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Previously Published as: Power O&M Bulletin No. 13

Field Balancing Large Rotating Machinery

ENGINEERING DIVISION FACILITIES ENGINEERING BRANCH DENVER OFFICE DENVER, COLORADO

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation

Revised January 1983 by Darrell Temple Mechanical Engineer

Reprinted August 1989 Reprinted June 1994 Internet Version Prepared October 1998

PREFACE

One of the primary responsibilities of the Facilities Engineering Branch is to provide technical assistance to field maintenance personnel. Bulletins such as this are written to provide assistance and knowledge for field personnel to better perform plant operations. Also, it helps to minimize the number of field trips by Denver Office personnel. Since the previous edition (No. 13A, 1946) of this bulletin is outdated and more technical than necessary, effort has been made to simplify the procedures and to update the bulletin.

iii

...CONTENTS Page Theory of balancing ......................................................... Dynamic balancing .......................................... Component vectors.......................... Analytical static balancing .................................................... Static balancing.......................................................................................example..... Analytical dynamic balancing ................................................................................ Vector subtraction....... Dynamic balancing.example..... Vector techniques...................................................................................................example.................... Instrumentation and measurement... Static balancing ................. Vector addition...........example..... 1 2 4 4 5 5 6 6 9 9 16 17 v ...........................

.... Dynamic balancing . Component vectors.......................lower guide bearing............. Divided weight for lower rotor arms No..............lower guide bearing.. Vector OA direction and magnitude.............................................................. check. Weight distribution on rotor arms .............vectors........ Deflections at upper guide bearing..............................................balance weight distribution ............... 5 and 6 ........................................... Deflections at lower guide bearing............ Divided weight for upper rotor arms No.. Dynamic balancing ..CONTENTS-Continued FIGURES Figure I 2 3 Elevation of rotor having unbalanced mass........... Dynamic balancing .. Conditions at the upper guide bearing...................................... Static balancing ..................... Vector addition................................................... 2 and 3 .. Vibration amplitude measuring points location .............................................................. Dynamic unbalanced rotor............................ Page 2 2 3 4 4 5 6 8 9 11 12 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 13 15 16....upper guide bearing....................................................................... Plan of rotor......................... 17 19 19 14 15 16 17 18 21 19 21 vi ........................................................ Dynamic balancing ............................... Vector subtraction....................

The unbalance of rotating parts is the most common cause of excessive unit vibration. The objective of balancing is to reduce shaft vibration to a practical minimum. Maintenance work and slight shape changes with age . March 1944. R. 1 . Kroon. 1 Mechanical vibration sources are: • Bolted connections in the rotating parts should be checked for tightness • Unit alinement of the rotor or runner • Poor bearing conditions or position • Foundation rigidity (flexure) Check for possible electrical sources of vibration such as: • Nonuniform air gap in the motor. or exciter • Short-circuited winding turns in the rotor poles • Ellipticity of the rotor The hydraulic passages of the unit should be checked for: • A nonuniform pressure distribution over the surfaces of the turbine runner or pump impeller can cause hydraulic unbalance • Obstructions in the spiral case or volute • Debris between the vanes • Incorrect vertical position of the runner or impeller (relative to distributor) Excessive cavitation in the unit causes hydraulic unbalance. Vibration and unbalance can be caused by mechanical. translation of the ASME. Balancing of Rotating Apparatus II. Vibration Sources Large hydraulic units are subjected to many kinds of vibrations. Dynamic Balancing of Rotating Machinery in the Field. E.FIELD BALANCING LARGE ROTATING MACHINERY 1. electrical. P.in some instances . No. Before attempting to balance the rotating parts of a unit. October 1934. vol. This bulletin is concerned with correcting the unbalanced masses in rotors and drive shafts. Thearle. the rotating parts of generators and motors are balanced after installation.can alter the balance of a generator or motor rotating parts enough to require rebalancing.1 .Turbine runners and pump impellers are usually dynamically balanced before they are installed and seldom require rebalancing. 1. or hydraulic problems. determine the possible sources of vibration and unbalance. 1. 11. generator. 2. Purpose This bulletin is intended as a guide to aid plant maintenance personnel in balancing large rotating machinery. Reducing shaft vibrations generally reduces bearing loads and increases the service life. Vibration literature1 can be obtained for study in more technical detail. Normally. L. Journal of Applied Mechanics.

