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Re Hydration and Sorption Properties of Osmotic Ally Pre Treated Freeze-dried Strawberries

Re Hydration and Sorption Properties of Osmotic Ally Pre Treated Freeze-dried Strawberries

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Journal of Food Engineering 97 (2010) 267–274

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Journal of Food Engineering
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jfoodeng

Rehydration and sorption properties of osmotically pretreated freeze-dried strawberries
´ Ciurzynska Agnieszka *, Lenart Andrzej
Faculty of Food Sciences, Department of Food Engineering and Process Management, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, SGGW, Warsaw, Poland

a r t i c l e

i n f o

a b s t r a c t
The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of osmotic dehydration and type of osmotic solution on selected physical properties of freeze-dried strawberries. Frozen Senga Sengana strawberries were dehydrated in osmotic solution with water activity of about 0.9 (sucrose and glucose solutions and starch syrup). Osmotically dehydrated fruits were frozen and freeze-dried at heating shelf temperature of 30 °C for 24 h. Rehydration, sorption isotherms and adsorption rate were determined for the freeze-dried strawberries. A decrease in rehydration capacity and adsorption rate was observed in the case of freeze-dried strawberries that were osmotically dehydrated in sucrose and glucose solution. Osmotic dehydration in glucose solution resulted in flatter sorption isotherms than osmotic dehydration in sucrose and starch syrup solution. Ó 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Article history: Received 7 May 2009 Received in revised form 7 September 2009 Accepted 14 October 2009 Available online 20 October 2009 Keywords: Strawberries Rehydration Sorption Isotherms Kinetic Freeze-drying Osmotic dehydration

1. Introduction Strawberries are very sensitive to chemical and microbial deterioration during post-harvest storage and handling, therefore, they have a rather limited shelf life in a fresh form (Duxbury, 1992; Parakash et al., 2004). Strawberries can be consumed fresh or in many other forms (juice, jam, jelly, dried and rehydrated with yogurt and bakery products) (El-Beltagy et al., 2007). Freezing the fruit improves its availability, but despite increased cost, the product quality is poor (Agnelli and Mascheroni, 2002). In recent years, a variety of drying methods have been tried and much attention has focused on the quality of the products obtained by these methods (Jena and Das, 2005; Matuska et al., 2006). Some studies have been carried out into the production of conventionally air dried berry fruits such as strawberries (Alvarez et al., 1995), blueberries (Lim et al., 1995) or mulberries (Maskan and Gögüs, 1998) which leads to elaborate freeze-drying technology (Tsami and Katsioti, 2000). Thus, there is a need to modify the freeze-drying method so as to limit its adverse influence, especially on fragile and delicate structures. One possible solution is to apply osmotic dehydration, which involves the immersion of fruit in osmotic solution resulting in the removal of water from tissue, and replacing it with soluble solids (Montserrat and Wet, 2003).

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +48 22 59 37 577; fax: +48 22 59 37 576. E-mail address: agnieszka_ciurzynska@sggw.pl (C. Agnieszka). 0260-8774/$ - see front matter Ó 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2009.10.022

Investigations made in recent years have proved that application of osmotic dehydration to fruit and vegetable pre-treatment yields very good results in decreasing water content in the products, and significantly increases dry mater content (Kowalska and Lenart, 2001). But it has to be noted that because there is a simultaneous influx of osmotic solution into the plant tissue as water is removed, the process may influence nutritional and organoleptic qualities of the tissue (Bonazzi et al., 1996). Accordingly, the osmotic treatment has been used mainly as pre-treatment to some conventional processes such as freezing, vacuum drying, and air drying, in order to improve final quality of products, reduce energy costs, or even to develop new products (Sereno and Hubiner, 2001). Osmotic dehydration introduces changes in chemical composition. Prothon (2003) observed that it caused a decrease in water absorption capacity during rehydration of vacuum-dried apples. This fact might be related to smaller porosity of the material resulting from saturation of intercellular space and cell walls by sugar. However, Lewicki et al. (1998) found that immersing dehydrated onion in starch syrup resulted in better rehydration capacity. So, it appears that osmotic dehydration conditions before drying are of great consequence for rehydration and water vapour sorption. The aim of this study was to investigate influence of osmotic dehydration and type of osmotic solution on the chosen physical properties of freeze-dried strawberries. Various conditions of osmotic dehydration were taken into account. An attempt was made to define pre-treatment conditions before freeze-drying of strawberries which could affect rehydration and water vapour sorption of dried fruit.

