DELTA SCHOOL OF TRADES 5418 PULASKI HIGHWAY BALTIMORE, MARYLAND 21205 410-485-3449

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DELTA SCHOOL OF TRADES WELDING HANDBOOK

CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGES
SAFETY FOR WELDERS 3...17 SMAW STICK 18...31 SMAW ESSENTIAL VARIABLES 32...42 GMAW MIG 43...58 GTAW TIG 59…71 CERTIFICATION 72…80 BASIC JOINTS 81…88 WELDING SYMBOLS ___ 89…102 PRACTICES_____________ __ ___103..140

THIS TEXT WRITTEN AND PUBLISHED BY;

NORMAN J. ASHLEY DELTA SCHOOL OF TRADES First printing January 2000 Latest Printing March 2005 Revised September 1st, 2007

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CHAPTER ONE SAFETY FOR WELDING
SAFETY FIRST CLOTHING FOR WELDING WELDERS UNIFORM FOR DELTA SCHOOL OF TRADES WELDING MACHINE SAFETY SHOP AND WELDING ENVIRONMENT SAFETY HANDLEING GAS CYLINDERS GENERAL SAFETY

STUDENT OBJECTIVES
STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO: 1. List and describe the type of clothing appropriate for safely welding. 2. List and describe the 8 items that make up the welders uniform used at Delta School of Trades. 3. Describe the safety guidelines relevant to working with welding machines at Delta School of Trades. 4. Describe safety rules relevant to the welding shop and environment. 5. Discuss safety issues relevant to using gas cylinders in the welding industry. 6. List and describe 4 items related to safely picking up loads in the shop 7. List and describe safety concerns for using hand grinders at Delta School of Trades.

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4 . lighters. WORK PANTS The pants should be close fitting and made of a heavy material such as work jeans. Overalls are appropriate if other clothing is worn under them. Open pockets may trap hot sparks or globules of hot metal that could burn the skin. Safety boots with steel toe caps are advisable for welding shops and work to protect the feet. Students and employees should continue to take an active interest in safety throughout their careers. Leather laces that will not easily burn or smolder should be used. BOOTS High top leather boots are required for welding and general shop use. Welding is an Industrial trade and as such has many hazards that can cause injury if the proper safety guidelines are not followed. it is important to wear the proper work clothes. The following describes the type of clothing appropriate for welding operations. It is advisable not to have metal keys or other devices dangling from the pants that could arc against the work surface. Matches. Like the shirts the pants should have no frayed edges or torn areas in them. WORK SHIRTS Shirts should be made of thick heavy materials such as heavy cotton or denim that is not easily burned. CLOTHING FOR WELDING Since welding produces intense heat and hot sparks that may cause serious burns. The work shirt should not have any torn areas that allow hot sparks to penetrate. Canvas boots or dress shoes should not be worn. The boots should fasten all the way up to prevent sparks falling into them. The shirts must be long sleeved and should not have pockets unless they have button flaps on them. In addition to the safety guidelines for welding training there are many safety rules that apply to the welding field in general and to the particular company you will work for. The shirt should not have frayed edges that sparks from welding can easily ignite. or paper materials should never be carried in shirt or pants pockets when welding. Wear heavy work socks not nylon or thinner socks for added protection against sparks. Spats or leggings are leather pieces that fit over the top of the boot to prevent sparks falling into the boots and are available at welding supply stores.SAFETY FOR WELDERS SAFETY FIRST Safety should be the first consideration when beginning any Trade. The pants should be long enough to cover the top of the boots and have no cuffs that may trap sparks or hot slag.

The protection equipment is used to safely view the arc and make the practice welds at the school. There are a variety of welding helmets and styles available. It is the same type of personal equipment all welders use on the job. for the following items: 1. The flip front allows the welder to view the weld area through a clear lens. The cap must be compatible with the welding head gear called the welding helmet. The Welding Uniform is the individuals’ choice of manufacturers and styles. WELDING CAP 6. LEATHER WELDING GLOVES 3. and the auto-darkening lens. the wide lens. WIRE BRUSH 8. PLIERS 1. THE WELDING HELMET The welding helmet is designed to protect the welders face and head from the ultraviolet and infrared rays of the welding arc. WELDERS UNIFORM FOR DELTA SCHOOL OF TRADES Students or welders at the School need to have the proper welding protection equipment in addition to wearing the proper welding work clothes. SAFETY GLASSES 5. THE WELDING HELMET (WITH SUPPLY OF LENSES) 2. especially in other than the flat position. while allowing the welder to view the molten weld pool or puddle.CAPS A cap or some form of head covering should be used for welding. while still wearing the helmet. LEATHER JACKET OR CAPE SLEEVES AND BIB 4. 5 . Welder’s caps or welders beanies (cap with no peaks) are available from welding supply stores. SLAG (CHIPPING) HAMMER 7. to safely slag the work or use a grinder. among them are the flip front.

The wide lens helmet offers a wider view of the weld area. (Approximately 4 X 5 instead of 2 X 4) A flip front model of the wide lens helmet is also available.

The Auto darkening helmets have a lens that is clear to allow the welder to see the joint before striking the arc. As soon as the welder strikes the arc, the lens darkens to the normal view of the welding puddle. The auto darkening lenses are very useful for; production welding where small welds can be made without constantly lifting the hood; for precise restarting of the weld; for striking the arc without hitting the surrounding area or other parts; for grinding and oxy-fuel cutting.

Auto darkening lenses may also be purchased to fit into a standard helmet. The auto darkening style of helmet is a lot more expensive than the standard welding helmet and is not essential for use at the school.

The welding helmet usually comes with a filter plate (dark plate) and a clear lens on the outer side. The filter lens should be shade number 10 for most welding. Check the documentation that comes with the helmet for information about the other lens shades that are available. 6

If you use a second clear lens on the inside of the helmet it protects the filter plate when the helmet is laid down. It is critical to clean welding lenses daily and change the outer lens when it gets pitted or scratched, about weekly at the school. If the inner clear lens is in good condition simply swap it for the front clear lens and place a new lens on the inside. The dark filter plate, if protected by the cheaper clear lenses should not need to be changed. Filter lenses and clear lenses are available as plastic or glass. I prefer a Glass filter lens for better viewing and plastic clear lens. Make sure you have an ample supply of clear lenses.

2. LEATHER WELDING GLOVES The welding gloves required for welding are the gauntlet type gloves that cover the forearms. Work gloves are not appropriate for arc welding. Lightweight gloves designed for TIG (Healy Arc) give the welder a better feel for manipulating the TIG torch and adding filler wire. The TIG gloves are not designed for STICK or MIG.

Gloves that are used to handle hot metal may become hard and brittle and crack. Use only pliers to handle hot weld coupons. Wet or damp gloves should never be used for electric arc welding. Gloves that develop even small holes should be discarded and replaced before continuing to weld. The less expensive work gloves may be used for general shop work, but should not be used for welding.

3. LEATHER JACKET, OR CAPE SLEEVES AND BIB The leather jacket, worn like a coat, offers the best upper body and neck protection from sparks and hot metal globules typical of welding positions other than flat. Most jackets have an inside pocket and snap all the way up to the collar. 7

A lighter jacket made of fire retardant material may also be used in welding shops. Some of these jackets have leather sleeves. These jackets are good for light welding, but will wear and develop holes when doing a lot of vertical and overhead position welding.

The Cape Sleeves and Bib outfit may be made of all leather or the fire retardant material shown above. You can select either just the sleeves or the cape and sleeves or the cape and sleeves with a front bib. Although open in the back, the all leather cape sleeves and bib are a good less expensive substitute for the full leather jacket, and is practical for all welding positions.

Note: the bib may be sold separately

4. SAFETY GLASSES Safety glasses are mandatory for all industrial applications, and recommended eye protection for many hobby or home projects. In the welding environment Safety glasses further protect the eyes from the intense ultraviolet and infrared rays of the welding arc. Welders may get a condition known as an eye flash, either from striking an arc without the helmet in place, or more likely, from other welders working in the area. People that work around welders, are also vulnerable to eye flash without the proper protection. The safety glasses must have side shields to protect the corner of the eye when welders are working close by. 8

and headache. It is my experience that the flash will clear up without long term problems if you avoid further eye exposures. Consult a doctor if problems persist more than 48 hours. The two most common types are the wire frame and the wood handle. to protect the sides of the eyes from exposure. an inability to keep the eye open and focus. Painful problems from the flash usually start several hours after exposure (At Night) and may last all night into the next day. WELDING CAP A welding cap protects the head from sparks flying over the welding helmet and from falling sparks while welding overhead. A cap with a peak worn backward may also be used. redness swelling and watering. The symptoms include: A feeling of sand or grit in the eye. Many flashes come from other welders and can burn the eye from the side. IT IS CRUCIAL TO WEAR SAFETY GLASSES WHEN WELDING If you wear prescription glasses. intense pain. A cap with no peak called a beanie is a popular choice for welders. The slag hammer may have one pointed and be shaped like a chisel on the other end or have two chisel shaped ends. burning. 6. 9 . SLAG HAMMER (CHIPPING HAMMER) A slag hammer or sometimes called a chipping hammer is used to remove the slag from the completed stick weld. you should use side shields that slip on to the frames of glasses.An eye flash occurs when the unprotected eye is burned in a similar manner to a sun burn on skin. Goggles that fit over glasses may also be used 5.

Of special interest is their safety Standard Safety in welding. 8. The American Welding Society (AWS) has available several documents concerning safety for further review. WELDER AND EQUIPMENT SAFETY IN THE WELDING FIELD In addition to wearing the proper welding uniform there are a number of safety issues that welders must be aware of. or a pair of locking pliers.7. or other hot metal. Using only gloved hands can result in a burn or at least shorten the life of the gloves. WIRE BRUSH A wire brush is used to clean the weld layers between passes and to clean the completed weld. The following is a brief review of some of the guidelines for welding safety: 10 . Cutting and Allied Processes ANSI/AWS Z49. may be used. PLIERS A pair of pliers is used to handle the hot weld coupons. A simple pair of slip joint pliers. make sure you understand the safety guidelines in effect at your company.1.

Special precautions must be followed when welding in confined space. in case of shock the welding machine may need to be shut down quickly. cloth.WELDING MACHINE SAFETY Before doing any welding read the manual for the type and manufacture of the machine you will be using. Do not attempt to repair welding machines unless you have been trained and qualified to do so. Frequently check the ground and electrode cables for bare spots or damage. paint and oily or greasy materials. ground clamps or electrode holders Always wear gloves to insert electrodes into the electrode holder. Check to ensure that insulated parts such as the electrode holder are not damaged exposing live parts. In special circumstances an assistant is posted to act as a fire watch. Keep the welding area free of containers that contain combustible materials. If the power source is in a remote place use a lock-out system or have another employee watch to ensure no one turns on the machine. make sure you do not work alone. The clothing should be dry and free of grease or oil to prevent flash burning. When changing electrode holders. or otherwise working on the electrical circuit make sure the machine is turned off. Other safety issues apply to Motor generators. tanks. 11 . The welding machine is an electrical power source and should be installed by a qualified electrician or properly trained personnel. You should never weld on drums. ground clamps. Never leave electrodes in the electrode holder when not welding. Never drape the welding cable over your body to weld. paper. Wear the proper clothing and safety uniform to prevent contact with live parts of the welding circuit that can cause severe electric shock or even death. Make sure the welding area is dry and do not weld in rain or wet conditions. Only qualified personnel should repair damaged cables. use welding helmets with forced air or use respirators. for example. SHOP AND WELDING ENVIRONMENT SAFETY The welding environment should be well ventilated using fans and extraction devices to remove fumes from the immediate breathing zone and welding area. In case of fire. or any closed containers unless properly trained and qualified personnel have authorized their safe use. you should know where the closest fire extinguisher is located and that it is fully charged.

Use a respirator in a well ventilated area or weld outdoors. Know where the first aid station is located and report all accidents regardless how small. sparks from welding can travel some distance from the welding area. Welding helmets that incorporate a hard hat are available from welding supply stores. A hard hat may be required when welding on some applications. grinders. metal. Some companies require employees and welders to wear ear plugs in noisy environments. 12 . Make sure you are aware and understand the safety guidelines that apply to other shop equipment such as. Falling objects may endanger you or co-workers. Remove the coating by grinding prior to welding. Burns require immediate treatment to prevent infection. Keep the welding area clean and free of clutter. When welding on galvanized or painted surfaces toxic fumes may be released. hand tools and machinery.Be aware of where co-workers are and what they are doing. excess welding cables and anything that could fall or cause tripping accidents. Certain types of metals also require the use of a respirator. saws. Always warn coworkers when you are about to start welding. Welding curtains may be used to contain welding activities.

They should only be moved by securing them in an approved cart. Chains. and other devices where there may be a possibility of the cylinder slipping and falling should never be used. 13 . The cylinders must have the metal caps in place to protect the valve stem assembly of the cylinder before moving them. dragging or rolling them. magnets. contents and weight of gas cylinders used in the welding field it is important they be handled with extreme caution and in a safe manner. If cylinders must be lifted they should be properly secured in an approved lifting cart or on a platform. Cylinders that are transported over the road should be secured in the upright position with their protective steel caps in place. regulators or equipment. Gas cylinders should never be moved by carrying. Hammers pry bars and similar tools must not be used to open a stuck cylinder valve or remove valve caps. If the cylinder valve is damaged the force of the escaping gas may cause high pressure cylinders to fly around uncontrolled and cause damage or serious injury. When not in use they should have the regulators removed and the caps in place. The following safety guidelines are suggested for safely handling and using gas cylinders. Oil and grease should never come into contact with the oxygen cylinders. If a cylinder is leaking gas it should be moved outdoors and the gas supplier should be notified immediately.HANDLEING GAS CYLINDERS Because of the shape. slings. since a chemical reaction between the oil and the oxygen may cause a fire or explosion. Cylinders must be chained or secured in the upright position secured on a cart or fastened into a welding machine cart.

Use only the approved cylinder wrench to attach regulators and hoses to the cylinder.Never weld on the cylinders. Since regulators are designed to blow out the front and back if they fail. argon and 75-25 have a double seating valve and should be opened all the way. Make sure no one is in front of the cylinder when you crack the cylinder. Before attaching the regulator make sure the adjusting screw is backed out and loose. 14 . Excessive wear may cause the edges of the connectors to become rounded and make it difficult to fit any wrench on them. Fuel gas cylinders should only be opened about ¼ turn or until the gas registers on the regulator. The use of loose fitting wrenches on the soft brass connections may cause excessive wear by slipping on the connections. This action is known as cracking the cylinder. or allow the electrode to come into contact with them and establish an arc. Use only the approved regulator and hoses for the type of gas being used and never use the same regulator and hoses for different gas contents. The cylinder the cylinder valve must be cleaned before attaching the regulators. stand to the side of the regulator when opening or pressurizing the regulator. The high pressure cylinders like the oxygen. Standing behind the cylinder quickly open then close the cylinder valve to allowing the high pressure gas to blow out trapped dirt. so they can be shut down quickly in an emergency.

Do not lay the grinder down until the wheel has completely stopped. Make sure the safety guard is on the grinder. Use the face shield and safety glasses when grinding.GENERAL SAFETY LIFTING The following are suggestions for lifting objects in the shop: 1. GRINDERS Metal hand grinders are used at the school for grinding edge preparations and cleaning up. Use the handle supplied with the grinder. There are repair centers that specialize in safely repairing damaged grinders. Do not leave grinders plugged in and unattended on the workbench. Ask for instructions if you have never used a hand grinder. For heavy items ask for help to lift and move them. 4. Never attempt to repair or work on grinders other than regular maintenance. Use lifting devices for extremely heavy material. If you purchase a grinder. 2. or repairing weld passes. read the manufacturers handbook and safety recommendations supplied with the grinder. The following suggestions apply to hand grinders: • • • • • • • • • • • Never use a grinder that has bare wires or a damaged cord. 3. Use gloves when moving metal or pieces with sharp edges. Use the stronger knees to bend and lift not the weaker back. 15 . Use gloves when grinding. Make sure the sparks from grinding do not present a hazard to co-workers or Cause a fire threat. Make sure the cord or extension cords do not present a tripping hazard.

Many Industrial accidents can jeopardize your career and future. Take an active interest in safety as it applies to your job and environment to avoid personal injury. Safety is everyone’s business. Continually review safety guidelines and Material Safety Data Sheets that pertain to you and your company.CONCLUSION There are many and varied safety guidelines that apply to particular Industries and companies not covered in this section. 16 . never compromise safety to get the job done.

Read and follow all available safety guidelines for the shop environment and equipment you are using. replace defective equipment such as. gloves with holes or other equipment with evident wear and tear. 6. 3 Always seek first aid for minor burns or cuts. Safety clothing must be worn at all times regardless of personnel comfort.CHAPTER ONE SAFETY FOR WELDING KEY POINTS 1. Take an active interest in safety on the job and the rules and guidelines at your place of employment. 17 . or approximately weekly. pitted. 5. They should be cleaned daily and replaced when scratched. 2. Always use clean welding lenses. 4. Always wear safety glasses on the job. for example do not remove leather protective sleeves or jacket in hot weather.

CHAPTER TWO SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING STICK INTRODUCTION DESCRIPTION THE ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT FOR WELDING THE WELDING MACHINE TYPES OF WELDING MACHINES ARC BLOW 18 .

3. 5. 6. List and describe the 4 basic types of welding machines. 19 . Describe how to start an Electrode (rod) by tapping or scratching. polarity and type of current used in Shielded metal arc welding. 2. Describe the Shielded metal arc welding (stick) process. List and describe the controls on typical welding machines used at Delta. 4. Describe the welding machine. Describe the problem of arc blow when using DC current and how to reduce the effects.CHAPTER TWO SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING STICK STUDENT OBJECTIVES STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO: 1.

