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Gear Mesh Misalignment - Gear Solutions Magazine
May 16, 2012
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and might also increase gear noise. whether along the plane of action or at right angles to the plane. Essentially the analysis of this program may be thought of as a special-purpose finite element solution that has many analytical simplifications that allow extremely time-efficient solutions. All simulation results presented in this paper will use a program entitled Load Distribution Program (LDP) that starts with the input geometry. ( Figure 2) shows a schematic of this line 2) of action and also defines the coordinate systems to be used in this paper.com/article/detail/5467/gear-mesh-misalignment 5/13 . This paper will discuss the sources of misalignment and show some examples of how this misalignment affects load distribution. change in center distance of the shafts.gearsolutions. thus slightly altering the profile contact ratio of the gear pair. mesh misalignment implies the axial shifting of the position of the meshing surfaces due to either deflections or errors in the manufacture of the gears and their housings. there will be two pairs of teeth in contact. Mesh misalignment may be divided into three categories: 1) Parallel misalignment (center distance change) 2) Angular misalignment parallel to the plane of action (MLOA ) 3) Angular misalignment perpendicular to the plane of action (MOLOA ) Parallel misalignment . the helical gear pairs defined in (Table 1) will be used as examples. where a slight extension of the active contact area occurs. thus resulting in a slight increase of the profile contact ratio. and then simultaneously solves torque equilibrium and motion continuity equations [3-4]. discretizes the contact lines. The diagram would indicate that. This plane of action is bounded on the top and bottom by the respective outside diameters of the two gears and on the edges by the face widths.Gear Solutions Magazine Ohio State University.63 at other positions. Mesh Misalignment Definitions In the gear contact sense. Houser Download PDF Gear mesh misalignment may result in shifts in the load distribution of a gear pair that results in increasing contact and bending stresses. essentially results in a misalignment. A change in center distance will result in a slight change in the intersection of the outside diameters with the plane. Example Gear Pair Throughout this paper. Since the contact ratio is 2. Analyses will show how lead crowning and/or end relief can reduce the harmful effects of misalignment and then will discuss some of the pitfalls in the use of contact patterns to evaluate load distribution.0002 www. ( Figure 2) shows how this line of 2) action extends to a plane of action that now shows the superimposed diagonal lines of contact for one contact position.5/16/12 Gear Mesh Misalignment . moving the peak bending stresses to the edge of the face width. there are three pairs of teeth in contact. for this position. The occurrence of any of these actions typically alters the location of contact on the tooth flank and may lead to large stresses and increased noise of a gear pair. These gear pairs were (Table 1) part of a large test program of the Army and NASA  and have subsequently been analyzed and tested at The Ohio State University . a contraction of 0. (Figure 3) (Figure 3) shows this result for a contracting of the center distance. (Figure 1) shows the transverse view of the helical gear pair with the superimposed (Figure 1) line of action that is tangent to the base circles of the respective gears. By: Donald R. For our gear pair.
