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Perfume (English: /ˈpɝː.fjuːm/) is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aroma compounds, fixatives, and solvents used to give the human body, animals, objects, and living spaces "a pleasant scent." The odoriferous compounds that make up a perfume can be manufactured synthetically or extracted from plant or animal sources. Perfumes have been known to exist in some of the earliest human civilizations, either through ancient texts or from archaeological digs. Modern perfumery began in the late 19th century with the commercial synthesis of aroma compounds such as vanillin or coumarin, which allowed for the composition of perfumes with smells previously unattainable solely from natural aromatics alone.
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1 History 2 Concentration o 2.1 Solvent types o 2.2 Imprecise terminology 3 Describing a perfume o 3.1 Fragrance notes o 3.2 Olfactive families 3.2.1 Traditional 3.2.2 Modern 3.2.3 Fragrance wheel 4 Aromatics sources o 4.1 Plant sources o 4.2 Animal sources o 4.3 Other natural sources o 4.4 Synthetic sources o 4.5 Characteristics 5 Obtaining natural odorants 6 Fragrant extracts 7 Composing perfumes o 7.1 The perfumer o 7.2 Technique 7.2.1 Basic framework 7.2.2 Fragrance bases o 7.3 Reverse engineering 8 Health and environmental issues o 8.1 Health 8.1.1 Immunological 8.1.2 Carcinogenicity 8.1.3 Toxicity
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8.2 Environmental 8.2.1 Pollution 8.2.2 Species endangerment o 8.3 Safety regulation 9 Preserving perfume 10 Lists of perfumes 11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading
14 External links
Etruscan perfume vase shaped like a female head egyptian scene depicting the preparation of Lily perfume The word perfume used today derives from the Latin per fumus, meaning "through smoke." Perfumery, or the art of making perfumes, began in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt and was further refined by the Romans and Persians. Although perfume and perfumery also existed in India, much of its fragrances are incense based. The earliest distillation of Ittar, Arabic meaning scent, was mentioned in the Hindu Ayurvedic text Charaka Samhita. The Harshacharita, written in 7th century in Northern India mentions use of fragrant agarwood oil. The world's first recorded chemist is considered to be a woman named Tapputi, a perfume maker who was mentioned in a cuneiform tablet from the 2nd millennium BC in Mesopotamia. She distilled flowers, oil, and calamus with other aromatics then filtered and put them back in the still several times. In 2005, archaeologists uncovered what are believed to be the world's oldest perfumes in Pyrgos, Cyprus. The perfumes date back more than 4,000 years. The perfumes were discovered in an ancient perfumery. At least 60 stills, mixing bowls, funnels and perfume bottles were found in the 43,000-square-foot (4,000 m²) factory. In ancient times people used herbs and spices, like almond, coriander, myrtle, conifer resin, bergamot, as well as flowers. The Arabian chemist, Al-Kindi (Alkindus), wrote in the 9th century a book on perfumes which he named Book of the Chemistry of Perfume and Distillations. It contained more than a hundred recipes for fragrant oils, salves, aromatic waters and substitutes or imitations of costly drugs. The book also described 107 methods and recipes for perfumemaking and perfume making equipment, such as the alembic (which still bears its Arabic name).
Rene the Florentine (Renato il fiorentino). and in the 16th century. Cultivation of flowers for their perfume essence. which had begun in the 14th century. Even today. Italian refinements were taken to France by Catherine de' Medici's personal perfumer. grew into a major industry in the south of France. or simply perfume (Extrait): 15-40% (IFRA: typical 20%) aromatic compounds Esprit de Parfum (ESdP): 15-30% aromatic compounds. In Germany. and in Calabria. In the east. which in fine fragrance is typically ethanol or a mix of water and ethanol. today best known as eau de cologne. perfumes were used primarily by the wealthy to mask body odors resulting from infrequent bathing.The Persian chemist Ibn Sina (also known as Avicenna) introduced the process of extracting oils from flowers by means of distillation. Both of the raw ingredients and distillation technology significantly influenced western perfumery and scientific developments. the Hungarians produced in 1370 a perfume made of scented oils blended in an alcohol solution at the command of Queen Elizabeth of Hungary. Between the 16th and 17th century. Concentration lPerfume types reflect the concentration of aromatic compounds in a solvent. Italy. so that no formulas could be stolen en route. in Sicily. intensity and longevity of the aromatic compounds (natural essential oils / perfume oils) used: As the percentage of aromatic compounds increases. liquid perfumes were mixtures of oil and crushed herbs or petals. best known as Hungary Water. Rose water was more delicate. Until his discovery. Partly due to this patronage. The art of perfumery prospered in Renaissance Italy. France quickly became one of the European centers of perfume and cosmetic manufacture. a seldom used strength concentration in between EdP and perfume . The intensity and longevity of a perfume is based on the concentration. the procedure most commonly used today. Specific terms are used to describe a fragrance's approximate concentration by percent/volume of perfume oil. which are typically vague or imprecise. He first experimented with the rose. aromatic plants were being grown in the Grasse region of France. the perfumery industry was created. which made a strong blend. if we consider the monks' recipes of Santa Maria delle Vigne or Santa Maria Novella of Florence. Various sources differ considerably in the definitions of perfume types. particularly chemistry. while his nephew Johann Maria Farina (Giovanni Maria Farina) in 1732 took over the business. A list of common terms (Perfume-Classification) is as follows: • • Perfume extract. Italian barber Giovanni Paolo Feminis created a perfume water called Aqua Admirabilis. His laboratory was connected with her apartments by a secret passageway. and immediately became popular. Thanks to Rene. so does the intensity and longevity of the scent created. Italy to provide the growing perfume industry with raw materials. The art of perfumery was known in western Europe ever since 1221. By the 18th century. Italy and France remain the center of the European perfume design and trade.