.9 ensures the same driving force in mass exchange. Andrzej / Journal of Food Engineering 97 (2010) 267–274 2.05 was assumed. Matuska et al.. They had been stored in plastic pouches of 500 g each at the temperature of À18 °C for 3 months. the dryer shelves temperature being 30 °C. After the periods of 5. p – predicted water content. An exponential equation (Kowalska et al. 2006). f – final.648). Changes in water content (u) in time (s) during osmotic dehydration and rehydration of freeze-dried strawberries and water vapour sorption rate were determined. the fruit temperature was being monitored by a thermocouple which indicated that the temperature inside osmotically dehydrated strawberries had risen from À30 to 25 °C. . corresponding standard deviations (SD) were calculated. 2004. 2000) was conducted in four repetitions for each type of strawberry using a stand which ensured continuous measurement of mass increase in conditions of constant temperature and relative humidity. (Microsoft). 2000). i – initial. To establish the isotherms of water vapour sorption (Kowalska and Lenart. Freeze-dried fruit after previous osmotic pre-treatment were characterised by lower water contents after 120 min of rehydration than fruit not subjected to osmotic dehydration. in relation to the applied variable using F-test (multiple range test).0. For this purpose. n – number of observations. The investigated samples consisted of whole dried strawberries. Subsequently.. The measurement was conducted using a thermocouple which was stuck in the centre of the examined fruit (Kowalska and Lenart.2 g/100 g solution] in a water bath (ELPAN-357) at the temperature of 30 °C for 3 h under atmospheric pressure. For the obtained averaged results. During the osmotic dehydration of strawberries.268 C. The least significant difference (LSD) between mean values was calculated for analysed technological coefficients considering pairs of investigated samples.2 g/100 g solution. 30. 60. e – experimental water content. solid gain (SG) was calculated from the equation (Kowalska et al..0 (StatSoft) software package. Statistical comparison for kinetic curves was performed with the use of Statistica 5. 2006. Table Curve 2D v. Fisher’s F-test for verification of the hypothesis of equality of means for analysed coefficients in the measured samples was used. 3 (Jadel) computer software was used.5 °C. weighed whole strawberries (about 1 g each) had been put in seven chambers filled with salt solution with water activity from 0. Excel 2000 (Microsoft). In the beginning of the osmotic dehydration process water activity of the osmotic solution equal to 0. and the whole procedure was repeated five times (Witrowa-Rajchert and Lewicki.m. starch syrup (glucose equivalent DE 30–35): 67. The measurement was carried out at the temperature of 25 ± 1 °C for 20 h. The frozen strawberries were then osmotically dehydrated in various sugar solutions of water activity equal to 0. c – constant parameters of equation. significance level of 0. and their dry matter content was determined (Lenart. glucose: 49. b. the fruit were put into jars and stored in a dark place at the temperature of 25 ± 3 °C until the time of the planned examination (1–2 months).m. and root mean square RMS (Lewicki. Agnieszka. Piotrowski et al. the fruit were consecutively drained. 2006). 1). The ratio of material to solution was 1:4 w/w. 2008).]. a whole strawberry (about 1 g in weight) previously weighed on an analytical scales with the accuracy of ±0. mean relative error MRE (Jamali et al. the whole system was being shaken with the frequency of 100 Hz and the amplitude of 10 Hz. After that time. and rinsed twice in water. safety pressure 103 Pa.. samples were weighed again and water activity of the strawberries was determined.1. The measurement was carried out at room temperature.5 g/100 g solution. the temperature in the centre of the fruit changed from À10 to 26. the osmotically dehydrated strawberries were frozen in a National Lab GmbH (ProfiMaster Personal Freezers PMU series) freezer at the temperature of À70 °C for 2 h. The degree of rehydration was estimated on the basis of freezedried fruit mass increase during a specified time of immersion in water. error of water content estimation SEE (Jamali et al. about 25–30 mm in diameter. and 120 min. frozen.. weighed. Between the two latter solutions being no statistically significant difference in this respect (Fig. In the course of analysis. 2005). Both osmotically dehydrated and unprocessed frozen strawberries were then dried for 24 h in an ALPHA1-4 LDC-1m freeze-dryer (Christ. 3.. Materials and methods The objectives of analysis was strawberries of Senga Sengana variety. The measurement of water vapour sorption kinetics (Kowalska and Lenart. 2006). It was also noted that osmotic dehydration in starch syrup (IC) caused a significant difference in rehydration in relation to the analogical process in conducted sucrose (IA) and glucose (IB) solution. 2006) was used for mathematical interpretation of the obtained results: À Á u ¼ a þ b à 1 À expðÀcÃsÞ ð1Þ where u – water content [g H2O/g d. Influence of osmotic dehydration on rehydration properties of freeze-dried strawberries As a result of the analysis. s – time [h]. Saturated NaNO2 solution was used to obtain constant water activity of environment (0. After the specified period of time. 2001. a. statistically significant influence of osmotic dehydration (IA-IC) on rehydration of freeze-dried strawberries in comparison to freeze-dried strawberries without osmotic dehydration (I) was discovered (Fig. Kowalska et al.903 for 1 month. For the purpose of analyses. the strawberries were separated from the osmotic solution in a sieve. 3. 1996).113 to 0. relative squares sum RSS (Pagano and Mascheroni. 2008): SG ¼ sf à mf À si à mi si à mi ð7Þ where m – sample mass (g). Additionally. Germany) using contact heating under the pressure of 63 Pa. 1). 2000) were also computed using the following equations: u¼ ð1 À sÞ s   100 X ue À up    à  u  n e ð2Þ MRE ¼ ð3Þ SEE ¼ RSS ¼ qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi X ðue À up Þ2 X ðue À up Þ2 vffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 2 uP  u ue Àup t up n ð4Þ ð5Þ RMS ¼ à 100% ð6Þ where s – dry matter content (g d.9 and different mass weight (MW) [sucrose: 61. During this process of drying. and Pearson correlation coefficient was computed. Correlation coefficient R2. Results and discussion 3./g). and their mass increase was registered by means of the ‘‘measurement for DOS” computer software. For osmotically dehydrated strawberries.001 g was submerged in 100 ml of distilled water contained in each of the four beakers. with previously removed leaf stalks. L. Next. In the ensuing statistical analysis Statgrafics Plus v.

