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PALLADAM ROAD, POLLACHI 642 002

ME-

ENGINNERING THERMODYNAMICS

UNIT-I PART-A QUESTION AND ANSWERS

State the law of conservation of energy. The energy neither can be created nor destroyed but one form of energy can be converted into another form. The energies may cross the boundaries.

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Define specific heat capacity and write their types with an example. It is the amount of heat required to raise or lower the temperature of the body or substance to through 1C.

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State the zeroth law of thermodynamics. Its stats that, when two systems are in thermal equilibrium with the third system separately, then they themselves are in thermal equilibrium

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What do you understand from the thermodynamic system and boundaries, surrounding. Thermodynamic system is defined as a definite space or area on which the study of energy transfer and energy conversion is made. The system and surroundings are separated by boundary. It may be affixed or movable and imaginary. Anything outside the boundary which affects the behavior of the system is called surroundings.

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Classify the property and define them with example. Thermodynamic property can be classified into two types. a. Intensive or Intrinsic and b. Extensive or Extrinsic property The properties which are independent on the mass of the system is called intensive properties. e.g., Pressure, Temperature, Specific Volume etc. The properties which are dependent on the mass of the system is called extensive properties. e.g., total energy, Total volume, weight etc,

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What are the limitations of first law of thermodynamics? (i) The first law of thermodynamics does not specify the direction of flow of heat and work. (ii) PMM-I is a machine which delivers work continuously without any input. Thus, it violates the first law thermodynamics.

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What is meant by PMM of first kind? Why it impossible? Perpetual motion machine of first kind is delivers the continuous work out put without any input so it violates the first law of thermodynamics so it is impossible. State the concept of energy. The energy neither can be created nor destroyed but one form of energy can be converted into another form. The energies may cross the boundaries. it can be stored and use when we required.

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State the first law of thermodynamics. First of thermodynamics states that when system undergoes a cyclic process the net heat transfer is equal to work transfer Write the Clausius statement with an example. It is impossible to construct a device working on a cyclic process which produces no other effect than the transfer of energy as heat from low temperature body to high temperature body.

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ME11.

ENGINNERING THERMODYNAMICS

What do you understand from Kelvin blank statement? It is impossible to construct a device working on a cyclic process which produces no other effect than the extraction of energy as heat from single thermal reservoir and performs an equivalent amount of work.

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Differentiate between thermodynamic process and thermodynamic cycle. Process It is defined as the change of state undergone by a gas due to energy flow. Cycle: When a system undergoes a series of processes and return to its initial condition, it is known as cycle.

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Describe about the point and path functions. The quantities which are independent on the process or path followed by the system is known as point functions. Example: Pressure, volume, temperature, etc., The quantities which are dependent on the process or path followed by the system is known as path functions. Example: Heat transfer, work transfer Define quasi-static process. The process is said to be quasi static, it should proceed infinitesimally slow and follows continuous series of equilibrium states. Therefore, the quasi static, it should proceed infinitesimally slow and follows continuous series of equilibrium states. Therefore, the quasi static process may be an reversible process. What is meant by irreversible process? Write the example. If a system does not pass through continuous equilibrium state, then the process is said to be irreversible.

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What is meant by isentropic process? And write the significance of isentropic process. Isentropic process is also called as reversible adiabatic process. It is a process which follows the law of pV = C is known as isentropic process. During this process entropy remains constant and no heat enters or leaves the gas.

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Write the definition of enthalpy. Also write the formula to calculate the change in enthalpy. Enthalpy is a combination of flow energy and internal energy. H=U+ pv Kj The formula to calculate the change in enthalpy H= m Cp ((T2 T1) kJ

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What is the relation between the gas constant and specific heat capacities? Cp Cv = R

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In isochoric process w=0, why? In isochoric process the volume is constant. So, that the change in volume is zero. Thus the work done during that process is zero

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Define hyperbolic process. The hyperbolic process follows the law p v = c. this process is identical to isothermal process applicable to vapour only.

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What are the different kinds of energy? I. stored energy II. Transit energy

ME22.

