TIl"c:r..k.iQ. " in wilEen i~ ~ ~"'. (he scare ~ho!j!~l in. Wt~.div~dred liflto ..In use.riobtc plat' 5.Amesken.Icwet .~lne(i ~(lr use es ~~l .s.4.seales foil' 'he Amerkan ! (Stcr11d'illr:q} ecole RELASK..on. gbserv.l:::QP ia Eli comoece. pr'='fJii!f!:~1 ~y [:ir.:iilH" ~i t:.u.rn itl1!ff the lreea.J!.ecouref o meosurerneols '. 'to bring the .' of 6o.3.~'iOl .!I.'I ."Ljmer1~ auapanded from the 1"1I~-oC. ~/.de .r.S nxre'f)di(lg up to the 'rDQ!]:.. "f" bfl ~ lii~n . .!:r .I.!. w.00 ".C'rm'ining b-~~i:l1 <:IF.hr::..i!.~U~@.11 ~hc pQ!!. half 'the RElA.U!Jhl1110. RlLASKOP..ff~[~d 10 f~t diHeteJ" c.s.arid . fig.d"rtaal 'oNir~do.'~)I~'I-Re~a5kop is. Ifnro.u .'!!it' ~I"iI~ beekes ..ied .he REll\j. Di:!.'. an. thlEl1i& im-frv.~ltJf'c ~(~~_ dlsrnerers to ai1Y he'ighii ~l'Iar' stern 'lJi.hd be 'pc'!iifi"O!n..era..sibi~gty parrnlts..( Ir.q. Ilookirng . ·(!t Partial releese . MJ~69ril.c a e 2 r::ye'S.ut he mmuind.. n..e.ampliflQ) fer dl?:t.ild rematl:'\ free ~f -obstrucrklfil as thev provide light to he 1if.IKOP·::. im-tl v!.out in!.:'p~I-Re. If hand '~'lo!.0\·'6 i~~ .&~d!ir'H) .·.D known e s bcrizontnl point 5rlmptillig end v.ondiliell'!.ogl@the in'S.::o. W.· 'Qhp C·ft. .1( windows "D'~.r..lIti Qf' meeaurement..·~ge:s.!r. The .f.(J~Jh .d. Bitterlich cf Fore1itryt •.p'hi(:~ 1!ii".lHlt.' wall roe <1Qa-i:n..rncesur lrsq "'igJgt!.of·'·bla. 2~_ 01"102 pe. Benn~'Sthool Or~pn Oregon Stiilhl_ 'Uim_i¥.s.ighl.urnent is r e lerrecl to .aiottUl'. ooainon between raodtnqv../tnIJ~(.1$"t)'loOp..O be -.1Q'E! 11'1 the Bi~terIkh enqlemcthod of r9f~S~<l~mpJing {nJ$. The scclc.~ .·IQ r~il(:J sfope ln p~r(.' user wiews.ftJm·~nt 'i~ tihod down .uy. b~r~~.. . m. wggodUyccnsn-qcted Ins~ umont. ~.~ ~(ld whne..1VIIIFe: {eet fJerl ~(-ie.t£.d r...)'5. cen meko..~f ~ rlul~ b~("k'!Jwun=:~ .'r p. ~hc !.~_rj.·rJ'.(.~e·la:i.d""e~.5.~l'l.c:llfi'C and VY'i.(::r I'I!!'::.a..he.1~t!. 'the OP'EIRATiIQN.JP:P~l.gbit..tp~~ but d~r"(~pe~'1~ ""P'.... For f11~T~preclac wl. Ullvs5. ln 'the 'lo.·'iiln~e hom It'i'Ut·8y8 for us' Df' an 'h'lpad Imau-nl8H1iiilrt.lr~~ mOlJrd il UJ1 .(.I?f..$t~~ bli'~6 P releese blJ~lcnl "E" iilIfld ibe scete -autcmatscally rctates to! the ar.. JC'l1rr'tir~!) [~~ 1n.OP ere Hlustreted lin Fug.t-r~.J'$jl)'~ Sp·ic. .e~-. by tl bcejrcnte! l Hn~ which ls. it!.. It'c trt!ih"r.h 'I'!..k·1df eleerred.d whne b~rs and S..::.ur"a e·.pt burfOrll "E'P he~p:.~.pl@.II.rmer'lt ~-e::.eod.r(_'u9. 1..e'cl I es per fig" '1. Jhmug~ t 1:h-elJlp.wi-de oJ·n. tht. il[hoEi frddl (\f lr'l!Sion '1Iu·t:. fh~ j. heel oceretes on H~t! E)~Fl(_Pr:"vl"n pri:r'Lc.i~ ..tlh A i.IJ~ of Iht-=~~ i~l~l"'I'~i(Jm.Milt-\:..I"''''nlor.ljtt9 .p"jg.to mceaure.~ales_ A shade "C" is provided to perrn~t use """helnifiJdng br.!lJrjn'g cdg(j:~ TOo seke a feadin9~ rho 11J::. Irce hl.1"= en.)d 3 a ered hhey er e id-efltiif.Cr ~1"o:!r."'~ ND 'l.o1i (11.moc:f1t W'ted wh~":!'(1 j~ i. tfiPiJ'd' {F..gle vlew rhrcugh . th.h RELASI(OP. ~·HA-$KOP 'U:i'..a:cr. the.w'i!'~ ene-he!l '~'he..bed1i ~le(1.':kft.~KbF._ 'Me o.:::s. i ~P. ceracrvts .:41C'!j~ Tbe butron ('EN rereeees the bjtl~~e w~icrr holld:.v~..J~:i~d fo d.tily measure rnornonful disteoce s.~h ~. ::3 ~.w "A" ·give-s a dC!'ur.Ll'gi'lo.ig.'!r's .pendvhJl'll 1'0 a F.is-t. The Spil1!'gel..l1:rOlJgll-t ih~ ::.ily. toe'riiF)'..'2 ~.Oil In sr.(ingle gal. hree scale arfa! .op can ClI!!.d decree -:'CJ~e-5 ond 0 direc..Df ..thlc '0' $e-r~~:.:rrdl B sl-rC1.'~ the" base OT'irhe scelee whE!'f1 ~he in'!-. ilnWiiVI .

m 116 feeit li~ .e. choose for -diatence •. 3-3· ~Lt.1] tecrer pf -1(1.'(:.m..~b~ed ~C'cecrli~.~r'!{I. 16 3.. lafQE'f ahen itJe fix~d (rit. 'E'q.. fi"t lall (tPQ.~ co-recta for ...he n~..) .re~!'t1 ifld. R!ELASKOP HOW to MEA...u hy I~l<!. (.. 24 rper...SS MEASUREMENtS AMERICAN SCALE IlEtASI<OI' ~ola.:id~"'9 equets 1 · fe~t. 10 .J ~i':Jh~ .. ~$ to p'!IiI~ '10(F'flJcl3t or mil'l.J2 '25.. ~I fcMo·ws.}er ~ Dmri..h~:'.lpllJl:5010a wet !o~ IJ~U~ ']:3.MiirflG-t of 66 [eet ·freomthe tree wlth o:! r~~ng~ of fest 10 ·-12Q feet.~ If":' d ·e. By Io...i nel~tIo-u~ feet . . 1'~. the iru~trlllliTler. ·~'·~IJI·M'l~'C1 <'I..:I !3i~m i.ln."Ie).. fDl.'SK0P ot~l:...lnd may bs: . 'he TOP qf Th.:r:3 fed Fu:m:(1Ih~ ~'I'ee . i5 TO MAKIE GIRARD FORM CLA.. (~iJ/. ~Qj '"I).. he·re ID.I~d 1':01 the ~LJn Ior .L'i..:uked "'~O. l:ile numour of jrooa G8l.Jn(. . dent ~~pOh lh~ evereqe ~·i2>2 :~f the ueca i:n tho 5J-mple .e.i~c~ the chosen all"lgle. b re~i:l '~'..~~·:2 iFil· ct..1 reed lei1i~th :u. o:.ild. .cet"l' ("..en:t .~~Qr. :r."!t. The e:U~-d IJIf lerraln ·~t~FJo.:ige ~llJec§.1 j. or· Sv Me~!~le F.!nt~1 di.I~J ..~~ 5.h. + '·ao ao COMBINING AME'RICAN ~.. 0·· ~c "r.!OI.abiflty E/-.l.~~.- 2001..d..11""1 t~ ..:tanc-8·~' ore olao well·~uite·d for eapld det':. .tFi..0 1.eilid .r 1:'2 dram~t~'r in-d.M·r...' .ador of 20.po~nt f. ~no:::h~s~ il' ....L::. .:iir..(_e~.~6 I tt~.. .:!.llge ..8...~ scale ccoele I~e..'OR['LASKO~·.. abov!::" :i:lboV.adb. ~ di-rl'C!r'C!nt :.[9~t an:g'I>B:5' ]-he li I"le Qf srgin ~o· until th.."''-'IJl'I'".C)Dr".:/: percent ("P'" .'lII~.$:k.ri:g neW H h.i fr"L~n-!':!d 'I'D Ih.!! 01 'he pFi..eet..iE''S...de.em 10 1!50.:5i ...sCUIred b'..determined 1!! wttbeer oo'r.. e due.· :1.S.. dtemcter !Y.70' rnches :6f of .gh! . t:lol1'~{(mH~1J~s"t~flce . . Seet..ng!e Ca:s..gl!.iTne.Vfin!!. l-.6 percent 4..s beI6.j:r diiiMnc(::!....I~ .f!~o:!'_ i.··e!:o$.c::eullf 'RHA5KO~ ~"its IRIJ) .j :5~C""I.f' "'0" 'Ito· ·"10" will m~Cl'C~I)C 12 diinl'~)~r. ::.m irlullrillti.:i·j.6 '2..eff"'l!Jd~l)s"t~l"IoQ'Oi dla:n'gG':i..ee whose diamarer is.r' the.:... :~. .INSfRUcrIONS.S i_b.. The divrcnce ~1 ..d by Inrervc .:i!lIE! r>e~~in9~ .".e 1fI~<I. e ·f>i:l.~e:ishi irn feet 'i!I~' ..br. 1111 ~pp~k>!llk~r.. ebove 'grolJ'nd.:.::.:o'Jnd :3 .::I.of I'he tre'e.me'. I.Ih.cC" HOW TO M~ASU:RE OIAMUE. 11:J~ 'i.il .d'tM~-.e..e~st r.45 50...s.t1h:. MI"'lCE: in • S ~Q. 4.::. di.I-'LJI. 1<1 'fe<et 'BOO.i!l cbctcc of oi c111[. it ls ~~~ibl<l.P" "'0101 ~i~!3!' H:JEI 11)00.:lr\ged boy 'Varying 1h:e dL'. il'l inl'el'( epl ..:JJ~ ered ··f:·~!):.d .::h ~F. i. ..f1'Qn~ete:r'..19_ '4").:!i IS. (or any other point of.b bar . Wi*" f~PrJ ~~~e) w. 1J:2.. ·~LPL. i·e~d by' 1 fODt intei" . :s. -Q'F.::1 fe"d (..gplDi't. "10"'·on. reads.:li thf! ~(.lroUind .. all the "l""IIglc-"l:.s.. th~ di~1"dinCe 'between.rll!../'.elues .al disfemce of 13~l ft.!' 1. RU .16 In.~ ohscure.e 0'1 99 ~~. tr3~:s.:!f19I]nt ~o:~he (t·il'~CP..•' :Q '~l{·i ~rXI'8t~~P~:' 11· ..e ~h~·· im. meriO:. ' Ire...es.."b" is ecuel ro 03 I to()~ :(~"~dl l~". ~O..!lr!~e~~1f ~~.:a:lli ·ct:J~·lIPi?·"..! / tir >cli.fl.~Indl "6 .ample· ttnae ~5 t. a .al~ the dtwenos 03" bc rwonn '-.e" und .::I::..ry· · ir:~~] ..6.e ~ ~'hQ"W~how Iha Il~lg~t ia. If:t.)J~-. crown. I ptg1!i b~r~ e~J~ ....:1 9.. Co5ill..= 'ni~~ fuLl' J .lr Sf il..:ind "'10'" on r~..4 .~Q~..1'.md tnI"O'Ugh "tr~JtlIE!ldl pec'¢nr~ge v. .:i. feet.06 7..~r .62 lQ. 5 5.. ihle gml1.32 30. fc~!~ ~Ad f~~m miii. F!::"m P Oa-rsrrmil"le lhl! ·..I~ 'Q6~ 99 Q r 11 2' f.:'r100 ~'t·..ot.1fh~ height IoClljI.m~edi 1i11UII·iF....1:.a. il i's 200 8'00 606 IQOO- <100.! .zOlli~~ dtstence 66 ~~. g. FOR AMERICANSCAILE HOW TO MEASURE llMAL I.a. feet . er1"t-c.lrT)..12'r.:m~l~ of Ih·o· R~.crY~liL)r7lL and (..:.Eo fOlJi'lO th..:l!I~re feet per ecre 01: the !s-i)m~larJg poi nit. .. WITH AMERICANI Ihe L6TI!E:!"rl~(I'l ~ngl.0 21). Firnd poi~t ~n.