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Topics Exercises

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Tolerancing: Topics

Summary 4.1) Tolerancing and Interchangeability 4.2) Tolerancing Standards 4.3) Tolerance Types 4.4) General Definitions 4.5) Inch Tolerances 4.6) Metric Tolerances 4.7) Selecting Tolerances 4.8) Tolerance Accumulation 4.9) Formatting Tolerances

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Tolerancing: Exercises

Exercise 4-1: Inch tolerance definitions Exercise 4-2: Types of fit Exercise 4-3: Determining fit type Exercise 4-4: Limits and fits Exercise 4-5: Milling jack assembly tolerances Exercise 4-6: Millimeter tolerance definitions Exercise 4-7: Metric fit designation Exercise 4-8: Systems Exercise 4-9: Metric limits and fits Exercise 4-10: Tolerance accumulation Exercise 4-11: Over dimensioning

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Tolerancing

Summary

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Summary

What will we learn in Chapter 4?

→ We will learn about tolerancing and how important this technique is to mass production.

Key points

→ If a feature’s size is toleranced, it is allowed to vary within a range of values or limits. → Tolerancing enables an engineer to design interchangeable or replacement parts.

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Tolerancing

4.1) Tolerancing for Interchangeability

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Tolerancing / Interchangeability

Tolerancing is dimensioning for interchangeability. What is interchangeability?

An interchangeable part is simply a mass produced part (a replacement part).

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Tolerancing / Interchangeability

How is a feature on an interchangeable part dimensioned?

→ The feature is not dimensioned using a single value, but a range of values. 1.005 1.00 → .994

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Tolerancing / Interchangeability

A tolerance is the amount of size variation permitted.

→ You can choose a tolerance that specifies a large or small variation. 1.005 Size limits = .994 Tolerance = 1.005 - .994 = .011

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Tolerancing / Interchangeability

Why do we want a part’s size to be controlled by two limits?

It is necessary because it is impossible to manufacture parts without some variation. The stated limits are a form of quality control.

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Tolerancing / Interchangeability

Choosing a tolerance for your design.

→ Specify a tolerance with whatever degree of accuracy that is required for the design to work properly.

→ Choose a tolerance that is not unnecessarily accurate or excessively inaccurate.

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Tolerancing / Interchangeability

Choosing the correct tolerance for a particular application depends on:

→ → → → the design intent (end use) of the part cost how it is manufactured experience

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Tolerancing

4.2) Tolerancing Standards

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Tolerancing Standards

Standards are needed to;

→ make it possible to manufacture parts at different times and in different places that still assemble properly.

→ establish dimensional limits for parts that are to be interchangeable.

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Tolerancing Standards

The two most common standards agencies are;

→ American National Standards Institute (ANSI) / (ASME) → International Standards Organization (ISO).

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Tolerancing

4.3) Tolerance Types

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Tolerance Types

The tolerancing methods presented are:

→ Limit dimensions → Plus or minus tolerances → Page or block tolerances

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1. Limit Dimensions

Limits are the maximum and minimum size that a part can obtain and still pass inspection.

→ For example, the diameter of a shaft might be specified as follows.

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**1. Limit Dimension Order
**

The high limit is placed above the low limit. When both limits are placed on one line, the low limit precedes the high limit.

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**2. Plus or Minus Tolerances
**

Plus or minus tolerances give a basic size and the variation that can occur around that basic size.

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**3. Page or Block Tolerances
**

A page tolerance is actually a general note that applies to all dimensions not covered by some other tolerancing type.

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Tolerancing

4.4) Shaft-Hole Assembly

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**Shaft-Hole Assembly
**

Used to illustrate concepts and definitions. Both the shaft and the hole are allowed to vary between a maximum and minimum diameter.

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Tolerancing

4.5) Inch Tolerances

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**Inch Tolerances Definitions
**

Limits: The limits are the maximum and minimum size that the part is allowed to be.

Basic Size: The basic size is the size from which the limits are calculated.

→ It is common for both the hole and the shaft and is usually the closest fraction.

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**Inch Tolerances Definitions
**

Tolerance: The tolerance is the total amount a specific dimension is permitted to vary.

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Exercise 4-2

Inch tolerance definitions

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Skip to next part of the exercise

Exercise 4-2

Fill in the following table.

**Shaft Limits .47 - .51 Basic Size .5 or 1/2 Tolerance .04
**

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Hole .49 - .50

.01

**Inch Tolerances Definitions
**

Maximum Material Condition (MMC): The MMC is the size of the part when it consists of the most material.