The term stick is a reference to the electrode used to provide the filler metal for welding with this process. a welding cable with an electrode holder to hold the electrode and a ground cable with a clamp to fasten to the work-piece to complete the circuit. the metal being welded. THE ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT FOR WELDING The electrode has a metal core with a covering referred to as the flux by welders The metal core of the electrode is either the same as. its portability. The Shielded metal Arc Welding process is one of the oldest and most widely used methods of joining metals by welding. 20 . welding is done by setting up an electrical circuit using a welding machine to produce the electricity. The process is popular because of the simplicity of equipment involved. The process may be used to weld a variety of metal types and shapes in any position.THE SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING PROCESS STICK INTRODUCTION The shielded Metal Arc Welding Process (SMAW) is also widely known by the shop term Stick Welding. reliability and adaptability to outdoor use. DESCRIPTION In the SMAW process. or is compatible with. The weld is made by touching the electrode to the work-piece closing the electrical circuit and causing the electrode to melt and form the weld.

penetration. These characteristics include. spatter. the gap is referred to as the welding arc. The covering also aids in arc stability. The distance from the tip of the electrode to the work-piece can be varied from lightly touching the work-piece at an angle sufficient to maintain an arc to a distance approximately equal to the electrode core. Electrodes are classified by the American Welding Society based on their specific requirements and intended use. the current and polarity. slag type and weld appearance. 21 . The covering on the electrode decomposes during welding to provide a gaseous shielding that protects the molten weld puddle from the nitrogen and oxygen in the air that can cause welds to become brittle or have holes (porosity) in them.The main difference between the electrodes used to weld mild steel is the composition of the flux. Electrode guidebooks (available at welding supply stores) are a good source of information regarding appropriate choices of electrodes. Manufactures add Ingredients to the flux to influence the characteristics (the way the electrode operates) of the electrode. KEY POINTS: The slag should be removed before more welds are added to the joint when multiple pass welding. To start the weld the electrode is tapped (or scratched like striking a match) on the work-piece then immediately a small gap is held between the electrode tip and work-piece. Since the gap creates an electrical arcing effect between the electrode tip and the work-piece. When viewed through the welding helmet’s filter plate the molten metal from the melting electrode and work-piece is known as the weld puddle. cleaning (deoxidizing) the metal to be welded and forms the protective black slag that covers the weld metal.

When the electrode cable is attached to the negative terminal and the ground cable is attached to the positive terminal the polarity is Direct Current Electrode Negative (DCEN) or sometimes called Straight Polarity. 22 . The machine may produce either Alternating Current. Some machines have a switch to change the polarity.THE WELDING MACHINE The welding machine (or power source) may vary in style and type but they all produce a steady flow of electrical current with relatively low voltage to maintain a welding arc. When the electrode cable is attached to the positive + terminal and the ground clamp is attached to the negative – terminal the polarity is Direct Current Electrode Positive (DCEP) or sometimes called Reverse polarity. or offer a selection of either Alternating Current or Direct Current. some electrodes are designed to work best on one polarity or the other. KEY POINT. To switch the cables it may be necessary to loosen the terminal bolts or plugs may be provided. The type of welding machine used for stick welding is known as a constant current machine which means the current stays relatively constant as set by the operator while the voltage varies with the arc length. Direct Current. while on others the welding cables must be switched from one terminal to the other. Alternating Current does not have a polarity (direction of flow) since the current constantly alternates from one direction to the other. Welding machines that utilize Direct Current usually have a method of changing the direction of current flow (polarity) in the welding circuit.

(Arc blow is the deflection of the arc from its intended path caused by the magnetic effects of the direct current. The size of the electrodes to be used determines the amount of amperage the machine will need to produce. 4. TRANSFORMER – RECTIFIERS. TRANSFORMERS. The electrodes selection is limited to those designed to operate on AC current.The welding machines may be further classified by input line voltage which may be single phase or three phase for example: 230 volts 460 volts or in some cases 110. INVERTERS 1. 1. Since with stick welding the welder must stop to change electrodes the duty cycle may not be as critical as with Mig welding. MOTOR DRIVEN GENERATORS. TYPES OF WELDING MACHINES There are four basic types of welding machines that produce the required low voltage high amperage constant current for stick welding. One of the most important considerations may be the amount of amperage the machine is capable of producing and the duty cycle. 3. The duty cycle may be given in a percentage for example: 60% duty cycle means the welder can run at capacity for 6 minutes out of ten. TRANSFORMERS. These machines produce only Alternating Current (AC). AC Transformers or alternating current may be used to virtually eliminate the problems of arc blow when using Direct Current. 2. These machines are often used by home hobbyists.) AN AC TRANSFORMER MACHINE LINCOLN AC 225 AMPS 23 . These machines are relatively simple in construction with low power consumption and are economical to operate. A transformer welding machine takes the high voltage low amperage line current and transforms it to the low voltage high amperage current suitable for stick welding.

TRANSFORMER – RECTIFIERS The Transformer rectifier welding machines changes line current to suitable welding current similar to the transformer machine except that the addition of the rectifier changes the output current to Direct Current (DC). when the necessary components are added. MILLER MULTI – PROCESS MACHINE 24 . Some machines produce only DC current TRANSFORMER RECTIFIERS MACHINE LINCOLN IDEALARC AC DC 250 AMPS A multi-process welding machine is one that may be used to weld with STICK.2. allowing the operator the choice of AC or DC current. On some machines a switch is used to pass the current through only the transformer to produce AC current. MIG or TIG. The addition of a polarity switch allows a full range of currents from AC to DC electrode negative or DC electrode positive. KEY POINT: Some machines require the terminals or plugs to be switched to change polarity.

MOTOR DRIVEN GENERATORS In the motor driven generator. The fuel gas types are the type of welding machine commonly seen on trucks and job sites. Models available provide either constant current used for STICK and TIG or Constant voltage used for MIG or may combine both.3. the motor turns a generator to produce the electric current for welding. The illustration below shows an invertec V 250 S which is a DC 250 amp stick welding machine used at the Delta School Of Trades. INVERTERS Relatively recent technology has allowed welding machine manufactures to take advantage of electronics to rectify and transform line current for the welding circuit in a much smaller size called inverters. LICOLN INVERTEC 250 AMPS 25 . The great benefits of this technology include the production of a line of machines that offer smaller more portable multiple process machines that are capable of providing a range of amperages and are less costly than traditional machines. Inverter models are available that produce either DC current or offer a choice of AC or DC current. These machines may also have components added for multi-process welding. The motor that turns the generator may be powered by electricity or by a fuel powered internal combustion engine driven by gasoline or diesel. MILLER TRAILBLAZER 4.

(3) RUNNING LIGHT OR PILOT LIGHT The pilot light is red when the machine is on and running. Two of the welding machines used at the school are the Lincoln Invertec V250-S and the Miller Dimension 400. The higher setting may be used for esier arc starting with some electrodes. These machines will be used to describe the welding machine controls. (2) THE NEGATIVE AND POSITIVE TERMINALS The negative and positive terminals are used to change polarity between Electrode positive work negative or Electrode Negative and work positive. LINCOLN INVERTEC V250-S CONTROLS (1) ON OFF SWITCH The on off switch is pushed upwards to turn the machine on and down to turn the machine off.WELDING MACHINE CONTROLS There are a variety of welding machines produced by manufactures for stick welding. (4) HOT START The hot start Control regulates the amount of starting energy when initiating the arc in Stick welding. The work (ground) cable plug and the Electrode cable plug are twisted. Although controls may differ with machine type and style. 26 . pulled out and switched to change from one polarity to the other. each with their particular arrangement of controls for selecting the variables for welding. they serve the same basic functions.

(2) RUNNING LIGHT The running light is red when the welding machine is running. or when a hand operated remote control is used. The SMAW SOFT setting is used to soften the arc for Electrodes like the E-7018 and E-7028. This control is often utilized for adding a foot pedal when TIG (GTAW) welding. 27 . The GTAW setting is used when the TIG (GTAW) equipment is attached and aids in touch starting the arc. The SMAW CRISP setting allows a crisper arc when using Electrodes like the E-6010.(5) AMPERAGE CONTROL The amperage control sets the amperage for Stick welding and becomes the upper limit when using a remote control. (8) THE REMOTE CONTROL The remote control switches control of the amperage between (9) REMOTE RECEPTACLE The remote receptacle has a cover that can be removed to attach a remote device to control the amperage from zero to the upper limit set on the machine. (3) STOP SWITCH The red push button switch is depressed to stop the welding machine. (7) GTAW SMAW SETTING This control offers a choice of GTAW SMAW SOFT OR SMAW CRISP. Adjustments are made based on the type of electrode and the application. The arc is more forceful or digging at the higher settings. (6) ARC FORCE This control is used to adjust the force of the arc. MILLER DIMENSION 400 MULTI-PROCESS WELDING MACHINE CONTROLS (1) START SWITCH The black push button switch starts the welding machine.

The higher numbers indicate the amperage level for stick welding. When using E7018 Electrodes the lower range is used to lessen the effects of arc blow.(4) PROCESS SELECTOR The process selector is used to switch from CC CONSTANT CURRENT used for Stick (SMAW) and Tig (GTAW) welding to CV CONSTANT VOLTAGE used for Mig (GMAW) welding. ARC BLOW DESCRIPTION A condition called arc blow may occur when using Direct Current (DC) to weld some joint designs with the stick welding process. The direct current passing through the electrode and the base metal sets up a magnetic field around the electrode. There are two sets of numbers around the dial. Severe Arc Blow may appear to the welder as if someone is blowing the arc with an air hose. 28 . (8) AMPERAGE METER The amperage meter or AMMETER is a gauge that indicates the amount of amperage the welder is using during welding. Examples: When using E-6010 Electrodes the higher range aids in striking the arc. (10) THE REMOTE CONTACT SWITCH The remote contact switch is a toggle switch with two settings ON or OFF. The lower numbers in white squares are read as voltage for Mig welding. The switch position is off for stick welding and on for MIG welding or Tig welding with a foot pedal attachment. The Ammeter setting will fall to zero when the welder stops welding. (6) AMPERAGE CONTROL This control is a dial that is turned clockwise to increase the amperage when Stick welding or to increase the voltage when Mig welding. The force of this magnetic field can be strong enough to pull the arc from its intended path causing an unstable weld puddle resulting in a poor weld with excessive spatter. Arc blow may become very severe at the ends of a joint for example. The switch position is off for stick welding and on when using a remote control device such as a foot pedal. the top part of Vee groove or when welding the inside corners of a T joint. (5) ARC CONTROL The arc control dial provides better arc starting for certain electrodes when Stick welding. (9) VOLTAGE METER The Volt meter acts in the same manner as the ammeter except it shows the voltage during welding. (7) REMOTE CONTROL SWITCH The remote control switch is a toggle switch with two settings ON or OFF.

If forward Blow occurs. prior weld bead or run off tab. Caution must be used to prevent burning the ground cable. place the ground connection at the edge of the joint to be welded. WORKING WITH THE GROUND CLAMP Arc Blow usually occurs either forward or backward along the joint being welded. Try uncoiling the ground cable and electrode cable and stretching them out. but two ground clamps. try moving it as far from the joint as possible. Although using AC current virtually eliminates the problems associated with Arc Blow it may not be possible to switch current on the machine or use another machine.REDUCING THE EFFECTS OF ARC BLOW USE ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC) Alternating current flow changes direction constantly and as a result the magnetic field does not build up enough to cause severe arc blow. Try some of the following: Weld the outsides of angles. Try adding a connection to the ground clamp so that you have one ground lead. try moving the ground connection to another location. and arc blow prevents producing quality welds. Place one clamp on opposite ends of the section to be welded. When welding certain joint configurations. Try one or more of the following tips to reduce the effects of Arc Blow. 29 . If you are unsure whether forward or backward Blow is occurring. place the ground connection at the start of the joint and weld towards a heavy tack. SEQUENCE OF WELDING The effect of Arc Blow may be reduced by changing the sequence of welding. If the ground connection is very close to the workpiece. Some welders wrap a short section of the ground cable around the workpiece to set up a magnetic field to counteract the effects of the magnetic field causing the Arc Blow effect. if possible switch from Direct Current to Alternating Current. If backward Blow occurs. channels or beams first where arc blow may not be as severe.

do not change the angle. especially on root passes when welding grooves. Maintain a short arc length and decrease the length of arc if Arc Blow occurs. such as the E-7018. such as the E-6010. helps to lessen the effects enough to finish the weld bead. If possible use an alternative electrode. use a series of shorter welds in staggered locations to completely weld the joint. when arc blow occurs. WELDING THE ONE INCH VEE GROOVE One of the projects at the School is to weld a vee groove in the vertical up position.Place a weld at the opposite ends of long sections first. Use a smaller diameter electrode if possible. Try changing the angle to follow the direction of blowing. Instead of welding from one end to the other. Use the lowest amperage setting practical. Keep the electrode angle low and steep. If Arc Blow occurs on the first pass keep the arc length low and the electrode pushed against the backing strip. Slight angle changes during welding. If the electrode burns down on one side. TECHNIQUE A change in technique will reduce the effects of Arc Blow. Check the amperage is set correctly and not too high. Stop and change the direction of travel when Arc Blow occurs. 30 . have iron powder in the flux and are more prone to Arc Blow. even if the electrode seems to burn down one side unevenly. When welding the first and second passes Arc Blow may occur at the top inch and a half. Start well below the joint on the backing strip and run the bead out past the joint at the top. for the root or first pass before using the E-7018 for the balance of the passes. Weld towards a heavy tack weld or prior weld. Use the backing strip as a run off tab. Try the following: Change the electrode angle. Turn the arc control settings on the machine to a lower value when welding joints that seem prone to Arc Blow. Some electrodes. Try the following to reduce the effects of Arc Blow: Make sure you put a heavy weld on both sides of the backing strip in the flat position before welding the groove.

The stick welding electrical circuit is made up of the Welding machine. The weld is started by tapping or scratching the electrode against the work piece.SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING KEY POINTS 1. 5. 6. Recognize and reduce the effects of Arc blow when using DC machines or use Ac machine. Electrode. In reverse polarity the electrode cable is attached to the positive terminal of the welding machine and the ground cable is attached to the negative terminal. and Ground cable. Electrode cable. The polarity in AC (alternating current) changes constantly and requires no adjustment. 31 . In Straight polarity the electrode cable is changed to the negative terminal and the electrode cable is changed to the positive cable. 3. Work plate. 2. 4. Electrode holder. 7. Learn about the type of machine you are using on the job and how to set the controls for the specific job conditions.

3. 4. Angle of Electrode. Length of Arc. Speed of Travel. 5.CHAPTER THREE THE FIVE ESSENTIAL VARIABLES OF SMAW (STICK) INTRODUCTION 1. Current Setting. WELDING DISCONTINUITIES 32 . Selection of Electrode. 2.

Maintain the correct angles of electrode while welding. Select the correct electrode for a given application. 33 . 5. 7. 3. 2. List and describe the five essential variables of Shielded metal arc welding. Control the proper speed of travel while welding. Set the correct current for a given application. Maintain the proper length of arc. Recognize and correct welding discontinuities. 4. 6.CHAPTER THREE THE FIVE ESSENTIAL VARIABLES OF SMAW (STICK) STUDENT OBJECTIVES STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO: 1.

8. 1.THE FIVE ESSENTIAL VARIABLES OF SMAW (STICK) WELDING INTRODUCTION Welding is a practical skill that requires continual practice and careful attention to the variables that the welder controls to improve. 9. CURRENT SETTING. and the type of current AC. 6. LENGTH OF ARC. Review the following five essential variables and the weld discontinuities that may result if control is not maintained. for example an E6010 should be used with DCEP (direct current electrode positive). 34 . The old golden rule “practice makes perfect” applies to welding in that the more you do. as long as you or someone evaluates your welds. ANGLE OF ELECTRODE. Some electrodes are designed to work best on DCEN while others allow a selection of Current to be used. The chart below shows typical amperage ranges Amperage may be referred to as the heat by some welders. CURRENT SETTING. DC means direct current and can be set for Direct Current Electrode Negative (Straight Polarity) or Direct Current Electrode Positive (Reverse Polarity). the better you become. the type of electrode. The welding current or amperage is essential to producing welds with good appearance and the required strength characteristics. KEY POINT: An easy way to remember the variables is by remembering the first letter in each one spells the word CLASS. 10. DCEN or DCEP you are using. The amperage is set from recommended ranges according to the size of the electrode. SPEED OF TRAVEL. The term variable as used in this text means something the welder has control of either before welding or during welding. Some electrodes are designed to work best on a given Current and Polarity. The welder controls the amperage variable by setting the amperage on the welding machine prior to welding. 7. KEY POINT: AC means Alternating Current. SELECTION OF ELECTRODE.

If necessary reduce the amperage from lower to highest amperage until a satisfactory weld bead is produced. The chart below gives an idea of the evaluation process. 4. 5. 2. Compare the two welds for evidence of a well formed bead. 1. and a smooth transition into the base metal. A B A) Amperage correct B) Amperage too low C) Amperage too high C 35 . Run a practice weld at the lower recommended range setting. lack of defects. good fusion. In example A the E-6010 weld made with the correct amperage appears properly formed with the appropriate width and consistency. In example C the weld made with amperage setting too high appears wide and flat with excessive spatter and evidence of undercut. It is important to try different setting to avoid wasting time with a setting that is to low or to high and will need to be changed later. Run a second practice weld at the higher recommended setting. 3.An excellent place to find amperage ranges. The amperage range is fine tuned by the welder to the correct amperage before welding on an actual workpiece or testpiece by running practice welds on a piece of scrap metal in the position of welding as follows. recommended current and polarity and information on electrode applications are the Electrode Selection Guidebooks available at any welding supply store. In example B the weld made with amperage setting too low appears thin and stringy.

36 . When production welding flat or horizontal the drag method is often used for ease in welding and faster travel speeds. If the voltage is increased too much the arc may become unstable and result in a poor quality weld. The Arc is the term used to describe the distance from the tip of the electrode to the base metal and can be varied from lightly touching the metal at an angle sufficient to maintain an arc to a distance far enough from the base metal to extinguish the arc. The correct arc length may vary according to the type of electrode and the position of welding. especially with larger or iron powder electrodes. The correct amperage is one that provides a good weld and is not based on a specific number on the machine. The machine increases the voltage as the arc length is increased to maintain current flow at the amperage level set on the machine. so set the amperage for your technique. When a slight gap is maintained the force of the arc provides a weld bead with a slightly flatter appearance with less chance of slag inclusions and better joint penetration. If the electrode is held in contact with the work using the slight angle to maintain the arc it is referred to as the drag technique. if the machines are not calibrated the same. The length of the arc gap affects the appearance of the weld. One welder (operator) may prefer to use a slightly higher setting and travel faster than you. In Shielded Metal Arc Welding (Stick) it is this arcing effect that creates the intense heat required for melting the electrode and the base metal together. You may want to use higher setting for welding flat and horizontal than for welding in other positions. This technique is often used to weld in the flat and horizontal positions. If contact with the base metal is made too quickly however. if you are welding multiple passes in the vertical position and using a weave technique you may need to increase the amperage when weaving over a prior weld bead.KEY POINT: Remember conditions may change for example. LENGTH OF ARC When electricity is made to jump across a gap it is said to arc across the gap. A setting used on one machine may need to be adjusted when using another machine. the electrode will stick or freeze to the metal. Another method to employ is to allow a slight gap between the electrode tip and the base metal. 2. The welding machines used in Shielded Metal Arc Welding are known as Constant Current machines which mean that the current stays relatively constant through changes in the voltage.