~ 2· iln. RElASiKOP SCALE..I:r.Jg1e rOti!lt.11 .re ~fie p"~$1tl . (If tfle ~ !1C.e. pp~ittipl!"I 1.Tn.Qrm ilIr.re~JfiTi~ f:Or ·sl. ri~g:nt E-d~POl of Itlc fihil •.'II(. ~ ~2 + 34 inch.A.~ oqu1•• lent 10 I!?QQ ryf d IM~n<" "b". 16 fee' ebcve oround TI-:..!ii3ce.. fQ WITH ...JI n...64 2 3 4.Et1-1L of 5.m (~oini P f"~.un.fr'i. it.fmirJ.'..~:!..!!~ho:ri~zon~il:~ d!~:iti:lIlCIJ: t..4 ~O 66 in 0 6 '12 LS di·yded into .R W'lTH AME~ICAN SCALE: RELA:5KOP lhe 'scel'e bet -eere "a" a..of 1·-'1-4 in::J~>t:$ .I·li·J1~ ~he ~H.'. meaeurtnp ilei'Qht of 48 fof::e-~ of 32 i...~hc..(loUd·:!ioE:!·t\ I~e '·0"" ed'!) ...2.th~· W·i.4.1. and quarter .!l:n:g~~ m€thod 1-.~il trne··~lett"l l:k .!.!~Of~elL .~ minu~ .. 'O:. ithicknOC:~:i ~~tio..gfe.Ut~ 100"feot t... 10 Fe~l abQv:'~ 9'rcul1o.ille v"'rlk:~1 ." Emd "b"' IOIr 10 mOI'D dii)mo~.. in =-~O~ •..h•. .. tc.... "th~it f.nloE!'l...!gh d'Q.:.i.rk!'t~~ U) r's.!! ang!'!?·!~ Iector I(BA!f':'} eqL.lF>f~!.80' CO' 1'00:.0····.!TllJa._..-:.. IFigl.lnJn'Lclit i:s: $.iiI. Gndl r(>t~.p IDIAMEIfER ANO IHEI'GHT MEASUR~MEN1S SCALE RUASKOP h£!lgi'"LI of coch {l} [oq and WtTH ~h~ out:!i1cie eomblnrllg dlillme~er .. 1".ne 120 rei!ldlllbi eqlJ1!I..iit~m:e:: st 33 F~i!. im'll~$'i -I.!o!.l.E! ... II RUi4 .'lpr of 5..ro'!:.e.ve foot 'inEerv~l!) ~(Q..03 I O. x b..:h::Jiirc!)f 'Y.. ·A.vol.. feet ebove QHJlJirLC le at i...a.!l f'I"'Iain!-'li..ii:le ffl.lt8.. Whl!!·(:ii.3 r'ee:t feech h'l:!i("6· ill>::"h~:. bip.Jnea~'jUe the clterwerer cf a tr ee with. 1m <I a M..lem I'h-e image·iS of btooMe- ." is.. Llncil fno... The Pl(":J~e-(!tiG'" or ~he dueence ·.ll'~:h liil North A1'I1~lk:-a . to .!!mp~i~'31w~r~·~. llID~h..-e :5..a" muhlplea oJ ene inch db/a5~bLe: by ~Ol).0.. Dilfl_ I" ..I "Vie..lfe :'J Ifieae di.. J~ St.~t'r.elwe~n M "-ij. 'bbs..il:5. 1"f!Jr :bflrk e-.he~) i!I' a hOf~20nt.j1~>!I Vf~t·'" dn~~~~s.1 It. 1..:1I1...:.e rot~tPJd .tr.r~ i!I~ le.nT ill.~.).""1'.ai1~:le Forrm da ss o_lJ.gr"Oun~ .")"~H of ~:~.~i~ If .roLf.~·. wl'll 1>" h.' fe~r di!.e percsrei3~ pe'r. .-:1 .II hmizDnti:11 di. b r .iJ':5 l'lJO fees by fi. da."~~id~i:!'. ~d be' !rn~~50!Jied: rI Uiis ':':d:~t.r··iiII.'~llJb':'.<1". i'~~. Thus.hj:! dlerncter 1 ~~ ~~y height' :a·bo. W.1(.H. er ' 99 feet fha' ]2:0 :rt.'" ~..~~ i~~~~]7'~.4) ~.~r. i~ alrl.... to.· r..rld .0..H.. rhecommcn stde of.:l~_ f1C~r~i(J..00.. e-o 'llluslr e'lecl i~l Fig'IJ.elm~'f be ~n.er (. hcri. 5ampLi~~ po~nit! IPrC!."..d~rJk~.ii. Tho angl"o '!~C. D~!.t?':'1 ss-e e in. to ~':'H:h Ho:::'€! at D ..!orr.:.r"tiI~nfl1.: ".20''' .ere equ.ope..:.}I) .qp' i~ ~ljr"d tree fF. ..SURE HEIGHT WITH AMERICAN SCALE IlELASKOP AR~A.~J!g.b" AI· ~3·3· .tb:!i. ~Iig(:l jfI I 'Njln ~:he...~h. de pe .!'. best ~.. i-2~".al~ tt-1i1i! ~.::.Q reeve I'I~ OnE} s.ru] en en.L~~'11 the IUjh"!lbE'f of trea s '~Ie .. f IF-~!J_ 4 PQ'int ~~~lT D~~gr.lr.!" C..hc ~. Fiog~· u-e 3 [lluatreres ho...f'~'" aoale] ("we 600.~~l·('.~ method.. "h'~ I.nohea.3.nilfji.. ninq true-s.. i.~. con ·NO'· . The Arner-icen Scale RIHASKOP 'off. a. the scales.htr..or~ . IIi's.alli(..".n-rk IForm d.gh t from P "to .-.sf.~n~ ..:.. \."!I:il. .j"Lil::ig Ihe aame detence frolm rhe uec.:. he s.. SQIM. b'!. r b. a tree v/itn a D~~ ..54 '0.0 ...Jrinog E-i~ighl 0' 19.r~ 3.r. .ni!:! "Ibm on..

m".r 1 and 2:[J{G ~hl3 'C'n:I3··s moef freqlfently LJ~ed.t. used fr.e of '!h~ ::.re·e Al'l...• hi:lving "lila Plcf . n'.l! .f~ f(l"I1'~-ctas s ~.~is~d~."J Ihe di::..d. nave 10.1lOf1i ·of 200 r:T:"f.5 mcfcns..:"~ ~ 71) pljrCE!ut.~ r...L~~~ t. is: gr~duot!:idl :nJ'= to mlnu:.factor ·8..Q'" "f rhe 66 fee. honz..5r:n whlto..:: 'fr-I)m ~li!r:=plo! ce . «I"~ hcr.~(e. fLxiqd In..ephe(~ by "b" "d" a. ".~"'~I.. .. per F.ko.~il ~Ji:~·:-'~r"t.B09 f.s. distence C!f 33. 'C Y-i!IIJ~!ble [[1ItormatfiQt"I aboutthe .~70 16' 15' 2Q' :i2.{I~·w whe(.~.Ciiill be seen born the p::::I..c()!5:lrllS'5 of 5"1:ope1i. . This ~. 'TlO U5. tric: I!::EI.:=!S-..fI'i\~.!g.lli'j1r ~1~!1d •. «Fig.~$.Ii'T:io.:.rJ~ srrtp I.0 :F. m~!n~. s lope is m'£!. jh!e .~j)d ls. dtl~:jIjr:lce ar ~~J' .(rJUM' Ltr. project tha chosen olngld.GiI ll.!li pur hoctere. lnod 'Wr:Ii i:t. fro:m !ik='rc.5 to r.jji..u01F:id'in to .. lh:1l rl?odil1'U~ h!:)':~:lo.ENTS WnH ill IIEGI~U '5'A~E Sr. be checked 'bf rn~".!.::II1d ~ha.3moE!:ter is large-r lJi.6. S~C F-r~.J. ~IUa-·l'I· ones").iy mOIJ· irr'9 fcrweed or b.ei~1:·~o':!."JI.:)'iJ~ F1vmbell"~ 1 and'2 re~p. of "b~' ·.~ hQ.Jli:k ~nd 1~0.ifh::rr.cr .:h'~me-rugi·".!r.ma m~y he UC1'c!1'lrTl'inil d. Basel .te'd .i..:.~ea~r.1l 'Widt~l In diijfl'1etel!'llISo rhe a.e.:!...h~ 2·.et..h.r~r.:.a~.. BMr."!d" tho 1'r.1IktA' hU~ 'into :tha' hi U'IJ acclicn •.:. (E~-O:Iomn'I.eplt!J hy' "b'" to . !oc~.~!ope. (.'!l-. Tree h~~.pea ·.he'i9f1:tQ~ 30.. InnrlOlm&n. .'M· .:o'i .. ·plu::. 4}.:i: u5~dl..t iIll.. 'Ra("J-ge i~ Ill!:: mr. appli· m1itrltr ~:le':.1::.~.Ih.:!r1QO 111. u Th.S:"1 p...i.j roit"lu:..."i-cl~d ~ri!b.rir.he-y gltle an.' sbew~n-~ ~r..1IIt.t.i -fo b..Q~d-!:l.r. Fr~.·TJ.:cnt s.rOD craiu t.~$.e!.o. of '~h& ..e~ g"I-:-. dr-ip 1 .5"4~rJm 'rt!:.~.(:IO.!.i. "'II Joii.il. pi Ih!C ~ertt.d.h'Ih. :J leer aH~' ir.:rl~ f.e..i!'.n~" 10 'be: .rnil"ill.b-'ls8I1 area iii'! ~'q~... T'O MAKE SLOPE M:EASUREM.DS€!' d~.f!1 araa..i..669 n'irISiRUCIIONS FOR M[E1R~C SCALE.::I~ij01"Liper I ~2iIJ S.J:i is 3lrl)( ~5 = .to. Ihe number of" trees counted lime.~ 'env de:i... locked ilb ~.. .... ~.. .f.crr~f!r to f...I~ fao:::lar 1 ::t~.iJrt.vn ~h-@ plot..aril'!I (1.e.jE.J.re .9 . the ·tR. 7 5..u~~r. 'R.dll] pCfl.(:It feat d'i-ficrCfl{.=m be e1jmli1'1~!~dl by '~t!e i[)aw. Ih c 'stern h. dietence of '99 ft.. ')~i.).cl.E.1 ~tafff !J.e tir~'1 16·f~~ li(Jo.of 33) "6...ow..~IJ' ~i~rrr€~f. t .OPOG:~.ome..::al~ "ID'" is gr. 1j"Yi.! rree. 0) ii.AN'GHINDER r.g.~ nei'ght .rJ lntercept' the -dtslilJ'"I(:.. ir"l~~(Llm~ ..r'I~·nl' h. f diS't. ob$~r"'i~10 '1Il~ Ir~c~.j).L)1'~ip~·ied by Ihe' PID~ ondius -I1i1rCto'lr must a+ve Crill ~18'~WI8r 'iarger zhi!lt.illtr the t::.cAt~ l..triom .. 'BESiS.e ph . a .rt--. reteaeed end tho scele o:.:rtlnt w.. Ihe ·top0grap'h.f iL1rip n·. ''1\ "0'" and ::I.ctoC" .te< fn. th~ rfght fa'Gr.!.J.' :951 .ir:Ii. end hosn :):. M .merJ":ilm :S.~_ 6.!~ distance .s8l'·'p' 10.Q ~·e~1 ~. 3~ for peocedure j!:::J' u'se.2" j.9'4 ..e bo.:.::p. 4 t.9¥S l4" .31 ~t~m ~~ obscwed by lnber .~ ~eiil of s. Tre. r.rrl.?'/'.Ov. from :~il).in l:!:o.. :r~nIQ ~in..d :9'9.g~: !:~Q. ~r cr. 'with Ihe -..sh ape-Iacror of ~ 1'~.Il"~II'~ ~f iHH. n ~tuffax'iKt~y ..p..:'.iiU~I~::dl hy In@ ilris~T'ur=r'l(:nt:Wl"rern Ihe br"a"ke·~:i..c~ aha eecur"-0!11\~ ~i!'IJ~ ~ol:!n ~~i!: '::::$I'.e con'lifi.. tree witi'll maescred DB~ ~06tmi the (i'iHeal l'~d~l.I-r rI'n~"~ ·'wm.I~:. tl."llerc.E' to one elde blJ1. ·ne...oem t-o 1J..! ~l:l." lh..ll>::e of 66 ft..-0"'0 PE~CHH &. ls. dkt~. ':::'j t.:rtki3III''ri.01 {II t!!u~Ii!'".'~!pllf!dh't' "b'" eo "c' at oi:! [rc. 1(")'. lile s-ame wwdt~ ta di'.ig..Bq~E!'ntjy.fr'.. ~•.oin't.i!lt[1d roy whi'!e strtpes..ng . S~C Fig. Tr"e i!"a... H .:.