generator blocks are not allowed in this case. + + + (a) (b) (c) Figure 22. Observe that dynamic shafts blocks do not accept any input port. fuel cell state variables are not properly initialized and a warning message is displayed.14 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Solid Oxide Fuel Cell blocks must be connected to a bus and need one PV generator block connected to the same bus. (b) and (c) Incorrect usage of Fuel Cell blocks. If no PV generator is present. (a) Correct usage of SVC blocks. 22. 22. Thus. Figure 22.18 illustrates the dynamic shaft block usage. (a) Correct usage of Fuel Cell blocks.3. Furthermore.16: SVC block usage.268 22 Block Usage (a) (b) (c) Figure 22. Figure 22. (b) and (c) Incorrect usage of SVC blocks.17: Solid Oxide Fuel Cell block usage. since the model implemented so far does not allow including a turbine governor when using a dynamic shaft. connecting a turbine governor and a dynamic shaft to the same synchronous machine does not give the expected results and it is not allowed. .17 illustrates the fuel cell block usage.3.

(a) (b) (c) Figure 22. 269 . (a-c) Correct usages of Dynamic Shaft blocks.18: Dynamic Shaft block usage.

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which can be useful to draw nicer networks (see Fig. 23.1 Blocks vs. The fact that Simulink blocks are independent from PSAT structures have pros and cons. given a filter able to translate data in a format readable by PSAT. Global Structures PSAT blocks provided within the Simulink library are hollow subsystems with a meaningful icon and with a mask which allows setting data. In theory. Simulink models cannot be directly used as data files. When using Simulink. one does not have to care about component indexing and can use the default values which comes with the masks. There can be more than one block associated to the same PSAT global structure. Values contained in the blocks must be interpreted and translated into PSAT global structures. This chapter describes how masks associated with blocks of the PSAT-Simulink library work and how to create a new mask for a custom block. it is often simpler and more user-friendly drawing a network than dealing with data matrices. any other CAD tool could be used for drawing PSAT models. 271 . the PSAT-Simulink library is not strictly correlated to PSAT internal functions or structures. 2. However. 2. one can write a Matlab script file for defining PSAT data and never use the Simulink interface.1). Cons 1. As a matter of fact.Chapter 23 Block Masks As already mentioned in Chapter 21. 23. as follows: Pros 1.

It is always possible to know which structure is associated with the current Simulink block by simply opening its mask: the name just below the GUI window title and above the block documentation is the PSAT structure (see Fig. 23. one can modify at any time the Mask Type property. This property tells the PSAT filter (i.1: Correspondence between Simulink blocks and PSAT global structures.con Syn.1 Mask Initialization Each Simulink block mask must be initialized.con Line. (a) examples of strucures associated with only one Simulink block. 23. needs a set of parameters and functions which are launched a first time when the block is created and then each time any property of the block is changed. an icon. Finally. which are typically masked subsystems.e.2. the mask provides a field called Mask Type.con Shunt.2 Editing Block Masks Simulink allows defining new blocks.4 in this chapter.con (a) PV. At this aim refer to Section 23. This feature is extensively used in the PSAT-Simulink library. and a documentation for the block. which is used for defining the link between the PSAT blocks and PSAT global structures.272 23 Block Masks SW. editing a block mask means setting up an initialization.2). 23.e. Only the initialization is strictly needed to set up a working block. However block icons are used in the PSAT library to emulate a power system diagram and a brief documentation helps reminding the component associated with the block. in order to define custom blocks. Furthermore.con (b) Figure 23.con PQ. the funtion fm sim) which structure is associated with the block. (b) examples of structures associated with more than one Simulink block. by unlinking the block and editing its mask. i. Generally speaking. An example of block initialization is . Of course this is not generally needed unless one wants to create a new block.

2: Mask GUI of a PSAT-Simulink block.Figure 23. 273 .

blocks which have a variable number of input/output ports are handled at the intialization step by means of the fm inout function. which in some cases may be a lenghty process (e. An example of block icon is depicted in Fig. Each PSAT block uses the initilization GUI to define block parameters. depicted in Fig. .2.2 Mask Icon Mask icons are defined in the edit mask GUI as well. Parameter names have a special syntax.3. when drawing circles). Finally. The icon is drawn by means of plot statements.274 23 Block Masks Figure 23.3. At this aim a few plotting utilities are provided in the function fm draw. Observe that more complicated block features.4. In these cases a mask callback function has to be defined. which is called at the initialization step (see Fig.3: Mask initialization GUI for a PSAT-Simulink block.3). 23. 23. The function fm block takes care of these special “auto-adaptive” PSAT blocks. 23. such as a variable icon which depends on parameter values cannot be obtained by means of the simple mask editing. which is fully described in Section 23.g. 23.

4: Mask icon GUI of a PSAT-Simulink block.Figure 23. 275 .

The structure is the Mask Type property of the block.1 whereas a few .5: Mask documentation GUI of a PSAT-Simulink block.276 23 Block Masks Figure 23. The symbols are depicted in Table 23. the parameter names have just to specify in which columns data have to be stored. 23. The trick consists of using a special syntax for defining arrays which can be easily converted into Matlab expressions (using for example.2. regular expressions) and at the same time are well formed Matlab variables.3 Mask Documentation Each PSAT block comes with a brief documentation.3 Syntax of Mask Parameter Names Parameter names within block masks follow few simple rules.5. Thus. When the parameters are loaded from the Simulink model. while the row number depends on the number of blocks of the same kind included in the Simulink model. 23. 23. the function fm sim takes care of assigning the parameters values to the correct structure and to fill up the correct columns and rows within the data matrix of the structure. which make possible defining blocks independent from PSAT structures. An example of block documentation is depicted in Fig.

unlink the copied block. which are associated with constant values.00] [0. however.1.1: Mask parameter symbols Pseudo Symbol p q 2 x Meaning open array close array comma list Matlab Symbol [ ] . such as buses and synchronous machines.00 1.05 1. edit the block mask. as follows: 1. Observe that keywords cannot be used within parameter names formed using the symbols of Table 23. i. have to be arrays of the dimension defined by the parameter names.00 1. A few remarks on creating a new PSAT blocks follow: 2 That is underscore.2: Example of well formed mask variable names Variable name p3q p3 4q p3x5q p3x5 7q Matlab expression [3] [3. : Table 23. 3. . 4. not dash. 23. as depicted in Table 23. to avoid warning messages generated by Simulink.3.7] Sample mask value 0.05 1.05 1. copy the desired block. The keywords in and out when used as parameter names produce no effects.333] examples of well formed mask variable names are depicted in Table 23.e. There are also some keywords. Mask values associated with mask parameter names must be consistent. 2.4 Remarks on Creating Custom Blocks 277 Table 23.25 0. and are typically used with blocks which have a variable number of ports. open and unlock the PSAT Simulink library.25] [0. it is recommended to use a correct Matlab syntax for mask values.05 [0.2 Observe that PSAT does not require that mask arrays are enclosed in brackets. A few examples are reported in the third column of Table 23.4 Remarks on Creating Custom Blocks The easiest way to create a new PSAT block is to modify an existing one.2.23.4] [3:5] [3:5.

2.3.a). The Mask Type property has always to be defined and has to be an existing PSAT structure. all it needs is opening the underneath subsystem model and adding or removing input/output blocks (see Fig. Since mask variables are going to fill up the data field of a PSAT structure. Each PSAT block is a hollow subsystem. Thus in order to add or remove input/output ports. Block connections are needed to avoid Simulink error messages. 23. If the block has an odd number of input/output ports add a sink or a source block (see Fig.6. 3. Mask variables must follow the conventional syntax defined in the previous Section 23.6. 23. 4.3: Mask parameter constants Keyword on off omega power voltage monday tuesday wednesday thursday friday Value 1 0 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 Keyword saturday sunday winter week winter week summer week summer week spring fall spring fall in out Value 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 none none day end day end week day week end 1.b). .278 23 Block Masks Table 23. all columns (but the optional ones) of the resulting matrix of data have to be filled up.

6: Simulink model underneath a mask of a PSAT block. 279 . (a) Usage of input and output ports connected by a line. (b) usage of sinks and terminal blocks.1 Input Port 1 Output Port (a) 1 Input Port Terminal 1 Source 1 Output Port (b) Figure 23.

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Part V Tools .

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PST and Matpower formats). 1 Most 283 . EEGSA.2 Filters are written mostly in Perl language.net data format. Observe that the conversions to and from PSAT may not be complete and may lead to unexpected results. Guatemala. eurostag2psat: conversion from Eurostag data format. 2 Details on the IEEE Common Data Format can be find in [126]. Figure 24. In some cases. cyme2psat: conversion from CYME power flow data format (CYMFLOW). The only filters that are written in Matlab are those that convert Matlab scripts or functions (e.1 depicts the this GUI. changes in the default PSAT settings are needed to reproduce results obtained by other power system software packages. ge2psat: conversion from General Electric data format.g. digsilent2psat: conversion from DIgSILENT data exchange format.power. epri2psat: conversion from WSCC and EPRI’s ETMSP data format. which can be launched using the Tools/Data Format Conversion menu in the main window.1 PSAT data files containing only static power flow data can be converted into the IEEE common data format and into the WECC and EPRI ETMSP format. Planificaci´n o y Control. of these filters have been kindly contributed by Juan Carlos Morataya R. flowdemo2psat: conversion from FlowDemo. E-mail: JMorataya@eegsa.uwaterloo. The following filters have been implemented so far:3 chapman2psat: conversion from Chapman’s data format [30].net. Iberdrola..ca/ 3 All filters can be found in the folder psat/filters. a description of the IEEE CDF and on the EPRI ETMSP formats can be found at www. The conversion can be done from the command line or through the GUI for data format conversion.Chapter 24 Data Format Conversion PSAT is able to recognize and convert a variety of data formats commonly in use in power system research. Furthermore.

filter supports both comma and tab separated data formats. psat2epri.4 pcflo2psat: conversion from PCFLO data format. -h : print a brief help. the output file name will be automatically generated by the filter.washington. th2psat: conversion from Tsing Hua University data format.m: conversion from PSAT-Simulink models. Perl-based filters can be used from a command shell.5 psat2ieee. The general syntax for perl-based filters is as follows: $ <filter name> [-v] [-h] [-a add file] input file [output file] where $ is the shell prompt.m: conversion from PST data format. sim2psat.edu/research/pstca/ 6 The filter should support PSS/E data format from version 26 to 30. description of the PSAP data format can be found at www.284 24 Data Format Conversion ieee2psat: conversion from IEEE common data format.m: conversion to IEEE common data format. webflow2psat: conversion from WebFlow data format. Options are as follows: -v : verbose conversion. If no output file is specified. simpow2psat: conversion from SIMPOW data format.m: conversion from Matpower data format. pwrworld2psat: conversion from PowerWorld data format. ucte2psat: conversion from UCTE data format. additional information is printed out during conversion.washington. For some filters.6 pst2psat.ee.edu/research/pstca/ 5A 4 This . as any UNIX application.m: conversion to EPRI/WSCC data format. neplan2psat: conversion from NEPLAN data format. A description of an old version of the PSS/E data format is available at www. vst2psat: conversion from VST data format. inptc12psat: conversion from CESI INPTC1 data format. matpower2psat. psse2psat: conversion from PSS/E data format (up to version 29). The only mandatory argument is input file.ee. psap2psat: conversion from PSAP data format.

285 Figure 24. the filter will assume there is no colas add file.edt.edt file has the same name as the . If the -a option is not used. the filter will assume that the . as follows: neplan2psat : the additional file is a . typically with extension . If the -a option is not used. .ndt file. -a : define additional file. inptc12psat : the additional file is a colas add. This option is only available for neplan2psat and inptc12psat filters.dat.1: GUI for data format conversion.

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1 depicts all functions and files which are modified in order to install a new component.m fm dynidx. 25.m closepsat. Table 25. UDM files are placed in the build folder within the PSAT main folder. a GUI will display a list of these files and allow the user to inspect changes.1: Functions and files to be modified for installing a UDM Matlab functions Contents. When the component is installed the first time.1 Installing and Removing Models Figure 25.m fm dynlf. However it can be used for creating templates and to easily install/remove custom components to and from PSAT.m fm xfirst.m fm var.ini 287 .ini namevary.ini namevarx. The browser allows to install and uninstall UDMs and to compile the functions which describe the UDMs.m Other files comp.1 depicts the browser of the UDM archive. Table 25.m fm inilf. After installing a UDM. The routine which compiles UDM functions is not complete yet and several limitations apply. PSAT should be restarted to work properly.Chapter 25 User Defined Models This chapter describes routines and GUIs for creating and installing User Defined Models (UDMs) in PSAT.m psat.ini service.m fm ncomp.

288 .1: Browser of user defined models.Figure 25.

Initialization: this field tells the compiler if the component has to be included in the power flow or must be initialized when the power flow is completed.3.25. Variable names and equations must be valid Matlab variables and expressions. and as the structure name of the component. State variables and parameters settings are handled by the masks depicted in Figs.Pl and Bus.5. The GUI depicted in Fig. which should simplify the debugging process. 25.2. Properties are as follows: Name: the name of the component which is used as the name of the “build” file for defining the component itself. For example if the component name is testudm. In the latter case. . 25.2 Creating a User Defined Model 289 25. Brief descriptions of the GUIs for setting parameters and variables follow.4 and 25. which can be launched from the button “Setting” of the toolbar on top of the main UDM window GUI. The description should be one line long. Shunt: this field is needed at the installation time and tells the installer if the component should be treated as a shunt or not.1. 25. General settings of the component can be defined using the interface depicted in Fig.m.2 will appear. use the button “New Component” of the browser depicted in Fig. In order to add variables and equations simply type them in the respective edit texts and then use the buttons “Add” for updating the model.1 If the routine encounters inconsistencies during the compilation process. as the resulting function name to be included in PSAT. Using this interface should be quite intuitive. 1 The Symbolic Toolbox is required for compiling UDM functions. the component is not considered a load and its power absorption will not be included in the vectors Bus. 25.2 Creating a User Defined Model To create a new UDM. it will display a report of errors.m Testudm component “build” file component function component global structure Description: brief component description which will be included in the help of the component function and in the file Contents.Ql. The complete list of properties that can be defined is reported in Appendix A. When the model definition is completed. the model can be saved and compiled.3. 25. Select the checkbox to initialize after the power flow computation.m fm testudm. 25. one has: testudm.1 Component Settings Component properties can be viewed and changed by means of the GUI depicted in Fig.

Figure 25.2: GUI for creating user defined models. 290 .

291 .3: GUI for setting component properties.Figure 25.

4: GUI for setting state variable properties.Figure 25. 292 .

No Dynamic: if “yes” is selected the time constant is allowed to be zero. The user can chose among all time constants defined in the parameter lists. . If none is selected. 25.25.5: GUI for setting parameters properties. Properties are as follows: Time Constant: time constant associated with the state variable differential equation. 25. the state variable undergoes an anti-windup limit for its minimum value. Matlab Name: name of the variable which is used as a field of the component structure.2 Creating a User Defined Model 293 Figure 25. no time constant will be used for the differential equation. Must be a well formed Matlab variable.2. which corresponds to set an algebraic equation.4. the state variable undergoes an anti-windup limit for its maximum value. Inferior Limit: if a value is selected other than none. Offset: if “yes” is selected the state variable initial value is set to zero and an offset value is used for setting a zero first derivative at the end of the initialization step. Superior Limit: if a value is selected other than none.2 State Variable Settings State variable properties can be viewed and changed by means of the GUI depicted in Fig.

UDMs cannot share state variables with other models.2. e. 25.5. Initial Guess: value to be used for components which are initialized after power flow solutions. This field is used only in the “on-line” help of the component function. However. The description should be one line long. Only models which are connected to at least one bus can be defined. 3.: 1.3 Parameter Settings Parameter properties can be viewed and changed by means of the GUI depicted in Fig. This field is used only in the “on-line” help of the component function. 25. Bus voltages are the only allowed algebraic variables. 2. 5.g. . 25.3 Limitations The routine that compiles UDM functions is currently incomplete. Algebraic equations should be always defined.294 25 User Defined Models TeX Name: TEX formatted name which is used in the legend when plotting the state variable. Description: brief parameter description. when Time Constant is selected. Type: type of the parameter. Properties are as follows: Unit: unit of the parameter. Must be a well formed TEX math expression. and several limitations applies. the parameter will be included in the list of time constants for differential equations. 4. This field is generally used only in the “on-line” help of the component function. All defined variables should be used either in the algebraic or in the differential equations.

4 Text Viewer Figure 26. the GUI for sparse matrix visualization. 26. Figure 26. and theme and text viewer settings. 26.1 26. 295 . 26. 26.3 Themes The graphical appearance of PSAT GUIs can be changed using the theme browser GUI.1. available in the View/ Sparse Matrix Visualization menu in the main window. The GUI can be launched using the Options/History menu in the main window.1 Command History The command history of all operations performed in PSAT is contained in the structure History. which can be displayed and saved by means of the GUI depicted in Fig. available in the Option/Themes in the main window. The programs are grouped based on the 1 The figure illustrates the complete power flow Jacobian matrix of a 1228-bus test system. For adding new themes.Chapter 26 Utilities This chapter describes the GUI and the properties of the PSAT command history.4 depicts the GUI for selecting the text viewer used by PSAT for displaying reports generated by the routines.2 Sparse Matrix Visualization Figure 26. just open and modify one of the sample files contained in the sub-folder themes within the main PSAT folder.3 depicts this GUI displaying a preview of a theme provided with the toolbox.2 depicts the GUI for sparse matrix visualization.

e. Before running the utility. This GUI can be launched from the Options/Text Viewer menu in the main window and from several other setting windows. although they cannot be modifed as are in binary format.e.5 depicts the GUI for creating a p-code archive. Linux and Windows. i. Microsoft Excel2 . i. 26. . Power flow results can be saved in three different formats. The GUI can be launched from the menu Tools/p-code archive in the main window. 2 ActiveX R is used for exporting results to Microsoft Excel. plain text (ASCII file) A and L TEX formatted plain text.296 26 Utilities Figure 26. Pre-compiled files run faster on some platforms.1: Command history GUI. Figure 26. be sure you have writable permission in the PSAT folder. Unix (Solaris).5 Building p-code Archive Matlab allows pre-compiling (p-code) the plain text m-files. operating system.

297 .Figure 26.2: GUI for sparse matrix visualization.

Figure 26. 298 .3: GUI for PSAT theme selection.

5: GUI for p-code archive builder.4: GUI for text viewer selection. Figure 26.Figure 26. 299 .

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as it happens when launching the PSAT GUI. as follows: >> initpsat will initialize PSAT and display on the Matlab workspace: < P S A T > Copyright (C) 2002-2004 Federico Milano Version 1. which could be undesired when running PSAT on a remote server/host or when launching PSAT from within user defined routines.Chapter 27 Command Line Usage A set of functions and script files for command line usage of PSAT have been added since PSAT version 1. Host: Session: Usage: Path: Matlab 7. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. These functions get rid of PSAT GUIs.2 November 2. Clearing the workspace could not be the desired 301 . one needs to set up PSAT environment.19901 (R14) 02-Nov-2004 17:30:23 Command Line /home/fmilano/psatd Existing workspace variables are not cleared during the initialization.0.1 Basics Firstly.0.3.0. The command line usage of PSAT also speeds up operations. Launching the script file initpsat. 2004 PSAT comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. This is free software. 27. type ’gnuwarranty’ for details. type ’gnulicense’ for details.3.