Erle and Schubert (2001) who investigated apples which were osmotically dehydrated in sucrose solution before microwave drying. characteristic to most food products (Fig. cellular walls became bulky. Later. Osmotic dehydration in sucrose solution (IA) and starch syrup (IC) caused water vapour sorption capacity decrease in water activity aw range (0. The achieved results can be compared to investigations carried out for convectively dried apples (Lenart and Lewicki. Also. 3). These forces. it is mainly the structure of the fruit that determines the degree of rehydration (Lenart. This particular form of glucose crystals indicates that freeze-dried strawberries osmotically dehydrated in glucose solution (IB) are characterised by a greater plasticity in comparison to fruit osmotically dehydrated in sucrose ´ solution (IA) or starch syrup (IC) (Ciurzynska and Lenart. refraction in sorption isotherm curves and decrease in water vapour sorption capacity were observed (Fig. but to a smaller extent than glucose. creating a small number of empty spaces (pores).113–0. 2c) in comparison to fruit not subjected to osmotic pre-treatment (I) (Fig. previously osmotically dehydrated in sugar solution is a complex process dependent on several factors. (2004) obtained for freeze-dried strawberries a sorption isotherm course typical for products with high sugar content. water content in fruit rises. whereas for fruit osmotically dehydrated in glucose solution (IB) at water activity above 0. Shining glucose crystals were present in the sur- face layer of osmotically dehydrated freeze-dried strawberries (IB). for instance. 2008). fibrous structures of glucose were observed. In the first stage of rehydration. Actually. They found that freezedried potatoes and avocados during 3 min of rehydration showed a high degree of water adsorption. Finally. Moraga et al. 2b). As a result. 1. Rehydration of dried fruit. strawberries osmotically dehydrated in sucrose solution (IA) and starch syrup (IC) exhibited lower water content in relation to the fruit without osmotic dehydration. while with further aw increase.2. 1988). Tzee Lee et al. 2004). 3). Palou et al. As well as that. Similar sugar crystals were observed in strawberries not subjected to any osmotic pre-treatment (I). Sucrose penetrated deep into cells.7 there is a curve inflexion. sorption isotherms have a flatter course. their sorption and rehydration properties. As a consequence of tissue impregnation with sucrose. papaya and apricot.5. The surface layer was saturated the most heavily. Structure of freeze-dried strawberries was investigated by means of birefringent interferometry. showed that in water activity between 0. 3. but the differences were not statistically significant. within the discussed aw range. Influence of osmotic dehydration on sorption isotherms of freezedried strawberries Sorption isotherms of freeze-dried strawberries have a sigmoidal shape. 2b and d) caused structure strengthening of freeze-dried strawberries in comparison to fruit without osmotic pre-treatment (I) (Fig. as well as their beneficial influence on volume and shape behaviour on tissue level. 2008).05 100 120 140 time t [min] Fig.648) in relation to freeze-dried strawberries without osmotic pre-treatment (I). On this basis sorption isotherms can be classified as type I isotherms (Brunauer et al.5 2 1. as a result of leakage of a certain amount of sugar from inside the fruit.5 0 0 20 40 60 80 IA IB IC I significance level 0. pineapple. are lower than in the case of dried fruit without osmotic pre-treatment. I – without osmotic dehydration. in this stage water is kept on the surface mainly by adsorption forces.. its crystalline sugar dissolves.C.5 4 3. Andrzej / Journal of Food Engineering 97 (2010) 267–274 269 water content u [g H 2O/g d. As a matter of fact. Furthermore. glucose also strengthened the structure of freeze-dried strawberries (IB) (Fig. 2008). which makes water adsorption inside capillary-porous material difficult. their water content increases for aw above 0. With the increase of water content in the product. Incidentally. As for strawberries osmotically dehydrated in sucrose solution. who investigated water vapour sorption for raisins and dried mango. 