ENGINNERING THERMODYNAMICS

Define control volume and steady flow process. Control volume If a fluid passes through a specified area in steady flow process is called control volume. Steady flow process During the process the rate of flow of mass and energy across the boundary remains constant, is known as steady flow process.

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What are the assumptions to be made for SFP? i. The mass floe rate through the control volume is constant ii. The state of fluid at any point remains constant at all times

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Derive the SFEE for steam nozzle. What is the function of nozzle? Nozzle is used to increase the velocity of fluid by dropping the pressure of the fluid. 2 SFEE of nozzle is C2 = 2*Cp(T1 T2) + C1

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What are the applications of SFEE to various engineering system. a. steam boiler b. steam condenser c. nozzle d. air compressors e. steam turbines

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What is meant by adiabatic index? It is ratio between the specific heat capacity at constant pressure to the specific heat capacity at constant volume.

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What is the reason for change in entropy is zero in reversible adiabatic process. Adiabatic process is very rapid process, in this process there is no heat transfer so change in entropy is zero.

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Define ideal gas and real gas. Ideal gas An ideal gas is a imaginary substance that obeys the relation p V =C. Real gas At high pressure, the gases start to deviate from ideal- gas behavior. So, that the deviation should accounted.

ME-

ENGINNERING THERMODYNAMICS

UNIT-II PART-A

1. Write the two statement of second law of thermodynamics. Its states that it is impossible to construct a heat engine working on cyclic process, whose only purpose is to convert all the heat energy given to it into an equal amount of work. 2. State Carnots theorem. It states that, no heat engine operating in a cyclic process between two fixed temperatures can be more efficient that a reversible engine operating between the same temperature limits. 3. Define PMM second kind. PMM of second kind draws heat continuously from single reservoir and converts it into equal amount of work. This it gives 100% efficiency. 4. What is the difference between heat pump and refrigerator? Heat pump is a machine which delivers the heat to the hot sources by extracting the heat from cold sink with the help of external work is called heat pump. It maintains only the temperature of the source. Refrigerator is a machine which extracts the heat from cold sink and delivers to the surrounding. it maintains only the temperature of the sink. 5. Define the term COP. Co efficient of performance is defined as the ratio of heat extracted to the work input. 6. Define entropy. Entropy is measure of disorder or index of unavailability of energy. 7. Sketch the p-v and T-s diagram for Carnot cycle.

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What is meant by Clausius inequality? It is impossible for a self acting machine working in a cyclic process unaided by an external agency to convey heat from a body at lower temperature to body at higher temperature.

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Define heat engine. A heat engine is a device which is used to convert the thermal energy into mechanical energy

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ME11.

ENGINNERING THERMODYNAMICS

What is loss of availability? How it is related to the entropy of universe? It is the difference between the maximum work and actual work obtained by the process is called loss availability.

12. What is the principle increase of entropy? For any infinitesimal process under gone by a system change in entropy dS dQ / T, for reversible process dQ = 0, so dS = 0. For irreversible dS>0 so, the entropy of an isolated system would never decrease it will always increases and remains constant if the pressure is reversible is called as principle increase of entropy. 13. Why the second law is called a directional law of nature? It gives the direction of flow of energy so it is called as directional law. 14. State the Second law of thermodynamics. Also write its physical significance. It states that heat can flow from hot body to cold without any external aid but heat cannot flow from cold body to hot body without any external aid. 15. What is a process involved in a Carnot cycle, sketch the same in P-V and T-S diagram. i. ii. iii. iv. 16. Isentropic compression Isothermal heat addition Isentropic expansion Isothermal heat rejection.

The coefficient of Performance of a heat pump is 5. Find the COP of refrigerator if both are reversible devices interacting between same source temperature and sink temperature.