The data file can be both a PSAT script file or a PSAT Simulink model. However. To force PSAT to use a directory other than the current one. Following steps are setting up the data file and launching a PSAT routine.routine ) >> runpsat(datafile2 .’data’) runpsat(routine1 ) runpsat(routine2 ) runpsat(routine3 ) The second method can be used if there are several data files under study: >> runpsat(datafile1 . as follows: >> >> >> >> runpsat(datafile .routine ) where datafile is a string containing the data file name.routine ) >> runpsat(datafile3 . The difference between the two methods is that when calling only the routine the data file name will not be overwritten.’data’) >> runpsat(routine ) 1 The latter should not have been launched from within a function. To set PSAT global variables in the common Matlab workspace. and routine is a string containing the conventional name of the routine to be executed. The first method can be used if the data file under study does not change. commands changes as follows: >> runpsat(datafile .’data’) >> runpsat(routine ) or >> runpsat(datafile . the scope will be the function workspace and the PSAT global variables will not be available in the Matlab workspace.mdl is mandatory. In the latter case the extension .1 Initializing the PSAT variables is required only once for each workspace.302 27 Command Line Usage behavior as the command line version of PSAT can be used from within user defined routines. If initpsat is called from within a user defined function.e. initpsat must be launched form the Matlab command line of from within a script file. as follows: >> runpsat(datafile . These operations can be done sequentially or at the same time by means of the function runpsat. the one which is returned by the function pwd). observe that all user variables which have same names as a PSAT global variables will be overwritten. while the user wants to perform several different analysis. .datapath . Refer to Chapter A for the complete list of PSAT global variables.routine ) In the previous commands it is assumed that the data file is in the current directory (i. The scope of PSAT global variables will be the scope of the current workspace from where initpsat is called.

routine ) Observe that if setting both the data and the perturbation files.routine ) where datapath is the absolute path of the data file. The routine names are depicted in Table 27. the following notations are equivalent: >> runpsat(’option’) >> runpsat option Other command line options for runpsat are depicted in Table 27.’pert’) >> runpsat(datafile . say option.27.pertfile .datapath . Associated routine power flow analysis continuation power flow analysis direct method for saddle-node bifurcations direct method for limit-induced bifurcations evaluate ATC using CPF analysis evaluate ATC using sensitivity analysis N -1 contingency analysis optimal power flow analysis small signal stability analysis time domain simulation PMU placement OPF analysis through the PSAT-GAMS interface CPF analysis through the PSAT-UWPFLOW interface or >> runpsat(datafile .pertpath . The syntax for the opensys option is the same as the one for data and pert options. .2.1 Basics 303 Table 27.pertpath . The perturbation file can be set in a similar way as the data file. the workspace can be cleared using the command: >> closepsat which will clear only PSAT global structures. the following commands are equivalent: >> runpsat(pertfile . it is necessary to specify as well the absolute paths for both files.1. If the PSAT variables are not needed anymore.’pert’) >> runpsat(pertfile .datapath . Observe that if runpsat is launched with only one argument.1: String pf cpf snb lib cpfatc sensatc n1cont opf sssa td pmu gams uw Routine Conventional Names for Command Line Usage. At this aim.

The latter can be easily solved by using PSAT global structures such as DAE. However.1). OPF).2: General Options for Command Line Usage. String Associated routine data set data file pert set perturbation file opensys open solved case savesys save current system log write log file of the current session pfrep write current power flow solution write eigenvalue report file eigrep pmurep write PMU placement report file input MASTER output SLAVE Figure 27. the best solution would be to use the user defined program as the master and launching PSAT only when needed. the only way to include a new routine in PSAT is writing a function which interacts with the PSAT GUIs. Using this architecture. the continu- .2 Advanced Usage The standard usage of PSAT through GUIs monopolizes the Matlab environment and makes difficult to include PSAT routine in other Matlab programs and/or including new features to PSAT. When using PSAT GUIs.1: Master-slave architecture. 27. which mostly contains all variables of the current static solution (power flow. These issues will be briefly commented in this section. Thus. Thus each routine is a slave program (see Figure 27. PSAT runs as a master program and the user can initialize and launch each internal routine from the main window. users who want to run PSAT routines within their own algorithms generally need to get rid of GUIs. and Varout which contains the time domain simulation output.304 27 Command Line Usage Table 27. as a slave application. SSSA which contains the last small signal stability analysis solution. In this way the user only needs to know how to pass and get data to and from PSAT. shares some of the PSAT global structures and properly exchanges information with PSAT. last CPF point.

Observe that. A full description of these structures is presented in Appendix A. refresh if true (default). .3: Structures to be modified to change default behavior. global structures are edited through the GUIs. forces to repeat power flow before running further analysis independently on the power flow status. Routine Associated structure Power Flow Settings Continuation Power Flow CPF SNB direct method SNB LIB LIB direct method Optimal Power Flow OPF Small Signal Stability Analysis SSSA Settings Time Domain Simulation PMU placement PMU PSAT-GAMS interface GAMS PSAT-UWPFLOW interface UWPFLOW ation curves or the Pareto set. This implies that the base case solution is used as the initial solution for all routines. one needs to edit the PSAT global structures and set the desired options. Refer to Appendix A for details. If the value is 0. especially if one needs repeating often the same settings. Editing global structures from the command line can be a lengthy process. 0 otherwise.3 Command Line Options The default behavior of command line usage of PSAT can be adjusted by means of the structure clpsat. 2 In the following the word true means the value of the variable is 1 and false means 0. In this case it could be convenient to write a script file where these settings are listed altogether and then launching the script file. Otherwise. The value of this field should not be changed by the user and is initialized when launching PSAT. as follows:2 init command line initialization status. mesg status of PSAT messages. which contains a few options. 27. Table 27. Passing data and options to PSAT is quite simple if the default behavior is convenient for the current application.3 Command Line Options 305 Table 27. Default value is 1.3 depicts PSAT routines and the associated global structures which define routine options.27. It is 1 if PSAT is running with the standard GUI support. The structure DAE also contains the current system Jacobian matrices. when using the standard version of PSAT. no message will be displayed on the Matlab workspace. Disabling message display will result in a little bit faster operations.

DAE. 0.y(1+Bus.y(1+Bus. end . forces to read data file before running power flow.9.7.6].e. forces to display OPF result on the standard output.9. 0. PV. forces to switch PQ loads to constant impedances before running time domain simulations.n:2*Bus. and slack generator. For the sake of completeness.n)]. the report file is created silently.[4.4 Example The following script file gives a simple example of command line usage of PSAT. the data file is not reloaded (unless it has been modified). viewrep if true. forces to reload Simulink model before running power flow independently on the Simulink model status. PV generator and PQ load data are reinitialized using their fields store.4) = (1+i/20)*[0. Default is false since in the command line usage it is assumed that the user does not want to or cannot use the Simulink graphical interface. a summary of the fields of the clpsat structure is also depicted in Appendix A.store(:. Default is false. 0. pq2z if true (default).store(:. showopf if true.9. readfile if true. runpsat(’pf’) voltages = [voltages. 1. forces to display report files when created.6].’data’) % solve base case power flow runpsat(’pf’) voltages = DAE.6. % increase base loading by 50% for i = 1:10 PQ.306 27 Command Line Usage refreshsim if true.n:2*Bus. % set data file runpsat(’d 006 mdl’. These data need to be reloaded since they might be modified during PSAT computations. 27. 0.n). 0. i. If the value is false (default).5]) = (1+i/20)*[0. Default is false.readfile = 0. % initialize PSAT initpsat % do not reload data file clpsat.

PSAT is initialized and the readfile option is set to false.9571 1.9525 0.0500 0.0500 1.0500 1.9685 0.0500 0.9576 0.9611 1.9820 0.0500 1.0500 0.0500 1. This allows changing the values of the system loading profile without reloading the data file.0500 1.9728 Columns 7 through 11 1.0500 1.9356 0.9741 0.9803 1.9533 0.9469 0.9876 1.0500 1.9633 0.0500 1. .9781 0.0500 1.0500 1. Then the file d 006 mdl is loaded (assuming that the file is in the current directory).0500 0. Following instructions explain how to solve the base case power flow and a series of power flows with increased loads by means of an embedding algorithm.0500 1.9179 0.0500 1. as follows: voltages = Columns 1 through 6 1.0500 0.9912 1.27.9859 0.0500 1.9239 0.9579 0.0500 1.0500 1.9413 0.0500 0.0500 0.0500 1.0500 0. Finally the PSAT variables are cleared and the bus voltages printed on the workspace.4 Example 307 % clear PSAT global variables closepsat disp(voltages) Firstly.0500 1.9298 0.0500 0.9618 0.0500 0.9700 0.9689 1.0500 1.9531 Observe the usage of the store fields of the PV and PQ components.9660 0.0500 1.9446 0.0500 1.0500 1.9118 0.9840 1.0500 0.0500 1.9765 1.9650 1.9490 0.

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only the command line usage of PSAT is allowed.06. there is no plotting utility support. I guess it is just a matter of waiting for the next Octave release for Windows (current version is octave-2. there is no support for Simulink models. GNU Octave is also freely redistributable software.3 The following restrictions apply: 1.1. should work properly also on Octave versions back to 2.1.53.0 cannot run on Octave. sparse matrix methods are not used. 3. 7. 2. PSAT version 2. 2 PSAT 1 GNU 309 . CygWin and the last Linux version of Octave.3.org.octave.sourgeforge. Octave is available at www.1. 6. and for performing other numerical experiments using a language that is mostly compatible with Matlab [44].4 can be run on GNU Octave.50-windows). You may redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL) as published by the Free Software Foundation. There should not be any problem if using Windows. primarily intended for numerical computations. 4.13).net/.72 and on a few older distributions2 for Linux and the octave-forge package (dated 2005.Chapter 28 Running PSAT on GNU Octave GNU Octave1 is a high-level language. PSAT 1. 5. It provides a convenient command line interface for solving linear and nonlinear problems numerically. PSAT has been tested with Octave version 2.0. 3 Octave-forge is available at http://octave. PSAT cannot run on the stand-alone Windows release of Octave. only full eigenvalue analysis can be performed.

2004 PSAT comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. type ’gnuwarranty’ for details. type ’gnulicense’ for details.2 November 2.1 depicts an example of plot obtained using GNU/Octave and gplot. The graphs refers to the generator speeds of the 9-bus example described in Chapter 8 (see Fig. Furthermore. However observe that. . both initpsat and psat launch the command line version of PSAT. which will result in the following message: < P S A T > Copyright (C) 2002-2004 Federico Milano Version 1.1. on Octave.2 Plot Variables The runpsat function admits the additional option plot on GNU/Octave. Host: Session: Usage: Path: Octave 2. The routine will print a menu and wait for the user answer. 8. on Octave. the syntax >> runpsat command is not allowed and one of the following functional forms >> runpsat(’command’) >> runpsat("command") must be used.310 28 Running PSAT on GNU Octave 28.53 02-Nov-2004 15:49:48 Command Line /home/fmilano/psat 28. as follows: octave:100> runpsat(’plot’) Plot variables: [ [ [ [ [ [ 1] 2] 3] 4] 5] 6] States Voltages Active Powers Reactive Powers Generator speeds Generator angles pick a number.3.1 Basic Commands All commands provided by the command line usage (see Chapter 27) work well on GNU Octave. any number: Figure 28.6). This is free software. and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions.

1: Example of graph obtained using GNU/Octave and gplot.1.015 1.02 1.01 1.025 1. 311 .995 0 1 2 3 time (s) 4 5 omegaSyn 1 omegaSyn 2 omegaSyn 3 6 7 Figure 28.005 1 0.04 1.045 1.03 1.035 1.

Any help. PSAT can be “free software” only if it is fully compatible with Octave. .3 ToDos The usage of PSAT on Octave is currently in an early stage of development.312 28 Running PSAT on GNU Octave 28. bug squash and contribution is very welcome.

Part VI Interfaces .

.

The first step you have to solve is that GAMS is recognized as a command on your system. In the following. Test systems reported in the PSAT tests folder do not need a full pledged version of GAMS for being solved.Chapter 29 GAMS Interface The General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) is a high-level modeling system for mathematical programming problems.gams. program and use GAMS is not described here. How to set GAMS executable files as environment variables depends on the operating system. nonlinear programming (NLP). it will be assumed that you have GAMS working on your computer. your GAMS folder must be set as an environment variable. Refer to the extensive GAMS user’s guide [17] for details. 315 . and allows creating and maintaining models for a wide variety of applications and disciplines [17]. Then edit the “Path” by adding the full GAMS path. This chapter describes the routine and the GUI which interface PSAT to GAMS. GAMS is able to formulate models in many different types of problem classes. an high-level language for the compact representation of large and complex models. 29.com The website allows downloading a demo version which works properly for tiny examples. In other words. such as linear programming (LP). GAMS is available at: www. GAMS is specifically designed for large and complex scale problems. How to install. It consists of a language compiler and a variety of integrated high-performance solvers. mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) and (relaxed) mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP).1 Getting Started The use of the PSAT-GAMS interface requires you to have GAMS and a GAMSMatlab interface properly installed on your computer. as follows: Windows NT and Windows 2000 look for Control Panel → System Properties → Advanced Options → Environment Variables.

the PGI does not make use of the MGI and thus you do not need to install the latter on your computer. 1 A known issue with Windows XP is that the PSAT folder needs to be the startup folder for Matlab. This may not work on all platforms (e. CONOPT [43]) whose performances and results have been compared.gms. the solution of multi-period OPF needs a MINLP solver (e. use the ~/psat/gams path when running the PSAT-GAMS interface. 2) Indicate the full PSAT path in the destination field. There are two ways to make sure that GAMS will find the library: 1. It is required the GAMS library psatout. to the ones obtained by means of the IPM implemented in PSAT.1 Linux edit the . The user may also define a custom path (menu Options/Edit GAMS Call Options).316 29 GAMS Interface Windows XP look for Control Panel → Performance and Maintenance → System. A windows with the title “System Properties” will show up. This forces the use of NLP solvers (e. when possible. Windows).g. The use of this path can be enforced by means of the PSAT-GAMS GUI (menu Options/Include GAMS Call Options).2 GAMS Solvers OPF models used in PSAT are formulated as a set of non-linear equations. Select the “Advanced” tab and push the “Environment Variables” button. a maximum limit of 50000 integer iterations always led to reasonable results. 29. which can be found in the ~/psat/gams folder. However.g. which basically works combining “relaxed” NLP with MIP master problem solutions. The second step is to properly set up the PSAT-GAMS interface. The existing Matlab-GAMS Interface (MGI) [47] has been used as the main reference for creating the PSAT-GAMS Interface (PGI). Here’s what you should do: 1) Go to your desktop in XP and right click on the Matlab icon. In large scale MINLP problems.bash profile file (or whatever file where your $PATH variable is defined) in your home directory and add the full GAMS path in the $PATH variable. the maximum number of integer iterations turns out to be the only possible stopping criterion. from the analysis of several multi-period OPF test cases. 29.3 PSAT-GAMS Interface A bridge between GAMS and Matlab allows using sophisticated nonlinear optimization tools with the visualization capabilities provided by Matlab. This operation generally requires to log as administrator. . copy the file psatout. However. Furthermore.gms into the folder gamspath/gams/inclib. 2. Then edit the “PATH” field by adding the full GAMS path.g. DICOPT [51] and MINOS [87]).

PGI comes with a complete GUI.29. while MGI is general purpose. while MGI is based on platform dependent mex-files. 4. PGI is optimized for the use with PSAT only. However.4 PSAT-GAMS Models The current version of the PSAT-GAMS interface makes available five models. Standard OPF 4. C. .gms have been made in collaboration with M. Ferris. solve complex OPF problems and finally visualize results by means of a user-friendly GUI.m is generally slower than the correspondent mex-files. be aware that the gams. 3.1 depicts the scheme of the PSAT-GAMS interface.2 depicts the PSAT-GAMS interface main window. Figure 29.2 2.4 PSAT-GAMS Models 317 Main differences between MGI and PGI are as follows: 1. PGI does not require the user to know anything about GAMS programming language. The improvements to matout. Maximum Loading Condition The VSC-OPF can be iterated for the weigthing facor ω in order to produce a Pareto set. Simple Auction 2. 29. Refer to [75] for a complete discussion of analytical models implemented in the PGI. as follows: 1.gms) which supports tables of any dimension. The resulting software is a rather innovative tool able to set up large scale power system test cases. 5. PGI is platform independent.m is included in the PSAT distribution. PGI is somewhat slower than MGI with regard to input/output file operations. Figure 29. Market Clearing Mechanism 3. 2 A platform independent function gams. Voltage Stability Constrained (VSC) OPF 5. This function can substitute the mex-files provided with the MGI tarball. The PSAT distribution tarball also provides an enhanced version of the features of the GAMS library (matout.

gms psatsol.m psatglobs.gms GAMS Library psatout.1: Structure of the PSAT-GAMS interface. 318 .gms GAMS OPF GAMS Model Figure 29.gms psatdata.Network & Market Data PSAT Graphic Visualization Tools PSAT-GAMS Interface Matlab Workspace Input Data GAMS Environment Market Solution Matlab-GAMS Interface fm gams.

319 .Figure 29.2: GUI of the PSAT-GAMS interface.

constants.5. lower limit of the energy bid offered by unit i [MW]. lower limit of the reactive power support available at unit i [MVar]. 39].320 29 GAMS Interface 29.1 Multiperiod Market Clearing Model Notation For the sake of clarity.g. power flow from line m to line n in period t [MW]. variables and sets used in the formulation of the multi-period market clearing models are reported below. Symbols used here follow mostly the nomenclature given in [40.]. minimum up time of unit i [h]. number of periods unit i must be on-line at the beginning of market horizon due to its minimum up time constraint [h]. 0/1 variable which is equal to 1 if unit i is shut-down at the beginning of period t.u. system base power [MVA]. minimum down time of unit i [h]. ramp-up limit of unit i [MW/h]. flow limit in transmission line from bus m to n [MW]. 0/1 variable which is equal to 1 if unit i is on-line in period t. 86. reactance of the transmission line from bus m to n [p. lower limit of the energy bid demanded by consumer j [MW]. power output of generation unit i in period t [MW]. number of periods unit i must be off-line at the beginning of market horizon due to its minimum down time constraint [h]. start-up ramp limit of unit i [MW/h]. shut-down ramp limit of unit i [MW/h]. Variables: θb (t) PSi (t) P Si (t) QGi PDj (t) Pmn (t) ui (t) wi (t) zi (t) voltage angle at bus b in period t [rad]. time periods unit i has been off-line at the beginning of the market horizon (end of period 0) [h].5 29. 24 hours). ramp-down limit of unit i [MW/h]. reactive power output of unit i [MVar]. scheduling time horizon (e. maximum power output of generation unit i in period t [MW]. upper limit of the reactive power support available at unit i [MVar]. power output of consumer j in period t [MW]. upper limit of the energy bid demanded by consumer j [MW]. Constants: max P Si min P Si Qmax Gi Qmin Gi max Pmn xmn Sb T DTi U Ti SDi SUi RDi RUi Γi Πi 0 αi 0 βi max PDj min PDj upper limit of the energy bid offered by unit i [MW]. 0/1 variable which is equal to 1 if unit i is started-up at the beginning of period t. . time periods unit i has been on-line at the beginning of the market horizon (end of period 0) [h].

∀m.2 Model Equations and Constraints Multi-period OPF-based electricity markets are typically modeled as mixed integer linear programming problems. T = 24 h. set of indexes of periods of the market horizon.n (t) ≤ Pm. Thus the nonlinear power flow equations are generally substituted by a power balance which may or may not include an approximated expression of network losses [40.n (t) = 0 ∀b ∈ B. 29.5. ∀t ∈ T (29. Both models are linear and do not take into account losses.1) i∈I j∈J Market clearing model: i∈Ib PSi (t) − j∈Jb PDj (t) − Pm. Equations are kept linear because of the complexity introduced by integer variables. n ∈ N .n (t) = xmn max max −Pm.) Furthermore.2) Sb (θm − θn ) Pm. set of indexes of network buses. subset of generating units connected at bus b. set of indexes of consumers. 86]. for dailyahead market scheduling. subset of transmission lines connected at bus b. (29.5 Multiperiod Market Clearing Model 321 Sets: I Ib J Jb T B N Nb set of indexes of generating units. ∀m. a set of temporal constraints to . set of indexes of transmission lines. n ∈ N .29. Model presented in [40] is linear.n ≤ Pm. subset of consumers connected at bus b. ∀t ∈ T . The PSAT-GAMS interface includes ramping constraints as those that were described in [40].3) ∀t ∈ T (29. (For instance.5) The objective function as well as the feasibility region of generator powers have to be modified in order to take into account unit commitment of generation units and have to be extended to the scheduling time horizon T . and take into account congestions in transmission lines. where the authors presents a detailed model of a multi-period auction for pool-based electricity markets. as follows: Simple auction: PSi (t) − PDj (t) = 0 ∀t ∈ T (29.4) ∀t ∈ T (29. n ∈ N . The PSAT-GAMS interface allows chosing between a simple power balance (“simple auction” model) and a power balance with transmission line flow limits (“market clearing mechanism” model).n ∀m.