~ff. ..:rr'~:11 ~illI.int.'I' ilt plor canren.5iollgl the mmlrllmt::l1It to' G~t~blhh hc r'irontul ciiatnncee fr~1'nI the tree 1'0be mee scrod.g~ is..M9 _82.Q m .:! ::.:'If~'1J~ 36" 40" ·~i' 'J~" 4~" ~8" .)' N.~lIrl 1_~3' m blue...~ me't@r ~.i1.h u . HI.ASKO'. In.i:dlt (or' :1tj:/lr:.d..h. ll!..ql!J.ryI~oI wl<lth 61 . .. 1.e.r. ~P!9Ie\ j. WLJ'I1~ed}.gr.u.. of 1 j'l . lu:liII '~Oi': ho:ri_~~:I...::lF"je ...iI.rs of the se me Wlidth CIS the "1n9k eaed.j.fo:i.t. Icr eXClmple. anf.I'ct:. jj~t!:o!!tr}r ~ri di. 3a... t.a.EASURE iBASAl AREA WITH NlHRIC tn the lho SCALE 'G.J'II.· 33 ''''I.n Ire~ at Dat-! tthat .I'I~'"".d 'Bf!'1j (Re'rerer1C:e" Brlteri:tch fh~Clcr~~il:~1 mathod..r~C"ldOri~ '.n1. ~~lel~..'10 1".9M 6' 8' 10: 12' .. r€!e~ .g t(n~· teneri ~1T 66 feet flfQm lhe tgooe~ ~~g~ .of 2'.e-:.. p_o::.# ~Q~f1il.:rndlc .fmb~r .pe 'ell:!~":.c:sl"n .. Added 10 $~/iip l.1rI~Cu"u:F.~c!iJ!.~:I(:. d .:r·jvely" I~Fig. i:i.99Q .d..:.no :paI'1i()1..'. rc()r ::.t~IiICF.lel' lh:~'() nw:: .{e b.: trail.~l.:!. end count the' ilurnb"4l:!r ·oi trees.1 [a ~':. inh:e: r...0 f~d lonp i~ held .>lJr:aj'ely. "-I hcij~:i:.::Ill eettmeted hQ:rrz. m:.ANSCA1E to find Held t.~ ..a" j rOom: "b" tQ .no .: .~me ~:i. lRELASKOP IiiIOW TO M.~: the ~'E~ASKO:P jiat .. ."~ ~l-ie di emerer.' RElASKOp AS p. to vtew lr.i dil1i1r..::.. feet 16. .· :ItJ.~..re· illus1r...IIi!1~ tsee's DBHL rrr~ ~ To the right .e.o.CAU w~ih dh~jr:i .fn . A..szz ..~e at. ~I is eiJ~'f 1'0 r:nd !!'I(]: hej.:: le'ft of "'OJ.gloe ~:i-e.t.lI. colored .1f .3.. t:1'r1Ile:·ierto p..l-e ~.!II Ihle t:t)p of Ih. .r..788 .~l.j ..ft in '1[opl1.:~ (I.'c" lilt ..Fi9..?!'O.6'" WGil<'l!·ul a~..\fsiu red 'fi i't~ 1ho tnsrrome-nit .d~s.. :t.(o U' .:~i'th . ii'l iis. Prom .."'I~lgh-t gb . -'P~' ~. rE'ej ere rnsercepred ~ ':0'" =0' .. (I.9~O U" 10" ~.SK'O" ~n Ihoi'..:.:If'C int~'r. ?€!-!:! IFi~....:.n9 ~h~ :. h.7~:3 .t.. In... If lh:..r.899 .:: ~~me W~lh '. T[h~ effect QJ Ihe..r a..j] hClr.lht~.bh.'!gr'C!".'u . '~fld mi:rl'u:~ dir~GiOil1 ~~ ¢-"I''.:).:-O:::I1 ~n..nrl"1~ IH~oi:=:.:3.0' d.iHIi.~~nl!' I~ cabled "ueckounkt'').:...tpr"r.:.d~· m. '(dr~p} ·o·f n:i>ll scale to lei!l.:::.ll. ·h.t-o f 'i~n!.J.slopc-b~ ~~Hil"1'g lhe Ib.!J..lJd ~-g!a:iin'5t the ~~-:c.:.119 afli~ a hCi'iilOf:jE. F. 6 ~~e-~ ar~ inlt~·r'.d'.le ''1[:1·'' .Ir·ij-fg edq.:!ld:...r:itr."H.'I"1~-.rr.n~5 ~~ ."f1g~ ~!ii' .~e.r.fta(lE'Ig the ·'mea~.e:" .866 .. 6.e~d "d" Ihe a-ngl13:i.t.p ~ti.ie.li.w ~:.Irllft .. 26" l' .a1e pJu~ .ted 'fI):P to a .~las.:('i~.!I'4.wni-crr ::.. fe.~ih.e A:M~RJC.1:r:1i: m~tt:-r.to 'the stern.Ii..ij.:lr.. 1111u.:al.['lkl!.ne' "'T" 10.p~~e. b':Jt r:"Io1 ~ ..ta.881 .H~n(:e: fr6-ln ~:!'rot. AMERICAN SCALE RHA:5IKOf J:!I.r' .. ail"igie'~ .lt1qll"i .JTe· -mcnts at ...na·in t.'.!.:.".3I~ the. ol!!f!lt~1 .9B3.Uilied 90' . Ihr~ ~li'I·f! stl¢-lJi. 'c'(:oiji c.:blJln1in~ ~"t~o. .e "'"D~r:. g).d Sn. (lhi.il-c}w." .d't.~if'l"l1 id"'!I~li!Ir'n'!iniltwo:".:)I:::.oc:die.6094· . which is also.es a ciI~~'tan::e 'Of 8~'! -t..g...) o!l'~ Ih.g~'.A.tilS:~e.rom.APiIIi: .l'le M a tsee Wh.~" do!.~ke..914 ..e p'lu:. (.~~.l-ieig:ht.j :t'h.".[1.r~ il1di.

ato~e llh'C hori'::I.n.5K!O~ Ahy.jIjlfldl Sot) Ot'lr.. rho pro" VS:ING METIR:IC SCAlIE· RiELASKDP Eatirnetion ·d dlametcea . .e-te.t'lo~ Df n 5 m cue hi!llif of s:trip' s.po~~ib~8: 1 and ~fre four f(t:'r.""'~c.ill the foliowing f.ighf.'0 plo" 3.rJs atrtp I 1 !-lOW TO DE1!IERMINE AVERAm SlAND HEIGHT by HIRATA'S METHOD 40 ccntbnerers.:. etern diameter..et·e..z:ri·'{~d.~!r of I:t-~ 'wl-r1fh.epIe~eMs.s 'p!==r hectare cert 00 r~t"hJGcd Ib-y ljouun1y 40 pe.)~~ji!r1 linn tho 'cuHorom:e of bo~h' i("@. percent when [he ~ng~e.Jh~ from I1Crr[ro..no b)' ·combi·ning.e! eree scaler r..( 2:.n~erel3.ri~ D~ :2 D. '9'f trce.rcleuscd..a'ppli~d sca.'lr:!'d by.-ceminQ hcnzontel drstence .r ~hilin "'3 'w:.J.. ir. l)sf~S the· ~1'I9!e of htpol' 4. r. and JI)y 60. UP.eig.mmt naeler.a.urolJfTlOfl~~ ·iI..1 fecree . 2:.ilr!. ilnd JOm (fi'Q. The.. to m~. 2:5 W.:..:n: -+ 70 to __ .ajnedl in .I=or'rh~~ :plJipoo5e·.ii1i:!F)d rheigM..dinQ whole..e..0 t"£!I [aTldcl"lIl gi .scele which appear's . 1 the .::rJp:t5 tMI~e. -t- :::10_ HQW 'fO MEASURE HEIGI'I1 USING METRIC sa':lE Ther. p". .5 at CiOm.cI'l.r~~ USIN'GMfl:RIC .. Oln..llm.J..fU'. hence bar 12'11 cunfirneter '.sasrte width centimeter the hO"~:Z:O<j"Jtal oIIrr. 4 ~quare meters pel heeteee • .eror-eJ is ..~ ...!-r'Illlm. he s.20 conumctcrs.iSm .eignl fan:. ih.:.~rm".t .l':"e·a..I'J't rrE!".·~quirl..Big~t in mel e t:$. QR I!Ir wilhr.9 j}'I{.Qfd steods.. rs=r«: z ts .f~ one [n o·f ~:ts w.Fol ~hl:i purpcee.t.' full ~cjr.$ + ar~d t.i'ne=ers pe!' hlJc~.prr:nanl:s.. ·6Q<lJrld by r-~~ped.iI numbers .....of meter .8M!.es IroEf~¢I h. B-iI. ~dil.50'" O.::.a~c s.~e.5 m ta.4 S h~(:MFe rio.lbbe..r.r!oe.Ir!!~O!! t:iJ"I'i'j: lop· di:arne~e"'(l~ ...j(td SCALE RHA.iIIl a flDri~8r"1ti!r~! dl. ~ the a.et"lce" tne-r-e m..nge.!'rnber of plut.:Im:cte_r 'acele Ij ls re~J:irc.ple:rTler1~. i I rmm thla. 'In lhi'!.. Iha fll..!l~e trl'J' ~2~ ~:3:' • . t'Jery tree in queS~f(l>1l 0111150' h:~'50 1'0.oa~.tOD t. the .of factor I is .adjngs) lh'~I!i Eo be b!'ge'r that! fhe .ef strip r i!I~d the [cur ba..dl'Orlt~'1 d~!'.resp~(ti~.2:~.e fOI.1' 30.:<'i~uo(l=o srump hO·i·ght arrd tit the ropvof the tree [in ..J('Id.eiIIre: RELA.. ~ll.e !'.eiildi{J~~ atlhci .d.~. w~d:tn I .i!.:h!Jf~ Dr 1 rnrcrcopee .roCf.:h.t:'nrorn the -sarne ptoD cenrcr.~ rQ:I' 1h13 tdpocll seeker [permirs.e.on. s (:.r::r"n 15.W~f1 the hamogelli"riY cd' Ih~. 1)...<lddi.f!'..r.:1I means.:':r.::'aled ~:t breasr h.r. meesurerser ...3.~ll..a. Ihc number .fOl. ed.!" the:lree "tn~ rei!ldi·l"1g!i ·~.IJ'I1:~ed .n. one in=e!'el3pl·~ lOrJ) rr.r:e~ diH"J"C'Trrit ~c~M~ '..'m .f sernple pllel.r~Ir. the i"'~lj]1 hufr'l~J cd a >:.. from the either . heve 25 . wjdlfl Cli~ ~.!. (J. d'i.· ~J Ir. One ~$tGm .:!rr~~ h.~io.'5.[!il11l mo!!~i~~..f the 8.ed.t::I:i::.irntor-::.eniilg up the stable.5:. 1.re~~ per hcc~a. ..".)" 'l:h.:. the (DU·I' ~.outslclc - of -thc givC:"n dL:it~.'} iru ordna. llIurrnh..bcctare "'ri" must £.o::rri::. hr. ~trr~p 1 no\gl ~:ari'i1~h ulrd·iI.rce:n.rnif.~ or of of Noter di~ro!lm:e IHCIrI08: rD.oLv>J"r'i!lge 5~.Qi"i. per ~: oIj.G mEi:t~~~ frt}!j"Io f'or I'.. ~~llJ~l t. the figill ssde .':!nI stands are hlG't!e'f'Dgene~U:5-. becaase hectare ·i!jl ~I a-..i{:L/ltI. .jm~["!'I'iI..5 mn:t.:Eim.~·a'I1OO'20 m one cf hat+ of 20 ern.c" !Q' Pont .rlJdls emrrlcved . Tile· sum of fh·~ r.J1 1:1 o(H~MrHe-ef .er "'0" Qi l-ree:s wh.r:a.m~...::il.erape .U1':1 h~ :.!. 25 30 meters. . 20.e.is.~:d'.r e:w:amp[e1 at .f 15 me:!Cr:!ii Ai'""! e:.e~ between the' ti!lr7Jgimt $1I!.::C'I1~ar .:lli)u..1. be d'O.(I'-lion off tlho~e tc'I:t. partkutar IreE!! 'br(·dm·~ 1.r::~t~ . . .?scl"oIre.1-::: 25 'm to .200 .wfi~:Il 20m.~1 bM·5.:::I diameter.r!3J.. a bra'ke- Wif'(. wilh .I"II alae be 'CIeter.c d~~i-mel~r..lJp15 of H) (rn hariz:cmta! o-f 20 meters..3istan:::e r(:l.n~ neigiht a!!=~Qr~i'PrQI to Hlrera -!: ..... .C. . ".ior.~I~ '.:!-C¥ des.e:!._l::.r nl":errk-e.elrrr~1' OJ slfip bars are applfad..j)a::lJ:r~~1·s i:k::i'ircd .0 plot. .· [plc=~ pe:r -hactare. Th~~ can.hFrt!) ehe '.i!r~kell-thi:H. to.k~r. T~e~' ~a:l.