However.385. In order to compute the misalignments in the LOA and OLOA directions. Conversion of Misalignments There are many causes of misalignment. the equations become: MLOA = 0. If this misalignment is severe enough. This reduction in contact area results in a reduction of total contact ratio. when the angular misalignment is at a right angle to the plane of action.917Mx + 0. and y-direction misalignments are at right angles to the centerline and are often referred to as skew misalignment. some of them directly cause line of action (LOA) or offline of action (OLOA) misalignment. the effect on the contact lines will be similar to what would happen if two cylinders are skewed. and MOLOA = MxCosφ + My Sinφ Using a pressure angle of 23. We see that the load shifts sharply to the left. (Figure 4) shows how this type of misalignment changes the load distribution from the aligned case to a case where the line of action misalignment is 0.0016 in/in). so this change is quite small and may usually be neglected in predictive analysis. If one is given the misalignments in angular units as Mx and My . The appropriate gear mesh misalignment system is shown by the LOA and OLOA directions. where the contact line will change to elliptical contact as shown in (Figure 6) . Using these non-dimensional units. Angular misalignment parallel to the plane of action tends to shift the load to the side of the tooth by increasing the separation at one side of the tooth and reducing the separation at the other side of the tooth.Gear Solutions Magazine inches results in the profile contact ratio shifting from 1. In this case. respectively. but that each contact line still has contact over its entire length. Unlike parallel misalignment.383 to 1. and others cause misalignment in rather arbitrary directions. The normal convention in defining shaft misalignments would be to use the horizontal or vertical coordinate system in which x-direction misalignments would define changes along the centerline that are often called parallelism errors. the values will be the same whether we consider Metric or English units. respectively. the effect of angular misalignment depends upon the plane that it acts in. we need to use the following formulas: MLOA = MxSinφ + My Cosφ . This (Figure 6) same skewing will occur for the lines of contact of both spur and helical gears.5/16/12 Gear Mesh Misalignment . ( Figure 2) shows a set of 2) coordinate systems in which the shafts are aligned vertically in an x-y horizontal/vertical coordinate system. then the respective normalized misalignments along the x and y directions would be: Mx = Tanθx and My = Tanθy www. the outside diameters of the respective gears rotate as shown in (Figure 5) in such a manner that the shape of the contact zone becomes (Figure 5) skewed and the contact area is reduced.com/article/detail/5467/gear-mesh-misalignment 6/13 . (Figure 2).002 inches across the face width (0. the shape and area of the theoretical active contact plane remains the same as the ideal shape of ( Figure 2).917My .398My With regard to line of action misalignment. We will also assume that these misalignments are given in normalized units of mm/mm in Metric units or in/in in English units.398Mx + 0.45 degrees. and MOLOA = 0. We shall refer to these misalignments as Mx and My .gearsolutions. one finds that the y-axis “skew” misalignment is far more important than the parallelism misalignment.
gearsolutions.002 + 0. www.09798 degrees θOLOA = Tan-1(0.00171 in/in MOLOA = 0.002 + 0.001 = 0.398*0.00223 in/in The angular misalignments in degrees are: θLOA = Tan-1(0. then it should be factored into load distribution calculations.007 in.00171) = 0.917*0.001 in/in in the y-direction we get LOA and OLOA misalignments of: MLOA = 0.25 in. is described by the AGMA quality number and directly gives line of action misalignment. Causes of Misalignment Mesh slope and curvature misalignment of the gear mesh may result from many factors. which occurs when the gear teeth are cut.5 in.917*0. hence the assumption of line contact of cylinders is upheld and there is no need to perform any special analyses. which is still significantly larger than the face width. The major diameter is obviously considerably larger than the face width of 1. one gets the major radius to be about 15 in and the minor diameter is 0.Gear Solutions Magazine If the misalignments of a 23. (Figure 6).com/article/detail/5467/gear-mesh-misalignment 7/13 . The equations for calculating the ellipse diameters are given as: When the appropriate radii are inserted into the above equations.5/16/12 Gear Mesh Misalignment .001 = 0. If the ellipse diameter is less than the face width.12777 degrees Check for Offline Action Misalignment Significance The theory of Hertz [Roark] will be applied to determine whether the major axis the ellipse length of (Figure 6).002 in/in in the x-direction and 0. The major ones are described as follows: • Lead slope error.398*0. Even if the load is reduced by a factor of 10. This error.00223) = 0. the major diameter reduces to 5.45 degree pressure angle gear are 0.