T . .10) model start-up and shut-down constraints in a more detailed way than the one commonly used in the literature [70. shut-down ramp rate limits and rump-up limits. .9) and (29. . The objective function is: Max. These are as follows: Minimum up time: Γi t=1 (1 − ui (t)) ui (τ ) = 0 ∀i ∈ I ∀i ∈ I. ∀t ∈ T where maximum available power output limits P Si (t) are formulated in order to take into account the unit actual capacity.8) ∀i ∈ I. G = t∈T j∈J CDj PDj (t) (CSi PSi (t) + CSU i wi (t) + CSDi zi (t)) t∈T i∈I (29. ≤ RDi ∀i ∈ I. as follows: max P Si (t) ≤ PSi [ui (t) − zi (t + 1)] + zi (t + 1)SDi P Si (t) ≤ PSi (t − 1) + RUi ui (t − 1) + SUi wi (t) PSi (t − 1) ≤ PSi (t) + RDi ui (t) + SDi zi (t) ∀i ∈ I. Supply bid blocks and generator reactive power limits have to take in account whether the generator is committed in the period t: Qmin ui (t) Gi min PSi ui (t) ≤ PSi (t) ≤P Si (t) ≤ QGi (t)≤Qmax ui (t) Gi ∀i ∈ I. ∀t ∈ T (29. i.11) since in (29. Minimum on-line and off-line time constraints are formulated as presented in [40] and in [39]. .7) (29. ∀t ∈ T ∀t ∈ T (29.10). ∀t ∈ T (29. start-up ramp rate limits. ∀t = T − U Ti + 2 . (29.11) start-up and shut-down variables are used instead of ramp-up and ramp-down limits as in (29. PSi (t) − PSi (t − 1) PSi (t − 1) − PSi (t) ≤ RUi ∀i ∈ I.322 29 GAMS Interface account for minimum up and down times.9) and (29.12) k+U Ti −1 τ =t T τ =t ≥ U Ti wi (t) ∀t = Γi + 1 .9) The ramp-down rate limit and the shut-down ramp rate limit are modeled as follows: ∀i ∈ I. ∀i ∈ I.10) Equations (29.6) − where CSU and CSD are the start-up and shut-down costs of generating unit. ∀t ∈ T ∀t ∈ T (29. 123].e. T − U Ti + 1 (ui (τ ) − wi (t)) ≥ 0 ∀i ∈ I. ramp up and down limits and start-up and shut-down ramp rates of generations unit has to be added to properly model thermal plants.

1)-(29. which can be launched by clicking on the “Power Flow” button in the main window. using the PSAT-Simulink library. To load a file simply double click on this edit text. Now. T where Γi and Πi are the number of periods unit i must be on-line and off-line at the beginning of the time horizon respectively. ∀t = Πi + 1 . . (DTi − βi )(1 − ui (0))} (29.13) (1 − ui (τ )) ≥ DTi zi (t) ∀i ∈ I.14) (29. 29. ∀t ∈ T ≤ 1 ∀i ∈ I.16) by imposing a scheduling time T = 1 h. the start-up and the shut-down status of the units are managed as follows: wi (t) − zi (t) wi (t) + zi (t) = ui (t) − ui (t − 1) ∀i ∈ I. ∀t ∈ T (29. . it has to be loaded in the Matlab workspace. Figure 29. The name of this file is always displayed in the edit text Data File of the main window. better. or use the first button of the tool bar.16) are necessary to avoid simultaneous commitment and decommitment of a unit.29. T − DTi + 1 (1 − ui (τ ) − zi (t)) ≥ 0 ∀i ∈ I.6 Example This section illustrates how PSAT and the PSAT-GAMS interface works through a simple example. Firstly the user has to set up the data in the PSAT format. Observe that a single-period market with unit commitment can be directly derived from (29. Once the model is completed.16) Equations (29. At this aim. (U Ti − αi )ui (0)} 0 min{T.15) Finally. .3 depicts the resulting Simulink model which represents the three-bus test system. Power flow results can be visualized . the menu File/Open/Data File or the shortcut <Ctrl-d> when the main window is active. let us consider the three-bus test system described in Appendix F. it is possible to solve the power flow.1. .6 Example 323 Minimum down time: Πi ui (t) t=1 t+DTi −1 τ =t T τ =t = 0 ∀i ∈ I (29. ∀t = T − DTi + 2 . This can be done by writing a Matlab script file or. Each block of the diagram hides a mask where the user can set up the data associated with the correspondent component. as follows: Γi Πi = = 0 min{T.

2 depict the solution of the single period OPF problem obtained with the IPM Matlab routine and the PSAT-GAMS interface respectively. while Figmax ures 29. For the sake of comparison.3. 29. Figure 29. Tables 29.3: PSAT-Simulink model of the three-bus test system. PSAT is ready for further analysis.1 and 29.4 illustrates the demand profile for a 5 hour time horizon. for a first inspection in the Static Report GUI (which can be launched by <Ctrl-v> from the main window) and saved in a report file. Observe that all variables.6 depict the supply and LMP profiles with and without Pmn limits. data and results are stored as global structures in the Matlab workspace so that they are available for other routines and can be inspected at any time by the user. Observe that enforcing congestion limits leads not only to redistribute power supplies but also to split the market clearing price into nodal marginal prices. . Tables 29. After solving the base case power flow.5 depict the input and output files which are used for exchanging data between PSAT and GAMS.324 29 GAMS Interface GENCO 1 GENCO 2 Bus 2 Bus 1 GENCO 3 Bus 3 ESCO Figure 29.5 and 29.4. and 29.

uwaterloo.] 0.07666 Bus1 Bus3 0.] 0.4425 Ps max [MW] 60 60 60 mu max 0 0 0 POWER DEMANDS Bus mu min Bus3 Pd min [MW] 1294562.03637 P [MW] 52.1 V max [p.285 21.1 1.u.9 V [p.5529 22.5575 Q [MVar] 0.6146 0 I_ji max [p.50728 0.u.32335 FLOWS IN TRANSMISSION LINES From bus To bus I_ji [p.Table 29.717 REACTIVE POWERS Bus mu min Bus1 Bus2 Bus3 VOLTAGES Bus Bus1 Bus2 Bus3 POWER FLOW Bus Bus1 Bus2 Bus3 0 0 0 Qg min [MVar] -150 -20 -20 Qg [MVar] 0.1: PSAT IPM-based OPF report for the three-bus test system.9 0.32335 TOTALS TOTAL LOSSES [MW]: BID LOSSES [MW] TOTAL DEMAND [MW]: TTL [MW]: IMO PAY [$/h]: I_ij max [p.3 Author: Federico Milano.4252 27.4 0.1 1.4 0.3228 rho P [$/MWh] 20.4 mu I_ij 0 2.3228 Qg max [MVar] 150 80 80 mu max 0 0 0 mu min 0 0 0 V min [p.4 mu I_ji 0 2.u.3758 325 .1 1.55216 1.66381 phase [rad] 0 -0.4 0.1322 20.2045 7 12 0 0 0 0 Ps min [MW] 10 10 10 Ps [MW] 52. OPTIMAL POWER FLOW REPORT (Standard OPF) P S A T 1.55216 61.u.4 Bus3 Bus2 0.8213 rho Q [$/MVArh] 0 0 0 NCP [$/MWh] 0 1.4 0.uwaterloo.9 0.1 mu max 0.2679 2.u.] 0.] 1.4252 27.35091 0.mdl 13-Jul-2005 09:19:39 NETWORK STATISTICS Buses: Lines: Generators: Loads: Supplies: Demands: SOLUTION STATISTICS Objective Function [$/h]: Active Limits: Number of Iterations: Barrier Parameter: Variable Mismatch: Power Flow Equation Mismatch: Objective Function Mismatch: POWER SUPPLIES Bus mu min Bus1 Bus2 Bus3 0 0 0 3 3 3 1 3 1 1606.4 Bus2 Bus3 0.u.5362 Pay [$/h] -1063 -585 1816 FLOWS IN TRANSMISSION LINES From bus To bus I_ij [p.] Bus1 Bus2 0.1322 -79.82937 0.82938 0.ca/~fmilano File: Date: ~/psatd/tests/d_unitcomm.538 100 Pd [MW] 100 Pd max [MW] 100 mu max 1294539. (c) 2002-2005 e-mail: fmilano@thunderbox.1 1.07666 Bus3 Bus1 0.3.u.6146 0 0 0 100 100 167.] 1.00697 -0.ca website: http://thunderbox.] Bus2 Bus1 0.

1000 -0.0000 -1063.0000 2 21.4000 0.] [rad] [MW] [MW] 1 1.8294 150 -150 2 0.0767 0.4792 -466.] 1 2 0.1006 -584.1322 60 10 3 20.4000 0.] [p.0766 QG [MVar] 0.gms for the three-bus test system.11565 s Power Supplies --------------------------------------------------------------Bus Ps Ps max Ps min <i> [MW] [MW] [MW] 1 52.0000 0.8213 2.5529 1.] 0.4000 0.5522 61.1000 -0.4000 0.u.34138 s Table 29. $setglobal $setglobal $setglobal $setglobal $setglobal $setglobal $setglobal $setglobal $setglobal nBus ’3’ nLine ’3’ nPs ’3’ nPd ’1’ nSW ’1’ nPV ’2’ nBusref ’1’ control ’3’ flow ’1’ 326 .3233 1 3 0.3234 0.1322 0 3 1. GAMS model status: locally optimal GAMS solver status: normal completion PSAT-GAMS Optimization Routine completed in 0.] 0.] [p.1267 Flows on Transmission Lines --------------------------------------------------------------From Bus To Bus Iij Iijmax Iij margin <i> <j> [p.3758 [$/h] --------------------------------------------------------------Check file ~/psatd/fm_gams.0766 Totals --------------------------------------------------------------Total Losses = 0 [MW] Bid Losses = 0 [MW] Total demand = 100 [MW] Total Transaction Level = 100 [MW] IMO Pay = 167.5246 2282.2: PSAT-GAMS OPF report for the three-bus test system.0000 3 22.1000 0.0767 0.2850 0.5522 80 -20 3 61.7785 0.3234 Ijimax [p.3233 0.Table 29.0000 52.4425 100 Prices and Pays --------------------------------------------------------------Bus LMP NCP Pay S Pay D <i> [$/MWh] [$/MWh] [$/h] [$/h] 1 20.8294 0.4000 Iji margin [p.3: Input file psatglobs.u.lst for GAMS report.4000 0.u.4480 0.u. ----------------------------------------------------------------PSAT-GAMS Interface ----------------------------------------------------------------Standard OPF Single-Period Auction GAMS routine completed in 0.u.4000 0.3228 80 -20 Power Flow Solution --------------------------------------------------------------Bus V theta PG PL <i> [p.u.0000 2 3 0.4252 60 10 2 27.u.3228 QL [MVar] 0 0 60 Iji [p.0364 20.4425 60 10 Power Demands --------------------------------------------------------------Bus Pd Pd max Pd min <i> [MW] [MW] [MW] 3 100 100 100 Generator Reactive Powers --------------------------------------------------------------Bus Qg Qg max Qg min <i> [MVar] [MVar] [MVar] 1 0.4000 0.4252 0 2 1.] 0.0070 27.

varargout{nout}(2) = 2.Psmax 0. $kill Li parameter Li / 1.600000 2.400000 3.Csb 12.Pdmax 1.3 -20. nout = nout + 1. varargout{nout} = 2. varargout{nout} = zeros(3.1832967567593E+00. varargout{nout}(3) = -3.100000 1. varargout{nout} = zeros(3. nout = nout + 1. varargout{nout}(1) = -3.1).2 1.1322778477527E-01.5: Output file psatsol.000000 3.b -10. $kill Pd_idx parameter Pd_idx / 3.000000 1. $kill Bh parameter Bh / 1. $kill Ps_idx parameter Ps_idx / 1.2938340399436E-03. varargout{nout}(3) = 3.kpv 1.1). varargout{nout}(3) = 6.000000 3.6365640167873E-02. nout = nout + 1.1 1.500000 2.000000 /.3 1.100000 1.Psmin 0.600000 /.Pjimax 0.Qgmin -1.Qgmin -0.600000 1.000000 3.100000 2.Vmin 0.1 1.Qgmax 0. varargout{nout} = 1.000000 2. varargout{nout}(1) = 5.1000000000000E+00.Csa 0.1000000000000E+00.2335073143047E-01. varargout{nout}(3) = -6. varargout{nout}(2) = 4.Csa 0.Qgmax 0. $kill N parameter N / 1. varargout{nout}(2) = -6.400000 /.Csb 9.1 -20. varargout{nout} = zeros(3.6659512222775E-02.100000 3.Qgmin -0.0442534915010E-01.6380624368687E-01.000000 2.b -10.Psmax 0.1).900000 1.200000 3.000000 3.V0 1. $kill X parameter X / 1.Pjimax 0.Qgmax 1.080000 1.1 1.000000 2.2821267457505E+01.0727651287779E-01.900000 3.ksw 1.000000 3.Psmin 0.000000 3.000000 2.V0 1. nout = nout + 1.000000 /.3 10.2 10.060000 2.ksu 1.Psmax 0.Vmax 1. varargout{nout} = zeros(3.Psmin 0. varargout{nout}(2) = -5.600000 3.000000 1.400000 2.000000 2. varargout{nout} = zeros(3. varargout{nout}(1) = 1.Vmin 0.2425221822350E-01.Pjimax 0.6659512222775E-02.1552897306532E+01.000000 3. varargout{nout}(1) = 7. $offempty Table 29.000000 1.ksu 1.1). varargout{nout} = zeros(3. $onempty $kill Gh parameter Gh / /.Pijmax 0.Csa 0.000000 2.040000 3.400000 1. nout = nout + 1.Pijmax 0. $kill S parameter S / 1.1 10. nout = nout + 1.0000000000000E+00.000000 1.000000 3.Pd0 1.000000 2.000000 1.Pdmin 1. varargout{nout} = zeros(1. nout = nout + 1.1).1000000000000E+00.500000 2.Csc 20. varargout{nout} = zeros(3. varargout{nout}(3) = 2.Vmin 0.3 1.000000 /. varargout{nout}(2) = -4.7132243262640E-01. varargout{nout}(2) = 1.2 10. varargout{nout}(1) = 2. nout = nout + 1. varargout{nout}(1) = 7.Table 29.2 1. varargout{nout}(3) = 3.1).V0 1.Vmax 1. varargout{nout}(3) = 2.Vmax 1.000000 3. varargout{nout}(2) = 5.3 1.000000 2.200000 1. varargout{nout}(3) = 1.ksu 1.gms for the three-bus test system.0000000000000E+00.100000 3.100000 2.0000000000000E+00.1). varargout{nout} = zeros(3.800000 3.700000 3.0285044364470E+01.000000 /.000000 1.Pijmax 0.1).400000 3.2335073143047E-01.4: Input file psatdata.Csc 10.1).2 1. varargout{nout}(2) = 4.9690606686979E-03. varargout{nout}(1) = 1.1 1. varargout{nout} = zeros(3.tgphi 0.800000 1. nout = nout + 1.000000 3. varargout{nout} = zeros(3.600000 1.000000 2.b -10.kpv 1.900000 2. 327 .2 -20.1).5091452691537E-01. nout = nout + 1.m for the three-bus test system.400000 2.000000 3.000000 2. varargout{nout}(1) = 8. nout = nout + 1.3 10.Csc 25.000000 1. nout = nout + 1.1 10.000000 /.Csb 10.000000 /.5216188162457E-03.800000 2.000000 1. varargout{nout}(2) = 2.000000 2.0000000000000E-01. nout = nout + 1. $kill D parameter D / 1.000000 /. $kill Lj parameter Lj / 1.1).0000000000000E-01.

328 .120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 1 2 3 4 5 hour [h] Figure 29.4: Demand profile for the multiperiod auction.

7 10.5 10.6 10.70 60 50 40 PS Bus 1 PS Bus 2 30 PS Bus 3 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 hour [h] 10.4 10.5: Supply and LMP profiles for the multiperiod auction without Pmn limits.1 10 9.8 10.9 9.3 10. 329 .2 10.8 1 2 3 4 5 LMP Bus 1 LMP Bus 2 LMP Bus 3 hour [h] max Figure 29.

5 10 9.5 LMP Bus 2 LMP Bus 3 12 11.6: Supply and LMP profiles for the multiperiod auction with Pmn limits.5 1 2 3 4 5 hour [h] max Figure 29. 330 .60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 1 2 3 4 5 PS Bus 1 PS Bus 2 PS Bus 3 hour [h] 13 LMP Bus 1 12.5 11 10.

Chapter 30 UWPFLOW Interface UWPFLOW is an open source program for sophisticated continuation power flow analysis [22].cygwin. These changes do not affect the Windows version of UWPFLOW. This chapter describes the PSAT-UWPFLOW interface. comment line 569 /*fclose(OutputHomot). which will just keep working fine. Remember to change the path in the UWPFLOW desktop icon if you have one. refer to Section 30. remember to modify the UWPFLOW makefile.2 If you are using gcc as C compiler. uwpflow ide.3 for limitations and ToDos. FACTS and secondary voltage control.1 Getting Started The use of the PSAT-UWPFLOW interface requires you have UWPFLOW installed on your computer.power. i. look for the UWPFLOW folder and rename the uwpflow. UWPFLOW is freely available at www. 2 available at www. 30. including voltage dependent loads. such as Red Hat. After installing the Windows version of UWPFLOW. which allows exporting PSAT models to UWPFLOW. The interface is currently in an early stage.exe (e.c. as follows: 1. and provides a simple example. Then compile UWPFLOW. 2.g.e. I used make and gcc for win32 provided by CygWin.com 331 . Windows users. To avoid that.exe). It consists of a set of C functions and libraries designed for voltage stability analysis of power systems. change 1 On some Linux platforms.uwaterloo. Move to the UWPFLOW source folder and compile UWPFLOW from scratch. have an extra work to do in order to get the PSAT-UWPFLOW interface properly working.*/ of file writesol. HVDC. UWPFLOW may produce segmentation faults when trying to display results.ca Unix and Linux1 users have just to follow installation instructions provided with the UWPFLOW tarball. instead.

e. uwpflow.exe and cygwin1. Improvements to the PSAT-UWPFLOW interface will be included in future versions of PSAT. 30.3 3. Ca˜izares.e. 3 Users which are not familiar with Unix-like systems. 2. I will send you the executable files. add a batch file support to run sophisticated UWPFLOW sessions. Copy the UWPFLOW executable file(s) created at the previous step in a Windows system folder. make possible to visualize UWPFLOW nose curves in PSAT. the user is always asked if UWPFLOW power flow solution should be loaded in PSAT. thus the interface will work successfully with networks containing only lines. could find a little bit confusing dealing with the make and gcc utilities. i. The user has just to set the desired options and then push the Run button. If you have no clue on how to compile UWPFLOW from scratch. Furthermore the interface allows exporting PSAT models to UWPFLOW and running UWPFLOW with the proper options. The GUI may be also used just as a generator of the command line for UWPFLOW. Furthermore. C. 30. Finally. PQ loads and shunt admittances (i. such as C:\Windows\system32.2 Graphical User Interface Figure 30. FACTS and secondary voltage control. Furthermore. slack generators. That means voltage dependent loads. be aware that the reference UWPFLOW version will remain the original one. UWPFLOW does not support dynamic models.3 Limitations and ToDos The PSAT-UWPFLOW interface is an very early stage and is currently able to export very simple power flow models. PV generators.332 30 UWPFLOW Interface the first line as follows: CC = gcc. but not viceversa. 4. continuation power flow solutions. UWPFLOW results and the power flow solutions are not loaded in PSAT. 3.e. the components described in Chapter 10). nose curves. A list of ToDos follows: 1.1 depicts the GUI of the PSAT-UWPFLOW interface. make possible to load all UWPFLOW results in PSAT. However. make possible to export voltage dependent loads. are plotted in a separate Matlab window. i.dll. HVDC. If you are using the CygWin package. which is freely distributed by Prof. n . the compiler will produce two files. HVDC. FACTS and secondary voltage control are not supported yet.