If the arc length is too long and the voltage increases it may seem as though the amperage is too high or the sticking caused by too low an arc length with some electrodes may seem as though the amperage is too low. I believe a flatter somewhat less rounded weld can be achieved with a slight push angle when welding flat and horizontal. The electrode for a given application must be selected carefully to provide the strength characteristics required for the weld joint. SPEED OF TRAVEL The rate of travel across the joint is controlled by the welder during welding and greatly affects the appearance and strength characteristics of the weld. When welding in the vertical upward position a more extreme angle using the side of the electrode seems to produce a flatter weld with tighter ripples. The first angle is the one formed between the electrode and the base metal. A weld bead that is too slow a speed will result in a heavy weld that has too much convexity. penetration and a gradual transition of weld metal into the corners of the joint. KEY POINT: because of the high deposition rat of an E-7018 electrode it is more difficult to weld vertical downward. Note: The direction of travel across the plate for both drag and push methods: The work angle should be one that places the weld metal between the members to be welded in the manner desired. The travel angle for the flat. The amount of weld metal deposited (weld deposition rate) and the travel speed may vary with the type and size of electrode being used. the welder must be able to read the molten weld pool as the electrode is manipulated across the joint. The weld metal will be deposited in a relatively straight line from the tip of the electrode to the work. A weld speed that is too fast results in a thin stringy weld with poor strength. SELECTION OF ELECTRODE There are a variety of electrodes available for welding a wide range of metals. These handbooks provide information from electrode classification to application and usability. horizontal and overhead can be either pulled or pushed and the travel angle for the vertical can be either upward or downward. 37 . called the travel angle. ANGLE OF ELECTRODE In the Shielded Metal Arc Welding (STICK) process there are two electrode angles that the welder must control. 4. called the work angle.KEY POINT: make sure you are maintaining a proper arc length before adjusting the amperage on the welding machine. The second angle is the angle the electrode is held at relative to the direction of travel. 5. The correct weld speed will result in a well formed weld bead that shows good fusion. The decision to push or pull is largely one of experience and practicality. Since the travel speed is not timed in stick welding. One of the most useful tools for electrode selection is the Electrode Handbooks available from welding supply outlets. 3.

penetration and appearance of the weld. The electrodes are classified by a letter and numbering system as follows: The tensile strength is defined as the ability of the weld metal to withstand forces acting to pull it apart. The last digit indicates the type of flux or electrode covering and in turn determines the type of current. KEY POINTS: The E-6010 and E-6011 Electrodes are similar with only a slight change in the electrode covering to enable the E-6011 to be used with AC current. Some of the most widely used Electrodes are those used for welding carbon Steel. These electrodes have shallow to medium penetration making them useful for welding thinner 38 . Further some electrodes within the available scope are designed for specific purposes. These electrodes have a certain amount of moisture content to enable the forceful arc and should not be stored in ovens. The following are some commonly used electrodes and their characteristics. The following is a brief description of the most commonly used electrodes for welding Carbon Steel. The E-6012 and E-6013 electrodes are also similar with some variations in the electrode covering.In general the electrode weld metal must be matched to the type and composition of the base metal being welded. Because of the arc characteristics they may be used on dirty or rusty metals and for root passes in open root grooves and pipe. These electrodes have a deep penetrating and forceful arc with quickly solidifying weld metal. They may be used in all positions including Vertical Downward.

sheet metal and for welding gaps due to poor joint fit up. an irregularity or imperfection in the appearance of the weld or surrounding base metal. The E-7028 is used for flat and horizontal position only and may be used with a drag technique to produce a smooth weld with good appearance. A defect is defined as. WELDING DISCONTINUITIES If control of these variables are not properly maintained the result may be a weld with one or more discontinuities or defects. Trapping slag may be a problem when using E-6013 at lower amperages or on dirty metal surfaces. Both the E-7018 and E-7028 electrodes are Iron powder Low hydrogen electrodes. Because these electrodes are low hydrogen they are the choice for welding higher carbon steels. A short arc length should be maintained especially when striking the arc to avoid surface porosity (tiny holes). The addition of Iron powder to these electrodes covering adds to the available weld metal resulting in heavier convex welds.sections. a single or group of discontinuities severe enough to cause rejection or rework of the weld or assembly. KEY POINT: A discontinuity is defined as. 39 . These electrodes are classified as low hydrogen meaning they are low in moisture content and should be stored in ovens or moisture free environment once the container is opened.

When the five essential variables are properly controlled the weld profile should be properly formed and free of discontinuities. Weld Profiles Note: In the above diagrams the size of the fillet weld is shown in dotted lines and the throat is from the root of the joint to the face of the weld. 40 .

CHART SHOWING DISCONTINUITIES IN SMAW AND THEIR CAUSES DISCONTINUITY Excessive Convexity Insufficient Throat Undercut POSSIBLE CAUSES Slow travel speed that allows weld metal to build up Welding currents too low A combination of Travel speed to fast and current too high Improper placement of weld beads when multiple pass welding Amperage too high Arc length too long increasing the force of the arc so that it cuts into corners Improper weld technique causing the corners to be left unfilled or cut into Groove joint not completely filled and overlapped Using the wrong electrode angle causing the weld to be deposited to heavily on one side Using the wrong angle on multiple pas welds Causing the welds to overlap incorrectly Amperage too low Travel speeds too fast Using too large an electrode for the root of the joint Improper electrode angle at the root of the joint Improper weave technique Using the wrong electrode for the desired joint penetration: (using E-6013 instead of E6010) Amperage too low Travel speeds too fast Improper electrode angle at the sides of the joint Improper weave technique that does not allow enough time at the sides of the joint Using the wrong electrode for the application Amperage too low and /or travel speed too slow Electrode too large with low currents Dirty base metal painted or galvanized surfaces Arc length too long especially with E-7018 Electrodes Moisture in low hydrogen electrodes Wind or fans strong enough to break down the shielding gas Improper manipulation of the electrode especially with E-6013 Improper cleaning and slag removal between multiple pass welds Using the wrong Electrode for the application Using Excessively high amperage on some metals Amperage too high Electrode angle too extreme Arc length too long Insufficient Leg Size Poor Penetration Poor Fusion Overlap Porosity Slag Inclusions Cracks Excessive Spatter 41 .

SPEED OF TRAVEL. The 5 essential variables must be controlled to produce a sound weld without discontinuities. 4. 7. AND ELECTRODE ANGLE ARE THE KEYS TO PRODUCING A GOOD WELD. CONTROL OF THE FIVE VARIABLES CURRENT. ANGLES. LENGTH OF ARC. Maintain the proper speed of travel for the entire length of the weld. Always set the current on scrap plate before welding. 6. 42 . 2. Visually examine your welds to determine if you need to alter any of the 5 essential variables to produce better welds. Always check you are using the correct electrode for the application before welding. Make sure you maintain the correct angle of travel and work angle for the entire weld. Use scrap metal to experiment with changes to the essential variables. 3.CHAPTER THREE THE FIVE ESSENTIAL VARIABLES OF SMAW (STICK) KEY POINTS 1. 5.

FILLER WIRE (MIG WIRE) 6. THE MIG WELDING ARC 7. THE WIRE FEED UNIT 3. THE WELDING MACHINE (POWER SOURCE) 2.CHAPTER FOUR GAS METAL ARC WELDING MIG THE MIG WELDING CIRCUIT 1. USING THE MIG WELDING PROCESS 43 . WELDING GUN 4. GLOBULAR TRANSFER 9. SHIELDING GAS SUPPLY 5. SHORT CIRCUITING TRANSFER 8. SPRAY TRANSFER 10.

5.CHAPTER FOUR GAS METAL ARC WELDING MIG STUDENT OBJECTIVES STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO: 1. Describe the controls on the MIG machine. 7. Describe the Gas metal arc welding (MIG) circuit. 4. 3. 6. List and describe the major pieces of equipment used in the MIG process. Describe the controls on the MIG wire feed unit. Describe the filler wire used in the MIG process. List and describe the 3 methods of metal transfer across the MIG arc. 44 . Describe the main shielding gases used in the MIG process. 2.

and rate of travel speed across the joint. The process is also widely known by the shop name MIG (Metal Inert Gas). THE MIG WELDING CIRCUIT Welding is done by using a constant voltage welding machine to supply the power. wire speed and gas flow are set by the welder according to recommended ranges for the application before welding. the mig welding process is faster. The name Metal Inert Gas was used when the process was first developed to weld Aluminum using an inert (chemically non reactive) gas supply. The process has evolved to become a favorite choice for welding steel with gases that are not inert. and break the arc. MAKING THE WELD The voltage. easier. 45 . gas flow. The welder then controls the nozzle distance from the work. After positioning the gun. This makes Mig welding cost effective for production welding in fabrication shops. and requires little cleanup of welds. a wire feed unit with an attached gun to feed the filler wire to the arc. At the end of the joint the trigger is released to stop the wire feed. and a gas supply system to shield the weld area.GAS METAL ARC WELDING (MIG) INTRODUCTION The term Gas Metal Arc Welding is the American Welding Society’s preferred name for this semi-automatic welding process that uses a wire feeder to deliver the filler metal to a hand operated gun to produce the weld. The wire fed welding arc is capable of joining thin sections and bridging gaps in poor fit up situations. When compared with Stick welding. the angle of the gun. the welder pulls and holds the trigger to start the gas flow and the arc.

while others have a separate wire feed unit attached.TYPICAL MIG GUN MAJOR EQUIPMENT FOR MIG WELDING In addition to the safety clothing and hand tools generally used in the welding trade the major parts of the Mig welding process are: 1. The Amperage in Mig welding is controlled by the wire speed setting on the wire feed unit. SHIELDING GAS SUPPLY 1. This means the voltage remains relatively constant as set on the machine. THE WELDING MACHINE (POWER SOURCE) Although there are many styles and designs of MIG welding machines produced by manufacturers. THE WIRE FEED UNIT 3. Some Mig machines are designed with an enclosed wire feed unit. The welding machine is classified as a constant voltage Machine. TYPICAL MIG MACHINE WITH WIRE FEED ENCLOSED 46 . THE WELDING MACHINE (POWER SOURCE) 2. The welding machine is usually set to provide DC reverse polarity current. WELDING GUN 4. while the amperage increases or decreases according to the arc length. in other words the distance of the nozzle and wire from the work. they serve the same basic function.

These units typically use a small one pound wire spool.MIG MACHINE WITH WIRE FEEDER ON TOP Smaller portable units are available for light shop work or home use. 47 .

These meters show the amperage and voltage during welding. OFF: RED PUSH BUTTON. 3. This push button stops the machine. CONTROLS: 1. This Dial shows amperage intervals in regular numbers and Voltage settings in the white squares. 2. 4.The Miller Dimension 400 Combination Mig. For example: 150 Amps or approximately 18 . 7.20 Volts. ON: BLACK PUSH BUTTON. Constant Current used for Stick and Tig Welding or CV Constant Voltage used for Mig Welding. 6. VOLTS OR AMPERAGE DIAL. This is a push button that when depressed starts the machine. The remote contactor switch should be set to ON to enable the Mig Gun trigger as the remote contactor. Make sure the lever is pushed up for CV when Mig Welding. VOLT AND AMP METERS. CV mode for 5. This lever selects either CC. 48 . Remember when mig Welding to read the numbers in the white square. The Arc Control setting is not used for mig welding and is disabled when in the Mig Welding. REMOTE CONTACTOR SWITCH. Stick and Tig Machine used at the School is shown below with a description of the controls used for mig welding. CURRENT SELECTOR. ARC CONTROL.

The pictures below show the controls of the Miller S-52 wire feed unit. 2. The filler wire and gas are fed to the Arc by the attached gun. MIG FEEDER CONNECTION. 9. Although styles may differ they serve the same basic function. The remote control switch is used for Tig Welding with a Foot pedal. 49 . A gas cylinder with attached regulators is hooked up to the wire feed units solenoid to supply the gas shielding. REMOTE CONTROL SWITCH. This unit is used to describe the controls on a typical wire feed unit. The wire feed unit supplies a constant and smooth rate of filler wire from a spool mounted on the back of the unit. The wire feed unit is connected to this receptacle for Mig Welding. The wire feed unit used with the Dimension 400 Welding machine is the Miller model S-52 located on the top of the machine. and should be in the OFF position for Mig Welding.8. THE WIRE FEED UNIT The wire feed unit may be placed on the machine. located close to the machine or built in to the machine depending on manufactures style and type of machine.

WIRE SPOOL The wire spool shown holds about 30 pounds of wire when full and sits on the wire spool hub at the rear of the wire feed unit. The pressure can be increased or decreased using the thumb screw on the clamp bridge. 4. and used at the school. 50 . Too little pressure may cause the wire feed to slip or skip. The wire size is 0. are a set of upper and lower rollers with grooves that pull the wire from the spool and drive it through the gun. PRESSURE SPRING The pressure spring clamps the wire between the guide rolls to feed the wire through the gun. WIRE The Type of wire shown. GUIDE ROLLS The Guide Rolls.035. The guide rolls and wire used above are size 0. To change the guide rolls: The adjusting spring is released and the gear cover flipped back to access the guide rolls retaining screws.CONROLS 1. 3. When the gun trigger is pulled. Once the new rolls are installed the retaining screws are replaced. is classified as AWS ER-70S-6 used for welding mild steel structural shapes. the wire is drawn from the underside of the spool through the guide rolls and the gun to the weld zone. part of the wire feed system. while too much pressure may flatten the wire or cause it to freeze up. 2. The rollers are sized to match the wire used. the screws are removed and the rolls are pulled out.035.

and welding position among other variables. TRIGGER PLUG The trigger plug is attached to the trigger receptacle to enable the gun to remotely activate the wire feed and gas flow. size of wire. 12. GAS PURGE BUTTON The Gas Purge Button is used to purge the gas from the gun when the gas supply has been turned off. The appropriate setting depends on. Pressing and holding this button allows the gas flow to be adjusted without starting the wire flow or the arc. 9. 10. For normal operations using an attached Mig gun the switch is left in the Standard position. When a remote device is attached to the remote receptacle the switch is in the Remote position. 7. WIRE SPEED CONTROL The Wire Speed Control is used to set the rate of wire feed through the gun for welding. REMOTE SWITCH The remote switch has two settings Remote and Standard. BREAKER The Breaker is a Circuit Breaker that protects the Motor of the wire feed unit from overload. 14. The Wire Speed is co-coordinated with the voltage setting to produce a smooth arc. TRIGGER PLUG FRONT VIEW Another view of the Trigger Plug attached to the trigger receptacle 13. The wire feed control is marked in graduations of ten and ranges from zero to 100. 11. The switch must be off when switching to Constant Current mode and Stick welding to prevent the gun from inadvertently arcing if it comes into contact with the work surface. WIRE JOG BUTTON The Wire Jog button when pressed and held advances the wire through the gun without energizing the gas shielding. SLOW-FAST WIRE START SWITCH The Slow-Fast Wire Start Switch is used to set the initial wire flow start as either a slow start or fast start when starting the Arc. 15.5. After the Arc is started the wire speed reverts to the speed set on the Wire Speed Control. the metal thickness. GUN The gun plugs into the wire feed system to accept the wire and gas supply and deliver them to the welding arc. 51 . 6. FUSE The Fuse protects the Wire Feed Unit from overload or an internal short. ON-OFF SWITCH This Switch is used to activate the wire feed unit and turn it off at the end off the class session. 8. The wire jog button is often used to advance the wire when changing wire spools.

16. welding lead. TYPICAL WELDING GUN WELDING LEAD The welding lead cable is constructed to allow electrical flow. WELDING GUN The welding gun is attached to the wire feed unit to deliver the filler wire and shielding gas to the welding arc. 3. GAS HOSE The gas hose attached to the wire feed unit allows the shielding gas to be fed to the attached Mig gun. REMOTE RECEPTACLE The Remote Receptacle is used to attach certain remote devices and the remote switch located above the receptacle is set to the remote position to activate the remote device. the welding lead has a gas hose running through it to carry the gas supply and a liner to conduct the wire. GUN LINER 52 . In addition to the electrical wiring. 17. The gun assembly is made up by the gun head. conduct the shielding gas and feed the filler wire through the gun to the arc. power connector and wire feed connector.

Argon may be used when welding non-ferrous metals (metals that contain little or no iron) such as. and a head consisting of a gas diffuser. Argon is used in mixture with other gases because of its ability to stabilize the arc and reduce spatter. SHIELDING GAS SUPPLY The gas is usually supplied from a high pressure cylinder chained or secured on. or close to the welding machine. BERNARD MIG GUN HEAD AND PARTS 4. ARGON Both Argon and Helium are inert gases. HELIUM and CARBON DIOXIDE. Argon is 1. 53 . The gun has a power connector that plugs into either the machine or the wire feed unit depending on style and design. the gun also has a wire feed connection. or copper and its alloys. Magnesium. In the case of the units with a separate wire feeder. The principal gases used in MIG welding either alone or in a mixture are: ARGON.4 times heavier than air and blankets the weld zone to protect the weld zone from the air.GUN HEAD AND PARTS The typical mig gun has a handle with a trigger. Aluminum. contact tip and nozzle. which mean they are chemically inactive and do not directly affect the Base metal or Weld metal. The safety rules for handling and using cylinders from the SAFETY SECTION must be understood and followed. a neck shaped like a goose neck.

Before welding consult Gas suppliers. If the filler is designed for Flux Core the letter may be a T for tubular wire. The S designates Solid Wire. Carbon Dioxide is often used for its relatively low cost and good penetration characteristics. Engineering. or shielding gas charts. When pure Carbon Dioxide is used as the shielding gas the welds that have a rougher appearance.HELIUM Helium is used for similar applications to Argon. In the above the Tensile Strength is 70. The AWS (American Welding Society) has developed a system of numbers and letters to designate filler wire type and usage. The filler wire used for welding mild steel at the school is the AWS ER-70S-6. and a less stable arc than when used in a mixture with Argon. 54 . Other numbers may be used in place of the 6 to designate other desirable weld metal characteristics. CARBON DIOXIDE Carbon Dioxide is a chemical compound of one part Carbon and two parts Oxygen. This gas is commonly referred to as simply 75-25. The 6 is used to designate the usability and characteristics of the wire. more spatter. Carbon Dioxide may be used for welding carbon steels when the filler wire with the appropriate deoxidizers are used. Supervision. Helium provides deeper penetration characteristics than argon but with a less stable Arc. GAS MIXTURES There are a variety of gas mixtures available for use with the MIG welding process that combines the advantages of their component parts. Helium and Argon may be used in gas mixtures to combine the benefits of each component part. but since Helium is lighter than air it requires higher flow rates than when using Argon. Although not an Inert gas.000 pounds per square inch. This wire has good penetration and deoxidizers added among other weld metal characteristics. It is critical to select the gas shielding that provides the best weld characteristics for the metal being welded. The letter and number designation is as follows: ER – 70 S 6 The E designates Electric Welding The R designates Filler Rod The 70 designates the Tensile Strength The two or three numbers following the hyphen designate the Tensile Strength (the ability of the weld metal to withstand forces acting to pull it apart) in thousands of pounds per square inch. for welding thicker sections. The wire size used is 0. In some cases a letter may be added at the end to designate other materials have been added.35 commonly referred to as just 035 (0 thirty five). FILLER WIRE (MIG WIRE) The filler wire used at Delta School Of Trades is one of the series designed for welding Low Carbon Steel and is supplied on 30 pound spools that are attached to the back of the wire feed unit. At Delta School Of Trades the MIG welding process is used to weld mild steel in all positions using a popular gas mixture of 75% Argon and 25% Carbon Dioxide. or for automated welding applications. Helium produces a hotter arc and may be desirable for welding applications that require a higher heat input such as.