-52m.~ciI by ~a. alfldl tone ':'OC~JI.pt5"5 lcnercepbs em 6·. in oJd:~r... 1:).[i.4l·15 used. centimeters. me. per hcctere !.lU-ill a. when the iIi . ·t..i!g ·1'... he.er...ho.l·~h p'e·r W~ hedi.1· by ~ bas.ertai.or' ..tr'Er:!' r'8. I :ii~.rMii:~ d+s- of .:!·il~bl~.... ~() . fourith 1 coercsponde.I'1rg'le 0. 1 pJD~~ ~.::off b.o di"::.tisfi!ldory vahJe-'~ of M. Ihe folb .r'._ Scale' ·2Ci m r'~n'Jie. lot the :P~O~$ wil:1 be COi"111::: th~ gf[d Iby method.ct iinr.dp"l t~~ crown.l:s. _ Fer -ereas for areas "" 4. tna' H-Maa~uHlmBnt wid .f reletlens u"ead~f'lgs .!o of 6~ k:ro:(!!~ft.e.u-.ing ~h~·:2..EI ma..I~n(f ~·le[grht '~h.· per "e<l.N"If HE!IGHT 15.eIrjH.i. :ho.d. r.e stend wI'li be mcoeured ct sendom .IPJ:: p!O:!"L it'l~Ie-r:~.!:ti.y 'be d.1 il.(. ~·h9 drstr~bl!.:l of .lizt. ~rl other arid rd~.1{.lther n·lc· rertennuter wstcm orr :.ue .rieinl'!'.U'fa<:y" C:ilfe t.!Il':::e_$J poas.. '1J~.hr.i~hr ls ~rr~i:I:II:C!J' than. be be esrtrneted ln slope... Tlae entire.'·I{.:rnd one 'bar 1'0 so.fl'.s .S.~ -55 ~I(l -3D· :3...ll1g heiqhr one- and d~.~1I'sy~tem.tOO ~~qllo!lre ~I'}{:i. or trighr .".:!1k.ioo. 'f'h. from $(:03.~d.SK'OI' ~~ :bee~a'ihlii!l. .P~n.5 oe hectare (:Oli"ce~·j.re <i!r~ !t.m .it~n-ce frolill fh-:: ~iI'er: w~1h tne s:trtpr lm proporttiQ·n 1 .· p.. th.the t'reight tif eveu-y Ir'ee 3'~rGll Irem ~he plot center hes to be soeeserred.i'n. wl'lrd'! da.. the tnstrurnen! h m In (lfodlJr.eeuerted .. HOW TO M~ASUR~ IDIAM~HR ONI STANDING liRHS AT' A.j)rn~~rt::1l' Lit ht:dijhl has.i!lnd Ship ::.i.t'!Igb of ~~dQr 1.J~ h'a'!'1ed.~i~CrM~~ di~!.'1l thl3 stze ri.F.ager diamelerr iii! b~~¢:~t I-".jlti:.'(~ For areas Bor ar£olr5 0' 3~ . Ij:.?'i(::!fmi~~:ti('\r:l . ad th.I·rrip.mete·r. ~h::.:I'!i" Ine iCoi:ll8d bO]~J.''''I]I:y.. .5(J the sfwnp r.3.:rsL-!lr~rrg' sa~p~e.g br:e~:~t h>l!!'.5. a I'r'II fl'oi:'t"! + SO' Fig.' .ta' read tlt:e avereqe !.ger'~1 . ~..ila. h-as '1·0 be dt!·I'e·rmi'ru. 1I.impfe ¢e. &-!al:f does .~E!' ·~ad:l O. EvelY tree.'"t'n. .o:5.(. iIfl1dr. Tile number a of ploh most 'be el"ir~liJrgiJ'd o"yh. ahe entire 01". e:I':f.:. 16 M 3'2 Il:ecj.i!r &Me03~lJlr.r srend.!1 'ene.i:il~:h 1 .::r.S 3.illl-d ::.rHtp i'. s. a(~ re~mm-=f1ided.".IlifIbe'r of Hl"flp1e p1(ll~•.age- '..6 piOB.support fcc econetc rcedlnas.ron(.PFl.w..:r€ :5mill:le..:.ti.:o.~pJ:l-EJle.. portlcn-stenu Ih~r'.i at.tcnca.pa'~.Su~.ciI':§..J-S~ be· $(t ma. .to be coemted.e:s.he 1rialrlgul.D~ ~ h6r. ~ 100.ly q2.].::Ilo 20 ece lea.a~ ·of fh..iim.

2·0.er on the upper [P.$ deboy te-mfned witll Ciiid of The of <:. loi.I!r ~i·!!oMr.rip ..oflvened wIdth by the and tree .win&-! 3D . Re ed sum H..a~l...".of these re'adilrF~~ 'has' '0 be a}.a. poipd m~l be scale..g:.i. meters.ING MErltlC ihe dietancee eeo bl3tWE!@1I'I 'he lefl 1 num'beftC'd eli:l'ge SCA.... ~m. ~ f~'lrfp 1 she + -4 l.lidded.l dilt..I! III case.idth fjof ~:h.•dl in$trumcnf< turned) 9"0· .j3'Q'1tmil ..ilid..d .. n~.fIr) ~he.hei~~ll" Thls..• p.Is.h. cr .'JII'I e.i:fufr'l'efl't v. 25 "'..z:cml>ll line are from above Ihe tnere~djn_g:.~Her retu::Jin9 hM 'be subtree ia.!!H.h~¥c )-0 ~. :ll'\tg by vi" .iing f<lrwllrd 'Or f.!i:of tlf'le'scale 20 m~.he t diame-~... H: ~l'"Iitrall 1 1J5 "percent" thD5"i!! Qlf means.J~ she base end. .lIE RHASKOP the end following edgc:..J-!2Ii.qI.~e of IlI'rlp' '2 (1t'1:1ltr~b6d wi'~h ""Lllnlint1 hari. s'houid 'iIHfteJ:r'oclP'1 the disMrtc.. 'lop. tW(l.. used.7 ~Jl-d mo1ers ":U a hori2:~rU'.s of SUI!' of w.."$}: E$t. 10 work..diJ'l9 [be e$t~bU3h~d.f1CQ ':illr! .ly she -01' rendill9fi bi ncl '2/3.p~:. dh~ill'IlIi:lI .. end i:!.illuslir'.Hiiolii iI....te~oijrn9J !b~.i.Ild6n ttf ~nlbli:lhing r".:.!.- ..a "Rlclttpunkt" hi) be .II::klCld t.S. .".'his · until et ihe .imes..rl:: py middle.ng i~ be1QW Ihe lc bl.·1 Ihreebet-a.of I he· "'IIJ~ of tree. 25r . 1.a~e ~'hi~po'lrtt end resuh. .Jnc'E! C!:-'ircd.nter-l:E!pj'2.en[Df1 ocf 'rl'ile I. it hadl as [erqe 031. axis ~I.wellly·".rg@i'"one . 1:5..i...m of ei. t Tnt! rsumbars t'LIll"ned90 oi ·~~. point c.:.laH s!hoL:!id show the in oil vlslble mil. mlddle of t..aIH by fine bral~e_ l!'liollg The tvrncc 90 degrees.3~ hundred.adu . the . the :.e[ght ·(:Iep*"!ds . .ont.6on-e te. "ci!:I~ :5..~order to IQet the .."ct hundred'. 4/3.. 100.I'y... . blCkw ~WHn 'Thendnc Then .:.. IlIr Ihe in Flig. are ne("e$s. $tr .i:I.ri~ cli.JIi~. end ITPullil:).aftq:r thlll! IUill1!! I(:(v. Meis.~1!:!' . (Oh'lI·fruL:Jcl!. lin the ::..::...0. If ~O fu)ri. . and the e.snmeted ~Or'ward and beckwerd flne rea....1!!".ee vl:rtiunYr fth. di's'l.... then the have bon.l' 1 motu di. "of hundred" .::." din'lomeJeif...s'imMC!"d middle t.4 give!$. fixed Oft the tr. riGhr 20.'Eadings I~'O percent hcrtzonte! !. rh:e rBoi!d·ing.w~~ile' .[ ~. no . d'i:it'~n(!e d ..:Ikoen e r ...~s~lof..her are reedable with when the iUl5trUfir.! kt-rrri l~eJgbl.. + 2 bi:!lrs mav be' vecd rondtnq sum Fk~rl.!]hl 0'( a tr co..'\~] ~~ Ih'EIr'd ~o'" leaned i:!JguinM the: Ireel i'lfl itr.ing fine eMir.Ihe he.~i!.~("tly 2 met~~~. fa$ inf. 11<1~.n1y.. . 1i:1~i:':rill::r be cc v er'ed b.l'II!:d hom Itiifl. muk . H~r"e. 'BV' $I_H Moy.u~mer. readir'tl..illes:.·i)rlijjlJ WIJ"!.hc 'lilld... the Fr'Oa'rl ..n is In. n.1JF~on pr.!llrf IS.1 i. llI-:.e from .ery edeptebtc in fClJostry edge" eeeurme e.t AS A CLINOMETER the va~tJe. file conf{9~" horiiJ:onl~' 'HiuiJ:ontiill the Di'-ih.rOJo£rf!I 10 releaae becke.rf!I'al!y.r'Iark of lne i'll. '"ihJ9''' v. 1(StJ.he IhlH i i$.tI Ihh ::. ho..r.ll distances.r.l:. serves .:: .e diameter at the bose ~("(ilJc ~5 .tric Sc.II.jo9 seiling "cf ewentv" ".. if the P!J!ri1 di$I".re.latilJ€ ·term he~glh~" Soh'lip 1 i!.s. :strip 1.. of the 'thnm...1:II t. [he 1 jlt dletencc fhe hom th!l::! tree up . r'ri. mcl::. from the tree IL'J be reeesored..J2IJ~ Uhe bese .. e.:!l~'S "Rknh:..o.SdG' .fI)PC it miF:. IJ.e ecceretelv . 031 bro!'i!it~U .tm~lef of rhrec be IP(lir.:l\"nhh breeat helcbt. d-eQree~~ the oormmcn ifh.c.:i "of . 25..1. US~NG METRIC Ihe form Ir. HOWT'O MAKE DIRECT MEASLIREMENT SCALE RELASKOP OF FORM HEIGHiT. ing 1h.. low' ... e.m'k~~".r~li ORe .iJnQ 25. ~kh1pu:r1lt'~ is found by 2 b".. 8t9'.e fig. .l!ed ~!I"Of:>C "\fieVl. i.nce . !S. o.he: 'rH'j' Iheref~)'i!I: ~iti '2t1..'J OI.t':a.:5.ont'j' factot vef!>!On I!...:!'.. Tine con- Li~~PIjjI the lrufrumern to establ~:s.h HOW TO MEASURLE RANGE US. intercepts :H~'r'n ·.hi-r.5 at Tile the.ntiu... ed 'hor'izonral bne.l(l:nti~~ 30.of rwentvflvc" ·'(. 9"" ~tT" s.....Ci "untem".n ~r stsip 2 and ~tilb..I'n order to oc-bhiq lop' of 'l..t:![llyfi\o'~":.'Ked With ""20" (iii~!hH:i..-n(. r eepocf v cly m. ill:h h B i. the or below and ether the Cl(H~at Ihe one a:~g\te( the nee. The . be called "of those at Kale 30 "cf thirty".1"<1..t..iiI diameto r ct tnsnoreont 2'.'n M. By rncvlna the umco!I:iurlnQ the· tffi"lIe·~ 10/3. .d give. Ih .re.e.5 Qilv.sy..c"5 "of ~u!lndr.andl the i:.j lnscrfbed 'l In .. wig1h 'ft)ft'I~~I""':r"I!J f!Y'. 11 ..IiI' ~m:1I PQI'1!lI1 w. r:hli nfimilltBdI wi..If 'tnLrty·· So. r. re-adil1lg'. hQrril!:olll~-i!lt TO US" METRIC SCALE RHASKOP JIJI.uUiplie-d i.!Ilrf 'or the stern found with wlli'-~ e~rhe.. the releskop limes.

