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The Project Gutenberg eBook of Spherical Trigonometry

,
by I. Todhunter
This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net
Title: Spherical Trigonometry
For the use of colleges and schools
Author: I. Todhunter
Release Date: November 12, 2006 [EBook #19770]
Language: English
Character set encoding: TeX
*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY ***
Produced by K.F. Greiner, Berj Zamanian, Joshua Hutchinson and
the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net
(This file was produced from images generously made available
by Cornell University Digital Collections)
SPHERICAL
TRIGONOMETRY.
ii
SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY
For the Use of Colleges and Schools.
WITH NUMEROUS EXAMPLES.
BY
I. TODHUNTER, M.A., F.R.S.,
HONORARY FELLOW OF ST JOHN’S COLLEGE,
CAMBRIDGE.
FIFTH EDITION.
London :
MACMILLAN AND CO.
1886
[All Rights reserved.]
ii
Cambridge:
PRINTED BY C. J. CLAY, M.A. AND SON,
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.
PREFACE
The present work is constructed on the same plan as my treatise on Plane
Trigonometry, to which it is intended as a sequel; it contains all the propositions
usually included under the head of Spherical Trigonometry, together with a large
collection of examples for exercise. In the course of the work reference is made
to preceding writers from whom assistance has been obtained; besides these
writers I have consulted the treatises on Trigonometry by Lardner, Lefebure de
Fourcy, and Snowball, and the treatise on Geometry published in the Library of
Useful Knowledge. The examples have been chiefly selected from the University
and College Examination Papers.
In the account of Napier’s Rules of Circular Parts an explanation has been
given of a method of proof devised by Napier, which seems to have been over-
looked by most modern writers on the subject. I have had the advantage of
access to an unprinted Memoir on this point by the late R. L. Ellis of Trinity
College; Mr Ellis had in fact rediscovered for himself Napier’s own method. For
the use of this Memoir and for some valuable references on the subject I am
indebted to the Dean of Ely.
Considerable labour has been bestowed on the text in order to render it
comprehensive and accurate, and the examples have all been carefully verified;
and thus I venture to hope that the work will be found useful by Students and
Teachers.
I. TODHUNTER.
St John’s College,
August 15, 1859.
iii
iv
In the third edition I have made some additions which I hope will be found
valuable. I have considerably enlarged the discussion on the connexion of For-
mulæ in Plane and Spherical Trigonometry; so as to include an account of the
properties in Spherical Trigonometry which are analogous to those of the Nine
Points Circle in Plane Geometry. The mode of investigation is more elementary
than those hitherto employed; and perhaps some of the results are new. The
fourteenth Chapter is almost entirely original, and may deserve attention from
the nature of the propositions themselves and of the demonstrations which are
given.
Cambridge,
July, 1871.
CONTENTS.
I Great and Small Circles. 1
II Spherical Triangles. 7
III Spherical Geometry. 11
IV Relations between the Trigonometrical Functions of the Sides
and the Angles of a Spherical Triangle. 17
V Solution of Right-angled Triangles. 35
VI Solution of Oblique-Angled Triangles. 49
VII Circumscribed and Inscribed Circles. 63
VIII Area of a Spherical Triangle. Spherical Excess. 71
IX On certain approximate Formulæ. 81
X Geodetical Operations. 91
XI On small variations in the parts of a Spherical Triangle. 99
XII On the connexion of Formulæ in Plane and Spherical Trigonom-
etry. 103
XIII Polyhedrons. 121
XIV Arcs drawn to fixed points on the Surface of a Sphere. 133
XV Miscellaneous Propositions. 143
XVI Numerical Solution of Spherical Triangles. 157
v
vi CONTENTS.
I
GREAT AND SMALL
CIRCLES.
1. A sphere is a solid bounded by a surface every point of which is equally
distant from a fixed point which is called the centre of the sphere. The straight
line which joins any point of the surface with the centre is called a radius. A
straight line drawn through the centre and terminated both ways by the surface
is called a diameter.
2. The section of the surface of a sphere made by any plane is a circle.
Let AB be the section of the surface of a sphere made by any plane, O the
centre of the sphere. Draw OC perpendicular to the plane; take any point D
in the section and join OD, CD. Since OC is perpendicular to the plane, the
1
2 GREAT AND SMALL CIRCLES.
angle OCD is a right angle; therefore CD =

(OD
2
− OC
2
). Now O and C
are fixed points, so that OC is constant; and OD is constant, being the radius
of the sphere; hence CD is constant. Thus all points in the plane section are
equally distant from the fixed point C; therefore the section is a circle of which
C is the centre.
3. The section of the surface of a sphere by a plane is called a great circle if
the plane passes through the centre of the sphere, and a small circle if the plane
does not pass through the centre of the sphere. Thus the radius of a great circle
is equal to the radius of the sphere.
4. Through the centre of a sphere and any two points on the surface a plane
can be drawn; and only one plane can be drawn, except when the two points
are the extremities of a diameter of the sphere, and then an infinite number of
such planes can be drawn. Hence only one great circle can be drawn through
two given points on the surface of a sphere, except when the points are the
extremities of a diameter of the sphere. When only one great circle can be
drawn through two given points, the great circle is unequally divided at the two
points; we shall for brevity speak of the shorter of the two arcs as the arc of a
great circle joining the two points.
5. The axis of any circle of a sphere is that diameter of the sphere which is
perpendicular to the plane of the circle; the extremities of the axis are called
the poles of the circle. The poles of a great circle are equally distant from the
plane of the circle. The poles of a small circle are not equally distant from the
plane of the circle; they may be called respectively the nearer and further pole;
sometimes the nearer pole is for brevity called the pole.
6. A pole of a circle is equally distant from every point of the circumference of
the circle.
Let O be the centre of the sphere, AB any circle of the sphere, C the centre of
the circle, P and P

the poles of the circle. Take any point D in the circumference
of the circle; join CD, OD, PD. Then PD =

(PC
2
+CD
2
); and PC and CD
are constant, therefore PD is constant. Suppose a great circle to pass through
the points P and D; then the chord PD is constant, and therefore the arc of a
GREAT AND SMALL CIRCLES. 3
great circle intercepted between P and D is constant for all positions of D on
the circle AB.
Thus the distance of a pole of a circle from every point of the circumference
of the circle is constant, whether that distance be measured by the straight line
joining the points, or by the arc of a great circle intercepted between the points.
7. The arc of a great circle which is drawn from a pole of a great circle to any
point in its circumference is a quadrant.
Let P be a pole of the great circle ABC; then the arc PA is a quadrant.
For let O be the centre of the sphere, and draw PO. Then PO is at right
angles to the plane ABC, because P is the pole of ABC, therefore POA is a
right angle, and the arc PA is a quadrant.
8. The angle subtended at the centre of a sphere by the arc of a great circle
which joins the poles of two great circles is equal to the inclination of the planes
of the great circles.
4 GREAT AND SMALL CIRCLES.
Let O be the centre of the sphere, CD, CE the great circles intersecting at
C, A and B the poles of CD and CE respectively.
Draw a great circle through A and B, meeting CD and CE at M and N
respectively. Then AO is perpendicular to OC, which is a straight line in the
plane OCD; and BO is perpendicular to OC, which is a straight line in the
plane OCE; therefore OC is perpendicular to the plane AOB (Euclid, xi. 4);
and therefore OC is perpendicular to the straight lines OM and ON, which are
in the plane AOB. Hence MON is the angle of inclination of the planes OCD
and OCE. And the angle
AOB = AOM −BOM = BON −BOM = MON.
9. By the angle between two great circles is meant the angle of inclination of
the planes of the circles. Thus, in the figure of the preceding Article, the angle
between the great circles CD and CE is the angle MON.
In the figure to Art. 6, since PO is perpendicular to the plane ACB, every
plane which contains PO is at right angles to the plane ACB. Hence the angle
between the plane of any circle and the plane of a great circle which passes
through its poles is a right angle.
10. Two great circles bisect each other.
For since the plane of each great circle passes through the centre of the
sphere, the line of intersection of these planes is a diameter of the sphere, and
therefore also a diameter of each great circle; therefore the great circles are
bisected at the points where they meet.
GREAT AND SMALL CIRCLES. 5
11. If the arcs of great circles joining a point P on the surface of a sphere with
two other points A and C on the surface of the sphere, which are not at opposite
extremities of a diameter, be each of them equal to a quadrant, P is a pole of
the great circle through A and C. (See the figure of Art. 7.)
For suppose PA and PC to be quadrants, and O the centre of the sphere;
then since PA and PC are quadrants, the angles POC and POA are right
angles. Hence PO is at right angles to the plane AOC, and P is a pole of the
great circle AC.
12. Great circles which pass through the poles of a great circle are called
secondaries to that circle. Thus, in the figure of Art. 8 the point C is a pole of
ABMN, and therefore CM and CN are parts of secondaries to ABMN. And
the angle between CM and CN is measured by MN; that is, the angle between
any two great circles is measured by the arc they intercept on the great circle to
which they are secondaries.
13. If from a point on the surface of a sphere there can be drawn two arcs of
great circles, not parts of the same great circle, the planes of which are at right
angles to the plane of a given circle, that point is a pole of the given circle.
For, since the planes of these arcs are at right angles to the plane of the
given circle, the line in which they intersect is perpendicular to the plane of the
given circle, and is therefore the axis of the given circle; hence the point from
which the arcs are drawn is a pole of the circle.
14. To compare the arc of a small circle subtending any angle at the centre of
the circle with the arc of a great circle subtending the same angle at its centre.
Let ab be the arc of a small circle, C the centre of the circle, P the pole of the
circle, O the centre of the sphere. Through P draw the great circles PaA and
PbB, meeting the great circle of which P is a pole, at A and B respectively; draw
Ca, Cb, OA, OB. Then Ca, Cb, OA, OB are all perpendicular to OP, because
the planes aCb and AOB are perpendicular to OP; therefore Ca is parallel
to OA, and Cb is parallel to OB. Therefore the angle aCb = the angle AOB
(Euclid, xi. 10). Hence,
arc ab
radius Ca
=
arc AB
radius OA
, (Plane Trigonometry, Art. 18);
6 GREAT AND SMALL CIRCLES.
therefore,
arc ab
arc AB
=
Ca
OA
=
Ca
Oa
= sin POa.
II
SPHERICAL
TRIANGLES.
15. Spherical Trigonometry investigates the relations which subsist between
the angles of the plane faces which form a solid angle and the angles at which
the plane faces are inclined to each other.
16. Suppose that the angular point of a solid angle is made the centre of a
sphere; then the planes which form the solid angle will cut the sphere in arcs of
great circles. Thus a figure will be formed on the surface of the sphere which is
called a spherical triangle if it is bounded by three arcs of great circles; this will
be the case when the solid angle is formed by the meeting of three plane angles.
If the solid angle be formed by the meeting of more than three plane angles,
the corresponding figure on the surface of the sphere is bounded by more than
three arcs of great circles, and is called a spherical polygon.
17. The three arcs of great circles which form a spherical triangle are called
the sides of the spherical triangle; the angles formed by the arcs at the points
where they meet are called the angles of the spherical triangle. (See Art. 9.)
18. Thus, let O be the centre of a sphere, and suppose a solid angle formed at
O by the meeting of three plane angles. Let AB, BC, CA be the arcs of great
circles in which the planes cut the sphere; then ABC is a spherical triangle, and
7
8 SPHERICAL TRIANGLES.
the arcs AB, BC, CA are its sides. Suppose Ab the tangent at A to the arc
AB, and Ac the tangent at A to the arc AC, the tangents being drawn from
A towards B and C respectively; then the angle bAc is one of the angles of the
spherical triangle. Similarly angles formed in like manner at B and C are the
other angles of the spherical triangle.
19. The principal part of a treatise on Spherical Trigonometry consists of
theorems relating to spherical triangles; it is therefore necessary to obtain an
accurate conception of a spherical triangle and its parts.
It will be seen that what are called sides of a spherical triangle are really arcs
of great circles, and these arcs are proportional to the three plane angles which
form the solid angle corresponding to the spherical triangle. Thus, in the figure
of the preceding Article, the arc AB forms one side of the spherical triangle
ABC, and the plane angle AOB is measured by the fraction
arc AB
radius OA
; and
thus the arc AB is proportional to the angle AOB so long as we keep to the
same sphere.
The angles of a spherical triangle are the inclinations of the plane faces which
form the solid angle; for since Ab and Ac are both perpendicular to OA, the
angle bAc is the angle of inclination of the planes OAB and OAC.
20. The letters A, B, C are generally used to denote the angles of a spherical
triangle, and the letters a, b, c are used to denote the sides. As in the case of
plane triangles, A, B, and C may be used to denote the numerical values of the
angles expressed in terms of any unit, provided we understand distinctly what
the unit is. Thus, if the angle C be a right angle, we may say that C = 90

, or
that C =
π
2
, according as we adopt for the unit a degree or the angle subtended
at the centre by an arc equal to the radius. So also, as the sides of a spherical
SPHERICAL TRIANGLES. 9
triangle are proportional to the angles subtended at the centre of the sphere, we
may use a, b, c to denote the numerical values of those angles in terms of any
unit. We shall usually suppose both the angles and sides of a spherical triangle
expressed in circular measure. (Plane Trigonometry, Art. 20.)
21. In future, unless the contrary be distinctly stated, any arc drawn on the
surface of a sphere will be supposed to be an arc of a great circle.
22. In spherical triangles each side is restricted to be less than a semicircle;
this is of course a convention, and it is adopted because it is found convenient.
Thus, in the figure, the arc ADEB is greater than a semicircumference, and
we might, if we pleased, consider ADEB, AC, and BC as forming a triangle,
having its angular points at A, B, and C. But we agree to exclude such triangles
from our consideration; and the triangle having its angular points at A, B, and
C, will be understood to be that formed by AFB, BC, and CA.
23. From the restriction of the preceding Article it will follow that any angle
of a spherical triangle is less than two right angles.
For suppose a triangle formed by BC, CA, and BEDA, having the angle
BCA greater than two right angles. Then suppose D to denote the point at
which the arc BC, if produced, will meet AE; then BED is a semicircle by Art.
10, and therefore BEA is greater than a semicircle; thus the proposed triangle
is not one of those which we consider.
10 SPHERICAL TRIANGLES.
III
SPHERICAL
GEOMETRY.
24. The relations between the sides and angles of a Spherical Triangle, which
are investigated in treatises on Spherical Trigonometry, are chiefly such as in-
volve the Trigonometrical Functions of the sides and angles. Before proceeding
to these, however, we shall collect, under the head of Spherical Geometry, some
theorems which involve the sides and angles themselves, and not their trigono-
metrical ratios.
25. Polar triangle. Let ABC be any spherical triangle, and let the points A

,
B

, C

be those poles of the arcs BC, CA, AB respectively which lie on the
same sides of them as the opposite angles A, B, C; then the triangle A

B

C

is
said to be the polar triangle of the triangle ABC.
Since there are two poles for each side of a spherical triangle, eight triangles
can be formed having for their angular points poles of the sides of the given
11
12 SPHERICAL GEOMETRY.
triangle; but there is only one triangle in which these poles A

, B

, C

lie towards
the same parts with the corresponding angles A, B, C; and this is the triangle
which is known under the name of the polar triangle.
The triangle ABC is called the primitive triangle with respect to the triangle
A

B

C

.
26. If one triangle be the polar triangle of another, the latter will be the polar
triangle of the former.
Let ABC be any triangle, A

B

C

the polar triangle: then ABC will be the
polar triangle of A

B

C

.
For since B

is a pole of AC, the arc AB

is a quadrant, and since C

is a
pole of BA, the arc AC

is a quadrant (Art. 7); therefore A is a pole of B

C

(Art. 11). Also A and A

are on the same side of B

C

; for A and A

are by
hypothesis on the same side of BC, therefore A

A is less than a quadrant; and
since A is a pole of B

C

, and AA

is less than a quadrant, A and A

are on the
same side of B

C

.
Similarly it may be shewn that B is a pole of C

A

, and that B and B

are
on the same side of C

A

; also that C is a pole of A

B

, and that C and C

are
on the same side of A

B

. Thus ABC is the polar triangle of A

B

C

.
27. The sides and angles of the polar triangle are respectively the supplements
of the angles and sides of the primitive triangle.
For let the arc B

C

, produced if necessary, meet the arcs AB, AC, produced
if necessary, at the points D and E respectively; then since A is a pole of B

C

,
the spherical angle A is measured by the arc DE (Art. 12). But B

E and C

D
are each quadrants; therefore DE and B

C

are together equal to a semicircle;
that is, the angle subtended by B

C

at the centre of the sphere is the supplement
of the angle A. This we may express for shortness thus; B

C

is the supplement
SPHERICAL GEOMETRY. 13
of A. Similarly it may be shewn that C

A

is the supplement of B, and A

B

the supplement of C.
And since ABC is the polar triangle of A

B

C

, it follows that BC, CA, AB
are respectively the supplements of A

, B

, C

; that is, A

, B

, C

are respectively
the supplements of BC, CA, AB.
From these properties a primitive triangle and its polar triangle are some-
times called supplemental triangles.
Thus, if A, B, C, a, b, c denote respectively the angles and the sides of a
spherical triangle, all expressed in circular measure, and A

, B

, C

, a

, b

, c

those of the polar triangle, we have
A

= π −a, B

= π −b, C

= π −c,
a

= π −A, b

= π −B, c

= π −C.
28. The preceding result is of great importance; for if any general theorem be
demonstrated with respect to the sides and the angles of any spherical triangle
it holds of course for the polar triangle also. Thus any such theorem will remain
true when the angles are changed into the supplements of the corresponding
sides and the sides into the supplements of the corresponding angles. We shall
see several examples of this principle in the next Chapter.
29. Any two sides of a spherical triangle are together greater than the third
side. (See the figure of Art. 18.)
For any two of the three plane angles which form the solid angle at O are
together greater than the third (Euclid, xi. 20). Therefore any two of the arcs
AB, BC, CA, are together greater than the third.
From this proposition it is obvious that any side of a spherical triangle is
greater than the difference of the other two.
30. The sum of the three sides of a spherical triangle is less than the circum-
ference of a great circle. (See the figure of Art. 18.)
For the sum of the three plane angles which form the solid angle at O is less
than four right angles (Euclid, xi. 21); therefore
AB
OA
+
BC
OA
+
CA
OA
is less than 2π,
14 SPHERICAL GEOMETRY.
therefore, AB +BC +CD is less than 2π ×OA;
that is, the sum of the arcs is less than the circumference of a great circle.
31. The propositions contained in the preceding two Articles may be extended.
Thus, if there be any polygon which has each of its angles less than two right
angles, any one side is less than the sum of all the others. This may be proved
by repeated use of Art. 29. Suppose, for example, that the figure has four sides,
and let the angular points be denoted by A, B, C, D. Then
AD +BC is greater than AC;
therefore, AB +BC +CD is greater than AC +CD,
and `a fortiori greater than AD.
Again, if there be any polygon which has each of its angles less than two
right angles, the sum of its sides will be less than the circumference of a great
circle. This follows from Euclid, xi. 21, in the manner shewn in Art. 30.
32. The three angles of a spherical triangle are together greater than two right
angles and less than six right angles.
Let A, B, C be the angles of a spherical triangle; let a

, b

, c

be the sides
of the polar triangle. Then by Art. 30,
a

+b

+c

is less than 2π,
that is, π −A+π −B +π −C is less than 2π;
therefore, A+B +C is greater than π.
And since each of the angles A, B, C is less than π, the sum A + B + C is
less than 3π.
33. The angles at the base of an isosceles spherical triangle are equal.
Let ABC be a spherical triangle having AC = BC; let O be the centre of
the sphere. Draw tangents at the points A and B to the arcs AC and BC
respectively; these will meet OC produced at the same point S, and AS will be
equal to BS.
Draw tangents AT, BT at the points A, B to the arc AB; then AT = TB;
SPHERICAL GEOMETRY. 15
join TS. In the two triangles SAT, SBT the sides SA, AT, TS are equal to
SB, BT, TS respectively; therefore the angle SAT is equal to the angle SBT;
and these are the angles at the base of the spherical triangle.
The figure supposes AC and BC to be less than quadrants; if they are greater
than quadrants the tangents to AC and BC will meet on CO produced through
O instead of through C, and the demonstration may be completed as before. If
AC and BC are quadrants, the angles at the base are right angles by Arts. 11
and 9.
34. If two angles of a spherical triangle are equal, the opposite sides are equal.
Since the primitive triangle has two equal angles, the polar triangle has two
equal sides; therefore in the polar triangle the angles opposite the equal sides
are equal by Art. 33. Hence in the primitive triangle the sides opposite the
equal angles are equal.
35. If one angle of a spherical triangle be greater than another, the side oppo-
site the greater angle is greater than the side opposite the less angle.
Let ABC be a spherical triangle, and let the angle ABC be greater than the
angle BAC: then the side AC will be greater than the side BC. At B make
the angle ABD equal to the angle BAD; then BD is equal to AD (Art. 34),
and BD+DC is greater than BC (Art. 29); therefore AD+DC is greater than
16 SPHERICAL GEOMETRY.
BC; that is, AC is greater than BC.
36. If one side of a spherical triangle be greater than another, the angle oppo-
site the greater side is greater than the angle opposite the less side.
This follows from the preceding Article by means of the polar triangle.
Or thus; suppose the side AC greater than the side BC, then the angle ABC
will be greater than the angle BAC. For the angle ABC cannot be less than the
angle BAC by Art. 35, and the angle ABC cannot be equal to the angle BAC
by Art. 34; therefore the angle ABC must be greater than the angle BAC.
This Chapter might be extended; but it is unnecessary to do so because
the Trigonometrical formulæ of the next Chapter supply an easy method of
investigating the theorems of Spherical Geometry. See Arts. 56, 57, and 58.
IV
Relations between the
Trigonometrical Functions
of the Sides and the Angles
of a Spherical Triangle.
37. To express the cosine of an angle of a triangle in terms of sines and cosines
of the sides.
Let ABC be a spherical triangle, O the centre of the sphere. Let the tangent
at A to the arc AC meet OC produced at E, and let the tangent at A to the
arc AB meet OB produced at D; join ED. Thus the angle EAD is the angle
A of the spherical triangle, and the angle EOD measures the side a.
17
18 RELATIONS BETWEEN THE FUNCTIONS.
From the triangles ADE and ODE we have
DE
2
= AD
2
+AE
2
−2AD AE cos A,
DE
2
= OD
2
+OE
2
−2OD OE cos a;
also the angles OAD and OAE are right angles, so that OD
2
= OA
2
+ AD
2
and OE
2
= OA
2
+AE
2
. Hence by subtraction we have
0 = 2OA
2
+ 2AD AE cos A−2OD OE cos a;
therefore cos a =
OA
OE

OA
OD
+
AE
OE

AD
OD
cos A;
that is cos a = cos b cos c + sin b sin c cos A.
Therefore cos A =
cos a −cos b cos c
sin b sin c
.
38. We have supposed, in the construction of the preceding Article, that the
sides which contain the angle A are less than quadrants, for we have assumed
that the tangents at A meet OB and OC respectively produced. We must
now shew that the formulæ obtained is true when these sides are not less than
quadrants. This we shall do by special examination of the cases in which one
side or each side is greater than a quadrant or equal to a quadrant.
(1) Suppose only one of the sides which contain the angle A to be greater
than a quadrant, for example, AB. Produce BA and BC to meet at B

; and
put AB

= c

, CB

= a

.
Then we have from the triangle AB

C, by what has been already proved,
cos a

= cos b cos c

+ sin b sin c

cos B

AC;
but a

= π −a, c

= π −c, B

AC = π −A; thus
cos a = cos b cos c + sin b sin c cos A.
RELATIONS BETWEEN THE FUNCTIONS. 19
(2) Suppose both the sides which contain the angle A to be greater than
quadrants. Produce AB and AC to meet at A

; put A

B = c

, A

C = b

; then
from the triangle A

BC, as before,
cos a = cos b

cos c

+ sin b

sin c

cos A

;
but b

= π −b, c

= π −c, A

= A; thus
cos a = cos b cos c + sin b sin c cos A.
(3) Suppose that one of the sides which contain the angle A is a quadrant,
for example, AB; on AC, produced if necessary, take AD equal to a quadrant
and draw BD. If BD is a quadrant B is a pole of AC (Art. 11); in this case
a =
π
2
and A =
π
2
as well as c =
π
2
. Thus the formula to be verified reduces to
the identity 0 = 0. If BD be not a quadrant, the triangle BDC gives
cos a = cos CDcos BD + sin CDsin BDcos CDB,
and cos CDB = 0, cos CD = cos
_
π
2
−b
_
= sin b, cos BD = cos A;
thus cos a = sin b cos A;
and this is what the formula in Art. 37 becomes when c =
π
2
.
(4) Suppose that both the sides which contain the angle A are quadrants.
The formula then becomes cos a = cos A; and this is obviously true, for A is
now the pole of BC, and thus A = a.
20 RELATIONS BETWEEN THE FUNCTIONS.
Thus the formula in Art. 37 is proved to be universally true.
39. The formula in Art. 37 may be applied to express the cosine of any angle
of a triangle in terms of sines and cosines of the sides; thus we have the three
formulæ,
cos a = cos b cos c + sin b sin c cos A,
cos b = cos c cos a + sin c sin a cos B,
cos c = cos a cos b + sin a sin b cos C.
These may be considered as the fundamental equations of Spherical Trigonom-
etry; we shall proceed to deduce various formulæ from them.
40. To express the sine of an angle of a spherical triangle in terms of trigono-
metrical functions of the sides.
We have cos A =
cos a −cos b cos c
sin b sin c
;
therefore sin
2
A = 1 −
_
cos a −cos b cos c
sin b sin c
_
2
=
(1 −cos
2
b)(1 −cos
2
c) −(cos a −cos b cos c)
2
sin
2
b sin
2
c
=
1 −cos
2
a −cos
2
b −cos
2
c + 2 cos a cos b cos c
sin
2
b sin
2
c
;
therefore sin A =

(1 −cos
2
a −cos
2
b −cos
2
c + 2 cos a cos b cos c)
sin b sin c
.
The radical on the right-hand side must be taken with the positive sign, because
sin b, sin c, and sin A are all positive.
41. From the value of sin A in the preceding Article it follows that
sin A
sin a
=
sin B
sin b
=
sin C
sin c
,
RELATIONS BETWEEN THE FUNCTIONS. 21
for each of these is equal to the same expression, namely,

(1 −cos
2
a −cos
2
b −cos
2
c + 2 cos a cos b cos c)
sin a sin b sin c
.
Thus the sines of the angles of a spherical triangle are proportional to the sines
of the opposite sides. We will give an independent proof of this proposition in
the following Article.
42. The sines of the angles of a spherical triangle are proportional to the sines
of the opposite sides.
Let ABC be a spherical triangle, O the centre of the sphere. Take any point
P in OA, draw PD perpendicular to the plane BOC, and from D draw DE,
DF perpendicular to OB, OC respectively; join PE, PF, OD.
Since PD is perpendicular to the plane BOC, it makes right angles with
every straight line meeting it in that plane; hence
PE
2
= PD
2
+DE
2
= PO
2
−OD
2
+DE
2
= PO
2
−OE
2
;
thus PEO is a right angle. Therefore PE = OP sin POE = OP sin c; and
PD = PE sin PED = PE sin B = OP sin c sin B.
Similarly, PD = OP sin b sin C; therefore
OP sin c sin B = OP sin b sin C;
therefore
sin B
sin C
=
sin b
sin c
.
The figure supposes b, c, B, and C each less than a right angle; it will be
found on examination that the proof will hold when the figure is modified to
meet any case which can occur. If, for instance, B alone is greater than a right
22 RELATIONS BETWEEN THE FUNCTIONS.
angle, the point D will fall beyond OB instead of between OB and OC; then
PED will be the supplement of B, and thus sin PED is still equal to sin B.
43. To shew that cot a sin b = cot Asin C + cos b cos C.
We have cos a = cos b cos c + sin b sin c cos A,
cos c = cos a cos b + sin a sin b cos C,
sin c = sin a
sin C
sin A
.
Substitute the values of cos c and sin c in the first equation; thus
cos a = (cos a cos b + sin a sin b cos C) cos b +
sin a sin b cos Asin C
sin A
;
by transposition
cos a sin
2
b = sin a sin b cos b cos C + sin a sin b cot Asin C;
divide by sin a sin b; thus
cot a sin b = cos b cos C + cot Asin C.
44. By interchanging the letters five other formulæ may be obtained like that
in the preceding Article; the whole six formulæ will be as follows:
cot a sin b = cot Asin C + cos b cos C,
cot b sin a = cot Bsin C + cos a cos C,
cot b sin c = cot Bsin A+ cos c cos A,
cot c sin b = cot C sin A+ cos b cos A,
cot c sin a = cot C sin B + cos a cos B,
cot a sin c = cot Asin B + cos c cos B.
45. To express the sine, cosine, and tangent, of half an angle of a triangle as
functions of the sides.
We have, by Art. 37, cos A =
cos a −cos b cos c
sin b sin c
;
RELATIONS BETWEEN THE FUNCTIONS. 23
therefore 1 −cos A = 1 −
cos a −cos b cos c
sin b sin c
=
cos(b −c) −cos a
sin b sin c
;
therefore sin
2
A
2
=
sin
1
2
(a +b −c) sin
1
2
(a −b +c)
sin b sin c
.
Let 2s = a +b +c, so that s is half the sum of the sides of the triangle; then
a +b −c = 2s −2c = 2(s −c), a −b +c = 2s −2b = 2(s −b);
thus, sin
2
A
2
=
sin(s −b) sin(s −c)
sin b sin c
,
and sin
A
2
=
__
sin(s −b) sin(s −c)
sin b sin c
_
Also, 1 + cos A = 1 +
cos a −cos b cos c
sin b sin c
=
cos a −cos(b +c)
sin b sin c
;
therefore
cos
2
A
2
=
sin
1
2
(a +b +c) sin
1
2
(b +c −a)
sin b sin c
=
sin s sin(s −a)
sin b sin c
,
and cos
A
2
=
__
sin s sin(s −a)
sin b sin c
_
From the expressions for sin
A
2
and cos
A
2
we deduce
tan
A
2
=
__
sin(s −b) sin(s −c)
sin s sin(s −a)
_
.
The positive sign must be given to the radicals which occur in this Article,
because
A
2
is less than a right angle, and therefore its sine, cosine, and tangent
are all positive.
46. Since sin A = 2 sin
A
2
cos
A
2
, we obtain
sin A =
2
sin b sin c
{sin s sin(s −a) sin(s −b) sin(s −c)}
1
2
.
It may be shewn that the expression for sin A in Art. 40 agrees with the
present expression by putting the numerator of that expression in factors, as in
24 RELATIONS BETWEEN THE FUNCTIONS.
Plane Trigonometry, Art. 115. We shall find it convenient to use a symbol for
the radical in the value of sin A; we shall denote it by n, so that
n
2
= sin s sin(s −a) sin(s −b) sin(s −c),
and 4n
2
= 1 −cos
2
a −cos
2
b −cos
2
c + 2 cos a cos b cos c.
47. To express the cosine of a side of a triangle in terms of sines and cosines
of the angles.
In the formula of Art. 37 we may, by Art. 28, change the sides into the
supplements of the corresponding angles and the angle into the supplement of
the corresponding side; thus
cos(π −A) = cos(π −B) cos(π −C) + sin(π −B) sin(π −C) cos(π −a),
that is, cos A = −cos Bcos C + sin Bsin C cos a.
Similarly cos B = −cos C cos A+ sin C sin Acos b,
and cos C = −cos Acos B + sin Asin Bcos c.
48. The formulæ in Art. 44 will of course remain true when the angles and
sides are changed into the supplements of the corresponding sides and angles
respectively; it will be found, however, that no new formulæ are thus obtained,
but only the same formulæ over again. This consideration will furnish some
assistance in retaining those formulæ accurately in the memory.
49. To express the sine, cosine, and tangent, of half a side of a triangle as
functions of the angles.
We have, by Art. 47, cos a =
cos A+ cos Bcos C
sin Bsin C
;
therefore
1 −cos a = 1 −
cos A+ cos Bcos C
sin Bsin C
= −
cos A+ cos(B +C)
sin Bsin C
;
therefore sin
2
a
2
= −
cos
1
2
(A+B +C) cos
1
2
(B +C −A)
sin Bsin C
.
Let 2S = A+B +C; then B +C −A = 2(S −A), therefore
sin
2
a
2
= −
cos S cos(S −A)
sin Bsin C
,
RELATIONS BETWEEN THE FUNCTIONS. 25
and sin
a
2
=
__

cos S cos(S −A)
sin Bsin C
_
.
Also 1 + cos a = 1 +
cos A+ cos Bcos C
sin Bsin C
=
cos A+ cos(B −C)
sin Bsin C
;
therefore
cos
2
a
2
=
cos
1
2
(A−B +C) cos
1
2
(A+B −C)
sin Bsin C
=
cos(S −B) cos(S −C)
sin Bsin C
,
and cos
a
2
=
__
cos(S −B) cos(S −C)
sin Bsin C
_
.
Hence tan
a
2
=
__

cos S cos(S −A)
cos(S −B) cos(S −C)
_
.
The positive sign must be given to the radicals which occur in this Article,
because
a
2
is less than a right angle.
50. The expressions in the preceding Article may also be obtained immediately
from those given in Art. 45 by means of Art. 28.
It may be remarked that the values of sin
a
2
, cos
a
2
, and tan
a
2
are real. For
S is greater than one right angle and less than three right angles by Art. 32;
therefore cos S is negative. And in the polar triangle any side is less than the
sum of the other two; thus π−A is less than π−B+π−C; therefore B+C−A is
less than π; therefore S−A is less than
π
2
, and B+C−A is algebraically greater
than −π, so that S −A is algebraically greater than −
π
2
; therefore cos(S −A)
is positive. Similarly also cos(S − B) and cos(S − C) are positive. Hence the
values of sin
a
2
, cos
a
2
, and tan
a
2
are real.
51. Since sin a = 2 sin
a
2
cos
a
2
, we obtain
sin a =
2
sin Bsin C
{−cos S cos(S −A) cos(S −B) cos(S −C)}
1
2
.
We shall use N for {−cos S cos(S −A) cos(S −B) cos(S −C)}
1
2
.
26 RELATIONS BETWEEN THE FUNCTIONS.
52. To demonstrate Napier’s Analogies.
We have
sin A
sin a
=
sin B
sin b
= m suppose;
then, by a theorem of Algebra,
m =
sin A+ sin B
sin a + sin b
, (1)
and also m =
sin A−sin B
sin a −sin b
. (2)
Now cos A+ cos Bcos C = sin Bsin C cos a = msin C sin b cos a,
and cos B + cos Acos C = sin Asin C cos b = msin C sin a cos b,
therefore, by addition,
(cos A+ cos B)(1 + cos C) = msin C sin(a +b); (3)
therefore by (1) we have
sin A+ sin B
cos A+ cos B
=
sin a + sin b
sin(a +b)
1 + cos C
sin C
,
that is, tan
1
2
(A+B) =
cos
1
2
(a −b)
cos
1
2
(a +b)
cot
C
2
. (4)
Similarly from (3) and (2) we have
sin A−sin B
cos A+ cos B
=
sin a −sin b
sin(a +b)
1 + cos C
sin C
,
that is, tan
1
2
(A−B) =
sin
1
2
(a −b)
sin
1
2
(a +b)
cot
C
2
. (5)
By writing π −A for a, and so on in (4) and (5) we obtain
tan
1
2
(a +b) =
cos
1
2
(A−B)
cos
1
2
(A+B)
tan
c
2
, (6)
tan
1
2
(a −b) =
sin
1
2
(A−B)
sin
1
2
(A+B)
tan
c
2
. (7)
The formulæ (4), (5), (6), (7) may be put in the form of proportions or
analogies, and are called from their discoverer Napier’s Analogies: the last two
RELATIONS BETWEEN THE FUNCTIONS. 27
may be demonstrated without recurring to the polar triangle by starting with
the formulæ in Art. 39.
53. In equation (4) of the preceding Article, cos
1
2
(a − b) and cot
C
2
are nec-
essarily positive quantities; hence the equation shews that tan
1
2
(A + B) and
cos
1
2
(a + b) are of the same sign; thus
1
2
(A + B) and
1
2
(a + b) are either both
less than a right angle or both greater than a right angle. This is expressed by
saying that
1
2
(A+B) and
1
2
(a +b) are of the same affection.
54. To demonstrate Delambre’s Analogies.
We have cos c = cos a cos b + sin a sin b cos C; therefore
1 + cos c = 1 + cos a cos b + sin a sin b(cos
2 1
2
C −sin
2 1
2
C)
= {1 + cos(a −b)} cos
2 1
2
C +{1 + cos(a +b)} sin
2 1
2
C;
therefore cos
2 1
2
c = cos
2 1
2
(a −b) cos
2 1
2
C + cos
2 1
2
(a +b) sin
2 1
2
C.
Similarly, sin
2 1
2
c = sin
2 1
2
(a −b) cos
2 1
2
C + sin
2 1
2
(a +b) sin
2 1
2
C.
Now add unity to the square of each member of Napier’s first two analogies;
hence by the formulæ just proved
sec
2 1
2
(A+B) =
cos
2 1
2
c
cos
2
1
2
(a +b) sin
2 1
2
C
,
sec
2 1
2
(A−B) =
sin
2 1
2
c
sin
2 1
2
(a +b) sin
2 1
2
C
.
Extract the square roots; thus, since
1
2
(A+B) and
1
2
(a +b) are of the same
affection, we obtain
cos
1
2
(A+B) cos
1
2
c = cos
1
2
(a +b) sin
1
2
C, (1)
cos
1
2
(A−B) sin
1
2
c = sin
1
2
(a +b) sin
1
2
C. (2)
Multiply the first two of Napier’s analogies respectively by these results; thus
sin
1
2
(A+B) cos
1
2
c = cos
1
2
(a −b) cos
1
2
C, (3)
sin
1
2
(A−B) sin
1
2
c = sin
1
2
(a −b) cos
1
2
C. (4)
28 RELATIONS BETWEEN THE FUNCTIONS.
The last four formulæ are commonly, but improperly, called Gauss’s Theo-
rems; they were first given by Delambre in the Connaissance des Tems for 1809,
page 445. See the Philosophical Magazine for February, 1873.
55. The properties of supplemental triangles were proved geometrically in
Art. 27, and by means of these properties the formulæ in Art. 47 were ob-
tained; but these formulæ may be deduced analytically from those in Art. 39,
and thus the whole subject may be made to depend on the formulæ of Art. 39.
For from Art. 39 we obtain expressions for cos A, cos B, cos C; and from
these we find
cos A+ cos Bcos C
=
(cos a −cos b cos c) sin
2
a + (cos b −cos a cos c)(cos c −cos a cos b)
sin
2
a sin b sin c
.
In the numerator of this fraction write 1 −cos
2
a for sin
2
a; thus the numerator
will be found to reduce to
cos a(1 −cos
2
a −cos
2
b −cos
2
c + 2 cos a cos b cos c),
and this is equal to cos a sin Bsin C sin
2
a sin b sin c, (Art. 41);
therefore cos A+ cos Bcos C −cos a sin Bsin C.
Similarly the other two corresponding formulæ may be proved.
Thus the formulæ in Art. 47 are established; and therefore, without assuming
the existence and properties of the Polar Triangle, we deduce the following
theorem: If the sides and angles of a spherical triangle be changed respectively
into the supplements of the corresponding angles and sides, the fundamental
formulæ of Art. 39 hold good, and therefore also all results deducible from them.
56. The formulæ in the present Chapter may be applied to establish analyti-
cally various propositions respecting spherical triangles which either have been
proved geometrically in the preceding Chapter, or may be so proved. Thus, for
example, the second of Napier’s analogies is
tan
1
2
(A−B) =
sin
1
2
(a −b)
sin
1
2
(a +b)
cot
C
2
;
RELATIONS BETWEEN THE FUNCTIONS. 29
this shews that
1
2
(A − B) is positive, negative, or zero, according as
1
2
(a −
b) is positive, negative, or zero; thus we obtain all the results included in
Arts. 33. . . 36.
57. If two triangles have two sides of the one equal to two sides of the other,
each to each, and likewise the included angles equal, then their other angles will
be equal, each to each, and likewise their bases will be equal.
We may shew that the bases are equal by applying the first formula in Art. 39
to each triangle, supposing b, c, and A the same in the two triangles; then the
remaining two formulæ of Art. 39 will shew that B and C are the same in the
two triangles.
It should be observed that the two triangles in this case are not necessarily
such that one may be made to coincide with the other by superposition. The
sides of one may be equal to those of the other, each to each, but in a reverse
order, as in the following figures.
Two triangles which are equal in this manner are said to be symmetrically
equal; when they are equal so as to admit of superposition they are said to be
absolutely equal.
58. If two spherical triangles have two sides of the one equal to two sides of
the other, each to each, but the angle which is contained by the two sides of the
one greater than the angle which is contained by the two sides which are equal
to them of the other, the base of that which has the greater angle will be greater
than the base of the other; and conversely.
Let b and c denote the sides which are equal in the two triangles; let a be the
base and A the opposite angle of one triangle, and a

and A

similar quantities
30 RELATIONS BETWEEN THE FUNCTIONS.
for the other. Then
cos a = cos b cos c + sin b sin c cos A,
cos a

= cos b cos c + sin b sin c cos A

;
therefore cos a −cos a

+ sin b sin c(cos A−cos A

);
that is,
sin
1
2
(a +a

) sin
1
2
(a −a

) = sin b sin c sin
1
2
(A+A

) sin
1
2
(A−A

);
this shews that
1
2
(a −a

) and
1
2
(A−A

) are of the same sign.
59. If on a sphere any point be taken within a circle which is not its pole, of all
the arcs which can be drawn from that point to the circumference, the greatest is
that in which the pole is, and the other part of that produced is the least; and of
any others, that which is nearer to the greatest is always greater than one more
remote; and from the same point to the circumference there can be drawn only
two arcs which are equal to each other, and these make equal angles with the
shortest arc on opposite sides of it.
This follows readily from the preceding three Articles.
60. We will give another proof of the fundamental formulæ in Art. 39, which
is very simple, requiring only a knowledge of the elements of Co-ordinate Ge-
ometry.
Suppose ABC any spherical triangle, O the centre of the sphere, take O as
the origin of co-ordinates, and let the axis of z pass through C. Let x
1
, y
1
, z
1
be the co-ordinates of A, and x
2
, y
2
, z
2
those of B; let r be the radius of the
sphere. Then the square on the straight line AB is equal to
(x
1
−x
2
)
2
+ (y
1
−y
2
)
2
+ (z
1
−z
2
)
2
,
and also to r
2
+r
2
−2r
2
cos AOB;
and x
2
1
+y
2
1
+z
2
1
= r
2
, x
2
2
+y
2
2
+z
2
2
= r
2
, thus
x
1
x
2
+y
1
y
2
+z
1
z
2
= r
2
cos AOB.
RELATIONS BETWEEN THE FUNCTIONS. 31
Now make the usual substitutions in passing from rectangular to polar co-
ordinates, namely,
z
1
= r cos θ
1
, x
1
= r sin θ
1
cos φ
1
, y
1
= r sin θ
1
sinφ
1
,
z
2
= r cos θ
2
, x
2
= r sin θ
2
cos φ
2
, y
2
= r sin θ
2
sinφ
2
;
thus we obtain
cos θ
2
cos θ
1
+ sin θ
2
sin θ
1
cos(φ
1
−φ
2
) = cos AOB,
that is, in the ordinary notation of Spherical Trigonometry,
cos a cos b + sin a sin b cos C = cos c.
This method has the advantage of giving a perfectly general proof, as all the
equations used are universally true.
EXAMPLES.
1. If A = a, shew that B and b are equal or supplemental, as also C and c.
2. If one angle of a triangle be equal to the sum of the other two, the greatest
side is double of the distance of its middle point from the opposite angle.
3. When does the polar triangle coincide with the primitive triangle?
4. If D be the middle point of AB, shew that
cos AC + cos BC = 2 cos
1
2
ABcos CD.
5. If two angles of a spherical triangle be respectively equal to the sides op-
posite to them, shew that the remaining side is the supplement of the remaining
angle; or else that the triangle has two quadrants and two right angles, and then
the remaining side is equal to the remaining angle.
6. In an equilateral triangle, shew that 2 cos
a
2
sin
A
2
= 1.
7. In an equilateral triangle, shew that tan
2
a
2
= 1 −2 cos A;
hence deduce the limits between which the sides and the angles of an equilateral
triangle are restricted.
32 RELATIONS BETWEEN THE FUNCTIONS.
8. In an equilateral triangle, shew that sec A = 1 + sec a.
9. If the three sides of a spherical triangle be halved and a new triangle
formed, the angle θ between the new sides
b
2
and
c
2
is given by cos θ = cos A+
1
2
tan
b
2
tan
c
2
sin
2
θ.
10. AB, CD are quadrants on the surface of a sphere intersecting at E, the
extremities being joined by great circles: shew that
cos AEC = cos AC cos BD −cos BC cos AD.
11. If b +c = π, shew that sin 2B + sin 2C = 0.
12. If DE be an arc of a great circle bisecting the sides AB, AC of a spherical
triangle at D and E, P a pole of DE, and PB, PD, PE, PC be joined by arcs
of great circles, shew that the angle BPC = twice the angle DPE.
13. In a spherical triangle shew that
sin b sin c + cos b cos c cos A = sin Bsin C −cos Bcos C cos a.
14. If D be any point in the side BC of a triangle, shew that
cos ADsin BC = cos ABsin DC + cos AC sin BD.
15. In a spherical triangle shew that θ, φ, ψ be the lengths of arcs of great
circles drawn from A, B, C perpendicular to the opposite sides,
sin a sin θ = sin b sin φ = sin c sin ψ
=

(1 −cos
2
a −cos
2
b −cos
2
c + 2 cos a cos b cos c).
16. In a spherical triangle, if θ, φ, ψ be the arcs bisecting the angles A, B,
C respectively and terminated by the opposite sides, shew that
cot θ cos
A
2
+ cot φcos
B
2
+ cot ψ cos
C
2
= cot a + cot b + cot c.
17. Two ports are in the same parallel of latitude, their common latitude
being l and their difference of longitude 2λ: shew that the saving of distance in
sailing from one to the other on the great circle, instead of sailing due East or
RELATIONS BETWEEN THE FUNCTIONS. 33
West, is
2r{λcos l −sin
−1
(sin λcos l)},
λ being expressed in circular measure, and r being the radius of the Earth.
18. If a ship be proceeding uniformly along a great circle and the observed
latitudes be l
1
, l
2
, l
3
, at equal intervals of time, in each of which the distance
traversed is s, shew that
s = r cos
−1
sin
1
2
(l
1
+l
3
) cos
1
2
(l
1
−l
3
)
sin l
2
,
r denoting the Earth’s radius: and shew that the change of longitude may also
be found in terms of the three latitudes.
34 RELATIONS BETWEEN THE FUNCTIONS.
V
SOLUTION OF
RIGHT-ANGLED
TRIANGLES.
61. In every spherical triangle there are six elements, namely, the three sides
and the three angles, besides the radius of the sphere, which is supposed con-
stant. The solution of spherical triangles is the process by which, when the
values of a sufficient number of the six elements are given, we calculate the
values of the remaining elements. It will appear, as we proceed, that when the
values of three of the elements are given, those of the remaining three can gen-
erally be found. We begin with the right-angled triangle: here two elements, in
addition to the right angle, will be supposed known.
62. The formulæ requisite for the solution of right-angled triangles may be
obtained from the preceding Chapter by supposing one of the angles a right an-
gle, as C for example. They may also be obtained very easily in an independent
manner, as we will now shew.
Let ABC be a spherical triangle having a right angle at C; let O be the
centre of the sphere. From any point P in OA draw PM perpendicular to
OC, and from M draw MN perpendicular to OB, and join PN. Then PM
is perpendicular to MN, because the plane AOC is perpendicular to the plane
35
36 SOLUTION OF RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLES.
BOC; hence
PN
2
= PM
2
+MN
2
= OP
2
−OM
2
+OM
2
−ON
2
= OP
2
−ON
2
;
therefore PNO is a right angle. And
ON
OP
=
ON
OM

OM
OP
, that is, cos c = cos a cos b, (1)
PM
OP
=
PM
PN

PN
OP
, that is, sin b = sin Bsin c
Similarly, sin a = sin Asin c
_
¸
_
¸
_
, (2)
MN
ON
=
MN
PN

PN
ON
, that is, tan a = cos Btan c
Similarly, tan b = cos Atan c
_
¸
_
¸
_
, (3)
PM
OM
=
PM
MN

MN
OM
, that is, tan b = tan Bsin a
Similarly, tan a = tan Asin b
_
¸
_
¸
_
. (4)
Multiply together the two formulæ (4); thus,
tan Atan B =
tan a tan b
sin a sin b
=
1
cos a cos b
=
1
cos c
by (1);
therefore cos c = cot Acot B. (5)
Multiply crosswise the second formula in (2) and the first in (3); thus
sin a cos Btan c = tan a sin Asin c;
therefore cos B =
sin Acos c
cos a
= sin Acos b by (1).
SOLUTION OF RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLES. 37
Thus
Similarly
cos B = sin Acos b
cos A = sin Bcos a
_
_
_
. (6)
These six formulæ comprise ten equations; and thus we can solve every case
of right-angled triangles. For every one of these ten equations is a distinct
combination involving three out of the five quantities a, b, c, A, B; and out of
five quantities only ten combinations of three can be formed. Thus any two of
the five quantities being given and a third required, some one of the preceding
ten equations will serve to determine that third quantity.
63. As we have stated, the above six formulæ may be obtained from those
given in the preceding Chapter by supposing C a right angle. Thus (1) follows
from Art. 39, (2) from Art. 41, (3) from the fourth and fifth equations of Art. 44,
(4) from the first and second equations of Art. 44, (5) from the third equation
of Art. 47, (6) from the first and second equations of Art. 47.
Since the six formulæ may be obtained from those given in the preceding
Chapter which have been proved to be universally true, we do not stop to shew
that the demonstration of Art. 62 may be applied to every case which can
occur; the student may for exercise investigate the modifications which will be
necessary when we suppose one or more of the quantities a, b, c, A, B equal to
a right angle or greater than a right angle.
64. Certain properties of right-angled triangles are deducible from the formulæ
of Art. 62.
From (1) it follows that cos c has the same sign as the product cos a cos b;
hence either all the cosines are positive, or else only one is positive. Therefore
in a right-angled triangle either all the three sides are less than quadrants, or
else one side is less than a quadrant and the other two sides are greater than
quadrants.
From (4) it follows that tan a has the same sign as tan A. Therefore A and a
are either both greater than
π
2
, or both less than
π
2
; this is expressed by saying
that A and a are of the same affection. Similarly B and b are of the same
affection.
65. The formulæ of Art. 62 are comprised in the following enunciations, which
the student will find it useful to remember; the results are distinguished by the
38 SOLUTION OF RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLES.
same numbers as have been already applied to them in Art. 62; the side opposite
the right angle is called the hypotenuse:
Cos hyp = product of cosines of sides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (1),
Cos hyp = product of cotangents of angles . . . . . . . . . . (5),
Sine side = sine of opposite angle × sine hyp . . . . . . . . (2),
Tan side = tan hyp × cos included angle . . . . . . . . . . . . (3),
Tan side = tan opposite angle × sine of other side . . . (4),
Cos angle = cos opposite side × sine of other angle . . . (6).
66. Napier’s Rules. The formulæ of Art. 62 are comprised in two rules, which
are called, from their inventor, Napier’s Rules of Circular Parts. Napier was
also the inventor of Logarithms, and the Rules of Circular Parts were first
published by him in a work entitled Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Descrip-
tio. . . . . . Edinburgh, 1614. These rules we will now explain.
The right angle is left out of consideration; the two sides which include the
right angle, the complement of the hypotenuse, and the complements of the
other angles are called the circular parts of the triangle. Thus there are five
circular parts, namely, a, b,
π
2
−A,
π
2
−c,
π
2
−B; and these are supposed to be
ranged round a circle in the order in which they naturally occur with respect to
the triangle.
Any one of the five parts may be selected and called the middle part, then
the two parts next to it are called adjacent parts, and the remaining two parts
are called opposite parts. For example, if
π
2
−B is selected as the middle part,
SOLUTION OF RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLES. 39
then the adjacent parts are a and
π
2
−c, and the opposite parts are b and
π
2
−A.
Then Napier’s Rules are the following:
sine of the middle part = product of tangents of adjacent parts,
sine of the middle part = product of cosines of opposite parts.
67. Napier’s Rules may be demonstrated by shewing that they agree with the
results already established. The following table shews the required agreement:
in the first column are given the middle parts, in the second column the results
of Napier’s Rules, and in the third column the same results expressed as in
Art. 62, with the number for reference used in that Article.
π
2
−c sin
_
π
2
−c
_
= tan
_
π
2
−A
_
tan
_
π
2
−B
_
cos c = cot Acot B . . .(5),
sin
_
π
2
−c
_
= cos a cos b cos c = cos a cos b . . . .(1),
π
2
−B sin
_
π
2
−B
_
= tan a tan
_
π
2
−c
_
cos B = tan a cot c . . . .(3),
sin
_
π
2
−B
_
= cos b cos
_
π
2
−A
_
cos B = cos b sin A. . . .(6),
a sin a = tan b tan
_
π
2
−B
_
sin a = tan b cot B. . ..(4),
sin a = cos
_
π
2
−A
_
cos
_
π
2
−c
_
sin a = sin Asin c . . . .(2),
b sin b = tan
_
π
2
−A
_
tan a sin b = cot Atan a . . .(4),
sin b = cos
_
π
2
−B
_
cos
_
π
2
−c
_
sin b = sin Bsin c . . . .(2),
π
2
−A sin
_
π
2
−A
_
= tan b tan
_
π
2
−c
_
cos A = tan b cot c . . . .(3),
sin
_
π
2
−A
_
= cos a cos
_
π
2
−B
_
cos A = cos a sin B. . . .(6).
The last four cases need not have been given, since it is obvious that they
are only repetitions of what had previously been given; the seventh and eighth
are repetitions of the fifth and sixth, and the ninth and tenth are repetitions of
the third and fourth.
40 SOLUTION OF RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLES.
68. It has been sometimes stated that the method of the preceding Article
is the only one by which Napier’s Rules can be demonstrated; this statement,
however, is inaccurate, since besides this method Napier himself indicated an-
other method of proof in his Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Descriptio, pp.
32, 35. This we will now briefly explain.
Let ABC be a spherical triangle right-angled at C; with B as pole describe
a great circle DEFG, and with A as pole describe a great circle HFKL, and
produce the sides of the original triangle ABC to meet these great circles. Then
since B is a pole of DEFG the angles at D and G are right angles, and since
A is a pole of HFKL the angles at H and L are right angles. Hence the five
triangles BAC, AED, EFH, FKG, KBL are all right-angled; and moreover it
will be found on examination that, although the elements of these triangles are
different, yet their circular parts are the same. We will consider, for example,
the triangle AED; the angle EAD is equal to the angle BAC, the side AD is the
complement of AB; as the angles at C and G are right angles E is a pole of GC
(Art. 13), therefore EA is the complement of AC; as B is a pole of DE the angle
BED is a right angle, therefore the angle AED is the complement of the angle
BEC, that is, the angle AED is the complement of the side BC (Art. 12);
and similarly the side DE is equal to the angle DBE, and is therefore the
complement of the angle ABC. Hence, if we denote the elements of the triangle
ABC as usual by a, b, c, A, B, we have in the triangle AED the hypotenuse
equal to
π
2
− b, the angles equal to A and
π
2
− a, and the sides respectively
opposite these angles equal to
π
2
− B and
π
2
− c. The circular parts of AED
are therefore the same as those of ABC. Similarly the remaining three of the
five right-angled triangles may be shewn to have the same circular parts as the
triangle ABC has.
SOLUTION OF RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLES. 41
Now take two of the theorems in Art. 65, for example (1) and (3); then
the truth of the ten cases comprised in Napier’s Rules will be found to follow
from applying the two theorems in succession to the five triangles formed in the
preceding figure. Thus this method of considering Napier’s Rules regards each
Rule, not as the statement of dissimilar properties of one triangle, but as the
statement of similar properties of five allied triangles.
69. In Napier’s work a figure is given of which that in the preceding Article
is a copy, except that different letters are used; Napier briefly intimates that
the truth of the Rules can be easily seen by means of this figure, as well as by
the method of induction from consideration of all the cases which can occur.
The late T. S. Davies, in his edition of Dr Hutton’s Course of Mathematics,
drew attention to Napier’s own views and expanded the demonstration by a
systematic examination of the figure of the preceding Article.
It is however easy to evade the necessity of examining the whole figure; all
that is wanted is to observe the connexion between the triangle AED and the
triangle BAC. For let a
1
, a
2
, a
3
, a
4
, a
5
represent the elements of the triangle
BAC taken in order, beginning with the hypotenuse and omitting the right
angle; then the elements of the triangle AED taken in order, beginning with
the hypotenuse and omitting the right angle, are
π
2
−a
3
,
π
2
−a
4
,
π
2
−a
5
,
π
2
−a
1
,
and a
2
. If, therefore, to characterise the former we introduce a new set of
quantities p
1
, p
2
, p
3
, p
4
, p
5
, such that a
1
+ p
1
= a
2
+ p
2
= a
5
+ p
5
=
π
2
, and
that p
3
= a
3
and p
4
= a
4
, then the original triangle being characterised by p
1
,
p
2
, p
3
, p
4
, p
5
, the second triangle will be similarly characterised by p
3
, p
4
, p
5
,
p
1
, p
2
. As the second triangle can give rise to a third in like manner, and so on,
we see that every right-angled triangle is one of a system of five such triangles
which are all characterised by the quantities p
1
, p
2
, p
3
, p
4
, p
5
, always taken in
order, each quantity in its turn standing first.
The late R. L. Ellis pointed out this connexion between the five triangles,
and thus gave the true significance of Napier’s Rules. The memoir containing
Mr Ellis’s investigations, which was unpublished when the first edition of the
present work appeared, will be found in pages 328. . . 335 of The Mathematical
and other writings of Robert Leslie Ellis. . . Cambridge, 1863.
Napier’s own method of considering his Rules was neglected by writers on
the subject until the late T. S. Davies drew attention to it. Hence, as we
42 SOLUTION OF RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLES.
have already remarked in Art. 68, an erroneous statement was made respecting
the Rules. For instance, Woodhouse says, in his Trigonometry: “There is no
separate and independent proof of these rules;. . . .” Airy says, in the treatise on
Trigonometry in the Encyclopædia Metropolitana: “These rules are proved to
be true only by showing that they comprehend all the equations which we have
just found.”
70. Opinions have differed with respect to the utility of Napier’s Rules in
practice. Thus Woodhouse says, “In the whole compass of mathematical sci-
ence there cannot be found, perhaps, rules which more completely attain that
which is the proper object of rules, namely, facility and brevity of computation.”
(Trigonometry, chap. x.) On the other hand may be set the following sentence
from Airy’s Trigonometry (Encyclopædia Metropolitana): “In the opinion of
Delambre (and no one was better qualified by experience to give an opinion)
these theorems are best recollected by the practical calculator in their uncon-
nected form.” See Delambre’s Astronomie, vol. i. p. 205. Professor De Morgan
strongly objects to Napier’s Rules, and says (Spherical Trigonometry, Art. 17):
“There are certain mnemonical formulæ called Napier’s Rules of Circular Parts,
which are generally explained. We do not give them, because we are convinced
that they only create confusion instead of assisting the memory.”
71. We shall now proceed to apply the formulæ of Art. 62 to the solution of
right-angled triangles. We shall assume that the given quantities are subject to
the limitations which are stated in Arts. 22 and 23, that is, a given side must
be less than the semicircumference of a great circle, and a given angle less than
two right angles. There will be six cases to consider.
72. Having given the hypotenuse c and an angle A.
Here we have from (3), (5) and (2) of Art. 62,
tan b = tan c cos A, cot B = cos c tan A, sin a = sin c sin A.
Thus b and B are determined immediately without ambiguity; and as a must
be of the same affection as A (Art. 64), a also is determined without ambiguity.
It is obvious from the formulæ of solution, that in this case the triangle is
always possible.
SOLUTION OF RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLES. 43
If c and A are both right angles, a is a right angle, and b and B are indeter-
minate.
73. Having given a side b and the adjacent angle A.
Here we have from (3), (4) and (6) of Art. 62,
tan c =
tan b
cos A
, tan a = tan Asin b, cos B = cos b sin A.
Here c, a, B are determined without ambiguity, and the triangle is always
possible.
74. Having given the two sides a and b.
Here we have from (1) and (4) of Art. 62,
cos c = cos a cos b, cot A = cot a sin b, cot B = cot b sin a.
Here c, A, B are determined without ambiguity, and the triangle is always
possible.
75. Having given the hypotenuse c and a side a.
Here we have from (1), (3) and (2) of Art. 62,
cos b =
cos c
cos a
, cos B =
tan a
tan c
, sin A =
sin a
sin c
.
Here b, B, A are determined without ambiguity, since A must be of the same
affection as a. It will be seen from these formulæ that there are limitations of
the data in order to insure a possible triangle; in fact, c must lie between a
and π − a in order that the values found for cos b, cos B, and sin A may be
numerically not greater than unity.
If c and a are right angles, A is a right angle, and b and B are indeterminate.
76. Having given the two angles A and B.
Here we have from (5) and (6) of Art. 62,
cos c = cot Acot B, cos a =
cos A
sin B
, cos b =
cos B
sin A
.
44 SOLUTION OF RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLES.
Here c, a, b are determined without ambiguity. There are limitations of the
data in order to insure a possible triangle. First suppose A less than
π
2
, then
B must lie between
π
2
−A and
π
2
+A; next suppose A greater than
π
2
, then B
must lie between
π
2
− (π − A) and
π
2
+ (π − A), that is, between A −
π
2
and