with the indicator stems in contact with the shaft. Consequently. Theory of Balancing Unbalanced masses in the rotating parts create a centrifugal force that causes the unit to vibrate. 3. The most common method requires dial indicators and a stroboscope. vibration amplitudes are in proportion to the forces causing them.3 . this high spot will be in phase with the unbalanced (heavy) mass. The point that the vibration amplitude is maximum is called the high spot. As speed increases. 3.e. 3. For the purpose of this bulletin.When balancing. it is necessary to determine the vibration amplitude and location of the shaft deflection caused by the unbalanced condition. 2 4. At very low speeds.3. at locations where deflection measurements are .. a balance weight is determined and positioned which gives a counter effect and balances the unit.4 . Instrumentation and Measurement Several methods are used to locate and measure the unbalance.2 . i. the term vibration amplitude is synonymous with shaft deflection which is a measure of the unbalance present. 3. Dial indicators are mounted. 1 ). the operating speed usually is less than the critical speed and the lag angle will be less than 90º. the machine is assumed to be linear. the high spot begins to lag the heavy spot.For hydroelectric units. to balance the unit. the unbalanced mass m tends to pull the rotor toward the bearings on the side the unbalance is located creating an apparent high spot on the shaft. With this information known. Field balancing consists of determining the amplitude (size) and location around the shaft (phase angle) of the unbalance and placing weights on the rotor to counter the unbalance.1.Figure 2 shows the relation between the unbalanced mass and the high spot at normal operating speed.As the rotor rotates (fig.

4. Shaft runout readings are taken simultaneously at (fig. This method has the advantage that .Three trial runs are made to obtain data necessary to balance a hydraulic unit.4 . 4. The proximity indicators are calibrated to show the shaft deflection magnitude.desired. the measurements are the same.the deflection at every point around the shaft can be quickly and accurately measured and a written record is generated automatically.once set up . 3): • upper guide bearing • lower guide bearing • turbine guide bearing The measurement points should be in the same vertical plane. The shaft is marked and numbered with equally spaced segments. 4. the scope is adjusted to flash at a number on the shaft and the dial indicator reading corresponding to that number is recorded. . 4. The shaft is marked by cementing a steel shim at a known angular location . As the shim passes a proximity device. 1 rotor arm.2 .A more recent method requires the use of a direct writing oscillograph and proximity indicators. The largest reading and its location are used in balancing techniques discussed later in this bulletin. Dial indicator readings are recorded at each numbered location. Data from the upper and lower guide bearings are used to balance the unit.1 .3 . The first run is made in the as-found condition to determine the vibration amplitude and location of the existing shaft deflection. By using the stroboscope speed control. Data 3 from the turbine guide bearing are monitored to assure that the rotor balancing is not adversely affecting the turbine guide bearing.usually corresponding to No. This mark then can be used to locate the angular position of the maximum shaft deflection.A seismic velocity transducer and vibration analyzer also can be used like the proximity indicator and oscillograph.Regardless of the method used to obtain data. a characteristic mark will appear on the oscillograph record. Some analyzers often include an automatic chart recorder to provide a written record of the balancing. The analyzer indicates visually the vibration amplitude and phase angle.

Definitions and examples are shown below to explain vector procedure. in this case away from point O and towards A at an angle of 30º from the reference line. Using a scale (such as one-fourth inch equals 0. angles are measured in the direction of unit rotation with respect to rotor arm No.2 .in the direction of rotation . Thus. The direction of vectors is measured with respect to the same reference line.the reference point. 4 6. 1 .1 .Example 1: Measurements at the upper generator guide bearing indicate a shaft deflection of 0.006 inch is the magnitude of vibration amplitude and the 30º counterclockwise is the location (direction). The third run is made with the trial weight removed from the top of the rotor arm and attached to the bottom of the same rotor arm.Experience indicates that the trial weight should be approximately equal to the weight of the rotating parts divided by 10. Ideally. this vector can be represented by the notation OA and is not the same as AO. In most cases.A vector is defined as a quantity that has both magnitude and direction.5 . Therefore. the mass should be attached to the rotor arm nearest this location.000.For the second run. Vector Techniques The process of determining the required balance weights and locations can be simplified by using vectors to represent the unbalance.1 . a trial weight is attached at the top of a rotor arm.001 inch). Draw the vector to be added using the head of the original vector as the starting point. . 6. Note that the arrowhead always points in the direction that the vector acts.005 inch and a direction of 150º is added to vector OA in figure 4. 5. 5. the weight should be located 180º plus the lag angle .from the high spot to counter the unbalance. A vector drawn from the tail of the original vector to the head of the added vector is the graphical sum (resultant) of the two vectors.006 inch at 30º has been scaled as vector OA. Point O is the tail of the vector and point A is the head.Example 2: A vector OB having a magnitude of 0. 5. The 0. The 0. the lag angle will be unknown and in that event assume it to be 45º. Vector Addition A vector can be added to another vector (original) by using graphical techniques. Throughout this bulletin. 1 rotor arm.006 inch at 30º from No. 4. draw the deflection as a vector.