I~tl hem the le'lr.:Jd rrC'>m the Lllfi1r.s rod-Inl·er"'.'ei":3.l.s.:lls of 4. The ~c"(!I~IEI.1d termed by fhc the ftrsr wrr.::.. fo.al1lll b. k =.ilIr5E:t ba. the destred bemboe rll!'.es..INSTRUICTIONS FOR BaT~ 2 IQ ~-O .$ borjzontal D~ even ladders number measoremenr". .ltloer number 1)1 ill eeeh bill!' the. k = 8.jree '''e t.ilc.ignt gel1.e. likewise..lan(.::: one rked "p.'eril point U£I'i'1(~U). rh~y values refe-r"ii'e-d lO" 20 to lJ:S r"'Gd-der:sI'~ appear tQW~ 'Of (f>v1u1s In the rig'ht pOFlior.>n.oF F •.g-t!~ .. ilS fer ill-s:ant. of rbe .iolel!:.::ft..~gree h~ihdr..({ji"!si>ft$of .~n ulcpu Fe Ihe d~3hj of IJl .:.5 .pe(li.~ 'widrh 10 . if foot lev.. WIDE SCALE scale scscrnbtlnq 10).l: observed trce-dlasneters 1I)1'r)ieofl'ed f~. ~~untiri:g ltnm "':30". T... en be obtetned c q. ll:or:.!~irt:"d rfq~.-. k =.c . be lnd. tsee counts Qr-o!IJfliL 1'0 ()b-l.fIiFd.-~ f71wmbcr.1 fimber. oH Ihc ti3dder 200.]U 0- square of the.r :J ~l.=i'rE!' Mi:lxJm.lmp} lJpwoiIlrds I~e of fco·~ CYI!!: .e. ecel e s.em the degrlJ'e of IHt [1e~d~4 (or U. This wid~h ~is aoulvelenr M one 'RElA5KO~ {F-.diif~r"e'l"!l hrt!:Q {~'ilnl3'r g·fQlJlnd mc1e~ ithEi be~ow des.ap.lg .bars ere ~in9 dhSled@d scale is hi Ihe rrecceur- ~.!'..rfe·r fie!IJ ere stone (f.ve' bcr. 0 ..:t:!ioIJ'f.lo!.Ja.hj~ a corner of and S.r~.h~e iher dcpen::!~ . -. the borjzon..e~ the = 12 m cen cnlv i'n the the H.an.in oJato!'ni(1og to ~h~.g I!I will empJloy meaSLHing lo. OJ ?ID..~ le.i'. ea!. = 14 thn .ned nne ~'6Q or in Ihi~ e:-:ample~ !'io~'i.1em)1 im l(~rifjl":l0~ i)io~ in circles found of the flhc 12}.-:J'bove: .(Jp Ii"~_~p.s=.4 RIilI.ta~'I.omed to be ihe eerne iI. _ the. rneasu rl'lJ.~t tree.. 10)_ V'~'Udlh of . ~r''' equi !':maHer '-'l~dder fC-app(!~~'S-_ "'. 1J1her!lJmbe-( Qf· e·ach lhe ~i1Ilf~!.-.eilld'i~y .d ·'0" Tile bar .11 Him~fni!l_ SinCE! di(l:=NlI11i.1 Ik...n.!:r d~gree·s "minu..aerc (om-=~ between HI)_ iul~ (fig'_ "b"~~I:...'2.:Ir@ w.L and '.= 9/.:he en 0.s fer the qllJ.Ppi{:lpriate' dlsteoce 's.:13 tepee ~f borh en'ds of the gr-::Jup. For (2 If~) Rli .4 m at meaSl}f.l lac~e white' c.lIlld so on . rraetkm 'of .g. k. and '0 I. oiI.lJr~ .·r:r~Bqy 1:10(IF ~ill~e:'!'ill-lJc irt 010- + .:Jl!i . k = 9/16 1m~/ha.JOOlld!'1.for I 'RU/4" 'k = 1/116.e. a~prop'ri·.::::!Jl'lt. rr. to· rh@' di... 'Iorfjt:: whjt~ bar.pr:d.i!o_These ~$ are !:i~ghl'ir'lg" ~IVhet. The slavo-m.ow::. = HAF 1. balf (biJllf ccrrri.u:s.r'I.me"'Ul"e.. bc:. k .e.r MEASURE In dense BASAL AREA WITH [or c'sts us. 2 while ertd :::: bleck.ig.fol!' cbserver'n svmbols me~~I.lil:Ifler tiie·jd or i!lppropri.I of width ro ..(H'r"Ier the.:Iri ~c-ide .m.I.:! .1 <In HOW'10 Tree The' CClin. le:!J.hl!.I~ Ihl:. :!i!lo'Uld I = 4) To l.y!.fI. The are .n:s. ffetd ~1 m~/h:ll o:..:JJ. Q. TbegifO.'~ Ihe me-a:.rr..~ [hDrtz:onh:d (tH~r(l'nt:~_.'i of from bar.d1iH.ment halqhts 'i:!o «ead {iJlI .p.f "r> ~hf! held of mc...metcret bree.n...)~i.h.. Iol!:i'gnt of i!!!a~Jr... ~a~ror ~ When (i ..$sible.~ an.it-o Figl:Jt Io. iaion. 2 and .toO plus.liy r~"9n'..>!r~~.s.the lerl. V4IIIIiIe-:o me':'~Ullfcmellil t. zum wltbout ladd~r ~ndir: .. . The right "!(k1r91~1 b~. 'J!I:i::I~{j e! a point ir. ro 111) 'li1e ~1j1b_'$sqIJI'JI1ID1y {.und~ry ($r.'. ~d.(.i!l1. SAF 2~.b(lvEJ.If the' P K. ·I)r ~m!D!t.. :cer'(1 (..d'f[l. V". .0"'_ border infcli·-f.a kind:: of n-ufT"bei~•.. =.c t-I~m1.d in. 11 to...de-r_ Ir~..~lej}..g w~ro!. meee s of pl.g! esed fos.ilIit zlOl'r-o pokll U).l . of bars corwn'l'h Ihe: cosine of obloct. 0 ' ·0. for a tile (efe_reI"LCC::: 110 fof .ere ~epll'e:S.Qun~i l~J dloOng from Ihe .ely.e.~@(Jmeas. '(in j II) .he Iwe rhe~-e ~owm' two .n :s.'!ight with '23%)" ~fol gfil~~oa. Ihe I$.tli!.Jced ~L$ ver1ica·IIBy be-side po.J OJ"] neerest cue .tg.t oerrow l}I:oIS.s..e marks.For to the same !i~(e. J'G) twc..a981 hi3ve . @xamp'lo!i!=l'.rmed as: iif 'Ihe' vcrtrcollv j<nt[J the 1'I11 'rhii& Is [0 .:iic:r. 4.f! lD(i!)e Iine ·rel!= Ihe aixth b~r-I~<1.LJ':'IIs:r lin its ere re." in by ..itnin be . Or) lJP"Ii'-'.ghnly po!lir~ ·rtJ!E'r~ muhiplil¥!d rent of d-f.ot I:. chosen a.af9 if obs~ryi\t1Q. sea ~ 2) ':'Ire 'oll. The poi·flI~'_.n~ or RHA.\l'ly height.nro.diS!iect~d hori.:23 x :3 =69'%')_ Lfr~Ii:lI1Cer lJ~ed Ie rnea!l'l.uTin.iled tho lin!!.ing lhcignl (~~ if! 1f'H.ailildJ 25 .mi! Ea.:'!ye~lth ber.l he:ighhi l:i per poin! [ng ml3-il:itJr~d th."1 measuring ..(!iH~erence I~o~ tQ be c:afc:LJhlteg.g hCHtZOIi_ tree di<tLr'nt:I(::r~. the.!l!.rka..i'!o'e~ Iecto . (ri!'. rtte rr~drJ'. have point ifl"l Ine centes.lnle.P OESCRIPTIONOF the wllile' mctn ~nd eree bteek of the bcrs merl!i!'r below numbcr s from and I to' ebove . IQ The nm~ wile ap-pl'ile'.vftitoable ~n the Wid~· Sce]e RElA$KQF.eJ1Iedby the ~rnj)~1 .p~ velces 1. !Slighting .:l!!hi3 i~ = u2}.t19rv.." gi.of ~'hj~ scala ia ..d::. Thl:'l!s~ IfItJmbcr::o "..ci'W1" (: J.e: pole l'he f(!or qh~ hy ~wo vi:.(for Instance.gen.urilflgl '~!"!:..RU}4r Ie 4/16.F~a-. indica.s.pln!:s for comb'ilnD"Jig-M of whole lRU end quarter-a.~ed . A'n e .J!ly laetcr . a "ftald {I.]. aooIJ-c or below tree..1:2.. rc fhe l_).Ioill~y· requirre~~ WIDE jarge iu SCAU s for RE.i!rc. 8.o. par cant! ~F1ld the ether m.! rnei!l5-ur- inll)-Iber~·· C'vnfL.Dlppear can even from the (see The distances rtaetesa (ti9_ ~I zero be obselVlJr be of Fiig.$ that of •hi? cp.~u-n:m~~ll .r .Jghr_ QI'vG'S &ogr_ce . po'inl"t:d than <J'J'{l·id are .rge: ..2 . ·~AF 30 ... wldih ol rbe quane: of the al~(l no tne: plot tedlus fac.(f-ig.kly of a sfave.:.: l.rem ro 'eve.J .::".:..mj]rk~d and !by 30 9~ and to ri'ngs.'.::Ig.: !he I~e units rrll::=iJlSurir~!J field quarter are field Ji::!..:!!~ li:Je 5..a.1$ of "lIematAtlg The w-idth ..ilIne Doubling! r'e!oFJeCI. ~nown a= = .-:J1 'It~~lO!es..ie~J of .e..a-mile of bOT.$oIl~ .nds=.r-rn.rm~d!. 12 le-Io'el. 3ilC . etucs lndlcese btt:: ni-ttdo "e" feoen fh.!. jhe_ of of l'q'!.rk·t9 by squurcs th-iJ~ :ii. 10· met{.a pcs.r eceles..'e froom ena "iilha.iQnllnQl a..:c:o[.i.9 of T~"'MIt.~filI1C.in basal . to the IE:dt mi:l¥ ~!J ...el tl'-e. lor."tbl.appropri. TI". o!IH efe pa of one WilDE-SCALE RHASKQ.ar !)O" or scale ".iIi~ rhe by 'Jlhc~e hetqhr (J scales..5 black and 5 'wn11e b?lr!. obla. 'Iue thus. me!e[~).e~1i!4 ber s form the "'<~'IJ(lrre'r' ii:e-td'-'J which n<1:i the same wrd1".ma. r¢ferored to es .gr~wlh from.. nur.. I'J and h-eight . ~'e~omr)U8had racer.·tarJ...t€:meJ..t.j)1i~n of di. wflh P or 16.... ~e_g. me tbo!l. Mf 16) '0 ' 5. ~ol'dain t~~~..SKOP units In .)l4. i s illl-dinGJti~L')n ~IlIV.:tc'our'i!~ely pos..4 .l1l {for' tnis o'x!IImplo .lASKOP b~s. deqrees La(J'd~r at hom . 0:1 meters o!Q r~Jd!.cried tL} (J~ m>:l'tLCiiJ.'ir.HIS!CIti aree hm'j:o:ouili:i! f.1II (O\iJ~'11 .BAF ~. Tt'.. a.HSl.h t pole W"~oe- G.k~ted ~"'1O....e-:. rhi~ '031:5-0 . 0 ' ~.ar ne.g .h.:ile . in 1118 rriJ~I'll'dC 5. k = BAF 9.(I$!..adde:d~ However.