GLOBULAR TRANSFER 3. Globular Transfer may be used to weld in all positions and the arc makes a hissing sound. Some machines designed for Mig welding are set for DCEP polarity only. 1. Short circuiting or short arc is used extensively for welding sheet metal or angles etc that are fabricated and do not require a great deal of strength. Globular Transfer occurs with higher voltage settings than Short Circuiting Transfer and results in deeper penetration with a flatter weld bead. The short circuiting transfer usually occurs when the voltage is relatively low. GLOBULAR TRANSFER Globular Transfer as the name implies is a metal transfer where the tip of the wire forms globules or large droplets that melt and are forced across the Arc into the weld puddle. Spray transfer usually requires the use of two percent oxygen or more for the spraying effect to occur. SHORT CIRCUITING TRANSFER 2. METAL TRANSFER ACROSS THE ARC There are three methods of metal transfer from the wire spool through the arc to the weld puddle possible with the Mig welding Process. have a separate DCEP terminal marked CV for attaching a lead wire that runs from the machine to the wire feed unit that energizes the attached Mig gun. deep penetration and smooth weld beads.A selection of filler wires are available to Mig weld other metals and Alloys and information regarding their selection can be obtained from Welding Supply Outlets. Some multiple process welding machines. 55 . The short circuiting effect is a simplified way of describing an action that happens approximately 200 times per second and is not readily apparent to the welder. Spray Transfer results in weld beads with a minimum of spatter. SPRAY TRANSFER SHORT CIRCUITING TRANSFER Short circuiting transfer as the name implies creates a short circuiting effect when the energized wire touches the workpiece and melts into the weld puddle. Short Circuiting may be used in all positions and the arc makes a sound like frying bacon. This type of transfer results in a smooth weld with shallow penetration that easily bridges gaps or poor fit-up. approximately 17v to 21 volts. For example. or Ladder rack. THE MIG WELDING ARC The Mig Welding arc is usually Direct Current Electrode Positive (DCEP) or Reverse Polarity with Constant Voltage. like the Miller Dimension 400 used at the School. Spray transfer occurs at higher voltages and above certain critical transition currents determined by the wire size. window guards. A welding table. SPRAY TRANSFER Spray Transfer as the name implies is a form of metal transfer that sprays small globules or droplets of metal across the arc into the weld puddle.

In general the filler wire should match or be compatible with the base metal being welded. but not all. 56 . 2. Gas flow should be carefully considered. Determine the Gas Shielding As mentioned above there are a variety of gas types and mixtures designed for specific applications. Determine the Filler Wire The metal composition and classification must be considered when selecting the filler wire. METAL TRANSFERS USING THE MIG WELDING PROCESS Before using the Mig process to weld a specific application. The arc makes a harsh sound like high pressure water forced through a small opening. 3. too much gas flow may cause swirling and result in porosity (Air Holes). Flux Core filler metal may or may not require a shielding gas as a backup gas. Determine the voltage and wire speed settings For most Mig welding applications. the current should be Direct Current Reverse Polarity (DCEN). Filler wire guides and information for selecting the correct filler wire for a given application are available from most welding supply stores. In some instances Management may inform the welder of the specific parameters or a Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) may be provided to set the welding parameters. too little and the weld will be of poor quality with porosity. In other cases the Welder is responsible for determining the welding parameters. The Mig process uses a constant voltage machine that means the voltage stays relatively while the amperage varies with the stick out distance (gun nozzle tip to work distance). the welding parameters must be considered to achieve a sound weld with an acceptable appearance. The following should be considered when the welder selects the welding parameters. Consult gas suppliers for recommendations for the specific welding application. If you are not sure check on the box the wire spool came in for the current type and range or contact your welding supply store.The Spray Transfer is a hotter arc and is best suited to thicker materials in the flat and horizontal positions. 1. Keep in mind a change in filler wire may require a change in gas shielding. Filler wire with a T in the classification or inner shield are for FLUX CORE ARC WELDING and may require a change in Polarity. Welding Non-ferrous metals or applications that require a certain metal transfer may require a change in gas supply.

57 . Higher voltage and 2% or more oxygen will produce a hot arc and spray transfer. A slight push angle with the gun will produce a smoother flatter weld bead than when using a drag angle. A dirty tip may also cause popping or the wire to hang up and not melt properly. If the wire is hitting the base metal and popping or skipping. If the wire is melting in blobs without forming a good weld turn up the wire speed or decrease the voltage. and position you are going to weld. Changing the wire speed or voltage changes the way the weld bead runs and looks. Higher voltages will be Globular. thickness. The following are a few tips for setting the current. Which metal transfer is taking place: Lower voltage will be Short Circuiting.The amperage is controlled by the wire speed setting. especially if the setting were working. Check the tip and clean the nozzle before changing setting. Note: Contact tips and nozzles must be cleaned of dirt and spatter frequently. To produces good welds. always set the machine by practicing setting on scrap metal in the same configuration. turn down the wire speed or increase the voltage. The wire speed and voltage must be coordinated to produce a sound weld with good appearance. The weld bead should be well formed with a gradual transition to the base metal at the corners of the weld.

but is only used when welding flat and horizontal. 3. Make sure you understand all the controls on both the machine and wire feed unit. 5. The gun nozzle must be cleaned frequently to prevent wire jamming or burning into contact tip. 2. Shielding gas should be set at 20-30 psi 4. 6. shielding gas supply and regulator. welding gun. Spray transfer penetrates well into the base metal. Short circuiting transfer is used on thinner metals. Gas mixtures may vary depending on the metal being welded and its application. The MIG welding circuit is made up of the welding machine. wire feed unit with wire spool. 58 . ground cable and clamp and the workpiece.CHAPTER FOUR GAS METAL ARC WELDING MIG KEY POINTS 1. Globular transfer penetrates more than short circuiting transfer. 7.

A Constant Current Welding Machine 3. The GTAW or TIG Torch 2. A Foot Pedal 5.CHAPTER FIVE GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING TIG 1. A Gas Supply 4. Filler Wire 59 .

60 . 5. Describe the Welding machine and its controls. Describe the filler wire for welding mild steel with the TIG process. 7. 2. List and describe the Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (TIG) circuit. Describe the foot pedal and its use in TIG welding. 3. 4. 6.CHAPTER FIVE GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING TIG STUDENT OBJECTIVES STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO: 1. List and describe the major components of the TIG process. Describe how to sharpen and maintain the tungsten point for welding. Describe the TIG torch and its component parts. 8. Describe the gas cylinder and how to safely set it up for welding.

GTAW EQUIPMENT SET UP Gas Tungsten Arc Welding is done by setting up a Torch to a Constant Current Welding Machine and an external Gas Supply to shield the weld area. the welds produced are often stronger than welds made with other processes. This name describes the same process and highlights the fact that a Tungsten electrode and an external inert gas are used to produce a weld.GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING TIG WELDING INTRODUCTION The American Welding Society’s preferred name for this arc welding process is Gas Tungsten Arc Welding As the name implies the process uses an external Gas supply and a Tungsten electrode to produce an arc that melts and fuses the metal to be welded with or without the use of a filler wire. An optional Foot Pedal may be used to remotely control the amperage during welding. Because of the smaller heat zone and weld puddle with the excellent shielding effect of the gases used. Filler Wire may be added as necessary or welding may be done by fusing the parts with the molten weld puddle. Aluminum. The term TIG WELDING is a common shop term that is derived from the name TUNGSTEN INERT GAS WELDING. The Gas Tungsten Arc Welding process may be used to weld most metals and alloys in any position with or without the use of filler wire. THE WELDING CIRCUIT 61 . specialty metals and Stainless steels. Although GTAW is slower and produces smaller weld beads than SMAW or GMAW it is often the process of choice for welding thinner sections. In this text the term GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) will be used to discuss this process.

THE GTAW OR TIG TORCH 2. Tungsten Electrode and Back Cap. A GAS SUPPLY 4.The major component parts of the welding circuit described below are: 1. Collet. FILLER WIRE 1. 62 . is made up of the Torch Body. CONSTANT CURRENT MACHINE 3. A FOOT PEDAL 5. The pictures below show the typical Torch Assembly. Gas Diffuser. The picture below shows a Typical GTAW torch used to make the weld. THE GTAW TORCH The GTAW torch is an assembly of parts that provides the heat or electric arc for welding and delivers the shielding gas to protect the weld. TORCH USED TO MAKE A WELD The GTAW Torch used to establish and maintain an arc as well as direct the gas flow to the weld zone.

The tungsten may get contaminated by touching to the weld puddle or hot filler wire and will need to be re-sharpened. TUNGSTEN PREPARATION 63 . Since the Tungsten Electrode does not melt and become filler metal it is referred to as a NonConsumable Electrode. be sure the point is even or a deflection of the arc may occur. The electrodes used for steel should have a sharpened point and the pure for aluminum a balled end. A shorter point results in a wider weld puddle and bead. When shaping the tungsten point. but a less expensive method is to use a bench grinder and prepare the point like sharpening a pencil. There are a variety of types of tungsten electrodes used for GTAW the most common ones being 2% Thoriated for Steel and Stainless and Pure for Aluminum. Check with your weld supply company to select the appropriate Tungsten Electrode for the given application. but does not melt and become a part of the weld. When additional weld metal is required it is fed into the arc in the form of a filler wire. For AC Welding Aluminum prepare a small point and the heat of the arc will ball the end for proper welding puddle. There are tools designed to form the point for welding. KEY POINTS The sharper and longer the point the smaller and finer the arc puddle.TUNGSTEN ELECTRODE The Tungsten Electrode used in GTAW and shown above is different to electrodes used in SMAW (STICK WELDING) in that it is used as the heat source to melt the base metal.

Machines developed with GTAW applications in mind have added features such as a built in high frequency capability. Some of these GTAW machines such as a Square wave or Synchrowave have a method of changing the characteristics of the current to benefit from altered electrical flow. The gas valve is used to start or stop gas flow when the optional foot pedal is not used. Any Stick or Multiple Process Welding Machine may be used for GTAW as well as some machines developed especially for GTAW applications.TORCH BODY There are a variety of styles of Torch used for GTAW. The water circulates internally around the torch to keep it cool. If the arc length or distance from the tungsten to the work increases slightly. The one illustrated earlier is an Air Cooled style that has a gas valve incorporated. These machines provide constant amperage as set by the welder. A built in high frequency capability provides easier arc starting by allowing the arc to be initiated by a high frequency current without striking an arc or touching the tungsten to the work. while the voltage rises or lowers with changes in the arc length. the voltage increases to maintain the amperage level. When using this torch a water cooling unit is added to the GTAW circuit. WATER COOLED TORCHES 2 CONSTANT CURRENT WELDING MACHINE The power source used for GTAW is a Constant Current Welding Machine. Conversely if the arc length decreases the voltage decreases to maintain the same amperage. The Constant Current classification of Welding machines is also used for STICK welding (SMAW). Another popular style of torch is a Water Cooled torch used for welding with higher amperage. When a foot pedal is used the flow of gas is automatically controlled by starting or stopping the arc with the foot pedal. 64 . This is especially useful when welding Aluminum that can easily contaminate the Tungsten Electrode.

KEY POINTS When the application or job requires an extensive use of the GTAW process it may pay to research Welding Machines designed especially for GTAW. A GTAW torch may be attached to any STICK machine using the remote receptacle on the machine or by attaching the Electrode Holder (Stinger) to the torch by the use of a special connector as shown below: In this set up there is no foot pedal and the weld is initiated by touch start (similar to striking the arc in Stick). This setup may be readily assembled for welding on job sites. The type of Welding Current most often used for welding Aluminum is Alternating Current (AC). The gas is controlled by the valve on the torch. MILLER ECONOTIG AND CONTROLS USED AT DELTA 65 . The type of Welding current used for welding Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel is Direct Current Electrode Negative (DCEN) also known as Direct Current Straight Polarity (DCSP).

Gas cylinders should never be moved by carrying. Both Argon and Helium gases are considered INERT gases. If the cylinder valve is damaged the force of the escaping gas may cause high pressure cylinders to fly around uncontrolled and cause damage or serious injury. The following safety guidelines are suggested for safely handling and using gas cylinders. A mixture of Argon and Helium may be used for some GTAW applications. slings. Cylinders that are transported over the road should be secured in the upright position with their protective steel caps in place. Oil and grease should never come into contact with the oxygen cylinders. Argon gas is the most widely used gas for manual welding with the GTAW process while Helium or a mixture may be used for heavier sections and automated welding. They should only be moved by securing them in an approved cart. dragging or rolling them. since a chemical reaction between the oil and the oxygen may cause a fire or explosion. If a cylinder is leaking gas it should be moved outdoors and the gas supplier should be notified immediately. HANDLEING GAS CYLINDERS Because of the shape. meaning they are chemically inactive and do not react with the metal being welded. The cylinders must have the metal caps in place to protect the valve stem assembly of the cylinder before moving them. Hammers pry bars and similar tools must not be used to open a stuck cylinder valve or remove valve caps. contents and weight of gas cylinders used in the welding field it is important they be handled with extreme caution and in a safe manner.3 GAS SUPPLY The two most commonly used types of gases used in the GTAW process are ARGON and HELIUM. 66 . Chains. and other devices where there may be a possibility of the cylinder slipping and falling should never be used. If cylinders must be lifted they should be properly secured in an approved lifting cart or on a platform. magnets. regulators or equipment.

Never weld on the cylinders. Make sure no one is in front of the cylinder when you crack the cylinder.Cylinders must be chained or secured in the upright position secured on a cart or fastened into a welding machine cart. This action is known as cracking the cylinder. Use only the approved cylinder wrench to attach regulators and hoses to the cylinder. The use of loose fitting wrenches on the soft brass connections may cause excessive wear by slipping on the connections. The cylinder the cylinder valve must be cleaned before attaching the regulators. 67 . When not in use they should have the regulators removed and the caps in place. Standing behind the cylinder quickly open then close the cylinder valve to allowing the high pressure gas to blow out trapped dirt. or allow the electrode to come into contact with them and establish an arc. Use only the approved regulator and hoses for the type of gas being used and never use the same regulator and hoses for different gas contents. Excessive wear may cause the edges of the connectors to become rounded and make it difficult to fit any wrench on them.

Fuel gas cylinders should only be opened about ¼ turn or until the gas registers on the regulator. KEY POINTS For most applications welders will be using 100 % Argon as the shielding gas with an approximate flow rate from 20-30 PSI. The use of a foot pedal is especially useful for welding aluminum where the heat needs to be lowered or increased during welding to avoid blowing away the sides of the joint. When the foot pedal is fully depressed the amperage is at the setting on the machine. 68 . If the electrode gets contaminated the point will need to be re-sharpened for welding. stand to the side of the regulator when opening or pressurizing the regulator. so they can be shut down quickly in an emergency. Lifting the foot lowers the amperage over a range until the arc is extinguished. The high pressure cylinders like the oxygen. When coupled with a Power Source that has a high frequency capability it allows arc starting without contaminating the tungsten electrode. 4 FOOT PEDAL The GTAW Foot Pedal is an optional Pedal added to the welding circuit to remotely control the amperage and initiate the gas flow. argon and 75-25 have a double seating valve and should be opened all the way. If you are responsible for selecting the shielding gas for a given application. Since regulators are designed to blow out the front and back if they fail. The foot pedal works similar to the accelerator pedal in a car pressing down increases the amperage lifting the foot slightly lowers the amperage. Contaminating the electrode means the prepared point for welding becomes dull or has globules stuck to it causing the arc to wander and the weld bead to be wide.Before attaching the regulator make sure the adjusting screw is backed out and loose. check with your gas and welding supply company for information about specific advantages of the available gases. or melting through the joint.

Stainless Steel wire to weld Stainless Steel and Aluminum wire to weld Aluminum. In general the filler metal or tig wire usually has the same composition as. Filler Wire is used to introduce more metal to the weld zone to fill the joint or increase the size of the weld. consult filler wire guide books available at most welding supply stores and discuss job requirements and joint configurations with engineering personnel or experts at your local welding supply outlet. so that Carbon Steel wire is used to weld Carbon Steel.5 FILLER WIRE Unlike Stick and Mig Welding. There is a selection of filler wire available for these and other metals using the GTAW process. Some pieces may also be welded together by melting the edges of the joint called Fusion Welding. The usual length is approximately 36 inches. joint design and condition of the joint surface. When selecting an appropriate filler wire. Filler wire is available in different diameters or sizes. Selecting a specific filler wire depends on many factors including strength requirements. Tig uses a separate filler wire to add weld metal to the Joint to be welded in a similar manner to Oxy-Acetylene or Braze Welding. The following are some examples: Filler Wire for welding Carbon Steel ER 70 S – 6 69 . Filler Wire used in the Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Process are classified by the American Welding Society using a letter and numbering system. or is compatible with the metal to be welded. some of the more widely used include 1/16th 3/32nds or 1/8th.

The metal is often thin and requires heat distortion control and must be kept clean. the intense arc produces ultraviolet and infrared rays that make the use of welding leathers and safety equipment mandatory. The same safety equipment used for SMAW should be used for GTAW except that the gauntlet gloves may be changed for tig gloves that provide adequate protection while allowing a better feel for manipulating the torch and filler wire 70 . measured in thousands of pounds per square inch. one hand to consistently feed the filler wire and a foot to control the amperage.Filler wire for welding Stainless Steel ER – 308 L The Tensile strength of the weld metal is defined as the ability to resist forces acting to pull the weld apart. Welds beads are usually relatively small and flat with deep penetration. The Classification for GTAW filler wire is similar to that of the GMAW process. SUMMARY GTAW is the most intricate of all the manual arc welding processes often requiring one hand to angle the torch. Although GTAW produces less sparks with no slag.