1 (at 0º) will balance a rotor. The vector .0056 inch and 82º.005 /150º + 0. To add two vectors. 2).Example 3: In figure 6.005 inch and in a direction 150º from some reference line or axis. two weights must be installed at 0º and 60º that will have the resultant effect of a 50-pound weight at 15º. Vector Subtraction To subtract vector B from vector A.0.005 plus 0. To graphically obtain the magnitudes of the two component vectors.006 /30º = 0.005 /150º describes a vector having magnitude 0. Component Vectors Often it is necessary to reduce a given vector into two component vectors of known directions.011 in ordinary addition.Example 4: It is determined that a 50-pound weight placed 15º from rotor arm No. Note AC equals OB. The magnitude and direction of OC can be scaled as 0.006 /30º + 0.1 . translate vector OB as described above and shown in figure 5 as AC. when added. 8.005 /150º = 0. yield the given vector. draw a line parallel to the 0º line . 7.Both vectors are shown in figure 5.2 . 7) construct a parallelogram with sides at 0º and 60º and OE as the diagonal at 15º. however. The magnitude OD is: 0. The two sides are the component vectors. 8. Vectors cannot be added in the usual sense without complicating this discussion. To reduce OE into a pair of vectors located at 0º and 60º (fig. Thus. Complete the triangle by drawing a vector OC from the tail of OA to the head of AC. graphical vector addition yields: 0.1 .005 /330º = 0. respectively. add the negative of vector B to vector A. the closest locations for installing weights are at 0º and 60º (rotor arm No. The negative of a vector is equal in magnitude to the vector but opposite in direction. vector OB is to be subtracted from vector OA.0056 /82º The notation 0.OB is equal in magnitude but opposite in direction to OB . Beginning at the head of given vector OE.OA.006 /30º . Therefore.0095 /3º 8. 7.The 50-pound weight at 15º is scaled as the vector OE (fig. Placing the tail of . This vector OC is the graphical sum of OA plus OB.OB is the negative of OB.006 equals 0. These vectors will produce the same effect and.OB which is OD. 0. Note that OA . Note that the term "graphical sum" has been stressed. 7). construct a parallelogram where two sides are 5 parallel to the known directions and also which has the given vector as the diagonal.OB at the head of OA and completing the triangle yields the resultant of OA . However.

Therefore.The required balance weight and its location can be determined either graphically or analytically. . Therefore. static balancing probably will be adequate. OX and OY are 15 and 42 pounds. the rotating parts weigh 200 000 pounds.1 . This intersection is Y. T ria l w e ig h t = w e ight o f ro ta ting pa rts 10 00 0 = 200 000 = 20 pounds 10 000 .The graphical method requires triangles.2 . 9. the rotor should balance by placing a weight equal in magnitude to OX at 60º and a weight equal in magnitude to OY at 0º.Example Single-plane balancing technique. If the results of the trial runs show only small differences in vibration amplitude and phase angle (lag angle). pencil. Assume a lag angle of 45º. scale. the trial weight (rotor arm No. 2). This intersection is X. when the weight is changed from the top of the rotor arm to the bottom. The graphical method will be used for static balancing as it only requires drafting aids and does not use trigonometry. By scaling. Static Balancing Static or single plane balancing-can be used to balance large motors and generators. protractor. Static Balancing . Location for weight = 150º + 225º = 375º or 15º Rotor arm No. respectively. 9. 6 should be attached to the rotor arm nearest 225º (180º plus 45º) to the high spot.The unit rotates counterclockwise. Also. beginning at the head of OE. 10. the balance weight has the same effect when placed on either the top or bottom of the rotor arm.9. In such cases. If polar coordinate paper is used. draw a line parallel to the 60º line and extend it to intersect the 0º line. 1 (reference line) at 0º is the nearest arm to 15º. and paper. and the rotor has six arms equally spaced. The pair of vectors OX and OY are components to the given vector OE. 1) and extend it to intersect the 60º line (rotor arm No. the protractor can be omitted and the scale replaced by a divider. An example of the analytical method is given later.