2008). osmotic dehydration strengthened the structure of freeze-dried strawberries. 3). for freeze-dried strawberries osmotically dehydrated. They reflect the mechanism of water binding and properties of the material.7. though the central cells sus´ tained considerable damage too (Ciurzynska and Lenart. Freeze-dried strawberries osmotically dehydrated in glucose solution (IB) were uniformly impregnated with the sugar. which suggests that both kinds of freeze-dried fruit have similar sorption properties.3 to 0. Moreover. this phenomenon being related to smaller molecular mass of glucose in comparison to sucrose. in the course of the continued rehydration.903 (Fig. whereas in the case of bananas this degree was five times smaller. 2d) in comparison to fruit without osmotic dehydration (I) (Fig. For the same reason. The syrup filled the cells of freeze-dried strawberries. the surface layer of sugar is dissolved. 1940). starch syrup penetrated the tissue to a greater extent than sucrose. and its rapid increase above water activity 0. The phenomenon of structure strengthening of strawberries before freezing as an effect of osmotic dehydration in sucrose solution was also confirmed by Suutairenen et al. which allowed to discern sugar crystals as shining objects.] 4. After osmotic pre-treatment surface layers of the fruit were saturated by sugars. and during the crystallization destroyed the cellular walls. It was confirmed that osmotic dehydration of strawberries (Fig. 2a). cells which are close to the surface of dried material were deformed to a smaller degree. only osmotic dehydration in glucose solution (IB) in a statistically significant way influenced water vapour sorption in freeze-dried strawberries in relation to the fruit without osmotic dehydration. which influenced.648. (2005) did the same for convective-dried nuggets. while Swami et al. Agnieszka.5 1 0. and also in inner parts of dried material. and the isotherm inflection may be related to sugar transformation. considering the water activity range of 0.328. Specifically. such as those typical for creamed honey (Bakier. osmotic pre-treatment changed the shape of sorption curves in aw range from 0. proved the protective effect of osmotic substances on the structure of dried material.5–0. 2a). At that water activity level interactions between the solvent (water) and the soluble substance are linked with sugar dissolution.m. Rehydration properties are inherently linked with structural features. Gondek and Lewicki (2005). With increasing osmotic dehydration degree. (1997) worked out similar classification for vacuum-dried cookies and crisps. which can lead to the creation of a solution of concentration . Influence of osmotic dehydration and the type of osmotic solution on water content (u) as a function of rehydration time. 1991). incidentally. IC – starch syrup. which made difficult for them ´ to absorb water and water vapour (Ciurzynska and Lenart. which explains the surface layer damage (Ciu´ rzynska and Lenart. starch syrup as well strengthened the structure of the dried material (IC) (Fig. while cells closest to the dried surface of material sustained substantial damage (Fig. 2a). In their case.5 3 2. Moreover. L. (2000). This fact can be related to slow changes in the water content balance at low water activity.113–0. (2006) confirmed dependence of rehydration capacity on plant material structure. Type of osmotic solution: IA – sucrose. IB – glucose. in spite of the same conditions of freeze-drying.