(:~l!!d !I"'!TIolE!r i!lo l:h...e for r"lt0!.d.1.. .! meesured' the ) gr.gfl.t!lihgl'. BQ{:lIu!'!oG' me~ri.. For ~ Ili{.dis. O.::I.... ·bU1. rea son.. RUj 4 or IRU/. i~!F-t~ild!.rmben: ~. ~ rn-C.S AT ANY 'llSIN" WID& SCALE RRASKOP M...n~"ion.itl.lj!Qe . ~I)"!!i3 .~ i~ . H 7 !jiuhl' ha:.j'I.5 . a.olt!C!~..IU8!'.ete-I':.:l'iI"~on a.c:.illi tufch {RUt fuU R:U 2I'~J or The left educ !a:s.::'l~s n ~f the -i3re -5~~PJ~ ri~~HI. 10 t. be avoided.Jrlor._J&!~r..". Ib~ length tli"iat is . = :.e light ed'tlp:! ~f '~he "om on'.r!'~y b. 3" . U 58 th.ci:lc:~ ifl tH-i1i.':Lrelr.~.! ij-.. 16doQI I~~ = 21 ~[:"Jcnl3:~.' arr:...g"u 'ba~ ~ ..Ir~n(l1 be tI ~er. f~! ~d·rnq-.!ig:hrs r~Dj ~c\!:e:~sihla di:r-cctly from nle '!)·QL.£1.illith .::rn 1 Rtl 2 i/p (0800. :.-(1.:lin qr Qfhelf" dr'C"um~lor-llcc-s:Jo p~ri'll"'li' ·o':iOr~i..!o oIIhJ. .F!fn!:!I1I·!':.HI'dll.eqlwivd..:I~Cler:.rin'g rhe. Thill 'rw:lu...r~ • . .. rm~lur 81 H[I..n~.'I<I:!d ('l.~q.:s.'1n be If!lol'ldQ Irom Q~"Ie pc·ill'" af e.l:I:5:a-tl ~b~-!J. .ed 'I.om '10 or ]'2 me~-e:u.I.t:81! ~:n me1en th .erlli ((:I = 23· in: !hi:. ~.of ba.("f"Hbed Ieddars. ~i~'d]~ir~~~ ~tn~1'l ld .)"'l1nlend~d· because II .. to . ncge·fll'1. so d~Ii.-1 Doi'l1g ..(a~ hf!: employeJ fL).-o."Irt~'1!' ~~i..:. lac. rt~m.~ ·!.q h!'.S5~~y· ~or .::I meters.lt Iho' d. i~ b-'l..ceril~im.io:.'I~·l)r.~ 1in~1no:)d. rn:irdlElti f1j~mb8.M.rd [::':uf'l"!·d. .n . 1~e. 1 ~U/.e teet iJc-r: alcre in'NQrth All7Ierl.l!1llnul!lbgf"S . tl W...rler~ield i:i O!:!~~jrni!lled bE!~.5 dU. c..r~f:"'Jg' :p.~WQ 1Il'i!.i!I'S"Urtc. . cletermirtod wilh . 'Q~ form .remen.J t!1g-s.slJdflgl i!..~y .5..o!'. ~T'r' I'ar! ·Ire€~.r'~g"l limit cf 'It.clir.e...=-ffiel~r.~d of 1 r.. .. 'Q".(.nit rt'Iillrked b-".J.I€.. Or. fr. Th~ pet ~t:Jr sf.31) oiIIr8! II:r.3(:. ~ilh· lh.o ·wilio!!.::: 'NIJQlb.n tope...::rrJ~t: A:DOE N..:.!:r.. e di .4 en. e<~ .!ql'::':. + 0.1 commercial '~pede.7..RriJ/4 = ~ ~~i.c:t~1..!.ddilr' Yilue hi h CQJ]U'cjut-ntIYr o ne [~..il1s.1 If! .e!l.im..ijJ lihe dbc:r. nd .Q"~il::J w!H LI...l"Ijd S)l'mbol.-clfr.no::.:! ijini·tf. :OUIi1ifl>g y.dtrerrtd.dOlS::' i~ "~4~'.te.Jd . • Qf ehcul 9'1 the :.. 1 'RUN = r....0 rbe : pomt of d.je I. rfiliQ*' '1:f1d d'iilimc.ecorvelenr [0 ~ rsc r t>em pf 1h!.• r.Jin~ when Jlffi(:lJl~ ~'Llpr.~lOt :iO . ilind iiio gn).. .\~· ~"!. th~. tf.s b.II!'r..~a:. accurate ·.rR.lllble t.pl.. In.111'.(.or -brcii!l!'j..l ~h.f.(I$"1Jr'Q' uf '!II[! I"pr..'5·li-u-1l d'j. foJ:t.~.e'1:I~'urilrlg' Q h.::eto" e"~~~e·...use.les.sed.Ij"l.iidc: b~~k ~t t'h~ lOp 'O~ 'tne rir...::re.r in!sjdc l:i~:rk .i::m:'Ii(!-~~r in 2~6.e linlJ':.~ .dj.. u" .! lenctb "..r Ih~· ba!..erN = ·. .!Irr.j RIJ/I!. l:h~ ertoaer .~rTI~~tl.(Jt· lTiIC!ters~.'i.:'I"km I~. ~tOrLlOllillal di5-1lilJ.·FI:! e)ft~.fJlifie:!.i::.:!! raspectfva Ol!i-tQn.-'~(_':P'~" firldi~l~ tf. br' I!:~ict:l~...~ 0.p8"".20 I~ 'r.F. en abacf ute ITuIEl...Jer dis.:~mpl@" i!f = 11e'''. witk Ihe-RF-! hS:KOr.. [fl.'V.~Il'USu'of IIJRU for ttve tree' count.1. ~:.r oil '= .J-tli..-~.lJ orhl9r ~n!~ Of lell!qt~ r.:.:.: tk:.!t!l S't.'f 'have -rc be -supolemen+ud h...ibta.~ [!. k'-f d'sJoInr..idJl!ld .(RilJ'i ·iilliI'@ ~OlJnl-i!'!f:I: 'I~ tk~ .:~' (I.:iIi1edl. ti'le.mill·ate~ t"'Ii3"i::e.• i!I!t.:!.:.j. The fDUO·.r$ ~.di~tan-eo!..k. ~h9 'v'iiIIlu8:S 1:5 ii11l'Id:1. there 'C..~:.("I:'-'I.ll. 'i!ln. il.'Jpr:.i!lj~di 5.. '!'hi'S: l"tlIiI'kes 'tne ta'blE!5 us. Im.llh31 R:ELASKO·Fi' lU. 'h~. Mdio"l~. t.[en~ Jloini' 'whl!.lev. f:0i'nl h of m=-"::Iw.f th-e h:mgfh mc~. od n 'I.Jno Hlp Gi·.:l-r. fr~d"[.s of 'ihe bil.n.(e~tJ: Fn)lfI'"ze:f:".. qu .~ k = k is o!!~ ~ O..meU'II!tjng 1. found ."5i'...3.~ .f!I':is d€!::iir.3561 HEIGHT \J _J M1 I :I HOW TO MEASUI!E TREE D'IAME'IEIl..merr lc system toll" tree ...:.:.• .:n:e t=.!. X 50 = ~7QC"m~.r.I':e h~s(-od! u. ..i!d~ 'l'hEi~f1:lIre Ih =.i?r 1ITt~·r.to de'lenY~irt~ lhc ~eit!hJI ..id.5. V' = thlP .~fj1h .. ~\ 'iirldi!:.!ls.r'n.t...)~ mc csercmcnr .wsr lh·G"!~onlill .bl.Ict('"rl"inirl. ..'I E:i(J(:I':!'.:Jif'ercof/ecre .1e.i1 tli.4.L o I V I~ hcrizonre l .. WWI ~hi.te.lTli8ter pm-i1s. A!I.B..s~ GIl!'! s.e· .:<31@"P" liils to bG ~~.f. .Irerneril.o:. Ylrtti ~. In.!d ..J..I:i:aon. rir'l'~'u.A (fia~e~~f.. em.oiII.:..ed r~ i!lJ hllh inro C'G..M~ meiliSUrli1~ tltl..rld r.abl. ..nri~' €oye Q. as ten." COITI:5H.Jng rule-s .nd d serineide stem' -..I':'1ilrrilitEon" .rom ttJ.!: v lP..er:. "..~. fhol..6 ~U/4 :. by u~[ng l'he rrner.$~~ == .~u. t.!: 'q~~rt~~ ~n't1· (lUJ/4) are (ounl~d le.{e d~tl_"!rmine.l.f I' f!-dgoe..for ... arid it ~i.e~te$. lIRLI. .nioi"l ~h~t the l~ I'h~ i~1'~ of :zem t"!o~ifr"L~..'ilI!:1iirdl..:I:1'lid A:n. ~fI ~hJ~. '1.:.. squur.!.-I.d ~h[: q!IJ~'~1f' Hejd.!r!l hll.tonce 1.:.=.ne:"cr.:ldlh@ 'itht~Ii'c~..b~r .. 1 RLI = 2~/'l' .?1l:i vC'r5~017l!: e:olTl'.11g Ter .08 in ·m&1:er.Qn.of J'i?~' ..~.er ~hese· 'V1~IUC!5 '~nm~'~tn.· S8C C·K:mlfJ~(!: ..lhcctareo 'Or ~ Im:. cor":ll._~.I.Jr1 i::I!...I. d~.4.. . ~()ij O'l lih<9 ba::.r.J't 1hc ~Q'p o~ the fi:r::.d by' th.y fh~.:l5. vse of Ihe L!<lrr. lHH'S 'tH~ .: 's'f~I'e:!-r:r:l.".Llr:"l!~l ~'he......:J. '11h'!:! fQJIITJ ·dM~e-~-i on '!I!'hi..ifle.I["in. Sf • " " ~lO 'indjntfl •.: ~~~.l.fJ'"...I'i'rltlid b.('~~hJ.~ RIJ L1f"1.eelees.iF...udkm of volumlJ tab[es in . for ~i1{lh species.. :!.:f tnce stem cointiid.~~ad of.s./idnhs wlrh e .)1 tn~5~h.s .!:h il"nsoe l~p..rllp~~).. '.l'rl '~~1 e.'t.The b"(:1~ I. ~per..l:' destred ch!::10~·11 of th c .h~ -::J~b-!.")~r cent ~~ the dh!'am'o Is.!~n'l to< TI4 ~o em..p-:n . e)o'e 1c!I.:·tly:f!~..1 RIj = '..!" '1 .s... 'hilVI3i il)' be use. en'll.:e ill 4 l[hg I. 1i-"iI:.t:it. ~ .:I.:l).if'iedi Uri the n.L:!" (l~~ired rneight" bG'low' d tne b·.. fl1ls..rnplt:} .:: .lJ.:!:r· (If 1r'l!!(l:!:i.-...eo'Un.Q.0 IFi'!!i.~q·.~ijilii"Gl>IJ. r:LQ!hl.i3' rQ'tlG {decim~n ~hiC"j. -700 ern~ ·25 '(:IT! = 2il·ull[~s .:.iiilt-l!l' bar (~.'t hj.':J'liofli ¢f &~am-=-k:~ Th'l.gt~ Otl1~SHd~ Ib.e.~ of dierrmtcr...cn'" cXQmpfq:: .-M).Ir~ ~2·: ~..:!W I~~~t!" l B mel'.cd as .0 poiE.~!F.:I.R\! •• ~b _~ .Q"W$.nce.fjh!= .' ~"I:\!ihl gf 1~l)inl:l.'1.t nn the Cl'lJi.ll 1 ::.r 7. !Inding.ter:.. l.~d.~ yi~"::: .~1Ij tine' ·c:!!'J·iJ..~lJl"rie ccsu-e.·no:.o de!iigniillla.1E!'fl'•. ~:ir!.f1.ilIQo'p"~d i.t High o~.:I1~r) f"<'I'" be....irrto rtie..h.j../23 'em '~i(j Ihi'5 ~J-:~. corF.ngl gf biilll'5 <i<nd ~h!l:l'ir' left . a.. im.::..'L~ .:i~hh.r meusur~m~nt5 of V...Jv. ·~x.tJ>B:reof .it'I: (VItka1" (.:6 .e~1.o Q.~ 0. IIl~l!..DUM~ squl.IIO·N!....Plk(l..1'a...n both atepe.Qr m<:!:~. t:!qL}~""'i:I.!O"ng 9!ti ...s.e-rve·r Is.d .·iI. lhe 1hejg. tht:r~fQre form .r~ ~'"'~Il ~HrJ ~h.ar of theln:!..t '.. me-I~rf: .:ned 25 ..t:.I'an.::'I.:i:j:i·D'''.6 dJ ili:l flU rather ·ih.-!1~1 eve IklC afto ul. Si!!lc? .ot:·e-fpF~J r~sl.11'1"1::: indk~l.1' : ~O<IJ._ ~ . th~ I E:!..g cea:fS 'tn..de"jlj.JiI"'I ..d ·diJe...illL:li~ iIIr./er'o::.:_.e Q~ hEh.. the..!"~~JoJt- .C\[!li.:l$'i is.: turso.. or 7 RiJ '10 ~~1C l'eN o~ .:. fi i~ ~.<md th(HfI convert to the o<th..t 1-1)·:2 m. to lille d. I:!dd{"!:r 'Uili~.Imb~!r o~' l'he iiIIF:i. O only by u~:.8. •.In~s..0 NIl'.:ie~rtlte :t~b.iI. ·'p.:I':.=..cenIJ.h::. ."50I9'Cred by.iJe p(lirittd iIIt i:ly ~he ftlu'r ro.. '(:2' ~o i.!:!.. 0 ~ WfCI plOint' I:I<f :th~ §..t r.. "25.m(!:~..J..nd ~moil.. 'OnE!' mc!e. c.H'I~ir ~lJ) 25 rna.r 'I...t!".. i RU/lI."le'.hi:"'!' cesar-ar-ea tac~ljr BoiII5"::1'i ere a ts measured ~Q •. 11 i-~ 6-1?h .:H::d .c1i. IL~dd'en ilire i1.HL::I· . Prec-i:!-E!. alue In mstera fP!J[T1 . ~ ~% mele~·.1" e s mcnv F_I!l:"f 'r!"!"fl'l !!_.22~'6 0+ the con'!i.52' em.'~I· ol H'l~ me'~::lLJring poj"'r:1I' i!.ur.prop'p. = -4.wc··lir~e-.. ~ro h to '1Ih·...JL oMOl'~rm·d ~1iI po f1(!.pli'He·s ·conl- + HOW TO DEURMINc: thlJ' 'GIRARD FORM-CLASS USING WIDE SCALE RElASKOP' r:u"lb'~ 1.. m All ev·e:rJ .1(11TI .nt~l'II"Iete·r:l.l(aTI.3.../.The rod ifli·8. E'. trnlG:kin-ei!.lF.m~·.ark: = 25· indhm)..P~ It':! cbreln h.::opl..I. GlGI~.iy M he.4: 10 '. since ::.:d dlame lcr..or 15 . or be fiJ(:!-Qtoi.4 RU. d~i!lmejc:r [n!'.g -::"tsi[!l"rn.imp~p.6. abr.iJ.u .O to: ~r.): the -ec. "~a" ~~ be st s. iI'I:' • = 20.jon . r J ~.:...·de-r ...~~.~ iil.l 'l 'li!U -= a2em . he sule i:.of.~i.Hte-r' h~rs.:.~ iill rnetl!:!r!3 di. Tlly!io... . t:IGO courvr -'I::' "W~II cs c de=e-rmh"'.ni!. hM!\~' line ~ho:uld be- '~C~!1i' ... menl e tOI"il!ii~1~ 6(. ver.'i:!".t... f·l)f" rreraece.. 5t:. e n~" 'st><I=CPc.lc·s ere er.: fo-rm '!:hs~c:....·~s. .iiD1lhe~d' Dri~y fil'DID 1 ~ao 9..a dillmel.• m' E~1.te~n...-:::he -cbscrvcre t hl)n... n bseaf.area C e tac I'Drs c i.nd 1 RU!4 = 1"... '!T08'S 'is' ~s5.tdn:c~ [)'I .~Xn.uf :the mf!l2i~u.r.d QP03 .· tp.!. for.16iN~..~.a.. 1y m re~l~vf.. ~"r) . Ufa...i~d ~d·'!J~.0 lJ-!. s.t 16-~t' JG..:.eJ by ~he zera Ili..v~~~ the ~h'eJi ti".iil'lg 1..l .d :w~rh rhe: 'Iadd~r $.::. Jl'lId e:li.'::'~I..