For simplification. Required ratio = Since the shaft deflections with the weight on top of the rotor arm are similar to the deflections with the weight on the bottom. The largest deflection occurs at the upper guide bearing. vector AB is shifted to the origin O and shown as OB'. The as-found deflection is plotted as vector OA (0.3 OB' 0 . a better understanding of this method can be made. Therefore. By studying the triangle of vectors OA.3 (0. To make OB' equal to OC.0069) = 0. Vector OC represents the effect required to balance (reduce the unbalance to zero). Likewise. The magnitude of AB and the angle between OA and AB are scaled as 0. 8). respectively.006 /200º). Because the weight has slightly more effect on the deflection when it is on top of the rotor arm. The upper guide bearing condition from the as-found deflection and of the trial weight on top of rotor arm No. static balancing may be sufficient.009 inch /150º) with the arrow pointing in the direction of the deflection. OB. the balance weight should be attached there. Construct a vector from A to B. The magnitude and direction of the effect are directly proportional to the amount and location of the balance weight. the deflection with top trial weight is plotted as vector OB (0. The following procedure can be used to counter the remaining unbalance.3) OB' = 1. Vector AB represents the effect of trial weight. draw a vector equal and opposite to OA and label its head C (fig. some unbalance still remains. and AB and applying the vector techniques introduced earlier.0069 inch and 42º. 1 are plotted in figure 8. the balance weight must be divided into component weights to place them on the . OB' must be rotated 42º to the same angular position as OC and increased by the ratio OC/OB'. the balance weight also must be rotated 42º in the direction of rotation and its weight increased by the same ratio OC/OB'.OA +AB = OB where: vector OA is the as-found deflection vector AB is the effect of trial weight vector OB is the deflection with top trial weight (resultant) To obtain a static balanced condition requires that the resultant deflection OB be equal to zero so that: OA +AB = 0 Since it is not zero.3 (20) = 26 pounds Since the required location (42º) does not coincide with a rotor arm.0 0 6 9 OC = (1. Note that the vectors are drawn such that: 7 OC 0 .0 0 9 = = 1. An effect equal to OC is needed to balance the unit. Beginning at the origin O.009 inch Required length for OB' = OC Required balance weight = 1.

8 .

1 = 9. and the rotor has six arms equally spaced.3-pound weight on rotor arm No. The difficult part of dynamic balancing is determining the correct combinations of weights and locations. Draw the required balance weight as the vector. the graphical method presented here should be studied to give some insight into the forces involved in dynamic balancing.Example The unit to be balanced rotates counterclockwise. It may be quite valuable if unusual problems arise which require innovative actions. It is noted that the graphical method is a trial-and-error method which intuitively may require judgment and experience. 26 /42º (fig. 11.1 . analytically. Here. weight added at one end of the rotor will compound vibration. 2. or by a combination of the two. 11. weight must be added to both the top and the bottom of the rotor to produce a couple that will counter the effect of the couple causing the vibration. Refer to figure 10 and figure 11. An example of an analytical dynamic balancing is at the end of the bulletin.two adjacent arms. The unit balance should be checked by running at normal speed before the weights are attached permanently to the rotor arms. Plot the maximum deflections for the upper and lower guide bearings on separate sheets and label the heads of the vectors A. However. 9 11. Weight added at the top of the rotor to counter ml will create a static unbalance on the m2 side of the rotor. respectively. Dynamic Balancing In some cases. . and divide that vector into components corresponding to the positions of rotor arms No. 8). To correct dynamic unbalance. 1 and place a 9.3 pounds Weight on rotor arm No. By scaling or reading divisions on the graph paper. Figure 9 illustrates a rotor having dynamic unbalance. 1 and a 20-pound weight on rotor arm No. Dynamic Balancing .2 .The required weights and locations can be determined graphically.The same equipment used for static balancing is used for the graphical method of dynamic balancing. the components are: Weight on rotor arm No. the rotating parts weigh 250 000 pounds. the unbalance mass and the added weight form a couple that deflects the rotor. Subscripts t and b refer to upper and lower bearings. 12. 2 = 20 pounds Remove the 20-pound trial weight from rotor arm No. 1 and 2. Programs which determine the required combination are available for both computers and programmable calculators.