these deflections will take on a general direction. the misalignment also increases . Here the error is most likely to be defined in terms of the x and y misalignments defined in the previous section. For a single gear on a shaft. These gradients are particularly apparent in helical gears. hence creating a form of misalignment. Housing deflections. are usually quite linear with load. • Bearing and housing deflections. In thin-rim gears that spin at high speed. they may be added together. This error in lead slope results from an angular eccentricity that occurs when mounting the gear. (Figure 7) shows sample lead charts for four teeth taken at 90-degree increments around a (Figure 7) gear. Thus. so as load increases. and the average slope is the lead slope error listed above. bearing deflections are in the line of action direction if only a single gear is mounted on the shaft.5/16/12 Gear Mesh Misalignment . the twisting of the shaft due to the transmitted torque gives a helix angle or lead error. • Mounted gear runout. where the lubricant tends to be pushed along the helix and heats up as it progresses. Clearances that exist in mounting either the gear or the bearing will result in a tilting of the part in the line of action direction. and two in rotation. • Spline and bearing clearances. Also. • Temperature gradients. It is important to note that this misalignment is reasonably linear with load. but are sometimes a bit hazy with regard to the skew misalignment. The blank then heats up and expands. but when additional gears and other external forces are applied to the shaft. thus giving an apparent change in helix angle. the centrifugal forces may be great enough to cause a differential deflection across the tooth face width. which can exceed those of the bearings. Fortunately for the gear designer. • Centrifugal forces. as well as a slight change in all gear geometry parameters due to thermal expansion. Since both of these deflections are at the shaft support. but may need to be measured or need a detailed finite element analysis in order to be determined with some certainty. might cause either a contraction or extension of the housing center distance. and housing deflections. but are more general when additional forces are applied to the shaft. and it wobbles relative to the shaft. which may be obtained from the housing engineering drawing. In gears with wide face widths and low numbers of teeth. • Gear blank deflections. The changing slopes of the four charts indicate lead wobble. three in translation.com/article/detail/5467/gear-mesh-misalignment 8/13 . Mounted runout includes the effect of manufactured eccentricity as well as mounting www. so the increase in bearing deflection with load is not directly proportional. to account for them properly. This deflection will tend to reduce the load carried in this region of the tooth. The blanks of gears with thin rims tend to deflect away from the line of action on the overhanging section of the gear tooth. These deflections will usually cause an increase in the center distance. but they each should be investigated to be sure that they do not impact a given design. • Shaft torsional deflections. This error. Center Distance Shifts Center distance shifts may occur due to several factors: • Bore parallelism error. One should also be aware that the stiffnesses at the bearing has five degrees of freedom. This occurs either when it is placed on its manufacturing arbor or when it is mounted to its shaft. As with shaft deflections. • Shaft bending deflections.Gear Solutions Magazine • Lead wobble. this deflection will be along the line of action. Bearing stiffness increases with load.gearsolutions. Often prints are very clear about the parallelism misalignment. • Bore parallelism and skew. this misalignment may have some curvature error as well as slope error. a complete bearing stiffness matrix must be determined. for wide face width gears. bearing. the values of many of these misalignments are quite small for their application. • Shaft. Yet skew misalignment will have a greater effect on LOA mesh misalignment.
5/16/12 Gear Mesh Misalignment .0+6.0 9) lb-in). so any lead change will be good only at that load. and the simple shaft model of the Load Distribution Program will be used to analyze shaft deflections.00234 in Mounted gear runout. The AGMA Q9 runout is 0. In the example calculation. one must take into account the quality level of the gears. Since (Figure 9) the data is for the line of action.Gear Solutions Magazine eccentricity.3)e-7sin(23. differential expansions must be considered.002 in per-gear. but one must remember that the gear elements and shafts might also expand. This has the effect of increasing the center distance.45°) = 0. • Housing thermal expansion. Since this is a peak-to-peak value. These eccentricities have the effect of increasing and then decreasing the effective shaft center distance at a period of one shaft rotation per each gear.8e-6*3. • Bore parallelism error. but extremes due to tolerance will either increase or decrease the center distance by as much as 0. Multiply center distance by thermal expansion coefficient of steel and temperature change. We shall also assume that the