women's fragrances are rarely sold in EdC concentrations. and its necessity is disputed. Eau de Cologne (EdC) since 1706 in Cologne. although the oil concentration of a perfume in EdP dilution will necessarily be higher than the same perfume in EdT from within the same range. EdS (since 1993) is a new perfume class and a registered trademark. Perfume mist: 3-8% aromatic compounds (typical non-alcohol solvent) Splash (EdS) and Aftershave: 1-3% aromatic compounds.• • • • • Eau de Parfum (EdP). An EdT from one house may be stronger than an EdP from another. though this is not always the case. By far the most common solvent for perfume oil dilution is ethanol or a mixture of ethanol and water. "EdS" is a registered trademark. Perfume oil can also be diluted by means of neutralsmelling oils such as fractionated coconut oil. Germany. Different perfumeries or perfume houses assign different amounts of oils to each of their perfumes. Furthermore. intense." Parfum de Toilette is a less common term that is generally analogous to Eau de Parfum. is originally a specific fragrance and trademark. the actual amounts can vary between perfume houses. However outside of Germany the term has become generic for Chypre citrus perfumes (without base-notes). Imprecise terminology Although quite often Eau de Parfum (EdP) will be more concentrated than Eau de Toilette (EdT) and in turn Eau de Cologne (EdC). sometimes listed as "eau de perfume" or "millésime. related only because of a similar perfume accord. In some cases. Parfum de Toilette (PdT): 10-20% (typical ~15%) aromatic compounds. Eau de toilette (EdT): 5-15% (typical ~10%) aromatic compounds Eau de Cologne (EdC): Chypre citrus type perfumes with 3-8% (typical ~5%) aromatic compounds. words such as extrême. . in order to make the EdT version of a fragrance brighter and fresher than its EdP. Therefore. equally so. For instance. An example of this is Chanel's Pour Monsieur and Pour Monsieur Concentrée. "Original Eau de Cologne" is a registered trademark. the EdT oil may be "tweaked" to contain slightly more top notes or fewer base notes. Men's fragrances are rarely sold as EdP or perfume extracts. some fragrances with the same product name but having a different concentration name may not only differ in their dilutions. Although this gender specific naming trend is common for assigning fragrance concentrations. it does not directly have anything to do with whether a fragrance was intended for men or women. Solvent types Perfume oils are often diluted with a solvent. or liquid waxes such as jojoba oil. this is not always the case. but actually use different perfume oil mixtures altogether. or concentrée that might indicate aromatic concentration are actually completely different fragrances.
The middle note compounds form the "heart" or main body of a perfume . Fragrance notes Main article: Note (perfumery) Perfume is described in a musical metaphor as having three sets of notes. light molecules that evaporate quickly. • • Top notes: The scents that are perceived immediately on application of a perfume. with the immediate impression of the top note leading to the deeper middle notes. The most practical way to start describing a perfume is according to the elements of the fragrance notes of the scent or the "family" it belongs to. Middle notes: The scent of a perfume that emerges just prior to when the top notes dissipate. The notes unfold over time.Describing a perfume Shelves of perfumes: a closed cabinet. Also called the head notes. and the base notes gradually appearing as the final stage. These notes are created carefully with knowledge of the evaporation process of the perfume. all of which affect the overall impression of a perfume from first application to the last lingering hint of scent. connoisseurs of perfume can become extremely skillful at identifying components and origins of scents in the same manner as wine experts. Even if they were widely published. to keep out note-destroying sunlight. they would be dominated by such complex ingredients and odorants that they would be of little use in providing a guide to the general consumer in description of the experience of a scent. Nonetheless. making the harmonious scent accord. would be more appropriate Fragrance pyramid The precise formulae of commercial perfumes are kept secret. Top notes consist of small. They form a person's initial impression of a perfume and thus are very important in the selling of a perfume.