Gloves made for TIG welding are recommended whenever practical. The foot pedal controls the amount of amperage. foot pedal. the gas supply. 5. while pushing down increases the heat. Welders should understand the controls on the welding machine to produce sound welds. TIG welding Aluminum is done using Alternating Current (AC). 3. Always follow all safety guidelines for handling and using gas cylinders. 4. gas diffuser. ground cable. The filler wire is used to add weld metal. tungsten electrode and back cap. The TIG welding circuit is made up of the Welding machine. 8. The tungsten electrode is sharpened to a point to weld on steel or stainless steel. 7. Lifting the foot on the foot pedal lowers the heat. 71 . The tungsten electrode is the heat source and does not melt and become part of the weld as in STICK welding. The TIG torch is made up of the torch body. 9. 10. 2. 6. collet. 11.CHAPTER FIVE GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING TIG KEY POINTS 1. TIG welding steel and stainless steel is done using direct current electrode negative (DCEN) or Straight Polarity. The point may need to be re-sharpened if it touches the weld puddle or filler wire. Argon gas is primarily used as the shielding gas for TIG welding. and TIG torch.

CHAPTER SIX CERTIFICATION WHAT IS CERTIFICATION WHO CONDUCTS CERTIFICATION THE AWS CERTIFIED WELDER PROGRAM WHO NEEDS TO BE CERTIFIED WHAT DOES MY CERTIFICATION MEAN WHAT CERTIFICATION IS TESTING PROCEDURES 72 .

CHAPTER SIX CERTIFICATION STUDENT OBJECTIVES STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO: 1. 3. Describe who conducts Welder Certification testing. 73 . 2. Describe the American Welding Society’s (AWS) Certification Program. Describe the most common welder certification tests. Describe what Welder Certification is and what it means to be Certified. 4.

SPECIFICATION: A detailed description of the parts or variables to be controlled. KEY POINT: TO GET A JOB OR KEEP A JOB WELDERS OFTEN HAVE TO MAKE A WELD TO SHOW THEY ARE CAPABLE WELDERS The Testing Procedure involves the welder making a weld that is then tested by an Inspector. CODE: Rules or laws that may have legal status and are considered mandatory especially when language like shall. An example of non destructive testing is when a completed weld joint undergoes an X ray and the inspector reads the X ray film to determine if it meets the requirements of the standard. sample or thing that describes or shows exactly what the outcome should be. to ensure the weld conforms to a particular Code. 3 Ensure the appropriate supplies are available. 4 Obtain the appropriate supplies and metal pieces to be welded. the welder must weld follow a set of written instructions contained in the Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) to produce the Weld Specimen for testing. 2 Set the welding parameters on the welding machine. A simple test may involve the following steps. 1 Ensure the proper safety equipment and welding supplies.WELDER QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION WHAT IS CERTIFICATION? The term “CERTIFICATION” as it applies to welders refers to a document that states “I or We certify that” the indicated welder or welding operator has successfully completed a practical test of their abilities to perform a sound weld in accordance with some predetermined standard. or written Welding Procedure Specification. The term QUALIFICATION means that a welder or welding operator has met the requirements of a given STANDARD and is qualified to perform welds to within the scope of the STANDARD. 6 Place the weld in the proper welding position. Standard. 5 Prepare and assemble the joint to be welded. Will or Must is used. 8 Prepare or help prepare the specimens to be tested. and may involve either destructive or non-destructive testing. 7 Follow the indicated procedure to fill the joint with Weld. Testing Methods include Visual inspection. STANDARD: A document. In a typical welding Test or Certification. To become certified the Welder must posses the skills necessary to produce a sound weld that is visually acceptable and meets the testing requirements. 74 . An example of Destructive Testing is when the inspector prepares a specimen from the weld and bends the specimen against the weld to determine if it meets the requirements of the Standard.

and periodically check progress to ensure conformity to the Standard. aluminum). A database of currently Certified Welders is maintained by the AWS for verification of a welders certification status. listed as Delta Welding And Engineering on the AWS list of authorized testing Facilities. WHO CONDUCTS CERTIFICATION? A Certification may be given by a testing facility’s Inspector or authorized personnel or by a companies representative such as quality control personnel. stainless. KEY POINT: You may not see or receive any documentation if a company pays for testing THE AWS CERTIFIED WELDER PROGRAM The AWS (American Welding Society) has developed a program for certifying Welders to National Standards that is recognized by many Industries and allows certifications to be transferable or accepted by Companies without further testing. KEY POINT: Your weld coupons will be examined and tested to make sure they are good welds There is no one universal test to Certify Welders to all welding conditions. KEY POINT: You are only certified to do what you tested for. In addition some tests cover all positions of welding while some restrict positions. and for each group of steels (mild steel. DELTA SCHOOL OF TRADES is an accredited testing facility. or be Certified) Welders currently working for companies that must show certification to their clients or general contractors need to be certified. ask questions about your qualification. or engineers as long as they are in accordance with the Code or Standards requirements for Qualified Testing personnel. Some companies require certification to be specific to their needs and they maintain the records of certification. When a welder becomes certified through a testing facility they usually receive a document called a Welder Test Report that details the welder’s qualification range. WHO NEEDS TO BE CERTIFIED? Welders who wish to work for a company that requires Certification as part of their minimum requirements for employment (an increasing number of companies now require welders to demonstrate their skills and. mig. tig etc) used. supervisors. Welders may have to Cerify for each process (stick.The Welding Inspector (Test Supervisor) will guide the preparation of the pieces. assembly. Delta certified Welders also receive a test report in the form of an actual certificate with all the variables listed. 75 . SEE OUR LINK FOR AWS CERTIFICATION KEY POINT: YOU RECEIVE A WALLET CARD DESCRIBING YOUR CERTIFICATION AND THE CERTIFICATION BELONGS TO YOU. A welder may have many certifications covering a wide range of variables.

A certification is not a guarantee that welders will not make mistakes. may need to be recertified. Certification is specific to variables such as. Standard or Welding Procedure and any changes in the variables used in welding may require re-certification. Welders however. or how the pieces should be assembled and welded. Certification in one Process does not extend to other welding process. Certification to one code does not mean certification to all codes. welding parameters and details of the test. either at another company or have not welded for a period of time. Welder Qualification Test Report WQTR The WQTR describes the results of the welding test. A certification is specific to a certain code and set of variables that allow repetition of demonstrated skills. Some welders are required to take periodic tests to determine their continued competency. 76 . vertical direction of travel. joint configuration and thickness of material. It certifies that the tester has witnessed the welder demonstrate a specific skill level and produced a sound (good or acceptable) Weld. Base metal. Welding Procedure Qualification Report WPQR The WPQR documents the variables and tests that have been performed by a qualified individual to prove the test is valid. joint design. The document and supporting information proves that the joint can be welded and tested to meet the specific Standard or Code requirements. including what the welder is qualified to do. Welders who wish to prove their abilities or further their career goals will take a certification or additional certifications. WHAT A CERTIFICATION IS NOT? A certification is not a license to weld anything at anytime under any circumstances. The WPS is like a Blueprint or set of written instructions for the test. The Welding Procedure specification WPS The WPS describes the rules. KEY POINT: BE PROUD TO BE A WELDER PROVE YOUR ONE OF THE BEST WHAT DOES MY CERTIFICATION MEAN? Certification is very specific to a particular Code. The variables used in qualification and the qualification range of the certification is listed on the following documents. The document if followed removes all variables except the skill of the welder.In many cases Welders that have been certified. should know in general what their certification covers so they don’t mislead clients or run into difficulty on the job. Filler metal. Welding position. For example a welder certified in SMAW (Stick) is not certified to weld with GMAW (mig) The welder may have the skills but he has not demonstrated them in a testing environment and is not Certified. The assumption is that the welder has the ability to reproduce results in an actual work environment. This document and its variables are used to construct the WPS. Personnel familiar with the governing document usually determines if the certification is valid for the work being performed.

TYPICAL TESTING PROCEDURES AWS D1.1 SINGLE VEE GROOVE WITH BACKING WELDED IN THE VERTICAL UP 3G POSITION. The one inch single Vee groove test with a backing bar is an AWS D1.1 pre-qualified joint. The test qualifies the welder to weld fillets or grooves of unlimited thickness in the process the welder used to weld the joint. The completed joint is visually inspected and specimens are destructively tested by bend testing. PREPARATION: Under the direction of the Test Supervisor, get two pieces of 1x7x3 that have been beveled on one side and assemble and tack weld them in the arrangement shown:

The position the test is welded in determines the positions the Welder is Qualified to weld Grooves and Fillets. This test is often used to test welds produced with the Shielded Metal Arc Welding (STICK) Process.

The test Supervisor will inspect the assembled joint for conformity to the Code and assist in placing the joint in the position for Welding. The test Supervisor will ensure the proper supplies are being used and periodically inspect the welders progress.

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INSPECTION: The completed joint will be visually inspected according to the requirements of the Code and the bend test coupons shall be cut from the joint.

PREPARING BEND TEST COUPNS

As the picture shows; under the direction of the test Supervisor, two pieces 1” by 3/8” are cut from the welded test piece. The backing bar and weld face reinforcement are ground flush and the pieces are bent to test the weld. The Test supervisor evaluates the bent pieces for acceptability and conformance to the requirements of the Code. The acceptance criteria for bend tests in accordance with the AWS D1.1 are as follows; • • • • The convex surface of the bend test specimen shall be examined for surface discontinuities exceeding the following dimensions: 1/8 inch measured in any direction on the surface. 3/8 inches - the sum of the greatest dimensions of all discontinuities exceeding 1/32 inch but less than or equal to 1/8 inch. 1/4 inch the maximum corner crack, except when that crack resulted from visible slag inclusion or other fusion type discontinuities, then the 1/8 inch maximum shall apply.

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FILLET WELD BREAK TEST ALL POSITION QUALIFICATION The fillet weld break test is a simpler test that qualifies the welder to weld fillets with the process used during the test. The welding position qualified works like the positions for grooves discussed earlier. To qualify all positions fillet welding, the welder must pass a separate break test in the vertical and the overhead positions. When the welder is only welding fillet welds as is often the case with the GMAW (MIG) and GTAW (TIG) processes, a fillet weld break test in all positions instead of a groove test may be the only requirement for the job.

To perform the test, the welder weld a T joint on one side with a restart near the center as shown. The piece is visually examined and a macroetch test is conducted on one end piece. The piece is then broken to visually inspect for complete fusion and to ensure there are no discontinuities according to the acceptance criteria of the Code. The acceptance criteria for fillet weld break tests in accordance with the AWS D1.1 are as follows; To pass the visual examination prior to the break test, the weld shall present a reasonably uniform appearance and shall be free from overlap, cracks, or excessive undercut as defined by the Code. There shall be no porosity visible on the weld surface. The broken specimen shall pass if: • • • The specimen bends flat upon itself. The fillet weld, if fractured, has a fracture surface showing complete fusion to the root of the joint with no inclusion or porosity larger than 3/32 of an inch in greatest dimension. The sum of the greatest dimension of all inclusions shall not exceed 3/8” of an inch in the 6 inch long specimen.

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3. A certification is really a Welder qualification test of his/her practical abilities as witnessed by a qualified person or inspector. A specific Certification is limited to a specific process and specific variables and does not imply the ability to weld anything anywhere. The assumption is if the welder has the skill to pass the test he possesses the skill to repeat the level of quality on the job. 80 . 5.CHAPTER SIX CERTIFICATION KEY POINTS 1. For example. 4. 2. Certification comes from the term “I or We Certify that I or We have witnessed this individual successfully complete a specific welding test in accordance with a specific requirement”. When you become Certified as a Welder read the Test report to see what you are Certified to do. This term is found on the Certification document. Welders certified to weld with STICK are not certified to weld TIG unless they have taken both a STICK and TIG test.

2. 5. 3.CHAPTER SEVEN BASIC WELDING JOINTS 1. BUTT JOINTS T JOINTS LAP JOINTS CORNER JOINTS EDGE JOINTS JOINT ARRANGEMENTS AND WELD EDGE PREPARATION 81 . 6. 4.

Name and describe the five basic joint types used in welding metals.CHAPTER SEVEN BASIC WELDING JOINTS STUDENT OBJECTIVES STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO: 1. 82 . Describe the typical edge preparations applied to the basic joints for welding. 2.

Open root V groove. Generally engineers. supervisors and technicians are charged with joint design and selection. and the type of welds applied to them. the way they are prepared for welding and placed together is known as the Weld Joint. A backing weld is applied before the groove is filled. or back weld applied. The term root opening or open root is used to describe this condition. KEY POINT: In other words the joint is the way they are joined. Since there is a wide and varied list of possible joints to fabricate structural shapes.BASIC JOINTS INTRODUCTION Welding is one the most widely used methods of permanently joining Structural Shapes used throughout the world. EDGE PREPARATION Preparation or edge shaping may be applied to each piece (joint member) in the same way. On most joints the gap is at the bottom of the joint and is referred to as the root of the joint. For example. When the joint design allows. The edge preparation for welding these joints depends on the strength requirements and other design considerations. A back weld is applied after the groove is filled. their names. The pieces to be welded may be connected or a gap between the pieces to ensure penetration may be used. Welders. need to be familiar with the most commonly used joint shapes. or combinations of the joint preparations may be used. See examples below: 83 . however. When two pieces of structural steel are to be connected by welding. The Welder needs to be aware of the most common edge preparations as shown below: JOINT ARRANGEMENTS AND WELDS The edge preparations are arranged to make the weld joint. a backing strip or insert may be used for easier welding. Some joints may have a backing weld. this lesson will discuss only the most common joints used in Arc Welding. or V groove with an open root.

BUTT JOINTS 2. The names in the examples above are from the type of weld applied to the joint.THE FIVE BASIC JOINTS There are five basic joints in common use for assembling metal. KEY POINT: In other words. T JOINTS 3. Often the type of weld is used to fully describe the joint. 84 . CORNER JOINTS 5. For example. the pieces are butted together. The V groove and bevel grooves are easier to prepare and are used more than the J or U groves. BUTT JOINTS A butt joint is formed when the pieces to be welded are laid side by side and it is one of the most widely used types of joint. 1. EDGE JOINTS 1. LAP JOINTS 4. this joint is a single bevel butt joint.

or J shape. to form the shape of an inverted T. When a single pass or multiple passes are made against the joint. the weld resembles a Triangle when viewed from the side. The preparation allows the Welder to penetrate into the root of the joint. the tee joint’s vertical piece may be prepared using a Bevel. This can be helpful to remember since symbols on a blueprint do not show the actual joint shape or edge preparation. One of the most widely used types of weld applied to a T joint is the fillet weld. T JOINTS A T joint is formed when one piece of metal to be welded is placed vertically on another piece lying horizontally. KEY POINT: The T shape resembles an overhead position T joint. The vertical member is usually placed at 90 deg to the horizontal member. 2. In the same way the edges of the butt joint may be prepared for welding. not as FILL-AY a fish The T joint and fillet weld are the most frequently used joint and type of weld. this is true for most of the symbols.KEY POINT: If two imaginary lines are drawn parallel to the horizontal line in the above symbols they show the joint shape. KEY POINT: Pronounce the T in fillet FILL-ET. See examples below: 85 .

See examples below: LAP JOINTS 4. or Fully Open. or both of the pieces of the joint for penetration and strength. CORNER JOINTS A corner joint is formed by placing one piece to be welded on the other so that a corner is formed. Lap joints are often used when plug or slot welding thinner sections. A slot weld is similar except slots are made instead of holes. Half Open. Other welds may be applied to laps such as projection. 86 .3. An edge preparation may be applied to one. or seam welding. KEY POINT: The weld applied to the inside of many of the above is a fillet weld. LAP JOINTS A Lap joint is formed when one piece to be welded is laid down and another piece is overlapped to form an edge for fillet welding or an area to allow plug or slot welding. The corner may be Flush. A plug weld is made by welding holes evenly spaced across the length of one or both sides of the joint.

and Double J groove edge. and Edge. Corner joints may be: Flush. have a backing. The Welding symbols used are for illustration. or be welded both sides. This joint may be formed as a result of another structural shape and is not as widely used as some of the other joints. The five basic joints are: Butt. The weld applied to a T joint is a called a Fillet weld. T. and will be discussed fully in another lesson. Bevel edge. Lap joints are more likely to be used when welding thinner sections. Edge joints are usually seen as a result of an overall joint configuration. J and U grooves are more labor intensive to prepare and may not be seen as often in production. Butt joints may be open root. Corner joints may be simple or have edge preparation to increase penetration. or Full open. Chamfer edge. See examples below. Half open. The edge preparation may be: Square edge. Double Bevel edge. SUMMARY Welders need to know the basic joint shapes and the type of welds most commonly applied to them. J groove edge. Lap: Corner. EDGE JOINT An Edge joint is formed when the two edges of the pieces to be welded come together. Fillet welds are the most commonly used welds. 87 . or when plug and slot welding is called for.5.

Lap joint and Edge joint. J groove edge. 3. Chamfer edge. The type of joint used in basic STICK classes. Corner joint. 88 . T joint. Single Bevel edge. The edge preparation may be. Double J groove edge. Half Open or Fully Open. MIG and TIG are typically T joints formed by 2 pieces of angle iron. 4. Square edge. The five basic joints are. Double Bevel edge. Corner joints may be. 2. Butt joint. The joints used in Advanced STICK are Single V grooves. The most common weld applied to a T joint is called a fillet weld. 5. have a backing or be welded both sides. Corner joints may be welded flush or have an edge preparation applied to them.CHAPTER SEVEN BASIC WELDING JOINTS KEY POINTS 1. Butt joints may be open root. 6. 7. Flush.

The size of the weld. GROOVE WELDING SYMBOLS GROOVE WELDING ELEMENTS 89 . The length of the weld. 4. 3.CHAPTER EIGHT WELDING SYMBOLS THE REFERENCE LINE AND ARROW THE FILLET WELD 1. The length and pitch of intermittent or staggered intermittent welds. 2. The contour requirements.

Describe the reference line and indicate arrow side other side relevance.CHAPTER EIGHT WELDING SYMBOLS STUDENT OBJECTIVES STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO: 1. 2. 3. Describe the contour requirements on a weld symbol Describe the groove weld symbol and its elements 90 . 4. Describe the fillet weld symbol and its elements.

The actual symbol that shows the type of weld and the elements surrounding it that detail the weld can be placed on the top of the line or on the bottom of the line. or other notes that do not normally have an element that describes them. There is also a reference line that has an arrow break. type of weld.WELDING SYMBOLS INTRODUCTION Welding symbols are used on blueprints and drawings to show where the weld is to be placed and may also show the size. ARROW SIDE One of the most important things about the reference line and the welding symbol is the top and bottom of the horizontal line. number of welds. KEY POINT: the arrow points to the bevel where the bevel needs to be prepared. 91 . All the other elements that describe the weld are on or located around this line. details about the weld and even details about the joint. It may also have a tail that has information about the process. The break in the arrow is used to indicate the joint member that is to receive the edge preparation. If the elements on the reference line describe the necessary details (as it does in most cases) the tail is not used. Welders that fabricate or work with drawing must be able to interpret the welding symbol to prepare the joint and apply a weld that has the required strength and soundness. specification. THE REFERENCE LINE AND ARROW The reference line is one of the most important elements on the welding symbol. See the examples below: In the above examples one of the reference lines has multiple arrows that are used to show the same weld in three locations that are relatively close to each other. The reference line has a leader and arrow that points to where the information applies.