COP ref =4

17. Why Carnot cycle is not practicable for a steam power plant? (i)There are two processes to be carried out during compression and expansion. For isothermal process the piston moves very slowly and for adiabatic process the piston moves as fast as possible. This speed variation during the same stroke of the piston is not possible. (ii) It is not possible to avoid friction moving parts completely. 18. What are the two major conclusions deduced from the Carnot principles? (i) In all the reversible engine operating between the two given thermal reservoirs with fixed temperature, have the same efficiency. (ii) The efficiency of any reversible heat engine operating between two reservoirs is independent of the nature of the working fluid and depends only on the temperature of the reservoirs. 19. What are the Corollaries of Carnot theorems? (i) In the entire reversible engine operating between the two given thermal reservoirs with fixed temperature, have the same efficiency. (ii) The efficiency of any reversible heat engine operating between two reservoirs is independent of the nature of the working fluid and depends only on the temperature of the reservoirs. 20. Why a heat engine cannot have 100% efficiency? For all the heat engines there will be a heat loss between system and surroundings. Therefore we cant convert all the heat input into useful work. 21. When the Carnot cycle efficiency will be maximum? Carnot cycle efficiency is maximum when the initial temperature is 0K.

ME22.

ENGINNERING THERMODYNAMICS

What is meant by reversible and irreversible process? Give two examples of reversible process. Reversible process A process is said to be reversible, it should trace the same path in the reverse direction when the process is reversed. It is possible only when the system passes through a continuous series of equilibrium state. Irreversible process If a system does not pass through continuous equilibrium state, then the process is said to be irreversible. State the conditions to be satisfied for a process to be reversible. a. There is no heat loss by convection, conduction, radiation. b. There is no friction between moving parts. c. The process should passes through number of equilibrium stages. What is the relation between COPHP and COP ref? COPHP = COPref +1 Define the term absolute entropy? The change of entropy of the system with respect to ambient conditions or any other standard reference conditions is known as absolute entropy.

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ME-

ENGINNERING THERMODYNAMICS

UNIT-III PART-A

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What Is Pure Substance? Pure substance is a substance which has a fixed chemical composition throughout its mass. Examples: water, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and helium. A pure substance does not have to be of a single chemical element or compound. A mixture of various chemical elements or compounds is also called as pure substance as long as the mixture is homogeneous. What Is Saturation Temperature And Saturation Pressure? At a given pressure, the temperature at which a liquid boils is called saturation temperature. At the given temperature the pressure at which the liquid boils is called saturation pressure .It is also called as vapour pressure. Define Latent Heat Of Vaporization? The amount of heat added during heating of water from boiling point to dry saturated stage is called as latent heat of vaporization or enthalpy of vaporization or enthalpy of vaporization or latent heat of steam. Find The Saturation Temp And Latent Heat Of Vaporization Of Steam At 1mpa. From steam table of 1 Mpa or 10 bar saturation temperature =179.880c Latent heat of vaporization =2013.6 KJ/Kg Define The Terms 'Boiling Point' And 'Melting Point'. Boiling Point: It is the temperature at which the liquid starts to change its state from liquid to vapour. Melting Point: It is the temp at which the solid starts to change its state from solid to liquid. What Is Meant By Super Heated System? And Indicate Its Use If the dry steam is further heated, then the process is called superheating and steam obtained is known as super heated system USES: 1. Superheated steam has more heat energy and more work can be obtained using it. 2. Thermal efficiency increases as the temp of superheated steam is high. 3.Heat losses be to condensation of steam an cylinder wall is reduced Define: Sensible Heat Of Water. The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of unit mass of water from 0c to the saturation temperature under a constant pressure. It is denoted by hs Define The Term "Super Heat Enthalpy". The heat supplied to the dry steam at saturation temperature, to convert it into superheated steam at the temperature T is called super heat enthalpy. What Is Wet And Dry Steam? The steam which partially evaporated and having water particles in suspension is called wet steam. The steam which fully in evaporated state and is not having any water particles is called dry steam. State phase rule of pure substances. The number of independent variables associated with multi compound, multiphase system is given by the phase rule. It is also called as Gibbs phase rule. It is expressed by the equation as n = C- # + 2 where, n = the number of independent variables, c = the number of components, # = the number of phases present in equilibrium. Define dryness fraction of steam (or) what is quality of steam? It is defined as the ratio of the masses of total steam actually present to the mass of the total system