The upper guide bearing has the highest vibration amplitude (shaft deflection).0075 ) = 0 . AbBb is the cross effect of top trial weight (on the rotor top) and AbCb is effect of bottom trial weight (on the rotor bottom). The trial weight now should be located to counter the as-found deflection at the lower guide bearing. AtBt must be equal and opposite to OCt. the new cross effect is shown as AbBx.009 ( 0. the weight should be attached to the rotor arm nearest 225º (180º plus 45º) from the high spot. and OC are resultant vectors and the vectors AB and AC are effect vectors.0 0 4 7 ) 10 . This way the cross effect of the bottom trial weight is accounted for. From figure 10 and translating AtB. In the absence of other information. as OB't: OCt = 0. AtBt is the effect of top trial weight (on the rotor top) and AtCt is the cross effect of bottom trial weight (on the rotor bottom). Location for weight = 170º + 225º = 395º or 35º Rotor arm No.0 0 3 7 in c h = (0 .2 at 60º is the arm nearest 35º Plot the maximum deflections on the respective sheets and label the heads of the vectors C.0 00795 ) = This change will change the cross effect proportionately at the lower guide bearing. To counter the unbalance at the upper guide bearing.009 inch /180º AtBt = OB't = 0.0 0 1 8 in c h ) 0 . 5 at 240º is nearest 225º Required angular rotation = 360º .0 0 9 6 ( 0 . The cross effect will be increased by the same ratio OCt/AtBt and rotated 32º ccw (counter clockwise). Remove the trial weight from the top of rotor arm No. On figure 11. Using the single-plane balancing technique. assume a lag angle of 45º.Add a trial weight at the top of the rotor. Start with OCt rather than OAt. 2 and put it on the bottom of the rotor arm. OB.0 ( 00.328º = 32º counterclockwise Required weight = trial weight OCt A tB t 30 po un ds = 25 . find the top balance weight required to make the upper guide bearing deflection zero. AbBx = AbBb 0.0075 /328º To reduce the deflection to zero. Location for weight = 0º + 225º = 225º Rotor arm No. The vectors OA. T ria l w e ig h t = w e ight o f ro ta ting pa rts 10 00 0 250 000 = = 25 pounds 10 000 Plot the maximum deflections for the upper . From figure 11. Construct vectors from A to B and from A to C on both the upper and lower guide bearing sheets. On figure 10. and lower guide bearings on the respective sheets and label the heads of the vectors B.

. 11 .

12 .

002 8 i n c h) = ( ) 0 . when added to the bottom of the rotor.0 0 9 6 ( 0 .0096 ( 0.0009 inch /40º 13 AtCx is rotated 18º ccw from AtCt .0034 inch /313º as it would appear with its tail at O.AbCx is rotated 32º ccw from AbCb.OBx = 0. Plot OCx as OCx' = 0.0 0 1 8 in c h ) 0 . OBx = OAb +AbBx Use the single-plane technique to find the balance weight that. will reduce the total unbalance at the lower guide bearing to zero (fig. Total unbalance = OZ =OBxx .0047 inch /147º To reduce the unbalance to zero. Again. the new cross effect is shown as AtC. 0 . AbBx = 0. AtBt must be equal and opposite OCx. again use the single plane technique to find the weight needed to bring the deflection at the upper guide bearing back to zero (fig.0075 inch /328º To bring the unbalance back to zero.0 0 4 7 0.0047 ) / 281 º 0.0094 inch /193º AtBt = OB't = 0.0034 inch /281º + 32º = 0.147º = 18º ccw AtCx = 0.0 0 4 7 ) . The total unbalance at the lower guide bearing is the vector sum of the original unbalance and the new cross effect.0 0 7 5 = 31 pounds 51 pounds Now a balance check can be made on the lower guide bearing. OCx = 0. 11). Ab Cb must be equal and opposite to OBx . The cross effect will be increased by the ratio OB ' x / OC ' b a nd rotated 18º counterclockwise.328º +360º = 45º ccw Required weight = trial weight OC' OB' x t OC' Required weight = trial weight OB' = 25 0 096 ( 0. Referring to figure 12: AbBxx = AbBb Changing the weight on the bottom of the rotor changes the cross effect proportionately at the upper guide bearing.0 0 4 7 ) = 0 . On figure 10. Required angular rotation = 165º . 6 009 ( 0.0047 ) + 45º / 326º = (0 .0 0 9 6 A tC x = A tC t 0 .0 0 3 7 in c h The total unbalance at the lower guide bearing is the difference between vectors OBxx and OBx. OBx = 0.0094 /13º.0037 inch /249º as it would appear with its tail at O.0 = x t = 25 ( 0 .0096 /165º. the addition of this new weight will change the cross effect proportionately at the lower guide bearing. 10).0 0 3 5 i n c h / 3 2 6 º = (0 . Shift Ab Cb to the position shown as OC'b.0096 inch /345º Ab Cb = OC’b = 0. Total unbalance =AtCx +OAt = OCx To balance. Required angular rotation = 13º . The total unbalance at the upper guide bearing is the sum between the vectors OAt and AtCx. Plot -OBx as OB'x = 0. Recall that AtBt = OB't.0037 inch /231º + 18º = 0.0 0 9 4 ) 0 .