often combined with vanilla. as well the scents of the base notes will be altered by the type of fragrance materials used as middle notes. Many fragrances contain aspects of different families. The base and middle notes together are the main theme of a perfume. sandalwood and cedarwood. Manufacturers of perfumes usually publish perfume notes and typically they present it as fragrance pyramid. but it cannot by itself denote the specific characteristic of that perfume. with its camphoraceous smell. which is dominated by rose. They are also called the heart notes. in French called a soliflore.• and act to mask the often unpleasant initial impression of base notes. The scents in the top and middle notes are influenced by the base notes. Traditional examples include Guerlain's Shalimar and Yves Saint Laurent's Opium. A traditional example here would be Myrurgia's Maderas De Oriente or Chanel Bois-des-Îles. however subtle. Wood: Fragrances that are dominated by woody scents.) Floral Bouquet: Is a combination of fragrance of several flowers in a perfume compound. Traditional The traditional classification which emerged around 1900 comprised the following categories: • • • • Single Floral: Fragrances that are dominated by a scent from one particular flower.g. Base notes: The scent of a perfume that appears close to the departure of the middle notes. will have undertones of other aromatics. (e. Base notes bring depth and solidity to a perfume. . Can be enhanced by camphorous oils and incense resins. Ambered. tonka bean. is commonly found in these perfumes. Patchouli. can never be a completely objective or final process. or "Oriental": A large fragrance class featuring the sweet slightly animalic scents of ambergris or labdanum. like any taxonomy. typically of agarwood. which bring to mind Victorian era imagery of the Middle East and Far East. flowers and woods. "True" unitary scents can rarely be found in perfumes as it requires the perfume to exist only as a singular aromatic material. which become more pleasant with time. Even a perfume designated as "single flower". with the components listed in imaginative and abstract terms. Olfactive families Grouping perfumes. A modern example would be Balenciaga Rumba. Compounds of this class of scents are typically rich and "deep" and are usually not perceived until 30 minutes after application. Examples include Quelques Fleurs by Houbigant and Joy by Jean Patou. Serge Lutens' Sa Majeste La Rose. Classification by olfactive family is a starting point for a description of a perfume.
A good example would be Estée Lauder's Beautiful. mango. crushed green leaf and cucumber-like scents. passion fruit. These often contain notes like vanilla.. built on a base of lavender. tonka bean and coumarin. new categories have emerged to describe modern scents: • • • • • • Bright Floral: combining the traditional Single Floral & Floral Bouquet categories. appearing in 1991 with Christian Dior's Dune. Chypre (IPA: [ʃipʁ]): Meaning Cyprus in French. which has cumin and curry hints. tobacco. and woody fragrances. or Ozonic: the newest category in perfume history. Two examples would be Estée Lauder's Aliage or Sisley's Eau de Campagne. Also used to accent floral. Development of newer fragrance compounds has allowed for the creation of primarily citrus fragrances. Citrus: An old fragrance family that until recently consisted mainly of "freshening" eau de colognes. A savory example would be Dinner by BoBo. compound design and synthesis) as well as the natural development of styles and tastes. oakmoss. modern smell leading to many of the modern androgynous perfumes. with pronounced cut grass. Fougère (IPA: [fu. Modern Since 1945. this includes fragrances built on a similar accord consisting of bergamot. due to great advances in the technology of perfume creation (i. Oceanic. Fruity: featuring the aromas of fruits other than citrus. patchouli. Green: a lighter and more modern interpretation of the Chypre type. Some well-known modern fougères are Fabergé Brut and Guy Laroche Drakkar Noir. A sweet example is Thierry Mugler's Angel. This family of fragrances is named after a perfume by François Coty. A modern example here would be Ginestet Botrytis. Houbigant's Fougère Royale pioneered the use of this base. such as peach. oriental. due to the low tenacity of citrus scents. Gourmand (French: [ɡuʁmɑ̃]): scents with "edible" or "dessert"-like qualities. Traditional examples include Robert Piguet's Bandit and Balmain's Jolie Madame. and others. A very clean.ʒɛʁ]): Meaning Fern in French. a synthetic scent discovered in 1966. cassis (black currant). and labdanum. Aquatic. Generally contains calone. as well as synthetic components designed to resemble food flavors. coumarin and oakmoss. Many men's fragrances belong to this family of fragrances. A good example here would be Brut. Fragrance wheel . which is characterized by its sharp herbaceous and woody scent. wood and wood tars in its middle or base notes and a scent that alludes to leather. and one of the most famous examples is Guerlain's Mitsouko.• • • Leather: A family of fragrances which features the scents of honey.e.
The fragrant oil in sassafras root bark is also used either directly or purified for its main constituent. The new scheme was created in order to simplify fragrance classification and naming scheme. safrole. Oriental. The method was created in 1983 by Michael Edwards. Each of the families are in turn divided into sub-groups and arranged around a wheel. 1983 Main article: Fragrance wheel The Fragrance wheel is a relatively new classification method that is widely used in retail and in the fragrance industry. . Orange leaves. Aromatics sources Plant sources Plants have long been used in perfumery as a source of essential oils and aroma compounds. Fougère. infections. and orange oils.Fragrance Wheel perfume classification chart. ver. with the former four families being more "classic" while the latter consisting of newer bright and clean smelling citrus and oceanic fragrances that have arrived due to improvements in fragrance technology. blossoms. neroli. which is used in the synthesis of other fragrant compounds. for instance the aerial portions and seeds of coriander have remarkably different odors from each other. Woody.  The five standard families consist of Floral. who designed his own scheme of fragrance classification. and fruit zest are the respective sources of petitgrain. as well as to show the relationships between each of the individual classes. a consultant in the perfume industry. These aromatics are usually secondary metabolites produced by plants as protection against herbivores. and Fresh. • Bark: Commonly used barks includes cinnamon and cascarilla. Plants are by far the largest source of fragrant compounds used in perfumery. A plant can offer more than one source of aromatics. The sources of these compounds may be derived from various parts of a plant. as well as to attract pollinators.