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ENGINNERING THERMODYNAMICS

DRYNESS FRACTION = MASS OF DRY SYSTEM ---------------------------------MASS OF TOTAL MIXTURE

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Explain the terms: degree of super heat, degree of sub cooling? Degree of super heat: It is the difference between superheated temperature and saturated temperature at the same pressure Degree of sub cooling: It is the amount by which the water is cooled beyond the saturated temperature at the same pressure. Define triple point and critical point for pure substance. TRIPLE POINT: It is the state at where all three phases i.e. solid, liquid and vapour to exist in equilibrium. CRITICAL POINT: It represents the highest pressure and temperature at which the liquid and vapour phases coexist in equilibrium. At the critical point the liquid and vapour phases are indistinguishable i.e Liquid directly converted into vapour. What are the merits and demerits of bleeding? MERITS: It increases the thermodynamic efficiency as the heat of the bled steam is not lost in the condenser but is utilized in feed heating DEMERITS: Cost of the plant increases and the work done per kg of steam is reduced which results in higher boiler capacity for given output What is the function of feed water heaters in the regenerative cycle with bleeding? The main function of feed water heater is to increase the temperature of feed water to the saturation temperature corresponding to the boiler pressure before it enters into the boiler. What are the merits and demerits of reheating? MERITS: Marginal increase in thermal efficiency. Increase in work done per kg of stem which results in reduced size of the boilers and other auxiliaries for the same output. we can prevent the turbine from erosion DEMERITS: The cost of the plant increases due to the reheater and its long connections. It also increases the condenser capacity due to increased dryness fraction. Define triple point and critical point TRIPLE POINT: It is the state at where all three phases i.e solid, liquid and vapour to exist in equilibrium. CRITICAL POINT: It represents the highest pressure and temperature at which the liquid and vapour phases coexist in equilibrium. At the critical point the liquid and vapour phases are indistinguishable i.e. Liquid directly converted into vapour Define efficiency ratio The ratio of actual cycle efficiency to that of ideal cycle efficiency is termed as efficiency ratio. What are the advantages of bleeding? It increases the thermodynamic efficiency as the heat of the bled steam is not lost in the condenser but is utilized in feed heating. By bleeding the volume floe at the low pressure end is considerably reduced, this reduces the design difficulties of blades, and also condenser size is reduced. Why reheat cycle is not used for low boiler pressure. At low heat pressures the reheat cycle efficiency may be less than the Rankine cycle efficiency. Since the average temperature during heating will then be low. Define boiling point and melting point BOILING POINT It is the temperature at which the liquid starts to change its state from liquid to vapour. MELTING POINT It is the temperature at which the solid starts to change its state from solid to liquid.

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ME22.

ENGINNERING THERMODYNAMICS

Define latent heat of ice. Total amount of heat added during conversion of ice of 0C into water of 0C. What is meant by steam power cycles? Thermodynamic cycles which use steam as the working fluid is called steam power cycles. Define specific steam consumption. It is defined as the mass flow of steam required per unit power output. When will the efficiency of the Rankine cycle will be maximum? The temperature of the bled steam is approximately halfway between the extreme temperatures of the primary flow cycle.