14 .

15 .

. . . . . . . . .e. 0. .trial weight on top of rotor arm No. . . . . . . .006 inch /200º Turbine guide bearing . . . Analytical Static Balancing . . . . . the balance weight should be attached on top. . Static Balancing . . . . . i. . . . . . . .006 inch /200º Turbine guide bearing . 0.Example. Place the weights on the appropriate rotor arms and obtain another set of deflection readings. Required balance weight = weight causing unbalance It was assumed that the machine is linear. . . . . .trial weight on bottom of rotor arm No. . . . Figure 14 shows the as-found unbalance at the upper guide bearing as well as the effect produced by positioning the trial weight on top of rotor arm No. . . . . 200 000 pounds Number of rotor arms . . the balance weight must have an effect equal to the as-found unbalance and in the opposite direction. . . . . .. . .006 inch /200º Lower guide bearing . . Some adjustment may be required due to data or analysis inaccuracies. 0. . . . . . . . . therefore.005 inch /150º Shaft deflections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . 13. . . . .004 inch /200º Shaft deflections . .008 inch /150º Turbine guide bearing . To balance the unit. . . . . . . . . . . .007 inch /200º Lower guide bearing . . 0. . 0. . . Data Weight of rotating parts .004 inch /200º The trial weight has more effect on the shaft deflections when it is on top of the rotor arm. . . counterclockwise Trial weight . .fo u n d u n b a la n c e e ffe c t o f tr i a l w e i g h t w eig h t c a u sin g u n b ala n c e trial w e ig h t The effect of trial weight A can be determined using the law of cosines. . . . will be used again for analytical static balancing. . as found Upper guide bearing . . . . . 1. . . . 0. . . . . . . . .Example Paragraph 10. 1 Upper guide bearing . 1 Upper guide bearing . . . . . . . . . the vibration amplitudes are in proportion to the forces causing them: C = A = a s . . . . .009 inch /150º Lower guide bearing .Draw the desired balance weights as vectors on polar coordinate paper and resolve them into components corresponding to the adjacent rotor arms as shown on figure 13. . . . 0. . 6 equally spaced Unit rotation . . . 16 . . 0. . . . . . 20 pounds Shaft deflections . . . . . .

the location of the trial weight. . counterclockwise Trial weight .2 bc cos a = [b2 + c2 .0069) sin (200º -150V) sin = (0. . .41. The required location does not coincide with a rotor arm so the weight must be divided for placement on adjacent rotor arms.6 x 10-6]0. .150º)]0.8º = sin � sin 120º = 41.0062 + 0. . . will be used again for analytical dynamic balancing. = 180º . . . .5 a = [47. . . .64279]0.8º counterclockwise from rotor arm No.8º The required location for the weight is 41. 1. . .6 equally spaced Unit rotation .Example.006/0.0069 inch The fact that the required balance weight equals the weight causing unbalance: Required balance weight = (trial weight) (c/a) = 20 (0.18.009/0. . 15): W W1 W2 sin � sin sin where: W = 26 pounds = 41. . . . .8º The angle between rotor arms is 60º: thus: + = 60º = 60º .2º 17 = 20.000054) 0. . . . . . . Dynamic Balancing . 250 000 pounds Number of rotor arms . .66612 The sum of triangle angles must equal 180º + + � = 180º � = 180º . . . . .2º .000117 . . . . . .009) Cos (200º . Analytical Dynamic Balancing .41. = 60º .006/0. 25 pounds . W sin 26 sin 18. . equals the angle the weight must be rotated. . . .8º = 120º The weights for rotor arms No 1 and 2 now can be determined. The required weights are obtained using the sine law (fig. .0 pounds Weights W1 and W2 are attached to the respective rotor arms.a2 = b2 + c2 . . . . . . . .0069))0.2º = W1 = sin � sin 120º = 9. .8º = 18.006)(0. .5 a = [0. .2 (0. 14.5 = 0.76604) = 0. Data Weight of rotating parts . .2 bc cos ]0.5 a = [0. . .Example Paragraph 12. . . Solve for using the law of sines: a b sin sin sin = (b/a) sin = (0.0092 . .3 pounds W1 = W sin 26 sin 41.2(0.0069) = 26 pounds The angle by which the effect must be changed.