Otherwise more than on symbol is used. This element is called a field weld and means the weld will be done in another location. Sometimes clarification will be given in the welding symbol tail or as a specification on the print. If the reference line has a weld symbol on both sides of the reference line they may.KEY POINTS: symbols on the bottom of the reference line mean weld the side of the joint the arrow is touching or pointing to. Symbols on the top of the reference line mean apply the weld to the other side of the joint. KEY POINT: The all around element is only used when it is possible to weld all the way around a single surface. This method is used because sometimes the welding symbol must be drawn on the blueprint on the other side of the joint. or may not be the same weld on both sides of the joint. 92 . this weld may be applied at the job site not in the shop. When symbols appear on both sides of the reference line it means weld both sides of the joint. Remember the rule to apply the right weld to the right side. For instance. See the examples: OTHER ELEMENTS ON REFERENCE LINE There are two other elements that may be seen on the reference line that provide information about the weld. The other element seen on the reference line resembles a flag and is located where the leader line joins the reference line. or the side opposite to where the arrow is pointing. This means the weld extends all the way around the joint the arrow is pointing at. One is a circle around the place where the leader line connects to the reference line and indicates the weld is “ALL AROUND”.

THE CONTOUR REQUIREMENTS.THE FILLET WELD The fillet weld symbol is one of the most widely used symbols and the shape placed on the reference line to indicate a fillet weld is a triangle that resembles the side profile of a fillet weld. The names of the parts of the fillet weld KEY POINT: Fillet sounds like fill it (pronounce the T) not fillay as in fillet a fish. The size of the fillet weld is determined by the legs of the triangle shape which represent the legs of the fillet. THE LENGTH AND PITCH OF INTERMITTENT WELDS. For example: if one member of the joint is thinner than the other. THE LENGTH OF THE WELD. THE SIZE OF THE WELD. 1. The examples of the weld all around and field weld above show a fillet weld symbol so that the weld to be applied in both cases is a fillet weld. 1. 93 . Sometimes (not often) a weld of unequal legs may be required. THE SIZE OF THE WELD. The important elements added to a simple fillet weld symbol are as follows. 4. 2. 3. A welded piece may have a different weld size on each side or they may be the same size.

If it is not obvious the location is detailed on the drawing. THE LENGTH OF THE FILLETWELD. 2. The length of the weld when it is not a continuous weld is shown by a number on the right side of the fillet weld triangle. 94 .If no size is shown on the fillet weld. KEY POINT: Making the fillet welds the wrong size may lead to costly rework if you are not sure ask for clarification. a size for all fillets will be given on the drawing as a note or specification.

This method of welding may be used to control heat distortion or where the joint strength requirements allow. The welds then appear staggered. KEY POINT: If the welds are staggered the fillet weld symbol will be staggered on the reference line. Intermittent welding can save time and money if a long weld is not necessary. Used more frequently than the length alone. KEY POINT: The pitch is not the space between welds but a measurement from center to center of the welds. the length and pitch are two numbers located at the right of the fillet weld symbol. Staggered intermittent the welds on the opposite side are usually started in the gap between the welds on the first side. The pitch refers to a dimension from the center of one weld to the center of the next weld. 95 . but rather is a given length of weld separated by a given space between them. THE LENGTH AND PITCH OF INTERMITTENT WELDS An intermittent weld is one that is not continuous across the joint.3. Chain intermittent the welds on both sides of the joint are opposite each other and resemble a chain. To get the spacing for layout subtract the length of one weld from the pitch. The length appears first as before followed by a hyphen then the pitch is shown. The intermittent welds may be chain intermittent or staggered intermittent.

This remains the case regardless of how the break in the arrow is drawn. 96 . If two numbers appear in parenthesis the legs are unequal. Fillet weld symbols on both sides of the reference line mean apply weld to both sides of the joint. A letter to indicate the method of finish may be given above the finish element. Fillet weld symbols on the top of the reference line mean apply the weld to the opposite side of the joint. Fillet weld symbols on the bottom of the reference line mean apply the weld to the side of the joint the arrow points to. When two numbers appear separated by a hyphen. the length is indicated first then the pitch. A letter U may be used to designate an unspecified finish. The pitch is the distance from the center of one length of weld to the center of the next length of weld.THE CONTOUR REQUIREMENTS Some welding symbols may show a contour finish that details how the fillet weld shape must be finished after welding. When a length of weld is shown on a fillet weld symbol the dimension is placed on the right side. when the choice of finishing is given. SUMMARYWhen reading a fillet weld symbol always make sure you know what side of the joint the weld is applied to. The size of a fillet weld is determined by the length of the leg of the fillet weld and is shown on the symbol to the left. check the drawing for clarification. When finishing directions are shown they appear over the slope of the fillet weld symbol.4. The contour may be flat or convex and the element to describe this is placed above the slope on the fillet weld symbol.

97 . while the back weld is applied after welding to finish the back side of the joint. double bevel edge. The typical edge preparations are shown below: The edge preparations may be assembled as either open root. J groove edge or double J groove edge. chamfer edge. When the butt joint has no edge preparation it is referred to as a square groove. are butted together for welding they usually have some form of a groove to allow the weld to penetrate into or through the joint. with a backing bar or by utilizing the back weld or backing weld application. The backing weld is applied before welding and acts as a backing bar. The backing bar may be removed or may be a part of the joint. The groove is formed by preparing the edges to be welded with a bevel edge. Before applying the back weld a grinder or other method may be used to prepare a V. The open root assembly allows penetration through the joint. while the backing bar is used for easier welding. other than sheet metal or thin sections.GROOVE WELDING SYMBOLS Groove welding symbols are used to show how butt joints are prepared for welding and to detail how the weld is to be applied. When two pieces of metal.

Symbols on the bottom of the reference line mean weld the side of the joint the arrow is touching or pointing to. This can be helpful to remember since symbols on a blueprint do not show the actual joint shape or edge preparation. KEY POINT: If two imaginary lines are drawn parallel to the horizontal line in the above symbols they show the joint shape. this is true for most of the symbols. KEY POINT: The Groove welding symbols have the same placement relevance on the reference line as the fillet weld.The edge preparations may be assembled in any configuration to form the groove for welding from either one side or both sides. If it is not clear always ask someone. 98 . while symbols on the top of the reference line mean weld the opposite side of where the arrow is touching or pointing to. reworking welds is costly and time consuming. The most common configurations and their basic symbols are shown below.

On a square groove only the weld size is given. dimensions the space between the joint to be welded and is placed inside the weld symbol. The actual weld size is again measured from the surface of the groove through the bottom of the groove but now includes the expected penetration of the weld. ROOT OPENING AND GROOVE ANGLE Two other important elements for preparing and welding the groove are the root opening and the groove angle. or depth of groove. The depth of groove is measured from the surface of the joint to the bottom of the preparation. The weld size does not include face reinforcement or root reinforcement. KEY POINT: The penetration into the joint shown on the weld size is not measurable by the naked eye but is given to provide information about the expected outcome. The second size given is the ACTUAL WELD SIZE and is enclosed in parentheses to distinguish it from the groove size. KEY PONT: The depth of groove does not include weld reinforcement or root penetration.GROOVE WELDING ELEMENTS GROOVE WELD SIZE The groove weld size is given in two dimensions and like the fillet weld it is placed to the left of the weld symbol. The root opening. 99 . The groove angle is also placed inside the weld symbol and is given in degrees. The first size given is THE DEPTH OF GROOVE and is the dimension used to prepare the edge preparation. when used.

and does not appear on the symbol. The Welder must always read all information given on a drawing. J grooves angles may be detailed elsewhere on the drawing. For example. The root opening and groove angle are separate elements and may or may not appear together depending on the joint requirements.KEY POINT: The groove angle for a V groove is given as the INCLUDED angle so that means the edge bevel or chamfer for each piece is 1/2 of the degrees given. 100 . On some drawings the root opening or groove angle will be covered in a note or specification on the drawing for all similar symbols. A 45 degree included angle means bevel each member at 22 1/2 degrees. CONTOUR AND FINISHING The same contour symbols that apply to fillet welds may be used with groove welding and are placed above the weld symbol.

101 . The elements for these are placed on the bottom of the reference line opposite the weld symbol or in the case of the spacer on the reference line. however. KEY POINT: If the backing bar is to be removed the symbol will contain an R for remove after welding. Since the back and backing weld symbol look the same you must look for details to see which weld applies. SUMMARY The groove weld symbols are used to provide information for preparing and welding the groove. The welder should read the entire drawing before making a weld to avoid costly rework. Spacers may be removed before the second side is welded or they may become part of the joint. Whenever you see something you are unfamiliar with check with engineering or supervision for clarification.BACKING BARS BACK WELDS AND SPACERS As previously mentioned in this section some joint configurations may have a backing bar or spacer for easier welding or may employ the back or backing weld technique. It is critical to produce the right size fillet and groove weld for the application so check sizes with weld gages. they cannot always show every intended operation and often notes or specifications are used on the drawing.

root opening. and weld all around indication added to the symbol 6. while symbols on the top of the reference line mean weld the opposite side of the joint where the arrow is touching. double j. The groove symbol may have a size of groove. double V. The fillet weld symbol may have a size. contour. double bevel single V. single bevel.CHAPTER EIGHT WELDING SYMBOLS KEY POINTS 1. The reference line has a leader and arrowhead point to the joint to be welded. 2. groove angle. 4. Symbols on both sides of the reference line mean weld both sides of the joint. length. pitch. 5. The groove symbol may be a square groove. 3. contour and depth of groove indication added. The fillet weld symbol is a triangle shape on the reference line. It only has a tail whenever information is to be placed in the tail. 7. single U or double U. 102 . single j. Symbols on the bottom of the reference line always mean weld the side of the joint the arrow is touching.

DELTA SCHOOL OF TRADES PRACTICES BASIC SMAW (STICK) 00 Practice Angle 01 Flat Position E-7018 02 Horizontal Position E-7018 03 Flat Position E-6010 04 Horizontal Position E-6010 05 Vertical Downward E-6010 06 Vertical Upward weave E-6010 07 Vertical Upward stringers E-6010 08 Vertical Upward weave E-7018 09 Overhead E-6010 10 Overhead E-7018 ADVANCED SMAW (STICK) 11 Assemble Groove Weld Plates 12 Flat Position Vee Groove 13 Horizontal Position Vee Groove 14 Vertical Position Vee Groove 15 Overhead Position Vee Groove GMAW (MIG) 16 Flat Position 17 Horizontal Position 18 Vertical Downward 19 Vertical Upward 20 Overhead 103 .

GTAW (TIG) 21 Flat Position 22 Horizontal Position 23 Vertical Position 24 Overhead Position PIPE PRACTICES FOR SMAW OR GTAW PROGRAM 25 Pipe Flat Position 1G 26 Pipe Horizontal Position 2G 27 Pipe Vertical Position 5G 28 Pipe Inclined 6G ADDITIONAL INFORMATION FOR PRACTICES Fillet weld Positions Groove weld positions Pipe Welding Positions Certification Test Groove Certification Test Fillet Weld Break Standards Troubleshooting Chart 104 .

105 .PRACTICES ANGLE 00 PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS ASSEMBLE ANGLE T JOINT SMAW GMAW GTAW ALL ALL SET FOR ELECTRODE AND POSITION Technique: assemble and tack weld two pieces of 1 ¼ angle six inches long as shown above and run welds in the position of the practice until the angle is completely full of weld on all sides.

PRACTICES BASIC SMAW 01 PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS FILLET WELD SMAW FLAT E-7018 1/8 ELECTRODES DCRP 130-150 AMPS Technique: Set the Amperage on DCRP 130 to 150 and using E-7018 Electrodes place a weld between the joint. Travel from left to right on all weld beads first. FOR ALL SMAW PRACTICES BURN ALL ELECTRODES DOWN AS LOW AS POSSIBLE 106 . Slag each weld bead before applying the next. Once the arc is struck the electrode may lightly touch the metal or a slight arc length may be maintained. Change angle of Electrode slightly to overlap next weld beads evenly until the joint is full of weld. Hold the Electrode 90 degrees to the joint as shown above. and then practice alternating direction.

Continue to weld beads from the bottom up overlapping each bead in half until the joint is filled. Watch for the weld puddle to split the center of the bead under it to keep it straight and for proper placement. 107 . Adjust the angle slightly to overlap the first bead with the second and third weld beads.PRACTICES BASIC SMAW 02 PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS HORIZONTAL T JOINT SMAW HORIZONTAL E-7018 DCRP 150-160 AMPS Technique: set the Amperage and weld the first bead using the angles shown above.

and then practice alternating direction. Once the arc is struck the electrode may lightly touch the metal or a slight arc length may be maintained. the 6010 produces a flatter weld bead with pronounced ripples thinner slag and deep penetration. Hold the Electrode 90 degrees to the joint as shown above. Slag each weld bead before applying the next. 108 .PRACTICES BASIC SMAW 03 PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS FILLET WELD SMAW FLAT E-6010 90-110 Technique: Set the Amperage on DCRP 90 to 110 and using E-6010 Electrodes place a weld between the joint. Notice the difference in the appearance between the E-7018 Electrode and the E6010 Electrode. While the 7018 produces a thicker smoother weld bead with a heavy slag and medium penetration. Travel from left to right on all weld beads first. Change angle of Electrode slightly to overlap next weld beads evenly until the joint is full of weld.

Continue to weld beads from the bottom up overlapping each bead in half until the joint is filled. lighter slag covering and deep penetration. Adjust the angle slightly to overlap the first bead with the second and third weld beads. smoother weld bead. or painted surfaces and produces a weld with a flatter profile. The iron powder and metal available from the core of these electrode accounts for the heavier. The E-7018 electrodes have iron powder added to the electrode covering (Flux). rusty. The resulting weld bead is flatter with more pronounced ripples than those produced with the E-7018 electrode. 109 .PRACTICES BASIC SMAW 04 PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS HORIZONTAL T JOINT SMAW HORIZONTAL E-6010 DCRP 90-110 AMPS Technique: set the Amperage and weld the first bead using the angles shown above. Watch for the weld puddle to split the center of the bead under it to keep it straight and for proper placement. The E-6010 electrode provides a hotter arc that cuts through dirty.

Change the angle slightly to overlap a series of weld beads from one side of the joint to the other. 110 . and weld down the joint. start the arc.PRACTICES BASIC SMAW O5 PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS VERTICAL TEE JOINT 03 SMAW VERTICAL DOWNWARD E-6010 DCRP 100-110 AMPS Technique: Set the welding Amperage on DCRP 100-110 and starting at the top of the joint. hold the correct travel angle. There should be no side to side or weave technique used and the weld bead should be about the size of the electrode including the flux. Completely fill each side of the angle assembly.

The weld appearance will be flat with a pronounced ripples.PRACTICES BASIC SMAW 06 PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS FILLET WELD T JOINT SMAW VERTICAL UP WEAVE E-6010 DCRP 90-110 AMPS Technique: set the welding machine for DCRP at 90-110 amps and weld vertical upwards from the bottom of the joint to the top using the weave technique. Pause in each corner to allow proper filling and weld formation. The vertical up weave is similar to the vertical up stringers except each pass is weaved from side to side and completely covers the prior weld bead. 111 . The initial amperage (or heat) setting may need to be increased slightly when weaving wider than the first three passes.

The side to side weave shown should be quick enough to produce a bead of the proper width. without being too high in the center. Use a slight weave from side to side as you move up the joint. The weld bead width should be approximately 1 ½ times the diameter of the electrode. The closer the weave pattern the better. Fill each side of the angle assembly flush with weld beads. keeping them the same size and allowing them to overlap half of the prior weld bead. Pause slightly in each corner of the weave pattern similar to the motion of a windshield wiper.PRACTICES BASIC SMAW 07 PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS VERTICAL UP T JOINT SMAW VERTICAL: UPWARD STRINGERS E-6010 DCRP 90-110 AMPS Technique: Set the correct amperage on the machine and weld from the bottom of the T joint to the top. Place the second and third weld beads as shown above. 112 .

The initial amperage (or heat) setting may need to be increased slightly when weaving wider than the first three passes. 113 . The weld appearance will be flat to slightly round with a smooth appearance. The vertical up weave is similar to the vertical up stringers except each pass is weaved from side to side and completely covers the prior weld bead.PRACTICES BASIC SMAW 08 PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS FILLET WELD T JOINT SMAW VERTICAL UP WEAVE E-7018 DCRP 125-150 AMPS Technique: set the welding machine for DCRP at 125-150 amps and weld vertical upwards from the bottom of the joint to the top using the weave technique. Pause in each corner to allow proper filling and weld formation.

Weld the assembled angle joint in the overhead position using E-6010 Electrodes. Slow travel speeds result in a large bead being deposited at is difficult to overlap and blend in. Hold the electrode as indicated and weld from one end of the joint to the other. A slight push or drag method may be used. In the Overhead position maintain travel speeds that result in a weld bead that is flat and well formed.PRACTICES BASIC SMAW 9 PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS OVERHEAD T JOINT SMAW OVERHEAD E-6010 DCRP E-6010 90-110 AMPS Technique: Set the welding machine on DCRP 90-100 amps for E-6010 electrodes. Travel speeds that are too fast result in a thin stringy bead with little penetration. 114 . Continue to run stringer beads until the entire angle is filled with weld.

Continue to run stringer beads until the entire angle is filled with weld. A slight push or drag method may be used.PRACTICES BASIC SMAW 10 PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS OVERHEAD T JOINT SMAW OVERHEAD E-7018 E-7018 125-150 AMPS Technique: Set the welding machine on DCRP 125-150 amps for E-7018 electrodes. In the Overhead position maintain travel speeds that result in a weld bead that is flat and well formed. Travel speeds that are too fast result in a thin stringy bead with little penetration. 115 . Weld the assembled angle joint in the overhead position using E-7018 Electrodes. Slow travel speeds result in a large bead being deposited at is difficult to overlap and blend in. Hold the electrode as indicated and weld from one end of the joint to the other.