IC – starch syrup. because the obtained relative standard deviation was lower than 7%. Kowalska et al. IB – glucose.7 significance level 0. and for those osmotically dehydrated in glucose solution (IB). Lewicki (1998) applied Peleg’s model to describe sorption isotherms for 27 products. type of components. I – without osmotic dehydration. Influence of osmotic dehydration on water vapour sorption kinetics of freeze-dried strawberries Statistical analysis of sorption curves showed that osmotic dehydration in sucrose solution (IA) and in starch syrup (IC) caused a decrease in water vapour sorption in relation to strawberries without osmotic dehydration. close to dilution. 2006).4 0. L.3.6 0. and capillary condensation at aw > 0. He demonstrated that the highest probability of fitting experimental data with the minimum mean relative error is guaranteed by Peleg’s model. RSS.85–0. (c) IB – glucose solution. 2000). In a similar vein. 3. Palou et al.2 0.8 1 IB IC I water activity a w Fig.5 0. 4 shows sample graphic points obtained from Peleg’s model adjusted to experimental water vapour sorption isotherm data for freeze-dried strawberries without osmotic dehydration (I) (30 °C). Then the amount of absorbed water increases significantly.95 (Lewicki. Type of osmotic solution: IA – sucrose.] .3 0. Andrzej / Journal of Food Engineering 97 (2010) 267–274 Fig. GAB model (Lewicki.65.05 IA 0.6 0.2 0. and Lewicki (Lewicki. Also..270 C. type Quanta 200. Scanning microscope FEI Company. 1998) (Table 1). The demonstrated differences in water content equilibrium may depend on chemical composition. Peleg (Lewicki. Zoom 50Â. Agnieszka. 1997).3 < aw < 0. (1997) surmised that Peleg’s model was best suited for description of isotherms for cookies and chips. It has to be noted that this type of isotherm is often encountered with food products. All in all. 0. An attempt at choosing a mathematical model best fitting for the description of sorption isotherms was made. which may be linked to a tendency to reach a thermodynamic equilibrium within the environment. 1997) for 23 products. Microstructure of freeze-dried strawberries.65. Iglesias–Chrife (Johnson and Brennan.4 0. (b) IA – sucrose solution. Peleg developed a semi-empirical four-parameter model to describe sigmoid moisture sorption isotherms.1 0 0 0. a multi-layer sorption for 0.3. and his own model for 28 products. Fig.m. but the parameters of the GAB equation did not satisfy the conditions stipulated by Lewicki (1997) so as to be eligible for experimental data description. Type of osmotic solution: (a) I – without osmotic dehydration. for freeze-dried strawberries osmotically dehydrated. SEE. 1998). and structure of investigated materials. Influence of osmotic dehydration and the type of osmotic solution on water content (u) as a function of water activity (aw). His equation turned out to be well-fitted for equilibrium moisture sorption data for ten different products at water activity up to about 0. and the highest R2 value (Table 2). Halsey (Akanbi et al. (d) IC – starch syrup. 1998) on the basis of minimum MRE. An attempt was also undertaken to apply the GAB model (Lewicki. The five following models were analysed: Oswin. 1998). 3. 2. (2005) affirmed that the characteristic sigmoidal shape of observed isotherms is related to the occurrence of a monomolecular sorption range in the milieu of water activity aw < 0. RMS value. it was resolved to choose Peleg’s empirical equation (Lewicki. while glucose solution (IB) application resulted in the highest water content after 20 h of the process water content u [g H 2O/g d.