2
−A.
77. Having given a side a and the opposite angle A.
Here we have from (2), (4) and (6) of Art. 62,
sin c =
sin a
sin A
, sin b = tan a cot A, sin B =
cos A
cos a
.
Here there is an ambiguity, as the parts are determined from their sines.
If sin a be less than sin A, there are two values admissible for c; corresponding
to each of these there will be in general only one admissible value of b, since
we must have cos c = cos a cos b, and only one admissible value of B, since we
must have cos c = cot Acot B. Thus if one triangle exists with the given parts,
there will be in general two, and only two, triangles with the given parts. We
say in general in the preceding sentences, because if a = A there will be only
one triangle, unless a and A are each right angles, and then b and B become
indeterminate.
It is easy to see from a figure that the ambiguity must occur in general.
For, suppose BAC to be a triangle which satisfies the given conditions;
produce AB and AC to meet again at A

; then the triangle A

BC also satisfies
the given conditions, for it has a right angle at C, BC the given side, and A

= A
the given angle.
If a = A, then the formulæ of solution shew that c, b, and B are right angles;
in this case A is the pole of BC, and the triangle A

BC is symmetrically equal
to the triangle ABC (Art. 57).
If a and A are both right angles, B is the pole of AC; B and b are then
equal, but may have any value whatever.
There are limitations of the data in order to insure a possible triangle. A
SOLUTION OF RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLES. 45
and a must have the same affection by Art. 64; hence the formulæ of solution
shew that a must be less than A if both are acute, and greater than A if both
are obtuse.
EXAMPLES.
If ABC be a triangle in which the angle C is a right angle, prove the following
relations contained in Examples 1 to 5.
1. Sin
2
c
2
= sin
2
a
2
cos
2
b
2
+ cos
2
a
2
sin
2
b
2
.
2. Tan
1
2
(c +a) tan
1
2
(c −a) = tan
2
b
2
.
3. Sin(c −b) = tan
2
A
2
sin(c +b).
4. Sin a tan
1
2
A−sin b tan
1
2
B = sin(a −b).
5. Sin(c −a) = sin b cos a tan
1
2
B,
Sin(c −a) = tan b cos c tan
1
2
B.
6. If ABC be a spherical triangle, right-angled at C, and cos A = cos
2
a,
shew that if A be not a right angle b +c =
1
2
π or
3
2
π, according as b and c are
both less or both greater than
π
2
.
7. If α, β be the arcs drawn from the right angle respectively perpendicular
to and bisecting the hypotenuse c, shew that
sin
2
c
2
(1 + sin
2
α) + sin
2
β.
8. In a triangle, if C be a right angle and D the middle point of AB, shew
that
4 cos
2
c
2
sin
2
CD = sin
2
a + sin
2
b.
9. In a right-angled triangle, if δ be the length of the arc drawn from C
perpendicular to the hypotenuse AB, shew that
cot δ =

(cot
2
a + cot
2
b).
46 SOLUTION OF RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLES.
10. OAA
1
is a spherical triangle right-angled at A
1
and acute-angled at A;
the arc A
1
A
2
of a great circle is drawn perpendicular to OA, then A
2
A
3
is drawn
perpendicular to OA
1
, and so on: shew that A
n
A
n+1
vanishes when n becomes
infinite; and find the value of cos AA
1
cos A
1
A
2
cos A
2
A
3
. . . . . . to infinity.
11. ABC is a right-angled spherical triangle, A not being the right angle:
shew that if A = a, then c and b are quadrants.
12. If δ be the length of the arc drawn from C perpendicular to AB in any
triangle, shew that
cos δ = cosec c (cos
2
a + cos
2
b −2 cos a cos b cos c)
1
2
.
13. ABC is a great circle of a sphere; AA

, BB

, CC

, are arcs of great
circles drawn at right angles to ABC and reckoned positive when they lie on
the same side of it: shew that the condition of A

, B

, C

lying in a great circle
is
tan AA

sin BC + tan BB

sin CA+ tan CC

sin AB = 0.
14. Perpendiculars are drawn from the angles A, B, C of any triangle
meeting the opposite sides at D, E, F respectively: shew that
tan BD tan CE tan AF = tan DC tan EA tan FB.
15. Ox, Oy are two great circles of a sphere at right angles to each other, P
is any point in AB another great circle. OC = p is the arc perpendicular to AB
from O, making the angle COx = a with Ox. PM, PN are arcs perpendicular
to Ox, Oy respectively: shew that if OM = x and ON = y,
cos a tan x + sin a tan y = tan p.
16. The position of a point on a sphere, with reference to two great circles
at right angles to each other as axes, is determined by the portions θ, φ of these
circles cut off by great circles through the point, and through two points on the
axes, each
π
2
from their point of intersection: shew that if the three points (θ,
φ), (θ

, φ

), (θ

, φ

) lie on the same great circle
tan φ(tan θ

−tan θ

) + tan φ

(tan θ

−tan θ)
SOLUTION OF RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLES. 47
+tan φ

(tan θ −tan θ

) = 0.
17. If a point on a sphere be referred to two great circles at right angles
to each other as axes, by means of the portions of these axes cut off by great
circles drawn through the point and two points on the axes each 90

from their
intersection, shew that the equation to a great circle is
tan θ cot α + tan φ cot β = 1.
18. In a spherical triangle, if A =
π
5
, B =
π
3
, and, C =
π
2
, shew that
a +b +c =
π
2
.
48 SOLUTION OF RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLES.
VI
SOLUTION OF
OBLIQUE-ANGLED
TRIANGLES.
78. The solution of oblique-angled triangles may be made in some cases to
depend immediately on the solution of right-angled triangles; we will indicate
these cases before considering the subject generally.
(1) Suppose a triangle to have one of its given sides equal to a quadrant. In
this case the polar triangle has its corresponding angle a right angle; the polar
triangle can therefore be solved by the rules of the preceding Chapter, and thus
the elements of the primitive triangle become known.
(2) Suppose among the given elements of a triangle there are two equal sides
or two equal angles. By drawing an arc from the vertex to the middle point
of the base, the triangle is divided into two equal right-angled triangles; by
the solution of one of these right-angled triangles the required elements can be
found.
(3) Suppose among the given elements of a triangle there are two sides, one
of which is the supplement of the other, or two angles, one of which is the
supplement of the other. Suppose, for example, that b + c = π, or else that
B + C = π; produce BA and BC to meet at B

(see the first figure to Art.
38); then the triangle B

AC has two equal sides given, or else two equal angles
49
50 SOLUTION OF OBLIQUE-ANGLED TRIANGLES.
given; and by the preceding case the solution of it can be made to depend on
the solution of a right-angled triangle.
79. We now proceed to the solution of oblique-angled triangles in general.
There will be six cases to consider.
80. Having given the three sides.
Here we have cos A =
cos a −cos b cos c
sin b sin c
, and similar formulæ for cos B and
cos C. Or if we wish to use formulæ suited to logarithms, we may take the for-
mula for the sine, cosine, or tangent of half an angle given in Art. 45. In select-
ing a formula, attention should be paid to the remarks in Plane Trigonometry,
Chap. XII. towards the end.
81. Having given the three angles.
Here we have cos a =
cos A+ cos Bcos C
sin Bsin C
, and similar formulæ for cos b and
cos c. Or if we wish to use formulæ suited to logarithms, we may take the
formula for the sine, cosine, or tangent of half a side given in Art. 49.
There is no ambiguity in the two preceding cases; the triangles however may
be impossible with the given elements.
82. Having given two sides and the included angle (a, C, b).
By Napier’s analogies
tan
1
2
(A+B) =
cos
1
2
(a −b)
cos
1
2
(a +b)
cot
1
2
C,
tan
1
2
(A−B) =
sin
1
2
(a −b)
sin
1
2
(a +b)
cot
1
2
C;
these determine
1
2
(A+B) and
1
2
(A−B), and thence A and B.
Then c may be found from the formula sin c =
sin a sin C
sin A
; in this case, since
c is found from its sine, it may be uncertain which of two values is to be given
to it; the point may be sometimes settled by observing that the greater side of a
triangle is opposite to the greater angle. Or we may determine c from equation
(1) of Art. 54, which is free from ambiguity.
Or we may determine c, without previously determining A and B, from the
formula cos c = cos a cos b + sin a sin b cos C; this is free from ambiguity. This
SOLUTION OF OBLIQUE-ANGLED TRIANGLES. 51
formula may be adapted to logarithms thus:
cos c = cos b (cos a + sin a tan b cos C);
assume tan θ = tan b cos C; then
cos c = cos b (cos a + sin a tan θ) =
cos b cos(a −θ)
cos θ
;
this is adapted to logarithms.
Or we may treat this case conveniently by resolving the triangle into the
sum or difference of two right-angled triangles. From A draw the arc AD per-
pendicular to CB or CB produced; then, by Art. 62, tan CD = tan b cos C, and
this determines CD, and then DB is known. Again, by Art. 62,
cos c = cos ADcos DB = cos DB
cos b
cos CD
;
this finds c. It is obvious that CD is what was denoted by θ in the former part
of the Article.
By Art. 62,
tan AD = tan C sin CD, and tan AD = tan ABDsin DB;
thus tan ABDsin DB = tan C sin θ,
where DB = a − θ or θ − a, according as D is on CB or CB produced, and
ABD is either B or the supplement of B; this formula enables us to find B
independently of A.
Thus, in the present case, there is no real ambiguity, and the triangle is
always possible.
83. Having given two angles and the included side (A, c, B).
52 SOLUTION OF OBLIQUE-ANGLED TRIANGLES.
By Napier’s analogies,
tan
1
2
(a +b) =
cos
1
2
(A−B)
cos
1
2
(A+B)
tan
1
2
c,
tan
1
2
(a −b) =
sin
1
2
(A−B)
sin
1
2
(A+B)
tan
1
2
c;
these determine
1
2
(a +b) and
1
2
(a −b), and thence a and b.
Then C may be found from the formula sin C =
sin Asin c
sin a
; in this case,
since C is found from its sine, it may be uncertain which of two values is to be
given to it; the point may be sometimes settled by observing that the greater
angle of a triangle is opposite to the greater side. Or we may determine C from
equation (3) of Art. 54, which is free from ambiguity.
Or we may determine C without previously determining a and b from the
formula cos C = −cos Acos B + sin Asin Bcos c. This formula may be adapted
to logarithms, thus:
cos C = cos B(−cos A+ sin A tan B cos c);
assume cot φ = tan B cos c; then
cos C = cos B(−cos A+ cot φsin A) =
cos Bsin(A−φ)
sin φ
;
this is adapted to logarithms.
Or we may treat this case conveniently by resolving the triangle into the
sum or difference of two right-angled triangles. From A draw the arc AD
perpendicular to CB (see the right-hand figure of Art. 82); then, by Art. 62,
cos c = cot Bcot DAB, and this determines DAB, and then CAD is known.
Again, by Art. 62,
cos ADsin CAD = cos C, and cos ADsin BAD = cos B;
therefore
cos C
sin CAD
=
cos B
sin BAD
; this finds C.
It is obvious that DAB is what was denoted by φ in the former part of the
Article.
SOLUTION OF OBLIQUE-ANGLED TRIANGLES. 53
By Art. 62,
tan AD = tan AC cos CAD, and tan AD = tan ABcos BAD;
thus tan b cos CAD = tan c cos φ,
where CAD = A−φ; this formula enables us to find b independently of a.
Similarly we may proceed when the perpendicular AD falls on CB produced;
(see the left-hand figure of Art. 82).
Thus, in the present case, there is no real ambiguity; moreover the triangle
is always possible.
84. Having given two sides and the angle opposite one of them (a, b, A).
The angle B may be found from the formula
sin B =
sin b
sin a
sin A;
and then C and c may be found from Napier’s analogies,
tan
1
2
C =
cos
1
2
(a −b)
cos
1
2
(a +b)
cot
1
2
(A+B),
tan
1
2
c =
cos
1
2
(A+B)
cos
1
2
(A−B)
tan
1
2
(a +b).
In this case, since B is found from its sine, there will sometimes be two solutions;
and sometimes there will be no solution at all, namely, when the value found for
sin B is greater than unity. We will presently return to this point. (See Art. 86.)
We may also determine C and c independently of B by formulæ adapted to
logarithms. For, by Art. 44,
cot a sin b = cos b cos C + sin C cot A = cos b (cos C +
cot A
cos b
sin C);
assume tan φ =
cot A
cos b
; thus
cot a sin b = cos b(cos C + tan φ sin C) =
cos b cos(C −φ)
cos φ
;
therefore cos(C −φ) = cos φcot a tan b;
54 SOLUTION OF OBLIQUE-ANGLED TRIANGLES.
from this equation C −φ is to be found, and then C. The ambiguity still exists;
for if the last equation leads to C −φ = a, it will be satisfied also by φ−C = a;
so that we have two admissible values for C, if φ + a is less than π, and φ − a
is positive.
And
cos a = cos b cos c + sin b sin c cos A = cos b(cos c + sin c tan b cos A);
assume tan θ = tan b cos A; thus
cos a = cos b(cos c + sin c tan θ) =
cos b cos(c −θ)
cos θ
;
therefore cos(c −θ) =
cos a cos θ
cos b
;
from this equation c − θ is to be found, and then c; and there may be an
ambiguity as before.
Or we may treat this case conveniently by resolving the triangle into the
sum or difference of two right-angled triangles.
Let CA = b, and let CAE = the given angle A; from C draw CD per-
pendicular to AE, and let CB and CB

= a; thus the figure shews that
there may be two triangles which have the given elements. Then, by Art. 62,
cos b = cot Acot ACD; this finds ACD. Again, by Art. 62,
tan CD = tan AC cos ACD,
and tan CD = tan CBcos BCD, or tan CB

cos B

CD,
therefore tan AC cos ACD = tan CBcos BCD, or tan CB

cos B

CD; this finds
BCD or B

CD.
It is obvious that ACD is what was denoted by φ in the former part of the
Article.
SOLUTION OF OBLIQUE-ANGLED TRIANGLES. 55
Also, by Art. 62, tan AD = tan ACcosA; this finds AD. Then
cos AC = cos CDcos AD,
cos CB = cos CDcos BD,
or cos CB

= cos CDcos B

D;
therefore
cos AC
cos AD
=
cos CB
cos BD
or
cos CB

cos B

D
;
this finds BD or B

D.
It is obvious that AD is what was denoted by θ in the former part of the
Article.
85. Having given two angles and the side opposite one of them (A, B, a).
This case is analogous to that immediately preceding, and gives rise to the
same ambiguities. The side b may be found from the formula
sin b =
sin Bsin a
sin A
;
and then C and c may be found from Napier’s analogies,
tan
1
2
C =
cos
1
2
(a −b)
cos
1
2
(a +b)
cot
1
2
(A+B),
tan
1
2
c =
cos
1
2
(A+B)
cos
1
2
(A−B)
tan
1
2
(a +b),
We may also determine C and c independently of b by formulæ adapted to
logarithms. For
cos A = −cos Bcos C + sin Bsin C cos a
= cos B(−cos C + tan Bsin C cos a),
assume cot φ = tan Bcos a; thus
cos A = cos B(−cos C + sin C cot φ) =
cos Bsin(C −φ)
sin φ
;
56 SOLUTION OF OBLIQUE-ANGLED TRIANGLES.
therefore sin(C −φ) =
cos Asin φ
cos B
;
from this equation C −φ is to be found and then C. Since C −φ is found from
its sine there may be an ambiguity. Again, by Art. 44,
cot Asin B = cot a sin c −cos c cos B = cos B
_
−cos c +
cot a sin c
cos B
_
,
assume cot θ =
cot a
cos B
; then
cot Asin B = cos B(−cos c + sin c cot θ) =
cos Bsin(c −θ)
sin θ
;
therefore sin(c −θ) = cot Atan Bsin θ;
from this equation c − θ is to be found, and then c. Since c − θ is found from
its sine there may be an ambiguity. As before, it may be shewn that these
results agree with those obtained by resolving the triangle into two right-angled
triangles; for if in the triangle ACB

the arc CD be drawn perpendicular to
AB

, then B

CD will = φ, and B

D = θ.
86. We now return to the consideration of the ambiguity which may occur in
the case of Art. 84, when two sides are given and the angle opposite one of them.
The discussion is somewhat tedious from its length, but presents no difficulty.
Before considering the problem generally, we will take the particular case in
which a = b; then A must = B. The first and third of Napier’s analogies give
cot
1
2
C = tan Acos a, tan
1
2
c = tan a cos A;
now cot
1
2
C and tan
1
2
c must both be positive, so that A and a must be of the
same affection. Hence, when a = b, there will be no solution at all, unless A and
a are of the same affection, and then there will be only one solution; except when
A and a are both right angles, and then cot
1
2
C and tan
1
2
c are indeterminate,
and there is an infinite number of solutions.
We now proceed to the general discussion.
If sin b sin A be greater than sin a, there is no triangle which satisfies the given
conditions; if sin b sin A is not greater than sin a, the equation sin B =
sin b sin A
sin a
furnishes two values of B, which we will denote by β and β

, so that β

= π −β;
SOLUTION OF OBLIQUE-ANGLED TRIANGLES. 57
we will suppose that β is the one which is not greater than the other.
Now, in order that these values of B may be admissible, it is necessary and
sufficient that the values of cot
1
2
C and of tan
1
2
c should both be positive, that
is, A−B and a−b must have the same sign by the second and fourth of Napier’s
analogies. We have therefore to compare the sign of A−β and the sign of A−β

with that of a −b.
We will suppose that A is less than a right angle, and separate the corre-
sponding discussion into three cases.
I. Let b be less than
π
2
.
(1) Let a be less than b; the formula sin B =
sin b
sin a
sin A make β greater than
A, and `a fortiori β

greater than A. Hence there are two solutions.
(2) Let a be equal to b; then there is one solution, as previously shewn.
(3) Let a be greater than b; we may have then a+b less than π or equal to π
or greater than π. If a+b is less than π, then sin a is greater than sin b; thus β is
less than A and therefore admissible, and β

is greater than A and inadmissible.
Hence there is one solution. If a +b is equal to π, then β is equal to A, and β

greater than A, and both are inadmissible. Hence there is no solution. If a +b
is greater than π, then sin a is less than sin b, and β and β

are both greater
than A, and both inadmissible. Hence there is no solution.
II. Let b be equal to
π
2
.
(1) Let a be less than b; then β and β

are both greater than A, and both
admissible. Hence there are two solutions.
(2) Let a be equal to b; then there is no solution, as previously shewn.
(3) Let a be greater than b; then sin a is less than sin b, and β and β

are
both greater than A, and inadmissible. Hence there is no solution.
III. Let b be greater than
π
2
.
(1) Let a be less than b; we may have then a + b less than π or equal to π
or greater than π. If a +b is less than π, then sin a is less than sin b, and β and
β

are both greater than A and both admissible. Hence there are two solutions.
If a + b is equal to π, then β is equal to A and inadmissible, and β

is greater
than A and inadmissible. Hence there is one solution. If a+b is greater than π,
then sin a is greater than sin b; β is less than A and admissible, and β

is greater
than A and admissible. Hence there is one solution.
(2) Let a be equal to b; then there is no solution, as previously shewn.
58 SOLUTION OF OBLIQUE-ANGLED TRIANGLES.
(3) Let a be greater than b; then sin a is less than sin b, and β and β

are
both greater than A and both inadmissible. Hence there is no solution.
We have then the following results when A is less than a right angle.
b <
π
2
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
a < b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . two solutions,
a = b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . one solution,
a > b and a +b < π . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . one solution,
a > b and a +b = π or > π . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . no solution.
b =
π
2
_
a < b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . two solutions,
a = b or a > b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . no solution.
b >
π
2
_
¸
_
¸
_
a < b and a +b < π . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . two solutions,
a < b and a +b = π or > π . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . one solution,
a = b or > b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . no solution.
It must be remembered, however, that in the cases in which two solutions
are indicated, there will be no solution at all if sin a be less than sin b sin A.
In the same manner the cases in which A is equal to a right angle or greater
than a right angle may be discussed, and the following results obtained.
When A is equal to a right angle,
b <
π
2
_
¸
_
¸
_
a < b or a = b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . no solution,
a > b and a +b < π . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . one solution,
a > b and a +b = π or > π . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . no solution.
b =
π
2
_
a < b or a > b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . no solution,
a = b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . infinite number of solutions.
b >
π
2
_
¸
_
¸
_
a < b and a +b > π . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . one solution,
a < b and a +b = π or < π . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . no solution,
a = b or a > b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . no solution.
When A is greater than a right angle,
SOLUTION OF OBLIQUE-ANGLED TRIANGLES. 59
b <
π
2
_
¸
_
¸
_
a < b or a = b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . no solution,
a > b and a +b = π or < π . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . one solution,
a > b and a +b > π . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . two solutions.
b =
π
2
_
a < b or a = b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . no solution,
a > b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . two solutions.
b >
π
2
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
a < b and a +b > π . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . one solution,
a < b and a +b = π or < π . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . no solution,
a = b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . one solution,
a > b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . two solutions.
As before in the cases in which two solutions are indicated, there will be no
solution at all if sin a be less than sin b sin A.
It will be seen from the above investigations that if a lies between b and
π − b, there will be one solution; if a does not lie between b and π − b either
there are two solutions or there is no solution; this enunciation is not meant to
include the cases in which a = b or = π −b.
87. The results of the preceding Article may be illustrated by a figure.
Let ADA

E be a great circle; suppose PA and PA

the projections on the
plane of this circle of arcs which are each equal to b and inclined at an angle A
to ADA

; let PD and PE be the projections of the least and greatest distances
of P from the great circle (see Art. 59). Thus the figure supposes A and b each
less than
π
2
.
60 SOLUTION OF OBLIQUE-ANGLED TRIANGLES.
If a be less than the arc which is represented by PD there is no triangle; if
a be between PD and PA in magnitude, there are two triangles, since B will
fall on ADA

, and we have two triangles BPA and BPA

; if a be between PA
and PH there will be only one triangle, as B will fall on A

H or AH

, and the
triangle will be either APB with B between A

and H, or else A

PB with B
between A and H

; but these two triangles are symmetrically equal (Art. 57); if
a be greater than PH there will be no triangle. The figure will easily serve for
all the cases; thus if A is greater than
π
2
, we can suppose PAE and PA

E to
be equal to A; if b is greater than
π
2
, we can take PH and PH

to represent b.
88. The ambiguities which occur in the last case in the solution of oblique-
angled triangles (Art. 85) may be discussed in the same manner as those in Art.
86; or, by means of the polar triangle, the last case may be deduced from that
of Art. 86.
EXAMPLES.
1. The sides of a triangle are 105

, 90

, and 75

respectively: find the sines
of all the angles.
2. Shew that tan
1
2
Atan
1
2
B =
sin(s −c)
sin s
. Solve a triangle when a side, an
adjacent angle, and the sum of the other two sides are given.
3. Solve a triangle having given a side, an adjacent angle, and the sum of
the other two angles.
4. A triangle has the sum of two sides equal to a semicircumference: find
the arc joining the vertex with the middle of the base.
5. If a, b, c are known, c being a quadrant, determine the angles: shew also
that if δ be the perpendicular on c from the opposite angle, cos
2
δ = cos
2
a +
cos
2
b.
6. If one side of a spherical triangle be divided into four equal parts, and θ
1
,
θ
2
, θ
3
, θ
4
, be the angles subtended at the opposite angle by the parts taken in
order, shew that
sin(θ
1

2
) sin θ
2
sin θ
4
= sin(θ
3

4
) sin θ
1
sin θ
3
.
SOLUTION OF OBLIQUE-ANGLED TRIANGLES. 61
7. In a spherical triangle if A = B = 2C, shew that
8 sin
_
a +
c
2
_
sin
2
c
2
cos
c
2
= sin
3
a.
8. In a spherical triangle if A = B = 2C, shew that
8 sin
2
C
2
_
cos s + sin
C
2
_
cos
c
2
cos a
= 1.
9. If the equal sides of an isosceles triangle ABC be bisected by an arc DE,
and BC be the base, shew that
sin
DE
2
=
1
2
sin
BC
2
sec
AC
2
.
10. If c
1
, c
2
be the two values of the third side when A, a, b are given and
the triangle is ambiguous, shew that
tan
c
1
2
tan
c
2
2
= tan
1
2
(b −a) tan
1
2
(b +a).
62 SOLUTION OF OBLIQUE-ANGLED TRIANGLES.
VII
CIRCUMSCRIBED AND
INSCRIBED CIRCLES.
89. To find the angular radius of the small circle inscribed in a given triangle.
Let ABC be the triangle; bisect the angles A and B by arcs meeting at P;
from P draw PD, PE, PF perpendicular to the sides. Then it may be shewn
that PD, PE, PF are all equal; also that AE = AF, BF = BD, CD = CE.
Hence BC + AF = half the sum of the sides = s; therefore AF = s − a. Let
PF = r.
Now tan PF = tan PAF sin AF (Art. 62);
thus tan r = tan
A
2
sin(s −a). (1)
63
64 CIRCUMSCRIBED AND INSCRIBED CIRCLES.
The value of tan r may be expressed in various forms; thus from Art. 45, we
obtain
tan
A
2
=
_
sin(s −b) sin(s −c)
sin s sin(s −a)
;
substitute this value in (1), thus
tan r =
__
sin(s −a) sin(s −b) sin(s −c)
sin s
_
=
n
sin s
(Art. 46). (2)
Again
sin(s −a) = sin
1
2
(b +c) −
1
2
a
= sin
1
2
(b +c) cos
1
2
a −cos
1
2
(b +c) sin
1
2
a
=
sin
1
2
a cos
1
2
a
sin
1
2
A
{cos
1
2
(B −C) −cos
1
2
(B +C)}, (Art. 54)
=
sin a sin
1
2
Bsin
1
2
C
sin
1
2
A
;
therefore from (1) tan r =
sin
1
2
Bsin
1
2
C
cos
1
2
A
sin a; (3)
hence, by Art. 51,
tan r =

{−cos S cos(S −A) cos(S −B) cos(S −C)}
2 cos
1
2
Acos
1
2
Bcos
1
2
C
=
N
2 cos
1
2
Acos
1
2
Bcos
1
2
C
. (4)
It may be shewn by common trigonometrical formulæ that
4 cos
1
2
Acos
1
2
Bcos
1
2
C = cos S + cos(S −A) + cos(S −B) + cos(S −C);
hence we have from (4)
cot r =
1
2N
_
cos S + cos(S −A) + cos(S −B) + cos(S −C)
_
. (5)
CIRCUMSCRIBED AND INSCRIBED CIRCLES. 65
90. To find the angular radius of the small circle described so as to touch one
side of a given triangle, and the other sides produced.
Let ABC be the triangle; and suppose we require the radius of the small
circle which touches BC, and AB and AC produced. Produce AB and AC to
meet at A

; then we require the radius of the small circle inscribed in A

BC, and
the sides of A

BC are a, π − b, π − c respectively. Hence if r
1
be the required
radius, and s denote as usual
1
2
(a +b +c), we have from Art. 89,
tan r
1
= tan
A
2
sin s. (1)
From this result we may derive other equivalent forms as in the preceding
Article; or we may make use of those forms immediately, observing that the
angles of the triangle A

BC are A, π − B, π − C respectively. Hence s being
1
2
(a +b +c) and S being
1
2
(A+B +C) we shall obtain
tan r
1
=
__
sin s sin(s −b) sin(s −c)
sin(s −a)
_
=
n
sin(s −a)
, (2)
tan r
1
=
cos
1
2
Bcos
1
2
C
cos
1
2
A
sin a, (3)
tan r
1
=

{−cos S cos(S −A) cos(S −B) cos(S −C)}
2 cos
1
2
Asin
1
2
Bsin
1
2
C
=
N
2 cos
1
2
Asin
1
2
Bsin
1
2
C
,
(4)
cot r
1
=
1
2N
{−c cos S −cos(S −A) + cos(S −B) + cos(S −C)}. (5)
These results may also be found independently by bisecting two of the an-
gles of the triangle A

BC, so as to determine the pole of the small circle, and
proceeding as in Art. 89.
91. A circle which touches one side of a triangle and the other sides produced
is called an escribed circle; thus there are three escribed circles belonging to a
66 CIRCUMSCRIBED AND INSCRIBED CIRCLES.
given triangle. We may denote the radii of the escribed circles which touch CA
and AB respectively by r
2
and r
3
, and values of tan r
2
and tan r
3
may be found
from what has been already given with respect to tan r
1
by appropriate changes
in the letters which denote the sides and angles.
In the preceding Article a triangle A

BC was formed by producing AB and
AC to meet again at A

; similarly another triangle may be formed by producing
BC and BA to meet again, and another by producing CA and CB to meet
again. The original triangle ABC and the three formed from it have been called
associated triangles, ABC being the fundamental triangle. Thus the inscribed
and escribed circles of a given triangle are the same as the circles inscribed in
the system of associated triangles of which the given triangle is the fundamental
triangle.
92. To find the angular radius of the small circle described about a given tri-
angle.
Let ABC be the given triangle; bisect the sides CB, CA at D and E respec-
tively, and draw from D and E arcs at right angles to CB and CA respectively,
and let P be the intersection of these arcs. Then P will be the pole of the small
circle described about ABC. For draw PA, PB, PC; then from the right-angled
triangles PCD and PBD it follows that PB = PC; and from the right-angled
triangles PCE and PAE it follows that PA = PC; hence PA = PB = PC.
Also the angle PAB = the angle PBA, the angle PBC = the angle PCB, and
the angle PCA = the angle PAC; therefore PCB + A =
1
2
(A + B + C), and
PCB = S −A.
CIRCUMSCRIBED AND INSCRIBED CIRCLES. 67
Let PC = R.
Now tan CD = tan CP cos PCD, (Art. 62,)
thus tan
1
2
a = tan Rcos(S −A),
therefore tan R =
tan
1
2
a
cos(S −A)
. (1)
The value of tan R may be expressed in various forms; thus if we substitute
for tan
a
2
from Art. 49, we obtain
tan R =
__
−cos S
cos(S −A) cos(S −B) cos(S −C)
_
=
cos S
N
. (2)
Again cos(S −A) = cos
_
1
2
(B +C) −
1
2
A
_
= cos
1
2
(B +C) cos
1
2
A+ sin
1
2
(B +C) sin
1
2
A
=
sin
1
2
Acos
1
2
A
cos
1
2
a
_
cos
1
2
(b +c) + cos
1
2
(b −c)
_
, (Art. 54,)
=
sin A
cos
1
2
a
cos
1
2
b cos
1
2
c;
therefore from (1)
tan R =
sin
1
2
a
sin Acos
1
2
b cos
1
2
c
. (3)
Substitute in the last expression the value of sin A from Art. 46; thus
tan R =
2 sin
1
2
a sin
1
2
b sin
1
2
c

{sin s sin(s −a) sin(s −b) sin(s −c)}
=
2 sin
1
2
a sin
1
2
b sin
1
2
c
n
. (4)
It may be shewn, by common trigonometrical formulæ that
4 sin
1
2
a sin
1
2
b sin
1
2
c = sin(s −a) + sin(s −b) + sin(s −c) −sin s;
68 CIRCUMSCRIBED AND INSCRIBED CIRCLES.
hence we have from (4)
tan R =
1
2n
{sin(s −a) + sin(s −b) + sin(s −c) −sin s}. (5)
93. To find the angular radii of the small circles described round the triangles
associated with a given fundamental triangle.
Let R
1
denote the radius of the circle described round the triangle formed by
producing AB and AC to meet again at A

; similarly let R
2
and R
3
denote the
radii of the circles described round the other two triangles which are similarly
formed. Then we may deduce expressions for tan R
1
, tan R
2
, and tan R
3
from
those found in Art. 92 for tan R. The sides of the triangle A

BC are a, π − b,
π − c, and its angles are A, π − B, π − C; hence if s =
1
2
(a + b + c) and
S =
1
2
(A+B +C) we shall obtain from Art. 92
tan R
1
=
tan
1
2
a
−cos S
, (1)
tan R
1
=
__
cos(S −A)
−cos S cos(S −B) cos(S −C)
_
=
cos(S −A)
N
, (2)
tan R
1
=
sin
1
2
a
sin Asin
1
2
b sin
1
2
c
, (3)
tan R
1
=
2 sin
1
2
a cos
1
2
b cos
1
2
c

{sin s sin(s −a) sin(s −b) sin(s −c)}
, (4)
tan R
1
=
1
2n
{sin s −sin(s −a) + sin(s −b) + sin(s −c)}. (5)
Similarly we may find expressions for tan R
2
and tan R
3
.
94. Many examples may be proposed involving properties of the circles in-
scribed in and described about the associated triangles. We will give one that
will be of use hereafter.
To prove that
(cot r + tan R)
2
=
1
4n
2
(sin a + sin b + sin c)
2
−1.
CIRCUMSCRIBED AND INSCRIBED CIRCLES. 69
We have
4n
2
= 1 −cos
2
a −cos
2
b −cos
2
c + 2 cos a cos b cos c;
therefore
(sin a + sin b + sin c)
2
−4n
2
= 2 (1 + sin a sin b + sin b sin c + sin c sin a −cos a cos b cos c ).
Also cot r + tan R =
1
2n
_
sin s + sin(s − a) + sin(s − b) + sin(s − c)
_
; and by
squaring both members of this equation the required result will be obtained.
For it may be shewn by reduction that
sin
2
s + sin
2
(s −a) + sin
2
(s −b) + sin
2
(s −c) = 2 −2 cos a cos b cos c,
and
sin s sin(s −a) + sin s sin(s −b) + sin s sin(s −c)
+ sin(s −a) sin(s −b) + sin(s −b) sin(s −c) + sin(s −c) sin(s −a)
= sin a sin b + sin b sin c + sin c sin a.
Similarly we may prove that
(cot r
1
−tan R)
2
=
1
4n
2
(sin b + sin c −sin a)
2
−1.
95. In the figure to Art. 89, suppose DP produced through P to a point A

such that DA

is a quadrant, then A

is a pole of BC, and PA

=
π
2
−r; similarly,
suppose EP produced through P to a point B

such that EB

is a quadrant,
and FP produced through P to a point C

such that FC

is a quadrant. Then
A

B

C

is the polar triangle of ABC, and PA

= PB

= PC

=
π
2
−r. Thus P
is the pole of the small circle described round the polar triangle, and the angular
radius of the small circle described round the polar triangle is the complement
of the angular radius of the small circle inscribed in the primitive triangle. And
in like manner the point which is the pole of the small circle inscribed in the
polar triangle is also the pole of the small circle described round the primitive
triangle, and the angular radii of the two circles are complementary.
70 CIRCUMSCRIBED AND INSCRIBED CIRCLES.
EXAMPLES.
In the following examples the notation of the Chapter is retained. Shew that
in any triangle the following relations hold contained in Examples 1 to 7:
1. Tan r
1
tan r
2
tan r
3
= tan r sin
2
s.
2. Tan R + cot r = tan R
1
+ cot r
1
= tan R
2
+ cot r
2
= tan R
3
+ cot r
3
=
1
2
(cot r + cot r
1
+ cot r
2
+ cot r
3
).
3. Tan
2
R + tan
2
R
1
+ tan
2
R
2
+ tan
2
R
3
= cot
2
r + cot
2
r
1
+ cot
2
r
2
+ cot
2
r
3
.
4.
Tan r
1
+ tan r
2
+ tan r
3
−tan r
cot r
1
+ cot r
2
+ cot r
3
−cot r
=
1
2
(1 + cos a + cos b + cos c).
5. Cosec
2
r = cot(s −a) cot(s −b) +cot(s −b) cot(s −c) +cot(s −c)(s −a).
6. Cosec
2
r
1
= cot(s −b) cot(s −c) −cot s cot(s −b) −cot s cot(s −c).
7. Tan R
1
tan R
2
tan R
3
= tan Rsec
2
S.
8. Shew that in an equilateral triangle tan R = 2 tan r.
9. If ABC be an equilateral spherical triangle, P the pole of the circle
circumscribing it, Q any point on the sphere, shew that
cos QA+ cos QB + cos QC = 3 cos PAcos PQ.
10. If three small circles be inscribed in a spherical triangle having each of
its angles 120

, so that each touches the other two as well as two sides of the
triangle, shew that the radius of each of the small circles = 30

, and that the
centres of the three small circles coincide with the angular points of the polar
triangle.
VIII
AREA OF A SPHERICAL
TRIANGLE. SPHERICAL
EXCESS.
96. To find the area of a Lune.
A Lune is that portion of the surface of a sphere which is comprised between
two great semicircles.
Let ACBDA, ADBEA be two lunes having equal angles at A; then one of
these lunes may be supposed placed on the other so as to coincide exactly with
it; thus lunes having equal angles are equal. Then by a process similar to that
used in the first proposition of the Sixth Book of Euclid it may be shewn that
71
72 AREA OF A SPHERICAL TRIANGLE. SPHERICAL EXCESS.
lunes are proportional to their angles. Hence since the whole surface of a sphere
may be considered as a lune with an angle equal to four right angles, we have
for a lune with an angle of which the circular measure is A,
area of lune
surface of sphere
=
A

.
Suppose r the radius of the sphere, then the surface is 4πr
2
(Integral Calcu-
lus, Chap. vii.); thus
area of lune =
A

4πr
2
= 2Ar
2
.
97. To find the area of a Spherical Triangle.
Let ABC be a spherical triangle; produce the arcs which form its sides until
they meet again two and two, which will happen when each has become equal
to the semicircumference. The triangle ABC now forms a part of three lunes,
namely, ABDCA, BCEAB, and CAFBC. Now the triangles CDE and AFB
are subtended by vertically opposite solid angles at O, and we will assume that
their areas are equal; therefore the lune CAFBC is equal to the sum of the two
triangles ABC and CDE. Hence if A, B, C denote the circular measures of the
angles of the triangle, we have
triangle ABC +BGDC = lune ABDCA = 2Ar
2
,
triangle ABC +AHEC = lune BCEAB = 2Br
2
,
triangle ABC + triangle CDE = lune CAFBC = 2Cr
2
;
AREA OF A SPHERICAL TRIANGLE. SPHERICAL EXCESS. 73
hence, by addition,
twice triangle ABC + surface of hemisphere = 2(A+B +C)r
2
;
therefore triangle ABC = (A+B +C −π)r
2
.
The expression A+B +C −π is called the spherical excess of the triangle;
and since
(A+B +C −π)r
2
=
A+B +C −π

2πr
2
,
the result obtained may be thus enunciated: the area of a spherical triangle is
the same fraction of half the surface of the sphere as the spherical excess is of
four right angles.
98. We have assumed, as is usually done, that the areas of the triangles CDE
and AFB in the preceding Article are equal. The triangles are, however, not ab-
solutely equal, but symmetrically equal (Art. 57), so that one cannot be made to
coincide with the other by superposition. It is, however, easy to decompose two
such triangles into pieces which admit of superposition, and thus to prove that
their areas are equal. For describe a small circle round each, then the angular
radii of these circles will be equal by Art. 92. If the pole of the circumscribing
circle falls inside each triangle, then each triangle is the sum of three isosceles
triangles, and if the pole falls outside each triangle, then each triangle is the
excess of two isosceles triangles over a third; and in each case the isosceles tri-
angles of one set are respectively absolutely equal to the corresponding isosceles
triangles of the other set.
99. To find the area of a spherical polygon.
Let n be the number of sides of the polygon, Σ the sum of all its angles.
Take any point within the polygon and join it with all the angular points; thus
the figure is divided into n triangles. Hence, by Art. 97,
area of polygon = (sum of the angles of the triangles −nπ)r
2
,
and the sum of the angles of the triangles is equal to Σ together with the four
right angles which are formed round the common vertex; therefore
area of polygon =
_
Σ −(n −2)π
_
r
2
.
74 AREA OF A SPHERICAL TRIANGLE. SPHERICAL EXCESS.
This expression is true even when the polygon has some of its angles greater
than two right angles, provided it can be decomposed into triangles, of which
each of the angles is less than two right angles.
100. We shall now give some expressions for certain trigonometrical functions
of the spherical excess of a triangle. We denote the spherical excess by E, so
that E = A+B +C −π.
101. Cagnoli’s Theorem. To shew that
sin
1
2
E =

{sin s sin(s −a) sin(s −b) sin(s −c)}x
2 cos
1
2
a cos
1
2
b cos
1
2
c
.
Sin
1
2
E = sin
1
2
(A+B +C −π) = sin{
1
2
(A+B) −
1
2
(π −C)}
= sin
1
2
(A+B) sin
1
2
C −cos
1
2
(A+B) cos
1
2
C
=
sin
1
2
C cos
1
2
C
cos
1
2
c
{cos
1
2
(a −b) −cos
1
2
(a −b)}, (Art. 54),
=
sin C sin
1
2
a sin
1
2
b
cos
1
2
c
=
sin
1
2
a sin
1
2
b
cos
1
2
c

2
sin a sin b


{sin s sin(s −a) sin(s −b) sin(s −c)}
=

{sin s sin(s −a) sin(s −b) sin(s −c)}
2 cos
1
2
a cos
1
2
b cos
1
2
c
.
102. Lhuilier’s Theorem. To shew that
tan
1
4
E =

{tan
1
2
s tan
1
2
(s −a) tan
1
2
(s −b) tan
1
2
(s −c)}.
Tan
1
4
E =
sin
1
2
(A+B +C −π)
cos
1
4
(A+B +C −π)
=
sin
1
2
(A+B) −sin
1
2
(π −C)
cos
1
2
(A+B) + cos
1
2
(π −C)
, (Plane Trig. Art. 84),
=
sin
1
2
(A+B) −cos
1
2
C
cos
1
2
(A+B) + sin
1
2
C
AREA OF A SPHERICAL TRIANGLE. SPHERICAL EXCESS. 75
=
cos
1
2
(a −b) −cos
1
2
c
cos
1
2
(a +b) + cos
1
2
c

cos
1
2
C
sin
1
2
C
, (Art. 54).
Hence, by Art. 45, we obtain
tan
1
4
E =
sin
1
4
(c +a −b) sin
1
4
(c +b −a)
cos
1
4
(a +b +c) cos
1
4
(a +b −c)
__
sin s sin(s −c)
sin(s −a) sin(s −b)
_
=

{tan
1
2
s tan
1
2
(s −a) tan
1
2
(s −b) tan
1
2
(s −c)}.
103. We may obtain many other formulæ involving trigonometrical functions
of the spherical excess. Thus, for example,
cos
1
2
E = cos
_
1
2
(A+B) −
1
2
(π −C)
_
= cos
1
2
(A+B) sin
1
2
C + sin
1
2
(A+B) cos
1
2
C
=
_
cos
1
2
(a +b) sin
2 1
2
C + cos
1
2
(a −b) cos
2 1
2
C
_
sec
1
2
c, (Art. 54),
=
_
cos
1
2
a cos
1
2
b(cos
2
C + sin
2 1
2
C)
+ sin
1
2
a sin
1
2
b(cos
2 1
2
C −sin
2 1
2
C)
_
sec
1
2
c
=
_
cos
1
2
a cos
1
2
b + sin
1
2
a sin
1
2
b cos C
_
sec
1
2
c. (1)
Again, it was shewn in Art. 101, that
sin
1
2
E = sin C sin
1
2
a sin
1
2
b sec
1
2
c;
therefore tan
1
2
E =
sin
1
2
a sin
1
2
b sin C
cos
1
2
a cos
1
2
b + sin
1
2
a sin
1
2
b cos C
. (2)
Again, we have from above
cos
1
2
E =
_
cos
1
2
a cos
1
2
b + sin
1
2
a sin
1
2
b cos C
_
sec
1
2
c
=
(1 + cos a)(1 + cos b) + sin a sin b cos C
4 cos
1
2
a cos
1
2
b cos
1
2
c
76 AREA OF A SPHERICAL TRIANGLE. SPHERICAL EXCESS.
=
1 + cos a + cos b cos c
4 cos
1
2
a cos
1
2
b cos
1
2
c
=
cos
2 1
2
a + cos
2 1
2
b + cos
2 1
2
c −1
2 cos
1
2
a cos
1
2
b cos
1
2
c
. (3)
In (3) put 1 −2 sin
2 1
4
E for cos
1
2
E; thus
sin
2 1
4
E =
1 + 2 cos
1
2
a cos
1
2
b cos
1
2
c −cos
2 1
2
a −cos
2 1
2
b −cos
2 1
2
c
4 cos
1
2
a cos
1
2
b cos
1
2
c
.
By ordinary development we can shew that the numerator of the above
fraction is equal to
4 sin
1
2
s sin
1
2
(s −a) sin
1
2
(s −b) sin
1
2
(s −c);
therefore
sin
2 1
4
E =
sin
1
2
s sin
1
2
(s −a) sin
1
2
(s −b) sin
1
2
(s −c)
cos
1
2
a cos
1
2
b cos
1
2
c
. (4)
Similarly
cos
2 1
4
E =
cos
1
2
s cos
1
2
(s −a) cos
1
2
(s −b) cos
1
2
(s −c)
cos
1
2
a cos
1
2
b cos
1
2
c
. (5)
Hence by division we obtain Lhuilier’s Theorem.
Again,
sin(C −
1
2
E)
sin
1
2
E
= sin C cot
1
2
E −cos C
= sin C
cos
1
2
a cos
1
2
b + sin
1
2
a sin
1
2
b cos C
sin
1
2
a sin
1
2
b sin C
−cos C, by (2),
= cos
1
2
a cot
1
2
b;
therefore, by Art. 101,
sin(C −
1
2
E) =

{sin s sin(s −a) sin(s −b) sin(s −c)}
2 sin
1
2
a sin
1
2
b cos
1
2
c
.
AREA OF A SPHERICAL TRIANGLE. SPHERICAL EXCESS. 77
Again, cos(C −
1
2
E) = cos C cos
1
2
E + sin C sin
1
2
E
=
(1 + cos a)(1 + cos b) cos C + sin a sin b cos
2
C
4 cos
1
2
a cos
1
2
b cos
1
2
c
+ sin
2
C sin
1
2
a sin
1
2
b sec
1
2
c
=
(1 + cos a)(1 + cos b) cos C + sin a sin b
4 cos
1
2
a cos
1
2
b cos
1
2
c
=
_
cos
1
2
a cos
1
2
b cos C + sin
1
2
a sin
1
2
b
_
sec
1
2
c
=
sin a sin b cos C + 4 sin
2 1
2
a sin
2 1
2
b
4 sin
1
2
a sin
1
2
b cos
1
2
c
=
cos c −cos a cos b + (1 −cos a)(1 −cos b)
4 sin
1
2
a sin
1
2
b cos
1
2
c
=
1 + cos c −cos a −cos b
4 sin
1
2
a sin
1
2
b cos
1
2
c
=
cos
2 1
2
c −cos
2 1
2
a −cos
2 1
2
b + 1
2 sin
1
2
a sin
1
2
b cos
1
2
c
. (6)
From this result we can deduce two other results, in the same manner as (4)
and (5) were deduced from (3); or we may observe that the right-hand member
of (6) can be obtained from the right-hand member of (3) by writing π −a and
π −b for a and b respectively, and thus we may deduce the results more easily.
We shall have then
sin
2
(
1
2
C −
1
4
E) =
cos
1
2
s sin
1
2
(s −a) sin
1
2
(s −b) cos
1
2
(s −c)
sin
1
2
a sin
1
2
b cos
1
2
c
,
cos
2
(
1
2
C −
1
4
E) =
sin
1
2
s cos
1
2
(s −a) cos
1
2
(s −b) sin
1
2
(s −c)
sin
1
2
a sin
1
2
b cos
1
2
c
.
EXAMPLES.
1. Find the angles and sides of an equilateral triangle whose area is one-
fourth of that of the sphere on which it is described.
2. Find the surface of an equilateral and equiangular spherical polygon of
n sides, and determine the value of each of the angles when the surface equals
half the surface of the sphere.
3. If a = b =
π
3
, and c =
π
2
, shew that E = cos
−1
7
9
.
78 AREA OF A SPHERICAL TRIANGLE. SPHERICAL EXCESS.
4. If the angle C of a spherical triangle be a right angle, shew that
sin
1
2
E = sin
1
2
a sin
1
2
b sec
1
2
c, cos
1
2
E = cos
1
2
a cos
1
2
b sec
1
2
c.
5. If the angle C be a right angle, shew that
sin
2
c
cos c
cos E =
sin
2
a
cos a
+
sin
2
b
cos b
.
6. If a = b and C =
π
2
, shew that tan E =
sin
2
a
2 cos a
.
7. The sum of the angles in a right-angled triangle is less than four right
angles.
8. Draw through a given point in the side of a spherical triangle an arc of a
great circle cutting off a given part of the triangle.
9. In a spherical triangle if cos C = 1 tan
a
2
tan
b
2
, then C = A+B.
10. If the angles of a spherical triangle be together equal to four right angles
cos
2 1
2
a + cos
2 1
2
b + cos
2 1
2
c = 1.
11. If r
1
, r
2
, r
3
be the radii of three small circles of a sphere of radius r
which touch one another at P, Q, R, and A, B, C be the angles of the spherical
triangle formed by joining their centres,
area PQR = (Acos r
1
+Bcos r
2
+C cos r
3
−π)r
2
.
12. Shew that
sin s =
_
sin
1
2
E sin(A−
1
2
E) sin(B −
1
2
E) sin(C −
1
2
E)
_1
2
2 sin
1
2
Asin
1
2
Bsin
1
2
C
.
13. Given two sides of a spherical triangle, determine when the area is a
maximum.
14. Find the area of a regular polygon of a given number of sides formed by
arcs of great circles on the surface of a sphere; and hence deduce that, if α be
the angular radius of a small circle, its area is to that of the whole surface of
the sphere as versin α is to 2.
AREA OF A SPHERICAL TRIANGLE. SPHERICAL EXCESS. 79
15. A, B, C are the angular points of a spherical triangle; A

, B

, C

are the
middle points of the respectively opposite sides. If E be the spherical excess of
the triangle, shew that
cos
1
2
E =
cos A

B

cos
1
2
c
=
cos B

C

cos
1
2
a
=
cos C

A

cos
1
2
b
.
16. If one of the arcs of great circles which join the middle points of the
sides of a spherical triangle be a quadrant, shew that the other two are also
quadrants.
80 AREA OF A SPHERICAL TRIANGLE. SPHERICAL EXCESS.
IX
ON CERTAIN
APPROXIMATE
FORMULÆ.
104. We shall now investigate certain approximate formulæ which are often
useful in calculating spherical triangles when the radius of the sphere is large
compared with the lengths of the sides of the triangles.
105. Given two sides and the included angle of a spherical triangle, to find the
angle between the chords of these sides.
Let AB, AC be the two sides of the triangle ABC; let O be the centre of
the sphere. Describe a sphere round A as a centre, and suppose it to meet AO,
AB, AC at D, E, F respectively. Then the angle EDF is the inclination of the
81
82 ON CERTAIN APPROXIMATE FORMULÆ.
planes OAB, OAC, and is therefore equal to A. From the spherical triangle
DEF
cos EF = cos DE cos DF + sin DE sin DF cos A;
and DE =
1
2
(π −c), DF =
1
2
(π −b);
therefore cos EF = sin
1
2
b sin
1
2
c + cos
1
2
b cos
1
2
c cos A.
If the sides of the triangle are small compared with the radius of the sphere,
EF will not differ much from A; suppose EF = A−θ, then approximately
cos EF = cos A+θ sin A;
and sin
1
2
b sin
1
2
c = sin
2 1
4
(b +c) −sin
2 1
4
(b −c),
cos
1
2
b cos
1
2
c = cos
2 1
4
(b +c) −sin
2 1
4
(b −c);
therefore
cos A+θ sin A = sin
2 1
4
(b +c) −sin
2 1
4
(b −c)
+
_
1 −sin
2 1
4
(b +c) −sin
2 1
4
(b −c)
_
cos A;
therefore
θ sin A = (1 −cos A) sin
2 1
4
(b +c) −(1 + cos A) sin
2 1
4
(b −c),
therefore θ = tan
1
2
Asin
2 1
4
(b +c) −cot
1
2
Asin
2 1
4
(b −c).
This gives the circular measure of θ; the number of seconds in the angle is
found by dividing the circular measure by the circular measure of one second,
or approximately by the sine of one second (Plane Trigonometry, Art. 123). If
the lengths of the arcs corresponding to a and b respectively be α and β, and
r the radius of the sphere, we have
α
r
and
β
r
as the circular measures of a and
b respectively; and the lengths of the sides of the chordal triangle are 2r sin
α
2r
and 2r sin
β
2r
respectively. Thus when the sides of the spherical triangle and
the radius of the sphere are known, we can calculate the angles and sides of the
chordal triangle.
ON CERTAIN APPROXIMATE FORMULÆ. 83
106. Legendre’s Theorem. If the sides of a spherical triangle be small compared
with the radius of the sphere, then each angle of the spherical triangle exceeds by
one third of the spherical excess the corresponding angle of the plane triangle,
the sides of which are of the same length as the arcs of the spherical triangle.
Let A, B, C be the angles of the spherical triangle; a, b, c the sides; r the
radius of the sphere; α, β, γ the lengths of the arcs which form the sides, so
that
α
r
,
β
r
,
γ
r
are the circular measures of a, b, c respectively. Then
cos A =
cos a −cos b cos c
sin b sin c
;
now cos a = 1 −
α
2
2r
2
+
α
4
24r
4
−. . . ,
sin a =
α
r