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ME-

ENGINNERING THERMODYNAMICS

UNIT-IV PART-A

Determine the molecular volume of any perfect gas at 600N/m2 and 30oc.Universal gas constant may be taken as 8314J/kg mole-K. GIVEN DATA: p=600N/m2 T= 300c= 30+273 = 303K R= 8314J/kg mole-K SOLUTION: Ideal gas equation, pV = mRT V = mRT/p = 1*8314*303/600 = 4198.57m3/kg-mole State boyle's law. Boyle's law states, The volume of a given mass of a gas varies inversely as its absolute pressure, When the temperature remains constant V = 1/p State charle's law. Charles law states, "The volume of a given mass of a gas varies directly as its absolute temperature, When the pressure remains constant V=T State joule's law. Joule's law states, "The internal energy of a given quantity of a gas depends only on the temperature". State Regnaults law. Regnault's law states that Cp and Cv of a gas always remains constant State Avogadros law. Avogadros law states, "Equal volumes of different perfect gases at the same temperature and pressure, contain equal number of molecules". State Daltons law of partial pressure. Dalton's law of partial pressure states "The total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures exerted by individual gases if each one of them occupied separately in the total volume of the mixture at mixture temperature"' p = p1+p2+p3+........pk How does the vandar walls equation differ from the ideal gas equation of the state? Intermolecular attractive study is made. Shape factor is considered. These assumptions are not made in ideal gas equations of state. What is meant by virtual expansion? Viral or virtual expansions are only applicable to gases of low and medium densities. The equation state of a substance is given by P = RT/v + a(T)/ v2 + b(T)/v3 + c(T)/v4 + ........ The coefficient of a(T), b(T),c(T) ...... are viral coefficients. The viral coefficient will vanish when the pressure becomes zero. Finally, the equation of state reduces to the ideal-gas equation. Distinguish between ideal and real gas. An ideal gas is one which strictly follows the gas laws under all conditions of temperature and pressure. In actual practice, there is no real gas which strictly follows the gas laws over the entire range of temperature and pressure. However hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and air behave as an ideal gas under certain temperature and pressure limits. Define joule-Thomson co-efficient. Joule-Thomson co-efficient is defined as the change in temperature with change in pressure, keeping the enthalpy remains constant. It is denoted by the u = (dv/dt)

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ENGINNERING THERMODYNAMICS

Define co-efficient of volume expansion and isothermal compressibility. co-efficient of volume expansion: Co-efficient of volume expansion is defined as the change in volume with change in temperature per unit volume keeping the pressure constant. Isothermal compressibility: It is defined as the change in volume with change in pressure per unit volume by keeping the temperature constant What is compressibility factor? What is its value for ideal gas at critical point? We know that, the perfect gas equation is pv=RT. But for real gas, a correction factor has to be introduced in the perfect gas equation to take into account the deviation of real gas from the perfect gas equation. This factor is known as compressibility factor(Z) and is defined by Z = pv/RT At, critical point ,the vanderwall's equation pcVc/RTc = 1 for ideal gases What is equation of state? write the same for an ideal gas? An ideal gas is an substance which obeys the law of pv= RT or pV= RT where, p = pressure of the gas v = specific volume of the gas V = Total volume of the gas R = Universal gas constant =8.314KJ/Kg mole K R = R/M for any gas T = Absolute temperature in K If we consider the mass of gas m, the equation of state becomes pv= RT or pV = m RT What is the significance of compressibility factor?

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1.Intermolecular active study is made 2.Shape factor is considered State the Avogadros law and state its significance? Avogadros law states, "Equal volumes of different perfect gases at the same temperature and pressure, contain equal number of molecules". SIGNIFICANCE: All gases whose mass is equal to its mole occupy the same volume with at normal temperature and pressure At NTP, Pressure p=1.013bar Temperature=0oc Mv = constant where, M - Molecular weight of the gas v - specific volume of the gas Write down the vandar walls equation of state. How does it differ from the equation ideal gas equation of the state?

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The equation of state is given by (p+a/V2)(V2-b)=RT where, v =Molar volume R =Universal gas constant = 8.314Nm/Kg mol K What is clapeyron equation? Clapeyron equation which involves relationship between the saturation pressure, saturation temperature, the enthalpy of vaporization and the specific volume of two phases involved dp/dT = hfg/Tvfg State gibbs equation? Gibbs function is the property of a system and is given by G = u-Ts+pv = h-Ts Where, h-enthalpy T-temperature s-entropy

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ENGINNERING THERMODYNAMICS

State tds equation Tds equations are Tds= CpdT-T(dv/dT)pdp Tds= CvdT+T(dv/dT)Tdv What is compressibility factor? We know that, the perfect gas equation is pv=RT. But for real gas, a correction factor has to be introduced in the perfect gas equation to take into account the deviation of real gas from the perfect gas equation. This factor is known as compressibility factor(Z) and is defined by Z = pv/RT

