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Scope of civil engineering works

Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the construction and design of public and private sector works such as bridges, roads, dams and buildings. General civil engineers work closely with surveyors and specialized civil engineers to fit and serve fixed projects within their given site, community and terrain by designing grading, drainage, pavement, water supply, sewer service, electric and communications supply and land (real property) divisions.

Scope of civil engineering works

(continued) Construction engineers engage in the design of structures temporary, cost estimating, planning and scheduling, materials procurement, selection of equipment, and cost control.

Measurement for Civil Engineering Works

The civil works measurement referred to a document called 'Civil Engineering Standard Method of Measurement '(CESMM). Before this document is produced, the party who responsible for the working measurement refers to the method adopted in the United Kingdom named CESMM 2nd Edition or 3rd Edition. There are a large part of the measurement refer to methods used in building works or more unfortunate, they use their own measurement system. This led to inconsistencies in measurement procedures. As a result, contractors have difficulty to appreciate the tender. The actual measurement work must take into account the level of complexity of work undertaken. Work measurement for any one item of work is also closely related to the methodology and construction activities

Malaysian Standard Method of Measurement for Civil Engineering Works

MALAYSIAN STANDARD METHODS OF MEASUREMENT FOR CIVIL ENGINEERING WORKS is to be used in conjunction with the Conditions Of Contract for Civil Engineering Works.

Does not deal with the preparation of BQ for mechanical & electrical engineering work, building work or work which is seldom encountered in civil engineering contracts.
If any such work to be included in the contract, such work shall be measured in accordance with their respective SMM and shall be stated in the Preambles to the BQ.

Development Of Civil Engineering Codes Of Measurement

1933 ICE provide the 1st time a standard procedure for drafting BQ for civil engineering works no uniformity of practice & engineers worked up their own systems. 1953 - Revised documents named Standard Method of Measurement of Civil Engineering Quantities 1963 reissued with slight amendments 1968 reissued with metric addendum 1976 reappraisal of the civil engineering code of measurement by consultation of the construction industry, relevant bodies & person produced Civil Engineering Standard Method of Measurement

Contract Documentation for Civil Engineering

1. 2. 3.

Conditions of contract a written agreement intended to


be enforceable by law to bind the appointed contractor with the employer based on an agreed conditions. Contract Drawings technical / detailed construction drawings for measurement / costing by QS / engineers prepared by architect / engineers. Specification / Preambles - A concise description of materials and workmanship, standard or quality of workmanship. It must convey the architect and engineers requirements. Bill of Quantities prepared by Quantity Surveyor based on measurement from the construction drawings / building plans This document were itemized all the quantities for each categories of works applied in constructing the buildings. E.g. building works, mechanical, electrical works, civil, structural works, infrastructure works, etc. The contractor will priced /estimate all the works associated in completing the buildings during pre-construction stage.

Reasons for Bills of Quantities

All tendering contractors base their prices on the same information & therefore tenders are strictly comparable (even if an error exists in the Bill) Contractors are saved the costly exercise of each having to take off quantities for themselves. Bills provide a fair basis for valuing variations and adjustments for the final account. Bills may provide a convenient basis for valuation of certificated stage payments during the contract, before the accurate re-measurement figures are available. Bills provide an approximate checklist for the contractor to order materials and other resources. Bills can provide data for cost analysis for use in cost planning of future projects.

Comparison of Civil Engineering and Building Methods of Measurement



provides a standard format, either in the form of items components and how they should be measured. various stages of introducing CESMM classification or space for description of the work that can be developed. CESMM measurement method using the concept of method-related charges to present the cost of construction at the site in more obvious, such as covering the cost of site preparation and building machinery operating costs, labor force and so on.

The details of building works are more in precise stage at the time preparing BQ. Building work covers more work sections in consequence subject to more detailed measurement.