cedar. frankincense/olibanum. myrrh. juniper. strawberries. coriander. sage. vetiver roots. Includes the flowers of several species of rose and jasmine. they are synthetic. various rhizomes of the ginger family. rosemary. Peru balsam. wood oils and distillates are indispensable in perfumery. gum benzoin. cardamom. scented geranium. Roots. birch. whose precursors were secreted and expelled by the sperm whale. plumeria. agarwood. Notable exceptions include litsea cubeba. more and more commercially used grapefruit aromatics are artificially synthesized since the natural aromatic contains sulfur and its degradation product is quite unpleasant in smell. Woods: Highly important in providing the base notes to a perfume. except in the case of vanilla. Seeds: Commonly used seeds include tonka bean. Sometimes leaves are valued for the "green" smell they bring to perfumes. narcissus. Although grapefruit rind is still used for aromatics. Ambergris should not be confused with yellow . cassie. tuberose. vanilla. Leaves and twigs: Commonly used for perfumery are lavender leaf. cocoa. lemons. Most orchid flowers are not commercially used to produce essential oils or absolutes. and citrus leaves. and anise. the unopened flower buds of the clove are also commonly used. Resins: Valued since antiquity. carrot seed. ambrette as well as the blossoms of citrus and ylang-ylang trees. mace. These are used in the form of macerations or dry-distilled (rectified) forms. and juniper berry.• • • • • • • Flowers and blossoms: Undoubtedly the largest and most common source of perfume aromatics. resins have been widely used in incense and perfumery. an orchid. Fruits: Fresh fruits such as apples. caraway. examples of this include hay and tomato leaf. they include citrus such as oranges. cherries unfortunately do not yield the expected odors when extracted. The most commonly used fruits yield their aromatics from the rind. patchouli. Commonly used resins in perfumery include labdanum. nutmeg. which must be pollinated first and made into seed pods before use in perfumery. as well as osmanthus. Pine and fir resins are a particularly valued source of terpenes used in the organic synthesis of many other synthetic or naturally occurring aromatic compounds. rhizomes and bulbs: Commonly used terrestrial portions in perfumery include iris rhizomes. violets. and pine. Some of what is called amber and copal in perfumery today is the resinous secretion of fossil conifers. Highly fragrant and antiseptic resins and resin-containing perfumes have been used by many cultures as medicines for a large variety of ailments. mimosa. Commonly used woods include sandalwood. Animal sources • Ambergris: Lumps of oxidized fatty compounds. Although not traditionally thought of as a flower. rosewood. and limes. if such fragrance notes are found in a perfume.
Orchid scents (typically salicylates) are usually not obtained directly from the plant itself but are instead synthetically created to match the fragrant compounds found in various orchids. Hyraceum: Commonly known as "Africa Stone". Civet: Also called Civet Musk. Beeswax is extracted with ethanol and the ethanol evaporated to produce beeswax absolute. The World Society for the Protection of Animals investigated African civets caught for this purpose. related to the mongoose. The majority of the world's synthetic aromatics are created by relatively few companies. linalool and coumarin are both naturally occurring compounds that can be inexpensively synthesized from terpenes. Deer musk: Originally derived from the musk sacs from the Asian musk deer. imparts a fresh ozonous metallic marine scent that is widely used in contemporary perfumes. which is commonly referred to as bladder wrack. Other natural sources • • Lichens: Commonly used lichens include oakmoss and treemoss thalli. Honeycomb: From the honeycomb of the honeybee. Synthetic aromatics are often used as an alternate source of compounds that are not easily obtained from natural sources. These materials are found in all forms of commercial perfumes as a neutral background to the middle notes. it has now been replaced by the use of synthetic musks sometimes known as "white musk". animals in the family Viverridae. Both beeswax and honey can be solvent extracted to produce an absolute. Synthetic sources Many modern perfumes contain synthesized odorants. Synthetics can provide fragrances which are not found in nature.• • • • • amber. is the petrified excrement of the Rock Hyrax. it remains one of the few animalic fragrancing agents around which little controversy now exists. They include: • • International Flavors and Fragrances (IFF) Givaudan . Because the harvesting of ambergris involves no harm to its animal source. Calone. One of the most commonly used class of synthetic aromatic by far are the white musks. Natural seaweed fragrances are rarely used due to their higher cost and lower potency than synthetics. "Seaweed": Distillates are sometimes used as essential oil in perfumes. Castoreum: Obtained from the odorous sacs of the North American beaver. this is obtained from the odorous sacs of the civets. For instance. An example of a commonly used seaweed is Fucus vesiculosus. which is used in jewelry. a compound of synthetic origin. For example. These musks are added in large quantities to laundry detergents in order to give washed clothes a lasting "clean" scent.
such as in the case of Iso E Super. If these impurities have low smell (detection) thresholds. Pure and pronounced fragrance notes. Sometimes chiral mixtures of isomers. As such. However. Complexity Softer with subtle scent nuances. Prices are determined by affordable prices. consists Thousands of chemical compounds. the differences in the scent of the synthetic aromatic will be significant. Synthetics Variance Much more consistent than natural aromatics. Novel scent Scent originating material. Synthetic aromatics the labor and difficulty of properly are not necessarily cheaper than .• • • Firmenich Takasago Symrise Each of these companies patents several processes for the production of aromatic synthetics annually. Similar to natural scents if the Bears a slight resemblance scent to its compounds are the same. primarily of one chemical compound. depending on the compounds not found in nature will Uniqueness how the extraction method denatures often be unique in their scent and the odoriferous compounds. Price Perfume composed of largely natural Perfumes using largely synthetic materials are usually much more aromatics can be available at widelyexpensive. unscrupulous suppliers may adulterate the actual raw materials by changing its source (adding Indian Jasmine into Grasse Jasmine) or the contents (adding linalool to Rosewood) to increase their profit margin. differences in organic synthesis may result in minute differences in concentration of impurities. dissimilar to the scents of any naturals. It's much more difficult to produce consistent products with equivalent odor over years of harvest and production. Scent Deep and complex fragrance notes. Characteristics Natural and synthetics are used for their different odor characteristics in perfumery Naturals Vary by the times and locations where they are harvested as well as how the product was extracted from the raw material. In addition. the perfumer has to "manually" balance-out the natural variations of the ingredients in order to maintain the quality of the perfume. Structural and defined. Depending on purity. Components large potential for allergies.