1: GUI of the PSAT-UWPFLOW interface. 333 .Figure 30.

the command line will result as follows: uwpflow -I d 006 mdl.k. In the case of continuation methods. the interface has to take care of the input file psatuw. When this file is created.5 which is located in the same folder as the PSAT data file (see Table 30. which creates the UWPFLOW command line. 4 The PSAT-UWPFLOW interface also performs a few syntax checks of the resulting UWPFLOW command line.pf -cpsatuw. the powers of slack and PV generators and PQ loads.cpf -Kpsatuw.4.cf6 which is in the IEEE common data format. Observe that nose curves obtained by means of the PSAT-UWPFLOW inteface are not internally loaded in PSAT and cannot be plotted using the PSAT GUI for plotting results. if needed. set the desired UWPFLOW options. as depicted in Fig.cf psatuw. the UWPFLOW solution can present “big” equation mismatches when loaded in PSAT.4 Example This section illustrates the usage of the PSAT-UWPFLOW interface by means of the 6-bus text system. in order to run the power flow.cf psatuw. Pushing the Run UWPFLOW button will launch the PSAT-UWPFLOW interface. This option is not shown in the resulting command line. 7 This file is always created by the PSAT-UWPFLOW interface. In some cases some options are added in order to build a well formed command line. At this aim. unless the user set the option in the PSAT-UWPFLOW interface. which provide power direction for the continuation method.e. base case powers will be used. simply select Power Flow in the Solver Method pop-up menu and. For the 6-bus test system. as follows: uwpflow -I d 006 mdl. .7 Because of the limited number of digits available for voltages.k file for the 6-bus test system. as depicted in Table 30.2.pf. as usual.k Observe that along with the d 006 mdl. by means of the -w option.pf The interface will also write a IEEE common data format file containing the current system data. 6 Or whatever is the “Input-Output File Name” chosen by the user. If Supply and Demand data are not defined. UWPFLOW writes a file containing the loading parameters and the most significant voltages. the user may chose to load these results in PSAT.1. whose data are reported in Appendix F.2. it is used the file psatuw. Table 30. set the desired UWPFLOW options. the PSAT-UWPFLOW interface can be launched. if needed. For example. 5 The user may chose another name for this file using the menu Preferences/Modify InputOutput File Name of the PSAT-UWPFLOW interface. select Continuation Method in the Solver Method pop-up menu and.2). the PSAT-UWPFLOW interface will load and display the data in a Matlab figure. the network has to be loaded in PSAT and the power flow has to be solved. Supply and Demand data are used.334 30 UWPFLOW Interface 30. At the end of the computations. 30.cf file.3 depicts the psatuw. Firstly. i. To run the continuation power flow. Observe that in order to load results.4 Results are stored in the file psatuw. At this point. as depicted in Table 30.

00 150.0000 0.000 0.0000 0.0000 0.00 999.0000 0.00 0.0000 0.000 0.0000 0.00 400.0000 0.0200000 0 0 0 4 5 1 1 1 0 0.0000 0.0800000 0 0 0 3 5 1 1 1 0 0.000 0.0000 0.10000000 0.00 0.25000000 0.0000 0.00 0.0700000 0.00 150.0500000 0.0000 60.0600000 0 0 0 2 6 1 1 1 0 0.0000 0.0000 0.000 -999 BRANCH DATA FOLLOW 11 ITEMS 2 3 1 1 1 0 0.0000 0.0000 0.3740 0.0000 0.000 0.6585 0.3973 0.0000 0.0000 0.0200000 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 1 0 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.00 0.2000000 0.00 0.0000 0.0000 0.30000000 0.1000000 0.0000 0.0200000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.2000 1.Table 30.0400000 0 0 0 -999 LOSS ZONES FOLLOW 1 ITEMS 1 6-Bus -99 INTERCHANGE DATA FOLLOW 1 ITEMS 1 2 Bus2 0.40000000 0.1: IEEE CDF file to be used within UWPFLOW (d 006 mdl.0000 0.26000000 0.000 0.0000 0.0500000 0.000 0.3082 1.0000 0.000 0.0000 0.000 0.0000 0.0000 0.00 2003 W 6-Bus 11-Line System BUS DATA FOLLOW 6 ITEMS 1 Bus1 1 0 2 1.20000000 0.0000 150.20000000 0.0000 0.00 1.0000 0.0400000 0 0 0 1 4 1 1 1 0 0.20000000 0.000 400.cf) 11/16/03 PSAT ARCHIVE 100.0000 0.0500 1.0000 0.0000 0.00 400.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.00 400.0000 0.30000000 0.9147 0.00 400.000 90.00 400.0500000 0.0000 0.0000 0.000 5 Bus5 1 0 1 1.0000 0.0600000 0 0 0 2 4 1 1 1 0 0.0000 0.00 0.0000 0.0000 0.00 0.7114 335 .000 0.0000 60.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0500 1.000 0.0000 0.0000 0.00 -150.000 0.0600000 0 0 0 3 6 1 1 1 0 0.0500 0.0000 70.0000 0.000 0.0000 0.1000000 0.000 0.1000000 0.0000 0.8478 0.1796 0.0000 0.000 0.0000 0.99 6Bus 6-Bus 11-Line System -9 TIE LINES FOLLOW 0 ITEMS -999 END OF DATA 0.0000 0.000 90.000 0.0500000 0 0 0 2 5 1 1 1 0 0.0800000 0.0000 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.30000000 0.10000000 0.0500 0.0000 0.00 -150.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.000 0.1200000 0.000 0.0000 0.0400000 0 0 0 1 5 1 1 1 0 0.000 100.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0500 0.000 0.000 2 Bus2 1 0 3 1.2591 0.9193 0.0000 0.0500 0.0000 60.0000 0.000 3 Bus3 1 0 2 1.00 -150.0000 140.000 0.0500000 0 0 0 5 6 1 1 1 0 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.000 6 Bus6 1 0 1 1.000 4 Bus4 1 0 1 1.0000 90.

41 200.00 100.17 58.63 56.77 25.95 7.42 166.42 38.93 | 3 Bus3 1 -54.0000 150.6536 261.00| -15.P.67 -23.32 -9.00 0.40 1.17 | -36.00 0.63 | 5 Bus5 1 8.2: UWPFLOW power flow results (psatuw.69 0.74 178.5940 237.17 55.04 0.58 170. p.0646 150.55 0.03 47.33 29.88 0.39 | 1.72 13.77 | -1.48 | 6 Bus6 1 53.00| 5 Bus5 1 47.69 0.92 | -19.Table 30.63 37.00 0.00 70.12 | -57.27 | -5.16 0.00 0.00| 5 Bus5 1 41.72 | 2 Bus2 1 -61.pf) U.2711 108.00| 1 Bus1 1 -41.86 336 .28 | 6 Bus6 1 -6.86 | 2 Bus2 1 -18.30 | 63.00 0.63 | 1 Bus1 1 -16.32 --|---|----------|------|-------|--------|--------|--------|----|------------|-|--------|--------|--------|-------|-|----|--------0 6 Bus6 0.11 -7. Trf.11 165.81 239.3219 0.00 0.00| -17.00| 75.00| 5 Bus5 1 39.32 --|---|----------|------|-------|--------|--------|--------|----|------------|-|--------|--------|--------|-------|-|----|--------0 5 Bus5 0.02 | 64.54 84. Solution: 6-Bus 11-Line System Loading factor -> -5.68 | 6 Bus6 1 62.1708 0.4293 171.83 13.50 27.55 0.51 | 4 Bus4 1 75.1391 150. -> 11 V Reg.00 deg.72 | 2 Bus2 1 17.41 197.00 60.42 167.50 3.00 0. Trf.04 | 14.02 165.56 -0.00 33.69 0.00 0.374e-07 (Tolerance = 0.00 4.21 0.27 13.67 283.28 | 4 Bus4 1 48.21 7.00 90.47 | 10.81 240.53 0.39346e-05 AC buses -> 6 PV buses -> 0 X buses -> 0 Z buses -> 0 AC elem.17 7.91 3.00| 54.11 163.97 0.46 13.97 1.53 --|---|----------|------|-------|--------|--------|--------|----|------------|-|--------|--------|--------|-------|-|----|--------0 4 Bus4 0.52 46.00| -34.97 -0.0001 ) Reference Bus(es) -> 2 Bus2 (Angle= 0.05 29.u.52 1.70 0.92 4.51 --|---|----------|------|-------|--------|--------|--------|----|------------|-|--------|--------|--------|-------|-|----|--------0 2 Bus2 0.74 180.37 | -19.53 --|---|----------|------|-------|--------|--------|--------|----|------------|-|--------|--------|--------|-------|-|----|--------0 3 Bus3 0.E.68 | 4 Bus4 1 -9.00| 52.67 281.91 56.12 | 42.02 167.94 38.03 45.08 | 5 Bus5 1 12.43 5.67 3.93 | 3 Bus3 1 -25.42 27.06 16. -> 0 DC buses -> 0 DC lines -> 0 SVCs -> 0 TCSCs -> 0 STATCOMs -> 0 No.22 15.00 60. Areas -> 0 Iterations -> 30 (Maximum = 50) Max.00 0.00H 0.14 25.99 -18.88 61.08 | 3 Bus3 1 19.00H 0.50 7. -> 0 PQ Reg.99 | 95.5838 233.00| 2 Bus2 1 -43.04 16.90 9.43 114.4049 161.00 0.74 0.42 0.00 0.87 | 10. mismatch -> 9.48 | 1 Bus1 1 -32.44 -0.00 90.24 | -9.4112 0.88 63.32 9.78 37.52 46.94 1.79 -0.67 33.75 5.63 15.) ***** AC RESULTS ***** L=lower limit H=higher limit O=over limit U=under limit --|---|----------|------|-------|--------|--------|--------|----|------------|-|--------|--------|--------|-------|-|-------------A i Bus V(pu) V(kV) Pg(MW) Pload Pshunt| j Bus C Pij Plosses |Iij|(A) kVi/kVj T Controlled Bus n Name d(deg) d(rad) Qg(MVAR) Qload Qshunt| Name r Qij Qlosses a(deg) k Name --|---|----------|------|-------|--------|--------|--------|----|------------|-|--------|--------|--------|-------|-|----|--------0 1 Bus1 0.00| 2 Bus2 1 -26.55 | -10.00 0.00H 0.00 0.

62063 .85116 1.1392 .95374 .93824 .85880 .10000 0.00000 0.0271 1.0500 4.0500 5.67418 .0500 1.89240 .85880 .0500 3.0076 1.83425 1.43186 .89240 .86983 1.0500 4.5574 .4006 .91858 .Table 30.16665 0.40492 .89628 .1562 .1392 .0500 5.92593 1.27988 .95374 .0500 1.19516 .92851 .89279 .cpf) L.07000 0.0366 1.58385 .0345 1.90000 0 0 1.85880 .5595 .95736 .65811 .87045 1.90517 .20000 Qnl 0.0076 1.10000 0.10000 0.6836 .0500 1.6680 .90069 .10000 0.87509 .00000 0.91262 1.1392 .89628 .93582 .59601 .0500 5.0500 1.60438 .0136 1.0235 1.30787 .83425 1.34784 .09753 .89395 .27106 .59091 .0500 4.43371 .0500 1.0199 1.0500 1.0217 1.0500 1.89628 .20000 0.0380 .58719 .83838 1.0500 1.0500 5.0500 1.0324 1.93462 .6209 .96112 .F.0500 1.95554 .89318 .59843 .41181 .90507 .83425 1.00000 0.42806 .91979 .0076 1.0500 4. this value is ignored in this file by making it equal to 0.86279 .0500 2.65568 -.83425 1. The unformatted data is given in the following order: BusNumber 1 2 3 4 5 6 BusName 0 0 0 0 0 0 DPg 0.0500 4.00000 0.0500 3.0000 .9005 .94322 .90000 0 0 1.86920 1.93342 .0199 1.00000 0.0106 1.3: Input file which defines power directions in UWPFLOW (psatuw.25000 0.78340 .k) C C C C C C C C C C C C C C 6 BUS AC TEST SYSTEM Generation and Load Directions This file contains the generation (DPg) and load (Pnl.90000 Table 30.91076 1.0500 1.4803 .1392 .0329 1.0500 1.85880 .0324 1.87920 1.42720 .6524 .89550 .89628 .89628 .0894 .5719 . Since the IEEE Common Format does not allow for the definition of PgMax.0500 5.10000 0.4277 .0500 3.0334 1.0091 1.0345 1.0500 4.0500 4.0500 1.0500 5.00000 0.0001 .0500 1.66391 .0326 1.93372 .87418 1.0500 1.0500 1.72318 .93402 .95464 .1392 .91858 .0500 5.10000 0.0196 1.0500 5.44492 .59947 .00000 0. and optional Pzl and Qzl) direction.0500 1.91430 .67933 .0500 3.0500 1.89628 .87169 1.62063 . -C.42091 .06667 PgMax [ Smax Vmax Vmin Pzl Qzl ] 0 0 1.2382 .0076 1.10000 0. -H and -B options).00000 0.91448 1.59396 .66722 .0500 1.4: UWPFLOW output file with CPF results (psatuw.91824 1.83425 1.90000 0 0 1.86920 1.1145 .42726 .96854 .91076 1.28897 .90000 0 0 1.98592 1.83631 1.99121 .6836 .0076 1.0500 5.25000 0.92101 .0500 1.0500 1.50769 . The file must be read with the -K option whenever one wants to do bifurcation studies (-c.0500 4.0500 1. and the maximum P generation (PgMax) needed for finding the bifurcation point. Qnl.00000 Pnl 0.84258 1.86683 .86080 .0199 1.92347 .89849 .89864 . V6 V5 V4 V3 V2 V1 0.0199 1.9291 .39080 .90000 0 0 1.20000 0.85880 .88943 1.40808 .0500 4.0410 1.0076 1.93342 .83425 1.42935 .0199 1.65357 337 .0500 3.5595 .1392 .0500 1.47080 .85880 .0199 1.

3 0. 338 .1 1 0. Results are obtained enforcing reactive power limits of generators.8 Voltages [p.7 0.2: UWPFLOW nose curves for the 6-bus test systems. 5.5 5 5.2 V6 V5 V4 V3 V2 V1 0.5 0.5 1 1.5 Loading Factor λ Figure 30.4 0.1.6 0.5 3 3.5 4 4.u.5 2 2.8.1 0 0.9 0.] 0. Compare these results with the PSAT CPF results depicted in Fig.

Part VII Libraries .

.

m: computes output and input matrices for linear analysis. u ∈ Rm the input variables and y ∈ Rp the output variables. The function fex abcd.com 341 . Available output and input variables are described in the function source 1 Dr.Chapter 31 Numeric Linear Analysis by Alberto Del Rosso1 The library for numeric linear analysis computes output and input matrices A. This is the main function which internally calls the other library functions. as follows: fex abcd. 31. and with National University of Technology. C and D for linear analysis.m: solves Newton-Raphson loop. Washington D. Alberto Del Rosso is with Mercados Energeticos. Used for B matrix computations. Madrid. B.1 Description The numeric linear analysis library is composed of three functions. Buenos Aires. E-mail: adelrosso@mercadosenergeticos. Buenos Aires.m: computes power flows in transmission lines.m is to be run from the Matlab prompt after solving power flow and computes output and input matrices A. C and D for small signal stability analysis. B.1) where x ∈ Rn are the state variables. Currently supported input variables are reference voltages of AVRs. as follows: ∆x = A∆x + B∆u ˙ ∆y = C∆x + D∆u (31. reference speeds of turbine governors.C. fex nrloop. and additional input signal of SVC controllers. fex lineflows.

11.m is in the current path. c pr: numeric matrix C for active power flows Pji . Functions for numeric linear analysis have been written for the command line version of PSAT. the command line version of PSAT will be used and it will be assumed that the data files d 009 mdl. Jacobian matrices and settings for the numeric linear analysis library are contained in the structure NLA. The state matrix A which is obtained by means of fex abcd can be readily tested by means of the analytical state matrix calculated by PSAT. 6. The consistency and the accuracy of input/output matrices B. while matrices for other variables can be easily added using this code as a template. . 3. Default value is 10−5 . c qr: numeric matrix C for reactive power flows Qji . The function evaluates Jacobian matrices via numerical differentiation. 2 Observe that PSAT does not currently support additional signal for SVC controllers. c Ir: numeric matrix C for current flows Iji . a sys: numeric state matrix A.342 31 Numeric Linear Analysis code. c qs: numeric matrix C for reactive power flows Qij .3) is used in this section to illustrate results obtained with the numeric linear analysis functions. b Tr: numeric matrix B for governor reference speeds ωref . Note: the current version of the numeric linear analysis functions is preliminary and only a few tests have been performed so far. tol: minimum state variation ∆x for numeric Jacobian computations. 10. c Is: numeric matrix C for current flows Iij . b Vr: numeric matrix B for exciter reference voltages Vref . c ps: numeric matrix C for active power flows Pij . 2. 12. 8. but can also run if using PSAT GUIs. which has the following fields: 1. 31. c y: numeric matrix C for algebraic variables. 7. b svc: numeric matrix B for SVC additional signals.2 5. 9.2 Test cases The WSCC 9-bus test system described in [101] (see also the Appendix F. C and D is checked by comparing time domain response of the linearized and the full non-linear systems. In the following examples. 4.

Qs0.1 Comparison of state matrices Table 31.Pr0.’data’) runpsat(’pf’) fex_abcd.40392 −3.6324i −0.94648i −5.1 depicts the eigenvalues obtained by means of the numerical and the analytical differentiation. t = 0:0.a_sys).22581 31.63242i −5. To obtain these results.44279 ± 1.m’.44279 ± 1.02. mu1 = eig(NLA.4838 ± 7.21801 ± 7.91899i −5. respectively.Jlfv)*DAE. then one has to compute eigenvalues by means of the numerical and the analytical differentiation.DAE. the power flow has to be solved first.91899i −5.21198i −0.81343i −5.21199i −0.1: State matrix eigenvalues for the 9-bus test system Numerical State Matrix Analytical State Matrix −1000 −1000 −1000 −1000 −1000 −1000 −0. A sample code which uses the numeric linear analysis function is as follows: >> >> >> >> >> >> runpsat(’d_009_mdl.7075 ± 11.3211 ± 7.’data’) runpsat(’pf’) [Ps0.Gx.Ir0] = fex_lineflows.2 Results for a change of an exciter reference voltage Following time domain simulations assume a 2% step in the exciter reference voltage Vref of synchronous machine 1.81343i −5.60652i −0.3211 ± 7.18645 ± 7.0106i −3.Is0.43829 ± 0.48381 ± 7.49685i −0. mu2 = eig(full(As)).74015i −0. 31.2.Fx . .42483 ± 0.7075 ± 11.74015i −0.22581 −3.01:20.1).2.42483 ± 0. As = DAE.49685i 0 ± 0.19713 −5.Fy*inv(DAE.00652i 0 ± 0.m’.n.Qr0. u(1:length(t)) = 0.19712 −3. as follows: >> >> >> >> >> >> runpsat(’d_009_mdl. d = zeros(Bus.21801 ± 7.60651i −0.43829 ± 0.94648i −5.18645 ± 7.4039 −0.2 Test cases 343 Table 31.31.

x0). pmat = ones(size(Ps)). Qs and Ps. Variations of bus voltages.tstep = 0.t.05 0.2%.t. 31.u. initial values of bus voltages and power flows are added to variations (see vl.3 depict results for the time domain simulations obtained with the linearized and the full non-linear system.NLA. ql = Qs+qmat*diag(Qs0).fixt = 1.2 and 31.NLA. 2 2 3 2 1 1 0.n. respectively.3 illustrate reactive power flow through transformer 2-7 and transmission line 6-4. qmat = ones(size(Qs)). vl = Vlinear + vmat*diag(Snapshot.NLA.NLA. 0. 31.1).a_sys.x0).xlV] = lsim(NLA. and the active power flow through transformer 2-7.d.xlV] = lsim(NLA.b_Vr(:.con = [ . [Ps. [Qs. Code for the numeric linear analysis: .u.02. Exc.1 depicts voltage magnitudes at buses 6 and 7.1 0.3].c_qs.1 s in order to reproduce the same conditions as the linearized system.x0). the time response is obtained by means of the Matlab function lsim.b_Vr(:. 31.05 1. The time domain simulation of the full non-linear system is obtained as follows: >> >> >> >> >> >> runpsat(’d_009_mdl.1). Figures 31.fixt = 1. Once computed the linear model using fex abcd..3.c_V.NLA.’data’) runpsat(’pf’) Settings.1). d = zeros(length(Line. vmat = ones(size(Vlinear)). fix the simulation time step to ∆t = 0. runpsat(’td’) Observe that the instructions Settings.0 1.0 0.1 0.n).01.2 and 31.5% step in the reference speeds ωref of turbine governors of the synchronous machines connected at buses 1 and 3.1 0.d.n. respectively.01.vrif0(1) = Exc. Observe that one has to change the original 9-bus test system file by adding the governors data.a_sys.2.1).1. Observe that the maximum difference within simulation time range is less than 0. Settings.d.vrif0(1)*1.m’. x0 = zeros(DAE.1 0.c_ps. ql and pl) to ease comparisons with non-linear system results.3 Results for a change of governor reference speeds Following time domain simulations assume a 0. pl = Ps+pmat*diag(Ps0). reactive powers and active power flows are contained in the matrices Vlinear..1). Figure 31.V).344 31 Numeric Linear Analysis >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> x0 = zeros(DAE. while Figs. Finally. as follows: Tg.u. [Vlinear.tstep = 0.NLA.b_Vr(:.xlV] = lsim(NLA.a_sys.t. and Settings.1).