Least Material Condition (LMC): The LMC is the size of the part when it consists of the least material.

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Skip to next part of the exercise

Exercise 4-2

Fill in the following table.

MMC LMC

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Shaft .51 .47

Hole .49 .50

**Inch Tolerances Definitions
**

Maximum Clearance: The maximum amount of space that can exist between the hole and the shaft.

→ Max. Clearance = LMChole – LMCshaft

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**Inch Tolerances Definitions
**

Minimum Clearance (Allowance): The minimum amount of space that can exist between the hole and the shaft.

→ Min. Clearance = MMChole – MMCshaft

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Exercise 4-2

Fill in the following table.

**Max. Clearance Min. Clearance
**

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.50 - .47 = .03 .49 - .51 = -.02

Exercise 4-2

What does a negative clearance mean?

**Max. Clearance Min. Clearance
**

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.50 - .47 = .03 .49 - .51 = -.02

Types of Fits

There are four major types of fits.

→ → → → Clearance Fit Interference Fit Transition Fit Line Fit

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Types of Fits

What is a clearance fit?

There is always a space. Min. Clearance > 0

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Types of Fits

What is an interference fit?

There is never a space.

Max. Clearance 0

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Types of Fits

What is a transition fit?

Depending on the sizes of the shaft and hole there could be a space or no space. Max. Clearance > 0 Min. Clearance < 0

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Types of Fits

What is a line fit?

There is a space or a contact (hole dia = shaft dia) Max. Clearance > 0 Min. Clearance = 0

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Exercise 4-3

Types of fits

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Exercise 4-3

From everyday life, list some examples of clearance and interference fits.

Fit Clearance Example

Lock and Key Door and Door frame Coin and Coin slot Pin in a bicycle chain Hinge pin

Interference

**Wooden peg and hammer toy
**

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Exercise 4-4

Determining fit type

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Exercise 4-4

Determine the basic size and type of fit given the limits for the shaft and hole.

Shaft Limits 1.498 - 1.500 .751 - .755 .373 - .378 .247 - .250 Hole Limits 1.503 - 1.505 .747 - .750 .371 - .375 .250 - .255 Basic Size 1.5 .75 .375 .25 Type of fit Clearance Interference Transition Line

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**ANSI Standard Limits and Fits
**

The following fit types and classes are in accordance with the ANSI B4.1-1967 (R1994) standard.

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**ANSI Standard Limits and Fits
**

RC: Running or Sliding Clearance fit.

→ Intended to provide running performance with suitable lubrication. • See table 4-2 for a more detailed description. → RC9 (loosest) – RC1 (tightest)

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**ANSI Standard Limits and Fits
**

Locational fits (LC, LT, LN).

→ Locational fits are intended to determine only the location of the mating parts. • See table 4-3 for a more detailed description.

• LC = Locational clearance fits • LT = Locational transition fits • LN = Locational interference fits

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**ANSI Standard Limits and Fits
**

FN: Force Fits.

→ Force fits provide a constant bore pressure throughout the range of sizes. • See table 4-4 for a more detailed description. → FN1 – FN5 (tightest)

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Exercise 4-5

Limits and fits

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Exercise 4-5

Given a basic size of .50 inches and a fit of RC8, calculate the limits for both the hole and the shaft.

→ Use the ANSI limits and fit tables given in Appendix A.

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Page A-2

Basic size = .5 Fit = RC8

Exercise 4-5

Given a basic size of .50 inches and a fit of RC8, calculate the limits forare thethe What both units? hole and the shaft. See page A-1.

→ Standard Limits Hole = +2.8 → Standard Limits Shaft = -3.5 0 -5.1

These are the values that we add/subtract from the basic size to obtain the limits.

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Exercise 4-5

Given a basic size of .50 inches and a fit of RC8, calculate the limits for both the hole and the shaft.

→ Hole Limts = .50 - 0 = .5000 .50 + .0028 = .5028 → Shaft Limits = .50 - .0035 = .4965 .50 - .0051 = .4949

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Exercise 4-6

Milling Jack assembly tolerances

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Exercise 4-6

Consider the Milling Jack assembly shown.

→ Notice that there are many parts that fit into or around other parts. → Each of these parts is toleranced to ensure proper fit and function.

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The V-Anvil fits into the Sliding Screw with a RC4 fit. The basic size is .375 (3/8). Determine the limits for both parts.