Scope of measurement based on CESMM

Various civil engineering works including roads, railway, bridges, artificial channels, canals and drainage, shipyard, ports, bases, embankments, structure-breaking waves and drainage work. Apart from that it also includes projects such as structural engineering among others, metal work, reinforced concrete work, stone work, wood work and brick work

Procedures and Practices of CESMM

Include the scope of most project management such as:

selection types of contracts, documentation, preparation of drawings, specifications, project information, contract terms and list of quantities, preparation of list of material requirements / quantities, Method statement - detailed list of detailed construction work with short explanation with quantity measured by CESMM Explanation on the scope of work that will be implemented by the contractor and then be the basis for pricing the tender.

Purpose of CESMM

main purpose of the measurement based on CESMM is for coordinating and planning of the quantity list, to list the details of work to ensure consistency and systematic and to state the new techniques of construction clearly.


A number of definitions are contained. Referring to words / expression that will be defined in the CESMM and preparation of bill of Quantities. Words and expression defined in the CESMM shall have the same meaning when defining the words / expression in the Conditions of Contract and the Specifications Please refer to CESMM-Section 1: definitions.


In this section , it clarify the following: The application and extent of CESMM Objective of CESMM Objectives of the Bill of Quantities Malaysian Standard Method of Measurement for Civil Engineering Works (CESMM) to be used in conjunction with the conditions of contract for Civil Engineering works. Refer to CESMM-SECTION 2

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF CESMM CESMM; Section 3 Application of the Work Classification

Work classification divides work into 18 main classes; Class A- Class R Each class comprises up to 3 division which classify work at successive level of detail.

First division Second division Third division

Each division comprises a list of up to 8 descriptive features of work. Each item description shall identify the component of work covered with respect to one feature from each division of the relevant class.

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF CESMM CESMM; Section 4 Coding & Numbering of Items

Each item in the work classification has been placed with the code and numbering system that alphabetically and not more than three digits. The letter corresponds to the class in the work classification in which the items occurs and the digits give the position of the item in the first, second and third divisions of the class. E.g. Code F.3.1.0 identifies an item as Class F concrete works 1st Division 3 precast concrete 2nd Division 1 beams 3rd Divison 0 Description: F.3.1.0 - Precast concrete, in beams

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF CESMM CESMM; Section 4 Coding & Numbering of Items

Reasons: It gives an advantage to the tendered contractors due to bills that have code. Quantity surveyor feels that they are assisted by the code and numbering system and can be used as a brief reference to the file system and data costs. Each class work contains a set of measurements, definitions, coverage, additional rules of measurement that expands and clarify all information and evidence.

Every classification of work explains every units for each item of work, within the total allocation and numbering system for each item, the items in units of meters long, in units of square meters of area (hectares for cleaning site), unit volume and weight and metric units.

CESMM; SECTION 4 (Code & Numbering of Items)

Applications for Bridge Work

CESMM; SECTION 4 (Code & Numbering of Items)

Applications for Road works

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF CESMM CESMM; Section 5 Preparations of the Bill of Quantities

The preparation of BQ shall be started prior to the completion of measurement works. Section of the bill of Quantities: Preamble Work items division of the BQ into parts. Day work schedule Grand summary / tender summary

Form & Setting of BQ

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF CESMM CESMM; Section 6 Completion, Pricing and Use of the BQ

and prices shall be inserted in the rate column in Ringgit Malaysia with Sen inserted as decimal fractions of one Ringgit. Each part of the BQ shall be totaled and the total carried to the Grand Summary


Meaning: the sum for an item inserted in the BQ by a tenderer. Two types: Time-related charges a method-related charge for work, the cost of which is to be considered as proportional to the length of time taken to execute the work Fixed charge- a method-related charge which is not a time related charge. A tenderer may insert in the BQ the method related charges as he may decide to cover items of works relating to his intended method of executing the works, the cost of which are not to be considered as proportional to the quantities of the other items and for which he has not allowed in the rates and prices for the other items.