0.] 1.03 Voltages [p.025 1.02 1.u.2: Comparison of reactive powers flows in lines 2-7 and 6-4 for a 2% step in the reference voltage of machine 2.1.] 0.01 0 2 4 6 8 Time (s) 10 12 14 16 18 20 Figure 31.1 Reactive Powers [p.2 0 2 4 6 8 Time (s) 10 12 14 16 18 20 Figure 31. 345 .05 −0.15 Q Q Q Q 2-7 2-7 6-4 6-4 Linear Non-Linear Linear Non-Linear 0.1 −0.035 1.1: Comparison of voltages at buses 6 and 7 for a 2% step in the reference voltage of machine 2.15 −0.015 Bus Bus Bus Bus 7 7 6 6 - Linear Non-Linear Linear Non-Linear 1.u.05 0 −0.

6305 1.631 Active Powers [p.6285 1.u.632 P 2-7 .628 0 2 4 6 8 Time (s) 10 12 14 16 18 20 Figure 31. 346 .1.63 1.3: Comparison of active powers flows in line 2-7 for a 2% step in the reference voltage of machine 2.] 1.Linear P 2-7 .Non-Linear 1.6295 1.629 1.6315 1.

b_Tr. pmat = ones(size(Ps)).005. Svc.fixt = 1. as follows: PV.31. 1.n.n.m’.m’.8 1.’data’) runpsat(’pf’) [Ps0.6 illustrates the active power flow through transformer 2-7. fex_abcd.1).5 depict the rotor speed of generator connected at bus 3 while Fig. t = 0:0.001 0 1 60 1 10 0.u1’].1 1. u1(1:length(t)) = 0. Code for the numeric linear analysis: >> >> >> >> >> >> runpsat(’d_009_mdl.con = [8 100 230 0.4 Results for a change of a SVC reference voltage Following time domain simulations assume a 2% step in the reference voltage Vref of a SVC connected at bus 8 for the 9-bus test system.02.3) = Tg. 31.3)*1.c_ps.025 1.2.01.9 0.Qs0.00 1.. x0 = zeros(DAE. 31.a_sys..63 0.1). t = 0:0. .8 8 100 13.01:20.025 99 99 99 -99 -99 -99 1.4 and 31.t. Observe that one has to change the original file by adding the SVC and the dummy PV generator data.9 1 1.’data’) runpsat(’pf’) Settings..Ir0] = fex_lineflows. runpsat(’td’) Figures 31. d = zeros(Bus.01:20. u(1:length(t)) = 0.u.Qr0. [Ps. 1].n.’data’) runpsat(’pf’) fex_abcd.m’.1 1.NLA.con(:.1 ].1 0.01 0. u = [u1’.xlV] = lsim(NLA. -1 .d. Tg.85 0.Pr0.2 100 1 0. 2 100 18 3 100 13. Settings.005.con(:.con = [ .x0). d = zeros(Line.. pl = Ps+pmat*diag(Ps0). Code for the non-linear time domain simulation: >> >> >> >> >> >> runpsat(’d_009_mdl.9 0.025 1.tstep = 0.Is0.2).NLA.2 Test cases 347 >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> runpsat(’d_009_mdl.

005 Rotor Speed [p.0025 1.5: Detail of the comparison of rotor speeds for a 0.002 1.002 1. 1.Non-Linear 1.0015 1.006 Gen 3 .] 1.004 1.1.5% step in the reference speed of all machine governors.001 1 0 2 4 6 8 Time (s) 10 12 14 16 18 20 Figure 31.001 1.5 Time (s) 1 1.u.0035 Gen 3 .Linear Gen 3 .003 1.] 1.Linear Gen 3 .u.5 Figure 31.003 Rotor Speed [p.Non-Linear 1.5% step in the reference speed of all machine governors. 348 .4: Comparison of rotor speeds for a 0.0005 1 0 0.

n).31. vl = dV + vmat*diag(Snapshot. vmat = ones(size(dV)).58 1.02. respectively.dx] = lsim(NLA.Vref = Svc.Vref+0.NLA.5% step in the reference speed of all machine governors.52 0 2 4 6 8 Time (s) 10 12 14 16 18 20 Figure 31.56 1.V).x.8 depict the SVC state variable and the voltage magnitude at bus 8. >> >> >> >> >> >> >> xi = DAE.’data’) runpsat(’pf’) Settings.68 P 2-7 .01.u. Code for the non-linear time domain simulation: >> >> >> >> >> >> runpsat(’d_009_mdl.54 1.7 and 31.tstep = 0. . x0 = zeros(DAE.62 1. xl = [dx’ + diag(xi)*ones(size(dx’))]’.x0).t.u.2 Test cases 349 1. runpsat(’td’) Figures 31.Linear P 2-7 .NLA.c_V.fixt = 1.a_sys. Svc.b_svc.Non-Linear 1.6: Comparison of active powers flows in line 2-7 for a 0.66 1.6 1. d = zeros(length(Line.] 1.n.d.m’.1). Settings.64 Active Powers [p. [dV.1).

Linear Bus 8 . 1.u.Non-Linear 1. 350 .8: Comparison of voltages at bus 8 for a 2% step in the reference voltage of SVC regulators.Non-Linear 0 2 4 6 8 Time (s) 10 12 14 16 18 20 Figure 31.04 Voltage [p.] 0.25 0.025 Bus 8 .7: Comparison of SVC state variables for a 2% step in the reference voltage of SVC regulators.] 1.035 1.u.Linear SVC .2 0.0.3 SVC susceptance b [p.045 1.15 SVC .02 0 2 4 6 8 Time (s) 10 12 14 16 18 20 Figure 31.03 1.

Part VIII Appendices .

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Appendix A Global Structures & Classes This appendix lists all global structures used in PSAT and provides a detailed description of their fields. only the section number is reported. A.1 General Settings General settings and parameters for power flow computations and time domain simulations are stored in the structure Settings. If the structures and the associated fields are described elsewhere. whose fields are as follows: absvalues use of absolute/per unit values when writing the report file of the current case solution on use absolute values off use per unit values beep beep control 0 1 disabled enabled chunk initial dimension of output arrays color default GUI colors conv system base conversion and checks 0 1 disabled enabled date release date of the current PSAT version deltat time step for time domain integrations [s] 353 .

m. Use 0 only if the main PSAT folder is writable.354 A Global Structures & Classes deltatmax maximum time step [s] deltatmin minimum time step [s] distrsw set distributed slack bus model 0 1 disabled enabled dynmit maximum number of iteration for dynamic analyses dyntol error tolerance for dynamic analyses fixt set fixed time step 0 1 disabled enabled format Data file format number (default 1) freq system frequency rating [Hz] hostver Matlab or GNU Octave version of the current session init power flow status −1 0 1 2 power flow not converged power flow not solved yet power flow completed time domain simulation completed iter number of iterations of the last power flow computation lftol error tolerance for static analyses lfmit maximum number of iteration for static analyses lftime elapsed time for power flow computations local defines the folder where to write the function fm call.psat use folder Path.local (default) locksnap initialization of the Snapshot structure after power flow computation 0 1 disabled enabled . 0 1 use folder Path.

octave defines if the current PSAT session is running on Octave 0 1 ok PSAT is running on Matlab PSAT is running on Octave output of the fm choice dialog box 0 1 yes no pfsolver select power flow solver 1 2 3 Newton-Raphson method XB variation of fast decoupled power flow BX variation of fast decoupled power flow plot plot during time domain simulations 0 1 disabled enabled plottype select variable to be plot during time domain simulations 1 2 3 4 5 state variables bus voltage magnitudes bus voltage phases real powers injected at buses reactive powers injected at buses pq2z convert PQ load to constant impedances . 0 1 leaves arrows there removes arrows (default) nseries number of series components defined in the current system.1 General Settings 355 method integration method 1 2 mv mva forward Euler method trapezoidal method model version of the currently loaded Simulink model system power rating [MVA] noarrows defines if the arrows have to be removed when exporting PSAT-Simulink model to eps files. phase shifters and HVDC lines.A. It is the sum of the number fo lines. load tap changers.

0 1 do not display/update (default) display/update static discard dynamic component data 0 1 disabled enabled status display convergence error of the current iteration on the main window 0 1 t0 tf disabled enabled initial simulation time [s] final simulation time [s] tstep fixed time step value [s] .356 A Global Structures & Classes 0 1 disabled enabled pv2pq generator reactive power limit control during power flow computation 0 1 rad disabled enabled system frequency rating [rad] show display iteration status and messages 0 1 disabled enabled showlf display report GUI after power flow solution 0 1 disabled enabled shuntvalues include shunt power absorptions in transmission line balances when writing the report file of the current case solution on include shunts in transmission lines off do not include shunts in transmission lines simtd display and update voltages in Simulink models during time domain simulations.

The handle names are as follows: about author clock comp cpf cset dir eigen gams hist laprint lib license line main make matrx opf plot plotsel pmu pset simset setting PSAT information GUI author’s pic analogical watch window user defined component browser continuation power flow GUI mask for user defined component properties file browser and data format conversion GUI small signal stability analysis GUI GUI for the PSAT-GAMS interface command history GUI A GUI for the L TEXsettings GUI for limit-induced bifurcations GUI that displays the program licence GUI for editing the plotted line properties PSAT main window GUI for building user defined components GUI for Jacobian matrix visualization optimal power flow GUI GUI for plotting variables GUI for selecting output variables for TDs PMU placement GUI mask for parameter properties GUI for setting Simulink model properties general setting GUI .2 Other Settings Fig: handles of the GUI windows.A.2 Other Settings 357 tviewer current text viewer version current PSAT version violations enforce limit violation checks when writing the report file of the current case solution on disabled off enabled xlabel label for plotting variables zoom zoom plotting variables 0 1 disabled enabled A. The handle value is 0 if the associated window is not open.

as follows: data pert current data file name current disturbance file name Path: path strings of the most commonly used folders. hist text status frame bar axes command history listbox in the command history GUI message static text in the main window axis for convergence status in the main window frame of message text in the main window axis for the progress bar in the main window PSAT logo axis in the main window Snapshot: snapshot data.358 A Global Structures & Classes snap snb sset stat theme threed tviewer update uwpflow xset warranty GUI for setting snapshots direct method for SNB GUI mask for auxiliary variable properties (not used) power flow report GUI theme browser 3D system visualization GUI for selecting the text viewer GUI for installing and uninstalling user defined components GUI for the PSAT-UWPFLOW interface mask for state variable properties GUI that displays the warranty conditions File: data and disturbance file names. as follows: local data pert psat images build themes filters current workspace path current data file path current disturbance file path PSAT path absolute path of the secondary absolute path of the secondary absolute path of the secondary absolute path of the secondary folder folder folder folder images build themes filters Hdl: handles of the most used graphic objects. name time y x Ybus Pg Qg cell array of snapshot names array of times associated to the defined snapshots vector of algebraic variables vector of state variables network admittance matrix vector of generator real powers injected at buses vector of generator reactive powers injected at buses .

This structure is used for saving outputs on disk. list boxes and axes handles of graphical objects in the theme manager GUI Source: cell arrays containing the current data file and the current disturbance file. color01 color02 color03 color04 color05 color06 color07 color08 color09 color10 color11 font01 hdl background color 1 background color 2 list box color 1 (used also for special buttons) list box color 2 text color 1 text color 2 text color 3 progress bar color text color for special buttons text color for special list boxes axis color font name for edit texts. Jacobian matrix of differential equations Fx = ∇x f Jacobian matrix of differential equations Fy = ∇y f Jacobian matrix of algebraic equations Gx = ∇x g Jacobian matrix of algebraic equations Gy = ∇y g total real losses of the current power flow solution total reactive losses of the current power flow solution History: command history text and settings.2 Other Settings 359 Pl Ql Fx Fy Gx Gy Ploss Qloss vector of load real powers absorbed from buses vector of load reactive powers absorbed from buses. The fields are as follows: data data file cell array pert disturbance file cell array description case description (not used) . text string index workspace Max FontName FontSize FontAngle FontWeight BackgroundColor ForegroundColor cell array of the last n = Max commands string for text search within the command history number of the last row where string was found enable displaying messages on the Matlab workspace maximum number of rows of the text cell array name of the font of the command history GUI size of the font of the command history GUI angle of the font of the command history GUI weight of the font of the command history GUI background color of the command history GUI foreground color of the command history GUI Theme: properties and settings for the appearance of the GUIs.A.

functions and Jacobians matrices.360 A Global Structures & Classes A.3 System Properties and Settings DAE differential and algebraic equations. matrix matrix type 1 2 3 4 reduced dynamic power flow Jacobian JLF Dr reduced complete power flow Jacobian JLF Vr reduced standard power flow Jacobian JLFr state matrix AS map map type 1 2 3 S-map participation factor map Z-map method eigenvalue computation method 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 all eigenvalues largest magnitude smallest magnitude largest real part smallest real part largest imaginary part smallest imaginary part report structure containing the small signal stability analysis report . Fields are as follows: y kg x n m npf f g Fx Fy Gx Gy Gl Gk Ac tn t algebraic variables y variable for distributing losses among generators state variables x number of state variables n number of algebraic variables m dynamic order during power flow nP F differential equations f algebraic equations g Jacobian matrix of differential equations Fx = ∇x f Jacobian matrix of differential equations Fy = ∇y f Jacobian matrix of algebraic equations Gx = ∇x g Jacobian matrix of algebraic equations Gy = ∇y g Jacobian matrix of algebraic equations Gλ = ∇λ g Jacobian matrix of algebraic equations Gk = ∇k g complete DAE Jacobian matrix vector of DAE for time domain simulations current simulation time (-1 for static analysis) SSSA Settings for small signal stability analysis.

slack enable distributed slack bus 0 1 single slack bus distributed slack bus lambda loading parameter λ value dpdl sensitivity coefficient ∂P/∂λ values bus generation and load direction buses LIB Settings for limit-induced bifurcation (direct method). type LIB type 1 2 3 4 Vmax Vmin Qmax Qmin selbus bus number where applying the limit slack enable distributed slack bus 0 1 single slack bus distributed slack bus lambda loading parameter λ value dpdl sensitivity coefficient ∂P/∂λ values bus generation and load direction buses CPF Continuation power flow settings. If “complete nose curve” is set.3 System Properties and Settings 361 neig number of eigenvalues to be computed (applies only if method = 1) eigs vector of eigenvalues pf matrix of participation factors SNB Settings for saddle-node bifurcation analysis (direct method). . method method for corrector step 1 2 perpendicular intersection local parametrization flow select transmission line flow 1 2 3 current Iij active power Pij apparent power Sij type select end criterion for the the continuation power flow.A. the routine stops either if the maximum number of points is reached or if λ = 0.

362 A Global Structures & Classes 1 2 3 complete nose curve stop when a bifurcation is encountered stop when the first enforced limit is encountered sbus slack bus model 0 1 distributed slack bus single slack bus vlim check voltage limits 0 1 disabled enabled ilim check transmission line flow limits 0 1 disabled enabled qlim check generator reactive power limits 0 1 disabled enabled init solution status of continuation power flow 0 1 2 3 4 to be solved yet solved continuation power flow solved ATC analysis solved (N-1) contingency analysis solved continuation OPF (PSAT-GAMS interface) tolc corrector step tolerance tolf error tolerance for transmission line flows tolv error tolerance for bus voltages step step size control nump maximum number of points to be computed show show iteration status on main window 0 1 disabled enabled linit initial value of the loading parameter λ lambda loading parameter kg distributed slack bus variable pmax maximum power flow limits. hopf check for change of sign of pair of complex conjugate eigenvalues (Hopf bifurcation points) . This field is filled up by the function fm n1cont as a result of the (N-1) contingency criterion.

method method used for computing the variable directions and increments 1 2 Newton directions Merhotra Predictor/Corrector flow type of flows used for the flow constraints in the transmission lines 1 2 3 Currents Iij Active power flows Pij Apparent power flows Sij (not tested) type type of OPF problem to be solved 1 2 3 4 5 Single OPF (if ω is a vector.A.3 System Properties and Settings 363 0 1 disabled (default) enabled stepcut step size control 0 1 disabled enabled (default) negload include negative active power loads in CPF analysis 0 1 disabled (default) enabled onlynegload use only negative active power loads in CPF analysis 0 1 disabled (default) enabled OPF Optimal power flow settings and outputs. the first value is used) Pareto set (one solution for each value of the vector ω) Daily forecast (not implemented yet) ATC by CPF (development status) ATC by sensitivity analysis (development status) deltat time step in minutes ofr the daily forecast (not used) lmin minimum value of the loading parameter λc lmax maximum value of the loading parameter λc sigma centering parameter σ gamma safety factor γ eps mu error tolerance of the barrier parameter µs eps1 error tolerance of the power flow equations eps2 error tolerance of the objective function omega weighting factor ω (can be a vector) flatstart set initial guess of system variables .

364 A Global Structures & Classes 1 2 Flat start (V = 1 and θ = 0) Actual power flow solution conv OPF method convergence status 0 1 OPF routine did not converge OPF routine converged guess vector of values for initializing the OPF routine report cell array of the OPF solution show display the convergence error of the OPF routine 0 1 disabled enabled init OPF solution status 0 1 2 3 w atc to be solved yet standard OPF has been solved multiobjective OPF has been solved Pareto set OPF has been solved actual value of the weighting factor maximum loading condition for the current OPF solution line number of the line to be deleted for N-1 contingency evaluations in the maximum loading condition system tiebreak tiebreak term in the objective function 0 1 disabled enabled basepg include base case generation powers 0 1 disabled enabled basepl include base case load powers 0 1 disabled enabled enflow enforce flow limit inequalities 0 1 disabled enabled envolt enforce voltage limit inequalities 0 1 disabled enabled enreac enforce generator reactive power inequalities .

i.2 p.8 p. buses at which there is no generator or load connected (default 0.u.u.e. i.) vmax maximum voltage limit for zero-injection buses.e.A. buses at which there is no generator or load connected (default 1.) obj value of the objective function ms dy dF dG barrier parameter algebraic variable mismatch equalitiy constraint mismatch objective function mismatch LMP Locational Marginal Prices of the current solution NCP Nodal Congestion Prices of the current solution iter number of iterations to obtain the current solution gpc active power injections for the critical loading condition gqc reactive power injections for the critical loading condition PMU Settings for PMU placement algorithms method method type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Depth first Graphic theoretic procedure Annealing-bisecting search method Recursive security N algorithm Single-shot security N algorithm Recursive security N -1 algorithm Single-shot security N -1 algorithm number current number of PMU measv number of measured voltages measc number of measured currents pseudo number of pseudo-measured currents noobs cureent number of non-observable buses voltage cell array of estimated voltages angle cell array of estimated angles location cell array of PMU placement .3 System Properties and Settings 365 0 1 disabled enabled vmin minimum voltage limit for zero-injection buses.