" o Supercritical fluid extraction: A relatively new technique for extracting fragrant compounds from a raw material. distort the odor of the aromatic compounds obtained from the raw materials. Ethanol extraction is not used to extract fragrance from fresh plant materials since these contain large quantities of water. to a certain extent. This is due to the use of heat. Obtaining natural odorants Main article: Extraction (fragrance) Before perfumes can be composed. as well as the impure oily compounds materials resulting from solvent extraction or enfleurage. • Maceration/Solvent extraction: The most used and economically important technique for extracting aromatics in the modern perfume industry. Odorants from natural sources require the use of various methods to extract the aromatics from the raw materials. Raw materials are submerged in a solvent that can dissolve the desired aromatic compounds. due to their low odor threshold. the fragrant compounds derived often closely resemble the original odor of the raw material. depending on the amount of waxes in the extracted product. the odorants used in various perfume compositions must first be obtained. which either change their odor character or renders them odorless. absolutes. naturals. with some synthetics being more costly than most natural ingredients due to various factors such as the complexity of synthesis or extraction procedure. or butters. Maceration lasts anywhere from hours to months. All these techniques will. o Ethanol extraction: A type of solvent extraction used to extract fragrant compounds directly from dry raw materials. The results of the extraction are either essential oils. Commonly used solvents for maceration/solvent extraction include hexane. The product of this process is called a "concrete. However. harsh solvents. or through exposure to oxygen in the extraction process which will denature the aromatic compounds. and dimethyl ether. The technique can also be used to extract odorants that are too volatile for distillation or easily denatured by heat. which will also be extracted into the ethanol.extracting each unit of the natural materials as well as its quality. concretes. one does not need to use much of these materials to produce a perfume. Synthetic odorants are produced through organic synthesis and purified. Fragrant compounds for woody and fibrous plant materials are often obtained in this manner as are all aromatics from animal sources. which often employs Supercritical CO2. . Due to the low heat of process and the relatively nonreactive solvent used in the extraction.
such as orange blossoms and roses. o Dry/destructive distillation: The raw materials are directly heated in a still without a carrier solvent such as water. purity. and stems. The raw material is heated and the fragrant compounds are re-collected through condensation of the distilled vapour. essential oils. Fragrant compounds that are released from the raw material by the high heat often undergo anhydrous pyrolysis. . this is sometimes performed to remove unpleasant or undesirable scents of a material and affords the perfumer more control over their composition process. different fractions distilled from a material can be selectively excluded to modify the scent of the final product. which retains some of the fragrant compounds and oils from the raw material is called hydrosol and sometimes sold. o Fractionation: Through the use of a fractionation column. Of these extracts. Of all raw materials. leaves. Although the product is more expensive. Fragrant extracts Although fragrant extracts are known to the general public as the generic term "essential oils".• • • Distillation: A common technique for obtaining aromatic compounds from plants. o Steam distillation: Steam from boiling water is passed through the raw material. and technique used to obtain a particular fragrant extract. This method is used to obtain fragrant compounds from fossil amber and fragrant woods where an intentional "burned" or "toasted" odor is desired. This is most commonly used for fresh plant materials such as flowers. This allows for the easy separation of the fragrant oils from the water. Enfleurage: Absorption of aroma materials into solid fat or wax and then extracting the odorous oil with ethyl alcohol. Expression: Raw material is squeezed or compressed and the oils are collected. only the fragrant oils from the peels of fruits in the citrus family are extracted in this manner since the oil is present in large enough quantities as to make this extraction method economically feasible. and tinctures are directly used to formulate perfumes. This technique is not commonly used in the present day industry due to its prohibitive cost and the existence of more efficient and effective extraction methods. only absolutes. and thus different fragrant notes. which drives out their volatile fragrant compounds. The condensate from distillation are settled in a Florentine flask. which results in the formation of different fragrant compounds. a more specific language is used in the fragrance industry to describe the source. Extraction by enfleurage was commonly used when distillation was not possible because some fragrant compounds denature through high heat. The water collected from the condensate.