The V-Anvil fits into the Sliding Screw with a RC4 fit. The basic size is .375 (3/8). What are the limits?

.3750 - .3759

.3739 - .3745

The Sliding Screw fits into the Base with a RC5 fit. The basic size is .625 (5/8). Determine the limits for both parts.

The Sliding Screw fits into the Base with a RC5 fit. The basic size is .625 (5/8). What are the limits?

.625 - .626

.6231 - .6238

Tolerancing

4.6) Metric Tolerances

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**Metric Tolerances Definitions
**

Limits, Basic Size, Tolerance, MMC and LMC have the same definition as in the inch tolerance section.

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Exercise 4-7

Millimeter tolerance definitions

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Skip to next part of the exercise

Exercise 4-7

Fill in the following table.

**Shaft Limits 2.1 – 2.2 Basic Size 2 Tolerance 0.1
**

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Hole 1.8 – 2.0

0.2

**Metric Tolerances Definitions
**

Upper deviation: The upper deviation is the difference between the basic size and the permitted maximum size of the part.

→ UD = |basic size – Dmax|

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**Metric Tolerances Definitions
**

Lower deviation: The lower deviation is the difference between the basic size and the minimum permitted size of the part.

→ LD = |basic size – Dmin|

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**Metric Tolerances Definitions
**

Fundamental deviation: The fundamental deviation is the closest deviation to the basic size.

→ The fundamental deviation is the smaller of the UD and the LD. → A letter in the fit specification represents the fundamental deviation.

**Ex: Metric Fit = H11/c11
**

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Exercise 4-7

Fill in the following table.

UD LD FD

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Shaft 0.2 0.1 0.1

Hole 0 0.2 0

Exercise 4-7

Fill in the following table.

Type of fit

Interference

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**Metric Tolerances Definitions
**

International tolerance grade number (IT#): The IT#’s are a set of tolerances that vary according to the basic size and provide the same relative level of accuracy within a given grade.

→ The number in the fit specification represents the IT#. → A smaller number provides a smaller tolerance.

Ex: Metric Fit = H11/c11

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**Metric Tolerances Definitions
**

Tolerance zone: The fundamental deviation in combination with the IT# defines the tolerance zone.

→ The IT# establishes the magnitude of the tolerance zone or the amount that the dimension can vary. → The fundamental deviation establishes the position of the tolerance zone with respect to the basic size.

Ex: Metric Fit = H11/c11

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**ANSI Standard Limits and Fits
**

The following fit types are in accordance with the ANSI B4.2-1978 (R1994) standard.

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**Available Metric Fits
**

Hole Basis H11/c11

The difference between Hole H9/d9Shaft Basis Fits will be running D9/h9 Free and H8/f7 Close running discussed inF8/h7 an upcoming H7/g6 G7/h6 Sliding section.

H7/h6 H7/k6 or H7/n6 H7/p6 H7/h6 K7/h6 or N7/h6 P7/h6

Shaft Basis C11/h11

Fit Loose running

Locational clearance Locational transition Locational interference

H7/s6 H7/u6

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S7/h6 U7/h6

Medium drive Force

Tolerance Designation

A Metric fit is specified by stating the fundamental deviation and the IT#. Remember!

→ IT# = the amount that the dimension can vary (tolerance zone size). → Fundamental deviation (letter) = establishes the position of the tolerance zone with respect to the basic size. • Hole = upper case • Shaft = lower case

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Tolerance Designation

Fits are specified by using the:

→fundamental deviation (letter) →IT# (International Tolerance Grade #).

**When specifying the fit:
**

→The hole = upper case letter →The shaft = lower case letter

**Ex: Metric Fit = H11/c11
**

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Exercise 4-8

Metric fit designation

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Fill in the appropriate name for the fit component.

Basic size

Hole Tolerance Zone Shaft Tolerance Zone

Fundamental Deviation

IT#

**Basic Hole / Basic Shaft Systems
**

Metric limits and fits are divided into two different systems; the basic hole system and the basic shaft system.

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**Basic Hole / Basic Shaft Systems
**

Basic hole system: The basic hole system is used when you want the basic size to be attached to the hole dimension.

→ For example, if you want to tolerance a shaft based on a hole produced by a standard drill, reamer, broach, or another standard tool.

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**Basic Hole / Basic Shaft Systems
**

Basic shaft system: The basic shaft system is used when you want the basic size to be attached to the shaft dimension.

→ For example, if you want to tolerance a hole based on the size of a purchased a standard drill rod.