α
3
6r
3
+. . . .
Similar expressions hold for cos b and sin b, and for cos c and sin c respectively.
Hence, if we neglect powers of the circular measure above the fourth, we have
cos A =
1 −
α
2
2r
2
+
α
4
24r
4

_
1 −
β
2
2r
2
+
β
4
24r
4
__
1 −
γ
2
2r
2
+
γ
4
24r
4
_
βγ
r
2
_
1 −
β
2
6r
2
__
1 −
γ
2
6r
2
_
=
1
2r
2

2

2
−α
2
) +
1
24r
4

4
−β
4
−γ
4
−6β
2
γ
2
)
βγ
r
2
_
1 −
β
2

2
6r
2
_
=
1
2βγ
_
β
2

2
−α
2
+
1
12r
2

2
−β
2
−γ
2
−6β
2
γ
2
)
__
1 +
β
2

2
6r
2
_
=
β
2

2
−α
2
2βγ
+
α
4

4

4
−2α
2
β
2
−2β
2
γ
2
−2γ
2
α
2
24βγr
2
.
Now let A

, B

, C

be the angles of the plane triangle whose sides are α, β,
γ respectively; then
cos A

=
β
2

2
−α
2
2βγ
,
thus cos A = cos A


βγ sin
2
A

6r
2
.
84 ON CERTAIN APPROXIMATE FORMULÆ.
Suppose A = A

+θ; then
cos A = cos A

−θ sin A

approximately;
therefore θ =
βγ sin A

6r
2
=
S
3r
2
,
where S denotes the area of the plane triangle whose sides are α, β, γ. Similarly
B = B

+
S
3r
2
and C = C

+
S
3r
2
;
hence approximately
A+B +C = A

+B

+C

+
S
r
2
= π +
S
r
2
;
therefore
S
r
2
is approximately equal to the spherical excess of the spherical
triangle, and thus the theorem is established.
It will be seen that in the above approximation the area of the spherical
triangle is considered equal to the area of the plane triangle which can be formed
with sides of the same length.
107. Legendre’s Theorem may be used for the approximate solution of spher-
ical triangles in the following manner.
(1) Suppose the three sides of a spherical triangle known; then the values of
α, β, γ are known, and by the formulæ of Plane Trigonometry we can calculate
S and A

, B

, C

; then A, B, C are known from the formulæ.
A = A

+
S
3r
2
, B = B

+
S
3r
2
, C = C

+
S
3r
2
.
(2) Suppose two sides and the included angle of a spherical triangle known,
for example A, b, c. Then
S =
1
2
βγ sin A

=
1
2
βγ sin A approximately.
Then A

is known from the formula A

= A −
S
3r
2
. Thus in the plane triangle
two sides and the included angle are known; therefore its remaining parts can
be calculated, and then those of the spherical triangle become known.
(3) Suppose two sides and the angle opposite to one of them in a spherical
ON CERTAIN APPROXIMATE FORMULÆ. 85
triangle known, for example A, a, b. Then
sin B

=
β
α
sin A

=
β
α
sin A approximately;
and C

= π −A

−B

= π −A−B

approximately; then S =
1
2
αβ sin C

. Hence
A

is known and the plane triangle can be solved, since two sides and the angle
opposite to one of them are known.
(4) Suppose two angles and the included side of a spherical triangle known,
for example A, B, c.
Then S =
γ
2
sin A

sin B

2 sin(A

+B

)
=
γ
2
sin Asin B
2 sin(A+B)
nearly.
Hence in the plane triangle two angles and the included side are known.
(5) Suppose two angles and the side opposite to one of them in a spherical
triangle known, for example A, B, a. Then
C

= π −A

−B

= π −A−B, approximately, and
S =
α
2
sin B

sin C

2 sin(B

+C

)
,
which can be calculated, since B

and C

are approximately known.
108. The importance of Legendre’s Theorem in the application of Spherical
Trigonometry to the measurement of the Earth’s surface has given rise to various
developments of it which enable us to test the degree of exactness of the approx-
imation. We shall finish the present Chapter with some of these developments,
which will serve as exercises for the student. We have seen that approximately
the spherical excess is equal to
S
r
2
, and we shall begin with investigating a closer
approximate formula for the spherical excess.
109. To find an approximate value of the spherical excess.
Let E denote the spherical excess; then
sin
1
2
E =
sin
1
2
a sin
1
2
b sin C
cos
1
2
c
;
86 ON CERTAIN APPROXIMATE FORMULÆ.
therefore approximately
sin
1
2
E = sin C
αβ
4r
2
_
1 −
α
2
24r
2
__
1 −
β
2
24r
2
__
1 −
γ
2
8r
2
_
−1
= sin C
αβ
4r
2
_
1 +

2
−α
2
−β
2
24r
2
_
;
therefore E = sin C
αβ
2r
2
_
1 +

2
−α
2
−β
2
24r
2
_
, (1)
and sin C = sin
_
C

+
1
3
E
_
= sin C

+
1
3
E cos C

= sin C

+
sin C

cos C

3
αβ
2r
2
= sin C

_
1 +
α
2

2
−γ
2
12r
2
_
. (2)
From (1) and (2)
E = sin C

αβ
2r
2
_
1 +
α
2

2

2
24r
2
_
.
Hence to this order of approximation the area of the spherical triangle ex-
ceeds that of the plane triangle by the fraction
α
2

2

2
24r
2
of the latter.
110. To find an approximate value of
sin A
sin B
.
Sin A
Sin B
=
sin a
sin b
;
hence approximately
sin A
sin B
=
α
_
1 −
α
2
6r
2
+
α
4
120r
4
_
β
_
1 −
β
2
6r
2
+
β
4
120r
4
_
=
α
β
_
1 −
α
2
6r
2
+
α
4
120r
4
+
β
2
6r
2

α
2
β
2
36r
4

β
4
120r
4
+
β
4
36r
4
_
=
α
β
_
1 +
β
2
−α
2
6r
2
+
α
4
−β
4
120r
4
+
β
2

2
−α
2
)
36r
4
_
ON CERTAIN APPROXIMATE FORMULÆ. 87
=
α
β
_
1 +
β
2
−α
2
6r
2
_
1 +
β
2
6r
2

α
2

2
20r
2
__
=
α
β
_
1 +
β
2
−α
2
6r
2
_
1 +

2
−3α
2
60r
2
__
.
111. To express cot B −cot A approximately.
Cot B −cot A =
1
sin B
(cos B −
sin B
sin A
cos A);
hence, approximately, by Art. 110,
cot B −cot A =
1
sin B
(cos B −
β
α
cos A−
β
α
α
2
−β
2
6r
2
cos A).
Now we have shewn in Art. 106, that approximately
cos A =
β
2

2
−α
2
2βγ
+
α
4

4

4
−2α
2
β
2
−2β
2
γ
2
−2γ
2
α
2
24βγr
2
,
therefore cos B −
β
α
cos A =
α
2
−β
2
αγ
approximately,
and cot B −cot A =
α
2
−β
2
αγ sin B

α
2
−β
2
αγ sin B
β
2

2
−α
2
12r
2
=
α
2
−β
2
αγ sin B
_
1 −
β
2

2
−α
2
12r
2
_
.
112. The approximations in Arts. 109 and 110 are true so far as terms involv-
ing r
4
; that in Art. 111 is true so far as terms involving r
2
, and it will be seen
that we are thus able to carry the approximations in the following Article so far
as terms involving r
4
.
113. To find an approximate value of the error in the length of a side of a
spherical triangle when calculated by Legendre’s Theorem.
Suppose the side β known and the side α required; let 3µ denote the spherical
excess which is adopted. Then the approximate value
β sin(A−µ)
sin(B −µ)
is taken for
the side of which α is the real value. Let x = α −
β(A−µ)
sin(B −µ)
; we have then to
88 ON CERTAIN APPROXIMATE FORMULÆ.
find x approximately. Now approximately
sin(A−µ)
sin(B −µ)
=
sin A−µcos A−
µ
2
2
sin A
sin B −µcos B −
µ
2
2
sin B
=
sin A
sin B
_
1 −µcot A−
µ
2
2
__
1 −µcot B −
µ
2
2
_
−1
=
sin A
sin B
_
1 +µ(cot B −cot A) +µ
2
cot B(cot B −cot A)
_
=
sin A
sin B
+
µsin A
sin B
(cot B −cot A)(1 +µcot B).
Also the following formulæ are true so far as terms involving r
2
:
sin A
sin B
=
α
β
_
1 +
β
2
−α
2
6r
2
_
,
cot B −cot A =
α
2
−β
2
αγ sin B
_
1 −
β
2

2
−α
2
12r
2
_
,
1 +µcot B = 1 +
α
2

2
−β
2
12r
2
.
Hence, approximately,
sin A
sin B
(cot B −cot A)(1 +µcot B) =
α
2
−β
2
βγ sin B
.
Therefore x = α −
β sin A
sin B

µ(α
2
−β
2
)
γ sin B
=
α(β
2
−α
2
)
6
_

αγ sin B

1
r
2
+

2
−7β
2
60r
4
_
, by Art. 110.
If we calculate µ from the formula µ =
αγ sin B
6r
2
we obtain
x =
α(β
2
−α
2
)(3α
2
−7β
2
)
360r
4
.
ON CERTAIN APPROXIMATE FORMULÆ. 89
If we calculate µ from an equation corresponding to (1) of Art. 109, we have
µ =
αγ sin B
6r
2
_
1 +

2
−α
2
−γ
2
24r
2
_
;
therefore x =
α(β
2
−α
2
)(α
2

2
−5γ
2
)
720r
4
.
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
1. If the sides of a spherical triangle AB, AC be produced to B

, C

, so
that BB

, CC

are the semi-supplements of AB, AC respectively, shew that the
arc B

C

will subtend an angle at the centre of the sphere equal to the angle
between the chords of AB and AC.
2. Deduce Legendre’s Theorem from the formula
tan
2
A
2
=
sin
1
2
(a +b −c) sin
1
2
(c +a −b)
sin
1
2
(b +c −a) sin
1
2
(a +b +c)
.
3. Four points A, B, C, D on the surface of a sphere are joined by arcs of
great circles, and E, F are the middle points of the arcs AC, BD: shew that
cos AB + cos BC + cos CD + cos DA = 4 cos AE cos BF cos FE.
4. If a quadrilateral ABCD be inscribed in a small circle on a sphere so that
two opposite angles A and C may be at opposite extremities of a diameter, the
sum of the cosines of the sides is constant.
5. In a spherical triangle if A = B = 2C, shew that
cos a cos
a
2
= cos
_
c +
a
2
_
.
6. ABC is a spherical triangle each of whose sides is a quadrant; P is any
point within the triangle: shew that
cos PAcos PBcos PC + cot BPC cot CPAcot APB = 0,
and tan ABP tan BCP tan CAP = 1.
7. If O be the middle point of an equilateral triangle ABC, and P any point
90 ON CERTAIN APPROXIMATE FORMULÆ.
on the surface of the sphere, then
1
4
(tan POtan OA)
2
(cos PA+ cos PB + cos PC)
2
=
cos
2
PA+ cos
2
PB + cos
2
PC −cos PAcos PB −cos PBcos PC −cos PC cos PA.
8. If ABC be a triangle having each side a quadrant, O the pole of the
inscribed circle, P any point on the sphere, then
(cos PA+ cos PB + cos PC)
2
= 3 cos
2
PO.
9. From each of three points on the surface of a sphere arcs are drawn on
the surface to three other points situated on a great circle of the sphere, and
their cosines are a, b, c; a

, b

, c

; a

, b

, c

. Shew that ab

c

+a

bc

+a

b

c =
ab

c

+a

b

c +a

bc

.
10. From Arts. 110 and 111, shew that approximately
log β = log α + log sin B −log sin A+
S
3r
2
(cot A−cot B).
11. By continuing the approximation in Art. 106 so as to include the terms
involving r
4
, shew that approximately
cos A = cos A


βγ sin
2
A

6r
2
+
βγ(α
2
−3β
2
−3γ
2
) sin
2
A

180r
4
.
12. From the preceding result shew that if A = A

+θ then approximately
θ =
βγ sin A

6r
2
_
1 +

2
+ 7γ
2

2
120r
2
_
.
X
GEODETICAL
OPERATIONS.
114. One of the most important applications of Trigonometry, both Plane
and Spherical, is to the determination of the figure and dimensions of the Earth
itself, and of any portion of its surface. We shall give a brief outline of the
subject, and for further information refer to Woodhouse’s Trigonometry, to the
article Geodesy in the English Cyclopædia, and to Airy’s treatise on the Figure
of the Earth in the Encyclopædia Metropolitana. For practical knowledge of the
details of the operations it will be necessary to study some of the published
accounts of the great surveys which have been effected in different parts of the
world, as for example, the Account of the measurement of two sections of the
Meridional arc of India, by Lieut.-Colonel Everest, 1847; or the Account of the
Observations and Calculations of the Principal Triangulation in the Ordnance
Survey of Great Britain and Ireland, 1858.
115. An important part of any survey consists in the measurement of a hor-
izontal line, which is called a base. A level plain of a few miles in length is
selected and a line is measured on it with every precaution to ensure accuracy.
Rods of deal, and of metal, hollow tubes of glass, and steel chains, have been
used in different surveys; the temperature is carefully observed during the op-
erations, and allowance is made for the varying lengths of the rods or chains,
which arise from variations in the temperature.
91
92 GEODETICAL OPERATIONS.
116. At various points of the country suitable stations are selected and signals
erected; then by supposing lines to be drawn connecting the signals, the country
is divided into a series of triangles. The angles of these triangles are observed,
that is, the angles which any two signals subtend at a third. For example,
suppose A and B to denote the extremities of the base, and C a signal at a
third point visible from A and B; then in the triangle ABC the angles ABC
and BAC are observed, and then AC and BC can be calculated. Again, let
D be a signal at a fourth point, such that it is visible from C and A; then the
angles ACD and CAD are observed, and as AC is known, CD and AD can be
calculated.
117. Besides the original base other lines are measured in convenient parts
of the country surveyed, and their measured lengths are compared with their
lengths obtained by calculation through a series of triangles from the original
base. The degree of closeness with which the measured length agrees with the
calculated length is a test of the accuracy of the survey. During the progress
of the Ordnance Survey of Great Britain and Ireland, several lines have been
measured; the last two are, one near Lough Foyle in Ireland, which was measured
in 1827 and 1828, and one on Salisbury Plain, which was measured in 1849. The
line near Lough Foyle is nearly 8 miles long, and the line on Salisbury Plain is
nearly 7 miles long; and the difference between the length of the line on Salisbury
Plain as measured and as calculated from the Lough Foyle base is less than 5
inches (An Account of the Observations . . . page 419).
118. There are different methods of effecting the calculations for determining
the lengths of the sides of all the triangles in the survey. One method is to use
the exact formulæ of Spherical Trigonometry. The radius of the Earth may be
considered known very approximately; let this radius be denoted by r, then if α
be the length of any arc the circular measure of the angle which the arc subtends
at the centre of the earth is
α
r
. The formulæ of Spherical Trigonometry gives
expressions for the trigonometrical functions of
α
r
, so that
α
r
may be found
and then α. Since in practice
α
r
is always very small, it becomes necessary to
pay attention to the methods of securing accuracy in calculations which involve
the logarithmic trigonometrical functions of small angles (Plane Trigonometry,
Art. 205).
GEODETICAL OPERATIONS. 93
Instead of the exact calculation of the triangles by Spherical Trigonometry,
various methods of approximation have been proposed; only two of these meth-
ods however have been much used. One method of approximation consists in
deducing from the angles of the spherical triangles the angles of the chordal
triangles, and then computing the latter triangles by Plane Trigonometry (see
Art. 105). The other method of approximation consists in the use of Legendre’s
Theorem (see Art. 106).
119. The three methods which we have indicated were all used by Delambre
in calculating the triangles in the French survey (Base du Syst`eme M´etrique,
Tome iii. page 7). In the earlier operations of the Trigonometrical survey of
Great Britain and Ireland, the triangles were calculated by the chord method;
but this has been for many years discontinued, and in place of it Legendre’s
Theorem has been universally adopted (An Account of the Observations . . .
page 244). The triangles in the Indian Survey are stated by Lieut.-Colonel
Everest to be computed on Legendre’s Theorem. (An Account of the Measure-
ment . . . page clviii.)
120. If the three angles of a plane triangle be observed, the fact that their sum
ought to be equal to two right angles affords a test of the accuracy with which
the observations are made. We shall proceed to shew how a test of the accuracy
of observations of the angles of a spherical triangle formed on the Earth’s surface
may be obtained by means of the spherical excess.
121. The area of a spherical triangle formed on the Earth’s surface being
known in square feet, it is required to establish a rule for computing the spherical
excess in seconds.
Let n be the number of seconds in the spherical excess, s the number of
square feet in the area of the triangle, r the number of feet in the radius of the
Earth. Then if E be the circular measure of the spherical excess,
s = Er
2
,
and E =

160 60 60
=
n
206265
approximately;
therefore s =
nr
2
206265
.
94 GEODETICAL OPERATIONS.
Now by actual measurement the mean length of a degree on the Earth’s
surface is found to be 365155 feet; thus
πr
180
= 365155.
With the value of r obtained from this equation it is found by logarithmic
calculation, that
log n = log s −9.326774.
Hence n is known when s is known.
This formula is called General Roy’s rule, as it was used by him in the
Trigonometrical survey of Great Britain and Ireland. Mr Davies, however,
claims it for Mr Dalby. (See Hutton’s Course of Mathematics, by Davies, Vol. ii.
p. 47.)
122. In order to apply General Roy’s rule, we must know the area of the
spherical triangle. Now the area is not known exactly unless the elements of the
spherical triangle are known exactly; but it is found that in such cases as occur
in practice an approximate value of the area is sufficient. Suppose, for example,
that we use the area of the plane triangle considered in Legendre’s Theorem,
instead of the area of the Spherical Triangle itself; then it appears from Art.
109, that the error is approximately denoted by the fraction
α
2

2

2
24r
2
of
the former area, and this fraction is less than .0001, if the sides do not exceed
100 miles in length. Or again, suppose we want to estimate the influence of
errors in the angles on the calculation of the area; let the circular measure of
an error be h, so that instead of
αβ sin C
2
we ought to use
αβ sin(C +h)
2
; the
error then bears to the area approximately the ratio expressed by hcot C. Now
in modern observations h will not exceed the circular measure of a few seconds,
so that, if C be not very small, hcot C is practically insensible.
123. The following example was selected by Woodhouse from the triangles
of the English survey, and has been adopted by other writers. The observed
angles of a triangle being respectively 42

2

32

, 67

55

39

, 70

1

48

, the sum
of the errors made in the observations is required, supposing the side opposite
to the angle A to be 274042 feet. The area is calculated from the expression
GEODETICAL OPERATIONS. 95
a
2
sin Bsin C
2 sin A
, and by General Roy’s rule it is found that n = .23. Now the sum
of the observed angles is 180

−1

, and as it ought to have been 180

+.23

, it
follows that the sum of the errors of the observations is 1

.23. This total error
may be distributed among the observed angles in such proportion as the opinion
of the observer may suggest; one way is to increase each of the observed angles
by one-third of 1

.23, and take the angles thus corrected for the true angles.
124. An investigation has been made with respect to the form of a triangle,
in which errors in the observations of the angles will exercise the least influence
on the lengths of the sides, and although the reasoning is allowed to be vague
it may be deserving of the attention of the student. Suppose the three angles
of a triangle observed, and one side, as a, known, it is required to find the form
of the triangle in order that the other sides may be least affected by errors in
the observations. The spherical excess of the triangle may be supposed known
with sufficient accuracy for practice, and if the sum of the observed angles does
not exceed two right angles by the proper spherical excess, let these angles be
altered by adding the same quantity to each, so as to make their sum correct. Let
A, B, C be the angles thus furnished by observation and altered if necessary;
and let δA, δB and δC denote the respective errors of A, B and C. Then
δA + δB + δC = 0, because by supposition the sum of A, B and C is correct.
Considering the triangle as approximately plane, the true value of the side c is
a sin(C +δC)
sin(A+δA)
, that is,
a sin(C +δC)
sin(A−δB −δC)
. Now approximately
sin(C +δC) = sin C +δC cos C, (Plane Trig. Chap. xii.),
sin(A−δB −δC) = sin A−(δB +δC) cos A.
Hence approximately
c =
a sin C
sin A
_
1 +δC cot C
__
1 −(δB +δC) cot A
_
−1
=
a sin C
sin A
_
1 +δBcot A+δC(cot C + cot A)
_
;
and cot C + cot A =
sin(A+C)
sin Asin C
=
sin B
sin Asin C
approximately.
96 GEODETICAL OPERATIONS.
Hence the error of c is approximately
a sin B
sin
2
A
δC +
a sin C cos A
sin
2
A)
δB.
Similarly the error of b is approximately
a sin C
sin
2
A
δB +
a sin Bcos A
sin
2
A
δC.
Now it is impossible to assign exactly the signs and magnitudes of the errors
δB and δC, so that the reasoning must be vague. It is obvious that to make the
error small sin A must not be small. And as the sum of δA, δB and δC is zero,
two of them must have the same sign, and the third the opposite sign; we may
therefore consider that it is more probable than any two as δB and δC have
different signs, than that they have the same sign.
If δB and δC have different signs the errors of b and c will be less when cos A
is positive than when cos A is negative; A therefore ought to be less than a right
angle. And if δB and δC are probably not very different, B and C should be
nearly equal. These conditions will be satisfied by a triangle differing not much
from an equilateral triangle.
If two angles only, A and B, be observed, we obtain the same expressions as
before for the errors in b and c; but we have no reason for considering that δB
and δC are of different signs rather than of the same sign. In this case then the
supposition that A is a right angle will probably make the errors smallest.
125. The preceding article is taken from the Treatise on Trigonometry in the
Encyclopædia Metropolitana. The least satisfactory part is that in which it is
considered that δB and δC may be supposed nearly equal; for since δA+δB +
δC = 0, if we suppose δB and δC nearly equal and of opposite signs, we do
in effect suppose δA = 0 nearly; thus in observing three angles, we suppose
that in one observation a certain error is made, in a second observation the
same numerical error is made but with an opposite sign, and in the remaining
observation no error is made.
126. We have hitherto proceeded on the supposition that the Earth is a sphere;
it is however approximately a spheroid of small eccentricity. For the small
corrections which must in consequence be introduced into the calculations we
GEODETICAL OPERATIONS. 97
must refer to the works named in Art. 114. One of the results obtained is that the
error caused by regarding the Earth as a sphere instead of a spheroid increases
with the departure of the triangle from the well-conditioned or equilateral form
(An Account of the Observations . . . page 243). Under certain circumstances
the spherical excess is the same on a spheroid as on a sphere (Figure of the
Earth in the Encyclopædia Metropolitana, pages 198 and 215).
127. In geodetical operations it is sometimes required to determine the hori-
zontal angle between two points, which are at a small angular distance from the
horizon, the angle which the objects subtend being known, and also the angles
of elevation or depression.
Suppose OA and OB the directions in which the two points are seen from
O; and let the angle AOB be observed. Let OZ be the direction at right angles
to the observer’s horizon; describe a sphere round O as a centre, and let vertical
planes through OA and OB meet the horizon at OC and OD respectively: then
the angle COD is required.
Let AOB = θ, COD = θ +x, AOC = h, BOD = k; from the triangle AZB
cos AZB =
cos θ −cos ZA cos ZB
sin ZA sin ZB
=
cos θ −sin h sin k
cos h cos k
;
98 GEODETICAL OPERATIONS.
and cos AZB = cos COD = cos(θ +x); thus
cos(θ +x) =
cos θ −sin h sin k
cos h cos k
.
This formula is exact; by approximation we obtain
cos θ −xsin θ =
cos θ −hk
1 −
1
2
(h
2
+k
2
)
;
therefore xsin θ = hk −
1
2
(h
2
+k
2
) cos θ, nearly,
and x =
2hk −(h
2
+k
2
)(cos
2 1
2
θ −sin
2 1
2
θ)
2 sin θ
=
1
4
(h +k)
2
tan
1
2
θ −
1
4
(h −k)
2
cot
1
2
θ.
This process, by which we find the angle COD from the angle AOB, is called
reducing an angle to the horizon.
XI
ON SMALL VARIATIONS
IN THE PARTS OF A
SPHERICAL TRIANGLE.
128. It is sometimes important to know what amount of error will be intro-
duced into one of the calculated parts of a triangle by reason of any small error
which may exist in the given parts. We will here consider an example.
129. A side and the opposite angle of a spherical triangle remain constant:
determine the connexion between the small variations of any other pair of ele-
ments.
Suppose C and c to remain constant.
(1) Required the connexion between the small variations of the other sides.
We suppose a and b to denote the sides of one triangle which can be formed with
C and c as fixed elements, and a +δa and b +δb to denote the sides of another
such triangle; then we require the ratio of δa to δb when both are extremely
small. We have
cos c =cos a cos b + sin a sin b cos C,
and cos c =cos(a +δa) cos(b +δb) + sin(a +δa) sin(b +δb) cos C;
also cos(a +δa) = cos a −sin a δa, nearly,
99
100 ON SMALL VARIATIONS.
and sin(a +δa) = sin a + cos a δa, nearly,
with similar formulæ for cos(b +δb) and sin(b +δb). (See Plane Trigonometry,
Chap. xii.) Thus
cos c = (cos a −sin a δa)(cos b −sin b δb)
+ (sin a + cos a δa)(sin b + cos b δb) cos C.
Hence by subtraction, if we neglect the product δa, δb,
0 = δa(sin a cos b −cos a sin b cos C)
+δb(sin b cos a −cos b sin a cos C);
this gives the ratio of δa to δb in terms of a, b, C. We may express the ratio more
simply in terms of A and B; for, dividing by sin a sin b, we get from Art. 44,
δa
sin a
cot B sin C +
δb
sin b
cot A sin C = 0;
therefore δa cos B +δb cos A = 0.
(2) Required the connexion between the small variations of the other angles.
In this case we may by means of the polar triangle deduce from the result just
found, that
δA cos b +δB cos a = 0;
this may also be found independently as before.
(3) Required the connexion between the small variations of a side and the
opposite angle (A, a).
Here sin Asin c = sin C sin a,
and sin(A+δA) sin c = sin C sin(a +δa);
hence by subtraction
cos A sin c δA = sin C cos a δa,
and therefore δAcot A = δa cot a.
ON SMALL VARIATIONS. 101
(4) Required the connexion between the small variations of a side and the
adjacent angle (a, B).
We have cot C sin B = cot c sin a −cos Bcos a;
proceeding as before we obtain
cot C cos BδB = cot c cos aδa + cos Bsin aδa + cos a sin BδB;
therefore
(cot C cos B −cos a sin B)δB = (cot c cos a + cos Bsin a)δa;
therefore −
cos A
sin C
δB =
cos b
sin c
δa;
therefore δBcos A = −δa cot b sin B.
130. Some more examples are proposed for solution at the end of this Chapter;
as they involve no difficulty they are left for the exercise of the student.
EXAMPLES.
1. In a spherical triangle, if C and c remain constant while a and b receive
the small increments δa and δb respectively, shew that
δa

(1 −n
2
sin
2
a)
+
δb

(1 −n
2
sin
2
b)
= 0 where n =
sin C
sin c
.
2. If C and c remain constant, and a small change be made in a, find the
consequent changes in the other parts of the triangle. Find also the change in
the area.
3. Supposing A and c to remain constant, prove the following equations,
connecting the small variations of pairs of the other elements:
sin Cδb = sin aδB, δb sin C = −δC tan a, δa tan C = δBsin a,
δa tan C = −δC tan a, δb cos C = δa, δBcos a = −δC.
4. Supposing b and c to remain constant, prove the following equations
102 ON SMALL VARIATIONS.
connecting the small variations of pairs of the other elements:
δBtan C = δC tan B, δa cot C = −δBsin a,
δa = δAsin c sin B, δAsin Bcos C = −δBsin A.
5. Supposing B and C to remain constant, prove the following equations
connecting the small variations of pairs of the other elements:
δb tan c = δc tan b, δAcot c = δb sin A,
δA = δa sin b sin C, δa sin Bcos c = δb sin A.
6. If A and C are constant, and b be increased by a small quantity, shew
that a will be increased or diminished according as c is less or greater than a
quadrant.
XII
ON THE CONNEXION
OF FORMULÆ IN PLANE
AND SPHERICAL
TRIGONOMETRY.
131. The student must have perceived that many of the results obtained
in Spherical Trigonometry resemble others with which he is familiar in Plane
Trigonometry. We shall now pay some attention to this resemblance. We shall
first shew how we may deduce formulæ in Plane Trigonometry from formulæ in
Spherical Trigonometry; and we shall then investigate some theorems in Spheri-
cal Trigonometry which are interesting principally on account of their connexion
with known results in Plane Geometry and Trigonometry.
132. From any formula in Spherical Trigonometry involving the elements of
a triangle, one of them being a side, it is required to deduce the corresponding
formula in Plane Trigonometry.
Let α, β, γ be the lengths of the sides of the triangle, r the radius of the
sphere, so that
α
r
,
β
r
,
γ
r
are the circular measures of the sides of the triangle;
expand the functions of
α
r
,
β
r
,
γ
r
which occur in any proposed formula in powers
103
104 CONNEXION OF FORMULÆ IN TRIGONOMETRY.
of
α
r
,
β
r
,
γ
r
respectively; then if we suppose r to become indefinitely great, the
limiting form of the proposed formula will be a relation in Plane Trigonometry.
For example, in Art. 106, from the formula
cos A =
cos a −cos b cos c
sin b sin c
we deduce
cos A =
β
2

2
−α
2
2βγ
+
α
4

4

4
−2α
2
β
2
−2β
2
γ
2
−2γ
2
α
2
24βγr
2
+. . . ;
now suppose r to become infinite; then ultimately
cos A =
β
2

2
−α
2
2βγ
;
and this is the expression for the cosine of the angle of a plane triangle in terms
of the sides.
Again, in Art. 110, from the formula
sin A
sin B
=
sin a
sin b
we deduce
sin A
sin B
=
α
β
+
α(β
2
−α
2
)
6βr
2
+. . . ;
now suppose r to become infinite; then ultimately
sin A
sin B
=
α
β
,
that is, in a plane triangle the sides are as the sines of the opposite angles.
133. To find the equation to a small circle of the sphere.
The student can easily draw the required diagram.
Let O be the pole of a small circle, S a fixed point on the sphere, SX a
fixed great circle of the sphere. Let OS = α, OSX = β; then the position of O
is determined by means of these angular co-ordinates α and β. Let P be any
point on the circumference of the small circle, PS = θ, PSX = φ, so that θ and
CONNEXION OF FORMULÆ IN TRIGONOMETRY. 105
φ are the angular co-ordinates of P. Let OP = r. Then from the triangle OSP
cos r = cos αcos θ + sin αsin θ cos(φ −β); (1)
this gives a relation between the angular co-ordinates of any point on the cir-
cumference of the circle.
If the circle be a great circle then r =
π
2
; thus the equation becomes
0 = cos αcos θ + sin αsin θ cos(φ −β). (2)
It will be observed that the angular co-ordinates here used are analogous to
the latitude and longitude which serve to determine the positions of places on
the Earth’s surface; θ is the complement of the latitude and φ is the longitude.
134. Equation (1) of the preceding Article may be written thus:
cos r
_
cos
2
θ
2
+sin
2
θ
2
_
= cos α
_
cos
2
θ
2
−sin
2
θ
2
_
+ 2 sin αsin
θ
2
cos
θ
2
cos(φ −β).
Divide by cos
2
θ
2
and rearrange; hence
tan
2
θ
2
(cos r + cos α) −2 tan
θ
2
sin αcos(φ −β) + cos r −cos α = 0.
Let tan
θ
1
2
and tan
θ
2
2
denote the values of tan
θ
2
found from this quadratic
equation; then by Algebra, Chapter xxii.
tan
θ
1
2
tan
θ
2
2
=
cos r −cos α
cos r + cos α
= tan
α +r
2
tan
α −r
2
.
Thus the value of the product tan
θ
1
2
tan
θ
2
2
is independent of φ; this result
corresponds to the well-known property of a circle in Plane Geometry which is
demonstrated in Euclid iii. 36 Corollary.
135. Let three arcs OA, OB, OC meet at a point. From any point P in OB
draw PM perpendicular to OA, and PN perpendicular to OC. The student
106 CONNEXION OF FORMULÆ IN TRIGONOMETRY.
can easily draw the required diagram.
Then, by Art. 65,
sin PM = sin OP sin AOB, sin PN = sin OP sin COB;
therefore
sin PM
sin PN
=
sin AOB
sin COB
.
Thus the ratio of sin PM to sin PN is independent of the position of P on
the arc OB.
136. Conversely suppose that from any other point p arcs pm and pn are
drawn perpendicular to OA and OC respectively; then if
sin pm
sin pn
=
sin PM
sin PN
,
it will follow that p is on the same great circle as O and P.
137. From two points P
1
and P
2
arcs are drawn perpendicular to a fixed arc;
and from a point P on the same great circle as P
1
and P
2
a perpendicular
is drawn to the same fixed arc. Let PP
1
= θ
1
and PP
2
= θ
2
; and let the
perpendiculars drawn from P, P
1
, and P
2
be denoted by x, x
1
and x
2
. Then
will
sin x =
sin θ
2
sin(θ
1

2
)
sin x
1
+
sin θ
1
sin(θ
1

2
)
sin x
2
.
Let the arc P
1
P
2
, produced if necessary, cut the fixed arc at a point O; let α
denote the angle between the arcs. We will suppose that P
1
is between O and
P
2
, and that P is between P
1
and P
2
.
Then, by Art. 65,
sin x
1
= sin αsin OP
1
= sin αsin(OP −θ
1
)
= sin α(sin OP cos θ
1
−cos OP sin θ
1
);
sin x
2
= sin αsin OP
2
= sin αsin(OP +θ
2
)
= sin α(sin OP cos θ
2
+ cos OP sin θ
2
).
CONNEXION OF FORMULÆ IN TRIGONOMETRY. 107
Multiply the former by sin θ
2
, and the latter by sin θ
1
, and add; thus
sin θ
2
sin x
1
+ sin θ
1
sin x
2
= sin(θ
1

2
) sin αsin OP
= sin(θ
1

2
) sin x.
The student should convince himself by examination that the result holds
for all relative positions of P, P
1
and P
2
, when due regard is paid to algebraical
signs.
138. The principal use of Art. 137 is to determine whether three given points
are on the same great circle; an illustration will be given in Art. 146.
139. The arcs drawn from the angles of a spherical triangle perpendicular to
the opposite sides respectively meet at a point.
Let CF be perpendicular to AB. From F suppose arcs drawn perpendicular
to CB and CA respectively; denote the former by ξ and the latter by η. Then,
by Art. 135,
sin ξ
sin η
=
sin FCB
sin FCA
.
But, by Art. 65,
cos B = cos CF sin FCB, cos A = cos CF sin FCA;
therefore
sin ξ
sin η
=
cos B
cos A
=
cos Bcos C
cos Acos C
.
And if from any point in CF arcs are drawn perpendicular to CB and CA
108 CONNEXION OF FORMULÆ IN TRIGONOMETRY.
respectively, the ratio of the sine of the former perpendicular to the sine of the
latter perpendicular is equal to
sin ξ
sin η
by Art. 135.
In like manner suppose AD perpendicular to BC; then if from any point in
AD arcs are drawn perpendicular to AC and AB respectively, the ratio of the
sine of the former perpendicular to the sine of the latter perpendicular is equal
to
cos Acos C
cos Acos B
.
Let CF and AD meet at P, and from P let perpendiculars be drawn on
the sides a, b, c of the triangle; and denote these perpendiculars by x, y, z
respectively: then we have shewn that
sin x
sin y
=
cos Bcos C
cos Acos C
,
and that
sin y
sin z
=
cos Acos C
cos Acos B
;
hence it follows that
sin x
sin z
=
cos Bcos C
cos Bcos A
,
and this shews that the point P is on the arc drawn from B perpendicular to
AC.
Thus the three perpendiculars meet at a point, and this point is determined
by the relations
sin x
cos Bcos C
=
sin y
cos C cos A
=
sin z
cos Acos B
.
140. In the same manner it may be shewn that the arcs drawn from the angles
of a spherical triangle to the middle points of the opposite sides meet at a point;
and if from this point arcs x, y, z are drawn perpendicular to the sides a, b, c
respectively,
sin x
sin Bsin C
=
sin y
sin C sin A
=
sin z
sin Asin B
.
141. It is known in Plane Geometry that a certain circle touches the inscribed
and escribed circles of any triangle; this circle is called the Nine points circle:
see Appendix to Euclid, pages 317, 318, and Plane Trigonometry, Chapter xxiv.
CONNEXION OF FORMULÆ IN TRIGONOMETRY. 109
We shall now shew that a small circle can always be determined on the
sphere to touch the inscribed and escribed circles of any spherical triangle.
142. Let α denote the distance from A of the pole of the small circle inscribed
within a spherical triangle ABC. Suppose that a small circle of angular radius
ρ touches this inscribed circle internally; let β be the distance from A of the
pole of this touching circle; let γ be the angle between arcs drawn from A to
the pole of the inscribed circle and the pole of the touching circle respectively.
Then we must have
cos(ρ −r) = cos αcos β + sin αsin β cos γ. (1)
Suppose that this touching circle also touches externally the escribed circle of
angular radius r
1
; then if α
1
denote the distance from A of the pole of this
escribed circle, we must have
cos(ρ +r
1
) = cos α
1
cos β + sin α
1
sin β cos γ. (2)
Similarly, if α
2
and α
3
denote the distances from A of the poles of the other
escribed circles, in order that the touching circle may touch these escribed circles
externally, we must also have
cos(ρ +r
2
) = cos α
2
cos β + sin α
2
sin β cos
_
π
2
−γ
_
, (3)
cos(ρ +r
3
) = cos α
3
cos β + sin α
3
sin β cos
_
π
2

_
. (4)
We shall shew that real values of ρ, β, and γ can be found to satisfy these
four equations.
Eliminate cos γ from (1) and (2); thus
cos ρ(cos r sin α
1
−cos r
1
sin α) + sin ρ(sin r sin α
1
+ sin r
1
sin α)
= cos β(cos αsin α
1
−cos α
1
sin α). (5)
Suppose that the inscribed circle touches AB at the distance m from A, and
that the escribed circle of angular radius r
1
touches AB at the distance m
1
from
110 CONNEXION OF FORMULÆ IN TRIGONOMETRY.
A. Then, by Art. 65,
cot α = cot mcos
A
2
, cos α = cos r cos m, sin r = sin αsin
A
2
;
therefore
cos r
sin α
=
cot α
cos m
=
1
sin m
cos
A
2
.
Similarly we may connect α
1
and r
1
with m
1
. Thus we obtain from (5)
cos ρ cos
A
2
_
1
sin m

1
sin m
1
_
+ 2 sin ρ sin
A
2
= cos β cos
A
2
(cot m−cot m
1
) ;
therefore cos ρ(sin m
1
−sin m) + 2 sin ρ sin msin m
1
tan
A
2
= cos β sin(m
1
−m).
But by Arts. 89 and 90 we have m = s − a, and m
1
= s; therefore by the
aid of Art. 45 we obtain
2 cos ρ = sin
a
2
cos
b +c
2
+ 2nsin ρ = cos β sin a, (6)
where n has the meaning assigned in Art. 46.
In like manner if we eliminate sin γ between (3) and (4), putting m
2
for s−c,
and m
3
for s −b, we obtain
cos ρ(sin m
2
+ sin m
3
) −2 sin ρ sin m
2
sin m
3
cot
A
2
= cos β sin(m
2
+m
3
),
therefore 2 cos ρ sin
a
2
cos
b −c
2
−2nsin ρ = cos β sin a. (7)
From (6) and (7) we get
tan ρ =
sin
a
2
sin
b
2
sin
c
2
n
=
1
2
tan R, by Art. 92 (8)
CONNEXION OF FORMULÆ IN TRIGONOMETRY. 111
and cos β =
cos
b
2
cos
c
2
cos ρ
cos
a
2
. (9)
We may suppose that cos
a
2
is not less than cos
b
2
or cos
c
2
, so that we are
sure of a possible value of cos β from (9).
It remains to shew that when ρ and β are thus determined, all the four
fundamental equations are satisfied.
It will be observed that, ρ and β being considered known, cos γ can be found
from (1) or (2), and sin γ can be found from (3) or (4): we must therefore shew
that (1) and (2) give the same value for cos γ, and that (3) and (4) give the same
value for sin γ; and we must also shew that these values satisfy the condition
cos
2
γ + sin
2
γ = 1.
From (1) we have
cos ρ sin r
sin α
_
cot r + tan ρ −cos mcot r
cos β
cos ρ
_
= sin β cos γ,
that is,
cos ρ sin
A
2
n
_
¸
_
¸
_
sin s + sin
1
2
a sin
1
2
b sin
1
2
c −
cos(s −a) sin s cos
b
2
cos
c
2
cos
a
2
_
¸
_
¸
_
= sin β cos γ;
this reduces to
cos ρ sin
A
2
n
_
¸
_
¸
_
cos
a
2
sin
b +c
2

sin(b +c) cos
b
2
cos
c
2
2 cos
a
2
_
¸
_
¸
_
= sin β cos γ :
and it will be found that (2) reduces to the same; so that (1) and (2) give the
same value for cos γ.
In like manner it will be found that (3) and (4) agree in reducing to
cos ρ cos
A
2
n
_
¸
_
¸
_
cos
a
2
sin
c −b
2

sin(c −b) cos
b
2
cos
c
2
2 cos
a
2
_
¸
_
¸
_
= sin β cos γ.
112 CONNEXION OF FORMULÆ IN TRIGONOMETRY.
It only remains to shew that the condition cos
2
γ + sin
2
γ = 1 is satisfied.
Put k for
cos β
cos ρ
, that is for
cos
b
2
cos
c
2
cos
a
2
;
put X for cot r{1 −k cos(s −a)}, and Y for cot r
1
{1 −k cos s}.
Then (1) and (2) may be written respectively thus:
(X cos ρ + sin ρ) sin
A
2
= sin β cos γ, (10)
(Y cos ρ −sin ρ) sin
A
2
= sin β cos γ. (11)
From (10) and (11) by addition
(X +Y ) sin
A
2
cos ρ = 2 sin β cos γ;
therefore 4 sin
2
β cos
2
γ = (X
2
+Y
2
+ 2XY ) sin
2
A
2
cos
2
ρ. (12)
But from (10) and (11) by subtraction
(X −Y ) cos ρ = −2 sin ρ;
therefore (X
2
+Y
2
) cos
2
ρ = 4 sin
2
ρ + 2XY cos
2
ρ.
Substitute in (12) and we obtain
sin
2
β cos
2
γ = (sin
2
ρ +XY cos
2
ρ) sin
2
A
2
. (13)
Again, put
X
1
for cot r
2
{1 −k cos(s −c)}, and Y
1
for cot r
3
{1 −k cos(s −b)}.
Then (3) and (4) may be written respectively thus:
(X
1
cos ρ −sin ρ) cos
A
2
= sin β sin γ, (14)
(Y
1
cos ρ −sin ρ) cos
A
2
= −sin β sin γ. (15)
CONNEXION OF FORMULÆ IN TRIGONOMETRY. 113
From (14) and (15) by subtraction
(X
1
−Y
1
) cos
A
2
cos ρ = 2 sin β sin γ,
and from (14) and (15) by addition,
(X
1
+Y
1
) cos ρ = 2 sin ρ,
whence
sin
2
β sin
2
γ = (sin
2
ρ −X
1
Y
1
cos
2
ρ) cos
2
A
2
. (16)
Hence from (13) and (16) it follows that we have to establish the relation
sin
2
β = sin
2
ρ +
_
XY sin
2
A
2
−X
1
Y
1
cos
2
A
2
_
cos
2
ρ.
But sin
2
β = 1 − cos
2
β = sin
2
ρ + cos
2
ρ − k
2
cos
2
ρ, so that the relation
reduces to
1 −k
2
= XY sin
2
A
2
−X
1
Y
1
cos
2
A
2
.
Now
XY sin
2
A
2
=
cot r cot r
1
{1 −k cos s}{1 −k cos(s −a)} sin(s −b) sin(s −c)
sin b sin c
=
{1 −k cos s}{1 −k cos(s −a)}
sin b sin c
.
Similarly X
1
Y
1
cos
2
A
2
=
{1 −k cos(s −b)}{1 −k cos(s −c)}
sin b sin c
.
Subtract the latter from the former; then we obtain
k
sin b sin c
{cos(s −b) + cos(s −c) −cos s −cos(s −a)}
+
k
2
sin b sin c
{cos s cos(s −a) −cos(s −b) cos(s −c)},
that is
2k cos
a
2
sin b sin c
_
cos
b −c
2
−cos
b +c
2
_
114 CONNEXION OF FORMULÆ IN TRIGONOMETRY.
+
k
2
sin b sin c
_
cos
b +c +a
2
cos
b +c −a
2
−cos
a +c −b
2
cos
a +b −c
2
_
that is
4 sin
b
2
sin
c
2
cos
b
2
cos
c
2
sin b sin c
+
k
2
sin b sin c
_
sin
2
c −b
2
−sin
2
c +b
2
_
,
that is 1 −k
2
; which was to be shewn.
143. Thus the existence of a circle which touches the inscribed and escribed
circles of any spherical triangle has been established.
The distance of the pole of this touching circle from the angles B and C of
the triangle will of course be determined by formulæ corresponding to (9); and
thus it follows that
cos
a
2
cos
c
2
cos ρ
cos
b
2
and
cos
a
2
cos
b
2
cos ρ
cos
c
2
,
must both be less than unity.
144. Since the circle which has been determined touches the inscribed circle
internally and touches the escribed circles externally, it is obvious that it must
meet all the sides of the spherical triangle. We will now determine the position
of the points of meeting.
Suppose the touching circle intersects the side AB at points distant λ and
µ respectively from A.
Then by Art. 134 we have
tan
λ
2
tan
µ
2
=
cos ρ −cos β
cos ρ + cos β
=
cos
a
2
−cos
b
2
cos
c
2
cos
a
2
+ cos
b
2
cos
c
2
. (1)
In the same way we must have by symmetry
tan
c −λ
2
tan
c −µ
2
=
cos
b
2
−cos
a
2
cos
c
2
cos
b
2
+ cos
a
2
cos
c
2
. (2)
CONNEXION OF FORMULÆ IN TRIGONOMETRY. 115
From (2), when we substitute the value of tan
λ
2
tan
µ
2
given by (1), we obtain
tan
λ
2
+ tan
µ
2
=
cos
2
a
2
−cos
2
b
2
cos
2
c
2
+ cos
2
b
2
sin
2
c
2
cos
b
2
sin
c
2
_
cos
a
2
+ cos
b
2
cos
c
2
_
=
cos
a
2
−cos
b
2
cos
c
2
cos
b
2
sin
c
2
+
cos
b
2
sin
c
2
cos
a
2
+ cos
b
2
cos
c
2
. (3)
From (1) and (3) we see that we may put
tan
λ
2
=
cos
a
2
−cos
b
2
cos
c
2
cos
b
2
sin
c
2
. (4)
tan
µ
2
=
cos
b
2
sin
c
2
cos
a
2
+ cos
b
2
cos
c
2
. (5)
Similar formulæ of course hold for the points of intersection of the touching
circle with the other sides.
145. Let z denote the perpendicular from the pole of the touching circle on
AB; then
sin z = sin β sin
_
A
2

_
= sin β
_
sin
A
2
cos γ + cos
A
2
sin γ
_
.
But from (2) and (3) of Art. 142 we have
sin β cos γ =
cos ρ sin
A
2
n
_
Z −sin
a
2
sin
b
2
sin
c
2
_
,
116 CONNEXION OF FORMULÆ IN TRIGONOMETRY.
where Z = sin(s −a) −cos s sin(s −a) cos
b
2
cos
c
2
sec
a
2
,
and sin β sin γ =
cos ρ cos
A
2
n
_
Z
1
−sin
a
2
sin
b
2
sin
c
2
_
,
where Z
1
= sin(s −b) −cos(s −c) sin(s −b) cos
b
2
cos
c
2
sec
a
2
.
Therefore
sin z =
cos ρ
n
_
Z sin
2
A
2
+Z
1
cos
2
A
2
−sin
a
2
sin
b
2
sin
c
2
_
.
Now Z sin
2
A
2
=
sin(s −a) sin(s −b) sin(s −c)
sin b sin c
_
1 −cos s cos
b
2
cos
c
2
sec
a
2
_
,
and Z
1
cos
2
A
2
=
sin s sin(s −a) sin(s −b)
sin b sin c
_
1 −cos(s −c) cos
b
2
cos
c
2
sec
a
2
_
.
Therefore Z sin
2
A
2
+Z
1
cos
2
A
2
is equal to the product of
sin(s −a) sin(s −b)
sin b sin c
into
sin(s −c) + sin s −cos
b
2
cos
c
2
sec
a
2
_
sin(s −c) cos s + cos(s −c) sin s
_
=
sin(s −a) sin(s −b)
sin b sin c
_
2 sin
a +b
2
cos
c
2
−cos
b
2
cos
c
2
sec
a
2
sin(2s −c)
_
=
sin(s −a) sin(s −b)
2 sin b sin
c
2
_
2 sin
a +b
2
−sin(a +b) cos
b
2
sec
a
2
_
CONNEXION OF FORMULÆ IN TRIGONOMETRY. 117
=
sin(s −a) sin(s −b) sin
a +b
2
sin b sin
c
2
_
¸
_
¸
_
1 −
cos
a +b
2
cos
b
2
cos
a
2
_
¸
_
¸
_
=
sin(s −a) sin(s −b) sin
2
a +b
2
sin
b
2
sin b sin
c
2
cos
a
2
=
sin(s −a) sin(s −b) sin
2
a +b
2
2 cos
a
2
cos
b
2
sin
c
2
.
Therefore
sin z =
cos ρ
n
sin
a
2
sin
b
2
sin
c
2
_
¸
_
¸
_
2 sin
2
a +b
2
sin(s −a) sin(s −b)
sin
2
c
2
sin a sin b
−1
_
¸
_
¸
_
=
cos ρ
n
sin
a
2
sin
b
2
sin
c
2
_
2cos
2
A−B
2
−1
_
; by (2) of Art. 54.
Thus sin z =
cos ρ
n
sin
a
2
sin
b
2
sin
c
2
cos(A−B)
= sin ρ cos(A−B).
Similar expressions hold for the perpendiculars from the pole of the touching
circle on the other sides of the spherical triangle.
146. Let P denote the point determined in Art. 139; G the point determined
in Art. 140, and N the pole of the touching circle. We shall now shew that P,
G, and N are on a great circle.
Let x, y, z denote the perpendiculars from N on the sides a, b, c respectively
of the spherical triangle; let x
1
, y
1
, z
1
denote the perpendiculars from P; and
x
2
, y
2
, z
2
the perpendiculars from G. Then by Arts. 145, 139, and 140 we have
sin x
cos(B −C)
=
sin y
cos(C −A)
=
sin z
cos(A−B)
,
sin x
1
cos Bcos C
=
sin y
1
cos C cos A
=
sin z
1
cos Acos B
,
sin x
2
sin Bsin C
=
sin y
2
sin C sin A
=
sin z
2
sin Asin B
.
118 CONNEXION OF FORMULÆ IN TRIGONOMETRY.
Hence it follows that
sin x = t
1
sin x
1
+t
2
sin x
2
,
sin y = t
1
sin y
1
+t
2
sin y
2
,
sin z = t
1
sin z
1
+t
2
sin z
2
,
where t
1
and t
2
are certain quantities the values of which are not required for
our purpose.
Therefore by Art. 137 a certain point in the same great circle as P and G is
at the perpendicular distances x, y, z from the sides a, b, c respectively of the
spherical triangle: and hence this point must be the point N.
147. The resemblance of the results which have been obtained to those which
are known respecting the Nine points circle in Plane Geometry will be easily
seen.
The result tan ρ =
1
2
tan R corresponds to the fact that the radius of the
Nine points circle is half the radius of the circumscribing circle of the triangle.
From equation (4) of Art. 144 by supposing the radius of the sphere to
become infinite we obtain λ =
b
2
+c
2
−a
2
2c
: this corresponds to the fact that
the Nine points circle passes through the feet of the perpendiculars from the
angles of a triangle on the opposite sides.
From equation (5) of Art. 144 by supposing the radius of the sphere to
become infinite we obtain µ =
c
2
: this corresponds to the fact that the Nine
points circle passes through the middle points of the sides of a triangle.
From Art. 145 by supposing the radius of the sphere to become infinite we
obtain z =
1
2
Rcos(A−B): this is a known property of the Nine points circle.
In Plane Geometry the points which correspond to the P, G, and N of Art.
146 are on a straight line.
148. The results which have been demonstrated with respect to the circle
which touches the inscribed and escribed circles of a spherical triangle are mainly
due to Dr Hart and Dr Salmon. See the Quarterly Journal of Mathematics,
Vol. vi. page 67.
CONNEXION OF FORMULÆ IN TRIGONOMETRY. 119
EXAMPLES.
1. From the formula sin
a
2
=
__
−cos S cos(S −A)
sin Bsin C
_
deduce the expression
for the area of a plane triangle, namely
a
2
sin Bsin C
2 sin A
, when the radius of the
sphere is indefinitely increased.
2. Two triangles ABC, abc, spherical or plane, equal in all respects, differ
slightly in position: shew that
cos ABb cos BCc cos CAa + cos ACc cos CBb cos BAa = 0.
3. Deduce formulæ in Plane Trigonometry from Napier’s Analogies.
4. Deduce formulæ in Plane Trigonometry from Delambre’s Analogies.
5. From the formula cos
c
2
cos
A+B
2
= sin
C
2
cos
a +b
2
deduce the area of a
plane triangle in terms of the sides and one of the angles.
6. What result is obtained from Example 7 to Chapter VI., by supposing
the radius of the sphere infinite?
7. From the angle C of a spherical triangle a perpendicular is drawn to
the arc which joins the middle points of the sides a and b: shew that this
perpendicular makes an angle S −B with the side a, and an angle S −A with
the side b.
8. From each angle of a spherical triangle a perpendicular is drawn to the
arc which joins the middle points of the adjacent sides. Shew that these per-
pendiculars meet at a point; and that if x, y, z are the perpendiculars from this
point on the sides a, b, c respectively,
sin x
sin(S −B) sin(S −C)
=
sin y
sin(S −C) sin(S −A)
=
sin z
sin(S −A) sin(S −B)
.
9. Through each angle of a spherical triangle an arc is drawn so as to make
the same angle with one side which the perpendicular on the base makes with
the other side. Shew that these arcs meet at a point; and that if x, y, z are the
perpendiculars from this point on the sides a, b, c respectively,
sin x
cos A
=
sin y
cos B
=
sin z
cos C
.
120 CONNEXION OF FORMULÆ IN TRIGONOMETRY.
10. Shew that the points determined in Examples 8 and 9, and the point N
of Art. 146 are on a great circle.
State the corresponding theorem in Plane Geometry.
11. If one angle of a spherical triangle remains constant while the adjacent
sides are increased, shew that the area and the sum of the angles are increased.
12. If the arcs bisecting two angles of a spherical triangle and terminated
at the opposite sides are equal, the bisected angles will be equal provided their
sum be less than 180