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ENGINNERING THERMODYNAMICS

UNIT-V PART-A

What is the difference between the air conditioning and refrigeration? refrigeration is the process of providing and maintaining the temperature in space below atmospheric pressure Air conditioning is the process of supplying sufficient volume of clean air containing a specific volume of water vapour and maintaining predetermined atmospheric condition with in a selected enclosure. What is psychrometry? The science which deals with the study of behavior of moist air is known as psychrometry. Define dry bulb temperature (dbt). The temperature which is measured by an ordinary thermometer is known as dry bulb temperature. It is denoted by td Define wet bulb temperature. It is the temperature of the air measured by a thermometer when its bulb is covered with wet cloth and exposed to a current rapidly moving air. It is denoted by tdp Define dew point temperature. The temperature at which the water vapour present in air begins to condense when the air is cooled is known as dew point temperature. Define relative humidity and specific humidity. RH is the ratio of mass of water vapour (mv) in a certain volume of moist air at a given temperature to the mass of water vapour (mvs) in the same volume of saturated air at the same temperature. i.e., RH = mv/mvs Specific humidity is the ratio of mass of water vapour (mv) to the mass of dry air in the given volume of mixture. i.e., w = mv/ma Differentiate between absolute and relative humidity. Absolute humidity is defined as the ratio of mass of water vapour(mv)in a certain volume of moist air at a given temperature to the mass of water vapour(mvs)at atmospheric conditions. RH is the ratio of the mass of water vapour (mv) in a certain volume of moist air at a given temperature to the mass of water vapour in the same volume of saturated air at the same temperature. i.e,RH = mv/mvs Define dpt and degree of saturation. dpt is the temperature to which moist air to be cooled before it starts condensing. Degree of saturation is the ratio of specific humidity of moist air to the specific humidity of saturated air temperature. specific humidity of moist air -------------------------------specific humidity of saturated air

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What is dew point temperature? How is it related to dry bulb temperature at the saturetion condition? It is the temperature at which the water vapour present in air begins to condense when the air is boiled. for saturated air, the dry bulb, wet bulb and dew point temperature are all same. Define Daltons law of partial pressure. The total pressure exerted by air and water vapour mixture is equal to the barometric pressure. ph = pa+pv Where, ph = barometric pressure pa = partial pressure of dry air pv = partial pressure of water vapour

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ME11

ENGINNERING THERMODYNAMICS

Define apparatus dew point of cooling oil. For dehumidification, the cooling coil is to be kept at a mean temperature which is below the dew point temperature of the entering. The temperature of the coil is called adp temperature. 12. List down the psychometric process. Sensible heating process Sensible cooling process Humidification process Dehumidification process Heating and humidification process Cooling and dehumidification process Adiabatic mixing airstreams process evaporative cooling process Define bypass factor of a coil. The ratio of amount of air which does not contact the cooling coil to the amount of supply air is called Bpf. i.e. amount of air bypassing the coil Bpf = -----------------------------------total amount of air passed State the effects of very high and very low bypass factor. very high bypass factor: 1. It requires more air. Larger fan and motor required. 2. It requires less heat transfer area. Very low bypass factor: 1. Higher adp is employed. 2. It requires less air. Fan and motor size reduced What are the assumptions made while mixing two air streams? 1.surrounding is small 2.process is fully adiabatic 3.there is no interactions 4. Change in potential or kinetic energies are negligible. What is evaporative cooling? Will it works in humid climates? in this type of cooling the air is passed through an insulated chamber. The insulating chamber has sprays in which water is maintained at a temperature of entering air but lower than its dry bulb temperature. it can be used in humid climates. Define specific humidity how does it differ from relative humidity. Specific humidity is the ratio of mass of water vapour (mv) to the mass of dry air in the given volume of mixture. I.e., w = mv/ma Specific humidity has straight lines where relative humidity has curved lines. What is adiabatic mixing and write the equation for that? It is a mixture of conditioned air with the fresh air before it is routed into the living space. m1/m2 = h3-h2/h1-h3 What is specific humidity and how do you calculate it? Specific humidity is the ratio of mass of water vapour(mv)to the mass of dry air in the given volume of mixture. i.e., w = mv/ma What is meant by adiabatic saturation temperature? The equilibrium temperature is called adiabatic saturation temperature.

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ENGINNERING THERMODYNAMICS

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