temperature of the diameters are 1 inch and the bearing radial stiffness is 1e left side is elevated 150ºF and the right side is elevated 100ºF. 6 lb/in. DELC1 = 2857*2(4. one should be reminded that these systematic changes in alignment change with load.002 in (two gears doubles the error). The mean deflection due to shaft and bearing clearances will add to the center distance change.5 = 0. The gear set will be mounted on the shafting that is configured in (Figure 8). while those due to load or temperature may be much more systematic.005 inch will be applied in the x and y directions. Left side: 150*6.com/article/detail/5467/gear-mesh-misalignment 9/13 . The three different graphs indicate deflections if the mean load is placed at three different locations across the face width. Mean Center Distance Variation We shall first calculate the mean center distance factors that were discussed earlier. in so doing. The transverse line of action tooth force of 2857 lb is used for all of the tooth deflection calculations. runout has a mean of zero. bearing. and housing deflections.gearsolutions. (Figure 9) shows the shaft deflection and bearing deflection results of the LDP model when using a unit load (1. • Housing thermal expansion. but will have minimum and maximum values that must be added for the two gears to get the maximum extremes.001 in per-gear with the changes in center distance being twice this value or 0. • Shaft. where the shaft (Figure 8). The data from the center of the teeth in (Figure 9) is used. Calculation of Misalignment Effects When considering misalignment. and deflections due to load or temperature. so the middle trace will be used. The mean will be zero. it must be converted to center distance coordinates using the sine function and the values must be doubled since the identical shafts will have the same deflections. However. In this case we shall assume the load is centered. a bore tolerance of 0. tolerances placed on engineering drawings.00357 in www.001 in (sum of the two worst case tolerances). Misalignments related to tolerances or accuracy are assumed to occur in a random fashion. one would expect the plus or minus values to be 0. Like bore parallelism. • Clearance deflections. AGMA Q9 (old definition) lead tolerances will be used for each gear (this translates to roughly an AGMA A8 gear using the new definition). it may be possible to provide mean changes to the lead to compensate for these effects. In the latter case. If they are made of different materials.
so assume maximum and minimum to be the same as lead slope error: MLOA2 = 0 ± 0. we shall error. MLOA6 = 2*2857*6.0e-7 = -0.0138 in.000211 in/in Shaft bending deflections.8e-6*3.08)e-7)/1. From (Figure 9). with the left side bearing deflecting the most: www. There is a 50-degree differential in temperature between the two bearings.002) of random error and +0. • Lead wobble.003 in (0. (Figure 9). Since this is the total span of the error. The final center distance change will have ±0.00048 in.000253 in/in Centrifugal forces.25 = 0.0005/4.25 in.12+0. both random and systematic errors exist.The divide it by two so that it gives the plus minus error of 0. •Lead slope error.0012/4.383 to 1.The AGMA Q9 lead error is 0.001 + 0.75 = 0 ±0.00238 in Deflection at the center of the gear = 0.25 = ±0.000384 in/in • Bore parallelism and skew. Taken from (Figure 9) and doubling (Figure 9) for two shafts we get MLOA4 = -2*2857*4.328.000384 in/in. so this is taken to be zero.000091 in Bearing and housing deflections. We are assuming a solid gear blank.com/article/detail/5467/gear-mesh-misalignment 10/13 . with the left side bearing deflecting the most: MLOA9 = -0. taken to be zero. but may easily be converted to inches across the face width by multiplying by the face width of 1.00298 in (in the y-direction).003 in.00024/1. There is a 50-degree differential in temperature between the two bearings.0006 in/in Gear blank deflections. This will be a random error that must be divided by the distance between the bearings to give a normalized value: MLOA3 = 2*0. This random error then becomes: MLOA1 = ±2*0. so the tolerance of the bores along the line of action will be the same as the bore misalignment. Here we are going to assume that the tolerance on the bore locations in both the x and y directions are the same. We must multiply this by two to take into account the possibility of both gears having maximum lead error at the same time and divide by the face width to get its value in normalized form. • • Spline and bearing clearances.00532 in giving a center distance range of: 0. Values will be calculated in normalized units of in.gearsolutions./in. These are unknown and will be assumed to be zero. Misalignment Slope at 4000 in-lb Again.00832 in gives a reduction in the profile contact ratio of the gear pair from 1. • Clearance deflections. • Temperature gradients.Gear Solutions Magazine Right side: 100*6. MLOA5 = (2*2857*(0.5/16/12 Gear Mesh Misalignment .001760 in/in Shaft torsional deflections.75 = -0.006 in to 0. Using the maximum center distance increase of 0. Taken from LDP we get which is nearly negligible. Mean is zero.00024 in.5 = 0.3e-7 = 0.00532 ± 0. and the backlash increases from 0. Again.