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Exercise 4-9

Systems

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Exercise 4-9

Identify the type of fit and the system used to determine the limits of the following shaft and hole pairs

Shaft

9.972 - 9.987

Hole

10.000 - 10.022

**Type of Fit System
**

Clearance Transition Hole Hole

60.002 - 60.021 60.000 - 60.030

39.984 - 40.000 39.924 - 39.949

Interference Shaft

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Exercise 4-10

Metric limits and fits

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Exercise 4-10

Find the limits, tolerance, type of fit, and type of system for a n30 H11/c11 fit.

→ Use the tolerance tables given in Appendix A.

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Page A-8

Exercise 4-10

Find the limits, tolerance, type of fit, and type of system for a n30 H11/c11 fit.

Limits Tolerance 0.13 0.13 Hole System Clearance – Loose Running Fit Shaft 29.760 - 29.890 Hole 30.000 - 30.130

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Exercise 4-10

Find the limits, tolerance, type of fit, and type of system for a n30 P7/h6 fit.

→ Use the tolerance tables given in Appendix A.

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Page A-11

Exercise 4-10

Find the limits, tolerance, type of fit, and type of system for a n30 P7/h6 fit.

Limits Tolerance 0.013 0.021 Shaft System Locational Interference Fit Shaft 29.987 - 30.000 Hole 29.965 – 29.986

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Tolerancing

4.7) Selecting Tolerances

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Selecting Tolerances

Tolerances will govern the method of manufacturing.

→ When the tolerances are reduced, the cost of manufacturing rises very rapidly. → Specify as generous a tolerance as possible without interfering with the function of the part.

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Selecting Tolerances

Choosing the most appropriate tolerance depends on many factors such as;

→ → → → → → → length of engagement, bearing load, speed, lubrication, temperature, humidity, and material.

** Experience also plays a significant role.
**

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Machining and IT Grades

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Tolerancing

4.8) Tolerance Accumulation

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Tolerance Accumulation

The tolerance between two features of a part depends on the number of controlling dimensions.

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Tolerance Accumulation

The distance could be controlled by a single dimension or multiple dimensions.

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Tolerance Accumulation

The maximum variation between two features is equal to the sum of the tolerances placed on the controlling dimensions.

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Tolerance Accumulation

As the number of controlling dimensions increases, the tolerance accumulation increases.

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Tolerance Accumulation

Remember, even if the dimension does not have a stated tolerance, it has an implied tolerance.

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Exercise 4-11

Tolerance Accumulation

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Exercise 4-11

What is the tolerance accumulation for the distance between surface A and B for the following three dimensioning methods?

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70 0.3

70 0.2

109.9

40.1

69.8

70 0.1

Exercise 4-11

If the accuracy of the distance between surface A and B is important, which dimensioning method should be used?

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Exercise 4-12

Over dimensioning

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Assuming that the diameter dimensions are correct, explain why this object is dimensioned incorrectly.

**1. The decimal places don’t match.
**

Formatting tolerances will be discussed next.

**2. The dimensions are inconsistent.
**

2.98 – 3.00

1.98 + .99 = 2.97 2.01+1.00 = 3.01

This part is over dimensioned.

Tolerancing

4.9) Formatting Tolerances

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**Formatting Metric Tolerances
**

Tolerances from standardized fit tables are listed on drawings as;

**The person reading the print has to have access to the standard fit tables.
**

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**Formatting Metric Tolerances
**

Unilateral tolerances

→ A single zero without a plus or minus sign.

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**Formatting Metric Tolerances
**

Bilateral tolerances

→ Both the plus and minus values have the same number of decimal places.

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**Formatting Metric Tolerances
**

Limit dimensions

→ Both values should have the same number of decimal places.

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**Formatting Metric Tolerances
**

Using Basic dimensions with the tolerance

→ The number of decimal places in the basic dimension does not have to match the number of decimal places in the tolerance.

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**Formatting Inch Tolerances
**

Unilateral and Bilateral tolerances

→ The basic dimension and the plus and minus values should have the same number of decimal places.

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**Formatting Inch Tolerances
**

Limit dimensions

→ Both values should have the same number of decimal places.

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**Formatting Inch Tolerances
**

Using Basic dimensions with the tolerance

→ The number of decimal places in the basic dimension should match the number of decimal places in the tolerance.

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**Formatting Angular Tolerances
**

Angular tolerances

→ Both the angle and the plus and minus values have the same number of decimal places.

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Tolerancing

The End

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