.
[Let BOD and COE denote these two arcs which are given equal. If the
angles B and C are not equal suppose B the greater. Then CD is greater
than BE by Art. 58. And as the angle OBC is greater than the angle OCB,
therefore OC is greater than OB; therefore OD is greater than OE. Hence the
angle ODC is greater than the angle OEB, by Example 11. Then construct
a spherical triangle BCF on the other side of BC, equal to CBE. Since the
angle ODC is greater than the angle OEB, the angle FDC is greater than the
angle DFC; therefore CD is less than CF, so that CD is less than BE. See
the corresponding problem in Plane Geometry in the Appendix to Euclid, page
317.]
XIII
POLYHEDRONS.
149. A polyhedron is a solid bounded by any number of plane rectilineal figures
which are called its faces. A polyhedron is said to be regular when its faces are
similar and equal regular polygons, and its solid angles equal to one another.
150. If S be the number of solid angles in any polyhedron, F the number of its
faces, E the number of its edges, then S + F = E + 2.
Take any point within the polyhedron as centre, and describe a sphere of
radius r, and draw straight lines from the centre to each of the angular points
of the polyhedron; let the points at which these straight lines meet the surface
of the sphere be joined by arcs of great circles, so that the surface of the sphere
is divided into as many polygons as the polyhedron has faces.
Let s denote the sum of the angles of any one of these polygons, m the
number of its sides; then the area of the polygon is r
2
{s−(m−2)π} by Art. 99.
The sum of the areas of all the polygons is the surface of the sphere, that is,
4πr
2
. Hence since the number of the polygons is F, we obtain
4π =

s −π

m+ 2Fπ.
Now

s denotes the sum of all the angles of the polygons, and is therefore
equal to 2π× the number of solid angles, that is, to 2πS; and

m is equal to
the number of all the sides of all the polygons, that is, to 2E, since every edge
121
122 POLYHEDRONS.
gives rise to an arc which is common to two polygons. Therefore
4π = 2πS −2πE + 2Fπ;
therefore S +F = E + 2.
151. There can be only five regular polyhedrons.
Let m be the number of sides in each face of a regular polyhedron, n the
number of plane angles in each solid angle; then the entire number of plane
angles is expressed by mF, or by nS, or by 2E; thus
mF = nS = 2E, and S +F = E + 2;
from these equations we obtain
S =
4m
2(m+n) −mn
, E =
2mn
2(m+n) −mn
, F =
4n
2(m+n) −mn
.
These expressions must be positive integers, we must therefore have 2(m+n)
greater than mn; therefore
1
m
+
1
n
must be greater than
1
2
;
but n cannot be less than 3, so that
1
n
cannot be greater than
1
3
, and therefore
1
m
must be greater than
1
6
; and as m must be an integer and cannot be less
than 3, the only admissible values of m are 3, 4, 5. It will be found on trial
that the only values of m and n which satisfy all the necessary conditions are
the following: each regular polyhedron derives its name from the number of its
plane faces.
m n S E F Name of regular Polyhedron.
3 3 4 6 4 Tetrahedron or regular Pyramid.
4 3 8 12 6 Hexahedron or Cube.
3 4 6 12 8 Octahedron.
5 3 20 30 12 Dodecahedron.
3 5 12 30 20 Icosahedron.
POLYHEDRONS. 123
It will be seen that the demonstration establishes something more than the
enunciation states; for it is not assumed that the faces are equilateral and equian-
gular and all equal. It is in fact demonstrated that, there cannot be more than
five solids each of which has all its faces with the same number of sides, and all
its solid angles formed with the same number of plane angles.
152. The sum of all the plane angles which form the solid angles of any poly-
hedron is 2(S −2)π.
For if m denote the number of sides in any face of the polyhedron, the sum
of the interior angles of that face is (m−2)π by Euclid I. 32, Cor. 1. Hence the
sum of all the interior angles of all the faces is

(m−2)π, that is

mπ−2Fπ,
that is 2(E −F)π, that is 2(S −2)π.
153. To find the inclination of two adjacent faces of a regular polyhedron.
Let AB be the edge common to the two adjacent faces, C and D the centres
of the faces; bisect AB at E, and join CE and DE; CE and DE will be
perpendicular to AB, and the angle CED is the angle of inclination of the two
adjacent faces; we shall denote it by I. In the plane containing CE and DE
draw CO and DO at right angles to CE and DE respectively, and meeting
at O; about O as centre describe a sphere meeting OA, OC, OE at a, c, e
respectively, so that cae forms a spherical triangle. Since AB is perpendicular
to CE and DE, it is perpendicular to the plane CED, therefore the plane AOB
which contains AB is perpendicular to the plane CED; hence the angle cea of
the spherical triangle is a right angle. Let m be the number of sides in each
face of the polyhedron, n the number of the plane angles which form each solid
angle. Then the angle ace = ACE =

2m
=
π
m
; and the angle cae is half one of
the n equal angles formed on the sphere round a, that is, cae =

2n
=
π
n
. From
124 POLYHEDRONS.
the right-angled triangle cae
cos cae = cos cOe sin ace,
that is cos
π
n
= cos
_
π
2

I
2
_
sin
π
m
;
therefore sin
I
2
=
cos
π
n
sin
π
m
.
154. To find the radii of the inscribed and circumscribed spheres of a regular
polyhedron.
Let the edge AB = a, let OC = r and OA = R, so that r is the radius of
the inscribed sphere, and R is the radius of the circumscribed sphere. Then
CE = AE cot ACE =
a
2
cot
π
m
,
r = CE tan CEO = CE tan
I
2
=
a
2
cot
π
m
tan
I
2
;
also r = Rcos aOc = Rcot eca cot eac = Rcot
π
m
cot
π
n
;
therefore R = r tan
π
m
tan
π
n
=
a
2
tan
I
2
tan
π
n
.
155. To find the surface and volume of a regular polyhedron.
The area of one face of the polyhedron is
ma
2
4
cot
π
m
, and therefore the sur-
face of the polyhedron is
mFa
2
4
cot
π
m
.
Also the volume of the pyramid which has one face of the polyhedron for
base and O for vertex is
r
3

ma
2
4
cot
π
m
, and therefore the volume of the poly-
hedron is
mFra
2
12
cot
π
m
.
156. To find the volume of a parallelepiped in terms of its edges and their
inclinations to one another.
POLYHEDRONS. 125
Let the edges be OA = a, OB = b, OC = c; let the inclinations be BOC = a,
COA = β, AOB = γ. Draw CE perpendicular to the plane AOB meeting it at
E. Describe a sphere with O as a centre, meeting OA, OB, OC, OE at a, b, c,
e respectively.
The volume of the parallelepiped is equal to the product of its base and
altitude = ab sin γ CE = abc sin γ sin cOe. The spherical triangle cae is right-
angled at e; thus
sin cOe = sin cOa sin cae = sin β sin cab,
and from the spherical triangle cab
sin cab =

(1 −cos
2
α −cos
2
β −cos
2
γ + 2 cos αcos β cos γ)
sin β sin γ
;
therefore the volume of the parallelepiped
= abc

(1 −cos
2
α −cos
2
β −cos
2
γ + 2 cos αcos β cos γ).
157. To find the diagonal of a parallelepiped in terms of the three edges which
it meets and their inclinations to one another.
Let the edges be OA = a, OB = b, OC = c; let the inclinations be BOC = α,
COA = β, AOB = γ. Let OD be the diagonal required, and let OE be the
diagonal of the face OAB. Then
OD
2
= OE
2
+ED
2
+ 2OE EDcos COE
= a
2
+b
2
+ 2ab cos γ +c
2
+ 2cOE cos COE.
Describe a sphere with O as centre meeting OA, OB, OC, OE at a, b, c, e
respectively; then (see Example 14, Chap. iv.)
126 POLYHEDRONS.
cos cOe =
cos cOb sin aOe + cos cOa sin bOe
sin aOb
=
cos αsin aOe + cos β sin bOe
sin γ
;
therefore
OD
2
= a
2
+b
2
+c
2
+ 2ab cos γ +
2cOE
sin γ
(cos αsin aOe + cos β sin bOe),
and OE sin aOe = b sin γ, OE sin bOe = a sin γ;
therefore OD
2
= a
2
+b
2
+c
2
+ 2ab cos γ + 2bc cos α + 2ca cos β.
158. To find the volume of a tetrahedron.
A tetrahedron is one-sixth of a parallelepiped which has the same altitude
and its base double that of the tetrahedron; thus if the edges and their incli-
nations are given we can take one-sixth of the expression for the volume in
Art. 156. The volume of a tetrahedron may also be expressed in terms of its six
edges; for in the figure of Art. 156 let BC = a

, CA = b

, AB = c

; then
cos α =
b
2
+c
2
−a
2
2bc
, cos β =
c
2
+a
2
−b
2
2ca
, cos γ =
a
2
+b
2
−c
2
2ab
,
and if these values are substituted for cos α, cos β, and cos γ in the expression
obtained in Art. 156, the volume of the tetrahedron will be expressed in terms
of its six edges.
The following result will be obtained, in which V denotes the volume of the
tetrahedron,
144 V
2
= −a
2
b
2
c
2
POLYHEDRONS. 127
+a
2
a
2
(b
2
+c
2
−a
2
) +b
2
b
2
(c
2
+a
2
−b
2
) +c
2
c
2
(a
2
+b
2
−c
2
)
−a
2
(a
2
−b
2
)(a
2
−c
2
) −b
2
(b
2
−c
2
)(b
2
−a
2
) −c
2
(c
2
−a
2
)(c
2
−b
2
).
Thus for a regular tetrahedron we have 144 V
2
= 2a
6
.
159. If the vertex of a tetrahedron be supposed to be situated at any point
in the plane of its base, the volume vanishes; hence if we equate to zero the
expression on the right-hand side of the equation just given, we obtain a rela-
tion which must hold among the six straight lines which join four points taken
arbitrarily in a plane.
Or we may adopt Carnot’s method, in which this relation is established
independently, and the expression for the volume of a tetrahedron is deduced
from it; this we shall now shew, and we shall add some other investigations
which are also given by Carnot.
It will be convenient to alter the notation hitherto used, by interchanging
the accented and unaccented letters.
160. To find the relation holding among the six straight lines which join four
points taken arbitrarily in a plane.
Let A, B, C, D be the four points. Let AB = c, BC = a, CA = b; also let
DA = a

, DB = b

, DC = c

.
If D falls within the triangle ABC, the sum of the angles ADB, BDC, CDA
is equal to four right angles; so that
cos ADB = cos (BDC +CDA).
Hence by ordinary transformations we deduce
1 = cos
2
ADB + cos
2
BDC + cos
2
CDA−2 cos ADBcos BDC cos CDA.
If D falls without the triangle ABC, one of the three angles at D is equal to
the sum of the other two, and the result just given still holds.
Now cos ADB =
a
2
+b
2
−c
2
2a

b

, and the other cosines may be expressed in a
similar manner; substitute these values in the above result, and we obtain the
128 POLYHEDRONS.
required relation, which after reduction may be exhibited thus,
0 = −a
2
b
2
c
2
+a
2
a
2
(b
2
+c
2
−a
2
) +b
2
b
2
(c
2
+a
2
−b
2
) +c
2
c
2
(a
2
+b
2
−c
2
)
−a
2
(a
2
−b
2
)(a
2
−c
2
) −b
2
(b
2
−c
2
)(b
2
−a
2
) −c
2
(c
2
−a
2
)(c
2
−b
2
).
161. To express the volume of a tetrahedron in terms of its six edges.
Let a, b, c be the lengths of the sides of a triangle ABC forming one face of
the tetrahedron, which we may call its base; let a

, b

, c

be the lengths of the
straight lines which join A, B, C respectively to the vertex of the tetrahedron.
Let p be the length of the perpendicular from the vertex on the base; then the
lengths of the straight lines drawn from the foot of the perpendicular to A, B, C
respectively are

(a
2
−p
2
),

(b
2
−p
2
),

(c
2
−p
2
). Hence the relation given
in Art. 160 will hold if we put

(a
2
−p
2
) instead of a

,

(b
2
−p
2
) instead of
b

, and

(c
2
−p
2
) instead of c

. We shall thus obtain
p
2
(2a
2
b
2
+ 2b
2
c
2
+ 2c
2
a
2
−a
4
−b
4
−c
4
) = −a
2
b
2
c
2
+a
2
a
2
(b
2
+c
2
−a
2
) +b
2
b
2
(c
2
+a
2
−b
2
) +c
2
c
2
(a
2
+b
2
−c
2
)
−a
2
(a
2
−b
2
)(a
2
−c
2
) −b
2
(b
2
−c
2
)(b
2
−a
2
) −c
2
(c
2
−a
2
)(c
2
−b
2
).
The coefficient of p
2
in this equation is sixteen times the square of the area
of the triangle ABC; so that the left-hand member is 144 V
2
, where V denotes
the volume of the tetrahedron. Hence the required expression is obtained.
162. To find the relation holding among the six arcs of great circles which join
four points taken arbitrarily on the surface of a sphere.
Let A, B, C, D be the four points. Let AB = γ, BC = α, CA = β; let
DA = α

, DB = β

, DC = γ

.
As in Art. 160 we have
1 = cos
2
ADB + cos
2
BDC + cos
2
CDA−2 cos ADBcos BDC cos CDA.
Now cos ADB =
cos γ −cos α

cos β

sin α

sin β

, and the other cosines may be ex-
pressed in a similar manner; substitute these values in the above result, and we
POLYHEDRONS. 129
obtain the required relation, which after reduction may be exhibited thus,
1 = cos
2
α + cos
2
β + cos
2
γ + cos
2
α

+ cos
2
β

+ cos
2
γ

−cos
2
αcos
2
α

−cos
2
β cos
2
β

−cos
2
γ cos
2
γ

−2(cos αcos β cos γ + cos αcos β

cos γ

+ cos β cos α

cos γ

+ cos γ cos α

cos β

)
+ 2(cos αcos β cos α

cos β

+ cos β cos γ cos β

cos γ

+ cos γ cos αcos γ

cos α

).
163. To find the radius of the sphere circumscribing a tetrahedron.
Denote the edges of the tetrahedron as in Art. 161. Let the sphere be
supposed to be circumscribed about the tetrahedron, and draw on the sphere
the six arcs of great circles joining the angular points of the tetrahedron. Then
the relation given in Art. 162 holds among the cosines of these six arcs.
Let r denote the radius of the sphere. Then
cos α = 1 −2 sin
2
α
2
= 1 −2
_
a
2r
_
2
= 1 −
a
2
2r
2
;
and the other cosines may be expressed in a similar manner. Substitute these
values in the result of Art. 162, and we obtain, after reduction, with the aid of
Art. 161,
4 ×144 V
2
r
2
=
2a
2
b
2
a
2
b
2
+ 2b
2
c
2
b
2
c
2
+ 2c
2
a
2
c
2
a
2
−a
4
a
4
−b
4
b
4
−c
4
c
4
.
The right-hand member may also be put into factors, as we see by recollecting
the mode in which the expression for the area of a triangle is put into factors.
Let aa

+bb

+cc

= 2σ; then
36 V
2
r
2
= σ(σ −aa

)(σ −bb

)(σ −cc

).
EXAMPLES.
1. If I denote the inclination of two adjacent faces of a regular polyhedron,
shew that cos I =
1
3
in the tetrahedron, = 0 in the cube, = −
1
3
in the octahedron,
130 POLYHEDRONS.
= −
1
5

5 in the dodecahedron, and = −
1
3

5 in the icosahedron.
2. With the notation of Art. 153, shew that the radius of the sphere which
touches one face of a regular polyhedron and all the adjacent faces produced is
1
2
a cot
π
m
cot
1
2
I.
3. A sphere touches one face of a regular tetrahedron and the other three
faces produced: find its radius.
4. If a and b are the radii of the spheres inscribed in and described about a
regular tetrahedron, shew that b = 3a.
5. If a is the radius of a sphere inscribed in a regular tetrahedron, and R
the radius of the sphere which touches the edges, shew that R
2
= 3a
2
.
6. If a is the radius of a sphere inscribed in a regular tetrahedron, and R

the radius of the sphere which touches one face and the others produced, shew
that R

= 2a.
7. If a cube and an octahedron be described about a given sphere, the sphere
described about these polyhedrons will be the same; and conversely.
8. If a dodecahedron and an icosahedron be described about a given sphere,
the sphere described about these polyhedrons will be the same; and conversely.
9. A regular tetrahedron and a regular octahedron are inscribed in the same
sphere: compare the radii of the spheres which can be inscribed in the two
solids.
10. The sum of the squares of the four diagonals of a parallelepiped is equal
to four times the sum of the squares of the edges.
11. If with all the angular points of any parallelepiped as centres equal
spheres be described, the sum of the intercepted portions of the parallelepiped
will be equal in volume to one of the spheres.
12. A regular octahedron is inscribed in a cube so that the corners of the
octahedron are at the centres of the faces of the cube: shew that the volume of
the cube is six times that of the octahedron.
13. It is not possible to fill any given space with a number of regular poly-
hedrons of the same kind, except cubes; but this may be done by means of
POLYHEDRONS. 131
tetrahedrons and octahedrons which have equal faces, by using twice as many
of the former as of the latter.
14. A spherical triangle is formed on the surface of a sphere of radius ρ; its
angular points are joined, forming thus a pyramid with the straight lines joining
them with the centre: shew that the volume of the pyramid is
1
3
ρ
3

(tan r tan r
1
tan r
2
tan r
3
),
where r, r
1
, r
2
, r
3
are the radii of the inscribed and escribed circles of the
triangle.
15. The angular points of a regular tetrahedron inscribed in a sphere of
radius r being taken as poles, four equal small circles of the sphere are described,
so that each circle touches the other three. Shew that the area of the surface
bounded by each circle is 2πr
2
_
1 −
1

3
_
.
16. If O be any point within a spherical triangle ABC, the product of the
sines of any two sides and the sine of the included angle
= sin AOsin BOsin CO
_
cot AOsin BOC
+ cot BOsin COA+ cot COsin AOB
_
.
132 POLYHEDRONS.
XIV
ARCS DRAWN TO FIXED
POINTS ON THE
SURFACE OF A SPHERE.
164. In the present Chapter we shall demonstrate various propositions relating
to the arcs drawn from any point on the surface of a sphere to certain fixed points
on the surface.
165. ABC is a spherical triangle having all its sides quadrants, and therefore
all its angles right angles; T is any point on the surface of the sphere: to shew
that
cos
2
TA+ cos
2
TB + cos
2
TC = 1.
133
134 ARCS DRAWN TO FIXED POINTS.
By Art. 37 we have
cos TA = cos ABcos TB + sin ABsin TBcos TBA
= sin TBcos TBA.
Similarly cos TC = sin TBcos TBC = sin TBsin TBA.
Square and add; thus
cos
2
TA+ cos
2
TC = sin
2
TB = 1 −cos
2
TB;
therefore cos
2
TA+ cos
2
TB + cos
2
TC = 1.
166. ABC is a spherical triangle having all its sides quadrants, and therefore
all its angles right angles; T and U are any points on the surface of the sphere:
to shew that
cos TU = cos TAcos UA+ cos TBcos UB + cos TC cos UC.
By Art. 37 we have
cos TU = cos TAcos UA+ sin TAsin UAcos TAU,
and cos TAU = cos(BAU −BAT)
= cos BAU cos BAT + sin BAU sin BAT
= cos BAU cos BAT + cos CAU cos CAT;
therefore cos TU = cos TAcos UA
+ sin TAsin UA(cos BAU cos BAT + cos CAU cos CAT);
ARCS DRAWN TO FIXED POINTS. 135
and cos TB = sin TAcos BAT,
cos UB = sin UAcos BAU,
cos TC = sin TAcos CAT,
cos UC = sin UAcos CAU;
therefore
cos TU = cos TAcos UA+ cos TBcos UB + cos TC cos UC.
167. We leave to the student the exercise of shewing that the formulæ of the
two preceding Articles are perfectly general for all positions of T and U, outside
or inside the triangle ABC: the demonstrations will remain essentially the same
for all modifications of the diagrams. The formulæ are of constant application
in Analytical Geometry of three dimensions, and are demonstrated in works on
that subject; we have given them here as they may be of service in Spherical
Trigonometry, and will in fact now be used in obtaining some important results.
168. Let there be any number of fixed points on the surface of a sphere; denote
them by H
1
, H
2
, H
3
,. . . . Let T be any point on the surface of a sphere. We
shall now investigate an expression for the sum of the cosines of the arcs which
join T with the fixed points.
Denote the sum by Σ; so that
Σ = cos TH
1
+ cos TH
2
+ cos TH
3
+. . . .
Take on the surface of the sphere a fixed spherical triangle ABC, having all
its sides quadrants, and therefore all its angles right angles.
Let λ, µ, ν be the cosines of the arcs which join T with A, B, C respectively;
let l
1
, m
1
, n
1
be the cosines of the arcs which join H
1
with A, B, C respectively;
and let a similar notation be used with respect to H
2
, H
3
,. . . .
Then, by Art. 166,
Σ = l
1
λ +m
1
µ +n
1
ν +l
2
λ +m
2
µ +n
2
ν +. . .
= Pλ +Qµ +Rν;
where P stands for l
1
+l
2
+l
3
+. . ., with corresponding meanings for Q and R.
136 ARCS DRAWN TO FIXED POINTS.
169. It will be seen that P is the value which Σ takes when T coincides with
A, that Q is the value which Σ takes when T coincides with B, and that R is
the value which Σ takes when T coincides with C. Hence the result expresses
the general value of Σ in terms of the cosines of the arcs which join T to the
fixed points A, B, C, and the particular values of Σ which correspond to these
three points.
170. We shall now transform the result of Art. 168.
Let G =

(P
2
+Q
2
+R
2
);
and let α, β, γ be three arcs determined by the equations
cos α =
P
G
, cos β
Q
G
, cos γ
R
G
;
then Σ = G(λcos α +µcos β +ν cos γ).
Since cos
2
α+cos
2
β +cos
2
γ = 1, it is obvious that there will be some point
on the surface of the sphere, such that α, β, γ are the arcs which join it to A,
B, C respectively; denote this point by U: then, by Art. 166,
cos TU = λcos α +µcos β +ν cos γ;
and finally
Σ = Gcos TU.
Thus, whatever may be the position of T, the sum of the cosines of the arcs
which join T to the fixed points varies as the cosine of the single arc which joins
T to a certain fixed point U.
We might take G either positive or negative; it will be convenient to suppose
it positive.
171. A sphere is described about a regular polyhedron; from any point on the
surface of the sphere arcs are drawn to the solid angles of the polyhedron: to
shew that the sum of the cosines of these arcs is zero.
From the preceding Article we see that if G is not zero there is one position
of T which gives to Σ its greatest positive value, namely, when T coincides with
U. But by the symmetry of a regular polyhedron there must always be more
ARCS DRAWN TO FIXED POINTS. 137
than one position of T which gives the same value to Σ. For instance, if we take
a regular tetrahedron, as there are four faces there will at least be three other
positions of T symmetrical with any assigned position.
Hence G must be zero; and thus the sum of the cosines of the arcs which
join T to the solid angles of the regular polyhedron is zero for all positions of T.
172. Since G = 0, it follows that P, Q, R must each be zero; these indeed are
particular cases of the general result of Art. 171. See Art. 169.
173. The result obtained in Art. 171 may be shewn to hold also in some other
cases. Suppose, for instance, that a rectangular parallelepiped is inscribed in
a sphere; then the sum of the cosines of the arcs drawn from any point on
the surface of the sphere to the solid angles of the parallelepiped is zero. For
here it is obvious that there must always be at least one other position of T
symmetrical with any assigned position. Hence by the argument of Art. 171 we
must have G = 0.
174. Let there be any number of fixed points on the surface of a sphere; denote
them by H
1
, H
2
, H
3
, . . . Let T be any point on the surface of the sphere. We
shall now investigate a remarkable expression for the sum of the squares of the
cosines of the arcs which join T with the fixed points.
Denote the sum by Σ; so that
Σ = cos
2
TH
1
+ cos
2
TH
2
+ cos
2
TH
3
+. . . .
Take on the surface of the sphere a fixed spherical triangle ABC, having all
its sides quadrants, and therefore all its angles right angles.
Let λ, µ, ν be the cosines of the arcs which join T with A, B, C respec-
tively; let l
1
, m
1
, n
1
be the cosines of the angles which join H
1
with A, B, C
respectively; and let a similar notation be used with respect to H
2
, H
3
,. . . .
Then, by Art. 166,
Σ = (l
1
λ +m
1
µ +n
1
ν)
2
+ (l
2
λ +m
2
µ +n
2
ν)
2
+. . . .
138 ARCS DRAWN TO FIXED POINTS.
Expand each square, and rearrange the terms; thus
Σ = Pλ
2
+Qµ
2
+Rν
2
+ 2pµν + 2qνλ + 2rλµ,
where P stands for l
2
1
+l
2
2
+l
2
3
+. . . ,
and p stands for m
1
n
1
+m
2
n
2
+m
3
n
3
+. . . ,
with corresponding meanings for Q and q, and for R and r.
We shall now shew that there is some position of the triangle ABC for which
p, q, and r will vanish; so that we shall then have
Σ = Pλ
2
+Qµ
2
+Rν
2
.
Since Σ is always a finite positive quantity there must be some position, or
some positions, of T for which Σ has the largest value which it can receive.
Suppose that A has this position, or one of these positions if there are more
than one. When T is at A we have µ and ν each zero, and λ equal to unity, so
that Σ is then equal to P.
Hence, whatever be the position of T, P is never less than Pλ
2
+ Qµ
2
+

2
+ 2pµν + 2qνλ + 2rλµ, that is, by Art. 165,
P(λ
2

2

2
) is never less than

2
+Qµ
2
+Rν
2
+ 2pµν + 2qνλ + 2rλµ;
therefore
P −Q)µ
2
+ (P −R)ν
2
is never less than 2pµν + 2qνλ + 2rλµ.
Now suppose ν = 0; then T is situated on the great circle of which AB is a
quadrant, and whatever be the position of T we have
(P −Q)µ
2
not less than 2rλµ,
and therefore (P −Q not less than
2rλ
µ
.
But now
λ
µ
is equal to
cos TA
cos TB
; this is numerically equal to tan TB, and so
may be made numerically as great as we please, positive or negative, by giving
ARCS DRAWN TO FIXED POINTS. 139
a suitable position to T. Thus P −Q must in some cases be less than
2rλ
µ
if r
have any value different from zero.
Therefore r must = 0.
In like manner we can shew that q must = 0.
Hence with the specified position for A we arrive at the result that whatever
may be the position of T
Σ = Pλ
2
+Qµ
2
+Rν
2
+ 2pµν.
Let us now suppose that the position of B is so taken that when T coincides
with B the value of Σ is as large as it can be for any point in the great circle of
which A is the pole. When T is at B we have λ and ν each zero, and µ equal to
unity, so that Σ is then equal to Q. For any point in the great circle of which
A is the pole λ is zero; and therefore for any such point
Q is not less than Qµ
2
+Rν
2
+ 2pµν,
that is, by Art. 165,
Q(µ
2

2
) is not less than Qµ
2
+Rν
2
+ 2pµν;
therefore Q−R is not less than
2pµ
ν
.
Hence by the same reasoning as before we must have p = 0.
Therefore we see that there must be some position of the triangle ABC, such
that for every position of T
Σ = Pλ
2
+Qµ
2
+Rν
2
.
175. The remarks of Art. 169 are applicable to the result just obtained.
176. In the final result of Art. 174 we may shew that R is the least value which
Σ can receive. For, by Art. 165,
Σ = Pλ
2
+Qµ
2
+R(1 −λ
2
−µ
2
)
= R + (P −R)λ
2
+ (Q−R)µ
2
;
140 ARCS DRAWN TO FIXED POINTS.
and by supposition neither P − R nor Q − R is negative, so that Σ cannot be
less than R.
177. A sphere is described about a regular polyhedron; from any point on the
surface of the sphere arcs are drawn to the solid angles of the polyhedron: it is
required to find the sum of the squares of the cosines of these arcs.
With the notation of Art. 174 we have
Σ = Pλ
2
+Qµ
2
+Rν
2
.
We shall shew that in the present case P, Q, and R must all be equal. For
if they are not, one of them must be greater than each of the others, or one of
them must be less than each of the others.
If possible let the former be the case; suppose that P is greater than Q, and
greater than R.
Now Σ = P(1 −µ
2
−ν
2
) +Qµ
2
+Rν
2
= P −(P −Q)µ
2
−(P −R)ν
2
;
this shews that Σ is always less than P except when µ = 0 and ν = 0: that is Σ
is always less than P except when T is at A, or at the point of the surface which
is diametrically opposite to A. But by the symmetry of a regular polyhedron
there must always be more than two positions of T which give the same value
to Σ. For instance if we take a regular tetrahedron, as there are four faces
there will be at least three other positions of T symmetrical with any assigned
position. Hence P cannot be greater than Q and greater than R.
In the same way we can shew that one of the three P, Q, and R, cannot be
less than each of the others.
Therefore P = Q = R; and therefore by Art. 165 for every position of T we
have Σ = P.
Since P = Q = R each of them =
1
3
(P +Q+R)
=
1
3
{l
1
2
+m
1
2
+n
1
2
+l
2
2
+m
2
2
+n
2
2
+. . . }
=
S
3
, by Art. 165,
ARCS DRAWN TO FIXED POINTS. 141
where S is the number of the solid angles of the regular polyhedron.
Thus the sum of the squares of the cosines of the arcs which join any point
on the surface of the sphere to the solid angles of the regular polyhedron is one
third of the number of the solid angles.
178. Since P = Q = R in the preceding Article, it will follow that when the
fixed points of Art. 174 are the solid angles of a regular polyhedron, then for
any position of the spherical triangle ABC we shall have p = 0, q = 0, r = 0.
For taking any position for the spherical triangle ABC we have
Σ = Pλ
2
+Qµ
2
+Rν
2
+ 2pµν + 2qνλ + 2rλµ;
then at A we have µ = 0 and ν = 0, so that P is then the value of Σ; similarly
Q and R are the values of Σ at B and C respectively. But by Art. 177 we have
the same value for Σ whatever be the position of T; thus
P = P(λ
2

2

2
) + 2pµν + 2qνλ + 2rλµ;
therefore 0 = 2pµν + 2qνλ + 2rλµ.
This holds then for every position of T. Suppose T is at any point of the
great circle of which A is the pole; then λ = 0: thus we get pµν = 0, and
therefore p = 0. Similarly q = 0, and r = 0.
179. Let there be any number of fixed points on the surface of a sphere; denote
them by H
1
, H
2
, H
3
, . . . ; from any two points T and U on the surface of the
sphere arcs are drawn to the fixed points: it is required to find the sum of the
products of the corresponding cosines, that is
cos TH
1
cos UH
1
+ cos TH
2
cos UH
2
+ cos TH
3
cos UH
3
+. . . .
Let the notation be the same as in Art. 174; and let λ

, µ

, ν

be the cosines
of the arcs which join U with A, B, C respectively. Then by Art. 166,
cos TH
1
cos UH
1
= (λl
1
+µm
1
+νn
1
)(λ

l
1

m
1

n
1
) =
λλ

l
1
2
+µµ

m
1
2
+νν

n
1
2
+ (λµ

+µλ

)l
1
m
1
+ (µν

+νµ

)m
1
n
1
+ (νλ

+λν

)n
1
l
1
.
142 ARCS DRAWN TO FIXED POINTS.
Similar results hold for cos TH
2
cos UH
2
, cos TH
3
cos UH
3
,. . . . Hence, with
the notation of Art. 174, the required sum is
λλ

P +µµ

Q+νν

R + (µν

+νµ

)p + (νλ

+λν

)q + (λµ

+µλ

)r.
Now by properly choosing the position of the triangle ABC we have p, q,
and r each zero as in Art. 174; and thus the required sum becomes
λλ

P +µµ

Q+νν

R.
180. The result obtained in Art. 174 may be considered as a particular case
of that just given; namely the case in which the points T and U coincide.
181. A sphere is described about a regular polyhedron; from any two points
on the surface of the sphere arcs are drawn to the solid angles of the polyhedron:
it is required to find the sum of the products of the corresponding cosines.
With the notation of Art. 179 we see that the sum is
λλ

P +µµ

Q+νν

R.
And here P = Q = R =
S
3
, by Art. 177.
Thus the sum =
S
3
(λλ

+µµ

+νν

) =
S
3
cos TU.
Thus the sum of the products of the cosines is equal to the product of the
cosine TU into a third of the number of the solid angles of the regular polyhedron.
182. The result obtained in Art. 177 may be considered as a particular case
of that just given; namely, the case in which the points T and U coincide.
183. If TU is a quadrant then cos TU is zero, and the sum of the products of
the cosines in Art. 181 is zero. The results p = 0, q = 0, r = 0, are easily seen
to be all special examples of this particular case.
XV
MISCELLANEOUS
PROPOSITIONS.
184. To find the locus of the vertex of a spherical triangle of given base and
area.
Let AB be the given base, = c suppose, AC = θ, BAC = φ. Since the area
is given the spherical excess is known; denote it by E; then by Art. 103,
cot
1
2
E = cot
1
2
θ cot
1
2
c cosec φ + cot φ;
therefore sin(φ −
1
2
E) = cot
1
2
θ cot
1
2
c sin
1
2
E;
therefore 2 cot
1
2
c sin
1
2
E cos
2
θ
2
= sin θ sin(φ −
1
2
E);
therefore
cos θ cot
1
2
c sin
1
2
E + sin θ cos
_
φ −
1
2
E +
π
2
_
= −cot
1
2
c sin
1
2
E.
Comparing this with equation (1) of Art. 133, we see that the required locus
is a circle. If we call α, β the angular co-ordinates of its pole, we have
tan α =
1
cot
1
2
c sin
1
2
E
=
tan
1
2
c
sin
1
2
E
,
β =
1
2
E −
π
2
.
143
144 MISCELLANEOUS PROPOSITIONS.
It may be presumed from symmetry that the pole of this circle is in the great
circle which bisects AB at right angles; and this presumption is easily verified.
For the equation to that great circle is
0 = cos θ cos
_
π
2

c
2
_
+ sin θ sin
_
π
2

c
2
_
cos(φ −π)
and the values θ = α, φ = β satisfy this equation.
185. To find the angular distance between the poles of the inscribed and cir-
cumscribed circles of a triangle.
Let P denote the pole of the inscribed circle, and Q the pole of the circum-
scribed circle of a triangle ABC; then PAB =
1
2
A, by Art. 89, and QAB =
S −C, by Art. 92; hence
cos PAQ = cos
1
2
(B −C);
and cos PQ = cos PAcos QA+ sin PAsin QAcos
1
2
(B −C).
Now, by Art. 62 (see the figure of Art. 89),
cos PA = cos PE cos AE = cos r cos(s −a),
sin PA =
sin PE
sin PAE
=
sin r
sin
1
2
A
;
thus
cos PQ = cos Rcos r cos(s −a) + sin Rsin r cos
1
2
(B −C) cosec
1
2
A.
Therefore, by Art. 54
cos PQ = cos Rcos r cos(s −a) + sin Rsin r sin
1
2
(b +c) cosec
1
2
a,
therefore
cos PQ
cos Rsin r
= cot r cos(s −a) + tan Rsin
1
2
(b +c) cosec
1
2
a.
Now cot r =
sin s
n
, tan R =
2 sin
1
2
a sin
1
2
b sin
1
2
c
n
,
MISCELLANEOUS PROPOSITIONS. 145
therefore
cos PQ
cos Rsin r
=
1
n
_
sin s cos(s −a) + 2 sin
1
2
(b +c) sin
1
2
b sin
1
2
c
_
=
1
2n
(sin a + sin b + sin c).
Hence
_
cos PQ
cos Rsin r
_
2
−1 =
1
4n
2
(sin a + sin b + sin c)
2
−1
= (cot r + tan R)
2
(by Art. 94);
therefore cos
2
PQ = cos
2
Rsin
2
r + cos
2
(R −r),
and sin
2
PQ = sin
2
(R −r) −cos
2
Rsin
2
r.
186. To find the angular distance between the pole of the circumscribed circle
and the pole of one of the escribed circles of a triangle.
Let Q denote the pole of the circumscribed circle, and Q
1
the pole of the
escribed circle opposite to the angle A. Then it may be shewn that QBQ
1
=
1
2
π +
1
2
(C −A), and
cos QQ
1
= cos Rcos r
1
cos(s −c) −sin Rsin r
1
sin
1
2
(C −A) sec
1
2
B
= cos Rcos r
1
cos(s −c) −sin Rsin r
1
sin
1
2
(c −a) cosec
1
2
b.
Therefore
cos QQ
1
sin r
1
cos R
= cot r
1
cos(s −c) −tan Rsin
1
2
(c −a) cosec
1
2
b;
by reducing as in the preceding Article, the right-hand member of the last
equation becomes
1
2n
(sin b + sin c −sin a);
hence
_
cos QQ
1
cos Rsin r
1
_
2
−1 = (tan R −cot r
1
)
2
, (Art. 94);
therefore cos
2
QQ
1
= cos
2
Rsin
2
r
1
+ cos
2
(R +r
1
),
and sin
2
QQ
1
= sin
2
(R +r
1
) −cos
2
Rsin
2
r
1
.
187. The arc which passes through the middle points of the sides of any triangle
upon a given base will meet the base produced at a fixed point, the distance of
146 MISCELLANEOUS PROPOSITIONS.
which from the middle point of the base is a quadrant.
Let ABC be any triangle, E the middle point of AC, and F the middle point
of AB; let the arc which joins E and F when produced meet BC produced at
Q. Then
sin BQ
sin BF
=
sin BFQ
sin BQF
,
sin AQ
sin AF
=
sin AFQ
sin AQF
;
therefore
sin BQ
sin AQ
=
sin AQF
sin BQF
,
similarly
sin CQ
sin AQ
=
sin AQF
sin CQF
;
therefore sin BQ = sin CQ; therefore BQ+CQ = π.
Hence if D be the middle point of BC
DQ =
1
2
(BQ+CQ) =
1
2
π.
188. If three arcs be drawn from the angles of a spherical triangle through
any point to meet the opposite sides, the products of the sines of the alternate
segments of the sides are equal.
Let P be any point, and let arcs be drawn from the angles A, B, C passing
through P and meeting the opposite sides at D, E, F. Then
sin BD
sin BP
=
sin BPD
sin BDP
,
sin CD
sin CP
=
sin CPD
sin CDP
,
therefore
sin BD
sin CD
=
sin BPD
sin CPD
sin BP
sin CP
.
MISCELLANEOUS PROPOSITIONS. 147
Similar expressions may be found for
sin CE
sin AE
and
sin AF
sin BF
; and hence it
follows obviously that
sin BD
sin CD
sin CE
sin AE
sin AF
sin BF
= 1;
therefore sin BDsin CE sin AF = sin CDsin AE sin BF.
189. Conversely, when the points D, E, F in the sides of a spherical triangle
are such that the relation given in the preceding Article holds, the arcs which
join these points with the opposite angles respectively pass through a common
point. Hence the following propositions may be established: the perpendiculars
from the angles of a spherical triangle on the opposite sides meet at a point;
the arcs which bisect the angles of a spherical triangle meet at a point; the
arcs which join the angles of a spherical triangle with the middle points of the
opposite sides meet at a point; the arcs which join the angles of a spherical
triangle with the points where the inscribed circle touches the opposite sides
respectively meet at a point.
Another mode of establishing such propositions has been exemplified in Arts.
139 and 140.
190. If AB and A

B

be any two equal arcs AA

and AA

and BB

be bisected
at right angles by arcs meeting at P, then AB and A

B

subtend equal angles at
P.
For PA = PA

and PB = PB

; hence the sides of the triangle PAB are
respectively equal to those of PA

B

; therefore the angle APB = the angle
A

PB

.
This simple proposition has an important application to the motion of a
rigid body of which one point is fixed. For conceive a sphere capable of motion
round its centre which is fixed; then it appears from this proposition that any
148 MISCELLANEOUS PROPOSITIONS.
two fixed points on the sphere, as A and B, can be brought into any other
positions, as A

and B

, by rotation round an axis passing through the centre of
the sphere and a certain point P. Hence it may be inferred that any change of
position in a rigid body, of which one point is fixed, may be effected by rotation
round some axis through the fixed point.
(De Morgan’s Differential and Integral Calculus, page 489.)
191. Let P denote any point within any plane angle AOB, and from P draw
perpendiculars on the straight lines OA and OB; then it is evident that these
perpendiculars include an angle which is the supplement of the angle AOB. The
corresponding fact with respect to a solid angle is worthy of notice. Let there be
a solid angle formed by three plane angles, meeting at a point O. From any point
P within the solid angle, draw perpendiculars PL, PM, PN on the three planes
which form the solid angle; then the spherical triangle which corresponds to the
three planes LPM, MPN, NPL is the polar triangle of the spherical triangle
which corresponds to the solid angle at O. This remark is due to Professor De
Morgan.
192. Suppose three straight lines to meet at a point and form a solid an-
gle; let α, β, and γ denote the angles contained by these three straight lines
taken in pairs: then it has been proposed to call the expression

(1 −cos
2
α −
cos
2
β − cos
2
γ + 2 cos αcos β cos γ), the sine of the solid angle. See Baltzer’s
Theorie. . . der Determinanten, 2nd edition, page 177. Adopting this definition
it is easy to shew that the sine of a solid angle lies between zero and unity.
We know that the area of a plane triangle is half the product of two sides
into the sine of the included angle: by Art. 156 we have the following analogous
proposition; the volume of a tetrahedron is one sixth of the product of three
edges into the sine of the solid angle which they form.
Again, we know in mechanics that if three forces acting at a point are in
equilibrium, each force is as the sine of the angle between the directions of the
other two: the following proposition is analogous; if four forces acting at a point
are in equilibrium each force is as the sine of the solid angle formed by the
directions of the other three. See Statics, Chapter II.
193. Let a sphere be described about a regular polyhedron; let perpendiculars
be drawn from the centre of the sphere on the faces of the polyhedron, and
MISCELLANEOUS PROPOSITIONS. 149
produced to meet the surface of the sphere: then it is obvious from symmetry
that the points of intersection must be the angular points of another regular
polyhedron.
This may be verified. It will be found on examination that if S be the
number of solid angles, and F the number of faces of one regular polyhedron,
then another regular polyhedron exists which has S faces and F solid angles.
See Art. 151.
194. Polyhedrons. The result in Art. 150 was first obtained by Euler; the
demonstration which is there given is due to Legendre. The demonstration
shews that the result is true in many cases in which the polyhedron has re-
entrant solid angles; for all that is necessary for the demonstration is, that it
shall be possible to take a point within the polyhedron as the centre of a sphere,
so that the polygons, formed as in Art. 150, shall not have any coincident
portions. The result, however, is generally true, even in cases in which the
condition required by the demonstration of Art. 150 is not satisfied. We shall
accordingly give another demonstration, and shall then deduce some important
consequences from the result. We begin with a theorem which is due to Cauchy.
195. Let there be any network of rectilineal figures, not necessarily in one
plane, but not forming a closed surface; let E be the number of edges, F the
number of figures, and S the number of corner points: then F + S = E + 1.
This theorem is obviously true in the case of a single plane figure; for then
F = 1, and S = E. It can be shewn to be generally true by induction. For
assume the theorem to be true for a network of F figures; and suppose that a
rectilineal figure of n sides is added to this network, so that the network and
the additional figure have m sides coincident, and therefore m+1 corner points
coincident. And with respect to the new network which is thus formed, let E

,
F

, S

denote the same things as E, F, S with respect to the old network. Then
E

= E +n −m, F

= F + 1, S

= S +n −(m+ 1);
therefore F

+S

−E

= F +S −E.
But F +S = E + 1, by hypothesis; therefore F

+S

= E

+ 1.
150 MISCELLANEOUS PROPOSITIONS.
196. To demonstrate Euler’s theorem we suppose one face of a polyhedron
removed, and we thus obtain a network of rectilineal figures to which Cauchy’s
theorem is applicable. Thus
F −1 +S = E + 1;
therefore F +S = E + 2.
197. In any polyhedron the number of faces with an odd number of sides is
even, and the number of solid angles formed with an odd number of plane angles
is even.
Let a, b, c, d,. . . . . . denote respectively the numbers of faces which are tri-
angles, quadrilaterals, pentagons, hexagons,. . . . . . . Let α, β, γ, δ,. . . . . . denote
respectively the numbers of the solid angles which are formed with three, four,
five, six,. . . . . . plane angles.
Then, each edge belongs to two faces, and terminates at two solid angles;
therefore
2E = 3a + 4b + 5c + 6d +. . . . . . ,
2E = 3α + 4β + 5γ + 6δ +. . . . . . .
From these relations it follows that a +c +e +. . . . . ., and α+γ + +. . . . . .
are even numbers.
198. With the notation of the preceding Article we have
F = a +b +c +d +. . . . . . ,
S = α +β +γ +δ +. . . . . . .
From these combined with the former relations we obtain
2E −3F = b + 2c + 3d +. . . . . . ,
2E −3S = β + 2γ + 3δ +. . . . . . .
Thus 2E cannot be less than 3F, or less than 3S.
MISCELLANEOUS PROPOSITIONS. 151
199. From the expressions for E, F, and S, given in the two preceding Articles,
combined with the result 2F + 2S = 4 + 2E, we obtain
2(a +b +c +d +. . .) + 2(α +β +γ +δ +. . .) = 4 + 3a + 4b + 5c + 6d +. . . ,
2(a +b +c +d +. . .) + 2(α +β +γ +δ +. . .) = 4 + 3α + 4β + 5γ + 6δ +. . . ,
therefore 2(α +β +γ +δ +. . .) −(a + 2b + 3c + 4d +. . .) = 4, (1)
2(a +b +c +d +. . .) −(α + 2β + 3γ + 4δ +. . .) = 4. (2)
Therefore, by addition
a +α −(c +γ) −2(d +δ) −3(e +) −. . . . . . = 8.
Thus the number of triangular faces together with the number of solid angles
formed with three plane angles cannot be less than eight.
Again, from (1) and (2), by eliminating α, we obtain
3a + 2b +c −e −2f −. . . . . . −2β −4γ −. . . . . . = 12,
so that 3a + 2b + c cannot be less than 12. From this result various inferences
can be drawn; thus for example, a solid cannot be formed which shall have no
triangular, quadrilateral, or pentagonal faces.
In like manner, we can shew that 3α + 2β +γ cannot be less than 12.
200. Poinsot has shewn that in addition to the five well-known regular poly-
hedrons, four other solids exist which are perfectly symmetrical in shape, and
which might therefore also be called regular. We may give an idea of the nature
of Poinsot’s results by referring to the case of a polygon. Suppose five points A,
B, C, D, E, placed in succession at equal distances round the circumference of
a circle. If we draw a straight line from each point to the next point, we form an
ordinary regular pentagon. Suppose however we join the points by straight lines
in the following order, A to C, C to E, E to B, B to D, D to A; we thus form a
star-shaped symmetrical figure, which might be considered a regular pentagon.
It appears that, in a like manner, four, and only four, new regular solids
can be formed. To such solids, the faces of which intersect and cross, Euler’s
theorem does not apply.
152 MISCELLANEOUS PROPOSITIONS.
201. Let us return to Art. 195, and suppose e the number of edges in the
bounding contour, and e

the number of edges within it; also suppose s the
number of corners in the bounding contour, and s

the number within it. Then
E = e +e

; S = s +s

;
therefore 1 +e +e

= s +s

+F.
But e = s;
therefore 1 +e

= s

+F.
We can now demonstrate an extension of Euler’s theorem, which has been
given by Cauchy.
202. Let a polyhedron be decomposed into any number of polyhedrons at plea-
sure; let P be the number thus formed, S the number of solid angles, F the
number of faces, E the number of edges: then S + F = E + P + 1.
For suppose all the polyhedrons united, by starting with one and adding one
at a time. Let e, f, s be respectively the numbers of edges, faces, and solid
angles in the first; let e

, f

, s

be respectively the numbers of edges, faces, and
solid angles in the second which are not common to it and the first; let e

, f

,
s

be respectively the numbers of edges, faces, and solid angles in the third
which are not common to it and the first or second; and so on. Then we have
the following results, namely, the first by Art. 196, and the others by Art. 201;
s +f = e + 2,
s

+f

= e

+ 1,
s

+f

= e

+ 1,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
By addition, since s + s

+ s

+ . . . = S, f + f

+ f

+ . . . = F, and
e +e

+e

+. . . = E, we obtain
S +F = E +P + 1.
203. The following references will be useful to those who study the theory
of polyhedrons. Euler, Novi Commentarii Academiæ. . . Petropolitanæ, Vol. iv.
MISCELLANEOUS PROPOSITIONS. 153
1758; Legendre, G´eom´etrie; Poinsot, Journal de l’
´
Ecole Polytechnique, Cahier
x; Cauchy, Journal de l’
´
Ecole Polytechnique, Cahier xvi; Poinsot and Bertrand,
Comptes Rendus. . . de l’Acad´emie des Sciences, Vol. xlvi; Catalan, Th´eor`emes
et Probl`emes de G´eom´etrie El´ementaire; Kirkman, Philosophical Transactions
for 1856 and subsequent years; Listing, Abhandlungen der K¨oniglichen Gesell-
schaft. . . zu G¨ottingen, Vol. x.
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
1. Find the locus of the vertices of all right-angled spherical triangles having
the same hypotenuse; and from the equation obtained, prove that the locus is
a circle when the radius of the sphere is infinite.
2. AB is an arc of a great circle on the surface of a sphere, C its middle
point: shew that the locus of the point P, such that the angle APC = the angle
BPC, consists of two great circles at right angles to one another. Explain this
when the triangle becomes plane.
3. On a given arc of a sphere, spherical triangles of equal area are described:
shew that the locus of the angular point opposite to the given arc is defined by
the equation
tan
−1
_
tan(α +φ)
sin θ
_
+ tan
−1
_
tan(α −φ)
sin θ
_
+ tan
−1
_
tan θ
sin(α +φ)
_
+ tan
−1
_
tan θ
sin(α −φ)
_
= β,
where 2α is the length of the given arc, θ the arc of the great circle drawn from
any point P in the locus perpendicular to the given arc, φ the inclination of the
great circle on which θ is measured to the great circle bisecting the given arc at
right angles, and β a constant.
4. In any spherical triangle
tan c =
cot Acot a + cot Bcot b
cot a cot b −cos Acos B
.
5. If θ, φ, ψ denote the distances from the angles A, B, C respectively of the
point of intersection of arcs bisecting the angles of the spherical triangle ABC,
154 MISCELLANEOUS PROPOSITIONS.
shew that
cos θ sin(b −c) + cos φsin(c −a) + cos ψ sin(a −b) = 0.
6. If A

, B

, C

be the poles of the sides BC, CA, AB of a spherical triangle
ABC, shew that the great circles AA

, BB

, CC

meet at a point P, such that
cos PAcos BC = cos PBcos CA = cos PC cos AB.
7. If O be the point of intersection of arcs AD, BE, CF drawn from the
angles of a triangle perpendicular to the opposite sides and meeting them at D,
E, F respectively, shew that
tan AD
tan OD
,
tan BE
tan OE
,
tan CF
tan OF
are respectively equal to
1 +
cos A
cos Bcos C
, 1 +
cos B
cos Acos C
, 1 +
cos C
cos Acos B
.
8. If p, q, r be the arcs of great circles drawn from the angles of a triangle
perpendicular to the opposite sides, (α, α

), (β, β

), (γ, γ

) the segments into
which these arcs are divided, shew that
tan αtan α

= tan β tan β

= tan γ tan γ

;
and
cos p
cos αcos α

=
cos q
cos β cos β

=
cos r
cos γ cos γ

.
9. In a spherical triangle if arcs be drawn from the angles to the middle
points of the opposite sides, and if α, α

be the two parts of the one which
bisects the side a, shew that
sin α
sin α

= 2 cos
a
2
.
10. The arc of a great circle bisecting the sides AB, AC of a spherical
triangle cuts BC produced at Q: shew that
cos AQsin
a
2
= sin
c −b
2
sin
c +b
2
.
MISCELLANEOUS PROPOSITIONS. 155
11. If ABCD be a spherical quadrilateral, and the opposite sides AB, CD
when produced meet at E, and AD, BC meet at F, the ratio of the sines of the
arcs drawn from E at right angles to the diagonals of the quadrilateral is the
same as the ratio of those from F.
12. If ABCD be a spherical quadrilateral whose sides AB, DC are produced
to meet at P, and AD, BC at Q, and whose diagonals AC, BD intersect at R,
then
sin ABsin CDcos P = sin ADsin BC cos Q = sin AC sin BDcos R.
13. If A

be the angle of the chordal triangle which corresponds to the angle
A of a spherical triangle, shew that
cos A

= sin(S −A) cos
a
2
.
14. If the tangent of the radius of the circle described about a spherical
triangle is equal to twice the tangent of the radius of the circle inscribed in the
triangle, the triangle is equilateral.
15. The arc AP of a circle of the same radius as the sphere is equal to
the greater of two sides of a spherical triangle, and the arc AQ taken in the
same direction is equal to the less; the sine PM of AP is divided at E, so that
EM
PM
= the natural cosine of the angle included by the two sides, and EZ is
drawn parallel to the tangent to the circle at Q. Shew that the remaining side
of the spherical triangle is equal to the arc QPZ.
16. If through any point P within a spherical triangle ABC great circles be
drawn from the angular points A, B, C to meet the opposite sides at a, b, c
respectively, prove that
sin Pa cos PA
sin Aa
+
sin Pb cos PB
sin Bb
+
sin Pc cos PC
sin Cc
= 1.
17. A and B are two places on the Earth’s surface on the same side of the
equator, A being further from the equator than B. If the bearing of A from B
be more nearly due East than it is from any other place in the same latitude as
B, find the bearing of B from A.
18. From the result given in example 18 of Chapter V. infer the possibility
156 MISCELLANEOUS PROPOSITIONS.
of a regular dodecahedron.
19. A and B are fixed points on the surface of a sphere, and P is any point
on the surface. If a and b are given constants, shew that a fixed point S can
always be found, in AB or AB produced, such that
a cos AP +b cos BP = s cos SP,
where s is a constant.
20. A, B, C,. . . are fixed points on the surface of a sphere; a, b, c,. . . are
given constants. If P be a point on the surface of the sphere, such that
a cos AP +b cos BP +c cos CP +. . . = constant,
shew that the locus of P is a circle.
XVI
NUMERICAL SOLUTION
OF SPHERICAL
TRIANGLES.
204. We shall give in this Chapter examples of the numerical solution of Spher-
ical Triangles.
We shall first take right-angled triangles, and then oblique-angled triangles.
Right-Angled Triangles.
205. Given a = 37

48

12

, b = 59

44

16

, C = 90

.
To find c we have
cos c = cos a cos b,
Lcos 37

48

12

= 9.8976927
Lcos 59

44

16

= 9.7023945
Lcos c + 10 = 19.6000872
c = 66

32

6

.
To find A we have
cot A = cot a sin b,
157
158 NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF SPHERICAL TRIANGLES.
Lcot 37

48

12

= 10.1102655
Lsin 59

44

16

= 9.9363770
Lcot A+ 10 = 20.0466425
A = 41

55

45

.
To find B we have
cot B = cot b sin a,
Lcot 59

44

16

= 9.7660175
Lsin 37

48

12

= 9.7874272
Lcot B + 10 = 19.5534447
B = 70

19

15

.
206. Given A = 55

32

45

, C = 90

, c = 98

14

24

.
To find a we have
sin a = sin c sin A,
Lsin 98

14

24

= 9.9954932
Lsin 55

32

45

= 9.9162323
Lsin a + 10 = 19.9117255
a = 54

41

35

.
To find B we have
cot B = cos c tan A.
Here cos c is negative; and therefore cot B will be negative, and B greater
than a right angle. The numerical value of cos c is the same as that of cos 81

45

36

.
Lcos 81

45

36

= 9.1563065
Ltan 55

32

45

= 10.1636102
Lcot(180

−B) + 10 = 19.3199167
180

−B = 78

12

4

B = 101

47

56

.
To find b we have
tan b = tan c cos A.
Here tan c is negative; and therefore tan b will be negative and b greater than
a quadrant.
NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF SPHERICAL TRIANGLES. 159
Ltan 81

45

36

= 10.8391867
Lcos 55

32

45

= 9.7526221
Ltan(180

−b) + 10 = 20.5918088
180

−b = 75

38

32

b = 104

21

28

.
207. Given A = 46

15

25

, C = 90

, a = 42

18

45

.
To find c we have
sin c =
sin a
sin A
,
Lsin c = 10 +Lsin a −Lsin A,
10 +Lsin 42

18

45

= 19.8281272
Lsin 46

15

25

= 9.8588065
Lsin c = 9.9693207
c = 68

42

59

or 111

17

1

.
To find b we have
sin b = tan a cot A,
Ltan 42

18

45

= 9.9591983
Lcot 46

15

25

= 9.9809389
Lsin b + 10 = 19.9401372
b = 60

36

10

or 119

23

50

.
To find B we have
sin B =
cos A
cos a
,
Lsin B = 10 +Lcos A−Lcos a,
10 +Lcos 46

15

25

= 19.8397454
Lcos 42

18

45

= 9.8689289
Lsin B = 9.9708165
B = 69

13

47

or 110

46

13

.
Oblique-Angled Triangles.
208. Given a = 70

14

20

, b = 49

24

10

, c = 38

46

10

. We shall use the
formula given in Art. 45,
tan
1
2
A =
__
sin(s −b) sin(s −c)
sin s sin(s −a)
_
.
160 NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF SPHERICAL TRIANGLES.
Here s = 79

12

20

,
s −a = 8

58

,
s −b = 29

48

10

,
s −c = 40

26

10

.
Lsin 29

48

10

= 9.6963704
Lsin 40

26

10

= 9.8119768
19.5083472
Lsin 79

12

20

= 9.9922465
Lsin 8

58

= 9.1927342
19.1849807
19.5083472
19.1849807
2 ) .3233665
Ltan
1
2
A−10 = .1616832
1
2
A = 55

25

38

A = 110

51

16

.
NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF SPHERICAL TRIANGLES. 161
Similarly to find B,
Lsin 8

58

= 9.1927342
Lsin 40

26

10

= 9.8119768
19.0047110
Lsin 79

12

20

= 9.9922465
Lsin 29

48

10

= 9.6963704
19.6886169
19.0047110
19.6886169
2 ) 1.3160941
Ltan
1
2
B −10 = 1.6580470
Ltan
1
2
B = 9.6580470
1
2
B = 24

28

2

B = 48

56

4

.
162 NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF SPHERICAL TRIANGLES.
Similarly to find C,
Lsin 8

58

= 9.1927342
Lsin 29

48

10

= 9.6963704
18.8891046
Lsin 79

12

20

= 9.9922465
Lsin 40

26

10

= 9.8119768
19.8042233
18.8891046
19.8042233
2 ) 1.0848813
Ltan
1
2
C −10 = 1.5424406
Ltan
1
2
C = 9.5424406
1
2
C = 19

13

24

C = 38

26

48

.
209. Given a = 68

20

25

, b = 52

18

15

, C = 117

12

20

.
By Art. 82,
tan
1
2
(A+B) =
cos
1
2
(a −b)
cos
1
2
(a +b)
cot
1
2
C,
tan
1
2
(A−B) =
sin
1
2
(a −b)
sin
1
2
(a +b)
cot
1
2
C.
1
2
(a −b) = 8

1

5

,
1
2
(a +b) = 60

19

20

,
1
2
C = 58

36

10

.
NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF SPHERICAL TRIANGLES. 163
Lcos 8

1

5

= 9.9957335
Lcot 58

36

10

= 9.7855690
19.7813025
Lcos 60

19

20

= 9.6947120
Ltan
1
2
(A+B) = 10.0865905
1
2
(A+B) = 50

40

28

Lsin 8

1

5

= 9.1445280
Lcot 58

36

10

= 9.7855690
18.9300970
Lsin 60

19

20

= 9.9389316
Ltan
1
2
(A−B) = 8.9911654
1
2
(A−B) = 5

35

47

.
Therefore A = 56

16

15

, B = 45

4

41

.
If we proceed to find c from the formula
sin c =
sin a sin C
sin A
,
since sin C is greater than sin A we shall obtain two values for c both greater
than a, and we shall not know which is the value to be taken.
We shall therefore determine c from formula (1) of Art. 54, which is free
from ambiguity,
cos
1
2
c =
cos
1
2
(a +b) sin
1
2
C
cos
1
2
(A+B)
,
Lcos 60

19

20

= 9.6947120
Lsin 58

36

10

= 9.9312422
19.6259542
Lcos 50

40

28

= 9.8019015
Lcos
1
2
c = 9.8240527
1
2
c = 48

10

22

c = 96

20

44

.
164 NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF SPHERICAL TRIANGLES.
Or we may adopt the second method of Art. 82. First, we determine θ from
the formula tan θ = tan b cos C.
Here cos C is negative, and therefore tan θ will be negative, and θ greater
than a right angle. The numerical value of cos C is the same as that of cos 62

47

40

.
Ltan 52

18

15

= 10.1119488
Lcos 62

47

40

= 9.6600912
Ltan(180

−θ) + 10 = 19.7720400
180

−θ = 30

36

33

,
therefore θ = 149

23

27

.
Next, we determine c from the formula
cos c =
cos b cos(a −θ)
cos θ
.
Here cos θ is negative, and therefore cos c will be negative, and c will be
greater than a right angle. The numerical value of cos θ is the same as that of
cos(180

−θ), that is, of cos 30

36

33

; and the value of cos(a −θ) is the same
as that of cos(θ −a), that is, of cos 81

3

2

.
Lcos 52

18

15

= 9.7863748
Lcos 81

3

2

= 9.1919060
18.9782808
Lcos 30

36

33

= 9.9348319
Lcos(180

−c) = 9.0434489
180

−c = 83

39

17

c = 96

20

43

.
Thus by taking only the nearest number of seconds in the tables the two
methods give values of c which differ by 1

; if, however, we estimate fractions of
a second both methods will agree in giving about 43
1
2
as the number of seconds.
210. Given a = 50

45

20

, b = 69

12

40

, A = 44

22

10

.
By Art. 84, sin B =
sin b
sin a
sin A,
NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF SPHERICAL TRIANGLES. 165
Lsin 69

12

40

= 9.9707626
Lsin 44

22

10

= 9.8446525
19.8154151
Lsin 50

45

20

= 9.8889956
Lsin B = 9.9264195
B = 57

34

51

.4, or 122

25

8

.6.
In this case there will be two solutions; see Art. 86. We will calculate C and
c by Napier’s analogies,
tan
1
2
C =
cos
1
2
(b −a)
cos
1
2
(b +a)
cot
1
2
(B +A),
tan
1
2
c =
cos
1
2
(B +A)
cos
1
2
(B −A)
tan
1
2
(b +a).
First take the smaller value of B; thus
1
2
(B +A) = 50

58

30

.7,
1
2
(B −A) = 6

35

20

.7,
166 NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF SPHERICAL TRIANGLES.
Lcos 9

13

40

= 9.9943430
Lcot 50

58

30

.7 = 9.9087536
19.9030966
Lcos 59

59

= 9.6991887
Ltan
1
2
C = 10.2039079
1
2
C = 57

58

55

.3
C = 115

57

50

.6.
Lcos 50

58

30

.7 = 9.7991039
Ltan 59

59

= 10.2382689
20.0373728
Lcos 6

36

20

.7 = 9.9971072
Ltan
1
2
c = 10.0402656
1
2
c = 47

39

8

.2
c = 95

18

16

.4.
Next take the larger value of B; thus
1
2
(B +A) = 83

23

39

.3,
1
2
(B −A) = 39

1

29

.3.
NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF SPHERICAL TRIANGLES. 167
Lcos 9

13

40

= 9.9943430
Lcot 83

23

39

.3 = 9.0637297
19.0580727
Lcos 59

59

= 9.6991887
Ltan
1
2
C = 9.3588840
1
2
C = 12

52

15

.8
C = 25

44

31

.6.
Lcos 83

23

39

.3 = 9.0608369
Ltan 59

59

= 10.2382689
19.2991058
Lcos 39

1

29

.3 = 9.8903494
Ltan
1
2
c = 9.4087564
1
2
c = 14

22

32

.6
c = 28

45

5

.2
The student can obtain more examples, which can be easily verified, from
those here worked out, by interchanging the given and required quantities, or
by making use of the polar triangle.
EXAMPLES.
1. Given b = 137

3

48

, A = 147

2

54

, C = 90

.
Results. c = 47

57

15

, a = 156

10

34

, B = 113

28

.
2. Given c = 61

4

56

, a = 40

31

20

, C = 90

.
Results. b = 50

30

29

, B = 61

50

28

, A = 47

54

21

.
3. Given A = 36

, B = 60

, C = 90

.
Results. a = 20

54

18

.5, b = 31

43

3

, c = 37

21

38

.5.
4. Given a = 59

28

27

, A = 66

7

20

, C = 90

.
Results. c = 70

23

42

, b = 48

39

16

, B = 52

50

20

,
168 NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF SPHERICAL TRIANGLES.
or, c = 109

36

18

, b = 131

20

44

, B = 127

9

40

.
5. Given c = 90

, a = 138

4

, b = 109

41

.
Results. C = 113

28

2

, A = 142

11

38

, B = 120

15

57

.
6. Given c = 90

, A = 131

30

, B = 120

32

.
Results. C = 109

40

20

, a = 127

17

51

, b = 113

49

31

.
7. Given a = 76

35

36

, b = 50

10

30

, c = 40

0

10

.
Results. A = 121

36

20

, B = 42

15

13

, C = 34

15

3

.
8. Given A = 129

5

28

, B = 142

12

42

, C = 105

8

10

.
Results. a = 135

49

20

, b = 144

37

15

, c = 60

4

54

.
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SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.

ii .