and many other design evaluation parameters. do not rise at the tooth edges.002 in. Fortunately for the gear designer. the contact still covers most of the face width.001461 in/in Range of misalignments = 0. (Table 2) summarizes the contact stress levels at several locations in the contact region. and many other design evaluation parameters. This corner contact may be harmful or may simply get polished out so that the stress reduces closely to the surrounding values. and apply a worstcase misalignment of 0.15 degrees. Values in the table and their 3) significance are given as follows: LDP Analysis of the Perfect Involute and Profile Modified Helical Gear Pairs In addition to the load distributions of (Figure 4). transmission error.000979 in/in Here one could correct for the systematic error by putting a slope deviation of 0. Selection of Optimum Lead Modification for the Helical Gear Pair In order to compensate for misalignment.5/16/12 Gear Mesh Misalignment . transmission error. 4). circular lead crowning. (Figure 10) shows the contact (Figure 10) stresses for both the aligned and misaligned perfect involute helical gears whose load distribution is shown in (Figure 4). and end relief on various gear design parameters.Gear Solutions Magazine Total random misalignment: 0. If one wishes to eliminate this corner effect. but for now assume to be ½ of the LOA misalignment = 0.com/article/detail/5467/gear-mesh-misalignment 11/13 . or one could treat this value as random misalignment in which case the worst-case misalignment would be 0. but they each should be investigated to be sure that they do not impact a given design. while at the same time extreme levels of stresses and flash temperature are avoided for both the aligned and misaligned cases. one often uses lead crowning or end relief  so that the loads and hence. ( Table 3) shows the results for four different cases of profile and lead modifications. (Figure 4).gearsolutions. In the subsequent analyses we will assume the latter. (Figure 4).000979 in/in Total systematic misalignment: 0. 000979 in/in. yet the values of contact stresses that exclude the corners increase from 157 ksi to 242 ksi. Selection of modification level and shape are such that transmission error—the main noise excitation—is minimized. stresses. LDP also allows one to evaluate the contact stresses. LDP Analysis of the Perfect Involute and Profile Modified Helical Gear Pairs In addition to the load distributions of (Figure 4). 001461 ±0. the stress levels get extremely exaggerated due to what is called corner contact . LDP also allows one to evaluate the contact stresses. We will next use the LDP program results to show the effects of both tip relief. root stresses. the values of many of these misalignments are quite small for their application. (Figure 10) shows the contact (Figure 10) stresses for both the aligned and misaligned perfect involute helical gears whose load distribution is shown in www. At both the entering and 2) leaving corners of tooth contact. root stresses. Analysis is run at design load of 4000 lb-in. This is very similar to the earlier calculation that concluded that the cylindrical contact used in the LDP calculation is extremely adequate. 001461 in/in on the engineering drawing of the part. Angular OLOA misalignment: Could be calculated. One notes that when the tooth pair is misaligned. the application of tip relief (removal of material at the tips of the teeth) is required.