1} current component description current component name shunt component {0.366 A Global Structures & Classes A.5 User Defined Models Comp: component general settings funct number prop n init descr name shunt cell array of all component functions cell array of all component . Formatted TEX names are used for creating legends in the plotting variable GUI. Fields are as follows: compx fnamex. unamex compy fnamey. 1} Buses Bus connection variables name n cell array of bus names number of buses Algeb Algebraic equations and variables . unamey fvars uvars nvars idx custom fixed x V PQ Pij names of components with state variables names of all state variables names of components with algebraic variables names of all algebraic variables formatted names of output variables unformatted names of output variables total number of output variables indexes of selected plot variables 1 if custom selection of plot variables 1 if fixed selection of plot variables 1 if selecting all state variables 1 if selecting all bus voltages 1 if selecting all P and Q injections at buses 1 if selecting all power flows in transmission lines A. Fields are as follows: t vars time vector output variables Varname: system variable TEX and plain names.n fields component properties total number of installed components enable initialization {0.4 Outputs and Variable Names Varout: output of time domain simulations.

.5 User Defined Models 367 name n idx eq eqidx neq cell array of algebraic variables number of algebraic variables indexes of algebraic variables cell array of algebraic equations indexes of algebraic equations number of algebraic equations State Differential equations and state variables name n eq eqidx neq init limit fn un time offset nodyn cell array of state variables number of state variables cell array of differential equations indexes of differential equations number of differential equations state variable initialization enable anti-windup limiters TEX name of the state variable Matlab name of the state variable time constant name offset value allow time constant being T = 0 Servc Service equations and variables (not used..) name n eq eqidx neq init limit fn un type offset oldidx cell array of service variables number of service variables cell array of service equations indexes of service equations number of service equations service variable initialization enable anti-windup limiters TEX name of the service variable Matlab name of the service variable service variable type offset value cell array of current “external” service variable Param Parameter variables name n descr type unit cell array of parameter names number of parameters parameter description parameter type parameter unit .A.

8 10.3.5 Section 11.7 10.1 Section 13.1 14. .1 Section 11. Faults & Breakers Fault Breaker Transmission line fault Transmission line breaker Section 12.3 14.2 Measurements Busfreq Pmu Loads Mn Fl Pl Exload Voltage dependent load Frequency dependent load ZIP (polynomial) load Exponential recovery load Section Section Section Section 14.5 10.6 10.9 Power Flow Data CPF and OPF Data Supply Rsrv Rmpg Demand Ypdp Rmpl Vltn Power supply Generator power reserve Generator ramping Power demand Demand profile Power demand ramping Violation parameters Section 11.3.2-10.1 Section 12.3 Section 11.4 Section 11.2 .2 14.4 10.1 10.6 not used.2 Section 11.2 10.2 10.6 Bus Line Lines Twt SW PV PQ PQgen Shunt Areas Models Bus numbers and voltage ratings Transmission line and transformer Alternative transmission line Three-winding transformer Slack bus PV generator Constant power load Constant power generator Shunt admittance Interchange area Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section 10. .368 A Global Structures & Classes Initl Variables for initialization name n idx cell array of initial variables number of initial variables indexes of initial variables A.4 Bus frequency measurement Phasor measurement units Section 13.1 10.

2 18.1 Section 20.A.1.1 19.3 18.7 Synchronous machine Center of inertia Induction motor Section 15.1 18.1 16.5 16.6 Regulating Transformers Ltc Tap Phs FACTS Svc Tcsc Statcom Sssc Upfc Hvdc Static Var Compensator Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor Static Var Compensator Static Synchronous Source Series Compensator Unified Power Flow Controller High Voltage DC transmission system Section Section Section Section Section Section 18.2 Section 20.3 Wind Turbines Wind Cswt Dfig Ddsg Wind models Constant speed wind turbine Doubly fed induction generator Direct drive synchronous generator Section Section Section Section 19.3 Other Models Mass SSR Sofc Synchronous machine dynamic shaft Subsynchronous resonance model Solid Oxyde Fuel Cell Section 20.4 16.2.2 16.3 .2 Section 17.4 18.2.6 Models 369 Thload Jimma Mixload Machines Syn COI Mot Controls Tg Exc Pss Oxl CAC Cluster Pod Thermostatically controlled load Jimma’s load Mixed load Section 14.2 Turbine Governor Automatic Voltage Regulator Power System Stabilizer Overexcitation Limiter Central Area Controller Cluster Controller Power Oscillation Damper Section Section Section Section Section Section Section 16.2.1 Section 17.6 Load tap changer Tap changer with embedded load Phase shifting transformer Section 17.9 Section 15.1 19.3 16.5 18.5 16.6 Section 14.1 Section 15.5 Section 14.2 19.

7 Command Line Usage clpsat structure for command line usage of PSAT (defaults refers to the the command line standard behavior): init command line initialization status 0 1 PSAT is running with the standard GUIs command line PSAT is active (default) mesg status of PSAT messages 0 1 no message messages will be displayed in the current output (default) refresh if true.370 A Global Structures & Classes A. force to display OPF result on the standard output running power flow 0 1 false (default) true pq2z if true. force to read data file before running power flow 0 1 false true (default) showopf if true. force to visualize report files when created 0 1 false (default) true . force to reload Simulink model before running power flow independently on the Simulink model status 0 1 false (default) true readfile if true. force to switch PQ loads to constant impedances before running time domain simulations 0 1 false true (default) viewrep if true. force to repeat power flow before running further analysis independently on the power flow status 0 1 false true (default) refreshsim if true.

A.8 Interfaces method select OPF method 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 1 2 simple auction market clearing mechanism standard OPF VSC-OPF maximum loading condition continuation OPF single period auction multiperiod auction pareto set auction unit commitment auction none currents active powers apparent powers use flat start as initial guess (V = 1 and θ = 0) use current power flow solution as initial guess GAMS parameters and settings for the PSAT-GAMS interface: type solution type flow flow type in transmission lines flatstart set initial guess of system variables lmin minimum value of λ (float) lmin s minimum value of λ (string) omega weighting factor ω values (float) omega s weighting factor ω values (string) lmax maximum value of λ (float) ldir command line options for GAMS calls libinclude use command line options 0 1 0 1 0 1 disabled enabled disabled enabled disabled enabled (default) loaddir use load direction when solving maximum loading condition OPF basepl use base load powers in OPF .8 Interfaces 371 A.

method loading parameter λ value 1 2 3 4 power flow continuation power flow direct method parametrized continuation method file name of output files (default psatuw) command generation and load direction buses status generation and load direction buses A. Refer to UWPFLOW documentation for details [22].9 Classes Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class for for for for for for for for for for for for for for for for for for for Area components Exc components Busfreq components Breaker components Bus components Cac components COI components Cluster components Cswt components Ddsg components Dfig components Demand components Mass components Exload components Sofc components Fl components Fault components Hvdc components Mot components @ARclass @AVclass @BFclass @BKclass @BUclass @CCclass @CIclass @CLclass @CSclass @DDclass @DFclass @DMclass @DSclass @ELclass @FCclass @FLclass @FTclass @HVclass @IMclass .372 A Global Structures & Classes basepg use base generator powers in OPF 0 1 disabled enabled (default) line number of line to be taken out in N-1 contingency analysis show display results and logs 0 1 disabled enabled UWPFLOW parameters. option and settings for the PSAT-UWPFLOW interface:. opt list of UWPFLOW options.

A.9 Classes 373 @JIclass @LNclass @LSclass @LTclass @MNclass @MXclass @OXclass @PHclass @PLclass @PMclass @POclass @PQclass @PSclass @PVclass @RGclass @RLclass @RSclass @SHclass @SRclass @SSclass @STclass @SUclass @SVclass @SWclass @SYclass @TCclass @TGclass @THclass @TPclass @TWclass @UPclass @VLclass @WNclass @YPclass Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class Class for for for for for for for for for for for for for for for for for for for for for for for for for for for for for for for for for for Jimma components Line components Lines components Ltc components Mn components Mixload components Oxl components Phs components Pl components Pmu components Pod components PQ components Pss components PV components Rmpg components Rmpl components Rsrv components Shunt components Ssr components Sssc components Statcom components Supply components Svc components SW components Syn components Tcsc components Tg components Thload components Tap components Twt components Upfc components Vltn components Wind components Ypdp components .

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The list is also available on-line (Contents.Appendix B Matlab Functions This appendix lists the Matlab script files and functions of the PSAT folder.m) by typing >> help psat General Functions and GUIs psat fm set fm var fm main Power Flow fm fm fm fm fm fm fm fm fm fm fm spf nrlf flows dynlf dynidx xfirst ncomp inilf stat base report standard power flow routine power flow with fixed state variables network power flows indexes of state variables (before power flow) indexes of state variables (after power flow) initial guess of state variables indexes of components reset variables for power flow computations GUI for displaying power flow results report of component quantities on system bases writes power flow report files start the program general settings and utilities definition of global variables main GUI Direct Methods fm fm fm fm snb snbfig limit snbfig Saddle-node bifurcation routine GUI for saddle-node bifurcations Limit-induced bifurcation routine GUI for limit-indeuced bifurcations 375 .

376 B Matlab Functions Continuation Power Flow (CPF) fm cpf fm n1cont fm cpffig continuation power flow N-1 contingency computations GUI for continuation power flow Optimal Power Flow (OPF) fm fm fm fm fm fm opfm opfsdr pareto atc opffig opfrep optimal power flow VS constrained optimal power flow Pareto set computations Available transfer capability computations GUI for optimal power flow writes optimal power flow report files Small Signal Stability Analysis fm eigen fm eigfig eigenvalue computations GUI for eigenvalue computations Time Domain Simulation fm fm fm fm int tstep out snap time domain simulation definition of time step for transient computations time domain simulation output GUI for snapshot settings User Defined Model Construction fm fm fm fm fm fm fm fm fm fm fm fm fm fm fm fm build comp open save new add del install uninstall component make update cset xset sset pset compile user defined components general settings and utilities for component definition open user defined models save user defined models reset user defined component variables add user defined model variable delete user defined model variable install user defined component uninstall user defined component GUI for user defined models GUI for user defined component definition GUI for displaying user defined model installation results GUI for component settings GUI for state variable settings GUI for service variable settings GUI for parameter variable settings .

377 Utilities Functions autorun fm idx fm iidx fm errv fm filenum fm laprint fm qlim fm rmgen fm setgy fm status fm vlim fm windup fvar pgrep psatdomain psed settings sizefig secure routine launch definition of variable names find bus interconnetcions check component voltage rating enumeration of output files A export graphics to eps and L TEX files get static generator reactive power limits find and remove static generators connected to a bus delete row and columns in power flow Jacobian Gy display convergence error status on main GUI get bus voltage limits set windup hard limits convert variables in strings search .net to PSAT filter (perl file) GE to PSAT filter (perl file) IEEE CDF to PSAT filter (perl file) CESI INPTC1 to PSAT filter (perl file) Matpower to PSAT filter (m-file) NEPLAN to PSAT filter (perl file) PCFLO to PSAT filter (perl file) .1 or 4 model as a Simulink 3 model set Simulink block parameters create and delete Simulink block input/output ports draw Simulink block icons Data File Conversion fm dir fm dirset filters/chapman2psat filters/cyme2psat filters/digsilent2psat filters/epri2psat filters/eurostag2psat filters/flowdemo2psat filters/ge2psat filters/ieee2psat filters/inptc12psat filters/matpower2psat filters/neplan2psat filters/pcflo2psat browser for data conversion utilities for data conversion Chapman to PSAT filter (perl file) CYMFLOW to PSAT filter (perl file) DIgSILENT to PSAT filter (perl file) EPRI to PSAT filter (perl file) Eurostag to PSAT filter (perl file) FlowDemo.m files define customized settings (optional) determine figure size Simulink Library and Functions fm fm fm fm fm fm fm lib simrep simset simsave block inout draw Simulink library power flow report for Simulink models GUI for Simulink model settings save a Simulink 5. 4.m files for string dummy function for the PMC Simulink library substitute string in .

to PSAT filter (perl file) UCTE to PSAT filter (perl file) VST to PSAT filter (perl file) WebFlow to PSAT filter (perl file) general function for plotting results GUI for plotting results GUI for axes properties settings GUI for line properties settings GUI for line list browser general function for sparse matrix visualization GUI for sparse matrix visualization plots status bar on main window Command History fm text fm hist fm disp fval Output fm fm fm fm fm write writexls writetex writetxt writexls call function for writing output results write output results in HTML format A write output results in L TEX format write output results in plain text write output results in Excel format command history general functions and utilities GUI for command history visualization command. message and error display message line for variable manipulation Themes fm theme fm themefig fm mat theme manager GUI of theme manager background for GUI images .378 B Matlab Functions filters/psap2psat filters/psat2epri filters/psat2ieee filters/psse2psat filters/pst2psat filters/pwrworld2psat filters/sim2psat filters/simpow2psat filters/th2psat filters/ucte2psat filters/vst2psat filters/webflow2psat Plotting Utilities fm fm fm fm fm fm fm fm plot plotfig axesdlg linedlg linelist view matrx bar PSAP to PSAT filter (perl file) PSAT to EPRI filter (m-file) PSAT to IEEE filter (m-file) PSS/E to PSAT filter (perl file) PST to PSAT filter (m-file) Powerworld to PSAT filter (perl file) Simulink to PSAT filter (m-file) SIMPOW to PSAT filter (perl file) Tsinghua Univ.

B. C.379 Other GUI Utilities fm fm fm fm fm fm fm fm setting enter tviewer about iview author clock choice GUI for general settings welcome GUI GUI for text viewer selection about PSAT image viewer author’s pic analogic watch dialog box GNU License Functions gnulicense fm license gnuwarranty fm warranty type GUI type GUI the GNU-GPL for the GNU-GPL the “no warranty” conditions for the “no warranty” conditions PMU Placement Functions fm fm fm fm fm fm fm fm fm fm pmuloc pmun1 pmurec pmurep pmutry lssest spantree mintree annealing pmufig PMU placement manager PMU placement for device outages recursive method for PMU placement write PMU placement report filter for zero-injection buses linear static state estimation spanning tree of existing PMUs minimum tree search annealing method for PMU placement GUI for PMU placement Command Line Usage initpsat closepsat runpsat initialize PSAT global variables clear all PSAT global variables from workspace launch PSAT routine Interface Functions fm fm fm fm gams gamsfig uwpflow uwfig GAMS interface for single-period OPF GUI of the GAMS interface UWPFLOW interface GUI of the UWPFLOW interface Numeric Linear Analysis Functions fex abcd compute numeric matrices A. D .

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The format is as follows: function name structure name call algebraic equations call algebraic Jacobians call differential equations call state Jacobians call hard limits call during power flow call initialization call if computing shunt powers call if computing series flows cols. 54 col. The names and the positions of these folders can be changed only if the path defined in the psat script file is accordingly changed. 56 col. The variable names are also fields for the correspondent structures. 48 col. 46 col.Appendix C Other Files and Folders This appendix lists the files other than Matlab functions and scripts which are contained in the PSAT folder and the auxiliary folders needed by PSAT to work properly. 1-23 cols. associated structures and a number of boolean variables for defining the calls of the functions. 62 history settings for the command history.ini Files comp definition of component functions. A namevarx definition of state variables names. 25-44 col. The file is updated each time the command history settings are saved. 52 col. 50 col. 58 col. formatted names in a L TEX synthax and associated component structure names. 60 col. The format is as follows: 381 . . In the distribution tarball these folders are placed within the PSAT main folder.

filters/cyme2psat filter for the CYMFLOW data format. Perl Filters filters/cepel2psat filter for the CEPEL data format. filters/eurostag2psat filter for the Eurostag data format. 21-29 cols.mat Files finger matrix defining a custom mouse pointer. . 1-19 cols. .gms global variables for the PSAT-GAMS interface.gms single-period OPF routines. filters/digsilent2psat filter for the DIgSILENT data format. filters/chapman2psat filter for the Chapman’s data format. filters/epri2psat filter for the EPRI data format. psatglobs. . . The variable names are also fields for the correspondent structures.gms Matlab-GAMS interface library. gams/psatout.net data format. 41-.382 C Other Files and Folders variable name variable formatted name component structure name cols. formatted names in a L TEX synthax and associated component structure names.ini. such as the generator field voltage or the reference voltage of the excitation systems.gms multi-period OPF routines. . service contains a list of variables that are common to different components. filters/flowdemo2psat filter for the FlowDemo. A namevary definition of algebraic variables names. gams/matout.gms input data for the PSAT-GAMS interface. psatout.m output data for the PSAT-GAMS interface (m-file). psatdata.gms Files fm gams. fm gams2. The format is the same as for the file namevarx. filters/inptc12psat filter for the CESI INPTC1 data format.gms PSAT-GAMS interface library. filters/ieee2psat filter for the IEEE CDF data format.

txt Original plain text of the GNU-GPL. filters/ucte2psat filter for the UCTE data format. build contains the Matlab script files defining the user defined components. themes contains the themes for customizing the appearance of the graphical user interface. filters/pcflo2psat filter for the PCFLOH data format. filters/th2psat filter for the TH data format. filters/psap2psat filter for the PECO-PSAP data format. filters/psse2psat filter for the PSS/E 29 data format. filters/vst2psat filter for the VST data format. filters contains the Perl filters for data format conversions. GNU General Public License gnulicense. filters/webflow2psat filter for the WebFlow data format. Secondary Folders images contains the image files used by the graphical user interfaces. filters/simpow2psat filter for the SIMPOW file format. gams contains the PSAT-GAMS interface functions and libraries. filters/pwrworld2psat filter for the PowerWorld auxiliary file format.383 filters/neplan2psat filter for the Neplan data format. .

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m The free utility uigetfolder1 written by Neil Rutland is no longer used. 385 . When using Matlab releases < R13.m isvarname. since it has been substituted by the built-in function uigetdir.m changed in fm iview.m changed in fm input.mathworks.m scribeaxesdlg.m scribelinedlg.Appendix D Third Party Matlab Code There are a few files I modified from the original version provided within the Matlab package: imageview.com in the File Exchange section. 1 uigetfolder is available at www. calls to uigetdir are disabled.m changed in fm axesdlg.m inputdlg.m changed in fm linedlg.

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net GE-PSLF Intellicon InterPSS IPSA Matpower MicroTran MiPower www.intellicon.Appendix E Power System Softwares This appendix lists a selection of websites of power system software packages.org www.de www.interpss.emtp.econ.com www.emtp.com www.htm www. Any help in maintaining this list as complete and updated as possible is greatly appreciated.com 387 .com www.com www.com www.pserc.htm www.cyme.etap.edu/matpower www.dmsgroup.ipsa-power.digsilent.cepel.cornell.martinole.yu www.net www.com www.eurostag.br/servicos/descprog.com www.com www.iastate.htm www.edu/tesfatsi/DCOPFJHome.electrocon.biz www.com www. The list can be incomplete and some links can be broken.dinis.mipowersoftware.co.com www.be www.org/Fendi/ flowdemo.gepower.com www.sestech.samsix.aspeninc. ANA’s Softwares ASPEN ATP/EMTP CAPE CDEGS CYME DCOPFJ DEW DIgSILENT DINIS DMS DSA PowerTools EDSA EMTP-RV ESA Easy Power ETAP Eurostag FENDI FlowDemo.com/prod serv/products/ utility software/en/ge pslf/index.shtm www.edsa.easypower.com www.microtran.powertechlabs.com/dew.org www.

powerworld.scscc-us.washington.com/products/simpower/ www. Teaching. available at: www.html power.com www.ece.jp/ueda/demo/ Other useful links are as follows: • IEEE PES PEEC Digital Educational Resources.nexant.advantica.com www.kitami-it.ca/~cherry/pst.htm • Open-Source Software for Electricity Market Research.com www.neu.com.cn www. available at: www.uclm.htm thunderbox.html www.ca/~claudio/ software/pflow.html www.edu/research/pstca/ • Power Systems Dynamic Test Cases Archive.vrenergy.neplan.mathworks.pti-us.iastate. available at: psdyn.edu/index files/vst.econ.mtu.com www.pscad.com/T2000.otii. and Training.eagle.wisc.com www.ece.edu/~abur/pet.energyco.ee.biz www.ece.htm • IEEE Power Systems Test Case Archive.skm.se www.ch www.edu/faculty/ljbohman/peec/Dig Rsor. available at: www.drexel.ac.elec.com www.ece.stri.htm www.es/area/gsee/Web/Federico/psat.com/aempfast.com www.uwaterloo.com www.htm pw.edu/tesfatsi/ElectricOSS.388 E Power System Softwares NEPLAN Optimal Aempfast PET POM PowerWorld PSASP PSAT PSCAD/EMTDC PSS/E PST QuickStab(R) SCOPE SKM Power* Tools Simpow SimPowerSystems SPARD(R) SynerGEE Transmission 2000 UWPFLOW VST WebFlow www.htm www.htm .edu/IEEE benchmarks/index.psasp.cai-engr.