PRACTICES ADV SMAW 11
PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS ASSEMBLE GROOVE WELDS SMAW FLAT HORIZONTAL VERTICAL OVERHEAD E-7018 DCRP 150 – 165 AMPS

Technique: The Instructor will use the track burner to cut beveled plates then cut a backing bar for assembling the groove. The student will remove burning slag and grind the groove face for welding. The instructor will assist you in aligning and assembling the groove joint and setting it in the welding position. Remember: we add two more beveled pieces to make 3 welded joints before discarding

116

PRACTICES ADV SMAW 12
PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS FLAT POSITION VEE GROOVE SMAW FLAT 1G E-7018 DCRP 130-165 AMPS

Technique: Place the groove in the flat position and weld the root pass against the backing bar, then continue welding stringers until the joint is filled. The cover passes should not exceed 1/8 inch high or be more than 1/8 over each side of the groove.

117

PRACTICES ADV SMAW 13
PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS HORIZONTAL POSITION VEE GROOVE SMAW HORIZONTAL 2G E-7018 DCRP 130-165 AMPS

Technique: Place the groove in the Horizontal position and weld the root pass against the backing bar, then continue welding stringers until the joint is filled. The cover passes should not exceed 1/8 inch high or be more than 1/8 over each side of the groove.

118

PRACTICES ADV SMAW 14 PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS VERTICAL POSITION VEE GROOVE 3G SMAW 3G VERTICAL UPWARD E-7018 DCRP 130-165 AMPS Technique: Place the groove weld in the Vertical up position and weld the first pass against the backing strip using the side to side weave motion. 119 . The final cover pass should not be more than 1/8 inch high and not more than 1/8 inch over the edge of the groove. Slag and continue weld passes until joint is filled flush.

PRACTICES ADV SMAW 15 PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS OVERHEAD POSITION VEE GROOVE SMAW OVERHEAD 4G E-7018 DCRP 130-165 AMPS Technique: Place the groove in the Overhead position and weld the root pass against the backing bar. 120 . then continue welding stringers until the joint is filled. The cover passes should not exceed 1/8 inch high or be more than 1/8 over each side of the groove.

alternating direction of travel. After welding one side fill the other sides. Angle the gun to overlap the 2nd 3rd and other passes until the joint is filled to the top of the angle. Use the push angle on all passes.PRACTICES GMAW 16 PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS GAS METAL ARC WELDING FLAT GAS METAL ARC WELDING FLAT 1F ER-70S-6 18-20 V0LTS 40 WIRE SPEED 75-25 GAS Technique: Use a push angle as shown to weld the first pass down the center of the joint. 121 .

For each pass let the weld pool split the prior pass in half to keep the weld straight and properly overlapped.PRACTICES GMAW 17 PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS GAS METAL ARC WELDING HORIZONTAL GMAW HORIZONTAL 2F ER-70S-6 18-20 VOLTS 40 WIRE SPEED 75-25 GAS Technique: Use the angles shown to weld the first pass. Practice Alternating direction of travel from left to right then right to left. Practice both push and pull angles. Overlap other passes to fill the angle joint completely. Overlap from passes from bottom up like stair steps. 122 .

Weld only from the top of the joint down to the bottom of the joint.PRACTICES GMAW 18 PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS GAS METAL ARC WELDING VERTICAL DOWN GMAW VERTICAL DOWNWARD 3F ER-70S-6 18-20 VOLTS 40 WIRE SPEED 75-25 GAS Technique: Use the angles shown to weld the first pass. 123 . then angle the gun to overlap the other passes until the joint is filled with weld.

PRACTICES GMAW 19
PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS GAS METAL ARC WELDING VERTICAL UP GMAW VERTICAL UPWARD 3F ER-70S-6 18-20 VOLTS 40 WIRE SPEED 75-25 GAS

Technique: Use the angles shown to weld the first pass then use the stringer weave to fill the joint. When the Instructor allows use the second technique “Weave Across” to fill the joint. Note: The stringer weave is still a weave pattern as shown but not as wide as the weave across.

124

PRACTICES GMAW 20
PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS GAS METAL ARC WELDING OVERHEAD GMAW OVERHEAD 4F ER-70S-6 18-20 VOLTS 40 WIRE SPEED 75-25 GAS

Technique: Use the Gun angles shown to weld the first pass, then continue to fill the joint until it is flush with weld. After 3rd weld shown place 4th weld on bottom of T to overlap 2nd weld then continue to overlap to top of T. Continue from bottom up to top of T with weld passes. Practice with both Push and Pull angles of travel. Change Direction of weld: Practice moving both from left to right and from right to left.

125

PRACTICES GTAW 21
PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING FLAT GTAW FLAT 1F ER-70S-6 3/32 FILLER DCSP 120-150 AMPS 20-30 FLOW 100 % ARGON

Technique: Using the torch angle shown and 3/32 filler wire weld the first pass as shown. Keep the filler metal as low as possible and feed it into the leading edge of the weld pool. Continue to weld overlapping passes across the joint.

126

127 . Keep filler wire low and feed into the leading edge of the weld pool. Weld six overlapping passes across each side of the joint.PRACTICES GTAW 22 PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING HORIZONTAL GTAW HORIZONTAL 2F ER-70S-6 3/32 FILLER DCSP 120-150 AMPS 20-30 FLOW 100 % ARGON Technique: Use torch angle above and filler rod to weld the first pass in the horizontal position as shown.

Keep filler straight and feed into weld pool as required. 128 .PRACTICES GTAW 23 PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING VERTICAL GTAW VERTICAL UP 3F ER-70S-6 3/32 FILLER DCSP 120-150 AMPS 20-30 FLOW 100 % ARGON Technique: using torch and filler angles shown weld the first pass. Continue to overlap weld beads. starting from the bottom of the joint and progress to the top of the joint.

feed into weld pool as needed. Continue to overlap weld beads from bottom of weld to top of angle as shown by 2nd and 3rd bead placement. 129 .PRACTICES GTAW 24 PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING OVERHEAD GTAW OVERHEAD 4F ER-70S-6 3/32 FILLER DCSP 120-150 AMPS 20-30 FLOW 100 % ARGON Technique: using torch and filler angles as shown weld the first pass across the joint Keeping filler flat and straight.

Weld the pipe in the flat position by rotating and welding only the top section until the pipe is welded complete. Weld the root pass with E-6010 and the rest of the pipe with E-7018.PRACTICES PIPE 25 PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS PIPE FLAT POSITION SMAW SCH 80 GTAW SCH 40 FLAT 1G PIPE SMAW E-6010 E-7018 OR GTAW ER-70S-6 AS REQUIRED Technique: Set the proper amperage and tack weld two pieces of pipe with a 1/8 or 3/32nd root opening in 4 places as directed by Instructor. The Root pass should penetrate into the pipe a minimum of flush to a maximum of 1/8. The weld should not extent past the original groove face more than 1/8 on each side. The weld should not be more than 1/8 high on the face of the pipe. (Use size of electrode without flux or use filler wire 3/32). 130 .

Weld the pipe in the Horizontal holding the indicated angle around the pipe. The weld should not extent past the original groove face more than 1/8 on each side. The Root pass should penetrate into the pipe a minimum of flush to a maximum of 1/8. Weld the root pass with E-6010 then use E-7018 to weld the rest of the pipe using the stringer bead technique. Weld beads from lower pipe (bottom) to top pipe. The weld should not be more than 1/8 high on the face of the pipe. 131 . until the pipe is welded complete.PRACTICES PIPE 26 PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS PIPE HORIZONTAL POSITION SMAW SCH 80 GTAW SCH 40 HORIZONTAL 2G PIPE SMAW E-6010 E-7018 OR GTAW ER-70S-6 AS REQUIRED Technique: Set the proper amperage and tack weld two pieces of pipe with a 1/8 or 3/32nd root opening in 4 places as directed by Instructor. (Use size of electrode without flux or use filler wire 3/32).

PRACTICES PIPE 27 PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS PIPE VERTICAL POSITION SMAW SCH 80 GTAW SCH 40 VERTICAL 5G PIPE SMAW E-6010 E-7018 OR GTAW ER-70S-6 AS REQUIRED Technique: Set the proper amperage and tack weld two pieces of pipe with a 1/8 or 3/32nd root opening in 4 places as directed by Instructor. Weld the root pass with E-6010 then use E-7018 to weld the rest of the pipe using the weave bead technique. The weld should not be more than 1/8 high on the face of the pipe. The weld should not extent past the original groove face more than 1/8 on each side. (Use size of electrode without flux or use filler wire 3/32). The Root pass should penetrate into the pipe a minimum of flush to a maximum of 1/8. 132 . Weld the pipe in the 5G Vertical holding the indicated angle around the pipe. until the pipe is welded complete.

The weld should not extent past the original groove face more than 1/8 on each side.PRACTICES PIPE 28 PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS 45 DEGREE INCLINED 6G PIPE POSITION SMAW SCH 80 GTAW SCH 40 6G PIPE SMAW E-6010 E-7018 OR GTAW ER-70S-6 AS REQUIRED Technique: Set the proper amperage and tack weld two pieces of pipe with a 1/8 or 3/32nd root opening in 4 places as directed by Instructor. Weld the pipe in the 6G position holding the indicated angle around the pipe. The weld should not be more than 1/8 high on the face of the pipe. 133 . The Root pass should penetrate into the pipe a minimum of flush to a maximum of 1/8. until the pipe is welded complete. (Use size of electrode without flux or use filler wire 3/32). Weld the root pass with E-6010 then use E-7018 to weld the rest of the pipe using the weave bead technique.

PRACTICES: FILLET WELD POSITIONS At Delta School we start with the flat 1F position then move to the horizontal position 2F then to the vertical 3F position and finally the overhead 4F position. You will practice each of these positions using both E-7018 and e-6010 Electrodes until an acceptable weld can be made consistently before the instructor moves you on to the next position. In the GMAW (MIG) and GTAW (TIG) programs we use weld in each of these positions. NOTE: In the case of SMAW and GMAW we weld both Vertical Upward and Vertical Downward 134 .

We return to the vertical groove 3G towards the end of the program since that is the most often used test position for groove welding. 135 . Start with the flat groove 1G progress to the horizontal groove 2G then to the vertical groove 3G and finally to the overhead groove 4G.PRACTICES: GROOVE WELD POSITIONS Practice each of these positions using E-7018 Electrodes until an acceptable weld can be made consistently before progressing to the next position.

At the very bottom of the pipe it may be overhead.PRACTICES: PIPE WELDING POSITIONS Flat position 1G The flat position pipe is generally rolled so the weld is always on top or in the downhand position. however. The weld is usually made using multiple stringer bead passes. The weld beads may be stringers or weave patterns. Horizontal position 2G In the 2g position the pipe is vertical and the weld is a horizontal position groove weld. In most cases the welder moves around a fixed piece of pipe to make the weld. Vertical position 5G In the 5G position the pipe is horizontal and the weld is mainly vertical. Pipe welds are essentially groove welds are often open root but may have a backing called a chill ring that fits into the root. 45 degree fixed position 6G In the 6g position because the pipe is on a 45 degree incline the welder is welding all positions around the Pipe. While at the top of the pipe it may be flat. A weave technique may be used throughout for uniformity. 136 . The stringers should be weaved slightly especially in the vertical segments for best results. If one test in this position the welder is qualified in all positions for Pipe Grooves and Fillets.

Continue welding until the joint is filled with weld and the cover pass is completed.PRACTICES: CERTIFICATION TEST ONE INCH VEE GROOVE 3G Technique: The Instructor will provide you with 2 test coupons and 1 backing strip follow directions to assemble the test joint and place in the test position for welding. There is no time limit on the test. You should check your heat setting by running a practice bead if you are not familiar with the welding machine. The Inspector will supervise the bend and interpret the results. Remember: You may use hand tools or power tools to clean each pass. The Welding Inspector will cut two bend test specimens from the completed weld test coupon. Weld the first pass and wait until the Welding Inspector checks the weld before continuing. have the inspector check if you are unsure. The cover pass should not be over 1/8 high (size of rod without flux) or 1/8 over the side of the original bevel 137 . Be careful not to grind to much of the test specimens. Grind the cover pass and backing bar flush and break all sharp corners.

138 .PRACTICES: AWS FILLET WELD BREAK TEST Technique: Use two pieces of 3/8 plate 3inches by 3 inches and tack weld only one side where indicated. For all position qualification weld the plates in both the vertical and overhead positions. Weld one pass from tack to tack in the position of testing.

There shall be no cracks anywhere in the weld. When one practice is of acceptable quality. There shall be no undercut anywhere in the weld. you will be moved on to the next practice. There shall be no porosity anywhere in the weld The weld profile shall conform to the weld profiles shown below: 139 . 3.1 Structural Welding Code for Steel and their various Inspection publications. 2. 4.DELTA SCHOOL OF TRADES STANDARDS WELDING PRACTICES The way to learn Welding or improve your skills is through practicing the welding positions assigned over and over again until the Instructor or Inspector is satisfied you can consistently perform the assigned welding practice. The Standards for all practices at the school and in Industry are the American Welding Society’s standards as described in the D1. Every Welder and Student should be aware of the Visual Inspection criteria used at the school and described below: 1.

TROUBLESHOOTING CHART 140 .

machining. Steels that have higher amounts of Carbon or other alloys added may require special procedures such as preheating and slow cooling. Mechanical properties affect how the metal will react when fabricating a structure. twist it. It is intended as a basic introduction to a complex subject known as Metallurgy. WHAT ARE THE TERMS USED TO DESCRIBE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF METAL? Before reviewing the weldability of steel we need to understand the terms used to describe the changes that may occur due to welding the steels. One of the most widely welded classifications of metal is the group of carbon steels.SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION 1 WELDING CARBON STEEL The following information is not intended to be a guide to welding structures in Industry. Stress is pressure acting on a weld or metal to pull it apart. depending on the direction and type of load. it may be useful for the welder to understand the affects of welding on metal. The welder may be involved in following a specific welding procedure to ensure weld metal and base metal have the desired strength characteristics. In many Industrial settings the procedure to be followed when welding a given type and grade of metal is established through testing to a specific Code or Standard or through practical experience. compress it. or shear it. WHY DOES THE WELDER NEED TO KNOW ANYTHING ABOUT THE STEEL HE IS ASKED TO WELD? In many cases the welder needs only to know the techniques of actual welding and does not need to be concerned about the type or grade of steel being welded. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL Mechanical properties are the properties of the steel reacting to some load or mechanical working such as bending. or shaping. When welding these steels with any of the common arc welding processes like Stick Mig or Tig there are generally few precautions necessary to prevent changing the properties of the steel. However. 141 . While Iron is a relatively soft metal that can be easily shaped or formed. The terms used to describe these properties are as follows: STRESS Stress is defined as the load per unit area and is measured in pounds per square inch. Review the definitions below as an introduction and refer back to them as necessary. to prevent cracking or changing the strength characteristics of the steel. In some cases one or more of the above loads may be applied in varying degrees. other elements may be added to the iron to give it a specific strength or enhanced mechanical properties. This is because a large amount of steel used in fabricating a metal structure is low Carbon or plain carbon steel (also called mild steel).

TENSILE STRENGTH The tensile strength is the ability of a metal to withstand forces acting to pull it apart and is measured in pounds per square inch. PLASTICITY Plasticity is the ability of a metal to be deformed or shaped without rupture.STRAIN Strain is the resulting deformation of the applied stress.000 pounds per square inch as shown by the first two digits of its number. In other words stress and strain go together. HARDNESS Hardness is defined as the ability of a material to resist indentation and is a function of its elastic and plastic properties. For example a piece of plain carbon steel can be shaped easier then a piece of tool steel without rupturing or breaking. MALLEABILITY 142 . The harder the metal the more it is able to resist wear and tear. the amount or degree to which the piece bends is the measure of the strain. Metals with high strength will deform less than metals with lower strength. Generally metals with high tensile strength are tougher but have lower ductility and ductile metals are softer and have lower tensile strength. Ductility is the property that allows metals such as aluminum and copper to be drawn into wire forms. STRENGTH Strength is the ability of a material to resist deformation. Metals have a limit of elasticity and when the load increases beyond the limit deformation or strain will occur. For example: If a piece has stress acting to bend it. Plasticity and strength work together since plasticity is the ability to take the applied load its strength is the ability to withstand or resist deforming under the load. In other word when the load is removed there is no appreciable strain or deformation. DUCTILITY Ductility is the ability of a metal to be easily shaped or elongated without failure or rupture. For example: the E-7018 electrode produces a weld with a tensile strength of 70. for instance. ELASTICITY Elasticity is the property of a material that when stressed or has a force applied allows the shape to return to its original shape. if you stress your back by lifting or carrying a heavy load the resulting pain or damage is the strain.

In other words the higher the carbon content the more likely special procedures such as preheating. In plain carbon steels it is the Carbon additive that has the greatest effect on the strength and weldability of the steel. Other elements may be added to the steel to impart a specific quality to enhance its usefulness. and manganese. magnetic properties. The carbon is added to the Iron in varying amounts to harden or strengthen the steel. phosphorous. and malleability will decrease. typical uses and weldability. HOW DOES THE AMOUNT OF CARBON AFFECT WELDABILITY OF STEELS? In general as the carbon content increases the weldability (how easily welded) decreases. Of the above properties. CARBON STEELS WHAT IS CARBON STEEL? Carbon Steel is principally a mixture (or Alloy) of Iron and Carbon with small amounts of silicon.Malleability is the ability of a metal to be shaped by compressive forces without rupture. plasticity. Steel when heated increases in length. The reason the carbon content or carbon recipe varies is to produce a family of steels that exhibit the desired characteristics for a given application. and thickness. heat conductivity. For example gold has high malleability and can be rolled and shaped into thin sheets. When welding takes place a localized area is heated to melting temperature and begins cooling. one of the most important is the coefficient of thermal expansion. Distortion or warping due to welding will be covered in a later lesson. similar to a recipe for chicken soup that has ingredients to enhance the flavor. sulfur. The following chart groups carbon content. steel that has a high coefficient of thermal expansion such as Stainless Steel will warp or change dimensionally more than regular steel. and coefficient of thermal expansion. width. electrical conductivity. interpass temperature control and postheating are necessary. reflectivity. Metals with good malleability can be rolled into thin sheets. An Alloy may be thought of as a recipe. BRITTLENESS Brittleness is basically a term used to describe the lack of plasticity or ductility. 143 . A brittle metal cannot be easily deformed or shaped. Iron has other elements or ingredients to enhance the properties of the Iron. The increase in unit length when a metal is heated one degree is called its coefficient of thermal expansion. For example: a hardened steel or cast iron may be brittle and show very little resistance to impact or shock. melting point. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL Physical properties are related to the structure and nature of the steel or Alloy and include density. As carbon content increases the hardness and tensile strength increases and the ductility.