S. FIFTH EDITION. London : MACMILLAN AND CO..SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY For the Use of Colleges and Schools.] .. M. BY I. WITH NUMEROUS EXAMPLES. F. HONORARY FELLOW OF ST JOHN’S COLLEGE. 1886 [All Rights reserved.R. TODHUNTER.A. CAMBRIDGE.

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. AND SON. CLAY.A. . M. J.ii Cambridge: PRINTED BY C.

TODHUNTER. Considerable labour has been bestowed on the text in order to render it comprehensive and accurate. For the use of this Memoir and for some valuable references on the subject I am indebted to the Dean of Ely. besides these writers I have consulted the treatises on Trigonometry by Lardner. together with a large collection of examples for exercise. In the course of the work reference is made to preceding writers from whom assistance has been obtained. I have had the advantage of access to an unprinted Memoir on this point by the late R. Lefebure de Fourcy. I. which seems to have been overlooked by most modern writers on the subject. iii . August 15. L. Ellis of Trinity College. it contains all the propositions usually included under the head of Spherical Trigonometry. St John’s College. and Snowball. 1859. and thus I venture to hope that the work will be found useful by Students and Teachers. and the treatise on Geometry published in the Library of Useful Knowledge.PREFACE The present work is constructed on the same plan as my treatise on Plane Trigonometry. The examples have been chiefly selected from the University and College Examination Papers. In the account of Napier’s Rules of Circular Parts an explanation has been given of a method of proof devised by Napier. to which it is intended as a sequel. and the examples have all been carefully verified. Mr Ellis had in fact rediscovered for himself Napier’s own method.

. The mode of investigation is more elementary than those hitherto employed. July. 1871.iv In the third edition I have made some additions which I hope will be found valuable. The fourteenth Chapter is almost entirely original. and perhaps some of the results are new. and may deserve attention from the nature of the propositions themselves and of the demonstrations which are given. so as to include an account of the properties in Spherical Trigonometry which are analogous to those of the Nine Points Circle in Plane Geometry. I have considerably enlarged the discussion on the connexion of Formulæ in Plane and Spherical Trigonometry. Cambridge.

121 133 143 157 v . XI On small variations in the parts of a Spherical Triangle.CONTENTS. VIII Area of a Spherical Triangle. VII Circumscribed and Inscribed Circles. Spherical Excess. XIV Arcs drawn to fixed points on the Surface of a Sphere. VI Solution of Oblique-Angled Triangles. III Spherical Geometry. 35 49 63 71 81 91 99 XII On the connexion of Formulæ in Plane and Spherical Trigonometry. 1 7 11 IV Relations between the Trigonometrical Functions of the Sides and the Angles of a Spherical Triangle. 17 V Solution of Right-angled Triangles. XVI Numerical Solution of Spherical Triangles. I Great and Small Circles. 103 XIII Polyhedrons. X Geodetical Operations. XV Miscellaneous Propositions. IX On certain approximate Formulæ. II Spherical Triangles.

vi CONTENTS. .

The section of the surface of a sphere made by any plane is a circle. The straight line which joins any point of the surface with the centre is called a radius. A sphere is a solid bounded by a surface every point of which is equally distant from a fixed point which is called the centre of the sphere. Draw OC perpendicular to the plane. 2. CD. 1. O the centre of the sphere. the 1 . Let AB be the section of the surface of a sphere made by any plane.I GREAT AND SMALL CIRCLES. A straight line drawn through the centre and terminated both ways by the surface is called a diameter. Since OC is perpendicular to the plane. take any point D in the section and join OD.

The axis of any circle of a sphere is that diameter of the sphere which is perpendicular to the plane of the circle. join CD. except when the points are the extremities of a diameter of the sphere. Now O and C are fixed points. therefore CD = √ (OD2 − OC 2 ). 4.2 GREAT AND SMALL CIRCLES. The poles of a great circle are equally distant from the plane of the circle. . therefore the section is a circle of which C is the centre. P D. being the radius of the sphere. and then an infinite number of such planes can be drawn. the great circle is unequally divided at the two points. A pole of a circle is equally distant from every point of the circumference of Let O be the centre of the sphere. Take any point D in the circumference √ of the circle. Then P D = (P C 2 + CD2 ). and only one plane can be drawn. Thus all points in the plane section are equally distant from the fixed point C. 6. sometimes the nearer pole is for brevity called the pole. and P C and CD are constant. we shall for brevity speak of the shorter of the two arcs as the arc of a great circle joining the two points. so that OC is constant. they may be called respectively the nearer and further pole. then the chord P D is constant. angle OCD is a right angle. 5. When only one great circle can be drawn through two given points. Through the centre of a sphere and any two points on the surface a plane can be drawn. therefore P D is constant. except when the two points are the extremities of a diameter of the sphere. OD. C the centre of the circle. Suppose a great circle to pass through the points P and D. and therefore the arc of a the circle. Thus the radius of a great circle is equal to the radius of the sphere. and a small circle if the plane does not pass through the centre of the sphere. the extremities of the axis are called the poles of the circle. hence CD is constant. 3. The section of the surface of a sphere by a plane is called a great circle if the plane passes through the centre of the sphere. The poles of a small circle are not equally distant from the plane of the circle. Hence only one great circle can be drawn through two given points on the surface of a sphere. and OD is constant. P and P the poles of the circle. AB any circle of the sphere.

and the arc P A is a quadrant. Thus the distance of a pole of a circle from every point of the circumference of the circle is constant. The arc of a great circle which is drawn from a pole of a great circle to any point in its circumference is a quadrant. and draw P O. whether that distance be measured by the straight line joining the points. 7. 8.GREAT AND SMALL CIRCLES. For let O be the centre of the sphere. Let P be a pole of the great circle ABC. then the arc P A is a quadrant. or by the arc of a great circle intercepted between the points. Then P O is at right angles to the plane ABC. . 3 great circle intercepted between P and D is constant for all positions of D on the circle AB. The angle subtended at the centre of a sphere by the arc of a great circle which joins the poles of two great circles is equal to the inclination of the planes of the great circles. therefore P OA is a right angle. because P is the pole of ABC.

Draw a great circle through A and B. A and B the poles of CD and CE respectively. CE the great circles intersecting at C. And the angle AOB = AOM − BOM = BON − BOM = M ON. 10. since P O is perpendicular to the plane ACB. Thus. and therefore also a diameter of each great circle. and BO is perpendicular to OC. the angle between the great circles CD and CE is the angle M ON . meeting CD and CE at M and N respectively. CD. every plane which contains P O is at right angles to the plane ACB. and therefore OC is perpendicular to the straight lines OM and ON . which are in the plane AOB. xi. Let O be the centre of the sphere. In the figure to Art. Hence the angle between the plane of any circle and the plane of a great circle which passes through its poles is a right angle. Two great circles bisect each other. Then AO is perpendicular to OC. therefore OC is perpendicular to the plane AOB (Euclid.4 GREAT AND SMALL CIRCLES. . By the angle between two great circles is meant the angle of inclination of the planes of the circles. For since the plane of each great circle passes through the centre of the sphere. 6. the line of intersection of these planes is a diameter of the sphere. 4). which is a straight line in the plane OCD. Hence M ON is the angle of inclination of the planes OCD and OCE. 9. therefore the great circles are bisected at the points where they meet. which is a straight line in the plane OCE. in the figure of the preceding Article.

7. therefore Ca is parallel to OA. since the planes of these arcs are at right angles to the plane of the given circle. (Plane Trigonometry. draw Ca. P the pole of the circle. C the centre of the circle. then since P A and P C are quadrants. not parts of the same great circle. Hence P O is at right angles to the plane AOC. in the figure of Art. xi. Cb. meeting the great circle of which P is a pole. and O the centre of the sphere. To compare the arc of a small circle subtending any angle at the centre of Let ab be the arc of a small circle. arc ab arc AB = . 10). Therefore the angle aCb = the angle AOB (Euclid. 14. Art. Through P draw the great circles P aA and P bB. Great circles which pass through the poles of a great circle are called secondaries to that circle. OA. that point is a pole of the given circle. because the planes aCb and AOB are perpendicular to OP . the angle between any two great circles is measured by the arc they intercept on the great circle to which they are secondaries. OA. the angles P OC and P OA are right angles. Cb. and P is a pole of the great circle AC. O the centre of the sphere. and Cb is parallel to OB. be each of them equal to a quadrant. and is therefore the axis of the given circle. . which are not at opposite extremities of a diameter. (See the figure of Art. hence the point from which the arcs are drawn is a pole of the circle. P is a pole of the great circle through A and C. the line in which they intersect is perpendicular to the plane of the given circle. 5 11. that is. And the angle between CM and CN is measured by M N . 12. 18). and therefore CM and CN are parts of secondaries to ABM N .) For suppose P A and P C to be quadrants. For. Thus. If the arcs of great circles joining a point P on the surface of a sphere with two other points A and C on the surface of the sphere. Then Ca. at A and B respectively. the planes of which are at right angles to the plane of a given circle. OB. OB are all perpendicular to OP . Hence. If from a point on the surface of a sphere there can be drawn two arcs of great circles. radius Ca radius OA the circle with the arc of a great circle subtending the same angle at its centre. 13.GREAT AND SMALL CIRCLES. 8 the point C is a pole of ABM N .

6 GREAT AND SMALL CIRCLES. therefore. arc AB OA Oa . Ca Ca arc ab = = = sin P Oa.

let O be the centre of a sphere. Suppose that the angular point of a solid angle is made the centre of a sphere.II SPHERICAL TRIANGLES. Spherical Trigonometry investigates the relations which subsist between the angles of the plane faces which form a solid angle and the angles at which the plane faces are inclined to each other. If the solid angle be formed by the meeting of more than three plane angles.) 18. the angles formed by the arcs at the points where they meet are called the angles of the spherical triangle. CA be the arcs of great circles in which the planes cut the sphere. 9. BC. The three arcs of great circles which form a spherical triangle are called the sides of the spherical triangle. Thus a figure will be formed on the surface of the sphere which is called a spherical triangle if it is bounded by three arcs of great circles. and suppose a solid angle formed at O by the meeting of three plane angles. Let AB. and 7 . then the planes which form the solid angle will cut the sphere in arcs of great circles. 17. (See Art. and is called a spherical polygon. 15. the corresponding figure on the surface of the sphere is bounded by more than three arcs of great circles. this will be the case when the solid angle is formed by the meeting of three plane angles. 16. then ABC is a spherical triangle. Thus.

Suppose Ab the tangent at A to the arc AB. 20. BC. The angles of a spherical triangle are the inclinations of the plane faces which form the solid angle. then the angle bAc is one of the angles of the spherical triangle. for since Ab and Ac are both perpendicular to OA. the arc AB forms one side of the spherical triangle arc AB ABC. B.8 SPHERICAL TRIANGLES. It will be seen that what are called sides of a spherical triangle are really arcs of great circles. Thus. Thus. if the angle C be a right angle. B. 19. and radius OA thus the arc AB is proportional to the angle AOB so long as we keep to the same sphere. and the letters a. in the figure of the preceding Article. CA are its sides. The letters A. Similarly angles formed in like manner at B and C are the other angles of the spherical triangle. The principal part of a treatise on Spherical Trigonometry consists of theorems relating to spherical triangles. A. as the sides of a spherical . As in the case of plane triangles. C are generally used to denote the angles of a spherical triangle. we may say that C = 90◦ . b. provided we understand distinctly what the unit is. and C may be used to denote the numerical values of the angles expressed in terms of any unit. and Ac the tangent at A to the arc AC. the angle bAc is the angle of inclination of the planes OAB and OAC. it is therefore necessary to obtain an accurate conception of a spherical triangle and its parts. according as we adopt for the unit a degree or the angle subtended 2 at the centre by an arc equal to the radius. and these arcs are proportional to the three plane angles which form the solid angle corresponding to the spherical triangle. So also. or π that C = . c are used to denote the sides. the tangents being drawn from A towards B and C respectively. the arcs AB. and the plane angle AOB is measured by the fraction .

and it is adopted because it is found convenient. consider ADEB. BC. We shall usually suppose both the angles and sides of a spherical triangle expressed in circular measure. and CA.) 21. thus the proposed triangle is not one of those which we consider. the arc ADEB is greater than a semicircumference. will meet AE. b. AC. we may use a. any arc drawn on the surface of a sphere will be supposed to be an arc of a great circle. will be understood to be that formed by AF B. (Plane Trigonometry. 23. in the figure. if we pleased. then BED is a semicircle by Art. and BC as forming a triangle. having its angular points at A. and we might.SPHERICAL TRIANGLES. In future. unless the contrary be distinctly stated. and the triangle having its angular points at A. 10. if produced. having the angle BCA greater than two right angles. 20. of a spherical triangle is less than two right angles. In spherical triangles each side is restricted to be less than a semicircle. Then suppose D to denote the point at which the arc BC. and therefore BEA is greater than a semicircle. From the restriction of the preceding Article it will follow that any angle For suppose a triangle formed by BC. 22. and C. Thus. 9 triangle are proportional to the angles subtended at the centre of the sphere. this is of course a convention. and BEDA. But we agree to exclude such triangles from our consideration. and C. B. Art. c to denote the numerical values of those angles in terms of any unit. B. CA. .

.10 SPHERICAL TRIANGLES.

B . which are investigated in treatises on Spherical Trigonometry. 24. we shall collect. and not their trigonometrical ratios. Let ABC be any spherical triangle. then the triangle A B C is said to be the polar triangle of the triangle ABC. under the head of Spherical Geometry. are chiefly such as involve the Trigonometrical Functions of the sides and angles. AB respectively which lie on the same sides of them as the opposite angles A. 25. however. The relations between the sides and angles of a Spherical Triangle. Since there are two poles for each side of a spherical triangle. Polar triangle.III SPHERICAL GEOMETRY. and let the points A . Before proceeding to these. CA. B. C be those poles of the arcs BC. some theorems which involve the sides and angles themselves. C. eight triangles can be formed having for their angular points poles of the sides of the given 11 .

then since A is a pole of B C . and AA is less than a quadrant. B C is the supplement of the angles and sides of the primitive triangle. and since A is a pole of B C . Similarly it may be shewn that B is a pole of C A . the arc AC is a quadrant (Art. and that B and B are on the same side of C A . that is. AC. 27. A B C the polar triangle: then ABC will be the polar triangle of A B C . For since B is a pole of AC. 12). at the points D and E respectively. 7). and since C is a pole of BA. therefore DE and B C are together equal to a semicircle. therefore A is a pole of B C (Art. 11). B . If one triangle be the polar triangle of another. produced if necessary. B. also that C is a pole of A B . and that C and C are on the same side of A B . the spherical angle A is measured by the arc DE (Art. for A and A are by hypothesis on the same side of BC.12 SPHERICAL GEOMETRY. The sides and angles of the polar triangle are respectively the supplements For let the arc B C . the latter will be the polar Let ABC be any triangle. meet the arcs AB. This we may express for shortness thus. The triangle ABC is called the primitive triangle with respect to the triangle ABC. and this is the triangle which is known under the name of the polar triangle. Also A and A are on the same side of B C . 26. C lie towards the same parts with the corresponding angles A. C. but there is only one triangle in which these poles A . the angle subtended by B C at the centre of the sphere is the supplement of the angle A. . Thus ABC is the polar triangle of A B C . triangle. the arc AB is a quadrant. produced if necessary. But B E and C D are each quadrants. A and A are on the same side of B C . therefore A A is less than a quadrant. triangle of the former.

a . (See the figure of Art. c denote respectively the angles and the sides of a spherical triangle. 18. we have A = π − a. and A . C. are together greater than the third. xi. B . B . B = π − b. c = π − C. Thus any such theorem will remain true when the angles are changed into the supplements of the corresponding sides and the sides into the supplements of the corresponding angles. 28. We shall see several examples of this principle in the next Chapter. xi. 20). b. AB are respectively the supplements of A . BC. all expressed in circular measure.) . 18. C = π − c. Any two sides of a spherical triangle are together greater than the third For any two of the three plane angles which form the solid angle at O are together greater than the third (Euclid. b = π − B. From these properties a primitive triangle and its polar triangle are sometimes called supplemental triangles. b . The sum of the three sides of a spherical triangle is less than the circumFor the sum of the three plane angles which form the solid angle at O is less than four right angles (Euclid. CA. 21). And since ABC is the polar triangle of A B C . Therefore any two of the arcs AB.SPHERICAL GEOMETRY.) ference of a great circle. B. B . C . 30. The preceding result is of great importance. a. 13 of A. therefore AB BC CA + + is less than 2π. Thus. if A. CA. and A B the supplement of C. AB. c those of the polar triangle. for if any general theorem be demonstrated with respect to the sides and the angles of any spherical triangle it holds of course for the polar triangle also. 29. CA. it follows that BC. a = π − A. C . Similarly it may be shewn that C A is the supplement of B. (See the figure of Art. From this proposition it is obvious that any side of a spherical triangle is greater than the difference of the other two. A . C are respectively the supplements of BC. that is. OA OA OA side.

Then by Art. A + B + C is greater than π. angles and less than six right angles. c be the sides of the polar triangle. the sum of the arcs is less than the circumference of a great circle. 31. AB + BC + CD is less than 2π × OA. therefore. that is. BT at the points A. 33. This follows from Euclid. for example. . C. if there be any polygon which has each of its angles less than two right angles. and AS will be equal to BS. b . let a . And since each of the angles A. B. Let ABC be a spherical triangle having AC = BC. Suppose. Then AD + BC is greater than AC. that the figure has four sides. 21. a + b + c is less than 2π. and let the angular points be denoted by A. D. xi. therefore. C is less than π. therefore. B to the arc AB. 30. Draw tangents AT . B. the sum A + B + C is less than 3π. 30. a Again. B. in the manner shewn in Art. C be the angles of a spherical triangle.14 SPHERICAL GEOMETRY. The propositions contained in the preceding two Articles may be extended. any one side is less than the sum of all the others. these will meet OC produced at the same point S. 29. The three angles of a spherical triangle are together greater than two right Let A. the sum of its sides will be less than the circumference of a great circle. and ` fortiori greater than AD. 32. The angles at the base of an isosceles spherical triangle are equal. Draw tangents at the points A and B to the arcs AC and BC respectively. that is. Thus. AB + BC + CD is greater than AC + CD. This may be proved by repeated use of Art. let O be the centre of the sphere. π − A + π − B + π − C is less than 2π. if there be any polygon which has each of its angles less than two right angles. then AT = T B.

therefore in the polar triangle the angles opposite the equal sides are equal by Art. Hence in the primitive triangle the sides opposite the equal angles are equal. BT .SPHERICAL GEOMETRY. then BD is equal to AD (Art. 33. . SBT the sides SA. 34). If one angle of a spherical triangle be greater than another. the polar triangle has two equal sides. If AC and BC are quadrants. 15 join T S. T S respectively. therefore the angle SAT is equal to the angle SBT . 11 and 9. Since the primitive triangle has two equal angles. if they are greater than quadrants the tangents to AC and BC will meet on CO produced through O instead of through C. and these are the angles at the base of the spherical triangle. T S are equal to SB. the side oppoLet ABC be a spherical triangle. At B make the angle ABD equal to the angle BAD. If two angles of a spherical triangle are equal. 34. The figure supposes AC and BC to be less than quadrants. the opposite sides are equal. and let the angle ABC be greater than the angle BAC: then the side AC will be greater than the side BC. the angles at the base are right angles by Arts. 29). In the two triangles SAT . and BD + DC is greater than BC (Art. therefore AD + DC is greater than site the greater angle is greater than the side opposite the less angle. AT . and the demonstration may be completed as before. 35.

. 56. Or thus. AC is greater than BC. site the greater side is greater than the angle opposite the less side. suppose the side AC greater than the side BC. 35. the angle oppoThis follows from the preceding Article by means of the polar triangle. that is. and the angle ABC cannot be equal to the angle BAC by Art.16 SPHERICAL GEOMETRY. BC. For the angle ABC cannot be less than the angle BAC by Art. If one side of a spherical triangle be greater than another. therefore the angle ABC must be greater than the angle BAC. See Arts. but it is unnecessary to do so because the Trigonometrical formulæ of the next Chapter supply an easy method of investigating the theorems of Spherical Geometry. This Chapter might be extended. 57. 34. 36. then the angle ABC will be greater than the angle BAC. and 58.

To express the cosine of an angle of a triangle in terms of sines and cosines of the sides. and let the tangent at A to the arc AB meet OB produced at D. join ED. Let the tangent at A to the arc AC meet OC produced at E. 17 .IV Relations between the Trigonometrical Functions of the Sides and the Angles of a Spherical Triangle. and the angle EOD measures the side a. Let ABC be a spherical triangle. O the centre of the sphere. Thus the angle EAD is the angle A of the spherical triangle. 37.

cos A = cos a − cos b cos c . c = π − c. OD cos a = cos b cos c + sin b sin c cos A. also the angles OAD and OAE are right angles. for we have assumed that the tangents at A meet OB and OC respectively produced. We have supposed. . therefore that is Therefore cos a = AE OA OA + OE OD OE AD cos A. (1) Suppose only one of the sides which contain the angle A to be greater than a quadrant. for example. From the triangles ADE and ODE we have DE 2 = AD2 + AE 2 − 2AD AE cos A. sin b sin c 38. Hence by subtraction we have 0 = 2OA2 + 2AD AE cos A − 2OD OE cos a. CB = a . and put AB = c . Produce BA and BC to meet at B . Then we have from the triangle AB C. cos a = cos b cos c + sin b sin c cos B AC. in the construction of the preceding Article. We must now shew that the formulæ obtained is true when these sides are not less than quadrants. This we shall do by special examination of the cases in which one side or each side is greater than a quadrant or equal to a quadrant. by what has been already proved. DE 2 = OD2 + OE 2 − 2OD OE cos a. that the sides which contain the angle A are less than quadrants. AB.18 RELATIONS BETWEEN THE FUNCTIONS. so that OD2 = OA2 + AD2 and OE 2 = OA2 + AE 2 . but a = π − a. thus cos a = cos b cos c + sin b sin c cos A. B AC = π − A.

as before. cos a = cos b cos c + sin b sin c cos A . 19 (2) Suppose both the sides which contain the angle A to be greater than quadrants. for A is now the pole of BC. AB. the triangle BDC gives cos a = cos CD cos BD + sin CD sin BD cos CDB. then from the triangle A BC. . If BD be not a quadrant. 2 cos a = sin b cos A. thus cos a = cos b cos c + sin b sin c cos A. for example. c = π − c. in this case π π π a = and A = as well as c = . Produce AB and AC to meet at A . 11). The formula then becomes cos a = cos A. cos BD = cos A. A C = b . and thus cos CDB = 0. 2 (4) Suppose that both the sides which contain the angle A are quadrants. and thus A = a. A = A. cos CD = cos π − b = sin b. Thus the formula to be verified reduces to 2 2 2 the identity 0 = 0. 37 becomes when c = π .RELATIONS BETWEEN THE FUNCTIONS. produced if necessary. and this is obviously true. take AD equal to a quadrant and draw BD. and this is what the formula in Art. put A B = c . on AC. (3) Suppose that one of the sides which contain the angle A is a quadrant. but b = π − b. If BD is a quadrant B is a pole of AC (Art.

To express the sine of an angle of a spherical triangle in terms of trigono- metrical functions of the sides. The formula in Art. cos c = cos a cos b + sin a sin b cos C. because sin b. 37 may be applied to express the cosine of any angle of a triangle in terms of sines and cosines of the sides. thus we have the three formulæ. sin b sin c The radical on the right-hand side must be taken with the positive sign. Thus the formula in Art. sin c. sin b sin c cos a − cos b cos c sin b sin c 2 sin2 A = 1 − = = (1 − cos2 b)(1 − cos2 c) − (cos a − cos b cos c)2 sin2 b sin2 c therefore 1 − cos2 a − cos2 b − cos2 c + 2 cos a cos b cos c . 41. and sin A are all positive. sin a sin b sin c . we shall proceed to deduce various formulæ from them. We have therefore cos A = cos a − cos b cos c .20 RELATIONS BETWEEN THE FUNCTIONS. 39. From the value of sin A in the preceding Article it follows that sin A sin B sin C = = . cos b = cos c cos a + sin c sin a cos B. cos a = cos b cos c + sin b sin c cos A. These may be considered as the fundamental equations of Spherical Trigonometry. 40. 37 is proved to be universally true. sin2 b sin2 c √ (1 − cos2 a − cos2 b − cos2 c + 2 cos a cos b cos c) sin A = .

Similarly. √ (1 − cos2 a − cos2 b − cos2 c + 2 cos a cos b cos c) . Therefore P E = OP sin P OE = OP sin c. 42. 21 for each of these is equal to the same expression. B alone is greater than a right . O the centre of the sphere. therefore OP sin c sin B = OP sin b sin C. therefore sin B sin b = . c. P D = OP sin b sin C. and P D = P E sin P ED = P E sin B = OP sin c sin B. OD. it will be found on examination that the proof will hold when the figure is modified to meet any case which can occur.RELATIONS BETWEEN THE FUNCTIONS. and from D draw DE. sin a sin b sin c Thus the sines of the angles of a spherical triangle are proportional to the sines of the opposite sides. join P E. DF perpendicular to OB. We will give an independent proof of this proposition in the following Article. draw P D perpendicular to the plane BOC. sin C sin c The figure supposes b. it makes right angles with every straight line meeting it in that plane. thus P EO is a right angle. OC respectively. Since P D is perpendicular to the plane BOC. hence P E 2 = P D2 + DE 2 = P O2 − OD2 + DE 2 = P O2 − OE 2 . P F . The sines of the angles of a spherical triangle are proportional to the sines Let ABC be a spherical triangle. and C each less than a right angle. namely. If. Take any point P in OA. for instance. of the opposite sides. B.

22 RELATIONS BETWEEN THE FUNCTIONS. by Art. the whole six formulæ will be as follows: cot a sin b = cot A sin C + cos b cos C. We have cos a = cos b cos c + sin b sin c cos A. cot c sin a = cot C sin B + cos a cos B. sin c = sin a sin C . 43. By interchanging the letters five other formulæ may be obtained like that sin a sin b cos A sin C . sin b sin c functions of the sides. cot c sin b = cot C sin A + cos b cos A. sin A in the preceding Article. angle. and thus sin P ED is still equal to sin B. To shew that cot a sin b = cot A sin C + cos b cos C. divide by sin a sin b. cot b sin a = cot B sin C + cos a cos C. then P ED will be the supplement of B. cosine. and tangent. sin A Substitute the values of cos c and sin c in the first equation. cos A = cos a − cos b cos c . the point D will fall beyond OB instead of between OB and OC. To express the sine. 45. 37. cot b sin c = cot B sin A + cos c cos A. . cot a sin c = cot A sin B + cos c cos B. cos c = cos a cos b + sin a sin b cos C. thus cos a = (cos a cos b + sin a sin b cos C) cos b + by transposition cos a sin2 b = sin a sin b cos b cos C + sin a sin b cot A sin C. thus cot a sin b = cos b cos C + cot A sin C. of half an angle of a triangle as We have. 44.

2 sin b sin c Let 2s = a + b + c. From the expressions for sin A = 2 tan The positive sign must be given to the radicals which occur in this Article. so that s is half the sum of the sides of the triangle. and tangent 2 are all positive. sin b sin c sin b sin c 1 1 sin 2 (a + b − c) sin 2 (a − b + c) A = . and Also. sin b sin c sin b sin c 1 + cos A = 1 + sin 1 (a + b + c) sin 1 (b + c − a) sin s sin(s − a) A 2 2 = = .RELATIONS BETWEEN THE FUNCTIONS. because A A cos . as in . a − b + c = 2s − 2b = 2(s − b). Since sin A = 2 sin sin A = 1 2 {sin s sin(s − a) sin(s − b) sin(s − c)} 2 . 23 therefore therefore 1 − cos A = 1 − sin2 cos a − cos b cos c cos(b − c) − cos a = . thus. therefore cos2 and cos sin2 sin(s − b) sin(s − c) A = . we obtain 2 2 46. A is less than a right angle. 2 sin b sin c sin b sin c A = 2 sin s sin(s − a) sin b sin c A A and cos we deduce 2 2 sin(s − b) sin(s − c) sin s sin(s − a) . cosine. 2 sin b sin c A sin(s − b) sin(s − c) sin = 2 sin b sin c cos a − cos b cos c cos a − cos(b + c) = . 40 agrees with the present expression by putting the numerator of that expression in factors. then a + b − c = 2s − 2c = 2(s − c). and therefore its sine. sin b sin c It may be shewn that the expression for sin A in Art.

cos B = − cos C cos A + sin C sin A cos b. The formulæ in Art. sin B sin C sin B sin C cos A + cos B cos C . This consideration will furnish some assistance in retaining those formulæ accurately in the memory. that no new formulæ are thus obtained. To express the cosine of a side of a triangle in terms of sines and cosines In the formula of Art. Art. 37 we may.24 RELATIONS BETWEEN THE FUNCTIONS. 2 sin B sin C . cos A = − cos B cos C + sin B sin C cos a. 28. sides are changed into the supplements of the corresponding sides and angles respectively. that is. then B + C − A = 2(S − A). We shall find it convenient to use a symbol for the radical in the value of sin A. Similarly and 48. therefore 1 cos 1 (A + B + C) cos 2 (B + C − A) a 2 =− . however. cosine. 115. by Art. change the sides into the supplements of the corresponding angles and the angle into the supplement of the corresponding side. 49. 47. To express the sine. 44 will of course remain true when the angles and of the angles. 4n2 = 1 − cos2 a − cos2 b − cos2 c + 2 cos a cos b cos c. cos a = therefore 1 − cos a = 1 − sin2 cos A + cos B cos C cos A + cos(B + C) =− . sin B sin C functions of the angles. and tangent. so that n2 = sin s sin(s − a) sin(s − b) sin(s − c). we shall denote it by n. by Art. of half a side of a triangle as We have. Plane Trigonometry. therefore sin2 a cos S cos(S − A) =− . it will be found. but only the same formulæ over again. 2 sin B sin C Let 2S = A + B + C. thus cos(π − A) = cos(π − B) cos(π − C) + sin(π − B) sin(π − C) cos(π − a). and 47. cos C = − cos A cos B + sin A sin B cos c.

thus π −A is less than π −B +π −C. 2 50. 28. 2 2 2 a a cos . Similarly also cos(S − B) and cos(S − C) are positive. we obtain 2 2 51. a a a It may be remarked that the values of sin . therefore S −A is less than . and tan are real. 2 sin B sin C sin B sin C and cos a = 2 a = 2 cos(S − B) cos(S − C) sin B sin C − cos S cos(S − A) cos(S − B) cos(S − C) . therefore cos(S − A) 2 is positive. The positive sign must be given to the radicals which occur in this Article. cos . sin B sin C 1 We shall use N for {− cos S cos(S − A) cos(S − B) cos(S − C)} 2 . therefore B +C −A is π less than π. and tan are real. The expressions in the preceding Article may also be obtained immediately from those given in Art. And in the polar triangle any side is less than the sum of the other two. and B +C −A is algebraically greater 2 π than −π. 32. 25 and sin a = 2 − cos S cos(S − A) . therefore cos S is negative. a because is less than a right angle. For 2 2 2 S is greater than one right angle and less than three right angles by Art. . cos . Hence the a a a values of sin .RELATIONS BETWEEN THE FUNCTIONS. 45 by means of Art. sin B sin C sin B sin C cos 1 (A − B + C) cos 1 (A + B − C) a cos(S − B) cos(S − C) 2 2 = = . Since sin a = 2 sin sin a = 1 2 {− cos S cos(S − A) cos(S − B) cos(S − C)} 2 . Hence tan . sin B sin C Also therefore cos2 1 + cos a = 1 + cos A + cos(B − C) cos A + cos B cos C = . so that S − A is algebraically greater than − .

and so on in (4) and (5) we obtain tan 1 (a + b) = 2 tan 1 (a − b) = 2 1 cos 2 (A − B) c tan . 1 2 sin 2 (A + B) (7) The formulæ (4). therefore by (1) we have sin a + sin b 1 + cos C sin A + sin B = . therefore. (6). (5). 52. by addition. and are called from their discoverer Napier’s Analogies: the last two . To demonstrate Napier’s Analogies. cos A + cos B sin(a + b) sin C that is. m= and also Now and m= sin A + sin B .26 RELATIONS BETWEEN THE FUNCTIONS. cos A + cos B sin(a + b) sin C that is. by a theorem of Algebra. sin a sin b then. 1 2 2 sin 2 (a + b) (5) By writing π − A for a. (7) may be put in the form of proportions or analogies. sin a − sin b (1) (2) cos A + cos B cos C = sin B sin C cos a = m sin C sin b cos a. cos B + cos A cos C = sin A sin C cos b = m sin C sin a cos b. 1 2 cos 2 (A + B) (6) sin 1 (A − B) c 2 tan . sin a + sin b sin A − sin B . tan 1 (A + B) = 2 cos 1 (a − b) C 2 cot . (cos A + cos B)(1 + cos C) = m sin C sin(a + b). 2 cos 1 (a + b) 2 (4) (3) Similarly from (3) and (2) we have sin a − sin b 1 + cos C sin A − sin B = . 1 sin 2 (a − b) 1 C tan (A − B) = cot . We have sin A sin B = = m suppose.

since 1 (A + B) and 2 (a + b) are of the same 2 affection. 39. cos 2 (a − b) and cot 1 cos 2 (a + b) are of the same sign. 2 2 Now add unity to the square of each member of Napier’s first two analogies. 2 1 therefore cos2 1 c = cos2 1 (a − b) cos2 2 C + cos2 1 (a + b) sin2 1 C. 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 Similarly. 1 + b) sin2 2 C 1 Extract the square roots. cos2 1 (a + b) sin2 1 C 2 2 sin2 1 (a 2 sin2 1 c 2 .RELATIONS BETWEEN THE FUNCTIONS. To demonstrate Delambre’s Analogies. This is expressed by saying that 1 (A + B) and 1 (a + b) are of the same affection. 1 In equation (4) of the preceding Article. 2 2 2 (3) (4) . 27 may be demonstrated without recurring to the polar triangle by starting with the formulæ in Art. sin2 2 c = sin2 1 (a − b) cos2 2 C + sin2 1 (a + b) sin2 2 C. 2 2 54. we obtain 1 1 cos 1 (A + B) cos 2 c = cos 1 (a + b) sin 2 C. hence the equation shews that tan 2 (A + B) and 53. thus. therefore 1 + cos c = 1 + cos a cos b + sin a sin b(cos2 1 C − sin2 1 C) 2 2 1 = {1 + cos(a − b)} cos2 1 C + {1 + cos(a + b)} sin2 2 C. 2 2 1 1 cos 2 (A − B) sin 1 c = sin 1 (a + b) sin 2 C. thus sin 1 (A + B) cos 1 c = cos 1 (a − b) cos 1 C. C are nec2 1 essarily positive quantities. thus 1 2 (A + B) and 1 2 (a + b) are either both less than a right angle or both greater than a right angle. We have cos c = cos a cos b + sin a sin b cos C. hence by the formulæ just proved sec2 1 (A + B) = 2 sec2 1 (A − B) = 2 1 cos2 2 c . 2 2 2 2 1 sin 1 (A − B) sin 1 c = sin 2 (a − b) cos 1 C. 2 2 (1) (2) Multiply the first two of Napier’s analogies respectively by these results.

28 RELATIONS BETWEEN THE FUNCTIONS. but improperly. the fundamental formulæ of Art. Thus the formulæ in Art. 27. and therefore also all results deducible from them. sin2 a sin b sin c In the numerator of this fraction write 1 − cos2 a for sin2 a. 55. the second of Napier’s analogies is tan 1 (A − B) = 2 1 sin 2 (a − b) C cot . 56. 39 hold good. The properties of supplemental triangles were proved geometrically in Art. 1873. The last four formulæ are commonly. 47 were obtained. See the Philosophical Magazine for February. thus the numerator will be found to reduce to cos a(1 − cos2 a − cos2 b − cos2 c + 2 cos a cos b cos c). called Gauss’s Theorems. 39. and this is equal to cos a sin B sin C sin2 a sin b sin c. but these formulæ may be deduced analytically from those in Art. Similarly the other two corresponding formulæ may be proved. (Art. 39. 41). Thus. 47 are established. For from Art. cos B. and thus the whole subject may be made to depend on the formulæ of Art. cos C. therefore cos A + cos B cos C − cos a sin B sin C. 39 we obtain expressions for cos A. and from these we find cos A + cos B cos C = (cos a − cos b cos c) sin2 a + (cos b − cos a cos c)(cos c − cos a cos b) . or may be so proved. without assuming the existence and properties of the Polar Triangle. they were first given by Delambre in the Connaissance des Tems for 1809. 1 2 sin 2 (a + b) . The formulæ in the present Chapter may be applied to establish analyti- cally various propositions respecting spherical triangles which either have been proved geometrically in the preceding Chapter. and by means of these properties the formulæ in Art. we deduce the following theorem: If the sides and angles of a spherical triangle be changed respectively into the supplements of the corresponding angles and sides. page 445. and therefore. for example.

but the angle which is contained by the two sides of the one greater than the angle which is contained by the two sides which are equal to them of the other. Two triangles which are equal in this manner are said to be symmetrically equal. 58. We may shew that the bases are equal by applying the first formula in Art. each to each. each to each. thus we obtain all the results included in this shews that Arts. negative. or zero. the base of that which has the greater angle will be greater than the base of the other. 36. If two spherical triangles have two sides of the one equal to two sides of the other. negative. then their other angles will be equal.RELATIONS BETWEEN THE FUNCTIONS. as in the following figures. or zero. 39 to each triangle. If two triangles have two sides of the one equal to two sides of the other. 1 2 (A − B) is positive. . Let b and c denote the sides which are equal in the two triangles. 33. It should be observed that the two triangles in this case are not necessarily such that one may be made to coincide with the other by superposition. and a and A similar quantities . supposing b. but in a reverse order. c. 39 will shew that B and C are the same in the two triangles. The sides of one may be equal to those of the other. and likewise their bases will be equal. and conversely. let a be the base and A the opposite angle of one triangle. then the remaining two formulæ of Art. 29 1 (a − 2 b) is positive. when they are equal so as to admit of superposition they are said to be absolutely equal. and A the same in the two triangles. each to each. . and likewise the included angles equal. according as 57. each to each.

y1 . and also to r2 + r2 − 2r2 cos AOB. the greatest is that in which the pole is. x2 + y2 + z2 = r2 . This follows readily from the preceding three Articles. . z1 be the co-ordinates of A. Then cos a = cos b cos c + sin b sin c cos A. and these make equal angles with the shortest arc on opposite sides of it.30 RELATIONS BETWEEN THE FUNCTIONS. 2 2 2 2 and x2 + y1 + z1 = r2 . and x2 . 2 2 59. cos a = cos b cos c + sin b sin c cos A . therefore that is. 2 2 2 cos a − cos a + sin b sin c(cos A − cos A ). for the other. 60. 1 sin 2 (a + a ) sin 1 (a − a ) = sin b sin c sin 1 (A + A ) sin 1 (A − A ). O the centre of the sphere. We will give another proof of the fundamental formulæ in Art. and the other part of that produced is the least. y2 . Then the square on the straight line AB is equal to (x1 − x2 )2 + (y1 − y2 )2 + (z1 − z2 )2 . thus 1 2 x1 x2 + y1 y2 + z1 z2 = r2 cos AOB. 39. that which is nearer to the greatest is always greater than one more remote. of all the arcs which can be drawn from that point to the circumference. requiring only a knowledge of the elements of Co-ordinate Geometry. which is very simple. Let x1 . z2 those of B. take O as the origin of co-ordinates. this shews that 1 (a − a ) and 1 (A − A ) are of the same sign. and let the axis of z pass through C. and of any others. and from the same point to the circumference there can be drawn only two arcs which are equal to each other. If on a sphere any point be taken within a circle which is not its pole. let r be the radius of the sphere. Suppose ABC any spherical triangle.

31 Now make the usual substitutions in passing from rectangular to polar coordinates. 1. 3. y1 = r sin θ1 sinφ1 . x1 = r sin θ1 cos φ1 . If two angles of a spherical triangle be respectively equal to the sides opposite to them. 2 hence deduce the limits between which the sides and the angles of an equilateral triangle are restricted. shew that 2 cos sin = 1. If one angle of a triangle be equal to the sum of the other two. as all the equations used are universally true. z2 = r cos θ2 . and then the remaining side is equal to the remaining angle. z1 = r cos θ1 . If D be the middle point of AB. shew that B and b are equal or supplemental. When does the polar triangle coincide with the primitive triangle? 4. In an equilateral triangle. a A 6. y2 = r sin θ2 sinφ2 . . shew that the remaining side is the supplement of the remaining angle.RELATIONS BETWEEN THE FUNCTIONS. 2. x2 = r sin θ2 cos φ2 . cos a cos b + sin a sin b cos C = cos c. thus we obtain cos θ2 cos θ1 + sin θ2 sin θ1 cos(φ1 − φ2 ) = cos AOB. namely. in the ordinary notation of Spherical Trigonometry. as also C and c. 5. shew that 1 cos AC + cos BC = 2 cos 2 AB cos CD. EXAMPLES. that is. This method has the advantage of giving a perfectly general proof. shew that tan = 1 − 2 cos A. or else that the triangle has two quadrants and two right angles. the greatest side is double of the distance of its middle point from the opposite angle. In an equilateral triangle. 2 2 2 a 7. If A = a.

P a pole of DE. B. the angle θ between the new sides and is given by cos θ = cos A + 2 2 b c 1 tan tan sin2 θ. 13. In a spherical triangle shew that sin b sin c + cos b cos c cos A = sin B sin C − cos B cos C cos a. 12. shew that sin 2B + sin 2C = 0. In an equilateral triangle. 11. P C be joined by arcs of great circles. If b + c = π. 9. If the three sides of a spherical triangle be halved and a new triangle b c formed. ψ be the arcs bisecting the angles A. 15. their common latitude being l and their difference of longitude 2λ: shew that the saving of distance in sailing from one to the other on the great circle. 16. shew that cot θ cos B C A + cot φ cos + cot ψ cos = cot a + cot b + cot c. If D be any point in the side BC of a triangle.32 RELATIONS BETWEEN THE FUNCTIONS. CD are quadrants on the surface of a sphere intersecting at E. AC of a spherical triangle at D and E. 2 2 2 17. In a spherical triangle shew that θ. sin a sin θ = sin b sin φ = sin c sin ψ = √ (1 − cos2 a − cos2 b − cos2 c + 2 cos a cos b cos c). instead of sailing due East or . P D. P E. In a spherical triangle. φ. the extremities being joined by great circles: shew that cos AEC = cos AC cos BD − cos BC cos AD. ψ be the lengths of arcs of great circles drawn from A. 8. B. φ. Two ports are in the same parallel of latitude. and P B. shew that the angle BP C = twice the angle DP E. shew that sec A = 1 + sec a. 14. if θ. C respectively and terminated by the opposite sides. AB. If DE be an arc of a great circle bisecting the sides AB. shew that cos AD sin BC = cos AB sin DC + cos AC sin BD. 2 2 2 10. C perpendicular to the opposite sides.

If a ship be proceeding uniformly along a great circle and the observed latitudes be l1 . shew that s = r cos−1 1 sin 2 (l1 + l3 ) cos 1 (l1 − l3 ) 2 . l2 . at equal intervals of time. and r being the radius of the Earth.RELATIONS BETWEEN THE FUNCTIONS. 18. 33 West. . l3 . λ being expressed in circular measure. is 2r{λ cos l − sin−1 (sin λ cos l)}. in each of which the distance traversed is s. sin l2 r denoting the Earth’s radius: and shew that the change of longitude may also be found in terms of the three latitudes.

34 RELATIONS BETWEEN THE FUNCTIONS. .

and join P N . 62. The formulæ requisite for the solution of right-angled triangles may be obtained from the preceding Chapter by supposing one of the angles a right angle. those of the remaining three can generally be found. and from M draw M N perpendicular to OB. 61. Let ABC be a spherical triangle having a right angle at C. in addition to the right angle. when the values of a sufficient number of the six elements are given. From any point P in OA draw P M perpendicular to OC. Then P M is perpendicular to M N . as we will now shew. The solution of spherical triangles is the process by which. It will appear. because the plane AOC is perpendicular to the plane 35 . We begin with the right-angled triangle: here two elements. besides the radius of the sphere. the three sides and the three angles. which is supposed constant. namely. as we proceed. In every spherical triangle there are six elements. will be supposed known. let O be the centre of the sphere. They may also be obtained very easily in an independent manner. as C for example. we calculate the values of the remaining elements. that when the values of three of the elements are given.V SOLUTION OF RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLES.

BOC. sin b = sin B sin c OP Similarly. sin a sin b cos a cos b cos c cos c = cot A cot B. tan b = cos A tan c   MN  . And ON ON = OP OM PM PM = OP PN OM . OP that is. (5) Multiply crosswise the second formula in (2) and the first in (3).      (1) PN . cos a . sin a = sin A sin c .36 SOLUTION OF RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLES. cos c = cos a cos b. that is.  Similarly. therefore P N O is a right angle. tan a = cos B tan c  ON . tan A tan B = therefore tan a tan b 1 1 = = by (1). tan a = tan A sin b (3) (4) Multiply together the two formulæ (4). hence P N 2 = P M 2 + M N 2 = OP 2 − OM 2 + OM 2 − ON 2 = OP 2 − ON 2 . thus. that is. thus sin a cos B tan c = tan a sin A sin c. tan b = tan B sin a  OM .   Similarly. that is. therefore cos B = sin A cos c = sin A cos b by (1). (2) MN MN = ON PN PM PM = OM MN  PN  .

47. or else one side is less than a quadrant and the other two sides are greater than quadrants. (3) from the fourth and fifth equations of Art.SOLUTION OF RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLES. 41. Since the six formulæ may be obtained from those given in the preceding Chapter which have been proved to be universally true. A. the above six formulæ may be obtained from those given in the preceding Chapter by supposing C a right angle. hence either all the cosines are positive. 62 may be applied to every case which can occur. (6) from the first and second equations of Art. A. Thus any two of the five quantities being given and a third required. The formulæ of Art. (5) from the third equation of Art. 39. 47. 64. c. we do not stop to shew that the demonstration of Art. c. b. cos A = sin B cos a (6) These six formulæ comprise ten equations. 62. Similarly B and b are of the same affection. and out of five quantities only ten combinations of three can be formed. For every one of these ten equations is a distinct combination involving three out of the five quantities a. 62 are comprised in the following enunciations. the student may for exercise investigate the modifications which will be necessary when we suppose one or more of the quantities a. Certain properties of right-angled triangles are deducible from the formulæ From (1) it follows that cos c has the same sign as the product cos a cos b. Thus (1) follows from Art. or else only one is positive. 44. As we have stated. B. this is expressed by saying 2 2 that A and a are of the same affection. some one of the preceding ten equations will serve to determine that third quantity. or both less than . 37 Thus Similarly  cos B = sin A cos b  . which of Art. 63. (4) from the first and second equations of Art. (2) from Art. From (4) it follows that tan a has the same sign as tan A. Therefore A and a π π are either both greater than . b. the results are distinguished by the . 44. and thus we can solve every case of right-angled triangles. B equal to a right angle or greater than a right angle. Therefore in a right-angled triangle either all the three sides are less than quadrants. the student will find it useful to remember. 65.