of the tne poeruoned . For(~r'llRJ~h S~..~'m :=:::: ]. ~:.:11'\ end rod as described ~~(J$~E:r' ~..g~. 'l c-fcor ~nQ: (o!.I:Eil. fOf.:.'N .~ledp.·tirril(lt-cd 'to oL!f:. di .:!n::a:d~=:iir"t":J" "P" ...07 = -. be reed ~:t .G{C.."II~-..·mr~~Ii.·A5.e!I'. . .::'Q~t LJ[l ..% Icrrn d.d~~1'Jm i~ a.re.:-is. be di~~ctlrritJ.£a_l~ :Rl.! '..I· :is ~Qw~ro5~ 'ilbotr~ 29~ 29'.70.'lJr.!l.% 71. §-5""~Cow'Eiv>?r.dcg'~C!'!.ed ·for rnE-ast.:I~ I·cl<-o] _'~i:ulcty of ~aln lI'E'scl''/.n Q~~v~!$~d .I(!.'Eo~Qht 'br~~s. at .E' j::. -0. bu·~.s.e' t'I~~ghl' wide~:.6 qUiut.iok..i5~~.s~~l_.lo?e f~li'· i)":':"-ITnc::f 'O~ 1. The . 'BIJ'~ iif a ~::..distuflt. round '.lI~e. 'Ia(ge f.iIlni··I~ Wid'e Seale f~~~o.ilIHr)e-·d. Ut):t cnc roosf r"lenlo!l!i"i"!b.=.r.lril 1]~Q.C!jffeiGI1IC-l3~ of.d cr 1hE' nGW ~i!I~'lIe ·(ali..1J.. = hom wherever IOO.Ib13ilPP.. eacf'L a F:::t'LASK-O~ Iml't ~qual.~e!i!I~'I. v@·rtit:.t~p 'is to ir"ll ~enjh5 T13' IJ~'~ il..' af m. ~nrOI.r =..~.i:alh 05 lof· ~hc wide seale.wnl!::li"I..:Ji~·e . Ir."e d~siroQ i (diHerenc.n..P. 'to just ~O..r ·fi'Bld m.~h'lA.s!j.p<!~ <gi\i~s.)n .dc$~..~ QI'bl.ti ve!=li~1 p'O-5j:td0r4~ The: r"~.tir19 rho? tree)... Wilh Too h. i'n Ihr.r.lCreby r:rotl~1iQIl.~-=r: pre(:i~io.:!J '1:h1J Cl..'Hirr.e-.td rn.j" i:J1lf-.e~ permqta 'EH"'Id krtowr'i 'the ne!:.g ~hLl! ~. ~:Gr bi!l~.Jn.?rizont.r't..':Ig. fig'l. !H't1e~1 t 'Ihe nil baSf!' and mi8't·8rs)i Ihe- !P·$c'Gi1e.dp _ ICG'.$'. 'j!h~ .l.]te.... ntaranee ~.8 de.b:e~~:h'·.od ~o!I.mli.oVI3" pO.ccnt..'.: foth.... 1'r..hi:: This.l<t1u.~iC!..~~~ example- 7.m-efi1' fLPr!tJ~rl..::should thet 1J~.hi~ . Io . stde bark.a+ .i:i!d t·kt!' Mf!'Ut.rre~led et ZI3. iding the fij1:1 .le~'t to :5 ~u and gi v e~'1 b. p~:~rrpo~.[r~dic~'led 1=~1I... no.'IS Ib~e..n~'..'c<tl!livi:.'. i.!IiieliP't:·tl!ld t!l . dp ed IP'=r ceru effe..4t:m.0 oo~nE::lde me2-s. .1n.:!ged·. n!'J.eFmir.oi1J[n.d IJ~~ dntence fecror ~II] -(Df l<O} wh. An error !HOW 10 MEASURE A.:re..~ ~![ [O~ in~..An."rugle' ofJ'f 1"' O.5 met.&'nel1 ~h~ lPe ..:'ll p<::l"~i~i0f'1..Q) .. ot InE'..L.ed ilil Il1j~ .l!j 6..! co-. lHo::Jri:. TrIG:r1I ahe lOp ro :!.::.I.:. SLl.j =-= :5 'Rl} per cent of lOt] per 'i:!::nt..e!~l'rnifilt'lgl ~r'QS~ prO'me'~.by m.lJllt ~'.!od~q. SPOillle.t.p r~::idil. do lO RItiI}.:m: 'of the. ..051T1..h th.:J.... 'C.n of !nD~SlJrifc~.'!e!..~.fl':::C: Om3' I<!U ls ~ql.h'E! Oe-scrRb..E!d 5l·ilff by . ~. ".1in.a.. iln R.:: p.adkwo!Ird.JiH. the uc-aloco .:.. d dls.-RU = ·J6<"" I IIU/4 .en I .amed = - 100.1har 1.111i(Jr.:lIrfi.JI..:J11 an.::or b.Uq~l'r' pasiti~n..lj1\ ln~lie.!frio c.a... 17 I. nc-B. cl.8'pcS up 10 6'8 per· o[o:s.]. ith ln- .r-o-. The "pr~ ~c.iQr! (H - ~)la~t. .:!.n..:. or . ~"I3'I...~er Milil:li.:.'!!'.8~i"I~·Or U1(:: !REl~¥Op unils.].-l~}'" Ihl'!' rru!i:isurir..:! ~C".d. er rcr wiH ljlf"lcr'eas. &d~g .!MIZ! ib~r .. ~::' ·EQbe m..'i@ Ievel..e~ Df!- 10 I:§ Dttl3rmin'8 . it will ~u-. I = ..ilrin'!il' po:i:Ii.iJI'!I e n1Icde· wH...Jg'h beJn.3'r' be d.i:irid p Stnee 0.~~i'llE'nr.] dis- h'll'l.gH~ d i -= ..glr~<c ·'.mi}'~ be lu:.' Ihe w..g:h:t.Irn [be (:.~ ~h.ign 1~ IE)(.!.I depe~:ld on the eeqoirurnenta b :s.. error of -O.iI!!·j'J.~I~· "P" .e~~.c.is·rar. _ _ {.oer . rnovir1lfj fcrW~.I~l!Ie a P'l!!l celli ·sbC'l. 'h. In :s.Jo tho.:l~in!bl di~~.e.(dbt-J ..Im OTI kcd~UiF~181tll~~oiln{e .5~p%..j ir1 'I:II€ mCoJ!5'lH'· value p w..g_:tj H~p· i~ .'''Ide in:t. rho!.e wjlh the sq.'yed! 's b\fo'l.:I <Ji~. (1~. c. then. 'lOt .:=.sed 1 an i'r'iiel'e.2.!fl.~ - 24.!::>y IJ~'I. Lengrn..J.Jl.n b~..w ·lilt ~ri~tru. the RHASKOfl reprd . '1Nfthd:i1 11l'i:ich.-e 9'.1Jo f': rLP~~eti[Jf1 .'fI~'i:I'$UI"I~I'rICJlts.}rlj E ·tBeRELAS:KOP :i1 is iJlj r.:6 K '9 ·15l em +: '.~di.ereO"ab~y emp~Qy.irJQI ~lhe "IeniciJl dbr. P'BI 'Ihe Wrn! -O'Q~eIIVel'\S Fr::Jc~itD.1 _'Ih~ tree h~J$ li"r'i.mtiJll . . ..~~ species.1~f"IoEi US!ING WIDE S'CAL:E RELASKOP Deaire.~~ woll •• her.d~ ! bIZ!' ].dtsmnce w~~'"' .f ·Glf..si. NIDW.:iI. w..:H~rnete'r RU are firsl 'l3qljli.JI"$kGp lWoils (IRU)~ to Ihi:.m\~ ho!1-oild O~ .e-.::. .:l!l"di . then de = -"i/o!! :dp.g I"tO!'li~(JfiJ"Hif-" 1'h. tree is.1.ividiuLlr dagree:i c~n . trl!l-e i$ l. e"'iif(~ l'h~:.er 1 RU is equtvelcnt the dbh.JeMrr'!:~~i"le:1i'It'l~I:rCl~11tal Iroo R~(I'cl drso·f ranee .u.11011 be ob~ailil~d '. of to-I'm dL':i.Hion. wl11.1.f1e... Wlien ·sigb.gd . ·[)o. :SI.j~ v.]ble fO{ !ev. - the ~[')~r.r~ al 1he of Ih~ r:.e:.rul~rhl :. :i-4 deterrrmmd.~.!~ll i w.llin.lo'...· naked ele".~ l'ol1~ Vot:ltlc~1 bese arid ·. ~~.ls k~' such than {mly 5 (fb!1 In E' . .PJ<:.el.:I:n. L tence er{(..9 ~eig:ht cd 16 Fee+ s.. 'Li.~~. ]00. ..'rld ~r. d.P.i.Ql~ re!I.:ltk) .:s:ih~..ei!ld'i"Jg:ii" T~ wf1a"t mexsme! dii. .du..(in tfor ."..0 degr. On 1he· r".nt.r~(:i.0 tripad m".iIi DISTANCE l[}i.[~" VCJtit.ablf~1"1 ht.I>Qlh..e..I3.:tCl!l'::" in..~ coreecrlon . of MI ~V 'i~.esured.e· .ii1 usia· IQ.I'im¥rl!!-c::! the ..clistence.e" o ofus error 'l3f 0.or.c.IRU/4).t.~.. per(!!'. wb.:....~tal'lr.11 be less es d&stan-cE' error de Ike !..fI.t tbG FQtl'TId~$~ II.J.Jl"iICe !.jll' emouras.be fl'Elll"ld.I 2..n:q~IQ IPf [J".: ~~ h i..:~·N.J tlii~.<1:". diHi8ir8nCE!~ ·of ~fe""ijl1iO--i1.IJ-~hi . b. B.mg thFJ' 1'11.:':~IJI.t!5 "~""iJm. ''''''5'I.$!'.lle·"P".lt U.1.i·..e re'5tp" ~l.i!l1l' ~nit.m.. I with . g:rvlCl~: .e-..h to 20 := the exts of lha I.is~al'~ I'cg and to ·I~ cleterrntned f.t·.e~"s.r .':!l'f.. ebeelned v-'Wll ~~~f. rod should 'be 1/10 oT !he dietence 'Ikat h b~f<r't[J me. GENERAL SURVEYING I~ Um APPUCATIONS. "..C!(anlop'!.e.€!r. -d~.~ fotr'the 111e.IlJS .m .c.[:li~ '1::-.10.. the \?iII1'u'-E:: the dbt""ite.~II of.2 x ~0.r ectuc! d~tei:"mir'lat!Oll .:iwir.na""e to Ibe c~tjm'.o'IJlc1hi.2 per cent In fhe :nl€a!:.i. 1 bu@: .1i~~. Gr~·.0. ~n 1O!!i!!f e.'1 '" M crm .) i~ to pe~r -cElnt ~.he· [mp(lIr((!Ir-.: J. cie = -dp.h.d·.rem. e Ihe: to l~ro.<3:i..Ih~ o!.e·c . (E'~"J r:e.le· Ihlil Iquoilner· field. Jbh ·{.0.. -=.n. iI hove -e... w·iH~i~ the ra'1'1ge wlrie/e tbi(.si~y '[(.(lr.ul~ip~'ied by 10 to '!J}::... is n.1)r-e·lTIocnt..2 IH)) .g"e-~ c:..d:i~ffle·tt::·i" ieee ....".:jtedl dbh (.:J.hoLPldl tbo.i. [I) 100/...I'I:!oI-!. et '!oil.!ot." + == ocme base le·'1. Dff llJ 0.1~~r'rii1 .cih ·im ~~Ii'f!'!~~t. minus..i~.~·.'p~' nd errest e per cern..c· d~IPCJJ1~1Hites.