 Products from different extraction methods are known under different names even though their starting materials are the same. The composition of a perfume typically begins with a brief by the perfumer's employer or an outside customer. Oils extracted through expression are sometimes called expression oils. As such there is significant interest in producing a perfume formulation that people will find aesthetically pleasing. are typically fashion houses or large corporations of various industries. Pommades are found in the form of an oily and sticky solid. The perfumer The job of composing perfumes that will be sold is left up to an expert on perfume composition or known in the fragrance industry as the perfumer. The perfumer will then go . Tincture: Fragrant materials produced by directly soaking and infusing raw materials in ethanol. The purpose of using perfume or fragrance compositions in these industries is to affect customers through their sense of smell and entice them into purchasing the perfume or perfumed product. Absolutes are usually found in the form of an oily liquid. orange blossoms from Citrus aurantium that have undergone solvent extraction produces "orange blossom absolute" but that which have been steam distilled is known as "neroli oil". Concrete: Fragrant materials that have been extracted from raw materials through solvent extraction using volatile hydrocarbons. Concretes are typically either waxy or resinous solids or thick oily liquids. food services industries. As such concretes are usually further purified through distillation or ethanol based solvent extraction. The customers to the perfumer or their employers. By using a slightly hydrophilic compound such as ethanol.• • • • • Absolute: Fragrant materials that are purified from a pommade or concrete by soaking them in ethanol. Concretes usually contain a large amount of wax due to the ease in which the solvents dissolve various hydrophobic compounds. For instance. Essential oil: Fragrant materials that have been extracted from a source material directly through distillation or expression and obtained in the form of an oily liquid. Pomade: A fragrant mass of solid fat created from the enfleurage process. to manufacturers of various household chemicals. Tinctures are typically thin liquids. in which odorous compounds in raw materials are adsorbed into animal fats. most of the fragrant compounds from the waxy source materials can be extracted without dissolving any of the fragrantless waxy molecules. They are also sometimes referred to affectionately as a "Nez" (French for nose) due to their fine sense of smell and skill in smell composition. Composing perfumes Perfume compositions are an important part of many industries ranging from the luxury goods sectors.
 Technique Paper blotters (fr:mouillettes) are commonly used by perfumers to sample and smell perfumes and odorants. Although many ingredients do not contribute to the smell of a perfume. Alternatively. These themselves can be used as a major component of the primary scent. respectively allow the perfume ingredients in the mixture to stabilize and to remove any sediment and particles before the solution can be filled into the perfume bottles. multiple ingredients can be used together to create an "abstract" primary scent that does not bear a resemblance to a natural ingredient. Although there is no single "correct" technique for the formulation of a perfume. calone and citrus scents can be added to create a "fresher" floral. The perfume composition will then be either used to enhance another product as a functional fragrance (shampoos. etc. fruit esters may be included in a floral primary to create a fruity floral. These ingredients can be roughly grouped into four groups: • • • • Primary scents (Heart): Can consist of one or a few main ingredients for a certain concept. The perfume's fragrance oils are then blended with ethyl alcohol and water. there are general guidelines as to how a perfume can be constructed from a concept. detergents. or marketed and sold directly to the public as a fine fragrance. car interiors. Fragrance bases . For instance. often with modifications of the composition of the perfume. The top. aged in tanks for several weeks and filtered through processing equipment to. Fixatives: Used to support the primary scent by bolstering it. Basic framework Perfume oils usually contain tens to hundreds of ingredients and these are typically organized in a perfume for the specific role they will play. such as "rose". and amber bases are used as fixatives.through the process of blending multiple perfume mixtures and sell the formulation to the customer. respectively. wood scents. many perfumes include colorants and anti-oxidants to improve the marketability and shelf life of the perfume. The cherry scent in cherry cola can be considered a modifier. Modifiers: These ingredients alter the primary scent to give the perfume a certain desired character: for instance. Blenders: A large group of ingredients that smooth out the transitions of a perfume between different "layers" or bases. Cola flavourant is a good example of an abstract primary scent. middle. Common blending ingredients include linalool and hydroxycitronellal. make-up. and base notes of a fragrance may have separate primary scents and supporting ingredients.). Many resins. jasmine and rose scents are commonly blends for abstract floral fragrances.
Each base is essentially modular perfume that is blended from essential oils and aromatic chemicals. Smoothing out the "edges" of the perfume can be done after a positive response. The difficulty of GC/MS analysis arises due to the complexity of a perfume's ingredients.. 3. the pressure to produce marketable fragrances. Many of Guerlain's Aqua Allegoria line. a base made to embody the scent for "fresh dewy rose" might be a better approximation for the scent concept of a rose after rain than plain rose oil. Ingredients and compounds can usually be ruled out or identified using gas chromatograph (GC) smellers. which allow individual chemical components to be identified both through their physical properties and their scent. This is particularly due to the presence of natural essential oils and other ingredients consisting of complex chemical mixtures. such as gardenia or hyacinth. A perfumer can quickly rough out a concept from a brief by cobbling together multiple bases. within days. Health and environmental issues . with their simple fragrance concepts. However. "anyone armed with good GC/MS equipment and experienced in using this equipment can today. The effort used in developing bases by fragrance companies or individual perfumers may equal that of a marketed perfume. then present it feedback. many modern perfumes and colognes are made using fragrance bases or simply bases. find out a great deal about the formulation of any perfume. Flowers whose scents cannot be extracted. customers and competitors can analyze most perfumes more or less precisely. Reverse engineering Creating perfumes through reverse engineering with analytical techniques such as Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS) can reveal the "general" formula for any particular perfume. For example. in Grasse Instead of building a perfume from "ground up". On top of its reusability.A "perfume organ". and formulated with a simple concept such as "fresh cut grass" or "juicy sour apple". are good examples of what perfume fragrance bases are like. since they are useful in that they are reusable. A base may be better scent approximations of a certain thing than the extract of the thing itself. are composed as bases from data derived from headspace technology. where perfumers play around with hundreds of essences. and the highly lucrative nature of the perfume market. Ingredients with "difficult" or "overpowering" scents that are tailored into a blended base may be more easily incorporated into a work of perfume 2. Reverse engineering of best-selling perfumes in the market is a very common practice in the fragrance industry due to the relative simplicity of operating GC equipment." Antique or badly preserved perfumes undergoing this analysis can also be difficult due to the numerous degradation by-products and impurities that may have resulted from breakdown of the odorous compounds. the benefit in using bases for construction are quite numerous: 1..