1. The complete data set for this system is as follows: Bus...8 1].1 F. 1 100 400 1 PV.4 1]. and 14-bus systems.2 1.4 0.4 0.8 -0. 3 100 1 0..4 0.9 0.4 0. 1 400 1 0 2 400 1 0 3 400 1 0 Line.2 0.. 0.1 0. 0]. These are 3-bus.1 0.con = [ .con = [ .4 0.con = [ .4 0. SW..1 0. 6-bus. 400 60 400 60 400 60 1 1 1 1. 2 100 400 0.Appendix F Test System Data This appendix depicts schemes and data of the test systems used in the examples of this manual. Demand...9 1. 1].8 0.con = [ .1 0.4 3 100 400 0. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 1.con = [ .... 9-bus.6 1. 0.5 1.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.6 1 1 1 The 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0]. 1]..5 -1. Simulink models are placed in the folder tests within the PSAT main folder. 1 1 0.1 depicts a three-bus test case that represents three generation companies (GENCOs) and one energy supply companies (ESCO) that provide supply and demand bids.4 PQ. 389 . 3 100 400 1 0 1.1 3-bus Test System Figure F..con = 1 2 100 1 3 100 2 3 100 [ .9 0.2 -0. Data are reported in the PSAT data format and were generated by the Simulink models provided with the toolbox.

..con 1 400 2 400 3 400 4 400 5 400 6 400 = [ .8 10. 0]. ’Bus3’}. Supply.6 0.1 0.1 0.2 6-bus Test System Figure F.1 0.6 0.... 1 0 ].1 0 0 0 6 4 8 9. 0.con = [ .. The complete data of this system are as follows: Bus.390 F Test System Data GENCO 1 GENCO 2 Bus 1 Bus 2 Bus 3 ESCO GENCO 3 Figure F.25 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0. 1.con = [ . 0.2 depicts the 6-bus test case. 1 0.6 0. representing three generation companies (GENCOs) and three energy supply companies (ESCOs) that provide supply and demand bids.bus = {.. Varname. 1 0.2 0.15 0.con 1 100 0 2 100 0 3 100 0 = [ .1: 3-bus test system.1 1 100 0. 1 0.6 0. 55 75 100 120 2 2 2 2 2 2 5 5 0 0 0 5 1. which is extracted from [105].. 1 0..05 0..15 Ypdp.1 0. .7 12. ’Bus2’. Rmpg. ’Bus1’.05 3 100 0. 2 100 0. 1]. F. 100]. 1 0.

02 0. 4 100 0. 100 100 100 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.3740.05 0 1.con = [ .7 0.5 2 18 3 13.9 1. 0.9 0.8 4 230 5 230 6 230 7 230 8 230 9 230 [ .1 0.1 0.6585.4 0. 1 0.con = [ .5 -1. Varname.06 0. 0..08 0.F..2 0.3 9-bus Test System Figure F..9147.04 0. 1 0.7 8.6 0.25 0.. 1.3 9-bus Test System 391 Line.16665 0. 1 0.05 1.con = [ ..06 0. . 1 100 3 100 PQ. 0.1 1. ’Bus 4’. 1.con 4 5 6 = [ .2 0. 1].2 1e-05 1e-05 1e-05 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 10.9 0.con = [ .08 0.5 -1.9193. 0.5 1.6 1. 1 0 ].04 0. 2 100 PV. ’Bus 1’.1 0.07 0. 1.25 5 100 0.05 0. The complete data of this system are as follows: Bus.06 0. 1 0. 2 3 100 400 3 6 100 400 4 5 100 400 3 5 100 400 5 6 100 400 2 4 100 400 1 2 100 400 1 4 100 400 1 5 100 400 2 6 100 400 2 5 100 400 SW.1 0.con = [ . 1 100 0.2 1e-05 1e-05 1e-05 0 0 0 0 0 0 9.07 0.9 0.1 1.13333 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.3 depicts the 9-bus test system.25 3 100 0.3 0. ’Bus 5’.2 0.05 0. 0 ]..12 0.7114].02 0.2 2 100 0.9 0.3973. 0.02 0. ’Bus 3’.. 400 400 0.con = 1 16.05 0. 1 0. 0.3 0. ’Bus 6’}... F.6 1. 1].9 0.. ’Bus 2’. 1].. which is extracted from [101] and represents three generators (order IV) with AVR (type II)..5 1.2 Supply. Demand.. 400 1. 0. 1 0.5 9.. 0.2591.9 0.1 0.2 0.1796.1 1. 1 0.1 0.1 0.9 1.5 1.1 0. 400 400 400 0.2 0.1 6 100 0.05 0.2 0. 1 0. 0.05 0.25 0..8478.05 1.bus = {. 0.2000.9 1 0.25 0.04 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.3082.3 0.26 0..5 -1.8 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.1 0.4 1]. 1.

0782609 0..8 0. SW..28 .085 0.1008 0.. 0. 0.0586 0..039 0..072 0.032 0.9 0.89 0 1.1 0.5 1.17 0.9 0.5 60 4 0 0 0.1 1.209 0..8 0..0119 0. 2 100 18 3 100 13.con = [ .5 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.017 0 0 0 0. 0.0969 0 0.2 0. PV.358 0. 0.9 0.con = [ .31 0 6.35 0.8 1 ].0717391 0.176 0..con = [ . 0.149 0.025 1.04 0 99 -99 1..0969 0. PQ. 8 100 230 5 100 230 6 100 230 1 1.2 1. 1 100 16.306 0.392 F Test System Data Bus 2 Bus 3 Bus 6 GENCO 2 GENCO 3 ESCO 3 Bus 1 Bus 5 GENCO 1 Bus 4 ESCO 2 ESCO 1 Figure F. 0.2 1.1 0.85 1. .025 99 99 -99 -99 1.06 0. 1 ].0576 0.con = [ .8 1.63 0.. Syn.9 1.02 .158 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0608 0 8.8 0.01 0. 0.25 0 0..25 0.146 0..8 60 4 0 0 1.con = [ . 0 47.8 1 4 100 16.0085 0. 0...2: 6-bus test system.2578 0.161 0.5 0. Line.092 0. 0 ]. 3 100 13.1813 0 5. 1 100 16. 9 8 100 230 7 8 100 230 9 6 100 230 7 5 100 230 5 4 100 230 6 4 100 230 2 7 100 18 3 9 100 13.0625 0.3 1.3125 0. 0 ].6 0 0 0 1 1 0.96 0 0.

4 7 100 230 60 Fault.8 0..9 0. ’Bus 6’.8 1 ].078 0.. 0.1008 0. 7 100 230 60 SW.con = [ . 1.5 4 5 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 1. Exc. ’Bus 3’. 1 100 16.35 0. 1.083 0 0.555.2 1 2 5 -5 20 0.0576 0.con = [ .314 0.63 0.0085 0. ’Bus 2’. 1 ]. 0..001 0.06 0.35 0.1969 0 0.04 0 99 -99 1. 0. 230 230 230 230 230 230 18 13. 1 16. 1.072 0.con = [ .85 1. 1.306 0.2 0. 1..35 0.017 0 0 0 0.1198 0 6 0 0 0 1 1 0 ].063 0.8645 0.. 0 ].039 0.001 0.8958 0.0586 0.8 1 0 4 230 1 0 5 230 1 0 6 230 1 0 7 230 1 0 8 230 1 0 9 230 1 0 Line.con = [ .025 1. 2 100 18 3 100 13. 1.0039 1.0039 0. 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0039 0.. Breaker. 6 100 230 8 100 230 5 100 230 1 1.bus = {.8 .063 0.. The complete data of this system are as follows: Bus.085 0. 3 2 5 -5 20 0..176 0. 0.F. ’Bus 8’.1 1.0625 0..083 4 ]..8 0.8 0.8 PQ.01 0.. 0 0.161 0.con = 9 8 100 7 8 100 9 6 100 7 5 100 5 4 100 6 4 100 2 7 100 3 9 100 1 4 100 [ . 1. 0 ]..con = [ . Varname.2 1. . 0.01 0.555.5 1 0 2 18 1 0 3 13.209 0. 0.01 0. ’Bus 9’}..01 0.032 0. 1 ].9 1 1.314 0.8 16. 2 100 18 60 4 0 0 0.001 ]..314 0. ’Bus 7’.1 0. ’Bus 1’.535 0 12.072 0. 0.0119 0.con = [ .2 2 2 5 -5 20 0.358 0.025 99 99 -99 -99 1.2 0.5 PV. 1.1 0. 0.3 9-bus Test System 393 0 0 0 1 1 0.149 0. A second model of this system is described in [6] and presents a simplified model of generators (order II) without AVRs.2 1. 1 1.9 1... 1.35 0. 1.5 1.con = [ ..001 0. ’Bus 5’..063 0..092 0..25 0. 0.555 ]. 1. ’Bus 4’.9 0.158 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.17 0.3 0.

1 0.. ’Bus 5’. . .96 0 0 0 0.0608 0 0.28 0 0 0 1 1 0 ]. ’Bus 2’. which is a benchmark for power system analysis.8 7 13..con = [ . 1 0..washington.6 0 6. 1 0. 1 0..0742 0 1.8 10 13. 1 0.2 The complete data of this system are as follows: Bus.535 0 12. at http:/www. 1 0. ’Bus 8’..4 depicts the IEEE 14-bus test system. 3 100 13. ’Bus 6’. 1 0. ’Bus 7’.8 [ . 1 0. ’Bus 9’}.0521 0 0.1969 0. F. ’Bus 4’.3125 0.5 60 2 0..edu/research/pstca/.8958 0.394 F Test System Data 7 8 9 Gen 2 2 3 Gen 3 5 6 4 1 Gen 1 Figure F.25 0.0336 0 0. ’Bus 1’.0969 0. 1 100 16.1813 0 0. 1 0. ’Bus 3’.ee.. 2 100 18 60 2 0. Varname.89 8. 2 Available .con = 1 69 2 69 3 69 4 69 5 69 6 13.8 60 2 0..3: WSCC 3-generator 9-bus test system.4 14-bus Test System Figure F.02 0 0 0 1 1 0.2578 0..0969 .31 0 47.bus = {.146 0.8645 1.8 0 0 0 1 1 0. Syn.. 1 0.1198 0 0..8 8 18 9 13. 0 0 0 6 5..

’Bus 06’.06 0 -0. 0.0374 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.978 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.8 0.12711 0.8 13.058 0.3043 0.8 13. 0. ’Bus 03’.8 0.F.55618 0.942 0. 0.035 0.19207 0.8 13.4 -0.016 0.19 0.8 13. 0 ].25202 0. 0. 0.0528 0.0128 0. Varname.2 1.06 0 9.2 1.22092 0. 0.8 0.8 1 1 1 1 0.2 0. 0. 0.05917 0.09 0.4 14-bus Test System 395 11 12 13 14 13.5 0.8 13.8 10 100 13.075 0. 1 ].932 0.09498 0.06701 0. 0.11001 0.8 0.2 0. 0. 0.04 0. ’Bus 07’. 0.4 0 0 0 1. ’Bus 14’}.con = [ .03181 0.8 0. 0.9 -9. .0845 0.8 13. 1.04211 0. .17103 0.8 13.149 0. ’Bus 13’.8 13.8 6 100 13. 1 100 69 PV.2 0.24 0.con = [ 2 5 100 6 12 100 12 13 100 6 13 100 6 11 100 11 10 100 9 10 100 9 14 100 14 13 100 7 9 100 1 2 100 3 2 100 3 4 100 1 5 100 5 4 100 2 4 100 5 6 100 4 9 100 4 7 100 8 7 100 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 5 1.8 2. 0.016 0.8 12 100 13.2 1.17632 0. 2 100 69 6 100 13.8 0.13027 0. ’Bus 02’.8 0.8 13.8 0.8 0.01938 0..12291 0.8 11 100 13.2 1. ’Bus 08’..01 1.0492 0.34802 0.con = [ .. SW.. 0.04699 0.27038 0.05 0.. ’Bus 04’.2 1.018 1.08205 0.25581 0. ’Bus 10’. 0.058 0. 0.17615 0. 0. 0.bus = {.07 1.2 1..295 0.05403 0.076 0.8 0..con = [ .8 0.0346 0.8 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 18 Line.2 1. ’Bus 05’.2 1.217 0.045 1.061 0.05695 0. 0. 0.8 13. 0.2 1.969 0.8 4 100 69 5 100 69 9 100 13.166 0.8 3 100 69 8 100 18 PQ.1989 0.20912 0. ’Bus 09’.8 13 100 13.22304 0.2 1.8 13.8 1. ’Bus 01’.17093 0 0. 2 100 69 3 100 69 14 100 13. 0 ].8 1.2 1.0438 0.24 -0.05811 0 0 0 0 0.8 0.4 0..17388 0.034 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.09 0.2 1.135 0. 1.. ’Bus 12’.2 1.9 1.19988 0.06615 0.478 0. 0. 69 13.. 0.8 0.19797 0.06 1.127 0.8 0. 0 ].112 0. 0.324 1 ]. 0. 0. ’Bus 11’. 0. 0.01335 0. 0. 0.

G Generators 12 13 14 11 C Synchronous Compensators 10 9 C G 6 1 C 7 8 4 5 2 G 3 Three Winding Transformer Equivalent 9 7 4 8 C C Figure F.4: IEEE 14-bus test system. 396 .

disp(’ ’).x.m On line 348 ==> if failed. comma.. 1. as follows: ??? Undefined function or variable ’fm_mat’. comma.2.x. else. Following FAQs were mostly arisen by users of previous PSAT versions 1. . fm_main. Some users get confused between the current Matlab path which 397 .. comma. end ??? Error: Missing operator. ??? Error while evaluating figure WindowButtonMotionFcn. or semicolon.1 Getting Started When I run PSAT at the Matlab prompt. disp(’PSAT is not properly initialized. ??? Error while evaluating figure WindowButtonMotionFcn. or semicolon. or semicolon. The reason of this error is that the PSAT folder is not set in the Matlab search path.’). G. comma. I got an error messages. ??? Error while evaluating figure WindowButtonMotionFcn. thus might not apply to the current release. ??? Error: Missing operator. Error in ==> C:\psat\fm_main. ??? Error: Missing operator.1..Appendix G FAQs This appendix presents the most frequent asked questions related to PSAT installation and usage. and 1.0. ??? Error: Missing operator. or semicolon.x.m On line 217 ==> Error in ==> C:\psat\psat.

1 files were written and pre-compiled using Matlab 6.5 R13 and afterwards tested on Matlab 5.3.5 fo details. Which are the differences between PSAT and SimPowerSystems in terms of features.0. Error in ==> C:\MATLABR11\toolbox\psat\psat.1.3 Furthermore. are disabled when PSAT runs under older Matlab versions. PSAT version 2. PSAT comes in open source files. PSAT distribution comes in p-code files. uigetdir) and Perl modules. how can I get source m-files? Since version 1.5 are not used or. 3 Perl filters for data file conversion can be used only with Matlab 6.g.5. Please report all inconsistencies in order to fix these bugs. Matlab search path is returned by the path function. the interfaces with GAMS and UWPFLOW programs can be used only with Matlab 6.0. less commonly used PSAT functions can still contain calls to builtin functions which where not present in Matlab versions older than 6. Thus.2 The previous PSAT documentation wasn’t clear on this regard.3 for a better explanation on how to properly install PSAT on your system. Please refer to the new Section 2.5. PSAT version 1.0. Pre-compiled files (p-code) were built using Matlab 5. applications and performance? SimPowerSystems (alias Power System Blockset) is a Simulink-based toolbox for electromagnetical transient studies (including detailed models of power electronic Matlab current path is returned by the pwd function.3. PSAT is also free software (see the GNU General Public License which is reported in Appendix K).m are still included in the PSAT distribution but will be no longer maintained. I have Matlab version older than 6. some of the latest features of the current Matlab release 6. This is the case of some bult-in functions (e.0 was written using mainly Matlab 6. which ensures the compatibility with newer Matlab versions.p is a P-file written by a newer version MATLAB and cannot be read.1 R12 and will not run under Matlab 6. Refer to Section 26.m On line 24 ==> hdl = fm_enter(a(1). p-code (pre-compiled) files run faster on some platforms and the most of the users do not need to change the code on a daily basis.0 or older. Because of the compatibility issue.0 and 6.1 and when I try to run the program the following error shows up: >> psat C:\MATLABR11 ??? C:\MATLABR11\toolbox\psat\fm_enter. Older Matlab files such as fm cdf.path).398 G FAQs is the working folder where Matlab first looks for custom functions1 and the Matlab search path which is a list of folders where Matlab looks for functions if the search in the current folder fails. PSAT includes a small GUI to create one’s own PSAT distribution as p-code files. 2 The 1 The . However.5. when used. However.3. 6.

How can I run PSAT from within a function without using GUIs? Since PSAT version 1. However. Maybe it could be interesting comparing power flow results obtained with PSAT and SimPowerSystems. while slow down for “huge” ones. I added a control scheme to a PSAT-Simulink model. optimal power flow. As a matter of fact running a simulation from the Simulink toolbar produces no effects. continuation power flow and electromechanical transients. comparing the two software packages is not fair. G. Any comments. This actually depends on Matlab features more than on the implemented code.1 of Chapter 1. but it doesn’t work. Please refer to Chapter 27 for a detailed documentation about the command line usage of PSAT. while SimPowerSystems is a commercial product.2 Simulink Library How can I inspect schemes of PSAT-Simulink blocks? PSAT-Simulink blocks are hollow. Thus. and works just as data boxes. If you want to add a new component or a new control scheme refer to Chapter 25 which describes how to build user defined models under PSAT. PSAT makes use of Simulink only as a CAD tool.3. whereas mathematical models are defined in Matlab functions. Can I run PSAT on Octave? As for version 1. free but for the Matlab kernel :)). PSAT is free software (well. SimPowerSystems has a longer hystory and has been written by a team of people. Performances of both toolboxes are typically pretty good for “small” systems. However. Of course “small” and “huge” depend on the computer. PSAT can run on GNU Octave. because they have different goals and use different mathematical models. .2 Simulink Library 399 components). PSAT includes a set of functions and script files which allow avoiding GUIs. suggestions and contribution are really welcome and will be taken into account in order to make PSAT a better software and a more reliable and useful tool. Restrictions and limitations apply.0. which I think is the only comparable result.0. I guess this is actually the main advantage of PSAT. SimPowerSystems should be generally more reliable than PSAT. A very rough comparison of the two software packages is depicted in Table 1. while PSAT is Matlab-based and aimed to power flow.3. However. Static and dynamic models of components are stored in the Matlab functions provided with the PSAT tarball.G. see Chapter 28.