. . . . To divide one vector by another vector. . . . .005 at 150º.e. . 0. 5 Upper guide bearing . . . . divide the magnitudes and subtract the angles. . 0. . . . i. .trial weight on bottom of rotor arm No.OAb = AbBb + AbCb . Example: To multiply a vector of 0. . .200 and subtract angles 30º . . . At Bt and AbBb are proportional to Wt and AbCb and At Ct are proportional to Wb. Since vibration amplitudes are proportional to the forces causing them. . . To multiply one vector by another.003 inch /240º Lower guide bearing . .006 inch/0. The result is 1. .007 inch /140º Shaft deflections . . . . . add 360º. the vectors are: OAt = 8 /170º OCt = 9 /180º OBt = 3 /240º OAb = 7 /0º OCb = 4 /40º OBb = 8/340º For convenience.006 inch at 30º by a vector of 0.. the combined effect of the balance weights must be equal and opposite to the as-found unbalance at both the upper and lower guide bearings. . . . . .200 at . . Example: To divide a vector of 0. Wrt is proportional to OAt and Wrb is proportional to OAb. . . 0. .00004 and add angles 180º + 45º = 225º (0. . . . . .007 inch /0º Turbine guide bearing . B refers to deflection with top trial weight. . respectively. the required balance weight is proportional to the as-found unbalance. Using the notation in the graphical method where A refers to the as-found deflection. .010 inch at 45º. . . . 0.008 inch /170º Lower guide bearing . . .009 inch /180º Lower guide bearing . i. . . . . .010 inch /45º) = 0. . . . . 0. . 0. . multiply magnitudes 0. . .120º To change the negative angle to a positive angle.004(0.00004 /225º 18 The unit was assumed to be linear so the required weights Wrt and Wrb and locations will be proportional to the trial weights. . . . . . . . . . . . .010) = 0. . . . . 0. divide magnitudes 0. . .e.. . . . .150º = . .004 inch at 180º by a vector of 0. . . . . .Shaft deflections .008 inch /340º Turbine guide bearing . .. . .trial weight on top of rotor arm No. . . 0.004 inch /40º Turbine guide bearing . . and C refers to deflection with bottom trial weight. vector division and multiplication.005 inch = 1. magnitudes are in mils rather than in decimals (thousandths of an inch). .005 inch /180º Two more vector operations are needed for analytical dynamic balancing. that is: Wrt = Wt Wrb = Wb where: and are vector operators (having both magnitude and direction. .200 at +240º. 0. . multiply the magnitudes and add the angles. As shown on figures 16 and 17: OBt = OAt +At Bt OCt = OAt + At Ct OBb = OAb + Ab Bb OCb = OAb + Ab Cb To balance the unit. . . . as found Upper guide bearing .004 inch /180º)(0. . and t and b refer to top and bottom subscripts. . . the values of and must be determined. . .OAt = AtBt + AtCt .. . . 2 Upper guide bearing . Also.006 inch /0º Shaft deflections . . . To balance the unit. . . .120º or 1. ..