(4). .38 SOLUTION OF RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLES. . 2 . . . For example. Tan side = tan hyp × cos included angle . the triangle. . . . if − B is selected as the middle part. (3). . Any one of the five parts may be selected and called the middle part. the complement of the hypotenuse. . . namely. . . . . and the Rules of Circular Parts were first published by him in a work entitled Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Descriptio. Thus there are five π π π − A. Napier’s Rules of Circular Parts. and these are supposed to be 2 2 2 ranged round a circle in the order in which they naturally occur with respect to circular parts. . 66. . Napier’s Rules. . . Napier was also the inventor of Logarithms. . The formulæ of Art. . 1614. . Cos angle = cos opposite side × sine of other angle . Cos hyp = product of cotangents of angles . . Sine side = sine of opposite angle × sine hyp . . a. − c. . . and the complements of the other angles are called the circular parts of the triangle. . . These rules we will now explain. b. (1). Edinburgh. . . from their inventor. The right angle is left out of consideration. . . 62. same numbers as have been already applied to them in Art. − B. . . . (6). . . . . the two sides which include the right angle. Tan side = tan opposite angle × sine of other side . (5). . . the side opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse: Cos hyp = product of cosines of sides . . . and the remaining two parts π are called opposite parts. . then the two parts next to it are called adjacent parts. which are called. 62 are comprised in two rules. . . . . . . (2). .

cos B = cos b sin A . . . . . sin b = sin B sin c . π π π − B sin − B = tan a tan −c 2 2 2 sin a π π − B = cos b cos −A 2 2 sin a = tan b tan sin a = cos b sin b = tan sin b = cos π −B 2 π π − A cos −c 2 2 π − A tan a 2 π π − B cos −c 2 2 π π π − A sin − A = tan b tan −c 2 2 2 sin π π − A = cos a cos −B 2 2 The last four cases need not have been given. π π π π − c sin − c = tan − A tan −B 2 2 2 2 sin π − c = cos a cos b 2 cos c = cot A cot B . . . 62. . .(2).(5). and the ninth and tenth are repetitions of the third and fourth. 67. 39 then the adjacent parts are a and π π − c. .(3).(4).SOLUTION OF RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLES. . with the number for reference used in that Article. and in the third column the same results expressed as in Art. . and the opposite parts are b and − A. . . Napier’s Rules may be demonstrated by shewing that they agree with the results already established. cos c = cos a cos b . sin a = sin A sin c . . .(6). . . 2 2 Then Napier’s Rules are the following: sine of the middle part = product of tangents of adjacent parts. . .(1). . cos A = tan b cot c . . . the seventh and eighth are repetitions of the fifth and sixth. .(2). .(3). sine of the middle part = product of cosines of opposite parts.(6).. . . since it is obvious that they are only repetitions of what had previously been given. The following table shews the required agreement: in the first column are given the middle parts. in the second column the results of Napier’s Rules. .(4). cos B = tan a cot c . sin b = cot A tan a . cos A = cos a sin B . sin a = tan b cot B . .

and similarly the side DE is equal to the angle DBE. and is therefore the complement of the angle ABC. this statement. for example. EF H. and the sides respectively 2 2 π π opposite these angles equal to − B and − c. AED. 68. and with A as pole describe a great circle HF KL. The circular parts of AED 2 2 are therefore the same as those of ABC.40 SOLUTION OF RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLES. F KG. Similarly the remaining three of the five right-angled triangles may be shewn to have the same circular parts as the triangle ABC has. and moreover it will be found on examination that. Hence the five triangles BAC. as B is a pole of DE the angle BED is a right angle. the side AD is the complement of AB. Hence. yet their circular parts are the same. 35. Let ABC be a spherical triangle right-angled at C. and produce the sides of the original triangle ABC to meet these great circles. is inaccurate. that is. the angles equal to A and − a. 12). and since A is a pole of HF KL the angles at H and L are right angles. We will consider. 13). Then since B is a pole of DEF G the angles at D and G are right angles. therefore the angle AED is the complement of the angle BEC. KBL are all right-angled . the angle AED is the complement of the side BC (Art. therefore EA is the complement of AC. It has been sometimes stated that the method of the preceding Article is the only one by which Napier’s Rules can be demonstrated. A. we have in the triangle AED the hypotenuse π π equal to − b. however. since besides this method Napier himself indicated another method of proof in his Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Descriptio. with B as pole describe a great circle DEF G. This we will now briefly explain. although the elements of these triangles are different. if we denote the elements of the triangle ABC as usual by a. b. the triangle AED. 32. B. pp. . c. the angle EAD is equal to the angle BAC. as the angles at C and G are right angles E is a pole of GC (Art.

drew attention to Napier’s own views and expanded the demonstration by a systematic examination of the figure of the preceding Article. p2 . In Napier’s work a figure is given of which that in the preceding Article is a copy. therefore. such that a1 + p1 = a2 + p2 = a5 + p5 = . always taken in order. the second triangle will be similarly characterised by p3 . p5 . Napier’s own method of considering his Rules was neglected by writers on the subject until the late T. p4 . and so on. p3 . a5 represent the elements of the triangle BAC taken in order. a3 . Ellis pointed out this connexion between the five triangles. beginning with the hypotenuse and omitting the right angle. − a5 .SOLUTION OF RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLES. p2 . not as the statement of dissimilar properties of one triangle. 69. The memoir containing Mr Ellis’s investigations. which was unpublished when the first edition of the present work appeared. will be found in pages 328. as well as by the method of induction from consideration of all the cases which can occur. p3 . except that different letters are used. we see that every right-angled triangle is one of a system of five such triangles which are all characterised by the quantities p1 . and thus gave the true significance of Napier’s Rules. beginning with π π π π the hypotenuse and omitting the right angle. As the second triangle can give rise to a third in like manner. but as the statement of similar properties of five allied triangles. L. p5 . p4 . . − a1 . Cambridge. a4 . . The late R. Davies drew attention to it. then the truth of the ten cases comprised in Napier’s Rules will be found to follow from applying the two theorems in succession to the five triangles formed in the preceding figure. Hence. p5 . all that is wanted is to observe the connexion between the triangle AED and the triangle BAC. 335 of The Mathematical and other writings of Robert Leslie Ellis. each quantity in its turn standing first. in his edition of Dr Hutton’s Course of Mathematics. 65. to characterise the former we introduce a new set of π quantities p1 . If. 2 2 2 2 and a2 . 41 Now take two of the theorems in Art. then the original triangle being characterised by p1 . Thus this method of considering Napier’s Rules regards each Rule. p1 . The late T. a2 . are − a3 . then the elements of the triangle AED taken in order. Napier briefly intimates that the truth of the Rules can be easily seen by means of this figure. S. p2 . as we . − a4 . p2 . for example (1) and (3). p5 . It is however easy to evade the necessity of examining the whole figure. . p4 . Davies. p4 . 1863. S. and 2 that p3 = a3 and p4 = a4 . . p3 . For let a1 .

) On the other hand may be set the following sentence from Airy’s Trigonometry (Encyclopædia Metropolitana): “In the opinion of Delambre (and no one was better qualified by experience to give an opinion) these theorems are best recollected by the practical calculator in their unconnected form.” Airy says. We shall now proceed to apply the formulæ of Art. 68.” 71. . and says (Spherical Trigonometry. vol. i. For instance. perhaps. . We shall assume that the given quantities are subject to the limitations which are stated in Arts. Woodhouse says. Thus b and B are determined immediately without ambiguity. There will be six cases to consider. which are generally explained. Having given the hypotenuse c and an angle A. chap.” See Delambre’s Astronomie. 62 to the solution of right-angled triangles. have already remarked in Art. tan b = tan c cos A. x. 64). cot B = cos c tan A. 205. . Professor De Morgan strongly objects to Napier’s Rules. in the treatise on Trigonometry in the Encyclopædia Metropolitana: “These rules are proved to be true only by showing that they comprehend all the equations which we have just found. It is obvious from the formulæ of solution.. in his Trigonometry: “There is no separate and independent proof of these rules. Art. p. namely. Here we have from (3).42 SOLUTION OF RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLES. rules which more completely attain that which is the proper object of rules. Opinions have differed with respect to the utility of Napier’s Rules in practice. a also is determined without ambiguity. an erroneous statement was made respecting the Rules. that in this case the triangle is always possible.” 70. facility and brevity of computation. that is. 17): “There are certain mnemonical formulæ called Napier’s Rules of Circular Parts. We do not give them. sin a = sin c sin A.” (Trigonometry. because we are convinced that they only create confusion instead of assisting the memory. “In the whole compass of mathematical science there cannot be found. (5) and (2) of Art. 72. a given side must be less than the semicircumference of a great circle. and as a must be of the same affection as A (Art. . 22 and 23. Thus Woodhouse says. and a given angle less than two right angles. 62.

62. A. and b and B are indeterminate. 76. cos A tan a = tan A sin b. sin c Here b. Here c. since A must be of the same affection as a. 73. a. and the triangle is always possible. B are determined without ambiguity. cos B. sin B cos b = cos B . Here we have from (5) and (6) of Art. (3) and (2) of Art. cos a cos B = tan a . sin A . cot B = cot b sin a. 43 If c and A are both right angles. Here we have from (1) and (4) of Art. 75. B. tan c sin A = sin a . cos a = cos A . Having given the hypotenuse c and a side a. a is a right angle. and sin A may be numerically not greater than unity. (4) and (6) of Art. If c and a are right angles. 62. Here c. cos B = cos b sin A. Here we have from (1). 62. Having given the two sides a and b. 62. and the triangle is always possible. A is a right angle. cos b = cos c . in fact. A are determined without ambiguity. and b and B are indeterminate. cos c = cos a cos b. Having given a side b and the adjacent angle A. tan c = tan b . 74. B are determined without ambiguity. It will be seen from these formulæ that there are limitations of the data in order to insure a possible triangle.SOLUTION OF RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLES. Having given the two angles A and B. c must lie between a and π − a in order that the values found for cos b. Here we have from (3). cot A = cot a sin b. cos c = cot A cot B.

then B 2 2 2 π π π must lie between − (π − A) and + (π − A). 62. If a = A. since we must have cos c = cot A cot B. BC the given side. and B are right angles. We say in general in the preceding sentences. b are determined without ambiguity. If sin a be less than sin A. 57). next suppose A greater than . A . there will be in general two. Thus if one triangle exists with the given parts. sin c = sin a .44 SOLUTION OF RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLES. sin B = cos A . For. for it has a right angle at C. If a and A are both right angles. First suppose A less than . cos a Here there is an ambiguity. and then b and B become indeterminate. since we must have cos c = cos a cos b. because if a = A there will be only one triangle. corresponding to each of these there will be in general only one admissible value of b. 2 77. there are two values admissible for c. and only two. Here c. produce AB and AC to meet again at A . and the triangle A BC is symmetrically equal to the triangle ABC (Art. sin A sin b = tan a cot A. Here we have from (2). then the formulæ of solution shew that c. B is the pole of AC. b. and A = A the given angle. It is easy to see from a figure that the ambiguity must occur in general. B and b are then equal. between A − and 2 2 2 3π − A. but may have any value whatever. There are limitations of the data in order to insure a possible triangle. and only one admissible value of B. (4) and (6) of Art. There are limitations of the π data in order to insure a possible triangle. then 2 π π π B must lie between − A and + A. then the triangle A BC also satisfies the given conditions. triangles with the given parts. that is. Having given a side a and the opposite angle A. suppose BAC to be a triangle which satisfies the given conditions. in this case A is the pole of BC. a. as the parts are determined from their sines. unless a and A are each right angles.

and cos A = cos2 a. 2 5. prove the following relations contained in Examples 1 to 5. 2 9. 2 6. Sin(c − a) = tan b cos c tan 1 B. if C be a right angle and D the middle point of AB. 1. 2 8. Sin(c − b) = tan2 A sin(c + b). 2 1 4. according as b and c are 2 π both less or both greater than . right-angled at C. Sin2 a b a b c = sin2 cos2 + cos2 sin2 . if δ be the length of the arc drawn from C perpendicular to the hypotenuse AB. In a triangle. 2 2 2 3. 2 7. . If α. Sin a tan 1 A − sin b tan 2 B = sin(a − b). 1 Sin(c − a) = sin b cos a tan 2 B. 3 1 shew that if A be not a right angle b + c = 2 π or π. shew that sin2 c (1 + sin2 α) + sin2 β. β be the arcs drawn from the right angle respectively perpendicular to and bisecting the hypotenuse c. and greater than A if both are obtuse. shew that cot δ = √ (cot2 a + cot2 b). In a right-angled triangle. 64. EXAMPLES. Tan 1 (c + a) tan 1 (c − a) = tan2 . hence the formulæ of solution shew that a must be less than A if both are acute.SOLUTION OF RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLES. shew that 4 cos2 c sin2 CD = sin2 a + sin2 b. If ABC be a triangle in which the angle C is a right angle. 45 and a must have the same affection by Art. 2 2 2 2 2 b 2. If ABC be a spherical triangle.

is determined by the portions θ. CC . making the angle COx = a with Ox. . 2 φ). C lying in a great circle is tan AA sin BC + tan BB sin CA + tan CC sin AB = 0. P N are arcs perpendicular to Ox.46 SOLUTION OF RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLES. OC = p is the arc perpendicular to AB from O. . OAA1 is a spherical triangle right-angled at A1 and acute-angled at A. AA . 11. B . Oy respectively: shew that if OM = x and ON = y. (θ . to infinity. and so on: shew that An An+1 vanishes when n becomes infinite. BB . . 13. (θ . 16. The position of a point on a sphere. ABC is a right-angled spherical triangle. ABC is a great circle of a sphere. cos a tan x + sin a tan y = tan p. Ox. P is any point in AB another great circle. are arcs of great circles drawn at right angles to ABC and reckoned positive when they lie on the same side of it: shew that the condition of A . each from their point of intersection: shew that if the three points (θ. shew that cos δ = cosec c (cos2 a + cos2 b − 2 cos a cos b cos c) 2 . 12. φ ). 14. and through two points on the π axes. the arc A1 A2 of a great circle is drawn perpendicular to OA. 10. Oy are two great circles of a sphere at right angles to each other. Perpendiculars are drawn from the angles A. C of any triangle meeting the opposite sides at D. and find the value of cos AA1 cos A1 A2 cos A2 A3 . with reference to two great circles at right angles to each other as axes. If δ be the length of the arc drawn from C perpendicular to AB in any triangle. φ of these circles cut off by great circles through the point. then A2 A3 is drawn perpendicular to OA1 . A not being the right angle: shew that if A = a. then c and b are quadrants. F respectively: shew that tan BD tan CE tan AF = tan DC tan EA tan F B. . φ ) lie on the same great circle tan φ (tan θ − tan θ ) + tan φ (tan θ − tan θ) 1 . P M . 15. B. . E.

SOLUTION OF RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLES. shew that the equation to a great circle is tan θ cot α + tan φ cot β = 1. shew that 5 3 2 π a+b+c= . C = . B = . if A = . 17. by means of the portions of these axes cut off by great circles drawn through the point and two points on the axes each 90◦ from their intersection. 47 + tan φ (tan θ − tan θ ) = 0. and. If a point on a sphere be referred to two great circles at right angles to each other as axes. In a spherical triangle. π π π 18. 2 .

.48 SOLUTION OF RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLES.

In this case the polar triangle has its corresponding angle a right angle. (3) Suppose among the given elements of a triangle there are two sides. by the solution of one of these right-angled triangles the required elements can be found. 38). one of which is the supplement of the other. the polar triangle can therefore be solved by the rules of the preceding Chapter. and thus the elements of the primitive triangle become known. the triangle is divided into two equal right-angled triangles. we will indicate these cases before considering the subject generally. 78. The solution of oblique-angled triangles may be made in some cases to depend immediately on the solution of right-angled triangles. or else two equal angles 49 . or two angles. Suppose. produce BA and BC to meet at B (see the first figure to Art. for example. or else that B + C = π. one of which is the supplement of the other. (2) Suppose among the given elements of a triangle there are two equal sides or two equal angles. that b + c = π.VI SOLUTION OF OBLIQUE-ANGLED TRIANGLES. then the triangle B AC has two equal sides given. (1) Suppose a triangle to have one of its given sides equal to a quadrant. By drawing an arc from the vertex to the middle point of the base.

Having given the three angles. 49. and by the preceding case the solution of it can be made to depend on the solution of a right-angled triangle. b). the point may be sometimes settled by observing that the greater side of a triangle is opposite to the greater angle. or tangent of half a side given in Art. from the formula cos c = cos a cos b + sin a sin b cos C. cosine. cos A + cos B cos C Here we have cos a = . By Napier’s analogies 1 tan 2 (A + B) = 81. Having given the three sides. This . 2 sin a sin C Then c may be found from the formula sin c = . in this case. the triangles however may be impossible with the given elements. We now proceed to the solution of oblique-angled triangles in general. 80. cos 1 (a − b) 1 2 cot 2 C. we may take the formula for the sine. Or if we wish to use formulæ suited to logarithms. 79. Or we may determine c. Having given two sides and the included angle (a. since sin A c is found from its sine. without previously determining A and B. cos a − cos b cos c . it may be uncertain which of two values is to be given to it. Chap. and similar formulæ for cos b and sin B sin C cos c. Or we may determine c from equation (1) of Art. 45. or tangent of half an angle given in Art. Or if we wish to use formulæ suited to logarithms. given. cos 1 (a + b) 2 sin 1 (a − b) 1 2 cot 2 C. and thence A and B. and similar formulæ for cos B and Here we have cos A = sin b sin c cos C. which is free from ambiguity. this is free from ambiguity. 54. attention should be paid to the remarks in Plane Trigonometry. There will be six cases to consider.50 SOLUTION OF OBLIQUE-ANGLED TRIANGLES. XII. cosine. 1 sin 2 (a + b) tan 1 (A − B) = 2 1 these determine 1 (A + B) and 2 (A − B). C. In selecting a formula. 82. towards the end. we may take the formula for the sine. There is no ambiguity in the two preceding cases.

cos CD this finds c. where DB = a − θ or θ − a. there is no real ambiguity. cos b cos(a − θ) . and tan AD = tan ABD sin DB. cos θ Or we may treat this case conveniently by resolving the triangle into the sum or difference of two right-angled triangles. From A draw the arc AD perpendicular to CB or CB produced. . and this determines CD. 62. Again. Having given two angles and the included side (A. cos c = cos AD cos DB = cos DB cos b . this formula enables us to find B independently of A. It is obvious that CD is what was denoted by θ in the former part of the Article. 62. and the triangle is always possible. by Art. and ABD is either B or the supplement of B. c. B). 83. Thus. by Art. then cos c = cos b (cos a + sin a tan θ) = this is adapted to logarithms. then.SOLUTION OF OBLIQUE-ANGLED TRIANGLES. and then DB is known. thus tan ABD sin DB = tan C sin θ. tan AD = tan C sin CD. 51 formula may be adapted to logarithms thus: cos c = cos b (cos a + sin a tan b cos C). according as D is on CB or CB produced. tan CD = tan b cos C. in the present case. assume tan θ = tan b cos C. 62. By Art.

therefore cos C cos B = . Or we may treat this case conveniently by resolving the triangle into the sum or difference of two right-angled triangles. sin φ Article. then cos C = cos B(− cos A + cot φ sin A) = this is adapted to logarithms. and this determines DAB. 62. then. 82). 62. which is free from ambiguity. By Napier’s analogies. 54. cos AD sin CAD = cos C. it may be uncertain which of two values is to be Then C may be found from the formula sin C = given to it. the point may be sometimes settled by observing that the greater angle of a triangle is opposite to the greater side. assume cot φ = tan B cos c. cos c = cot B cot DAB. From A draw the arc AD perpendicular to CB (see the right-hand figure of Art. 2 sin A sin c . Again. by Art. Or we may determine C from equation (3) of Art. tan 1 (a + b) = 2 tan 1 (a − b) = 2 1 cos 2 (A − B) tan 1 c. and thence a and b. by Art. this finds C. 1 2 cos 2 (A + B) 1 sin 2 (A − B) 1 tan 2 c. in this case. thus: cos C = cos B(− cos A + sin A tan B cos c). sin CAD sin BAD It is obvious that DAB is what was denoted by φ in the former part of the cos B sin(A − φ) . sin a since C is found from its sine. This formula may be adapted to logarithms. and then CAD is known. Or we may determine C without previously determining a and b from the formula cos C = − cos A cos B + sin A sin B cos c. . sin 1 (A + B) 2 1 these determine 1 (a + b) and 2 (a − b). and cos AD sin BAD = cos B.52 SOLUTION OF OBLIQUE-ANGLED TRIANGLES.

A). tan AD = tan AC cos CAD. 86. cos b assume tan φ = cot a sin b = cos b(cos C + tan φ sin C) = therefore cos(C − φ) = cos φ cot a tan b. there will sometimes be two solutions. in the present case. b. thus cos b cos b cos(C − φ) . cos φ cot A sin C). We will presently return to this point. by Art. when the value found for sin B is greater than unity. 1 2 cos 2 (A − B) In this case. (see the left-hand figure of Art. namely. thus tan b cos CAD = tan c cos φ. since B is found from its sine.) We may also determine C and c independently of B by formulæ adapted to logarithms. The angle B may be found from the formula sin B = sin b sin A. and sometimes there will be no solution at all. 62. For. Having given two sides and the angle opposite one of them (a. Thus. where CAD = A − φ. 53 By Art. and tan AD = tan AB cos BAD. Similarly we may proceed when the perpendicular AD falls on CB produced . 84. this formula enables us to find b independently of a.SOLUTION OF OBLIQUE-ANGLED TRIANGLES. (See Art. 44. cot a sin b = cos b cos C + sin C cot A = cos b (cos C + cot A . there is no real ambiguity. sin a and then C and c may be found from Napier’s analogies. 1 2 cos 2 (a + b) cos 1 (A + B) 2 tan 1 (a + b). tan 1 C = 2 tan 1 c = 2 cos 1 (a − b) 2 cot 1 (A + B). . moreover the triangle is always possible. 82).

so that we have two admissible values for C. from C draw CD perpendicular to AE. . And cos a = cos b cos c + sin b sin c cos A = cos b(cos c + sin c tan b cos A). it will be satisfied also by φ − C = a. from this equation C − φ is to be found. It is obvious that ACD is what was denoted by φ in the former part of the Article. 62. The ambiguity still exists. tan CD = tan AC cos ACD. 62. this finds BCD or B CD. and tan CD = tan CB cos BCD.54 SOLUTION OF OBLIQUE-ANGLED TRIANGLES. Or we may treat this case conveniently by resolving the triangle into the sum or difference of two right-angled triangles. if φ + a is less than π. and there may be an ambiguity as before. this finds ACD. therefore tan AC cos ACD = tan CB cos BCD. and then C. Again. for if the last equation leads to C − φ = a. or tan CB cos B CD. and let CB and CB = a. and then c. Let CA = b. or tan CB cos B CD. thus cos a = cos b(cos c + sin c tan θ) = cos b cos(c − θ) . cos b from this equation c − θ is to be found. thus the figure shews that there may be two triangles which have the given elements. and φ − a is positive. assume tan θ = tan b cos A. Then. and let CAE = the given angle A. cos θ therefore cos(c − θ) = cos a cos θ . by Art. cos b = cot A cot ACD. by Art.

55 Also.SOLUTION OF OBLIQUE-ANGLED TRIANGLES. Then cos AC = cos CD cos AD. 1 2 cos 2 (A − B) We may also determine C and c independently of b by formulæ adapted to logarithms. 1 2 cos 2 (a + b) cos 1 (A + B) 2 tan 1 (a + b). This case is analogous to that immediately preceding. or cos CB = cos CD cos B D. sin φ . B. thus cos A = cos B(− cos C + sin C cot φ) = cos B sin(C − φ) . cos AD cos BD cos B D 85. It is obvious that AD is what was denoted by θ in the former part of the Article. Having given two angles and the side opposite one of them (A. assume cot φ = tan B cos a. and gives rise to the same ambiguities. therefore this finds BD or B D. 62. For cos A = − cos B cos C + sin B sin C cos a = cos B(− cos C + tan B sin C cos a). this finds AD. by Art. a). cos CB = cos CD cos BD. sin A and then C and c may be found from Napier’s analogies. cos CB cos CB cos AC = or . The side b may be found from the formula sin b = sin B sin a . tan 1 C = 2 tan 1 c = 2 cos 1 (a − b) 2 cot 1 (A + B). tan AD = tan ACcosA.

assume cot θ = cot A sin B = cos B(− cos c + sin c cot θ) = therefore sin(c − θ) = cot A tan B sin θ. then B CD will = φ. by Art. and B D = θ. except when A and a are both right angles. Since C − φ is found from sin(C − φ) = its sine there may be an ambiguity. from this equation c − θ is to be found. If sin b sin A be greater than sin a. and then c. The discussion is somewhat tedious from its length. therefore cos A sin φ . We now return to the consideration of the ambiguity which may occur in the case of Art. when a = b. Before considering the problem generally. 1 now cot 2 C and tan 1 c must both be positive. 84. cos B from this equation C − φ is to be found and then C. so that β = π − β. Hence. for if in the triangle ACB the arc CD be drawn perpendicular to AB . As before. we will take the particular case in which a = b. then A must = B. 2 2 and there is an infinite number of solutions. the equation sin B = sin a furnishes two values of B.56 SOLUTION OF OBLIQUE-ANGLED TRIANGLES. when two sides are given and the angle opposite one of them. and then there will be only one solution. 44. sin θ cot a sin c cos B . Since c − θ is found from its sine there may be an ambiguity. cot A sin B = cot a sin c − cos c cos B = cos B − cos c + cot a . . The first and third of Napier’s analogies give 1 cot 2 C = tan A cos a. but presents no difficulty. and then cot 1 C and tan 1 c are indeterminate. We now proceed to the general discussion. it may be shewn that these results agree with those obtained by resolving the triangle into two right-angled triangles. unless A and a are of the same affection. there is no triangle which satisfies the given sin b sin A conditions. so that A and a must be of the 2 same affection. if sin b sin A is not greater than sin a. there will be no solution at all. then cos B cos B sin(c − θ) . which we will denote by β and β . 86. Again. 1 tan 2 c = tan a cos A.

SOLUTION OF OBLIQUE-ANGLED TRIANGLES.

57

we will suppose that β is the one which is not greater than the other. Now, in order that these values of B may be admissible, it is necessary and
1 1 sufficient that the values of cot 2 C and of tan 2 c should both be positive, that

is, A−B and a−b must have the same sign by the second and fourth of Napier’s analogies. We have therefore to compare the sign of A − β and the sign of A − β with that of a − b. We will suppose that A is less than a right angle, and separate the corresponding discussion into three cases. π . 2 sin b sin A make β greater than (1) Let a be less than b; the formula sin B = sin a A, and ` fortiori β greater than A. Hence there are two solutions. a I. Let b be less than (2) Let a be equal to b; then there is one solution, as previously shewn. (3) Let a be greater than b; we may have then a + b less than π or equal to π or greater than π. If a + b is less than π, then sin a is greater than sin b; thus β is less than A and therefore admissible, and β is greater than A and inadmissible. Hence there is one solution. If a + b is equal to π, then β is equal to A, and β greater than A, and both are inadmissible. Hence there is no solution. If a + b is greater than π, then sin a is less than sin b, and β and β are both greater than A, and both inadmissible. Hence there is no solution. π . 2 (1) Let a be less than b; then β and β are both greater than A, and both II. Let b be equal to admissible. Hence there are two solutions. (2) Let a be equal to b; then there is no solution, as previously shewn. (3) Let a be greater than b; then sin a is less than sin b, and β and β are both greater than A, and inadmissible. Hence there is no solution. π . 2 (1) Let a be less than b; we may have then a + b less than π or equal to π III. Let b be greater than or greater than π. If a + b is less than π, then sin a is less than sin b, and β and β are both greater than A and both admissible. Hence there are two solutions. If a + b is equal to π, then β is equal to A and inadmissible, and β is greater than A and inadmissible. Hence there is one solution. If a + b is greater than π, then sin a is greater than sin b; β is less than A and admissible, and β is greater than A and admissible. Hence there is one solution. (2) Let a be equal to b; then there is no solution, as previously shewn.

58

SOLUTION OF OBLIQUE-ANGLED TRIANGLES.

(3) Let a be greater than b; then sin a is less than sin b, and β and β are both greater than A and both inadmissible. Hence there is no solution. We have then the following results when A is less than a right angle.  a < b    π a = b b< 2 a > b     a>b b= π 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .two solutions, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .one solution, and a + b < π . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . one solution, and a + b = π or > π . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . no solution.

a < b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .two solutions, a = b or a > b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . no solution.

  a < b and a + b < π . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . two solutions, π b> a < b and a + b = π or > π . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . one solution, 2  a = b or > b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . no solution. It must be remembered, however, that in the cases in which two solutions are indicated, there will be no solution at all if sin a be less than sin b sin A. In the same manner the cases in which A is equal to a right angle or greater than a right angle may be discussed, and the following results obtained. When A is equal to a right angle,

  a < b or a = b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . no solution, π b< a > b and a + b < π . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . one solution, 2  a > b and a + b = π or > π . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . no solution. b= π 2 a < b or a > b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . no solution, a = b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . infinite number of solutions.

  a < b and a + b > π . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . one solution, π b> a < b and a + b = π or < π . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . no solution, 2  a = b or a > b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . no solution.

When A is greater than a right angle,

SOLUTION OF OBLIQUE-ANGLED TRIANGLES.

59

  a < b or a = b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . no solution, π b< a > b and a + b = π or < π . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . one solution, 2  a > b and a + b > π . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . two solutions. b= π 2 a < b or a = b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . no solution, a > b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .two solutions. and a + b > π . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . one solution, and a + b = π or < π . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . no solution, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .one solution, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .two solutions.

 a < b    π a < b b>  2 a = b    a>b

As before in the cases in which two solutions are indicated, there will be no solution at all if sin a be less than sin b sin A. It will be seen from the above investigations that if a lies between b and π − b, there will be one solution; if a does not lie between b and π − b either there are two solutions or there is no solution; this enunciation is not meant to include the cases in which a = b or = π − b. 87. The results of the preceding Article may be illustrated by a figure.

Let ADA E be a great circle; suppose P A and P A the projections on the plane of this circle of arcs which are each equal to b and inclined at an angle A to ADA ; let P D and P E be the projections of the least and greatest distances of P from the great circle (see Art. 59). Thus the figure supposes A and b each π less than . 2

60

SOLUTION OF OBLIQUE-ANGLED TRIANGLES.

If a be less than the arc which is represented by P D there is no triangle; if a be between P D and P A in magnitude, there are two triangles, since B will fall on ADA , and we have two triangles BP A and BP A ; if a be between P A and P H there will be only one triangle, as B will fall on A H or AH , and the triangle will be either AP B with B between A and H, or else A P B with B between A and H ; but these two triangles are symmetrically equal (Art. 57); if a be greater than P H there will be no triangle. The figure will easily serve for π all the cases; thus if A is greater than , we can suppose P AE and P A E to 2 π be equal to A; if b is greater than , we can take P H and P H to represent b. 2 88. The ambiguities which occur in the last case in the solution of oblique-

angled triangles (Art. 85) may be discussed in the same manner as those in Art. 86; or, by means of the polar triangle, the last case may be deduced from that of Art. 86. EXAMPLES. 1. The sides of a triangle are 105◦ , 90◦ , and 75◦ respectively: find the sines of all the angles. sin(s − c) . Solve a triangle when a side, an sin s adjacent angle, and the sum of the other two sides are given. 2. Shew that tan 1 A tan 1 B = 2 2 3. Solve a triangle having given a side, an adjacent angle, and the sum of the other two angles. 4. A triangle has the sum of two sides equal to a semicircumference: find the arc joining the vertex with the middle of the base. 5. If a, b, c are known, c being a quadrant, determine the angles: shew also that if δ be the perpendicular on c from the opposite angle, cos2 δ = cos2 a + cos2 b. 6. If one side of a spherical triangle be divided into four equal parts, and θ1 , θ2 , θ3 , θ4 , be the angles subtended at the opposite angle by the parts taken in order, shew that sin(θ1 + θ2 ) sin θ2 sin θ4 = sin(θ3 + θ4 ) sin θ1 sin θ3 .

2 2 2 8. In a spherical triangle if A = B = 2C. 2 2 2 2 . shew that 8 sin a + c c c sin2 cos = sin3 a. a. 2 2 10. shew that tan c1 c2 tan = tan 1 (b − a) tan 1 (b + a). In a spherical triangle if A = B = 2C. cos a 9.SOLUTION OF OBLIQUE-ANGLED TRIANGLES. shew that C 8 sin 2 2 C cos s + sin 2 cos c 2 = 1. b are given and the triangle is ambiguous. If the equal sides of an isosceles triangle ABC be bisected by an arc DE. 61 7. If c1 . and BC be the base. shew that sin DE = 2 1 2 sin AC BC sec . c2 be the two values of the third side when A.

62 SOLUTION OF OBLIQUE-ANGLED TRIANGLES. .

P F perpendicular to the sides. Then it may be shewn that P D. 62). tan r = tan A sin(s − a). from P draw P D. P F are all equal. therefore AF = s − a. Hence BC + AF = half the sum of the sides = s. Now thus tan P F = tan P AF sin AF (Art. 89. bisect the angles A and B by arcs meeting at P . CD = CE. BF = BD. also that AE = AF . P E. P E. 2 63 (1) . Let P F = r. To find the angular radius of the small circle inscribed in a given triangle.VII CIRCUMSCRIBED AND INSCRIBED CIRCLES. Let ABC be the triangle.

45. √ tan r = sin 1 B sin 1 C 2 2 sin a. thus from Art.64 CIRCUMSCRIBED AND INSCRIBED CIRCLES. The value of tan r may be expressed in various forms. (4) It may be shewn by common trigonometrical formulæ that 1 1 4 cos 1 A cos 2 B cos 2 C = cos S + cos(S − A) + cos(S − B) + cos(S − C). by Art. 46). 51. sin 1 A 2 therefore from (1) tan r = hence. 2 hence we have from (4) cot r = 1 cos S + cos(S − A) + cos(S − B) + cos(S − C) . sin s (2) Again sin(s − a) = sin 1 (b + c) − 1 a 2 2 = sin 1 (b + c) cos 1 a − cos 1 (b + c) sin 1 a 2 2 2 2 = 1 sin 1 a cos 2 a 1 2 {cos 1 (B − C) − cos 2 (B + C)}. we obtain tan A = 2 sin(s − b) sin(s − c) . 2N (5) . sin s sin(s − a) substitute this value in (1). (Art. cos 1 A 2 (3) {− cos S cos(S − A) cos(S − B) cos(S − C)} 1 2 cos 2 A cos 1 B cos 1 C 2 2 = N 2 cos 1 1 2 A cos 2 B 1 cos 2 C . 54) 1 2 sin 2 A = sin a sin 1 B sin 1 C 2 2 . thus tan r = sin(s − a) sin(s − b) sin(s − c) sin s = n (Art.

and suppose we require the radius of the small circle which touches BC. sin(s − a) (2) 1 cos 2 B cos 1 C 2 sin a. tan r1 = tan A sin s. π − B. we have from Art. and s denote as usual 2 (a + b + c). 89. observing that the angles of the triangle A BC are A. and proceeding as in Art. thus there are three escribed circles belonging to a . 2N These results may also be found independently by bisecting two of the angles of the triangle A BC. 1 2 cos 2 A sin 1 B sin 1 C 2 2 (5) cot r1 = 1 {−c cos S − cos(S − A) + cos(S − B) + cos(S − C)}. π − c respectively. and AB and AC produced. 2 (1) From this result we may derive other equivalent forms as in the preceding Article. Produce AB and AC to meet at A . and the sides of A BC are a. π − b. 89. then we require the radius of the small circle inscribed in A BC. A circle which touches one side of a triangle and the other sides produced is called an escribed circle. Let ABC be the triangle. Hence s being 1 2 (a + b + c) and S being 1 (A + B + C) we shall obtain 2 tan r1 = sin s sin(s − b) sin(s − c) sin(s − a) = n .CIRCUMSCRIBED AND INSCRIBED CIRCLES. 91. and the other sides produced. so as to determine the pole of the small circle. π − C respectively. Hence if r1 be the required 1 radius. cos 1 A 2 √ {− cos S cos(S − A) cos(S − B) cos(S − C)} tan r1 = 1 2 cos 2 A sin 1 B sin 1 C 2 2 tan r1 = (3) (4) = N . or we may make use of those forms immediately. To find the angular radius of the small circle described so as to touch one side of a given triangle. 65 90.

given triangle. Thus the inscribed and escribed circles of a given triangle are the same as the circles inscribed in the system of associated triangles of which the given triangle is the fundamental triangle. bisect the sides CB. Then P will be the pole of the small circle described about ABC. . ABC being the fundamental triangle. P C. In the preceding Article a triangle A BC was formed by producing AB and AC to meet again at A . similarly another triangle may be formed by producing BC and BA to meet again. Also the angle P AB = the angle P BA. The original triangle ABC and the three formed from it have been called associated triangles. and let P be the intersection of these arcs. Let ABC be the given triangle. then from the right-angled triangles P CD and P BD it follows that P B = P C. hence P A = P B = P C. We may denote the radii of the escribed circles which touch CA and AB respectively by r2 and r3 . and draw from D and E arcs at right angles to CB and CA respectively. and 1 the angle P CA = the angle P AC. the angle P BC = the angle P CB. For draw P A. and P CB = S − A. and another by producing CA and CB to meet again. and from the right-angled triangles P CE and P AE it follows that P A = P C. CA at D and E respectively. and values of tan r2 and tan r3 may be found from what has been already given with respect to tan r1 by appropriate changes in the letters which denote the sides and angles. therefore P CB + A = 2 (A + B + C). To find the angular radius of the small circle described about a given tri- angle. P B. 92.66 CIRCUMSCRIBED AND INSCRIBED CIRCLES.

(Art.) 2 cos 1 a 2 sin A = cos 1 b cos 1 c. thus if we substitute a for tan from Art.) 1 tan 2 a = tan R cos(S − A). sin A cos 1 b cos 1 c 2 2 therefore from (1) tan R = (3) Substitute in the last expression the value of sin A from Art. cos(S − A) (1) The value of tan R may be expressed in various forms. 49. 54. thus tan R = √ 1 2 sin 1 a sin 2 b sin 1 c 2 2 {sin s sin(s − a) sin(s − b) sin(s − c)} = 1 2 sin 2 a sin 1 b sin 1 c 2 2 . 67 Let P C = R. n (4) It may be shewn. N (2) Again cos(S − A) = cos 1 2 (B 1 + C) − 2 A 1 1 = cos 2 (B + C) cos 1 A + sin 1 (B + C) sin 2 A 2 2 = sin 1 A cos 1 A 1 2 2 cos 2 (b + c) + cos 1 (b − c) . (Art. 2 2 2 . we obtain 2 tan R = − cos S cos(S − A) cos(S − B) cos(S − C) = cos S . 46. Now thus therefore tan CD = tan CP cos P CD. 2 2 cos 1 a 2 sin 1 a 2 .CIRCUMSCRIBED AND INSCRIBED CIRCLES. by common trigonometrical formulæ that 4 sin 1 a sin 1 b sin 1 c = sin(s − a) + sin(s − b) + sin(s − c) − sin s. 62. tan R = tan 1 a 2 .

π − b. 92 for tan R. Many examples may be proposed involving properties of the circles in- scribed in and described about the associated triangles. hence if s = S= 1 2 (A 1 2 (a + b + c) and + B + C) we shall obtain from Art. and tan R3 from those found in Art. 2n Similarly we may find expressions for tan R2 and tan R3 .68 CIRCUMSCRIBED AND INSCRIBED CIRCLES. To prove that (cot r + tan R)2 = 1 (sin a + sin b + sin c)2 − 1. π − C. π − c. Let R1 denote the radius of the circle described round the triangle formed by producing AB and AC to meet again at A . 92 tan R1 = tan R1 = tan 1 a 2 . 2n (5) 93. The sides of the triangle A BC are a. 4n2 . similarly let R2 and R3 denote the radii of the circles described round the other two triangles which are similarly formed. 94. N (1) (2) tan R1 = (3) tan R1 = √ tan R1 = (4) (5) 1 {sin s − sin(s − a) + sin(s − b) + sin(s − c)}. tan R2 . We will give one that will be of use hereafter. − cos S cos(S − A) − cos S cos(S − B) cos(S − C) sin 1 a 2 . sin A sin 1 b sin 1 c 2 2 2 sin 1 a cos 1 b cos 1 c 2 2 2 . To find the angular radii of the small circles described round the triangles associated with a given fundamental triangle. and its angles are A. {sin s sin(s − a) sin(s − b) sin(s − c)} = cos(S − A) . Then we may deduce expressions for tan R1 . hence we have from (4) tan R = 1 {sin(s − a) + sin(s − b) + sin(s − c) − sin s}. π − B.

and sin s sin(s − a) + sin s sin(s − b) + sin s sin(s − c) + sin(s − a) sin(s − b) + sin(s − b) sin(s − c) + sin(s − c) sin(s − a) = sin a sin b + sin b sin c + sin c sin a. 95. Thus P 2 is the pole of the small circle described round the polar triangle. 1 sin s + sin(s − a) + sin(s − b) + sin(s − c) . and the angular radius of the small circle described round the polar triangle is the complement of the angular radius of the small circle inscribed in the primitive triangle. Similarly we may prove that (cot r1 − tan R)2 = 1 (sin b + sin c − sin a)2 − 1. suppose DP produced through P to a point A π such that DA is a quadrant. 69 We have 4n2 = 1 − cos2 a − cos2 b − cos2 c + 2 cos a cos b cos c. Then π A B C is the polar triangle of ABC. therefore (sin a + sin b + sin c)2 − 4n2 = 2 (1 + sin a sin b + sin b sin c + sin c sin a − cos a cos b cos c ).CIRCUMSCRIBED AND INSCRIBED CIRCLES. and P A = P B = P C = − r. . and by Also cot r + tan R = 2n squaring both members of this equation the required result will be obtained. and P A = −r. similarly. and the angular radii of the two circles are complementary. And in like manner the point which is the pole of the small circle inscribed in the polar triangle is also the pole of the small circle described round the primitive triangle. and F P produced through P to a point C such that F C is a quadrant. 2 suppose EP produced through P to a point B such that EB is a quadrant. 4n2 In the figure to Art. then A is a pole of BC. For it may be shewn by reduction that sin2 s + sin2 (s − a) + sin2 (s − b) + sin2 (s − c) = 2 − 2 cos a cos b cos c. 89.

Shew that in any triangle the following relations hold contained in Examples 1 to 7: 1. Tan2 R + tan2 R1 + tan2 R2 + tan2 R3 = cot2 r + cot2 r1 + cot2 r2 + cot2 r3 . 2 cot r1 + cot r2 + cot r3 − cot r 4. In the following examples the notation of the Chapter is retained. so that each touches the other two as well as two sides of the triangle. P the pole of the circle circumscribing it. Cosec2 r = cot(s − a) cot(s − b) + cot(s − b) cot(s − c) + cot(s − c)(s − a). Tan r1 + tan r2 + tan r3 − tan r = 1 (1 + cos a + cos b + cos c). shew that cos QA + cos QB + cos QC = 3 cos P A cos P Q. 3.70 CIRCUMSCRIBED AND INSCRIBED CIRCLES. Tan R + cot r = tan R1 + cot r1 = tan R2 + cot r2 1 = tan R3 + cot r3 = 2 (cot r + cot r1 + cot r2 + cot r3 ). 7. 8. 9. shew that the radius of each of the small circles = 30◦ . Shew that in an equilateral triangle tan R = 2 tan r. Tan r1 tan r2 tan r3 = tan r sin2 s. 2. EXAMPLES. Q any point on the sphere. If ABC be an equilateral spherical triangle. 10. 6. . 5. Tan R1 tan R2 tan R3 = tan R sec2 S. If three small circles be inscribed in a spherical triangle having each of its angles 120◦ . and that the centres of the three small circles coincide with the angular points of the polar triangle. Cosec2 r1 = cot(s − b) cot(s − c) − cot s cot(s − b) − cot s cot(s − c).

Let ACBDA.VIII AREA OF A SPHERICAL TRIANGLE. then one of these lunes may be supposed placed on the other so as to coincide exactly with it. 96. thus lunes having equal angles are equal. SPHERICAL EXCESS. ADBEA be two lunes having equal angles at A. A Lune is that portion of the surface of a sphere which is comprised between two great semicircles. To find the area of a Lune. Then by a process similar to that used in the first proposition of the Sixth Book of Euclid it may be shewn that 71 .

surface of sphere 2π Suppose r the radius of the sphere. . triangle ABC + triangle CDE = lune CAF BC = 2Cr2 . lunes are proportional to their angles. BCEAB. then the surface is 4πr2 (Integral Calculus. SPHERICAL EXCESS. A area of lune = . and CAF BC. To find the area of a Spherical Triangle. thus area of lune = A 4πr2 = 2Ar2 . The triangle ABC now forms a part of three lunes. Chap.). we have for a lune with an angle of which the circular measure is A. which will happen when each has become equal to the semicircumference. produce the arcs which form its sides until they meet again two and two. vii. and we will assume that their areas are equal. 2π 97. namely. Hence since the whole surface of a sphere may be considered as a lune with an angle equal to four right angles. ABDCA. we have triangle ABC + BGDC = lune ABDCA = 2Ar2 . C denote the circular measures of the angles of the triangle. Hence if A. Now the triangles CDE and AF B are subtended by vertically opposite solid angles at O. B. triangle ABC + AHEC = lune BCEAB = 2Br2 . therefore the lune CAF BC is equal to the sum of the two triangles ABC and CDE. Let ABC be a spherical triangle.72 AREA OF A SPHERICAL TRIANGLE.

It is. 98. and the sum of the angles of the triangles is equal to Σ together with the four right angles which are formed round the common vertex. however. 92. 99. but symmetrically equal (Art. by Art. therefore area of polygon = Σ − (n − 2)π r2 . Let n be the number of sides of the polygon. We have assumed. and thus to prove that their areas are equal. Take any point within the polygon and join it with all the angular points. therefore and since (A + B + C − π)r2 = triangle ABC = (A + B + C − π)r2 .AREA OF A SPHERICAL TRIANGLE. thus the figure is divided into n triangles. The triangles are. 57). by addition. as is usually done. and in each case the isosceles triangles of one set are respectively absolutely equal to the corresponding isosceles triangles of the other set. If the pole of the circumscribing circle falls inside each triangle. Hence. 73 hence. twice triangle ABC + surface of hemisphere = 2(A + B + C)r2 . then each triangle is the sum of three isosceles triangles. that the areas of the triangles CDE and AF B in the preceding Article are equal. 2π the result obtained may be thus enunciated: the area of a spherical triangle is the same fraction of half the surface of the sphere as the spherical excess is of four right angles. so that one cannot be made to coincide with the other by superposition. For describe a small circle round each. area of polygon = (sum of the angles of the triangles − nπ)r2 . . however. SPHERICAL EXCESS. The expression A + B + C − π is called the spherical excess of the triangle. 97. Σ the sum of all its angles. not absolutely equal. and if the pole falls outside each triangle. To find the area of a spherical polygon. A+B+C −π 2πr2 . then the angular radii of these circles will be equal by Art. then each triangle is the excess of two isosceles triangles over a third. easy to decompose two such triangles into pieces which admit of superposition.

= sin C sin 1 a sin 1 b 2 2 cos 1 c 2 = sin 1 a sin 1 b √ 2 2 2 {sin s sin(s − a) sin(s − b) sin(s − c)} 1 sin a sin b cos 2 c √ {sin s sin(s − a) sin(s − b) sin(s − c)} = . = . 101. 1 2 cos 2 a cos 1 b cos 1 c 2 2 102. We denote the spherical excess by E. 84). of which each of the angles is less than two right angles. We shall now give some expressions for certain trigonometrical functions of the spherical excess of a triangle. so that E = A + B + C − π. 2 cos 1 a cos 1 b cos 1 c 2 2 2 1 Sin 2 E = sin 1 (A + B + C − π) = sin{ 1 (A + B) − 1 (π − C)} 2 2 2 1 = sin 2 (A + B) sin 1 C − cos 1 (A + B) cos 1 C 2 2 2 1 sin 1 C cos 2 C 2 {cos 1 (a − b) − cos 1 (a − b)}. Lhuilier’s Theorem. 54). provided it can be decomposed into triangles.74 AREA OF A SPHERICAL TRIANGLE. Cagnoli’s Theorem. Art. SPHERICAL EXCESS. To shew that √ sin 1 2E = {sin s sin(s − a) sin(s − b) sin(s − c)}x . To shew that tan 1 E = 4 Tan 1 E = 4 √ 1 1 {tan 1 s tan 2 (s − a) tan 2 (s − b) tan 1 (s − c)}. 100. This expression is true even when the polygon has some of its angles greater than two right angles. 2 2 sin 1 (A + B + C − π) 2 cos 1 (A + B + C − π) 4 1 sin 1 (A + B) − sin 2 (π − C) 2 . 1 2 2 cos 2 c = (Art. cos 1 (A + B) + cos 1 (π − C) 2 2 1 sin 2 (A + B) − cos 1 C 2 1 cos 1 (A + B) + sin 2 C 2 = (Plane Trig.

101. 45. 54). Thus. (Art. 2 2 2 103. Hence. cos 1 (a + b) + cos 1 c sin 1 C 2 2 2 (Art. 2 2 2 = cos 1 a cos 1 b(cos2 C + sin2 1 C) 2 2 2 1 1 + sin 1 a sin 1 b(cos2 2 C − sin2 2 C) sec 1 c 2 2 2 1 = cos 1 a cos 1 b + sin 2 a sin 1 b cos C sec 1 c. 75 = 1 1 cos 2 (a − b) − cos 1 c cos 2 C 2 . SPHERICAL EXCESS. 2 2 2 2 (1) Again. We may obtain many other formulæ involving trigonometrical functions of the spherical excess.AREA OF A SPHERICAL TRIANGLE. we obtain tan 1 E = 4 = sin 1 (c + a − b) sin 1 (c + b − a) 4 4 cos 1 (a + b + c) cos 1 (a + b − c) 4 4 √ sin s sin(s − c) sin(s − a) sin(s − b) 1 {tan 2 s tan 1 (s − a) tan 1 (s − b) tan 1 (s − c)}. 2 2 2 therefore tan 1 E = 2 cos 1 sin 2 a sin 1 b sin C 2 1 1 1 1 2 a cos 2 b + sin 2 a sin 2 b cos C . that 1 sin 2 E = sin C sin 1 a sin 1 b sec 1 c. we have from above 1 1 cos 1 E = cos 2 a cos 1 b + sin 1 a sin 1 b cos C sec 2 c 2 2 2 2 = (1 + cos a)(1 + cos b) + sin a sin b cos C 1 4 cos 1 a cos 2 b cos 1 c 2 2 . for example. 1 cos 2 E = cos 1 2 (A + B) − 1 (π − C) 2 1 = cos 2 (A + B) sin 1 C + sin 1 (A + B) cos 1 C 2 2 2 1 1 = cos 1 (a + b) sin2 1 C + cos 1 (a − b) cos2 2 C sec 2 c. (2) Again. by Art. it was shewn in Art. 54).

√ sin(C − 1 2 E) = {sin s sin(s − a) sin(s − b) sin(s − c)} . by Art. SPHERICAL EXCESS. thus 4 2 sin2 1 E = 4 1 1 1 1 + 2 cos 1 a cos 2 b cos 1 c − cos2 1 a − cos2 2 b − cos2 2 c 2 2 2 . = 1 1 cos2 2 a + cos2 2 b + cos2 1 c − 1 1 + cos a + cos b cos c 2 = . 1 1 1 4 cos 2 a cos 2 b cos 2 c By ordinary development we can shew that the numerator of the above fraction is equal to 1 4 sin 2 s sin 1 (s − a) sin 1 (s − b) sin 1 (s − c). sin 1 a sin 1 b sin C 2 2 = cos 1 a cot 1 b. cos 1 a cos 1 b cos 1 c 2 2 2 (4) Similarly cos2 1 E = 4 1 1 1 cos 2 s cos 1 (s − a) cos 2 (s − b) cos 2 (s − c) 2 .76 AREA OF A SPHERICAL TRIANGLE. 2 sin 1 a sin 1 b cos 1 c 2 2 2 . 4 cos 1 a cos 1 b cos 1 c 2 cos 1 a cos 1 b cos 1 c 2 2 2 2 2 2 (3) In (3) put 1 − 2 sin2 1 E for cos 1 E. 101. cos 1 a cos 1 b cos 1 c 2 2 2 (5) Hence by division we obtain Lhuilier’s Theorem. 2 2 2 therefore 1 sin2 4 E = 1 1 1 sin 2 s sin 2 (s − a) sin 1 (s − b) sin 2 (s − c) 2 . sin(C − 1 E) 2 = sin C cot 1 E − cos C 2 sin 1 E 2 = sin C cos 1 a cos 1 b + sin 1 a sin 1 b cos C 2 2 2 2 − cos C. by (2). 2 2 therefore. Again.

shew that E = cos−1 . and thus we may deduce the results more easily. 3 2 9 . 3. 1 1 sin 2 a sin 2 b cos 1 c 2 EXAMPLES. We shall have then sin2 ( 1 C − 1 E) = 2 4 1 cos2 ( 2 C − 1 E) = 4 1 1 cos 1 s sin 2 (s − a) sin 2 (s − b) cos 1 (s − c) 2 2 . Find the surface of an equilateral and equiangular spherical polygon of n sides. Find the angles and sides of an equilateral triangle whose area is onefourth of that of the sphere on which it is described. and determine the value of each of the angles when the surface equals half the surface of the sphere. cos(C − 1 E) = cos C cos 2 E + sin C sin 1 E 2 2 = (1 + cos a)(1 + cos b) cos C + sin a sin b cos2 C 1 + sin2 C sin 2 a sin 1 b sec 1 c 1 2 2 4 cos 1 a cos 2 b cos 1 c 2 2 (1 + cos a)(1 + cos b) cos C + sin a sin b 4 cos 1 a cos 1 b cos 1 c 2 2 2 = = cos 1 a cos 1 b cos C + sin 1 a sin 1 b sec 1 c 2 2 2 2 2 = sin a sin b cos C + 4 sin2 1 a sin2 1 b 2 2 4 sin 1 a sin 1 b cos 1 c 2 2 2 cos c − cos a cos b + (1 − cos a)(1 − cos b) 1 4 sin 2 a sin 1 b cos 1 c 2 2 cos2 1 c − cos2 1 a − cos2 1 b + 1 1 + cos c − cos a − cos b 2 2 2 = . and c = . 1. or we may observe that the right-hand member of (6) can be obtained from the right-hand member of (3) by writing π − a and π − b for a and b respectively. 77 1 Again. If a = b = π π 7 . 2. in the same manner as (4) and (5) were deduced from (3). sin 1 a sin 1 b cos 1 c 2 2 2 1 1 sin 2 s cos 1 (s − a) cos 2 (s − b) sin 1 (s − c) 2 2 . SPHERICAL EXCESS.AREA OF A SPHERICAL TRIANGLE. 1 1 1 4 sin 2 a sin 1 b cos 2 c 2 sin 2 a sin 1 b cos 1 c 2 2 2 (6) = = From this result we can deduce two other results.

shew that sin 1 E = sin 1 a sin 1 b sec 1 c. If a = b and C = π sin2 a . r2 . cos c cos a cos b 6. If the angle C of a spherical triangle be a right angle. If the angles of a spherical triangle be together equal to four right angles 9. Shew that 1 sin 2 E sin(A − 1 E) sin(B − 1 E) sin(C − 1 E) 2 2 2 1 1 2 sin 2 A sin 1 B sin 2 C 2 1 2 sin s = . If the angle C be a right angle. and hence deduce that. if α be the angular radius of a small circle. In a spherical triangle if cos C = 1 tan 1 1 cos2 2 a + cos2 2 b + cos2 1 c = 1. shew that tan E = . then C = A + B. If r1 . area P QR = (A cos r1 + B cos r2 + C cos r3 − π)r2 . Given two sides of a spherical triangle. 8. 2 2 10. its area is to that of the whole surface of the sphere as versin α is to 2. r3 be the radii of three small circles of a sphere of radius r which touch one another at P . . 12. 2 2 2 5. SPHERICAL EXCESS.78 AREA OF A SPHERICAL TRIANGLE. R. 14. and A. 2 2 2 2 1 cos 1 E = cos 1 a cos 2 b sec 1 c. Find the area of a regular polygon of a given number of sides formed by arcs of great circles on the surface of a sphere. shew that sin2 a sin2 b sin2 c cos E = + . The sum of the angles in a right-angled triangle is less than four right angles. 13. C be the angles of the spherical triangle formed by joining their centres. Draw through a given point in the side of a spherical triangle an arc of a great circle cutting off a given part of the triangle. 2 11. a b tan . 4. determine when the area is a maximum. 2 2 cos a 7. Q. B.

SPHERICAL EXCESS. C are the middle points of the respectively opposite sides. C are the angular points of a spherical triangle. If E be the spherical excess of the triangle.AREA OF A SPHERICAL TRIANGLE. B. 1 1 cos 2 c cos 2 a cos 1 b 2 16. A. shew that the other two are also quadrants. shew that cos 1 E = 2 cos B C cos C A cos A B = = . If one of the arcs of great circles which join the middle points of the sides of a spherical triangle be a quadrant. B . A . 79 15. .

. SPHERICAL EXCESS.80 AREA OF A SPHERICAL TRIANGLE.

104. to find the angle between the chords of these sides. Describe a sphere round A as a centre. AB. Then the angle EDF is the inclination of the 81 . AC at D. AC be the two sides of the triangle ABC. F respectively. and suppose it to meet AO. E. We shall now investigate certain approximate formulæ which are often useful in calculating spherical triangles when the radius of the sphere is large compared with the lengths of the sides of the triangles. Let AB. 105. Given two sides and the included angle of a spherical triangle.IX ON CERTAIN APPROXIMATE FORMULÆ. let O be the centre of the sphere.