Since PSAT version 1. whereas PSAT basic power flow routines does not. Why do I get the following message? Statistics .2. Check of Simulink blocks coudn’t be performed. these networks are not available because of copyright reasons. for a more accurate power flow analysis which includes security limits. which allows producing same results as PST. Is there a realistic case (thousands of buses) test system for PSAT? Although PSAT has been successfully used for solving power flows of big networks (a user told me he solved a 25000-bus system power flow with PSAT). thus cannot be competitive with commercial C-compiled programs.1... The power flow can be solved faster by means of a fast decoupled technique. however continuation power flow. G. optimal power flow and time domain simulation analyses are based on the full system Jacobian matrix and will show poor performances for huge networks. . but it took a long time to get the solution. PST automatically takes into account generator reactive power limits. it is possible to enforce generator reactive power limit control in power flow computations. That simply means perl is not properly installed on your system. Is there any hope to get a faster solution? PSAT is a Matlab based program. it is recommended running the continuation power flow. ’perl’ is not recognized as an internal or external command. PST and PSAT produce different power flow results for the IEEE 14-bus test system. However. The message is just a warning and does not affect simulations. operable program or batch file. Why? The solution of the IEEE 14-bus test system depends on the power flow settings.400 G FAQs Why PSAT-Simulink blocks do not work in Simulink models built using PSB (SymsPowerSystems)? Mixing PSAT blocks with PSB blocks is not possible: the two toolboxes work in a completely different way.3 Power Flow I tried to run a n-thousands bus test system on PSAT.

else PQ. Why? PSAT makes a distinction between base case powers (used for the power flow solution) and power bids (used in the continuation and optimal power flow analysis). a perturbation file for the 14-bus test system is as follows: function dummy = p_test(t) global PQ if (t > 1.0) PQ. all other perturbations have to be implemented by the user. the initial guess is out of the feasibility region.061 0.G.016. 0.112 0. 0. When importing a Matpower test case into PSAT.04. 0..09 0.075.149 0. G.295 0. but the PSAT optimal power flow routine didn’t reach the convergence.035 0.127. 0. however more work has to be done on this issue. maximum or minimum values of some constrained variables are inconsistent. are embedded in the program.4 Optimal & Continuation Power Flow 401 G.[3 4]) = 1.016. 0. I converted a Matpower test case. The OPF routine performs several checks before running the main loop. 0. 0.058.4 Optimal & Continuation Power Flow Why the OPF routine did not converge? Typically the Interior Point Method does not converge for the two following reasons: 1. 0.058.5 Time Domain Simulation Can you give me an example of perturbation file? Basic disturbances. .166...19.2*[ .018. 0.135 0. 0.942 0.217 0. 0.478 0. one has to disable the “Use base case” option in the OPF settings GUI.con(:.con(:. 2. For instance.[3 4]) = [ . However. Matpower and PSAT may give different results since the Interior Point Method implemented in PSAT does not include unit commitment so far. such as fault and breaker interventions.05 ].076 0..

0. 0. The creation of data format filters is limited by the availability of a complete documentation of commercial data formats. but when I run the power flow.6 Data Conversion When I try to convert a data file in xyz format. .035 0.09 0. Most of the time it is just a matter of properly adjusting the general settings of PSAT. The message literally means that the data format filter has not been implemented and there is no way to convert automatically the source data file into PSAT data format.112 0. this procedure gives the maximum freedom in the definition of the event(s) that disturb(s) the network.135 0. I included a fault/breaker in my network but. G. since different programs may have different features or treat data in a different way. please report all inconsistencies to me in order to improve the filters. 0. The bug has been fixed in the current version 1. 0.075. when running time domain simulations.058. However. I converted a data file in xyz format. 0.076 0.058.016.295 0. The conversion of data files from different data formats can be in some cases tricky.942 0. In the latter case I will be glad to include your function in the master program.1.217 0. A perturbation file should typically contain a declaration of global structures which have to be modified and a if-then-else control flow. PSAT results are different from what expected. 0.19. Thus.478 0. 0. Although a little bit rusty.04. if you have access to a commercial package for power system analysis and want to create a filter. a warning window shows up with the message “Filter for xyz data format not implemented yet”. you can either post me the documentation or write the filter by yourself. 0.016.05 ]. It increase the powers of all PQ loads by 20% at t = 1s.149 end 0.402 G FAQs 0. nothing happens or the routine stops with an error. This was due to a bug in the data format of fault/breaker components of the previous version 1.0.0. 0.018.127. 0.2.166.061 0.

G.7 Interfaces

403

G.7

Interfaces

I have installed the demo version of GAMS 21.1 but when I try to run the PSAT-GAMS interface, I get the following error:
PSAT-GAMS Interface Market Clearing Mechanism Single-Period Auction "gams" is not recognized like an internal or external command, program or feasible batch file. ??? Error using ==> fm_gams/psatgams Too many output arguments. Error in ==> c:/documents and settings/psat/fm_gams.m On line 382 ==> ??? Error using ==> edit Neither ’fm_gams/psatgams’ nor ’fm_gams/psatgams.m’ could be found.

The problem it is probably due to the fact that your GAMS folder is not set as an environment variable. How to set GAMS executable files as environment variables depends on the operating system, as follows: Windows NT and Windows 2000 look for Control Panel → System Properties → Advanced Options → Environment Variables. Then edit the “Path” by adding the full GAMS path. Windows XP look for Control Panel → Performance and Maintenance → System. A windows with the title “System Properties” will show up. Select the “Advanced” tab and push the “Environment Variables” button. Then edit the “PATH” field by adding the full GAMS path. Linux edit the .bash profile file (or whatever file where your $PATH variable is defined) in your home directory and add the full GAMS path in the $PATH variable. Following errors are just due to the fact that GAMS didn’t run succesfully and output files (expected by fm gams.m) were not created. I have done all steps indicated in Chapter 29, but the PSAT-GAMS interface is still not working. First, please make sure that you have done all the appropiate steps indicated in Chapter 29 referring to the PGI (Psat Gams Interface) installation. A usual problem which is used to show up on Windows XP is that the PSAT folder needs to be the startup folder for Matlab. Here’s what you should do: 1. Go to your desktop in XP and right click on the Matlab icon. 2. Indicate the full PSAT path in the destination field.

Appendix H

PSAT Forum
A PSAT Forum (see Fig. H.1) is currently available at: tech.groups.yahoo.com/groups/psatforum Main functions are as follows: Function Subscribe Post message Unsubscribe List owner e-mail psatforum-subscribe@yahoogroups.com psatforum@yahoogroups.com psatforum-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com psatforum-owner@yahoogroups.com

To post a message directly to me, use one of the following e-mails: 1. Federico.Milano@uclm.es 2. fmilano@thunderbox.uwaterloo.ca 3. psatforum@yahoo.com The latest PSAT distribution archive, as well as latest patches and, when available, data files will be posted on the Forum file repository. However, the web site www.uclm.es/area/gsee/Web/Federico/psat.htm will remain the main source for downloading PSAT and related files. Forum user statistics are depicted in Fig. H.2.

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Web forum for users of the Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT). PSAT is a Matlab toolbox for electric power system analysis and control. The command line version of PSAT is also GNU Octave compatible. PSAT includes power flow, continuation power flow, optimal power flow, small signal stability analysis and time domain simulation. All operations can be assessed by means of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) and a Simulinkbased library provides an user-friendly tool for network design.

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407

Appendix I

Citations & Links
A list of papers and web-pages that are about, use or cite PSAT follows. The list can be incomplete; please let me know missing references.

I.1

Books

[1] J. Chow, F. F. Wu, and J. Momoh, Applied Mathematics for Restructured Electric Power Systems. Springer-Verlag, 2005, reference in Chapter 8, Instability Monitoring and Control of Power Systems, by E. H. Abed, M. A. Hassouneh and M. S. Saad, from page 171.

I.2

Journals

[1] M. S. Castro, H. M. Ayres, and L. C. P. da Silva, “Impacts of the SSSC Control Modes on Small-Signal and Transient Stability of a Power System,” Electric Power System Research, 2006, in press, available on-line since february 2006. [2] S. El-Kashlan, M. Abdel-Rahman, H. El-Desouki, and M. Mansour, “Voltage Stability of Wind Power Systems using Bifurcation Analysis,” Power and Energy Systems, vol. 468, 2005. [3] S. V. N. Jithin-Sundar and M. Reshmi, “Utilization of Controlled Shunt Reactor in a 400 kV Interconnected Network,” International Journal of Emerging Electric Power Systems, vol. 2, no. 1, 2005. [4] M. Larsson, “ObjectStab, An Educational Tool for Power System Stability Studies,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 56–63, Feb. 2004. [5] F. Milano, “An Open Source Power System Analysis Toolbox,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 1199–1206, Aug. 2005. 409

410

I Citations & Links

[6] F. Milano, C. A. Ca˜izares, and A. J. Conejo, “Sensitivity-based Securityn constrained OPF Market Clearing Model,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 2051–2060, Nov. 2005.

I.3

Conference Proceedings

¨ u [1] H. B. Cetinkaya, S. Ozt¨rk, and B. Alboyacı, “Eigenvalues Obtained with Two ¸ Simulation Packages (SIMPOW and PSAT) and Effects of Machine Parameters on Eigenvalues,” in Proc. of Melecon 2004, Dubrovnik, Croatia, May 2004. [2] ——, “Machine Parameters and Orders of Machine Impacts on Eigenvalues and Simulations in two Software Packages SIMPOW and PSAT,” in Proc. of IEEE SoutheastCon, Greensboro, North Carolina, Mar. 2004. [3] A. D. Del Rosso and C. A. Negri, “Influencia del Modelado de la Carga en la Evaluaci´n de la Estabilidad Transitoria en Sistemas de Potencia,” in o Und´cimo Encuentro Regional Iberoamericano del Cigr´, XI ERIAC, Hernane e darias, Paraguay, May 2005. [4] A. M. Haidar, A. Mohamed, and A. Hussain, “Power System Vulnerability Assessment Considering a New Index Based on Power System Loss,” in International Conference on Energy and Environment, Bangi, Malaysia, Aug. 2006. [5] D. Koesrindartoto, J. Sun, and L. Tesfatsion, “An Agent-Based Computational Laboratory for Testing the Economic Reliability of Wholesale Power Market Designs,” in IEEE PES Conference Proceedings, San Francisco, California, June 2005. [6] F. Milano, “A Graphical and Open-Source Matlab-GAMS Interface for Electricity Markets Models,” in Noveno Congreso Hispano-Luso de Ingenier´ El´ctrica, ıa e CHLIE, Marbella, Spain, June 2005. [7] R. Natesan and G. Radman, “Effects of STATCOM, SSSC and UPFC on Voltage Stability,” in Proceedings of the Thirty-Sixth Southeastern Symposium on System Theory, Atlanta, Georgia, Mar. 2004, pp. 546–550. [8] L. Vanfretti and F. Milano, “Application of the PSAT, an Open Source Software, for Educational and Research Purposes,” in IEEE PES General Meeting, Tampa, USA, June 2007.

I.4

Webpages
www.ece.mtu.edu/faculty/ljbohman/peec/Dig Rsor.htm 

IEEE PES PEEC Digital Educational Resources, available at: 

Useful Links of the McGill’s Electrical and Computer Engineering Research Groups, Canada, available at:

I.4 Webpages

411

www.power.ece.mcgill.ca/UsefulLinks.htm  Webpage of Warren King, University of Waterloo, Canada, available at: www.power.uwaterloo.ca/~ewking/  Webpage on Open-Source Software for Electricitiy Market Research, Teaching, and Training, by Leigh Tesfation, Iowa State University, USA. www.econ.iastate.edu/tesfatsi/ElectricOSS.htm  PSAT Tips and Tricks Page by Luigi Vanfretti, Rensselaer Politechnic Institute, New York, USA: www.rpi.edu/~vanfrl/psat.html/  Webpage of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Canada: www.ece.ualberta.ca/~ee433/  Webpage of Sheng How Goh, University of Queensland, Australia, available at: www.itee.uq.edu.au/~shgoh/  Webpage of Mois´s Roberto Lanner Carvalho, Instituto Militar de Engene haria, Brasil, available at: aquarius.ime.eb.br/~mrlc/  Webpage of Clodomiro Unsihuay Vila, Universidad Federal de Itajub´, Brasil, a available at: www.clodomiro.unifei.edu.br/

.

Institution or Company is using PSAT. USA. University of Maryland. Universidad San Carlos de Guatemala. An electronic copy of the reference letters is availbale at: www. e o n National Institute of Applied Sciences and Technology. These letters are important for me in order to request funds to my University and. Canada. Ontario.uclm. Tunisia. a University of Campinas (Unicamp). Brazil. 413 . Guatemala. Guatemala.es/area/gsee/Web/Federico/psat. Universidad Centroamericana Jos´ Sime´n Ca˜as. Universidad Mariano G´lvez de Guatemala.Appendix J Letters of Reference The following list depicts the Institutions that sent me a letter of reference for PSAT. to keep developing PSAT. University of Waterloo. please send me a letter of reference.htm If your University. in turn. El Salvador.

414 J Letters of Reference University of New South Wales. India. Slovenia. India. Centro de Investigaciones El´ctricas -Electr´nicas. China. Indian Institute of Technology. Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. USA. Asian Institute of Technology. Malaysia. University of Ljubljiana. Kanpur. a Nanjing Automation Research Institute. Italy. Bombay. Australia. e o u Indian Institute of Technology. Turquey. Brazil. . University of Kocaeli. Per´. Thailand. Indian Institute of Technology. Brazil. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. India. Federal University of Itajub´. University of Genoa. University of Kebangsaan. Roorkee.

Brazil.415 Federal University of Pernambuco. .

.

417 . or if you modify it. that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. 59 Temple Place . we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Library General Public License instead. not price. Boston. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software—to make sure the software is free for all its users. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation’s software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. By contrast. June 1991 Copyright c 1989. MA 02111-1307. and that you know you can do these things. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. To protect your rights. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish). 1991 Free Software Foundation.) You can apply it to your programs. we are referring to freedom. but changing it is not allowed. too. Inc. USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. When we speak of free software.Appendix K The GNU General Public License Version 2.Suite 330. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it.

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371. 248. 170 type III. see CSWT Continuation Power Flow. 309. 4 Frequency dependent load. 258. 268 E Excitation. 338. see AVR Exponential recovery load. 19. 193. 7. 165. 169 type II. 40. 334. 17. 17. 181. 4. 334. 376 CSWT. 331. 39. 265. 332. 369 Demand profile. see FDPF FDPF. see CAC Cluster Controller. 4. 28–29. 4. see DFIG Dynamic shaft. 6. 265 Central Area Controller. 268. 4. see DDSG. see Solid oxide fuel cell G GAMS. 103. see Octave H D High voltage dc transmission system. 165. 332 DFIG. 403 GNU Linux. see PQ generator Constant power load. 4. 4 Exponential recovery load. 138–140. 180. 227–229 HVDC Demand. 85. 118. 221–226 Direct Drive Synchronous Generator. 262. 245. see CPF CPF. see Induction motor Automatic voltage regulator. 180. 122–124. 265 CC. 262. 209–211. 398. 369 Fast Decoupled Power Flow. see AVR AVR. 193. 382. 3. 169–171. 46. see TG Fuel cell. 303– 305. 17. 181. 39. 331. see CC Constant power generator. 117. 337. 219–221 CygWin. 383. 165. 368 444 .Index A Area. 135. 4. 368 HVDC. 114–115. 22. 103–104. 231–232. 315–324. 27. 262 Frequency regulation. 368 Asynchronous machine. 135. 332. 15. 4. 379. 245. 355 Flexible ac transmission system. 171 B Bus. 361. 303. 121–122. 137–138. 154. 4. 331. see PQ load Constant Speed Wind Turbines. 260 C CAC. 20. 23. 262 F FACTS. 305. 257. 17. 331. 368. see FACTS Frequency dependent load. see Linux GNU Octave. see DDSG Doubly Fed Induction Generator. 105. 147. 4. 332. 391 type I. 41–48.

174–177. 158–163 P double cage. see TG Linux. 236. 344. 17. 403 186. 253. 117. see Tap Changer type I. 46. 177 Matlab. OLTC. 370. 363 264. 105. 355. 402 Line. 16. 27–28. 21. 265. 143–144. 265 Induction motor. 271. 162 Phasor Measurement Unit. 258. 379. 161 190 order V. 169. 194. 316. 70. 260. 189– order III. see Tap changer PSS. 41. 165. 394. 369 IPM. 383. 9–12. 357. 306. 399 303–306. see Subsynchronous resonance. 14. 147. 368. 111–112. 376. 83. L 264. 142–143. Secondary voltage control. 332 341. 126. see PMU single cage. 399 Simulink. 122. 379 Interior Point Method. 3. see IPM POD. 334. 355 Shaft. 258. 289. 316. 262. 41. 362–364. 46. 389. see OPF I IEEE. type V. 377. 4. 3. 185. 48. 324. 19. 183–184. 15. Merhotra’s predictor-corrector. 385. 368. 302. 30. 72. 317. 354. 262. 159 sformer order I. 309. 248. see Phase shifting tranmechanical model. 4 R Region. 53–62. see Transmission line Primary freq. 177 28. see OXL 334. 4. 355. 262 PQ load. 304. regulation. 27. 135. see Slack generator Mixed load. 306. 3. 75. 85. 177 277. 10. 303– Infinite bus. 332. 193. 176 M type III. 132–134. 316. 89–100. 403 Primary voltage regulation. 255. 363 Newton-Raphson algorithm. 7. see AVR Load tap changer. 276. 14. 23. 40. 4. type IV. 19. 117–119. 14. 309–312. 53. 401 Slack bus. 161 PMU. 266. 9. 137. 135. 53. 331. 117. 89. 375. 370–372. 257. 104. 262 . 40. see Area N Newton direction. 110–111. 3. 365. 4. 306 Mixed load. 10. see PSS J PQ generator. 22. 331. 231. see PV generator PV generator. OPF. 213. 159 Phase shifting transformer. 301. 3. 177–180. 16. S 29. 84. PV bus. 283. 10. Dynamic shaft O Shunt. 264. 78. 53 Power system stabilizer. 309. 400 OXL. 21. 23. 147. 359. see Phase shifting transformer 302. 135. 213. PST. 4. 341. 16. 287. 6. 245. 165. 296. 12. 162 Phase shifter. 45. 39. 76. 262. 355. 165. 40. 265 LTC. 283. 367. 165. 382. 245. Overexcitation limiter. 357. 397–400. 4. v. 180– 181. 271–279. see Tap Changer 145. 122. 296. 138. 382. 396. 6. 4. see Slack generator 305.INDEX 445 Optimal Power Flow. 305. 113–114 Octave. 113 Jimma’s load. 186. 176 type II. 217.

169. 262 Voltage regulation. 158. 154 order III. 135. 10. 154 order V. 262 Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator. 4. 369 UWPFLOW. 4. 213–217 Windows. 127. 332. 156. 193 W Wind. see SVC Subsynchronous resonance. 4. 179. 136–137. 368 SVC. 135. see POD Supply. 369 Swing bus. 369 STATCOM. see UPFC Unix. 7. 331. 155 order V. 4. 21. 154 order IV. 39. 105–108 Transmission line. 236–241. 262. 4 Voltage dependent load. 185–186 with embedded load. 403 Z ZIP load. 266 Statcom. 46. type 3. 27. 265. 305. see AVR Voltage sourced inverter. 4 SSSC. 204–205. 193. 266. see TCSC Transformer. 398 V Voltage dependent load. 201–202. 4. 303. 193. 4. 4. 104. 316. 265 type I. 4. 315. see SSSC Static VAr compensator. 157 T Tap changer. 262. 306 Solid oxide fuel cell. 193.446 INDEX Slack generator. 9. 147. 245. 369 Static Compensator. 157 order VIII. 196–198. 296. 309. 156 order VI. see Slack generator Synchronous machine. 17. 140–141. 186–189 TCSC. 231. 4. 193. 369 Wind model. 165. 266 dynamic model. 233–236 Supplementary Stabilizing Control Loop. 165. 168 Thermostatically controlled load. 104–105 Turbine governor. 108–110. 331– 334. 155 order V. 213–229. 344 electromechanical model. see Tap Changer TG. 10. 174. 165–168. 117–119. 369 TCUL. 20. 296. 154 order II. see TG U ULTC. 264. 264. 264 . 135–136. 379. see Tap Changer Unified PF controller. 4. 231. 331 UPFC. 198–200. 135. 147–158. 262. type 1. 193. 268 SSCL. 372. 166 type II. see Statcom Static Synchronous Series Compensator. 4. 358. 4. see VSI VSI. 343. 334. 194–196. type 2.

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