50 To 1. Mild steel accounts for a large segment of welded parts of Industry where good plasticity and ductility is required. angle.30 to 0. Use Low hydrogen Electrodes and appropriate filler wire.30 Typical usage Welding electrodes. Many tools. Also used where a sharp edge is required. Weldability Excellent weldability with all processes usually no preheat interpass or postheat necessary Readily weldable with all processes without preheat. Band saws. interpass. and furnaces are not required or used a welder may use an oxy-fuel torch and tempelsticks (tempilstik) to control preheating. interpass 144 . High carbon steels 0. and where parts may be hardened by heat treating. Railroad Track. or postheat except for very thick sections. interpass temperature controls. ovens. rivets and nails softer easily formed shapes. Heat treating after welding may be applied Usually require preheat interpass temperature control and postheat. and Knives. Medium carbon steel 0.15 Maximum 0.50 Used for Machine parts. INTERPASS TEMPERATURE CONTROL AND POSTHEATING RECOMMENDATIONS ARE MADE? When sophisticated inspection tools. Dies. Special heating and cooling procedures in a furnace such as normalizing may be required to restore the properties of the metal after welding. Plate. and post heat recommendations are followed.Group Low carbon steel Mild steel Plain carbon Content % 0. High carbon Electrodes designed for welding tool steels or the specific alloy are readily available from welding supply companies. gears. Note: As carbon increases steel toughness and welding precautions increase WHAT TOOLS DO WELDERS TYPICALLY USE WHEN PREHEATING.15 to 0.0 Springs. Parts may be readily welded with all process if preheat. and bar stock for general fabrication.

For example. the first digit indicates carbon steel the second digit indicates no predominant alloy other than carbon and the last two digits indicate . To slow the cooling rate of small parts welders use methods to keep the part warm and exclude air such as.temperatures. in the case of the widely used 1020 steel. Tempilstiks are available in a range of temperatures making them useful for controlling temperature fluctuations between multiple pass welds (interpass temperature) and for cooling parts. and the last two or three digits indicate the average carbon content. 145 . The first digit indicates the type of steel. the second digit indicates the approximate percentage of the main alloying element. The dry opaque Tempilstik mark will change to a distinct melted mark when the temperature rating of the selected Tempilstik has been reached. HOW ARE STEELS CLASSIFIED? The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) and the Society Of Automotive Engineers (SAE) use a four or five digit numbering system to classify steels by chemical composition.20 carbon content. Tempilstiks are crayon like indicators made of materials that melt within 1% of their rated temperature. burying in sand or some other medium. The following shows some of the AISI SAE series designations of steel with xx representing the range of carbon content for the group. and postheat. Mark the workpiece before heating begins. or wrapping in a fire retardant blanket.

For this reason a formula may be applied to a classification of steel to roughly determine the hardenability and hence the weldability and need for pre-heating.00 Nickel 3. Although Carbon is the main alloy that affects hardenability and weldability other elements also harden steel and play a role in the weldability of steel.5 Chromium 1.5 Nickel 5. The other groups of steels have additional elements ( alloys) added to enhance their properties in some specific way.60 Nickel 1.5 Nickel 3.25 Chromium 0.SERIES DESIGNATION Carbon Steels 10xx 11xx 12xx Manganese Steels 13xx Nickel Steels 31xx 25xx Nickel Chromium Steels 31xx 32xx 33xx 34xx Molybdenum Steels 40xx 41xx 43xx Nickel Chromium Molybdenum Steels 43xx Nickel Molybdenum Steels 46xx 48xx Chromium Steels 50xx 51xx TYPE OF STEEL Plain Carbon Machining Resulferized Machining Resulferized Phospherized Manganese 1. HOW DOES THE ADDITIONAL ELEMENTS IN THE ABOVE CHART AFFECT THE STEEL AND WELDABILITY? Low alloy steels are Carbon steels that have additional elements added (alloyed) to produce a classification of steel that has a specific benefit for production use. For example Manganese and Molybdenum aid in hardening steels.77 Molybdenum Carbon Molybdenum Chromium Molybdenum Nickel Chromium Nickel Chromium Molybdenum Nickel Molybdenum Nickel Molybdenum Chromium Chromium As shown by the above chart the first group of steels are the Carbon steels.75 Nickel 3. One example of a formula is shown below.0 Nickel 1.75 Chromium 1. Carbon equivalent for alloy steels CE = % C + %Mn + Ni + Cr + Mo + V 146 .0 Chromium 0.

heat resistance. Depending on the amount added special procedures may be necessary when welding. Nickel Nickel may be used to Increase toughness and impact strength and improve corrosion resistance. Molybdenum May be used in conjunction with other elements to aid in hardening and provide steel with good strength at elevated temperatures. A WPS is a written set of 147 .6 15 6 4 5 CE = Carbon Equivalent C = Carbon Mn = Manganese Ni = Nickel Cr = Chromium Mo = Molybdenum V = Vanadium Manganese Manganese is used to harden steels and increase its toughness and strength. HOW DOES THE WELDER KNOW HOW TO WELD A GIVEN STEEL STRUCTURE? The best way for a welder to know how to weld a particular steel or steel classification is through the use of a Welding Procedure Specification (WPS). Or Tig the metals and filler are heated to the melting temperature under the arc and allowed to solidify to form the weld. Chromium Chromium helps improve the hardenability of steels and improves wear resistance. The Strength and Mechanical properties of carbon and alloy steels may be changed or shaped for a specific application by heat treating in furnaces or ovens. When two pieces of metal are welded using any of the commonly used arc welding processes: Stick. Consideration of preheat and or postheat techniques usually apply. Preheating may be required for welding and they are often heat treated after welding. Depending on the amount added special procedures may be necessary when welding. Good strength and ductility may be obtained even with lower carbon content. and corrosion resistance. Mig. Chromium and Chromium Nickel are used in the production of Stainless Steel. High manganese content coupled with increased carbon content lowers the ductility and weldability.

these test are subjective and may not be reliable for all cases. There should always be some method of traceability for metals used to fabricate parts. These methods include postheating the weld area with an oxy-fuel torch. This area is referred to as the Heat Affected Zone. The area most affected by heating and cooling during welding is called the HEAT AFFECTED ZONE (HAZ) THE HEAT AFFECTED ZONE The heating and cooling rate of welding directly under the arc is from the melting temperature to normal temperatures and may occur relatively quickly or methods may be used to slow the cooling rate of the joint. WHAT IS THE HEAT AFFECTED ZONE AND HOW DOES IT AFFECT WELDABILITY? The heating and cooling action that occurs when welding is a form of heat treating in the localized area of the puddle and weld joint that may result in changes to the mechanical properties of the base metal and surrounding area. The resulting information is written on a form called a Procedure Qualification Record. There are ways to test unknown metals through appearance. the heat input of the process and the number of weld passes. while recording the welding parameters and variables. blanketing the weld area. When you can trace the material through purchase orders or metal identification you know or can find out how to weld it. The completed joint is then tested in accordance with a specific Code or Standard. 148 . The area surrounding the joint is heated to various temperatures depending on the distance from the arc. A welding Procedure Specification is developed by engineering or inspection personnel using qualified welders to weld a specific type of metal and joint configuration that will be used on the job.instructions (specifications) detailing the welding procedure. The more expensive and precise method of using a furnace under controlled conditions restores the mechanical properties of the weld joint and the surrounding base metal. however. or using a precise heating and cooling method in a furnace or industrial setting. Metals sections and shapes should be stamped color coded or made from known materials. magnetic properties or spark testing. interpass temperature controls and postheat treatments. joint preparation. If no Welding Procedure is provided at a minimum the welder MUST know what the base metal is and find out if special precautions are necessary for welding. Whenever possible welders request and use a Welding Procedure Specification for the type and grade of metal they are welding. current type and range as well as any required preheat. The information from the Welding Procedure Qualification Record is used to write the Welding specification and as long as the procedure is carefully followed the resulting welded products will have the required strength characteristics. Some companies that do not have a formal Welding Specification have through practical experience developed a set of instructions that the welder must follow to successfully weld the given project. filler metal.

while the grain structure of the surrounding heat affected area may change to a less desirable shape and size and may cause cracking when welding on medium or high carbon steels. When welding low carbon. during. while welding an already hardened steel may result in a softened heat affected zone with loss of desired hardness. WHAT IS HEAT DISTORTION? Steel when heated increases in length. mild steels and most low alloy steels the heat affected area does not change the properties of the metal enough to become a problem regardless of the cooling rate. Some industries employ a heat treating process called stress relieving to relieve residual stresses due to working or welding the structure. width. The increase in unit length when a metal is heated one degree is called its coefficient of thermal expansion. Often when welding a hardenable steel the heat affected area can harden to undesirable levels. medium carbon. When welding thick sections. and thickness. high carbon. and after welding to minimize distortion. and high alloy steels check the recommended procedures for control of the heating and cooling rate There are heat treating options such as annealing or normalizing that may be used to restore the grain structure of the welded piece.The grains structure in the melted weld area may form a desirable size and shape. Procedures may be used before. It is imperative to use the correct electrode for the application so that weld metal is compatible with the base metal and fewer changes occur due to the carbon or alloy content of the filler wire. I f a small 149 . Electrodes are available for welding tool steels and Cast iron. The heat affected zone may also have locked in stresses that can lead to problems when the welded structure is in service. The heating and cooling that occurs in the heat affected area and surrounding metal may also lead to heat distortion of the parts being joined.

In addition to clamps pieces called stiffeners may be temporarily added to areas that tend to distort and removed when the part cools. The clamps are left in place until the parts are welded and cooled. 150 . Use Clamps Jigs and Fixtures Jigs and fixtures with clamps hold parts in alignment and reduce the free movement of parts from heat expansion. WHAT ARE SOME OF THE THINGS A WELDER CAN DO DURING WELDING TO LIMIT HEAT DISTORTION? Sequencing Welding Use a skip or backstep method of welding to distribute the heat around the joint. When welding a piece of steel only the joint and surrounding area is heated and cooled. during. For example: Wide angle V grooves welded from one side would distort more than double V grooves welded from both sides. Semi-automatic and fully automatic welding processes limit the heat input and distortion. Steps may be taken before. and after welding to minimize or control the effects of heat distortion. This cause uneven expansion and cooling and the piece begins to warp or distort.square block of steel were heated evenly under ideal conditions it would expand with the heat and contract when cooling relatively evenly. Select the proper Equipment Higher welding speeds using iron powder electrodes (E-7018) and larger diameters may reduce the amount and effect of heat distortion. WHAT ARE SOME OF THE THINGS A WELDER CAN DO BEFORE WELDING TO LIMIT HEAT DISTORTION? Joint Preparation The joint should be planned and prepared to limit the amount of weld and weld passes. This involves making shorter welds at different locations of the joint then joining them together. Uncontrolled Distortion may lead to a serious dimensional defect or lead to failure of the part.

Use the smallest size fillet welds practical to reduce heat input. If solid welding is not necessary for strength use intermittent welding and stagger the sequence. Weld flat or horizontal positions with larger size electrodes that allow for more weld deposit at faster speeds whenever practical. Postheating to remove stresses and warpage in controlled environments such as 151 . Techniques like alternating heating and cooling to remove warpage called straightening require a degree of skill and practice. CONTROL OF DISTORTION AFTER WELDING Distortion is more difficult to control after welding. Vertical positions and multiple pass welds result in more heat input.Welding the joint If possible two welders weld opposite sides of the joint at the same time.

often involving the use of furnaces is usually done by qualified personnel.normalizing and annealing. 152 . high alloy steels and cast Iron require special procedures to prevent cracking and weld failure. If you are unsure ask questions and research the type of steel and its weldability. SUMMARY Although the vast majority of carbon steels used in fabricating parts are mild steel or low carbon and presents little difficulty in welding. The welder should know the type of steel he is asked to weld to prevent problems that may lead to questions of his or her ability. some carbon steels that have more carbon such as tool steels.

When welding pipe flanges and some joints configurations the weld applied may be a fillet weld. the 2G horizontal position. The pipe welding positions covered are the 1G flat and rolled position. Welding pipe to pipe requires a higher degree of skill and is the topic of this supplement. PIPE WELDING EDGE PREPERATION 153 .SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION 2 PIPE WELDING Welding pipe is like welding any other structural shape and welding can take place in any of the normal positions for welding. When welding pipe to pipe the joint is similar to a vee groove and is often open root. the 5G vertical position and the 6G fixed position as shown below.

The pipe coupons for welding are cut using the pipe beveling machine. The slag is removed and the edges are ground smooth for welding a 1/8 landing or flat is applied to the pipe. 154 . The pictures below show the pipe beveling machine and the edge preparation.

At least 4 tack welds should be placed around the pipe at 12 o’clock 6 o’clock 3 o’clock and 9 o’clock. If part of the root gap is too wide the key hole will open up too much while welding and instead of penetration you may have burn through (more than 1/8 reinforcement) on the inside. When testing the tack may be removed using a cutting wheel to get a consistent root weld around the joint.PIPE ASSEMBLY The pipe is assembled for welding by placing one piece on top of the other with a 1/8 electrode without flux on it between the pipe. The tacks must be strong enough to hold alignment while welding the root pass and should penetrate enough to become a part of the root pass. It is extremely important to set up and tack weld the pipe properly. The root gap around the pipe must be consistent. if the pipe is not aligned on the inside it is difficult to obtain the proper penetration through the pipe. 155 . The picture below shows the tacks in a flat position pipe. If part of the root gap is too narrow you may not be able to penetrate through the pipe in those areas.

The chill ring works like a backing bar in groove welding and becomes a part of the welded joint.Chill ring For some applications a chill ring may be used instead of an open root. PIPE WELDING IN THE FLAT 1G POSITION 156 . After tacking the chill ring on the inside of the pipe. the pins are removed. When the chill ring is used the root opening is determined by the pins on the chill ring. If a chill ring is used the root pass may be made using E-7018 since it is not necessary to penetrate through the pipe.

In the flat position with the pipe being rolled or rotated the push travel angle works best. Stringer beads are used to weld the root.Pipe Welding in the flat position requires that the Welder make some adjustments to the normal angles and length of the welds during welding. 157 . Shorter lengths of weld are used so that you do not change your travel angle by stretching out of position. The pipe is then rotated before continuing. The root pass should be flat to convex in appearance on the groove side of the pipe with no holes and should be flush to 1/8 maximum reinforcement on the inside of the pipe. Technique for welding the 1 G Rolled Pipe The root pass is made using the E-6010 Electrode to penetrate through the open root pipe. fill passes and cover pass on six inch schedule 80 pipe. Use scrap metal and weld in the flat position with the amperage on approximately 100 and adjust the heat as necessary. Make sure the amperage (heat) is set correctly to open and maintain the keyhole where the root is s good fit.

After completing the root pass and evaluating the penetration. grind the groove side of the weld in preparation for the fill passes. 158 . Set the amperage for the E-7018 1/8 Electrode at approximately 120-150 amps to weld the fill passes and the cover passes. Use the stringer bead technique for welding the fill passes and cover passes.

PIPE WELDING IN THE 2G HORIZONTAL POSITION When welding in the 2g pipe position the pipe is vertical and the weld is horizontal. It is important to layer the fill passes and cover passes from the bottom pipe up to the top pipe. The pipe is not moved during welding and the welder must move around the fixed position pipe. 159 . while keeping the weld beads straight and properly overlapped. The preparation and amperage setting should be the same as for the flat position pipe with E-6010 Electrodes used for the root and E-7018 Electrodes used for the fill and cover passes.

160 .

slow down and force it open with the electrode while welding or stop and increase the amperage (heat). Check the machine setting and use an amperage from 90-110. If the keyhole is too tight. 161 . When welding some pipes for low pressure applications or small diameter pipe it may be acceptable to weld vertical downward with an electrodes like the E6010 however. most pipes are welded vertical upward with an E6010 root pass and E-7018 fill and cap. It may be necessary to ride up very slightly on the inside edge of the groove to chill the keyhole if it opens up too much. Use a slight U shape technique with the E-6010 electrode to open and maintain the keyhole. When welding in the 5G pipe position the weld beads may be either stringers or weaves depending on the job requirements.PIPE WELDING IN THE VERTICAL 5G POSITION In the 5G pipe position the pipe is horizontal and the weld axis is vertical so that the welding is essentially a vertical weld. At the Delta School Of Trades we use the E-6010 electrode for the open root pass and E7018 for the fill and cover passes using the vertical upward weave technique. Use E-7018 for the fill passes and cover pass set at approximately 120-150 Amps. Use a Z motion weave with the E-7018 Electrode keeping the ripples close together and the weld profile flat for the fill and cover passes. TECHNIQUE FOR VERTICAL 5G PIPE WELDING AS always make sure the correct amperage is set for tacking the pieces and the root pass using E-6010 electrodes.

The weld in this position covers all position welding because the bottom of the pipe is an overhead weld. the top of the pipe is a flat weld and the front and back sides are a vertical upward weld. 162 .VERTICAL UPWARD WEAVES FOR 5G PIPE Stringer Weaves may also be used to weld the fill passes and cover passes. This is an important technique to learn in preparation for welding in the 6G position PIPE WELDING IN THE 6G FIXED POSITION In the 6G Pipe welding position the pipe is set on a 45 degree inclined angle. The pipe is welded using stringer beads except that a slight weave motion must be used to prevent the sides or vertical upward part from sagging and lumping up in the middle of the weld bead.

Each filler pass should overlap the prior pass without leaving a depression (called wagon tracks) and should show good fusion. grind the root pass lightly before starting with the E-7018 Electrode. Make sure you have set the correct amperage for the electrode type and size as mentioned earlier. CRITICAL ELEMENTS FOR WELDING THE 6G FIXED PIPE As for all pipe welding take the time to set up the pipe properly with a consistent root gap and 4 evenly spaced tacks. After running the root. Remember to use a slight weave motion with the E-7018 to prevent the weld lumping in the middle and to get proper fusion. Use a slight push angle from bottom to top.The Electrode angle should remain the same for all passes. 163 .

it is advisable to remove the tacks instead of weld over them to ensure penetration at the root. the one most widely used and recommended at the school is the AWS D1. and fillets. grooves. Although there are many Codes and Standards that govern the welding and testing of Pipe. An optional SMAW test on 4 inch schedule 40 pipe in the 6G position qualifies the welder for all positions welding and pipe sizes from 3/4 to 4 inch with wall thickness from 1/8 to 3/4.1 Structural Welding Code.The 6G pipe position is the one used extensively for testing. since it qualifies the welder for all position welding of pipe. A wire wheel brush and grinder may be used to keep each pass clean and prevent slag inclusions. The pipe size recommended for GTAW Certification is the 4 inch sch 40 pipe. Also qualifies the welder for pipe sizes from 4 inches to unlimited and wall thickness from 3/16 inch to unlimited. 164 . When testing. The test for SMAW is usually a 6 inch schedule 80 pipe with an open root. This test qualifies the welder for welding fillets grooves and pipe in all positions. and is welded in the 6G position.

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