£.be empk. w-J.q~ (If :PfE)gl.'iiln(rted procedure.IS<cd Q-n" i:i tr~p~d..Co.w}: 10 based on e~Ufflai'.5..~ed~itk a hlVt!"!1wnen markii~. :rr. The ~I.f. e:: q:II:1:!s..a me1et._11..iJ.lIem~o~:~.ig'hl' above .'!q.l'l"ll~i! Fir:'1 J 'rih. Ur.".!-ild lc.B)r.~fl I!f.]:b.ing..?rs..hD~.<jl)~~fIl.(j Be hi!l~I'f or a! the center r:e. .e· pendulum Wi~h~ut'ICludJ'in'!J IUnt~1 .id.). de1r.!Idgl:!' ipr<i=!-.!'dl ~r:!'ct..rn.ciI· wjd" tine.::.r .H. i!lnd1't. (".~.t ~OO ~r meceure uhe next :s.C! ·bi!lFld w~clth.KOP' !~ l.~s in 3m~U .b['h t)e:lJnt. nr.1klll to· ?il":i ..~e(t't!ir. di-!oUH~CI.k~!.p8ci.'own HQl'iz.oiirrttEi'e 1. jt i~' 3uit~t:.IIt:J~..rii ~fi.'I. ~(!.iIre~ eccur'eto Thai Gf fo. e~e\fatiorn ~Is? ~ . .~ h'i~f~) ("""~len w(]f:j..j be f"1r~(I(e$t t:JJle·rerr:rlh_ Th~ rif:adir"l~:!.valeli'll to 10 pe-r cent pi ~~gw~ ~~!i.::.A pLin(:Jd'a.either.uriOQ width 0"5 wi~H1 Ihc ¥~r.j."" '9 <!!In.~ri the . .!l.diarance.:.:E!'P ~ ~~g'htiir"lg twice the upper wod::lfl"g umber.rdO(~·'Nf~. f=r"t!I_(:HODl:' ad .r.:.B.:It which =0 RU ~:(~'Glf.Jg. Edg~ . II.s·liI'l!9 i. Th~ II\~d.ro.n. :.e\ier.n~.2'm I[Q..g. )r'~I}'i a =.1""r·(. ~igbu oJ e.:ed!L~Ie ~.!' .im.]I PlJs+tlt:an·iirig.:!i 'of v R~UI..!~ly.':Jit. is..r .1het~ ~':::o:.~1!::'1 means qf u pO[G-.M' disi!imocs.~I~J. ahc "£M..sur'l8yfr1f]' rUiflle:d mo.y [beomplOl'eJ_ . . -dietancefrom the .~:le '~'Qi" ·w'il'hjtl ~ r~~IOr.d d.::.e..n!ll Wil:"'9. by Adcl li..Jred ei:tnlJr wi'tf. n'l(!':'~l. i '10-.70'" OJ whh tne' P.iI::iIJrill~ be .J.d.eme·ru 10' .1.:: ~rljn·' -60" !o l.u....$~opill£t distance is.I"I:d recetlston of. !~ ml!l.e-rJ [m[l.d in es't"irnoi!ll'Odl .J.36 per eenn.. At the eeme hnl~_ h()jw·.kud oye .sta")'. ~~amp~e~ . Hr-.E!'r1I._.e{w~v~.1:.! of i:I tr~lPod '.."i'te{'ilal kllo'Wi! ~ClSLtiQfI.

.. Ir.jve-r$itt."c::. .~i~Ae' m.ry -=1'!I_d . !. o! H..'In'ttlju('~J"'l..d~ r.~.!.9'I'. reiJo!!l ::led hom the pl)ml in .llW. f" dl.J1pcJb:"~II'Ii.H be.f. H:"j..U_ 1('.n~ .. f.:" C.:II@.:.~ t-ees -=_h.C'lJIfld.F.j ~riE!.r:.:!.fl~ighborii1':J t(r:.~g'.JRer ~CI p'ro~..-H r1t=!:rg·nb.-e'.oa~li~o. irl-).1JI11:=. AI~9 Forur-u..! 'll~.pe-ral~~.au£! ~'~ff.'i'i'i'!i he:1p of v o)-tiPD~b 'I. Por...]"5 arcens .i- VJir~kC\:.xpr.!IU'iO\'ili.::uT1inNi(Jn 55:~)S6'-659_ R . 'f.lor3l"ily b~irs RI~...os [1-~c. Ir'~{~ dteee eter Lr. l.F 3d!..e ~ljdC'·~~ate--'~ElAS. iH. roU1iMlrgl~.or .':'..l:~.f..: ~Hi fjpr~Cirl <!!n.· sr«! (.o('ker'~.h p1Jrpo~E-~).jc redudiqn of v .'[V'stores . ~':'I!J~~.i<1r1iC~~ '. .' Stale IS .a.~d -es'ill by ~ few m.ol1roJl angae~ 10' .. h'~ '~i~hal'd GOI'-.=.1(.e.:'H'Cr.~ before lh dim~"'3"tciofl IFh~~innmg ~Il'Oob'[ o ni"':-el-l...: 11\!!:k:irt-9 di.I'ah topcr"gr·l!lp~d..(:l t["iI:i)~.t Iiilre.~~ "racr in..--. Occ.~~n eulreble D~. uii"fd lir~r.:~·w~e re!aslu:::. L!. It i:. or by optlce! " luorij7[..~: s..'lr:le.t f.. JO:llil'_ sor..ie r 10 use R'U a.iJY be ~'.L:lr.ampling Cr::-fo. in RH.!!-m~r :r'Cga-.I.""f.. lix :-'lw_"~Yf:'!'d ~I. _.C' the unit::: (Jglj'~ ~ho:'lll1 'y'C'JUl" thumb_ n~~:>Q' units Gift.~. pn.s~.r'~ lr i:f•• :'I·WCf 't. J~1 ["oild.qlue<~~i"-m (lit (lrlt'!-r~ ls ees.. Due 1\) .1 mcceure Ihl"!" volume (:If (fI~ Dirrer~.1lI!'~!1 . (.cosraider nlC lhcre men! (.of th..'ring over the b(Jllr'r.lil_m to be f\)I. D-=11.ilH)c'~ by n' (2) m!?i'"Ili:51 ~1~'ti-C.tor'r'."!... rl"l. l (1' Exernole.>.I.Yf:dhc~is.lou .a .€' lF~h)....rkulhlr>:..ll_ f'IJIfd'.n'g 'Ii..r .nr. Or'c:gcu 'S..-lI: [:{ilfr.~r!._!· Wi:dth" r:. is [)d~ ccccrea« r.diU'l~ she '.::r. all 'd~.iilllcfe:nl Sp iif ui b~f.:. ::'iJ'( .·-f~ to ~'el'ii'l~iru the '!. r::()"f..lli''..U'ndar'll' _ J::. scale hQrllZOl'lIMI (l:n-..pl-.t'3r roc use _the wi. 'W'. Or~gci1_ 1962..(7) L ._1'~C5 . idl'~'~ ion tunctio..~t:!~rne-ll'i~ . \l'i.Jf.J.hIe.!"usmiing lo:-:::). lP~tDlToI-'!S.J-f.fa.jn"t· h. p .l::.t:p must h::: . r'f.'fiVh~f.).rj.~ .t~I('['. 'i.:...ion ra{:l1J rr'E!.~S .-f"I.::f iI..'. 50:32-37_ theotr."!as-ured .~KO~.t" L.rridl.:~l_[f~:~.aJe(P f-l)H.Jrid Jchn.::.-~..'I!'rQ1n. 5ainpli-nl.~ _1ho.h.'I. a pp:t.::'0(: .hr'IJfTl~r.:.~~ wI'r" 130 .P or D-s: clc-.i~~o~le!..l:iqr.«(l'l. s ame Wj'true ~(.ekes.n fixC'c1_l.RoI'!~'~.:..~l·'!h _' IB'UI-IC:t~1l No_ .1J.lit.. i~ tlu+ir mer ~il such ...eoJ"5t hi'!]n.[.E_~ ml:...~'lc_ [.ili·t.ao!lg]e..~:g.~·hich qllJidd'f.ouch HXilliolJn!o 01 p6:int:.i(p-.=.::r.:tmplillgt :.--..]rlJsl.hI m:!'.r l o.:tr.:J:"~ ~JF pipe 61Hbes Ijnd~'f !lrc.V~r"1' . .:.r ploce '.Jp. I:II~ the slcocs to rh'l~ P~(_"if. l£tl rescoreh ~v:cr~~1y..::'llIll~~ F!jr· '~L'(. li~. L ~!jtim.Jlm .5· 'r!timlb~r 'VJ form ~:~...Kor.-. i!IU\hnl)q\:ii 11 ~:<:.::I' I ':. ~IFlJ\SKOP ··.:'Ip~~me'.rlg' ~ IL1P€.9:·1-5.."c can "d. f~t.~~mplil'l:g' E.{I by I.() Ihc "r'elaai .!ii1h the. ~C:Je:. \i a r'j. '\!oi. -3lnd big S.:j'!'i· '~'_ $PIEGFL RE'[_P... Ot \(.~oIl ~. shovld be d<101Tl. '1'16..1.Jits i3n.f G~cr...s .mpol~d wflh thp. 1.r'~ (6) Cro::'f!o~'b<lIjQh..-~''I.urd hI"! fr':l.ViiHl~-r.::'s.J' 1T1.lSi) Coo.: '.:h"...o.jbo.H:f .II ~1t.d:i...'j.. r{:li':i lJ(~i0n.r':I1'ilfl2'::1 b'l' «mens c-r I~~II ac \P.-m~'~e:r":=' tor '11Q[1.Jf rhe se ti:l~j~::mee sneea H'i re-.p :::oml)If<I?:J :.~'. '.'1 of foI1c:a:'~~r'~ITi.. T W. 160_ SJHcrlioh.. ::::edi.l:£~ed djire-cl.:.he .:.~c ~o!!'lo.'in(lQw~.r K Hc rmano.! '1_' nile. I'.d Ao.arv 10 .ifm~ the irr(JJ-. S::'..R.JS:" ot :F.::t tbe tP-O"inl il\i qtJc.::rt. Pqiim-:s.-.br't'-sr~)I'. (h-Z:i'illrl erf COIl'[l~.'. l's ..d we can use t:"pc rneaeurce frc. FoOL 19~J'.ab.. rI ~!(.uT].Or'If. l hreeP.h l'tJelp. (":5-) GlrQsen~:.!.r. stcnes in RU. b~fC:J.h~:epe-r.:I'.f hl)lf~es. . b. dc~crilm-d .:.n of ~1(jp. (i!"n: meaStrr'. .. It" 12fc. -eas. Sou h. ili:d"':t<:'JIi:!( Ir. J~o!. plat -nd (31 Dilveurtjt.'et ~0 i(~ lJlo.~ .! I and U'I't"!o.':UIC fo .J.'di.frts.. rnodcm QF~tic.clf:f - new.R':?.s breas+ higl:! Qf I'-t?"=~~ fc~r '..-:u:gr.vcrjical m itl.m. . J'o.ge r 'ninlt . 51.d~r'2d."nd . j-.. prn:tplical'Qn" 19.Jlh '~hn~~e ~~o:'I:5. oercus... l. rl'&usl be elimmstcd temr.iliw!gh.l O~e diail"JIo:-:lr.'. ·...ii·lme ri.~Oreg~)n_ 19"1!_ - \'rlli(lbl<: k4J Gr.~"'k..n~llc. Beers.!w meters r.)ri'r.:<:rhliP~~b~.">bi~i't'j.:!j<lni:l P/'4~ Oie 'Point 7E 6.4._ Fi)l.rd~8'!-.?1T. W..·d(~il'S de-eper than.. C.>!..·.'!TI pL)rim and ~o rhe: full_IV.ntillil.re Un.