 It is also true that sometimes inhalation alone can cause skin irritation. are also known or potential respiratory allergens. like certain polycyclic synthetic musks. since the harm presented by many of these chemicals (either natural or synthetic) is dependent on environmental conditions and their concentrations in a perfume. can disrupt the balance of hormones in the human body (endocrine disruption). Some research on natural aromatics have shown that many contain compounds that cause skin irritation. such as oakmoss absolutes. much remains to be learned about the effects of fragrance on human health and the environment. regardless of natural or synthetic origins. allergic skin reactions or nausea. still lack scientific consensus. which is listed as an irritant. Environmental Pollution . Carcinogenicity There is scientific evidence that nitro-musks such as Musk xylene can cause cancer while common ingredients. the furanocoumarin present in natural extracts of grapefruit or celery can cause severe allergic reactions and increase sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation. For instance. contain allergens and carcinogenic compounds. In some cases. ethyl acetate and acetone while present in many perfumes. at least for small insects if not for humans. For example the compound Tricyclodecenyl allyl ether is often found in synthetic perfumes and has insect repellent property. especially those with severe or atopic asthma. linalool. As well. however the use of antioxidants in perfumes or reduction in concentrations can prevent this. Health Immunological Evidence in peer-reviewed journals shows that some fragrances can cause asthmatic reactions in some individuals. Many fragrance ingredients can also cause headaches. causes skin irritation when it degrades to peroxides. Although the areas are under active research. Toxicity Certain chemicals found in perfume are often toxic.Perfume ingredients. Some natural aromatics. acetophenone. For instance. may all cause health or environmental problems when used or abused in substantial quantities. Nevertheless this may be misleading. However some studies. an excessive use of perfumes may cause allergic reactions of the skin. such as IFRA's research claim that opoponax is too dangerous to be used in perfumery.
 The requirement to list these materials is dependant on the intended use of the final product. In Europe. Safety regulation The perfume industry in the US is not directly regulated by the FDA. However the presence of oxygen in the head space of the bottle and environmental factors will in the long run alter the smell of the fragrance. An opened bottle will keep its aroma intact for several years. and 0.01% for those intended to be rinsed off. as well as in the sediments and waters of the Great Lakes. as from 11 March 2005. Due to the need for protection of trade secrets. the mandatory listing of a set of 26 recognized fragrance allergens was enforced. musk has led to the endangerment of these species as well as illegal trafficking and harvesting. Due to their large scale use. several types of synthetic musks have been found in human fat and milk. instead the FDA controls the safety of perfumes through their ingredients and requires that they be tested to the extent that they are Generally recognized as safe (GRAS). Species endangerment The demands for aromatic materials like sandalwood.001% for products intended to remain on the skin. agarwood. . The limits above which the allegens are required to be declared are 0. This has resulted in many old perfumes like chypres and fougère classes.Synthetic musks are pleasant in smell and relatively inexpensive. as such they are often employed in large quantities to cover the unpleasant scent of laundry detergents and many personal cleaning products. as long as it is well stored. These pollutants may pose additional health and environmental problems when they enter human and animal diets. being reformulated. which require the use of oakmoss extract. Preserving perfume Fragrance compounds in perfumes will degrade or break down if improperly stored in the presence of: • • • • Heat Light Oxygen Extraneous organic materials Proper preservation of perfumes involve keeping them away from sources of heat and storing them where they will not be exposed to light. companies rarely give the full listing of ingredients regardless of their effects on health.
which would degrade and alter the quality of a perfume. a perfume conservatory and museum. Civettictis civetta Conservation status . opting for spray dispensers instead of rollers and "open" bottles will minimize oxygen exposure. African civet African Civet African Civet. skin. store their perfumes in argon evacuated aluminium flasks at 12 degrees Celsius. and detritus.  Although it is difficult to completely remove oxygen from the headspace of a stored flask of fragrance. Sprays also have the advantage of isolating fragrance inside a bottle and preventing it from mixing with dust. The Osmothèque.Perfumes are best preserved when kept in light-tight aluminium bottles or in their original packaging when not in use. and refrigerated to relatively low temperatures: between 3-7 degrees Celsius (37-45 degrees Fahrenheit).