.82 ON CERTAIN APPROXIMATE FORMULÆ. the number of seconds in the angle is found by dividing the circular measure by the circular measure of one second. then approximately cos EF = cos A + θ sin A. 4 therefore 1 θ sin A = (1 − cos A) sin2 4 (b + c) − (1 + cos A) sin2 1 (b − c). 2 4 therefore cos A + θ sin A = sin2 1 (b + c) − sin2 1 (b − c) 4 4 1 + 1 − sin2 4 (b + c) − sin2 1 (b − c) cos A. 2 2 4 1 1 cos 2 b cos 1 c = cos2 1 (b + c) − sin2 4 (b − c). Art. Thus when the sides of the spherical triangle and 2r the radius of the sphere are known. EF will not differ much from A. planes OAB. and 1 sin 1 b sin 1 c = sin2 1 (b + c) − sin2 4 (b − c). and the lengths of the sides of the chordal triangle are 2r sin 2r β and 2r sin respectively. and is therefore equal to A. If the lengths of the arcs corresponding to a and b respectively be α and β. 4 2 4 This gives the circular measure of θ. DF = 1 (π − b). From the spherical triangle DEF cos EF = cos DE cos DF + sin DE sin DF cos A. 4 therefore 1 θ = tan 2 A sin2 1 (b + c) − cot 1 A sin2 1 (b − c). 2 1 cos EF = sin 1 b sin 2 c + cos 1 b cos 1 c cos A. 2 2 2 If the sides of the triangle are small compared with the radius of the sphere. 123). and therefore 1 DE = 2 (π − c). we have and as the circular measures of a and r r α b respectively. OAC. suppose EF = A − θ. we can calculate the angles and sides of the chordal triangle. and α β r the radius of the sphere. or approximately by the sine of one second (Plane Trigonometry.

then cos A = thus β 2 + γ 2 − α2 . are the circular measures of a. so α β γ that . then each angle of the spherical triangle exceeds by one third of the spherical excess the corresponding angle of the plane triangle. If the sides of a spherical triangle be small compared with the radius of the sphere. sin b sin c α2 α4 cos a = 1 − 2 + − . . r 6r Similar expressions hold for cos b and sin b. c respectively. r the radius of the sphere. 2r 24r4 α α3 sin a = − 3 + . C be the angles of the spherical triangle. C be the angles of the plane triangle whose sides are α. Legendre’s Theorem. 83 106. Hence. . γ respectively. B . 6r2 . α. 2βγ 24βγr2 Now let A . b. Let A. if we neglect powers of the circular measure above the fourth.. b. β. Then r r r cos A = now cos a − cos b cos c ..ON CERTAIN APPROXIMATE FORMULÆ. .. γ the lengths of the arcs which form the sides. β. we have 1− cos A = α2 α4 β2 β4 γ4 γ2 + − 1− 2 + 1− 2 + 2r2 24r4 2r 24r4 2r 24r4 2 2 βγ β γ 1− 2 1− 2 r2 6r 6r 1 1 (β 2 + γ 2 − α2 ) + (α4 − β 4 − γ 4 − 6β 2 γ 2 ) 2r2 24r4 = βγ β2 + γ2 1− r2 6r2 = 1 2βγ β 2 + γ 2 − α2 + 1 (α2 − β 2 − γ 2 − 6β 2 γ 2 ) 12r2 1+ β2 + γ2 6r2 = β 2 + γ 2 − α2 α4 + β 4 + γ 4 − 2α2 β 2 − 2β 2 γ 2 − 2γ 2 α2 + . and for cos c and sin c respectively. the sides of which are of the same length as the arcs of the spherical triangle. B. c the sides. 2βγ βγ sin2 A cos A = cos A − . . a.

r2 r S S and C = C + 2 . (3) Suppose two sides and the angle opposite to one of them in a spherical . 107. B. B . (1) Suppose the three sides of a spherical triangle known. Similarly θ= B=B + hence approximately A+B+C =A +B +C + S S =π+ 2 . 3r2 B=B + S . 3r2 C=C + S . b. 2 2 Then A is known from the formula A = A − S . then cos A = cos A − θ sin A approximately. Legendre’s Theorem may be used for the approximate solution of spher- ical triangles in the following manner. and thus the theorem is established. therefore S βγ sin A = 2. therefore its remaining parts can be calculated. C . β. Thus in the plane triangle 3r2 two sides and the included angle are known.84 ON CERTAIN APPROXIMATE FORMULÆ. then the values of α. Suppose A = A + θ. γ. for example A. 3r2 3r S is approximately equal to the spherical excess of the spherical r2 triangle. c. 2 6r 3r where S denotes the area of the plane triangle whose sides are α. and by the formulæ of Plane Trigonometry we can calculate S and A . therefore It will be seen that in the above approximation the area of the spherical triangle is considered equal to the area of the plane triangle which can be formed with sides of the same length. 3r2 (2) Suppose two sides and the included angle of a spherical triangle known. β. and then those of the spherical triangle become known. C are known from the formulæ. Then S = 1 βγ sin A = 1 βγ sin A approximately. then A. A=A + S . γ are known.

since B and C are approximately known. 108. B. 2 cos 1 c 2 . (4) Suppose two angles and the included side of a spherical triangle known. for example A.ON CERTAIN APPROXIMATE FORMULÆ. (5) Suppose two angles and the side opposite to one of them in a spherical triangle known. 2 sin(B + C ) which can be calculated. Then C = π − A − B = π − A − B. We have seen that approximately S the spherical excess is equal to 2 . for example A. and we shall begin with investigating a closer r approximate formula for the spherical excess. which will serve as exercises for the student. approximately. a. The importance of Legendre’s Theorem in the application of Spherical Trigonometry to the measurement of the Earth’s surface has given rise to various developments of it which enable us to test the degree of exactness of the approximation. and S= α2 sin B sin C . a. B. Hence 2 A is known and the plane triangle can be solved. Let E denote the spherical excess. since two sides and the angle opposite to one of them are known. Then sin B = β β sin A = sin A approximately. b. for example A. α α and C = π − A − B = π − A − B approximately. To find an approximate value of the spherical excess. then sin 1 a sin 1 b sin C 1 2 2 sin E = . We shall finish the present Chapter with some of these developments. 2 sin(A + B ) 2 sin(A + B) Hence in the plane triangle two angles and the included side are known. 85 triangle known. then S = 1 αβ sin C . 109. Then S = γ 2 sin A sin B γ 2 sin A sin B = nearly. c.

(1) and 1 sin C = sin C + 3 E = sin C + 1 E cos C 3 α2 + β 2 − γ 2 12r2 = sin C + sin C cos C αβ = sin C 3 2r2 1+ . (2) From (1) and (2) E = sin C αβ 2r2 1+ α2 + β 2 + γ 2 24r2 .86 ON CERTAIN APPROXIMATE FORMULÆ. Hence to this order of approximation the area of the spherical triangle exα2 + β 2 + γ 2 of the latter. Sin B sin b α2 α4 + 2 sin A 6r 120r4 hence approximately = 2 sin B β β4 β 1− 2 + 6r 120r4 α 1− = α β α β 1− α2 α4 β2 α2 β 2 β4 β4 + + 2− − + 6r2 120r4 6r 36r4 120r4 36r4 β 2 − α2 α4 − β 4 β 2 (β 2 − α2 ) + + 6r2 120r4 36r4 = 1+ . ceeds that of the plane triangle by the fraction 24r2 110. therefore approximately sin 1 E = sin C 2 αβ 4r2 αβ 4r2 αβ 2r2 1− α2 24r2 1− β2 24r2 . To find an approximate value of sin A . 1− γ2 8r2 −1 = sin C 1+ 3γ 2 − α2 − β 2 24r2 3γ 2 − α2 − β 2 24r2 therefore E = sin C 1+ . sin B Sin A sin a = .

ON CERTAIN APPROXIMATE FORMULÆ. approximately. = 1+ 1+ 111. α αγ α2 − β 2 α2 − β 2 β 2 + γ 2 − α2 − αγ sin B αγ sin B 12r2 α2 − β 2 αγ sin B 1− β 2 + γ 2 − α2 12r2 . that approximately cos A = therefore and β 2 + γ 2 − α2 α4 + β 4 + γ 4 − 2α2 β 2 − 2β 2 γ 2 − 2γ 2 α2 + . 110. Suppose the side β known and the side α required. Cot B − cot A = sin B 1 (cos B − cos A). 2βγ 24βγr2 β α2 − β 2 cos A = approximately. To express cot B − cot A approximately. 4 The approximations in Arts. To find an approximate value of the error in the length of a side of a spherical triangle when calculated by Legendre’s Theorem. 111 is true so far as terms involving r2 . Let x = α − . sin B α α 6r2 Now we have shewn in Art. that in Art. we have then to sin(B − µ) . Then the approximate value sin(B − µ) β(A − µ) the side of which α is the real value. 113. cot B − cot A = β β α2 − β 2 1 (cos B − cos A − cos A). 106. let 3µ denote the spherical β sin(A − µ) is taken for excess which is adopted. cos B − cot B − cot A = = 112. 87 = α β α β 1+ β 2 − α2 6r2 β 2 − α2 6r2 1+ β2 α2 + β 2 − 6r2 20r2 7β 2 − 3α2 60r2 . and it will be seen that we are thus able to carry the approximations in the following Article so far as terms involving r4 . 109 and 110 are true so far as terms involv- ing r . sin B sin A hence. by Art.

sin B sin B = −1 Also the following formulæ are true so far as terms involving r2 : α sin A = sin B β cot B − cot A = 1+ β 2 − α2 6r2 1− . 12r2 Hence. find x approximately. sin A α2 − β 2 (cot B − cot A)(1 + µ cot B) = . 110. 1 + µ cot B = 1 + α2 + γ 2 − β 2 .88 ON CERTAIN APPROXIMATE FORMULÆ. = 6µ 1 3α2 − 7β 2 − 2+ αγ sin B r 60r4 If we calculate µ from the formula µ = αγ sin B we obtain 6r2 x= α(β 2 − α2 )(3α2 − 7β 2 ) . approximately. 360r4 . by Art. α2 − β 2 αγ sin B β 2 + γ 2 − α2 12r2 . Now approximately µ2 sin A − µ cos A − sin A sin(A − µ) 2 = sin(B − µ) µ2 sin B sin B − µ cos B − 2 sin A µ2 µ2 1 − µ cot A − 1 − µ cot B − sin B 2 2 sin A 1 + µ(cot B − cot A) + µ2 cot B(cot B − cot A) = sin B sin A µ sin A = + (cot B − cot A)(1 + µ cot B). sin B βγ sin B Therefore x=α− α(β 2 − α2 ) 6 β sin A µ(α2 − β 2 ) − sin B γ sin B .

1 2 sin 1 (b + c − a) sin 2 (a + b + c) 2 3. 89 If we calculate µ from an equation corresponding to (1) of Art.ON CERTAIN APPROXIMATE FORMULÆ. BD: shew that cos AB + cos BC + cos CD + cos DA = 4 cos AE cos BF cos F E. Four points A. and P any point . ABC is a spherical triangle each of whose sides is a quadrant. AC respectively. If a quadrilateral ABCD be inscribed in a small circle on a sphere so that two opposite angles A and C may be at opposite extremities of a diameter. C . Deduce Legendre’s Theorem from the formula tan2 1 sin 1 (a + b − c) sin 2 (c + a − b) A 2 = . 2. F are the middle points of the arcs AC. shew that the arc B C will subtend an angle at the centre of the sphere equal to the angle between the chords of AB and AC. C. 5. the sum of the cosines of the sides is constant. shew that cos a cos a a = cos c + . In a spherical triangle if A = B = 2C. If the sides of a spherical triangle AB. therefore x= α(β 2 − α2 )(α2 + β 2 − 5γ 2 ) . so that BB . 1. we have µ= αγ sin B 6r2 1+ 3β 2 − α2 − γ 2 24r2 . 7. and E. and tan ABP tan BCP tan CAP = 1. D on the surface of a sphere are joined by arcs of great circles. If O be the middle point of an equilateral triangle ABC. AC be produced to B . CC are the semi-supplements of AB. B. 720r4 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES. 4. 2 2 6. P is any point within the triangle: shew that cos P A cos P B cos P C + cot BP C cot CP A cot AP B = 0. 109.

If ABC be a triangle having each side a quadrant.90 ON CERTAIN APPROXIMATE FORMULÆ. a . . P any point on the sphere. and their cosines are a. b . 106 so as to include the terms involving r4 . From Arts. From the preceding result shew that if A = A + θ then approximately θ= βγ sin A 6r2 1+ 7β 2 + 7γ 2 + α2 120r2 . then (cos P A + cos P B + cos P C)2 = 3 cos2 P O. shew that approximately log β = log α + log sin B − log sin A + S (cot A − cot B). c. 3r2 11. Shew that ab c + a bc + a b c = ab c + a b c + a bc . 10. 110 and 111. O the pole of the inscribed circle. b. 9. on the surface of the sphere. c . b . By continuing the approximation in Art. a . 2 6r 180r4 12. shew that approximately cos A = cos A − βγ sin2 A βγ(α2 − 3β 2 − 3γ 2 ) sin2 A + . c . 8. then 2 1 4 (tan P O tan OA) (cos P A + cos P B + cos P C)2 = cos2 P A + cos2 P B + cos2 P C − cos P A cos P B − cos P B cos P C − cos P C cos P A. From each of three points on the surface of a sphere arcs are drawn on the surface to three other points situated on a great circle of the sphere.

1858. and to Airy’s treatise on the Figure of the Earth in the Encyclopædia Metropolitana. 115. A level plain of a few miles in length is selected and a line is measured on it with every precaution to ensure accuracy. An important part of any survey consists in the measurement of a hor- izontal line.X GEODETICAL OPERATIONS. 1847. both Plane and Spherical. For practical knowledge of the details of the operations it will be necessary to study some of the published accounts of the great surveys which have been effected in different parts of the world. 114. as for example. which is called a base.-Colonel Everest. by Lieut. the Account of the measurement of two sections of the Meridional arc of India. and of metal. hollow tubes of glass. have been used in different surveys. to the article Geodesy in the English Cyclopædia. and of any portion of its surface. 91 . or the Account of the Observations and Calculations of the Principal Triangulation in the Ordnance Survey of Great Britain and Ireland. We shall give a brief outline of the subject. One of the most important applications of Trigonometry. which arise from variations in the temperature. Rods of deal. is to the determination of the figure and dimensions of the Earth itself. the temperature is carefully observed during the operations. and for further information refer to Woodhouse’s Trigonometry. and allowance is made for the varying lengths of the rods or chains. and steel chains.

The degree of closeness with which the measured length agrees with the calculated length is a test of the accuracy of the survey. the country is divided into a series of triangles. The line near Lough Foyle is nearly 8 miles long. one near Lough Foyle in Ireland. and as AC is known. and their measured lengths are compared with their lengths obtained by calculation through a series of triangles from the original base. and then AC and BC can be calculated. During the progress of the Ordnance Survey of Great Britain and Ireland. such that it is visible from C and A. several lines have been measured. then in the triangle ABC the angles ABC and BAC are observed. The radius of the Earth may be considered known very approximately. let this radius be denoted by r. The formulæ of Spherical Trigonometry gives r α α may be found expressions for the trigonometrical functions of . suppose A and B to denote the extremities of the base. Besides the original base other lines are measured in convenient parts of the country surveyed. CD and AD can be calculated. One method is to use the exact formulæ of Spherical Trigonometry. 118. 117. the last two are. it becomes necessary to r pay attention to the methods of securing accuracy in calculations which involve the logarithmic trigonometrical functions of small angles (Plane Trigonometry. then if α be the length of any arc the circular measure of the angle which the arc subtends α at the centre of the earth is . For example. and the line on Salisbury Plain is nearly 7 miles long. 205). . which was measured in 1849. let D be a signal at a fourth point. that is. 116. then by supposing lines to be drawn connecting the signals. and one on Salisbury Plain. At various points of the country suitable stations are selected and signals erected.92 GEODETICAL OPERATIONS. . which was measured in 1827 and 1828. then the angles ACD and CAD are observed. Since in practice is always very small. the angles which any two signals subtend at a third. page 419). There are different methods of effecting the calculations for determining the lengths of the sides of all the triangles in the survey. . and C a signal at a third point visible from A and B. Again. The angles of these triangles are observed. and the difference between the length of the line on Salisbury Plain as measured and as calculated from the Lough Foyle base is less than 5 inches (An Account of the Observations . so that r r α and then α. Art.

it is required to establish a rule for computing the spherical excess in seconds. The triangles in the Indian Survey are stated by Lieut. Let n be the number of seconds in the spherical excess. s the number of square feet in the area of the triangle. We shall proceed to shew how a test of the accuracy of observations of the angles of a spherical triangle formed on the Earth’s surface may be obtained by means of the spherical excess. . The three methods which we have indicated were all used by Delambre in calculating the triangles in the French survey (Base du Syst`me M´trique. In the earlier operations of the Trigonometrical survey of Great Britain and Ireland. only two of these methods however have been much used. 206265 . but this has been for many years discontinued. s = Er2 . the triangles were calculated by the chord method. page clviii.) 120. . 106).GEODETICAL OPERATIONS. If the three angles of a plane triangle be observed. various methods of approximation have been proposed. Then if E be the circular measure of the spherical excess. The area of a spherical triangle formed on the Earth’s surface being known in square feet. (An Account of the Measurement . and then computing the latter triangles by Plane Trigonometry (see Art. The other method of approximation consists in the use of Legendre’s Theorem (see Art.-Colonel Everest to be computed on Legendre’s Theorem. the fact that their sum ought to be equal to two right angles affords a test of the accuracy with which the observations are made. . 105). and in place of it Legendre’s Theorem has been universally adopted (An Account of the Observations . e e Tome iii. r the number of feet in the radius of the Earth. One method of approximation consists in deducing from the angles of the spherical triangles the angles of the chordal triangles. page 244). 160 60 60 206265 s= nr2 . 119. 121. and therefore E= nπ n = approximately. page 7). 93 Instead of the exact calculation of the triangles by Spherical Trigonometry. .

0001. 67◦ 55 39 . we must know the area of the spherical triangle. Or again. suppose we want to estimate the influence of errors in the angles on the calculation of the area. by Davies. but it is found that in such cases as occur in practice an approximate value of the area is sufficient. Hence n is known when s is known. the sum of the errors made in the observations is required. instead of the area of the Spherical Triangle itself. Mr Davies. p. The observed angles of a triangle being respectively 42◦ 2 32 . so that instead of we ought to use . 123. Vol. Suppose. Now in modern observations h will not exceed the circular measure of a few seconds. In order to apply General Roy’s rule. so that. α2 + β 2 + γ 2 109. claims it for Mr Dalby. the 2 2 error then bears to the area approximately the ratio expressed by h cot C. that we use the area of the plane triangle considered in Legendre’s Theorem.94 GEODETICAL OPERATIONS. thus πr = 365155. 180 With the value of r obtained from this equation it is found by logarithmic calculation. ii. and has been adopted by other writers. that log n = log s − 9. The following example was selected by Woodhouse from the triangles of the English survey. let the circular measure of αβ sin C αβ sin(C + h) an error be h. then it appears from Art. as it was used by him in the Trigonometrical survey of Great Britain and Ireland. however. (See Hutton’s Course of Mathematics. if the sides do not exceed 100 miles in length. 47. h cot C is practically insensible. and this fraction is less than .) 122. that the error is approximately denoted by the fraction of 24r2 the former area. supposing the side opposite to the angle A to be 274042 feet. This formula is called General Roy’s rule. for example. The area is calculated from the expression . 70◦ 1 48 . Now by actual measurement the mean length of a degree on the Earth’s surface is found to be 365155 feet. Now the area is not known exactly unless the elements of the spherical triangle are known exactly.326774. if C be not very small.

and by General Roy’s rule it is found that n = .23. sin A sin(A + C) sin B = approximately. 124. sin(A − δB − δC) = sin A − (δB + δC) cos A. and although the reasoning is allowed to be vague it may be deserving of the attention of the student. the true value of the side c is a sin(C + δC) a sin(C + δC) . that is. sin A sin C sin A sin C and cot C + cot A = . let these angles be altered by adding the same quantity to each. and as it ought to have been 180◦ + .). so as to make their sum correct. and if the sum of the observed angles does not exceed two right angles by the proper spherical excess. B. Let A. An investigation has been made with respect to the form of a triangle. xii.23. Now the sum 2 sin A of the observed angles is 180◦ − 1 . δB and δC denote the respective errors of A. it is required to find the form of the triangle in order that the other sides may be least affected by errors in the observations. Hence approximately c= = a sin C 1 + δC cot C sin A −1 1 − (δB + δC) cot A a sin C 1 + δB cot A + δC(cot C + cot A) . C be the angles thus furnished by observation and altered if necessary.GEODETICAL OPERATIONS. Suppose the three angles of a triangle observed. and one side. Now approximately sin(A + δA) sin(A − δB − δC) sin(C + δC) = sin C + δC cos C. 95 a2 sin B sin C . (Plane Trig. The spherical excess of the triangle may be supposed known with sufficient accuracy for practice.23. B and C. Then δA + δB + δC = 0. because by supposition the sum of A. known. it follows that the sum of the errors of the observations is 1 . Considering the triangle as approximately plane.23 . B and C is correct. in which errors in the observations of the angles will exercise the least influence on the lengths of the sides. . as a. and let δA. one way is to increase each of the observed angles by one-third of 1 . Chap. and take the angles thus corrected for the true angles. This total error may be distributed among the observed angles in such proportion as the opinion of the observer may suggest.

The least satisfactory part is that in which it is considered that δB and δC may be supposed nearly equal. These conditions will be satisfied by a triangle differing not much from an equilateral triangle. thus in observing three angles. sin2 A sin2 A) Similarly the error of b is approximately a sin B cos A a sin C δB + δC. B and C should be nearly equal. it is however approximately a spheroid of small eccentricity. If two angles only. And as the sum of δA. we suppose that in one observation a certain error is made. be observed. 125. and the third the opposite sign. For the small corrections which must in consequence be introduced into the calculations we . but we have no reason for considering that δB and δC are of different signs rather than of the same sign.96 GEODETICAL OPERATIONS. 126. for since δA + δB + δC = 0. we do in effect suppose δA = 0 nearly. The preceding article is taken from the Treatise on Trigonometry in the Encyclopædia Metropolitana. In this case then the supposition that A is a right angle will probably make the errors smallest. than that they have the same sign. We have hitherto proceeded on the supposition that the Earth is a sphere. A therefore ought to be less than a right angle. sin2 A sin2 A Now it is impossible to assign exactly the signs and magnitudes of the errors δB and δC. It is obvious that to make the error small sin A must not be small. so that the reasoning must be vague. δB and δC is zero. two of them must have the same sign. in a second observation the same numerical error is made but with an opposite sign. we may therefore consider that it is more probable than any two as δB and δC have different signs. And if δB and δC are probably not very different. Hence the error of c is approximately a sin C cos A a sin B δC + δB. A and B. and in the remaining observation no error is made. we obtain the same expressions as before for the errors in b and c. If δB and δC have different signs the errors of b and c will be less when cos A is positive than when cos A is negative. if we suppose δB and δC nearly equal and of opposite signs.

and also the angles of elevation or depression. BOD = k. and let vertical planes through OA and OB meet the horizon at OC and OD respectively: then the angle COD is required. 127. which are at a small angular distance from the horizon. Let OZ be the direction at right angles to the observer’s horizon. 114. One of the results obtained is that the error caused by regarding the Earth as a sphere instead of a spheroid increases with the departure of the triangle from the well-conditioned or equilateral form (An Account of the Observations . from the triangle AZB cos AZB = cos θ − cos ZA cos ZB cos θ − sin h sin k = . Let AOB = θ. 97 must refer to the works named in Art. the angle which the objects subtend being known. pages 198 and 215). sin ZA sin ZB cos h cos k . and let the angle AOB be observed. describe a sphere round O as a centre. Suppose OA and OB the directions in which the two points are seen from O. AOC = h. page 243). Under certain circumstances the spherical excess is the same on a spheroid as on a sphere (Figure of the Earth in the Encyclopædia Metropolitana.GEODETICAL OPERATIONS. COD = θ + x. In geodetical operations it is sometimes required to determine the hori- zontal angle between two points. . .

thus cos(θ + x) = cos θ − sin h sin k . cos h cos k This formula is exact. by approximation we obtain cos θ − x sin θ = cos θ − hk . x= 2hk − (h2 + k 2 )(cos2 1 θ − sin2 1 θ) 2 2 2 sin θ 1 = 1 (h + k)2 tan 1 θ − 1 (h − k)2 cot 2 θ. is called reducing an angle to the horizon. 4 2 4 This process. 1 − 1 (h2 + k 2 ) 2 therefore and 1 x sin θ = hk − 2 (h2 + k 2 ) cos θ. nearly.98 GEODETICAL OPERATIONS. . by which we find the angle COD from the angle AOB. and cos AZB = cos COD = cos(θ + x).

We have cos c = cos a cos b + sin a sin b cos C. We will here consider an example. and also cos c = cos(a + δa) cos(b + δb) + sin(a + δa) sin(b + δb) cos C.XI ON SMALL VARIATIONS IN THE PARTS OF A SPHERICAL TRIANGLE. 129. and a + δa and b + δb to denote the sides of another such triangle. (1) Required the connexion between the small variations of the other sides. A side and the opposite angle of a spherical triangle remain constant: determine the connexion between the small variations of any other pair of eleSuppose C and c to remain constant. nearly. cos(a + δa) = cos a − sin a δa. then we require the ratio of δa to δb when both are extremely small. 99 . We suppose a and b to denote the sides of one triangle which can be formed with C and c as fixed elements. 128. It is sometimes important to know what amount of error will be introduced into one of the calculated parts of a triangle by reason of any small error which may exist in the given parts. ments.

C.100 ON SMALL VARIATIONS. sin(A + δA) sin c = sin C sin(a + δa). sin A sin c = sin C sin a. if we neglect the product δa. (See Plane Trigonometry. that δA cos b + δB cos a = 0. δb. (3) Required the connexion between the small variations of a side and the opposite angle (A. Here and hence by subtraction cos A sin c δA = sin C cos a δa. Chap. and therefore δA cot A = δa cot a.) Thus cos c = (cos a − sin a δa)(cos b − sin b δb) + (sin a + cos a δa)(sin b + cos b δb) cos C. for. we get from Art. 44. δb δa cot B sin C + cot A sin C = 0. this may also be found independently as before. b. nearly. and sin(a + δa) = sin a + cos a δa. dividing by sin a sin b. with similar formulæ for cos(b + δb) and sin(b + δb). a). Hence by subtraction. We may express the ratio more simply in terms of A and B. this gives the ratio of δa to δb in terms of a. In this case we may by means of the polar triangle deduce from the result just found. 0 = δa(sin a cos b − cos a sin b cos C) + δb(sin b cos a − cos b sin a cos C). sin a sin b therefore δa cos B + δb cos A = 0. . xii. (2) Required the connexion between the small variations of the other angles.

Some more examples are proposed for solution at the end of this Chapter. therefore therefore − cos b cos A δB = δa. connecting the small variations of pairs of the other elements: sin Cδb = sin aδB. δb cos C = δa.ON SMALL VARIATIONS. Supposing b and c to remain constant. δB cos a = −δC. 130. sin C sin c δB cos A = −δa cot b sin B. 1. prove the following equations . proceeding as before we obtain cot C cos BδB = cot c cos aδa + cos B sin aδa + cos a sin BδB. if C and c remain constant while a and b receive the small increments δa and δb respectively. In a spherical triangle. and a small change be made in a. shew that √ δa δb sin C . 101 (4) Required the connexion between the small variations of a side and the adjacent angle (a. B). δa tan C = −δC tan a. If C and c remain constant. find the consequent changes in the other parts of the triangle. prove the following equations. 4. EXAMPLES. therefore (cot C cos B − cos a sin B)δB = (cot c cos a + cos B sin a)δa. 3. We have cot C sin B = cot c sin a − cos B cos a. Supposing A and c to remain constant. Find also the change in the area. +√ = 0 where n = sin c (1 − n2 sin2 a) (1 − n2 sin2 b) 2. δa tan C = δB sin a. δb sin C = −δC tan a. as they involve no difficulty they are left for the exercise of the student.

δa sin B cos c = δb sin A. 6. If A and C are constant. shew that a will be increased or diminished according as c is less or greater than a quadrant. 5.102 ON SMALL VARIATIONS. δA sin B cos C = −δB sin A. Supposing B and C to remain constant. δa = δA sin c sin B. . connecting the small variations of pairs of the other elements: δB tan C = δC tan B. δa cot C = −δB sin a. and b be increased by a small quantity. δA cot c = δb sin A. prove the following equations connecting the small variations of pairs of the other elements: δb tan c = δc tan b. δA = δa sin b sin C.

We shall now pay some attention to this resemblance. which occur in any proposed formula in powers r r r 103 . so that . γ be the lengths of the sides of the triangle. r r r α β γ expand the functions of . it is required to deduce the corresponding formula in Plane Trigonometry. one of them being a side. Let α. . We shall first shew how we may deduce formulæ in Plane Trigonometry from formulæ in Spherical Trigonometry. are the circular measures of the sides of the triangle. 132. 131. and we shall then investigate some theorems in Spherical Trigonometry which are interesting principally on account of their connexion with known results in Plane Geometry and Trigonometry. From any formula in Spherical Trigonometry involving the elements of a triangle. . r the radius of the α β γ sphere. β.XII ON THE CONNEXION OF FORMULÆ IN PLANE AND SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY. The student must have perceived that many of the results obtained in Spherical Trigonometry resemble others with which he is familiar in Plane Trigonometry.

The student can easily draw the required diagram.. Let OS = α.. then ultimately cos A = β 2 + γ 2 − α2 . P SX = φ. Let P be any point on the circumference of the small circle. the r r r limiting form of the proposed formula will be a relation in Plane Trigonometry. respectively. from the formula sin A sin a = sin B sin b we deduce sin A α α(β 2 − α2 ) = + + . so that θ and . in Art.. 106. 2βγ and this is the expression for the cosine of the angle of a plane triangle in terms of the sides.. then ultimately sin A α = . OSX = β. . sin B β 6βr2 now suppose r to become infinite. To find the equation to a small circle of the sphere.. Let O be the pole of a small circle. P S = θ. SX a fixed great circle of the sphere. 110. of α β γ . in a plane triangle the sides are as the sines of the opposite angles. S a fixed point on the sphere. in Art. sin B β that is.104 CONNEXION OF FORMULÆ IN TRIGONOMETRY. then if we suppose r to become indefinitely great. 2βγ 24βγr2 now suppose r to become infinite. 133.. then the position of O is determined by means of these angular co-ordinates α and β. Again. from the formula cos A = cos a − cos b cos c sin b sin c we deduce cos A = β 2 + γ 2 − α2 α4 + β 4 + γ 4 − 2α2 β 2 − 2β 2 γ 2 − 2γ 2 α2 + + . For example.

thus the equation becomes 2 (2) 0 = cos α cos θ + sin α sin θ cos(φ − β). OB. and P N perpendicular to OC. Then from the triangle OSP cos r = cos α cos θ + sin α sin θ cos(φ − β). this result 2 2 corresponds to the well-known property of a circle in Plane Geometry which is Thus the value of the product tan demonstrated in Euclid iii. It will be observed that the angular co-ordinates here used are analogous to the latitude and longitude which serve to determine the positions of places on the Earth’s surface.CONNEXION OF FORMULÆ IN TRIGONOMETRY. Chapter xxii. then by Algebra. From any point P in OB draw P M perpendicular to OA. θ is the complement of the latitude and φ is the longitude. (1) this gives a relation between the angular co-ordinates of any point on the circumference of the circle. OC meet at a point. Let three arcs OA. Let tan tan θ2 cos r − cos α α+r α−r θ1 tan = = tan tan . Let OP = r. 36 Corollary. 2 2 θ1 θ2 θ and tan denote the values of tan found from this quadratic 2 2 2 equation. 134. 105 φ are the angular co-ordinates of P . hence 2 θ θ tan2 (cos r + cos α) − 2 tan sin α cos(φ − β) + cos r − cos α = 0. 135. Equation (1) of the preceding Article may be written thus: θ θ + sin2 2 2 = cos α cos2 θ θ − sin2 2 2 + 2 sin α sin θ θ cos cos(φ − β). 2 2 cos r + cos α 2 2 θ1 θ2 tan is independent of φ. The student . If the circle be a great circle then r = π . 2 2 cos r cos2 Divide by cos2 θ and rearrange.

can easily draw the required diagram. 137. Conversely suppose that from any other point p arcs pm and pn are drawn perpendicular to OA and OC respectively. and from a point P on the same great circle as P1 and P2 a perpendicular is drawn to the same fixed arc. produced if necessary. Then. Then. sin(θ1 + θ2 ) sin(θ1 + θ2 ) Let the arc P1 P2 . Let P P1 = θ1 and P P2 = θ2 . and P2 be denoted by x. 65.106 CONNEXION OF FORMULÆ IN TRIGONOMETRY. let α denote the angle between the arcs. sin x1 = sin α sin OP1 = sin α sin(OP − θ1 ) = sin α(sin OP cos θ1 − cos OP sin θ1 ). sin x2 = sin α sin OP2 = sin α sin(OP + θ2 ) = sin α(sin OP cos θ2 + cos OP sin θ2 ). . sin P M sin AOB = . cut the fixed arc at a point O. Then will sin x = sin θ2 sin θ1 sin x1 + sin x2 . From two points P1 and P2 arcs are drawn perpendicular to a fixed arc. by Art. 65. x1 and x2 . then if sin P M sin pm = . and that P is between P1 and P2 . by Art. 136. therefore sin P N = sin OP sin COB. sin P N sin COB Thus the ratio of sin P M to sin P N is independent of the position of P on the arc OB. sin P M = sin OP sin AOB. and let the perpendiculars drawn from P . We will suppose that P1 is between O and P2 . P1 . sin pn sin P N it will follow that p is on the same great circle as O and P .

by Art. therefore cos A = cos CF sin F CA. The student should convince himself by examination that the result holds for all relative positions of P . when due regard is paid to algebraical signs. cos B = cos CF sin F CB. by Art. 137 is to determine whether three given points are on the same great circle. 107 Multiply the former by sin θ2 . The arcs drawn from the angles of a spherical triangle perpendicular to the opposite sides respectively meet at a point. sin η cos A cos A cos C And if from any point in CF arcs are drawn perpendicular to CB and CA .CONNEXION OF FORMULÆ IN TRIGONOMETRY. 135. and add. 138. 146. The principal use of Art. cos B cos B cos C sin ξ = = . P1 and P2 . and the latter by sin θ1 . denote the former by ξ and the latter by η. sin η sin F CA But. sin ξ sin F CB = . Let CF be perpendicular to AB. From F suppose arcs drawn perpendicular to CB and CA respectively. Then. 65. an illustration will be given in Art. 139. thus sin θ2 sin x1 + sin θ1 sin x2 = sin(θ1 + θ2 ) sin α sin OP = sin(θ1 + θ2 ) sin x.

to cos A cos B Let CF and AD meet at P . Thus the three perpendiculars meet at a point. c respectively. then if from any point in AD arcs are drawn perpendicular to AC and AB respectively. It is known in Plane Geometry that a certain circle touches the inscribed and escribed circles of any triangle. and denote these perpendiculars by x. respectively. . sin η In like manner suppose AD perpendicular to BC. the ratio of the sine of the former perpendicular to the sine of the sin ξ latter perpendicular is equal to by Art. pages 317. this circle is called the Nine points circle: see Appendix to Euclid. sin x sin y sin z = = . sin B sin C sin C sin A sin A sin B 141. b. sin z cos A cos B of a spherical triangle to the middle points of the opposite sides meet at a point. and from P let perpendiculars be drawn on the sides a. In the same manner it may be shewn that the arcs drawn from the angles cos A cos C sin y = . y. cos B cos C cos C cos A cos A cos B 140. 135. sin z cos B cos A and this shews that the point P is on the arc drawn from B perpendicular to AC. the ratio of the sine of the former perpendicular to the sine of the latter perpendicular is equal cos A cos C . and this point is determined by the relations sin y sin z sin x = = . z respectively: then we have shewn that sin x cos B cos C = . and Plane Trigonometry.108 CONNEXION OF FORMULÆ IN TRIGONOMETRY. sin y cos A cos C and that hence it follows that sin x cos B cos C = . c of the triangle. z are drawn perpendicular to the sides a. b. and if from this point arcs x. Chapter xxiv. 318. y.

Let α denote the distance from A of the pole of the small circle inscribed within a spherical triangle ABC. Suppose that a small circle of angular radius ρ touches this inscribed circle internally. 142. (1) Suppose that this touching circle also touches externally the escribed circle of angular radius r1 . let γ be the angle between arcs drawn from A to the pole of the inscribed circle and the pole of the touching circle respectively. we must have cos(ρ + r1 ) = cos α1 cos β + sin α1 sin β cos γ. if α2 and α3 denote the distances from A of the poles of the other escribed circles. let β be the distance from A of the pole of this touching circle. 2 (3) (4) We shall shew that real values of ρ. (5) Suppose that the inscribed circle touches AB at the distance m from A.CONNEXION OF FORMULÆ IN TRIGONOMETRY. 2 π +γ . and that the escribed circle of angular radius r1 touches AB at the distance m1 from . we must also have cos(ρ + r2 ) = cos α2 cos β + sin α2 sin β cos cos(ρ + r3 ) = cos α3 cos β + sin α3 sin β cos π −γ . and γ can be found to satisfy these four equations. (2) Similarly. 109 We shall now shew that a small circle can always be determined on the sphere to touch the inscribed and escribed circles of any spherical triangle. thus cos ρ(cos r sin α1 − cos r1 sin α) + sin ρ(sin r sin α1 + sin r1 sin α) = cos β(cos α sin α1 − cos α1 sin α). Then we must have cos(ρ − r) = cos α cos β + sin α sin β cos γ. then if α1 denote the distance from A of the pole of this escribed circle. Eliminate cos γ from (1) and (2). β. in order that the touching circle may touch these escribed circles externally.

But by Arts. sin α cos m sin m 2 Similarly we may connect α1 and r1 with m1 . 45 we obtain a b+c 2 cos ρ = sin cos + 2n sin ρ = cos β sin a. and m3 for s − b. 92 n 2 (8) . we obtain cos ρ(sin m2 + sin m3 ) − 2 sin ρ sin m2 sin m3 cot A 2 = cos β sin(m2 + m3 ). 2 A 2 therefore cos ρ(sin m1 − sin m) + 2 sin ρ sin m sin m1 tan = cos β sin(m1 − m). sin r = sin α sin A . and m1 = s. cot α = cot m cos A . (6) therefore 2 cos ρ sin a b−c cos − 2n sin ρ = cos β sin a. 65. In like manner if we eliminate sin γ between (3) and (4). 89 and 90 we have m = s − a. Thus we obtain from (5) cos ρ cos A 2 1 1 − sin m sin m1 + 2 sin ρ sin A 2 = cos β cos A (cot m − cot m1 ) . 2 2 (7) From (6) and (7) we get sin tan ρ = b c a sin sin 2 2 2 = 1 tan R. by Art. 2 therefore cot α 1 A cos r = = cos .110 CONNEXION OF FORMULÆ IN TRIGONOMETRY. by Art. A. putting m2 for s−c. Then. 2 2 where n has the meaning assigned in Art. 2 cos α = cos r cos m. therefore by the aid of Art. 46.

From (1) we have cos ρ sin r sin α that is. It will be observed that. a cos 2 (9) a b c is not less than cos or cos . cos ρ sin n   A  b c   cos(s − a) sin s cos cos  2 sin s + sin 1 a sin 1 b sin 1 c − 2 2 a 2 2 2     cos 2 = sin β cos γ. We may suppose that cos It remains to shew that when ρ and β are thus determined. . this reduces to   A  b c  cos ρ sin sin(b + c) cos cos  2 cos a sin b + c − 2 2 = sin β cos γ : a   n 2 2   2 cos 2 and it will be found that (2) reduces to the same. so that (1) and (2) give the same value for cos γ. all the four fundamental equations are satisfied.CONNEXION OF FORMULÆ IN TRIGONOMETRY. a   2 2   2 cos 2 cot r + tan ρ − cos m cot r cos β cos ρ = sin β cos γ. and that (3) and (4) give the same value for sin γ. 111 cos and cos β = b c cos cos ρ 2 2 . ρ and β being considered known. so that we are 2 2 2 sure of a possible value of cos β from (9). cos γ can be found from (1) or (2). and sin γ can be found from (3) or (4): we must therefore shew that (1) and (2) give the same value for cos γ. In like manner it will be found that (3) and (4) agree in reducing to cos ρ cos n   A  b c   sin(c − b) cos cos  2 cos a sin c − b − 2 2 = sin β cos γ. and we must also shew that these values satisfy the condition cos2 γ + sin2 γ = 1.

that is for a . 2 A 4 sin2 β cos2 γ = (X 2 + Y 2 + 2XY ) sin2 cos2 ρ. Substitute in (12) and we obtain sin2 β cos2 γ = (sin2 ρ + XY cos2 ρ) sin2 Again. 2 (13) . b c cos cos cos β 2 2 Put k for . 2 A (Y1 cos ρ − sin ρ) cos = − sin β sin γ. Then (3) and (4) may be written respectively thus: (X1 cos ρ − sin ρ) cos A = sin β sin γ. cos ρ cos 2 put X for cot r{1 − k cos(s − a)}. and Y1 for cot r3 {1 − k cos(s − b)}. 2 (10) (11) From (10) and (11) by addition A cos ρ = 2 sin β cos γ. put X1 for cot r2 {1 − k cos(s − c)}. and Y for cot r1 {1 − k cos s}. therefore (X 2 + Y 2 ) cos2 ρ = 4 sin2 ρ + 2XY cos2 ρ. It only remains to shew that the condition cos2 γ + sin2 γ = 1 is satisfied.112 CONNEXION OF FORMULÆ IN TRIGONOMETRY. 2 (14) (15) A . Then (1) and (2) may be written respectively thus: (X cos ρ + sin ρ) sin A = sin β cos γ. 2 (X + Y ) sin therefore (12) But from (10) and (11) by subtraction (X − Y ) cos ρ = −2 sin ρ. 2 A (Y cos ρ − sin ρ) sin = sin β cos γ.

so that the relation reduces to 1 − k 2 = XY sin2 Now XY sin2 A cot r cot r1 {1 − k cos s}{1 − k cos(s − a)} sin(s − b) sin(s − c) = 2 sin b sin c = {1 − k cos s}{1 − k cos(s − a)} .CONNEXION OF FORMULÆ IN TRIGONOMETRY. sin b sin c A {1 − k cos(s − b)}{1 − k cos(s − c)} = . whence sin2 β sin2 γ = (sin2 ρ − X1 Y1 cos2 ρ) cos2 A . But sin2 β = 1 − cos2 β = sin2 ρ + cos2 ρ − k 2 cos2 ρ. 2 sin b sin c A A − X1 Y1 cos2 . sin b sin c a 2 sin b sin c 2k cos b−c b+c − cos 2 2 that is cos . (X1 + Y1 ) cos ρ = 2 sin ρ. 113 From (14) and (15) by subtraction (X1 − Y1 ) cos A cos ρ = 2 sin β sin γ. 2 (16) Hence from (13) and (16) it follows that we have to establish the relation sin2 β = sin2 ρ + XY sin2 A A − X1 Y1 cos2 2 2 cos2 ρ. 2 and from (14) and (15) by addition. 2 2 Similarly X1 Y1 cos2 Subtract the latter from the former. then we obtain k {cos(s − b) + cos(s − c) − cos s − cos(s − a)} sin b sin c + k2 {cos s cos(s − a) − cos(s − b) cos(s − c)}.

Thus the existence of a circle which touches the inscribed and escribed circles of any spherical triangle has been established. that is 1 − k 2 . tan tan = = a b c 2 2 cos ρ + cos β cos + cos cos 2 2 2 In the same way we must have by symmetry b a c cos − cos cos c−λ c−µ 2 2 2. c b cos cos 2 2 must both be less than unity. tan tan = b a c 2 2 cos + cos cos 2 2 2 (1) (2) . 143. Suppose the touching circle intersects the side AB at points distant λ and µ respectively from A. The distance of the pole of this touching circle from the angles B and C of the triangle will of course be determined by formulæ corresponding to (9). and thus it follows that cos a a c b cos cos cos ρ cos cos ρ 2 2 2 2 and . Then by Art. We will now determine the position of the points of meeting. 134 we have a b c cos − cos cos λ µ cos ρ − cos β 2 2 2. 144. Since the circle which has been determined touches the inscribed circle internally and touches the escribed circles externally.114 CONNEXION OF FORMULÆ IN TRIGONOMETRY. which was to be shewn. it is obvious that it must meet all the sides of the spherical triangle. + k2 sin b sin c 4 sin cos b+c+a b+c−a a+c−b a+b−c cos − cos cos 2 2 2 2 sin2 c−b c+b − sin2 2 2 that is b c b c sin cos cos k2 2 2 2 2 + sin b sin c sin b sin c .

Let z denote the perpendicular from the pole of the touching circle on AB. 115 From (2).CONNEXION OF FORMULÆ IN TRIGONOMETRY. then sin z = sin β sin A +γ 2 A A cos γ + cos sin γ . b a c b c cos sin cos + cos cos 2 2 2 2 2 From (1) and (3) we see that we may put b c a cos − cos cos λ 2 2 2. 145. we obtain 2 2 a b c b c cos2 − cos2 cos2 + cos2 sin2 λ µ 2 2 2 2 2 tan + tan = b c a b c 2 2 cos sin cos + cos cos 2 2 2 2 2 a b c b c cos − cos cos cos sin 2 2 2 + 2 2 = . 2 2 = sin β sin But from (2) and (3) of Art. tan = b c 2 cos sin 2 2 µ tan = 2 c b sin 2 2 . 142 we have cos ρ sin sin β cos γ = n A 2 Z − sin a b c sin sin 2 2 2 . when we substitute the value of tan λ µ tan given by (1). a b c cos + cos cos 2 2 2 cos (3) (4) (5) Similar formulæ of course hold for the points of intersection of the touching circle with the other sides. .

Now Z sin2 A 2 1 − cos s cos c a b cos sec 2 2 2 . where Therefore Z1 = sin(s − b) − cos(s − c) sin(s − b) cos b c a cos sec . Therefore is equal to the product of Z sin2 A A + Z1 cos2 2 2 sin(s − a) sin(s − b) sin b sin c into sin(s − c) + sin s − cos sin(s − a) sin(s − b) sin b sin c sin(s − a) sin(s − b) c 2 sin b sin 2 b c a cos sec 2 2 2 2 sin sin(s − c) cos s + cos(s − c) sin s = a+b c b c a cos − cos cos sec sin(2s − c) 2 2 2 2 2 a+b b a − sin(a + b) cos sec 2 2 2 = 2 sin . = sin(s − a) sin(s − b) sin(s − c) sin b sin c A 2 and Z1 cos2 = sin s sin(s − a) sin(s − b) sin b sin c 1 − cos(s − c) cos b c a cos sec 2 2 2 . 2 2 2 sin z = cos ρ n Z sin2 A a b c A + Z1 cos2 − sin sin sin 2 2 2 2 2 . 2 2 2 cos ρ cos and sin β sin γ = n Z1 − sin a b c sin sin 2 2 2 . where Z = sin(s − a) − cos s sin(s − a) cos A 2 b c a cos sec .116 CONNEXION OF FORMULÆ IN TRIGONOMETRY.

and 140 we have sin x sin y sin z = = . and N are on a great circle. by (2) of Art. y. 140. G. 146. and x2 . b.CONNEXION OF FORMULÆ IN TRIGONOMETRY. Then by Arts. G the point determined in Art. cos B cos C cos C cos A cos A cos B sin y2 sin z2 sin x2 = = . z2 the perpendiculars from G. Let x. 139. sin B sin C sin C sin A sin A sin B . y2 . y1 . 145. cos(B − C) cos(C − A) cos(A − B) sin x1 sin y1 sin z1 = = . 54. z1 denote the perpendiculars from P . Let P denote the point determined in Art. and N the pole of the touching circle. 139. z denote the perpendiculars from N on the sides a. 117 sin(s − a) sin(s − b) sin = c sin b sin 2   a+b  a+b b   cos cos  2 2 2 1− a     cos 2 a+b a+b b sin(s − a) sin(s − b) sin2 sin(s − a) sin(s − b) sin2 sin 2 2 = 2 . We shall now shew that P . Similar expressions hold for the perpendiculars from the pole of the touching circle on the other sides of the spherical triangle. let x1 . 2 Thus a b c cos ρ sin sin sin cos(A − B) n 2 2 2 = sin ρ cos(A − B). c respectively of the spherical triangle. = c a a b c sin b sin cos 2 cos cos sin 2 2 2 2 2 Therefore    2 sin2 a + b sin(s − a) sin(s − b)    cos ρ a b c 2 sin z = −1 sin sin sin c  n 2 2 2   sin2 sin a sin b 2 = cos ρ a b c sin sin sin n 2 2 2 sin z = 2cos2 A−B − 1 .

G. From equation (5) of Art. where t1 and t2 are certain quantities the values of which are not required for our purpose. 2 In Plane Geometry the points which correspond to the P . page 67. See the Quarterly Journal of Mathematics. sin y = t1 sin y1 + t2 sin y2 . 144 by supposing the radius of the sphere to b2 + c2 − a2 become infinite we obtain λ = : this corresponds to the fact that 2c the Nine points circle passes through the feet of the perpendiculars from the angles of a triangle on the opposite sides. seen. and N of Art. From Art. 147. sin z = t1 sin z1 + t2 sin z2 . 137 a certain point in the same great circle as P and G is at the perpendicular distances x. The result tan ρ = From equation (4) of Art. Vol. Therefore by Art.118 CONNEXION OF FORMULÆ IN TRIGONOMETRY. Hence it follows that sin x = t1 sin x1 + t2 sin x2 . The results which have been demonstrated with respect to the circle which touches the inscribed and escribed circles of a spherical triangle are mainly due to Dr Hart and Dr Salmon. b. The resemblance of the results which have been obtained to those which are known respecting the Nine points circle in Plane Geometry will be easily 1 tan R corresponds to the fact that the radius of the 2 Nine points circle is half the radius of the circumscribing circle of the triangle. . y. 148. 144 by supposing the radius of the sphere to c become infinite we obtain µ = : this corresponds to the fact that the Nine 2 points circle passes through the middle points of the sides of a triangle. c respectively of the spherical triangle: and hence this point must be the point N . 146 are on a straight line. 145 by supposing the radius of the sphere to become infinite we 1 obtain z = R cos(A − B): this is a known property of the Nine points circle. vi. z from the sides a.

abc.CONNEXION OF FORMULÆ IN TRIGONOMETRY. and that if x. b. z are the perpendiculars from this point on the sides a. spherical or plane. sin x sin y sin z = = . differ slightly in position: shew that cos ABb cos BCc cos CAa + cos ACc cos CBb cos BAa = 0. A+B C a+b c cos = sin cos deduce the area of a 2 2 2 2 plane triangle in terms of the sides and one of the angles. Two triangles ABC. Deduce formulæ in Plane Trigonometry from Napier’s Analogies. − cos S cos(S − A) deduce the expression sin B sin C a2 sin B sin C for the area of a plane triangle. 5. c respectively. 3.. Shew that these arcs meet at a point. From the angle C of a spherical triangle a perpendicular is drawn to the arc which joins the middle points of the sides a and b: shew that this perpendicular makes an angle S − B with the side a. c respectively. y. y. What result is obtained from Example 7 to Chapter VI. when the radius of the 2 sin A sphere is indefinitely increased. Shew that these perpendiculars meet at a point. cos A cos B cos C . 8. 1. Deduce formulæ in Plane Trigonometry from Delambre’s Analogies. sin(S − B) sin(S − C) sin(S − C) sin(S − A) sin(S − A) sin(S − B) 9. equal in all respects. by supposing the radius of the sphere infinite? 7. and an angle S − A with the side b. sin x sin y sin z = = . 119 EXAMPLES. and that if x. From the formula sin a = 2 2. z are the perpendiculars from this point on the sides a. Through each angle of a spherical triangle an arc is drawn so as to make the same angle with one side which the perpendicular on the base makes with the other side. b. 4. From the formula cos 6. From each angle of a spherical triangle a perpendicular is drawn to the arc which joins the middle points of the adjacent sides. namely .

146 are on a great circle. And as the angle OBC is greater than the angle OCB. shew that the area and the sum of the angles are increased.] . page 317. See the corresponding problem in Plane Geometry in the Appendix to Euclid. Then CD is greater than BE by Art. equal to CBE. 58. If the angles B and C are not equal suppose B the greater. If the arcs bisecting two angles of a spherical triangle and terminated at the opposite sides are equal. 12. so that CD is less than BE. and the point N of Art. Shew that the points determined in Examples 8 and 9. If one angle of a spherical triangle remains constant while the adjacent sides are increased. Then construct a spherical triangle BCF on the other side of BC. Since the angle ODC is greater than the angle OEB. 11. 10. Hence the angle ODC is greater than the angle OEB. by Example 11. [Let BOD and COE denote these two arcs which are given equal.120 CONNEXION OF FORMULÆ IN TRIGONOMETRY. therefore OC is greater than OB. the angle F DC is greater than the angle DF C. therefore CD is less than CF . State the corresponding theorem in Plane Geometry. the bisected angles will be equal provided their sum be less than 180◦ . therefore OD is greater than OE.

let the points at which these straight lines meet the surface of the sphere be joined by arcs of great circles. and describe a sphere of radius r. s denotes the sum of all the angles of the polygons. and is therefore m is equal to equal to 2π× the number of solid angles. Take any point within the polyhedron as centre. and draw straight lines from the centre to each of the angular points of the polyhedron. 4πr2 . then the area of the polygon is r2 {s − (m − 2)π} by Art. and its solid angles equal to one another. A polyhedron is a solid bounded by any number of plane rectilineal figures which are called its faces. that is. E the number of its edges. If S be the number of solid angles in any polyhedron. we obtain 4π = Now s−π m + 2F π.XIII POLYHEDRONS. to 2E. Hence since the number of the polygons is F . and the number of all the sides of all the polygons. to 2πS. m the number of its sides. A polyhedron is said to be regular when its faces are similar and equal regular polygons. that is. so that the surface of the sphere is divided into as many polygons as the polyhedron has faces. Let s denote the sum of the angles of any one of these polygons. that is. then S + F = E + 2. F the number of its faces. 149. since every edge 121 . 150. The sum of the areas of all the polygons is the surface of the sphere. 99.

4. the only admissible values of m are 3. S + F = E + 2. There can be only five regular polyhedrons. then the entire number of plane angles is expressed by mF . or by 2E. and as m must be an integer and cannot be less m 6 than 3. we must therefore have 2(m+n) greater than mn. gives rise to an arc which is common to two polygons. Therefore 4π = 2πS − 2πE + 2F π. Tetrahedron or regular Pyramid. Dodecahedron. m n 2 1 1 but n cannot be less than 3. or by nS. thus mF = nS = 2E. therefore 1 1 1 + must be greater than . therefore 151. n the number of plane angles in each solid angle. 2(m + n) − mn These expressions must be positive integers. from these equations we obtain S= 4m . Octahedron. Icosahedron.122 POLYHEDRONS. 5. m 3 4 3 5 3 n 3 3 4 3 5 S 4 8 6 20 12 E 6 12 12 30 30 F 4 6 8 12 20 Name of regular Polyhedron. Let m be the number of sides in each face of a regular polyhedron. . Hexahedron or Cube. and S + F = E + 2. and therefore n 3 1 1 must be greater than . 2(m + n) − mn F = 4n . 2(m + n) − mn E= 2mn . It will be found on trial that the only values of m and n which satisfy all the necessary conditions are the following: each regular polyhedron derives its name from the number of its plane faces. so that cannot be greater than .

it is perpendicular to the plane CED. and the angle cae is half one of 2m m 2π π the n equal angles formed on the sphere round a. c. 123 It will be seen that the demonstration establishes something more than the enunciation states. From 2n n . therefore the plane AOB which contains AB is perpendicular to the plane CED. Then the angle ace = ACE = = . the sum of the interior angles of that face is (m − 2)π by Euclid I.POLYHEDRONS. 152. 1. Cor. and join CE and DE. Let AB be the edge common to the two adjacent faces. that is. In the plane containing CE and DE draw CO and DO at right angles to CE and DE respectively. e respectively. 153. For if m denote the number of sides in any face of the polyhedron. that is 2(S − 2)π. It is in fact demonstrated that. there cannot be more than five solids each of which has all its faces with the same number of sides. Since AB is perpendicular to CE and DE. hence the angle cea of the spherical triangle is a right angle. and meeting at O. that is mπ − 2F π. and the angle CED is the angle of inclination of the two adjacent faces. Let m be the number of sides in each face of the polyhedron. bisect AB at E. and all its solid angles formed with the same number of plane angles. OE at a. 32. CE and DE will be perpendicular to AB. Hence the sum of all the interior angles of all the faces is that is 2(E − F )π. OC. C and D the centres of the faces. n the number of the plane angles which form each solid 2π π angle. To find the inclination of two adjacent faces of a regular polyhedron. (m − 2)π. The sum of all the plane angles which form the solid angles of any poly- hedron is 2(S − 2)π. about O as centre describe a sphere meeting OA. for it is not assumed that the faces are equilateral and equiangular and all equal. cae = = . we shall denote it by I. so that cae forms a spherical triangle.

12 m 155. 2 m r = CE tan CEO = CE tan also therefore I a π I = cot tan . and therefore the sur4 m π mF a2 cot . so that r is the radius of the inscribed sphere. m n π π a I π tan = tan tan .124 POLYHEDRONS. 2 sin m 154. Then CE = AE cot ACE = a π cot . To find the radii of the inscribed and circumscribed spheres of a regular polyhedron. let OC = r and OA = R. 2 2 m 2 π π r = R cos aOc = R cot eca cot eac = R cot cot . Let the edge AB = a. m therefore π cos I n sin = π . . and R is the radius of the circumscribed sphere. and therefore the volume of the poly3 4 m mF ra2 π hedron is cot . 156. that is cos π = cos n π I − 2 2 sin π . To find the volume of a parallelepiped in terms of its edges and their inclinations to one another. face of the polyhedron is 4 m Also the volume of the pyramid which has one face of the polyhedron for r ma2 π base and O for vertex is cot . ma2 π The area of one face of the polyhedron is cot . the right-angled triangle cae cos cae = cos cOe sin ace. m n 2 2 n R = r tan To find the surface and volume of a regular polyhedron.