Techniques such as lead crowning can assist the designer in minimizing the effects of misalignment.gearsolutions. the contact still covers most of the face width. If one wishes to eliminate this corner effect. At both the entering and 2) leaving corners of tooth contact. This paper has quantified some of the compromises that need to be made and has shown the value of load distribution analysis in assessing the effects of misalignment on key design parameters such as root and contact stresses. We will next use the LDP program results to show the effects of both tip relief. ( Table 3) shows the results for four different cases of profile and lead modifications. even when misaligned. Here we apply end relief and a more complex shape of profile modification that is shown in (Figure 11). One notes that when the tooth pair is misaligned. and end relief on various gear design parameters. while at the same time extreme levels of stresses and flash temperature are avoided for both the aligned and misaligned cases. and the summary is as follows: 1) Perfect involute (NoMod): Note that misalignment greatly increases most of the parameters. stresses. but are still less than those of the perfect involute. Values in the table and their 3) significance are given as follows: Four different micro-geometries are evaluated for the helical gear. circular lead crowning. (Table 2) summarizes the contact stress levels at several locations in the contact region. one often uses lead crowning or end relief  so that the loads and hence.0120 in of circular lead crown was applied to the tip relieved gear. but results in increases in both contact stresses and root stresses. 3) Profile crown and lead crown (Case II). These increases result because any removal of material tends to centrally focus the loads.0011 in a circular tip modification is applied. yet the values of contact stresses that exclude the corners increase from 157 ksi to 242 ksi. but requires some compromises by the designer. Analysis is run at design load of 4000 lb-in. the lead crown lowers stresses for the misaligned gears. do not rise at the tooth edges.Gear Solutions Magazine (Figure 4). However. transmission error. and surface temperature. Selection of modification level and shape are such that transmission error—the main noise excitation—is minimized. Selection of Optimum Lead Modification for the Helical Gear Pair In order to compensate for misalignment. the stress levels get extremely exaggerated due to what is called corner contact . Note that tip relief alone results in a large reduction in the noise excitations and flash temperature. It is interesting that the noise excitations increase. 4). The resulting contact stresses plot for the aligned and misaligned (Figure 11). both contact stresses and root stresses of the aligned part increase further. hence increasing stresses. 0. gear pair are shown in (Figure 12). 0. Since we are further focusing the load. 2) Profile crown only (Case I): In order to minimize peak-to-peak transmission error of the aligned set. Comment on Contact Patterns (Figure 12). 4) Combinations of tip relief and lead relief (Case III). the application of tip relief (removal of material at the tips of the teeth) is required. www.com/article/detail/5467/gear-mesh-misalignment 12/13 .5/16/12 Gear Mesh Misalignment . (Figure 10) (Figure 12) 10) 12) Summary Gear misalignment comes from a number of sources that have been identified in this article. This corner contact may be harmful or may simply get polished out so that the stress reduces closely to the surrounding values.
R.com/article/detail/5467/gear-mesh-misalignment 13/13 .” GearLab-The Ohio State University. 8) D. 6) Singh.org.R. 3) Conry. “Load Distribution Program Manual.. “Formulas for Stress and Strain.” Journal of Engineering for Industry. “Analysis of Off-Line of Action Contact at the Tips of Gear Teeth.. Valco.” Proceedings of 30th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference. “The Relative Noise Levels of Parallel Axis Gear Sets with Various Contact Ratios and Gear Tooth Forms... Gear Solutions is a trademark of Media Solutions. copyright 2002-2010. R. Nov. NY.org..gearsolutions. ASME. and D.J. 1965. D. R. and Harianto.” Proceedings of the 2001 Noise and Vibration Conference (2001-01-1417). Go online to www. F.J.95. 1115-1123. 7) D.. Houser is professor emeritus and founder of The Ohio State University's Gear and Power Transmission Research Laboratory (Gearlab). D. Valco. Chang and J. 2003 ASME/AGMA International Power Transmission and Gearing Conference. and Oswald. T. Chicago. “Comparison of Transmission Error Predictions with Noise Measurements for Several Spur and Helical Gears.J. No.Gear Solutions Magazine REFERENCES: 1) Drago..R. Vol. A. Inc.” SAE Paper 941716.” McGraw Hill. J. Oswald. www. Indianapolis 1994. September 2003. 4) Houser.. Houser.” AGMA Fall Technical Conference. Houser.R. R. F. S. 1973.gearlab. IL.gearlab. A. “Tooth Flank Corrections of Wide Face Width Helical Gears that Account for Shaft Deflections. 2002. Inc. 1994. 2) Houser. Trans. Drago..5/16/12 Gear Mesh Misalignment . The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) and American Gear Manufacturing Association (AGMA).... Harianto. 5) Roark. “Manufacturing Robustness Analysis of the Noise Excitation and Design of Alternative Gear Sets. “A Mathematical Programming Technique for the Evaluation of Load Distribution and Optimal Modifications for Gear Systems. J. Gear Solutions and all contents are properties of Media Solutions. www. Seireg.R.” DETC2003/PTG-48072. Harianto.B.4. M. M. R.B.. SAE Technical Share About The Author Donald R. Lenski.. Spencer. Houser and J..
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