8 sin 1 70)2 + (3 cos 240 .8 /170º Magnitude of At Bt = [ (3 sin 240 .(At Bt 6 AbCb) Remember.OAt = 3 /240º .From these equations.5 = 7. OAt = 8 /170º OAb = 7 /0º OBt = OAt + At Bt = 3 /240º .(OAt 6 Ab Cb) (AbBb 6 At Ct) . the vector operators are determined by (OAt 6 AbCb) .99)2 + (6.52 19 = (OAb 6 AtCt) .38)2 ]0. these are vector equations.5 = [(.8 cos 1 70)2 ]0.(OAb 6 At Ct) = (AbBb 6 At Ct) .(At Bt 6 AbCb) OBb = OAb +Ab Bb = 8 /340º OCt = OAt + Ab Cb = 9 /180º OCb = OAb + At Ct = 4 /40º The effects of the trial weights are computed using vector subtraction or can be scaled: At Bt = OBt .3.

73 /335.7 t + t + �t = 180º �t = 180º .34 /114.31 /311.3º sin 120º Similarly.7º • 1.98 /151.6º Because the required locations do not coincide with rotor arms.60º = 120º W2 = Wrt sin t = 30.64 /328º OAt •AbBb = 8 /170º • 2.3 31.1º = 12.52 /328º AbBb = OBb .3 = 31.78 /280.8 /170º = 1.53 /231.OAt = 9 /180º .31 /311. The top weight is proportioned between rotor arms No.7º = 67.75 pounds t = 46.51 = 1.9º (Ab Bb •AtCt) .75 /106.12.8º .60 /316.5 /262. 18). 19).23 /46. Wrb W5 W6 = = sin b Sin b sin �b 20 .7 /0º = 2.1º = 4.24 /90.23 /46.3º • 25 /60º = 30.7 pounds sin 13.78 /280.34 /114.24 /90.7º AtCt = OCt .º OAb •AtBt = 7 /0º • 7.8º . 5 and 6 (see fig.289.6 .31 /311.8º = 8 • 4.35.73 /335.79 /231.8º OAb •AtCt = 7 /0º • 1. W2 Wrt = sin t sin �t = W3 Sin t where: Wrt = 30.7 /0º = 4. 2 and 3 using the sine law (see fig.52 /328º • 4.51 67.289.7º = 22.75 W3 = Wrt sin �t = 25.3 = 31.75 sin �t = 8.22.8º = 35.70 /146.3º = 38. use vector multiplication: OAt • AbCb = 8 /170º • 4.14 /12.54 /289.46.70 /146.4 pounds sin t = 30.7º AbBb •AtCt = 2.t = 60º .(t + t) = 180º .60 /316.1º AbCb = OCb .6º (OAb •AtBt) .6 Wrt = Wt = 1. the bottom weight is proportioned between arms No.9 67.99 = arc tan .79 /231.8º Vector subtraction is now used to determine the numerator and the denominator: (OAt •AbCb) .3º Wrb = Wb = 2.8º = 37.6 38.79 /231.0.8º AtBt •AbCb = 7.1º = 38.70 /170º + 146.OAb = 8 /340º .78 /280.3 = = 2.3º = 13.(AtBt •AbCb) = 4.14 /22.(OAt •AbBb) = 52.9 .OAb = 4 /40º .7º sin 120º sin 46.6º • 25 /240º = 53.51 /289.70 /146.52 /328º = 52.73 /335.51 /289.8º Now.8º = 31.53 /231.(OAb •AtCt) = 37.Angle of: -3.98 /151.3º t + t = 60º t = 60º .6254 AtBt = arc tan 6.38 = 328º AtBt = 7.3 31.64 /328º . the weights must be divided for attachment on the adjacent rotor arms.

and pump-turbine vibrations.where: Wrb = 53.22.5 pounds W6 = Wrb sin b sin 22.5 pounds b = 22.60 = 120 sin 37. one must first investigate the cause of vibrations and oscillations excited by such conditions as vortex shedding.5 sin 120 sin �b = 23.6 = 37.4 b + b + �b = 180 �b = 180 .4 sin b = 53.b = 60 . electrical system. and mechanics.(b + b) = 180 . 21 . As noted. turbine. penstock pressure fluctuations. The literature available has many cases in the analyses of pump. draft tube surges.7 pounds The weights are attached to the respective rotor arms.5 W5 = Wrb sin �b sin 120 = 37.6 = 53.6 b + b = 60 b = 60 .

Return to Index . and protect water and related resources in an environmentally and economically sound manner in the interest of the American public. develop.MISSION STATEMENTS The mission of the Department of the Interior is to protect and provide access to our Nation's natural and cultural heritage and honor our trust responsibilities to tribes. The mission of the Bureau of Reclamation is to manage.

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