COA = β. OB = b. b. b. meeting OA. OB. Let OD be the diagonal required. and from the spherical triangle cab √ sin cab = (1 − cos2 α − cos2 β − cos2 γ + 2 cos α cos β cos γ) . To find the diagonal of a parallelepiped in terms of the three edges which it meets and their inclinations to one another. e respectively. iv. The spherical triangle cae is rightangled at e. Chap. let the inclinations be BOC = a. COA = β. let the inclinations be BOC = α. OE at a. 157. c. AOB = γ. OE at a.) . Describe a sphere with O as a centre. The volume of the parallelepiped is equal to the product of its base and altitude = ab sin γ CE = abc sin γ sin cOe. OC.POLYHEDRONS. Then OD2 = OE 2 + ED2 + 2OE ED cos COE = a2 + b2 + 2ab cos γ + c2 + 2cOE cos COE. sin β sin γ therefore the volume of the parallelepiped √ = abc (1 − cos2 α − cos2 β − cos2 γ + 2 cos α cos β cos γ). thus sin cOe = sin cOa sin cae = sin β sin cab. Draw CE perpendicular to the plane AOB meeting it at E. OC = c. Let the edges be OA = a. e respectively. then (see Example 14. OC = c. AOB = γ. c. 125 Let the edges be OA = a. OC. OB. OB = b. and let OE be the diagonal of the face OAB. Describe a sphere with O as centre meeting OA.

sin γ and therefore OE sin aOe = b sin γ. in which V denotes the volume of the tetrahedron. A tetrahedron is one-sixth of a parallelepiped which has the same altitude and its base double that of the tetrahedron. AB = c . 2bc cos β = c2 + a2 − b 2 . The following result will be obtained. 2ca cos γ = a2 + b2 − c 2 . then cos α = b2 + c2 − a 2 . cos β. sin γ OD2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + 2ab cos γ + 2cOE (cos α sin aOe + cos β sin bOe).126 POLYHEDRONS. 156 let BC = a . To find the volume of a tetrahedron. 156. CA = b . OE sin bOe = a sin γ. thus if the edges and their inclinations are given we can take one-sixth of the expression for the volume in Art. cos cOe = = therefore cos cOb sin aOe + cos cOa sin bOe sin aOb cos α sin aOe + cos β sin bOe . and cos γ in the expression obtained in Art. 2ab and if these values are substituted for cos α. for in the figure of Art. the volume of the tetrahedron will be expressed in terms of its six edges. The volume of a tetrahedron may also be expressed in terms of its six edges. 158. 156. 144 V 2 = −a 2 b 2 c 2 . OD2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + 2ab cos γ + 2bc cos α + 2ca cos β.

the sum of the angles ADB. If D falls within the triangle ABC.POLYHEDRONS. BC = a. 160. Or we may adopt Carnot’s method. D be the four points. It will be convenient to alter the notation hitherto used. If D falls without the triangle ABC. a 2 + b 2 − c2 . also let DA = a . and the result just given still holds. 159. DC = c . 127 + a2 a 2 (b 2 + c 2 − a 2 ) + b2 b 2 (c 2 + a 2 − b 2 ) + c2 c 2 (a 2 + b 2 − c 2 ) − a 2 (a2 − b2 )(a2 − c2 ) − b 2 (b2 − c2 )(b2 − a2 ) − c 2 (c2 − a2 )(c2 − b2 ). Let A. B. Thus for a regular tetrahedron we have 144 V 2 = 2a6 . C. and we shall add some other investigations which are also given by Carnot. this we shall now shew. hence if we equate to zero the expression on the right-hand side of the equation just given. and the expression for the volume of a tetrahedron is deduced from it. by interchanging the accented and unaccented letters. Hence by ordinary transformations we deduce 1 = cos2 ADB + cos2 BDC + cos2 CDA − 2 cos ADB cos BDC cos CDA. so that cos ADB = cos (BDC + CDA). we obtain a relation which must hold among the six straight lines which join four points taken arbitrarily in a plane. substitute these values in the above result. and we obtain the Now cos ADB = . one of the three angles at D is equal to the sum of the other two. the volume vanishes. CA = b. in which this relation is established independently. DB = b . Let AB = c. If the vertex of a tetrahedron be supposed to be situated at any point in the plane of its base. CDA is equal to four right angles. and the other cosines may be expressed in a 2a b similar manner. To find the relation holding among the six straight lines which join four points taken arbitrarily in a plane. BDC.

C respectively to the vertex of the tetrahedron. 160 we have 1 = cos2 ADB + cos2 BDC + cos2 CDA − 2 cos ADB cos BDC cos CDA. 0 = −a2 b2 c2 +a 2 a2 (b2 + c2 − a2 ) + b 2 b2 (c2 + a2 − b2 ) + c 2 c2 (a2 + b2 − c2 ) −a2 (a 2 − b 2 )(a 2 − c 2 ) − b2 (b 2 − c 2 )(b 2 − a 2 ) − c2 (c 2 − a 2 )(c 2 − b 2 ). As in Art. and we Now cos ADB = . 160 will hold if we put (a − p2 ) instead of a . C. D be the four points. so that the left-hand member is 144 V 2 . 161. C √ √ √ respectively are (a 2 − p2 ). which after reduction may be exhibited thus. CA = β. To express the volume of a tetrahedron in terms of its six edges. cos γ − cos α cos β . Let a. (b 2 − p2 ) instead of √ b . The coefficient of p2 in this equation is sixteen times the square of the area of the triangle ABC. DC = γ . 162. and the other cosines may be exsin α sin β pressed in a similar manner. We shall thus obtain p2 (2a2 b2 + 2b2 c2 + 2c2 a2 − a4 − b4 − c4 ) = −a2 b2 c2 + a 2 a2 (b2 + c2 − a2 ) + b 2 b2 (c2 + a2 − b2 ) + c 2 c2 (a2 + b2 − c2 ) − a2 (a 2 − b 2 )(a 2 − c 2 ) − b2 (b 2 − c 2 )(b 2 − a 2 ) − c2 (c 2 − a 2 )(c 2 − b 2 ). b . (c 2 − p2 ). (b 2 − p2 ). B. substitute these values in the above result. Let A. To find the relation holding among the six arcs of great circles which join four points taken arbitrarily on the surface of a sphere. and (c 2 − p2 ) instead of c . c be the lengths of the sides of a triangle ABC forming one face of the tetrahedron. required relation. BC = α. let a . let DA = α . B. B. then the lengths of the straight lines drawn from the foot of the perpendicular to A.128 POLYHEDRONS. where V denotes the volume of the tetrahedron. b. c be the lengths of the straight lines which join A. Let p be the length of the perpendicular from the vertex on the base. Let AB = γ. Hence the relation given √ 2 √ in Art. Hence the required expression is obtained. which we may call its base. DB = β .

Let the sphere be supposed to be circumscribed about the tetrahedron. The right-hand member may also be put into factors. Then cos α = 1 − 2 sin2 α a =1−2 2 2r 2 =1− a2 . shew that cos I = 1 3 1 in the tetrahedron. . Let aa + bb + cc = 2σ. 162. 129 obtain the required relation. To find the radius of the sphere circumscribing a tetrahedron. and we obtain. Let r denote the radius of the sphere. 2r2 and the other cosines may be expressed in a similar manner. If I denote the inclination of two adjacent faces of a regular polyhedron. 162 holds among the cosines of these six arcs. after reduction. and draw on the sphere the six arcs of great circles joining the angular points of the tetrahedron. 1. with the aid of Art. EXAMPLES. = 0 in the cube. 161. Then the relation given in Art. Denote the edges of the tetrahedron as in Art. then 36 V 2 r2 = σ(σ − aa )(σ − bb )(σ − cc ). 163.POLYHEDRONS. which after reduction may be exhibited thus. 1 = cos2 α + cos2 β + cos2 γ + cos2 α + cos2 β + cos2 γ − cos2 α cos2 α − cos2 β cos2 β − cos2 γ cos2 γ − 2(cos α cos β cos γ + cos α cos β cos γ + cos β cos α cos γ + cos γ cos α cos β ) + 2(cos α cos β cos α cos β + cos β cos γ cos β cos γ + cos γ cos α cos γ cos α ). 161. = − 3 in the octahedron. as we see by recollecting the mode in which the expression for the area of a triangle is put into factors. Substitute these values in the result of Art. 4 × 144 V 2 r2 = 2a2 b2 a 2 b 2 + 2b2 c2 b 2 c 2 + 2c2 a2 c 2 a 2 − a4 a 4 − b4 b 4 − c4 c 4 .

shew that b = 3a. and R the radius of the sphere which touches the edges. 8. 153. If a and b are the radii of the spheres inscribed in and described about a regular tetrahedron. 3. It is not possible to fill any given space with a number of regular polyhedrons of the same kind. and conversely. √ √ = − 1 5 in the dodecahedron. shew that R2 = 3a2 . and conversely. and = − 1 5 in the icosahedron. If a is the radius of a sphere inscribed in a regular tetrahedron. 11. If a is the radius of a sphere inscribed in a regular tetrahedron. 4. If a dodecahedron and an icosahedron be described about a given sphere. If a cube and an octahedron be described about a given sphere. the sphere described about these polyhedrons will be the same. If with all the angular points of any parallelepiped as centres equal spheres be described. 10. 7. shew that the radius of the sphere which touches one face of a regular polyhedron and all the adjacent faces produced is π 1 1 2 a cot m cot 2 I. the sum of the intercepted portions of the parallelepiped will be equal in volume to one of the spheres. 9. With the notation of Art. and R the radius of the sphere which touches one face and the others produced. A regular tetrahedron and a regular octahedron are inscribed in the same sphere: compare the radii of the spheres which can be inscribed in the two solids. A regular octahedron is inscribed in a cube so that the corners of the octahedron are at the centres of the faces of the cube: shew that the volume of the cube is six times that of the octahedron. 13. 6.130 POLYHEDRONS. The sum of the squares of the four diagonals of a parallelepiped is equal to four times the sum of the squares of the edges. shew that R = 2a. but this may be done by means of . 5 3 2. 5. the sphere described about these polyhedrons will be the same. except cubes. A sphere touches one face of a regular tetrahedron and the other three faces produced: find its radius. 12.

131 tetrahedrons and octahedrons which have equal faces. . four equal small circles of the sphere are described. the product of the sines of any two sides and the sine of the included angle = sin AO sin BO sin CO cot AO sin BOC + cot BO sin COA + cot CO sin AOB . its angular points are joined. r1 . If O be any point within a spherical triangle ABC. where r. Shew that the area of the surface 1 bounded by each circle is 2πr2 1 − √ . A spherical triangle is formed on the surface of a sphere of radius ρ.POLYHEDRONS. 3 16. 14. r3 are the radii of the inscribed and escribed circles of the triangle. by using twice as many of the former as of the latter. forming thus a pyramid with the straight lines joining them with the centre: shew that the volume of the pyramid is 1 3√ (tan r tan r1 3ρ tan r2 tan r3 ). 15. so that each circle touches the other three. The angular points of a regular tetrahedron inscribed in a sphere of radius r being taken as poles. r2 .

132 POLYHEDRONS. .

and therefore all its angles right angles. that ABC is a spherical triangle having all its sides quadrants.XIV ARCS DRAWN TO FIXED POINTS ON THE SURFACE OF A SPHERE. 165. 133 . T is any point on the surface of the sphere: to shew cos2 T A + cos2 T B + cos2 T C = 1. 164. In the present Chapter we shall demonstrate various propositions relating to the arcs drawn from any point on the surface of a sphere to certain fixed points on the surface.

thus cos2 T A + cos2 T C = sin2 T B = 1 − cos2 T B. ABC is a spherical triangle having all its sides quadrants. and cos T AU = cos(BAU − BAT ) = cos BAU cos BAT + sin BAU sin BAT = cos BAU cos BAT + cos CAU cos CAT . 37 we have cos T A = cos AB cos T B + sin AB sin T B cos T BA = sin T B cos T BA. By Art. Similarly cos T C = sin T B cos T BC = sin T B sin T BA. and therefore all its angles right angles. T and U are any points on the surface of the sphere: to shew that cos T U = cos T A cos U A + cos T B cos U B + cos T C cos U C. Square and add. 37 we have cos T U = cos T A cos U A + sin T A sin U A cos T AU. therefore cos T U = cos T A cos U A + sin T A sin U A(cos BAU cos BAT + cos CAU cos CAT ). cos2 T A + cos2 T B + cos2 T C = 1.134 ARCS DRAWN TO FIXED POINTS. therefore 166. . By Art.

and let a similar notation be used with respect to H2 . . 166. Σ = l1 λ + m1 µ + n1 ν + l2 λ + m2 µ + n2 ν + . B. . . let l1 . 135 and cos T B = sin T A cos BAT. . 168. H3 . .ARCS DRAWN TO FIXED POINTS. Take on the surface of the sphere a fixed spherical triangle ABC.. . 167. where P stands for l1 + l2 + l3 + . Denote the sum by Σ. Let T be any point on the surface of a sphere. we have given them here as they may be of service in Spherical Trigonometry. cos T C = sin T A cos CAT. Then. B. with corresponding meanings for Q and R. = P λ + Qµ + Rν. having all its sides quadrants. The formulæ are of constant application in Analytical Geometry of three dimensions. and therefore all its angles right angles. and will in fact now be used in obtaining some important results. and are demonstrated in works on that subject. m1 . denote them by H1 . . so that Σ = cos T H1 + cos T H2 + cos T H3 + . We shall now investigate an expression for the sum of the cosines of the arcs which join T with the fixed points. . .. by Art. cos U B = sin U A cos BAU. ν be the cosines of the arcs which join T with A. .. C respectively. cos U C = sin U A cos CAU . . therefore cos T U = cos T A cos U A + cos T B cos U B + cos T C cos U C. H3 . n1 be the cosines of the arcs which join H1 with A. . C respectively. Let there be any number of fixed points on the surface of a sphere. . . Let λ. µ. outside or inside the triangle ABC: the demonstrations will remain essentially the same for all modifications of the diagrams. H2 . We leave to the student the exercise of shewing that the formulæ of the two preceding Articles are perfectly general for all positions of T and U .

γ are the arcs which join it to A. C. But by the symmetry of a regular polyhedron there must always be more . it is obvious that there will be some point on the surface of the sphere. We might take G either positive or negative. β. and that R is the value which Σ takes when T coincides with C. the sum of the cosines of the arcs which join T to the fixed points varies as the cosine of the single arc which joins T to a certain fixed point U . B. that Q is the value which Σ takes when T coincides with B. B. denote this point by U : then. C respectively. G G G Σ = G(λ cos α + µ cos β + ν cos γ). by Art. and the particular values of Σ which correspond to these three points. G= √ (P 2 + Q2 + R2 ). from any point on the surface of the sphere arcs are drawn to the solid angles of the polyhedron: to shew that the sum of the cosines of these arcs is zero. 171. Let We shall now transform the result of Art. cos T U = λ cos α + µ cos β + ν cos γ. 168. when T coincides with U .136 ARCS DRAWN TO FIXED POINTS. it will be convenient to suppose it positive. From the preceding Article we see that if G is not zero there is one position of T which gives to Σ its greatest positive value. cos γ . and let α. Thus. whatever may be the position of T . 169. Since cos α + cos β + cos2 γ = 1. such that α. 166. namely. 170. β. Hence the result expresses the general value of Σ in terms of the cosines of the arcs which join T to the fixed points A. and finally Σ = G cos T U. It will be seen that P is the value which Σ takes when T coincides with A. A sphere is described about a regular polyhedron. cos β . γ be three arcs determined by the equations cos α = then 2 2 Q R P .

H3 .ARCS DRAWN TO FIXED POINTS. H3 . n1 be the cosines of the angles which join H1 with A. .. For here it is obvious that there must always be at least one other position of T symmetrical with any assigned position. The result obtained in Art. it follows that P . Q. and let a similar notation be used with respect to H2 . . denote them by H1 . C respectively. . Let λ. . 166. . these indeed are particular cases of the general result of Art. . Let there be any number of fixed points on the surface of a sphere. H2 . Denote the sum by Σ. Σ = (l1 λ + m1 µ + n1 ν)2 + (l2 λ + m2 µ + n2 ν)2 + . ν be the cosines of the arcs which join T with A. We shall now investigate a remarkable expression for the sum of the squares of the cosines of the arcs which join T with the fixed points. as there are four faces there will at least be three other positions of T symmetrical with any assigned position. by Art. 172. if we take a regular tetrahedron. . . Take on the surface of the sphere a fixed spherical triangle ABC. See Art. Hence G must be zero. 171 we must have G = 0. for instance. . Suppose. so that Σ = cos2 T H1 + cos2 T H2 + cos2 T H3 + . Then. 169. R must each be zero. µ. 171. 171 may be shewn to hold also in some other cases. 137 than one position of T which gives the same value to Σ. . Let T be any point on the surface of the sphere. . and therefore all its angles right angles. that a rectangular parallelepiped is inscribed in a sphere. m1 . B. . 173. and thus the sum of the cosines of the arcs which join T to the solid angles of the regular polyhedron is zero for all positions of T. having all its sides quadrants. 174. For instance. Since G = 0. C respectively. . then the sum of the cosines of the arcs drawn from any point on the surface of the sphere to the solid angles of the parallelepiped is zero. let l1 . B. Hence by the argument of Art.

and rearrange the terms. that is. of T for which Σ has the largest value which it can receive. thus Σ = P λ2 + Qµ2 + Rν 2 + 2pµν + 2qνλ + 2rλµ. and whatever be the position of T we have (P − Q)µ2 not less than 2rλµ. Suppose that A has this position. 2 2 2 where P stands for l1 + l2 + l3 + . this is numerically equal to tan T B. and r will vanish. . Since Σ is always a finite positive quantity there must be some position. When T is at A we have µ and ν each zero.138 ARCS DRAWN TO FIXED POINTS. . Now suppose ν = 0. by giving But now . and λ equal to unity. We shall now shew that there is some position of the triangle ABC for which p. whatever be the position of T . then T is situated on the great circle of which AB is a quadrant. 165. and therefore (P − Q not less than 2rλ . and for R and r. q. or one of these positions if there are more than one. P is never less than P λ2 + Qµ2 + Rν 2 + 2pµν + 2qνλ + 2rλµ. by Art. P (λ2 + µ2 + ν 2 ) is never less than P λ2 + Qµ2 + Rν 2 + 2pµν + 2qνλ + 2rλµ. so that Σ is then equal to P . Hence. . or some positions. positive or negative. with corresponding meanings for Q and q. . . Expand each square. and p stands for m1 n1 + m2 n2 + m3 n3 + . therefore P − Q)µ2 + (P − R)ν 2 is never less than 2pµν + 2qνλ + 2rλµ. µ λ cos T A is equal to . so that we shall then have Σ = P λ2 + Qµ2 + Rν 2 . and so µ cos T B may be made numerically as great as we please. .

and therefore for any such point Q is not less than Qµ2 + Rν 2 + 2pµ ν. Thus P − Q must in some cases be less than have any value different from zero. When T is at B we have λ and ν each zero. 165. 175. The remarks of Art. Q(µ2 + ν 2 ) is not less than Qµ2 + Rν 2 + 2pµ ν. Therefore we see that there must be some position of the triangle ABC. In like manner we can shew that q must = 0. Therefore r must = 0. . Let us now suppose that the position of B is so taken that when T coincides with B the value of Σ is as large as it can be for any point in the great circle of which A is the pole. 139 a suitable position to T . In the final result of Art. therefore Q − R is not less than 2pµ . 174 we may shew that R is the least value which Σ can receive. by Art. such that for every position of T Σ = P λ2 + Qµ2 + Rν 2 . 165.ARCS DRAWN TO FIXED POINTS. and µ equal to unity. that is. 176. For. 2rλ if r µ Hence with the specified position for A we arrive at the result that whatever may be the position of T Σ = P λ2 + Qµ2 + Rν 2 + 2pµ ν. by Art. so that Σ is then equal to Q. For any point in the great circle of which A is the pole λ is zero. ν Hence by the same reasoning as before we must have p = 0. Σ = P λ2 + Qµ2 + R(1 − λ2 − µ2 ) = R + (P − R)λ2 + (Q − R)µ2 . 169 are applicable to the result just obtained.

With the notation of Art. But by the symmetry of a regular polyhedron there must always be more than two positions of T which give the same value to Σ. or one of them must be less than each of the others. by Art. In the same way we can shew that one of the three P . this shews that Σ is always less than P except when µ = 0 and ν = 0: that is Σ is always less than P except when T is at A. suppose that P is greater than Q. Q. and therefore by Art. Now Σ = P (1 − µ2 − ν 2 ) + Qµ2 + Rν 2 = P − (P − Q)µ2 − (P − R)ν 2 . } 3 S . If possible let the former be the case. . 165 for every position of T we have Σ = P . 3 . For instance if we take a regular tetrahedron. cannot be less than each of the others. from any point on the surface of the sphere arcs are drawn to the solid angles of the polyhedron: it is required to find the sum of the squares of the cosines of these arcs. and R must all be equal. one of them must be greater than each of the others.140 ARCS DRAWN TO FIXED POINTS. . and by supposition neither P − R nor Q − R is negative. and R. as there are four faces there will be at least three other positions of T symmetrical with any assigned position. 165. We shall shew that in the present case P . or at the point of the surface which is diametrically opposite to A. Therefore P = Q = R. For if they are not. 177. Q. A sphere is described about a regular polyhedron. 174 we have Σ = P λ2 + Qµ2 + Rν 2 . so that Σ cannot be less than R. 1 Since P = Q = R each of them = 3 (P + Q + R) = = 1 2 {l1 + m1 2 + n1 2 + l2 2 + m2 2 + n2 2 + . Hence P cannot be greater than Q and greater than R. and greater than R.

ARCS DRAWN TO FIXED POINTS.

141

where S is the number of the solid angles of the regular polyhedron. Thus the sum of the squares of the cosines of the arcs which join any point on the surface of the sphere to the solid angles of the regular polyhedron is one third of the number of the solid angles.

178.

Since P = Q = R in the preceding Article, it will follow that when the

fixed points of Art. 174 are the solid angles of a regular polyhedron, then for any position of the spherical triangle ABC we shall have p = 0, q = 0, r = 0. For taking any position for the spherical triangle ABC we have Σ = P λ2 + Qµ2 + Rν 2 + 2pµν + 2qνλ + 2rλµ; then at A we have µ = 0 and ν = 0, so that P is then the value of Σ; similarly Q and R are the values of Σ at B and C respectively. But by Art. 177 we have the same value for Σ whatever be the position of T ; thus P = P (λ2 + µ2 + ν 2 ) + 2pµν + 2qνλ + 2rλµ; therefore 0 = 2pµν + 2qνλ + 2rλµ.

This holds then for every position of T . Suppose T is at any point of the great circle of which A is the pole; then λ = 0: thus we get pµν = 0, and therefore p = 0. Similarly q = 0, and r = 0.

179.

Let there be any number of fixed points on the surface of a sphere; denote

them by H1 , H2 , H3 , . . . ; from any two points T and U on the surface of the sphere arcs are drawn to the fixed points: it is required to find the sum of the products of the corresponding cosines, that is cos T H1 cos U H1 + cos T H2 cos U H2 + cos T H3 cos U H3 + . . . . Let the notation be the same as in Art. 174; and let λ , µ , ν be the cosines of the arcs which join U with A, B, C respectively. Then by Art. 166, cos T H1 cos U H1 = (λl1 + µm1 + νn1 )(λ l1 + µ m1 + ν n1 ) = λλ l1 2 + µµ m1 2 + νν n1 2 + (λµ + µλ )l1 m1 + (µν + νµ )m1 n1 + (νλ + λν )n1 l1 .

142

ARCS DRAWN TO FIXED POINTS.

Similar results hold for cos T H2 cos U H2 , cos T H3 cos U H3 ,. . . . Hence, with the notation of Art. 174, the required sum is λλ P + µµ Q + νν R + (µν + νµ )p + (νλ + λν )q + (λµ + µλ )r. Now by properly choosing the position of the triangle ABC we have p, q, and r each zero as in Art. 174; and thus the required sum becomes λλ P + µµ Q + νν R. 180. The result obtained in Art. 174 may be considered as a particular case

of that just given; namely the case in which the points T and U coincide. 181. A sphere is described about a regular polyhedron; from any two points

on the surface of the sphere arcs are drawn to the solid angles of the polyhedron: it is required to find the sum of the products of the corresponding cosines. With the notation of Art. 179 we see that the sum is λλ P + µµ Q + νν R. S And here P = Q = R = , by Art. 177. 3 S S Thus the sum = (λλ + µµ + νν ) = cos T U . 3 3 Thus the sum of the products of the cosines is equal to the product of the cosine TU into a third of the number of the solid angles of the regular polyhedron. 182. The result obtained in Art. 177 may be considered as a particular case

of that just given; namely, the case in which the points T and U coincide. 183. If T U is a quadrant then cos T U is zero, and the sum of the products of

the cosines in Art. 181 is zero. The results p = 0, q = 0, r = 0, are easily seen to be all special examples of this particular case.

XV

MISCELLANEOUS PROPOSITIONS.
184. area. Let AB be the given base, = c suppose, AC = θ, BAC = φ. Since the area is given the spherical excess is known; denote it by E; then by Art. 103, cot 1 E = cot 1 θ cot 1 c cosec φ + cot φ; 2 2 2 therefore therefore therefore cos θ cot 1 c sin 1 E + sin θ cos φ − 1 E + 2 2 2 π 2
1 = − cot 2 c sin 1 E. 2

To find the locus of the vertex of a spherical triangle of given base and

sin(φ − 1 E) = cot 1 θ cot 1 c sin 1 E; 2 2 2 2 2 cot 1 c sin 1 E cos2 2 2 θ 1 = sin θ sin(φ − 2 E); 2

Comparing this with equation (1) of Art. 133, we see that the required locus is a circle. If we call α, β the angular co-ordinates of its pole, we have tan α = tan 1 c 1 2 = 1 , cot 1 c sin 1 E sin 2 E 2 2 π β = 1E − . 2 2 143

89. 89). To find the angular distance between the poles of the inscribed and cir- cumscribed circles of a triangle. n n . For the equation to that great circle is 0 = cos θ cos π c c π + sin θ sin cos(φ − π) − − 2 2 2 2 and the values θ = α. 2 sin r sin P E = 1 . cos P A = cos P E cos AE = cos r cos(s − a). tan R = . φ = β satisfy this equation. and QAB = Now.144 MISCELLANEOUS PROPOSITIONS. sin P A = thus 1 1 cos P Q = cos R cos r cos(s − a) + sin R sin r cos (B − C) cosec 2 A. 62 (see the figure of Art. 54 1 cos P Q = cos R cos r cos(s − a) + sin R sin r sin 2 (b + c) cosec 1 a. and Q the pole of the circumscribed circle of a triangle ABC. Let P denote the pole of the inscribed circle. by Art. hence cos P AQ = cos 1 (B − C). cos R sin r 2 2 2 sin 1 a sin 1 b sin 1 c sin s 2 2 2 cot r = . 1 2 A. 2 Therefore. and this presumption is easily verified. 92. then P AB = S − C. by Art. by Art. sin P AE sin 2 A therefore Now cos P Q 1 1 = cot r cos(s − a) + tan R sin (b + c) cosec a. by Art. 185. 2 1 and cos P Q = cos P A cos QA + sin P A sin QA cos 2 (B − C). It may be presumed from symmetry that the pole of this circle is in the great circle which bisects AB at right angles.

the distance of . and 2 cos QQ1 = cos R cos r1 cos(s − c) − sin R sin r1 sin 1 (C − A) sec 1 B 2 2 1 = cos R cos r1 cos(s − c) − sin R sin r1 sin 1 (c − a) cosec b. sin2 P Q = sin2 (R − r) − cos2 R sin2 r. the right-hand member of the last equation becomes 1 (sin b + sin c − sin a).MISCELLANEOUS PROPOSITIONS. and Q1 the pole of the escribed circle opposite to the angle A. 145 therefore cos P Q 1 1 1 sin s cos(s − a) + 2 sin 2 (b + c) sin 2 b sin 1 c = 2 cos R sin r n 1 = (sin a + sin b + sin c). To find the angular distance between the pole of the circumscribed circle and the pole of one of the escribed circles of a triangle. Then it may be shewn that QBQ1 = 1 2π + 1 (C − A). 94). therefore and 186. (Art. 2 2 Therefore cos QQ1 1 = cot r1 cos(s − c) − tan R sin 2 (c − a) cosec 1 b. sin2 QQ1 = sin2 (R + r1 ) − cos2 R sin2 r1 . Let Q denote the pole of the circumscribed circle. cos2 QQ1 = cos2 R sin2 r1 + cos2 (R + r1 ). 2n 2 hence therefore and 187. The arc which passes through the middle points of the sides of any triangle upon a given base will meet the base produced at a fixed point. cos2 P Q = cos2 R sin2 r + cos2 (R − r). 2n 2 Hence cos P Q cos R sin r −1= 1 (sin a + sin b + sin c)2 − 1 4n2 = (cot r + tan R)2 (by Art. 94). 2 sin r1 cos R by reducing as in the preceding Article. cos QQ1 cos R sin r1 − 1 = (tan R − cot r1 )2 .

similarly therefore Hence if D be the middle point of BC 1 DQ = 2 (BQ + CQ) = 1 π. E the middle point of AC. If three arcs be drawn from the angles of a spherical triangle through any point to meet the opposite sides. sin BP sin BDP therefore sin CD sin CP D = .146 MISCELLANEOUS PROPOSITIONS. Then sin BQ sin BF Q = . which from the middle point of the base is a quadrant. the products of the sines of the alternate segments of the sides are equal. F . Let ABC be any triangle. sin CD sin CP D sin CP . sin AF sin AQF therefore sin AQF sin BQ = . Then sin BD sin BP D = . sin CP sin CDP sin BD sin BP D sin BP = . therefore BQ + CQ = π. and let arcs be drawn from the angles A. C passing through P and meeting the opposite sides at D. 2 188. sin BF sin BQF sin AQ sin AF Q = . and F the middle point of AB. sin AQ sin CQF sin BQ = sin CQ. let the arc which joins E and F when produced meet BC produced at Q. Let P be any point. E. B. sin AQ sin BQF sin CQ sin AQF = .

then it appears from this proposition that any . the arcs which join these points with the opposite angles respectively pass through a common point. the arcs which bisect the angles of a spherical triangle meet at a point. Hence the following propositions may be established: the perpendiculars from the angles of a spherical triangle on the opposite sides meet at a point. P. therefore the angle AP B = the angle A PB . when the points D. and hence it sin AE sin BF sin BD sin CE sin AF = 1. hence the sides of the triangle P AB are respectively equal to those of P A B . sin CD sin AE sin BF therefore 189.MISCELLANEOUS PROPOSITIONS. For conceive a sphere capable of motion round its centre which is fixed. 139 and 140. the arcs which join the angles of a spherical triangle with the points where the inscribed circle touches the opposite sides respectively meet at a point. Conversely. F in the sides of a spherical triangle are such that the relation given in the preceding Article holds. the arcs which join the angles of a spherical triangle with the middle points of the opposite sides meet at a point. 190. then AB and A B subtend equal angles at For P A = P A and P B = P B . This simple proposition has an important application to the motion of a rigid body of which one point is fixed. If AB and A B be any two equal arcs AA and AA and BB be bisected at right angles by arcs meeting at P. E. Another mode of establishing such propositions has been exemplified in Arts. 147 Similar expressions may be found for follows obviously that sin CE sin AF and . sin BD sin CE sin AF = sin CD sin AE sin BF.

This remark is due to Professor De Morgan. β. M P N . then it is evident that these perpendiculars include an angle which is the supplement of the angle AOB. 2nd edition. as A and B. . may be effected by rotation round some axis through the fixed point. The corresponding fact with respect to a solid angle is worthy of notice. (De Morgan’s Differential and Integral Calculus. and from P draw perpendiculars on the straight lines OA and OB. meeting at a point O. N P L is the polar triangle of the spherical triangle which corresponds to the solid angle at O. let α. page 177. Suppose three straight lines to meet at a point and form a solid an- gle. Let P denote any point within any plane angle AOB. From any point P within the solid angle. . two fixed points on the sphere. the sine of the solid angle. and . See Statics. 192. Hence it may be inferred that any change of position in a rigid body. each force is as the sine of the angle between the directions of the other two: the following proposition is analogous. we know in mechanics that if three forces acting at a point are in equilibrium. then the spherical triangle which corresponds to the three planes LP M . Adopting this definition it is easy to shew that the sine of a solid angle lies between zero and unity. P N on the three planes which form the solid angle. 156 we have the following analogous proposition. page 489. of which one point is fixed. Let a sphere be described about a regular polyhedron. der Determinanten. can be brought into any other positions.148 MISCELLANEOUS PROPOSITIONS. We know that the area of a plane triangle is half the product of two sides into the sine of the included angle: by Art. draw perpendiculars P L. and γ denote the angles contained by these three straight lines √ taken in pairs: then it has been proposed to call the expression (1 − cos2 α − cos2 β − cos2 γ + 2 cos α cos β cos γ). Let there be a solid angle formed by three plane angles. as A and B . Again.) 191. if four forces acting at a point are in equilibrium each force is as the sine of the solid angle formed by the directions of the other three. let perpendiculars be drawn from the centre of the sphere on the faces of the polyhedron. Chapter II. the volume of a tetrahedron is one sixth of the product of three edges into the sine of the solid angle which they form. by rotation round an axis passing through the centre of the sphere and a certain point P . P M . 193. See Baltzer’s Theorie.

therefore F + S = E + 1. F + S − E = F + S − E. This theorem is obviously true in the case of a single plane figure. and suppose that a rectilineal figure of n sides is added to this network. F . and therefore m + 1 corner points coincident. so that the network and the additional figure have m sides coincident. We begin with a theorem which is due to Cauchy. Let there be any network of rectilineal figures. 150. therefore F = F + 1. . The result. is generally true. For assume the theorem to be true for a network of F figures. for then F = 1. The result in Art. and shall then deduce some important consequences from the result. S with respect to the old network. This may be verified. 150 is not satisfied. however. 149 produced to meet the surface of the sphere: then it is obvious from symmetry that the points of intersection must be the angular points of another regular polyhedron. S denote the same things as E. formed as in Art. not necessarily in one plane. We shall accordingly give another demonstration. The demonstration shews that the result is true in many cases in which the polyhedron has reentrant solid angles. let E be the number of edges. See Art. that it shall be possible to take a point within the polyhedron as the centre of a sphere. 195. 151. It can be shewn to be generally true by induction. It will be found on examination that if S be the number of solid angles. but not forming a closed surface. shall not have any coincident portions. and F the number of faces of one regular polyhedron. and S = E. so that the polygons. the demonstration which is there given is due to Legendre. even in cases in which the condition required by the demonstration of Art.MISCELLANEOUS PROPOSITIONS. S = S + n − (m + 1). let E . 194. for all that is necessary for the demonstration is. by hypothesis. Polyhedrons. then another regular polyhedron exists which has S faces and F solid angles. F . and S the number of corner points: then F + S = E + 1. And with respect to the new network which is thus formed. F the number of figures. 150 was first obtained by Euler. But F + S = E + 1. Then E = E + n − m.

. . denote respectively the numbers of faces which are triangles.. ... . 198. In any polyhedron the number of faces with an odd number of sides is even. five. δ. . . . . . and the number of solid angles formed with an odd number of plane angles is even. S = α + β + γ + δ + . .. pentagons. six. .. . .. or less than 3S. . .. each edge belongs to two faces. are even numbers.. . Thus 2E cannot be less than 3F . . . Thus F − 1 + S = E + 1. . four. .. . γ. . With the notation of the preceding Article we have F = a + b + c + d + . hexagons.. From these relations it follows that a + c + e + . Let α. . and α + γ + + . From these combined with the former relations we obtain 2E − 3F = b + 2c + 3d + . . ..150 MISCELLANEOUS PROPOSITIONS.. b. . . .. . Then. . denote respectively the numbers of the solid angles which are formed with three. . 2E = 3α + 4β + 5γ + 6δ + . . . . . . . . . . and we thus obtain a network of rectilineal figures to which Cauchy’s theorem is applicable. . . Let a. therefore F + S = E + 2. β. and terminates at two solid angles. d. .. plane angles. . 196. 2E − 3S = β + 2γ + 3δ + . . To demonstrate Euler’s theorem we suppose one face of a polyhedron removed.. . quadrilaterals. . . .. . . . . therefore 2E = 3a + 4b + 5c + 6d + . . 197. c. .. .

and S. given in the two preceding Articles. . We may give an idea of the nature of Poinsot’s results by referring to the case of a polygon.) = 4. 151 199. a solid cannot be formed which shall have no triangular. . . . quadrilateral. − 2β − 4γ − . From the expressions for E. . . C. . 2(a + b + c + d + . new regular solids can be formed. and only four. . . (1) (2) 200. E.) = 4 + 3a + 4b + 5c + 6d + . Therefore. therefore 2(α + β + γ + δ + . . we can shew that 3α + 2β + γ cannot be less than 12.MISCELLANEOUS PROPOSITIONS. Again. by eliminating α. . the faces of which intersect and cross. four. C to E. D. . . Thus the number of triangular faces together with the number of solid angles formed with three plane angles cannot be less than eight. we obtain 3a + 2b + c − e − 2f − . It appears that. thus for example. . A to C. .) − (a + 2b + 3c + 4d + . To such solids. . .) = 4 + 3α + 4β + 5γ + 6δ + .) − (α + 2β + 3γ + 4δ + . Poinsot has shewn that in addition to the five well-known regular poly- hedrons. we form an ordinary regular pentagon. . or pentagonal faces. . and which might therefore also be called regular. . In like manner. from (1) and (2). Suppose five points A. placed in succession at equal distances round the circumference of a circle. .) + 2(α + β + γ + δ + . Euler’s theorem does not apply. . B to D. combined with the result 2F + 2S = 4 + 2E. E to B. . Suppose however we join the points by straight lines in the following order. B. D to A. F . . . = 8. we obtain 2(a + b + c + d + . . . in a like manner. four other solids exist which are perfectly symmetrical in shape. so that 3a + 2b + c cannot be less than 12. . by addition a + α − (c + γ) − 2(d + δ) − 3(e + ) − . . . 2(a + b + c + d + . we thus form a star-shaped symmetrical figure. .) = 4. . If we draw a straight line from each point to the next point. From this result various inferences can be drawn. .) + 2(α + β + γ + δ + . which might be considered a regular pentagon. = 12. . . . . .

195. faces. 196. Then we have the following results. Let us return to Art. and suppose e the number of edges in the bounding contour. Petropolitanæ. = F . f . F the number of faces. . and the others by Art. = S. by starting with one and adding one at a time. faces.. 203. . Euler. and solid angles in the second which are not common to it and the first. E the number of edges: then S + F = E + P + 1. iv. which has been given by Cauchy. and s the number within it. . 201. . let P be the number thus formed. Novi Commentarii Academiæ. and e the number of edges within it. s be respectively the numbers of edges. therefore But therefore 1 + e + e = s + s + F.. S the number of solid angles.. f + f + f + . also suppose s the number of corners in the bounding contour.. s be respectively the numbers of edges. We can now demonstrate an extension of Euler’s theorem. S =s+s.. f . and solid angles in the third which are not common to it and the first or second. s be respectively the numbers of edges..152 MISCELLANEOUS PROPOSITIONS.. For suppose all the polyhedrons united. . the first by Art. and so on. namely. .. s + f = e + 2.. s + f = e + 1. Then E =e+e. Vol. = E. .. Let a polyhedron be decomposed into any number of polyhedrons at plea- sure. . f . . The following references will be useful to those who study the theory of polyhedrons. since s + s + s + . and solid angles in the first. By addition.. let e .. e = s. faces.. 1 + e = s + F. 201.. let e . and e + e + e + .. . we obtain S + F = E + P + 1. Let e. s + f = e + 1. 202.

φ the inclination of the great circle on which θ is measured to the great circle bisecting the given arc at right angles. 2. spherical triangles of equal area are described: shew that the locus of the angular point opposite to the given arc is defined by the equation tan−1 tan(α + φ) sin θ + tan−1 + tan−1 tan(α − φ) sin θ tan θ sin(α + φ) + tan−1 tan θ sin(α − φ) = β. 3. Vol. .MISCELLANEOUS PROPOSITIONS. xlvi. 1. Kirkman. AB is an arc of a great circle on the surface of a sphere. Journal de l’Ecole Polytechnique. and β a constant. . Catalan. consists of two great circles at right angles to one another. B. Cahier e e ´ x. Legendre. Cahier xvi. Comptes Rendus. ψ denote the distances from the angles A. cot a cot b − cos A cos B 5. Th´or`mes e e e et Probl`mes de G´om´trie El´mentaire. C its middle point: shew that the locus of the point P . de l’Acad´mie des Sciences. In any spherical triangle tan c = cot A cot a + cot B cot b . Philosophical Transactions e e e e for 1856 and subsequent years. o MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES. . . Poinsot and Bertrand. If θ. G´om´trie. Journal de l’Ecole Polytechnique. and from the equation obtained. Abhandlungen der K¨niglichen Gesello schaft. φ. prove that the locus is a circle when the radius of the sphere is infinite. 4. where 2α is the length of the given arc. 153 ´ 1758. x. such that the angle AP C = the angle BP C. θ the arc of the great circle drawn from any point P in the locus perpendicular to the given arc. Poinsot. Find the locus of the vertices of all right-angled spherical triangles having the same hypotenuse. Explain this when the triangle becomes plane. Vol. Cauchy. C respectively of the point of intersection of arcs bisecting the angles of the spherical triangle ABC. . zu G¨ttingen. On a given arc of a sphere. Listing.

cos B cos C 1+ cos B . CA. AC of a spherical triangle cuts BC produced at Q: shew that cos AQ sin a c−b c+b = sin sin . q. C be the poles of the sides BC. F respectively. cos A cos C 1+ cos C . CF drawn from the angles of a triangle perpendicular to the opposite sides and meeting them at D. AB of a spherical triangle ABC. sin α 2 10. BB . and cos p cos q cos r = = . If p. shew that cos θ sin(b − c) + cos φ sin(c − a) + cos ψ sin(a − b) = 0. CC meet at a point P . γ ) the segments into which these arcs are divided. β ). In a spherical triangle if arcs be drawn from the angles to the middle points of the opposite sides. If A . α ). 2 2 2 . r be the arcs of great circles drawn from the angles of a triangle perpendicular to the opposite sides. E. (α. tan OE tan CF tan OF 8. α be the two parts of the one which bisects the side a. If O be the point of intersection of arcs AD. and if α.154 MISCELLANEOUS PROPOSITIONS. shew that tan α tan α = tan β tan β = tan γ tan γ . 6. B . BE. (γ. The arc of a great circle bisecting the sides AB. cos A cos B tan BE . shew that the great circles AA . 7. shew that sin α a = 2 cos . cos α cos α cos β cos β cos γ cos γ 9. (β. tan OD are respectively equal to 1+ cos A . such that cos P A cos BC = cos P B cos CA = cos P C cos AB. shew that tan AD .

16. the ratio of the sines of the arcs drawn from E at right angles to the diagonals of the quadrilateral is the same as the ratio of those from F . A and B are two places on the Earth’s surface on the same side of the equator. If A be the angle of the chordal triangle which corresponds to the angle A of a spherical triangle. If the tangent of the radius of the circle described about a spherical triangle is equal to twice the tangent of the radius of the circle inscribed in the triangle. C to meet the opposite sides at a. DC are produced to meet at P . sin Aa sin Bb sin Cc 17. CD when produced meet at E. prove that sin P a cos P A sin P b cos P B sin P c cos P C + + = 1. If through any point P within a spherical triangle ABC great circles be drawn from the angular points A. BC meet at F . If ABCD be a spherical quadrilateral. and the opposite sides AB. so that EM = the natural cosine of the angle included by the two sides. A being further from the equator than B. infer the possibility .MISCELLANEOUS PROPOSITIONS. find the bearing of B from A. BD intersect at R. 18. and AD. the sine P M of AP is divided at E. 155 11. 13. Shew that the remaining side of the spherical triangle is equal to the arc QP Z. If the bearing of A from B be more nearly due East than it is from any other place in the same latitude as B. The arc AP of a circle of the same radius as the sphere is equal to the greater of two sides of a spherical triangle. the triangle is equilateral. c respectively. shew that a cos A = sin(S − A) cos . then sin AB sin CD cos P = sin AD sin BC cos Q = sin AC sin BD cos R. B. and AD. b. and whose diagonals AC. 12. BC at Q. and the arc AQ taken in the same direction is equal to the less. If ABCD be a spherical quadrilateral whose sides AB. and EZ is PM drawn parallel to the tangent to the circle at Q. From the result given in example 18 of Chapter V. 15. 2 14.

shew that a fixed point S can always be found. . such that a cos AP + b cos BP + c cos CP + . where s is a constant. shew that the locus of P is a circle. .. .. c. . 20. C. . such that a cos AP + b cos BP = s cos SP. in AB or AB produced. If a and b are given constants. and P is any point on the surface. A. .156 MISCELLANEOUS PROPOSITIONS. of a regular dodecahedron. b. are given constants. . = constant. B. A and B are fixed points on the surface of a sphere. a. are fixed points on the surface of a sphere. 19. If P be a point on the surface of the sphere.

We shall first take right-angled triangles. . Given a = 37◦ 48 12 . C = 90◦ .XVI NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF SPHERICAL TRIANGLES. We shall give in this Chapter examples of the numerical solution of Spherical Triangles.8976927 L cos 59◦ 44 16 = L cos c + 10 = c= To find A we have cot A = cot a sin b. and then oblique-angled triangles. 204. b = 59◦ 44 16 . To find c we have cos c = cos a cos b. L cos 37◦ 48 12 = 9. Right-Angled Triangles.7023945 19. 157 9.6000872 66◦ 32 6 . 205.

9117255 54◦ 41 35 . L cot 59◦ 44 16 = 9.158 NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF SPHERICAL TRIANGLES.7660175 L sin 37◦ 48 12 = L cot B + 10 = B= 206.5534447 70◦ 19 15 .1102655 9. and B greater than a right angle.7874272 19. . The numerical value of cos c is the same as that of cos 81◦ 45 36 . Here cos c is negative. Given A = 55◦ 32 45 .9162323 19.3199167 78◦ 12 4 101◦ 47 56 .9363770 20. c = 98◦ 14 24 . 9. L cot 37◦ 48 12 = L sin 59 44 16 = L cot A + 10 = A= To find B we have ◦ 10.1636102 19. 9. C = 90◦ . L sin 98◦ 14 24 = L sin 55 32 45 = L sin a + 10 = a= To find B we have cot B = cos c tan A. To find a we have sin a = sin c sin A. and therefore cot B will be negative. and therefore tan b will be negative and b greater than a quadrant. ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ 9.9954932 9. Here tan c is negative. cot B = cot b sin a.1563065 10.0466425 41◦ 55 45 . L cos 81◦ 45 36 = L tan 55 32 45 = L cot(180 − B) + 10 = 180 − B = B= To find b we have tan b = tan c cos A.

NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF SPHERICAL TRIANGLES. To find c we have To find b we have sin b = tan a cot A.9591983 9. cos a L sin B = 10 + L cos A − L cos a.9401372 119◦ 23 50 . L tan 42◦ 18 45 = L cot 46 15 25 = L sin b + 10 = b = 60 36 10 or To find B we have cos A . 10 + L cos 46◦ 15 25 = 19. a = 42◦ 18 45 . ◦ 10.8281272 sin c = L sin 46◦ 15 25 = L sin c = c = 68◦ 42 59 or 9. sin a . 10 + L sin 42◦ 18 45 = 19. 159 L tan 81◦ 45 36 = L cos 55 32 45 = L tan(180◦ − b) + 10 = 180◦ − b = b= 207. We shall use the formula given in Art.8397454 sin B = L cos 42◦ 18 45 = L sin B = B = 69 13 47 or ◦ ◦ ◦ 9. Oblique-Angled Triangles. sin A L sin c = 10 + L sin a − L sin A.7526221 20. 45. 1 tan 2 A = sin(s − b) sin(s − c) sin s sin(s − a) .5918088 75◦ 38 32 104◦ 21 28 . b = 49◦ 24 10 . 9. Given a = 70◦ 14 20 . Given A = 46◦ 15 25 .8588065 9.9809389 19. c = 38◦ 46 10 . C = 90◦ .9693207 111◦ 17 1 .8391867 9. . 208.8689289 9.9708165 110◦ 46 13 .

5083472 19.1849807 2 ) .6963704 L sin 40◦ 26 10 = 9.9922465 L sin 8◦ 58 = 9. s − a = 8◦ 58 .1616832 1 2A = 55◦ 25 38 A = 110◦ 51 16 .8119768 19.160 NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF SPHERICAL TRIANGLES. s − b = 29◦ 48 10 . Here s = 79◦ 12 20 . L sin 29◦ 48 10 = 9.1927342 19.1849807 19.5083472 L sin 79◦ 12 20 = 9.3233665 1 L tan 2 A − 10 = . s − c = 40◦ 26 10 . .

.1927342 L sin 40◦ 26 10 = 9.9922465 L sin 29◦ 48 10 = 9.6886169 2 ) 1.6963704 19.NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF SPHERICAL TRIANGLES.0047110 L sin 79◦ 12 20 = 9.8119768 19.0047110 19.6886169 19.6580470 2 L tan 1 B = 9. L sin 8◦ 58 = 9.6580470 2 1 2B = 24◦ 28 2 B = 48◦ 56 4 . 161 Similarly to find B.3160941 L tan 1 B − 10 = 1.

8119768 19. b = 52◦ 18 15 . 209. 1 tan 2 (A + B) = cos 1 (a − b) 1 2 cot 2 C. 1 2 (a + b) = 60◦ 19 20 . C = 117◦ 12 20 .8042233 18.1927342 L sin 29◦ 48 10 = 9.9922465 L sin 40◦ 26 10 = 9.5424406 L tan 1 C = 9.8891046 L sin 79◦ 12 20 = 9.162 NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF SPHERICAL TRIANGLES. 2 sin 1 (a + b) 2 1 2 (a − b) = 8◦ 1 5 .5424406 2 1 2C = 19◦ 13 24 C = 38◦ 26 48 .8042233 2 ) 1. L sin 8◦ 58 = 9. 82. By Art.0848813 L tan 1 2C − 10 = 1.6963704 18. 1 2C = 58◦ 36 10 . .8891046 19. Similarly to find C. cos 1 (a + b) 2 sin 1 (a − b) 1 1 2 tan (A − B) = cot 2 C. Given a = 68◦ 20 25 .

7855690 19. 163 L cos 8◦ 1 5 = 9. which is free from ambiguity.9911654 2 1 2 (A − B) = 5◦ 35 47 .6947120 L sin 58◦ 36 10 = 9.7813025 L cos 60 19 20 = 9.NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF SPHERICAL TRIANGLES. 54.9957335 L cot 58◦ 36 10 = 9.6259542 L cos 50◦ 40 28 = 9.9300970 L sin 60◦ 19 20 = 9. . We shall therefore determine c from formula (1) of Art.0865905 2 1 2 (A ◦ + B) = 50◦ 40 28 L sin 8◦ 1 5 = 9. If we proceed to find c from the formula sin c = sin a sin C . sin A since sin C is greater than sin A we shall obtain two values for c both greater than a.6947120 L tan 1 (A + B) = 10. cos 1 (A + B) 2 L cos 60◦ 19 20 = 9. Therefore A = 56◦ 16 15 .8019015 L cos 1 c = 9. and we shall not know which is the value to be taken. cos 1 c = 2 1 cos 2 (a + b) sin 1 C 2 .9312422 19.9389316 L tan 1 (A − B) = 8.8240527 2 1 2c = 48◦ 10 22 c = 96◦ 20 44 .7855690 18.1445280 L cot 58◦ 36 10 = 9. B = 45◦ 4 41 .

therefore θ = 149◦ 23 27 . Given a = 50◦ 45 20 .9782808 L cos 30 36 33 = L cos(180◦ − c) = ◦ 9. Or we may adopt the second method of Art.9348319 9. we determine θ from the formula tan θ = tan b cos C. however.7863748 9. The numerical value of cos C is the same as that of cos 62◦ 47 40 .7720400 180◦ − θ = 30◦ 36 33 . 210. of cos 81◦ 3 2 . we estimate fractions of 1 a second both methods will agree in giving about 43 2 as the number of seconds. The numerical value of cos θ is the same as that of cos(180◦ − θ). . we determine c from the formula cos c = cos b cos(a − θ) . and therefore tan θ will be negative.1119488 L cos 62◦ 47 40 = 9. that is. 82.164 NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF SPHERICAL TRIANGLES. sin B = sin b sin A. that is. 84. and therefore cos c will be negative. First.6600912 L tan(180◦ − θ) + 10 = 19. L cos 52◦ 18 15 = L cos 81 3 2 = ◦ 9.1919060 18. and c will be greater than a right angle. Next. of cos 30◦ 36 33 . Here cos C is negative. if. b = 69◦ 12 40 . and the value of cos(a − θ) is the same as that of cos(θ − a). sin a By Art. and θ greater than a right angle. Thus by taking only the nearest number of seconds in the tables the two methods give values of c which differ by 1 .0434489 180◦ − c = 83◦ 39 17 c = 96◦ 20 43 . cos θ Here cos θ is negative. L tan 52◦ 18 15 = 10. A = 44◦ 22 10 .

8889956 L sin B = 9. 1 tan 2 C = cos 1 (b − a) 2 cot 1 (B + A). 1 2 cos 2 (B − A) tan 1 c = 2 First take the smaller value of B. ◦ In this case there will be two solutions.8154151 L sin 50 45 20 = 9. 165 L sin 69◦ 12 40 = 9. or 122◦ 25 8 . 1 2 (B − A) = 6◦ 35 20 . 1 2 cos 2 (b + a) cos 1 (B + A) 2 tan 1 (b + a).NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF SPHERICAL TRIANGLES.9707626 L sin 44◦ 22 10 = 9.7.9264195 B = 57◦ 34 51 .6. see Art. 86. thus 1 2 (B + A) = 50◦ 58 30 . .8446525 19. We will calculate C and c by Napier’s analogies.7.4.

7 = 9.0373728 L cos 6 36 20 .9971072 L tan 1 c = 10.7 = 9.3 C = 115◦ 57 50 .0402656 2 1 2c ◦ = 47◦ 39 8 .6991887 L tan 1 C = 10. L cos 50◦ 58 30 .3. thus 1 2 (B + A) = 83◦ 23 39 . 1 2 (B − A) = 39◦ 1 29 .2382689 20.2 c = 95◦ 18 16 .3. .7 = 9. L cos 9◦ 13 40 = 9.9087536 19.9943430 L cot 50◦ 58 30 .6.9030966 L cos 59 59 = 9.166 NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF SPHERICAL TRIANGLES.2039079 2 1 2C ◦ = 57◦ 58 55 .4.7991039 L tan 59◦ 59 = 10. Next take the larger value of B.

c = 37◦ 21 38 .3 = 9.6. A = 47◦ 54 21 . Results. . which can be easily verified. a = 156◦ 10 34 . 4. B = 113◦ 28 .2382689 19. or by making use of the polar triangle.0608369 L tan 59◦ 59 = 10. C = 90◦ . a = 40◦ 31 20 . Results. a = 20◦ 54 18 .3 = 9. L cos 83◦ 23 39 .5.8903494 L tan 1 c = 9. by interchanging the given and required quantities.8 C = 25◦ 44 31 . Given a = 59◦ 28 27 . 2. Results. from those here worked out. A = 147◦ 2 54 .9943430 L cot 83 23 39 . B = 61◦ 50 28 . A = 66◦ 7 20 .0580727 L cos 59 59 = 9. C = 90◦ . c = 70◦ 23 42 . 3. 1. 167 L cos 9◦ 13 40 ◦ = 9. EXAMPLES. Results. b = 31◦ 43 3 . B = 60◦ .6991887 L tan 1 C = 9.0637297 19.NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF SPHERICAL TRIANGLES. c = 47◦ 57 15 . Given c = 61◦ 4 56 .4087564 2 1 2c ◦ = 14◦ 22 32 . Given b = 137◦ 3 48 .5. b = 48◦ 39 16 . C = 90◦ .6 c = 28◦ 45 5 . b = 50◦ 30 29 .3 = 9.2991058 L cos 39 1 29 . Given A = 36◦ . B = 52◦ 50 20 .2 The student can obtain more examples. C = 90◦ .3588840 2 1 2C ◦ = 12◦ 52 15 .

c = 109◦ 36 18 . C = 113◦ 28 2 . B = 127◦ 9 40 . A = 131◦ 30 . Results. AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 6. B = 120◦ 15 57 . CAMBRIDGE: PRINTED BY C. 7. A = 121◦ 36 20 .A. 5. Results. M. b = 109◦ 41 . C = 34◦ 15 3 . c = 40◦ 0 10 . AND SON. Given c = 90◦ . Results.168 or. B = 42◦ 15 13 . . Given A = 129◦ 5 28 . a = 138◦ 4 . C = 105◦ 8 10 . b = 50◦ 10 30 . B = 142◦ 12 42 . b = 131◦ 20 44 . Results. Given a = 76◦ 35 36 . NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF SPHERICAL TRIANGLES. a = 135◦ 49 20 . CLAY. a = 127◦ 17 51 . c = 60◦ 4 54 . 8. C = 109◦ 40 20 . A = 142◦ 11 38 . b = 144◦ 37 15 . Given c = 90◦ . J. b = 113◦ 49 31 . B = 120◦ 32 .

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