1776) Subspecies C.c. Civettictis civetta) is the largest representative of the African Viverridae.congica C. The black bands surrounding the African civet’s eyes closely resemble those to the raccoon.1) Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Family: Viverridae Subfamily: Viverrinae Genus: Civettictis Species: C. During the night. the black and white stripes and blotches covering the coarse pelage of the animal are extremely variable and allow it to be cryptic. when they are the most active.volkmanni The African civet ( /ˈsɪvɪt/. Other distinguishing features of the African civet are its disproportionately large hindquarters and its erectile dorsal crest. civetta Binomial name Civettictis civetta (Schreber.c. African civets can be found from coast to coast across sub-Saharan Africa.australis C.civetta C. They are primarily nocturnal and spend the day sleeping in dense vegetation.c.pauli C.c.schwarzi C. they can be found in a wide variety of habitat consisting of thick forest to open country. .Least Concern (IUCN 3. The African civet is a solitary mammal that is easily recognizable by its unique coloration.c. It is the sole member of its genus.c.
 The zygomatic arch is robust and provides a large area for attachment of the masseter muscle. 1/1. Head-and-body length is 67 to 84 cm (26 to 33 in). there are no great discernible differences in measurements between sexes. African Civets have a modified synapsid skull which is heavy-built and is the longest of any viverrid. The skull also has a well-developed sagittal crest which provides a large area for attachment of the temporalis muscle. Weight can range from 7 to 20 kg (15 to 44 lb). Contents • • • • • • 1 Anatomy 2 Name 3 Cultural use 4 Ecology o 4. eggs. curved. Like all civets it has perineal glands that produce a fluid known as civetone. Its feet are compact and unsuitable for digging or climbing and the soles of the feet are hairless. carrion. The African civet has long. While females are sometimes credited as slightly larger. . which it spreads on markers in its territory to claim its range. small eyes and a long bushy tail. from Arabic zabAd.The African civet is an omnivorous generalist. while the tail is 34 to 47 cm (13 to 19 in) and shoulder height averages 40 cm (16 in). This musculature and the African civet’s strong mandible give it a powerful bite oriented to its omnivorous diet. taking small vertebrates. It has a short broad neck. Used in the perfume industry. "civet" was originally the name for the scent obtained from this species: Middle French civette. civet perfume. and vegetable matter. Prey is primarily detected by smell and sound rather than by sight. with an average mass of about 12. 2/2. only the binturong matches or exceeds the African civet in size. small rounded ears. from Old Italian zibetto. a pointed muzzle.5 kg (28 lb).  The African civet has five digits per manus in which the first toe is slightly set back from the others. Civettictis civetta is a stocky animal with a long body and appears shortlegged for its size although its hind limbs are noticeably larger and more powerful.1 Reproduction 5 See also 6 References Anatomy Among the extant viverrid family. 4/4. It is capable of taking on poisonous invertebrates (such as the millipedes most other species avoid) and snakes. invertebrates. semi-retractile claws. African civet’s have a total of forty teeth and a dental formula of 3/3.
If an African civet feels threatened. spots.under fur and guard hairs. which can produce a stronger secretion. spots are normally present on the midsection of the animal and fade anteriorly into vertical stripes above the forelimbs. Horizontal lines are prominent on the hind limbs. This gland secretes a white or yellow waxy substance called civet. The hairs of the erectile crest are longer than those of the rest of the pelage. the glands are bigger in males. The pelage of the African civet is coarse and wiry. Name . The tail of the African civet is black with a few white bands and the paws are completely black. the African civet has two types of fur . The dorsal base color of the fur varies from white to creamy yellow to reddish. The coat is unique to each individual. A black band stretches across its eyes like that of a raccoon and the coloration of its neck is referred to as a double collar because of the two black neck bands. The perineal gland is what this species of civet is well known for and Civettictis civetta has historically been the species most often harvested for it. The stripes. just like a human fingerprint. neck and ears are clearly marked. The head. Following the spine of the animal extending from the neck to the base of the tail is the erectile dorsal crest. This behavior is a predatory defense. it raises its dorsal crest to make itself look larger and thus more formidable and dangerous to attack. which is used by civets for marking territory and by humans as a perfume base. and blotches which cover the animal are deep brown to black in coloration.Drawing of African civet Like many mammals. however. The perineal glands are located between the scrotum and the prepuce in males and between the anus and the vulva in females. Perineal and anal glands are found in both male and female African civets.
They can secrete three to four grams of civet per week and it can be sold for just under five hundred dollars per kilogram. 5. The young are born in advanced stages compared to most carnivores. African civets have been kept in captivity and milked for their civet which is diluted into perfumes. Females create a nest which is normally in dense vegetation and commonly in a hole dug by another animal. Female African civets normally give birth to one to four young. The WSPA says that Chanel. Civette came from the Arabic zabat used to describe the scent emitted from the perineal glands. Cartier. Chanel says it substituted synthetic civet for the natural version starting in 1998. This time is favored because of the large populations of insects. meaning weasel. short fur and can crawl at birth. which is misleading since African Civets are not members of the cat family. The young leave the nest after eighteen days but are still dependent on the mother for milk and protection for another two months.Head of African civet Civettictis is derived from the French civette and the Greek ictis. Cultural use The perineal gland secretion has been the basic ingredient for many perfumes for hundreds of years and is still being used today although on the decline since the creation of synthetic musk. They are covered in a dark. Mating occurs in the warm and wet summer months from August to January. African civets are commonly referred to as civet cats. . and Lancome have all admitted to using civet in their products and that laboratory tests detected the ingredient in Chanel No. Ecology Reproduction The average lifespan of an African civet is fifteen to twenty years. Females are polyestrous and can have up to three litters per year.
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