IB – glucose.] Halsey (Akanbi et al. This is in accord with inves- . Differences between samples osmotically dehydrated in glucose and sucrose solutions were not statistically significant. depending on the type of osmotic solution (Table 3). which appear naturally in the fruit. H – constant of equation aw – water activity u – water content [g H2O/g d.5 [g H2O/g d. The achieved results confirm the hypothesis of a significant influence of surface sucrose layer on the decrease in adsorbed water vapour amount.m. Osmotic dehydration at the temperature of 30 °C for frozen strawberries resulted in solid gain (SG) in the range from 0.6 significance level 0. Total sugar content for strawberries of the Senga Sengana variety after 3 h of osmotic pre-treatment increased almost three times. 4. C. Fitting of Peleg’s model to describe water vapour sorption isotherms for freeze-dried strawberries without osmotic dehydration (I) and osmotically dehydrated in glucose solution (IB). Agnieszka. Model Oswin (Akanbi et al. 2006) Equation u¼Aà  aw 1Àaw 271 Nomenclature B A. Observed differences were statistically significant in comparison to fruit not subjected to osmotic pre-treatment.34 to 0. Coefficients for selected model.m.2 0. I – without osmotic dehydration. Type of osmotic solution: IA – sucrose. largely due to the higher molecular mass of starch. 2000) ln Ãðu þ ðu2 þ u0:5 Þ0:5 ¼ A þ B à aw Peleg (Lewicki. B – constant of equation aw – water activity u – water content [g H2O/g d.. Glucose.1 0 0 0. and the discrepancies in the process rate were not statistically significant.6 0. As well as that.] Table 2 Parameters of fitting water vapour sorption models for freeze-dried strawberries osmotically dehydrated. glucose solutions and starch syrup exhibit statistically insignificant differences in water content and water activity (Table 3). 5).314 [J/mol/K] T – absolute temperature [K] A.67 g H2O/g d.4 0.m. On the basis of the carried out investigations it was found that osmotic dehydration in sucrose and glucose solution resulted in the highest growth of dry mass content. D – constant of equation aw – water activity u – water content [g H2O/g d. Andrzej / Journal of Food Engineering 97 (2010) 267–274 Table 1 Models of sorption isotherms chosen to describe experimental data. B. Probably the directly reducing sugars. G. (Fig.8 1 experimental points I Peleg's model I experimental points IB Peleg's model IB water activity a w Fig. 1997) u0 ÃkÃcÃaw u ¼ ð1Àaw Þý1þðcÀ1ÞÃkÃaw Š Iglesias–Chirife (Johnson and Brennan.] u0.] ÀdÁ k ¼ exp à RT ÀdÁ c ¼ c0 à exp à RT aw – water activity u – water content [g H2O/g d.. change chemical composition to a lesser degree than osmotic dehydration in sucrose solution and starch syrup. 1998) u ¼ A à aB þ c à aD w w Lewicki (Lewicki.m. L.m. having about half the mass weight of sucrose. IC – starch syrup.m.] A. B – constant of equation aw – water activity u – water content [g H2O/g d. 2c). Strawberries osmotically dehydrated in glucose solution displayed a water vapour sorption kinetics course similar to fruit without osmotic pre-treatment.m.4 0.2 0. 2006) À AÁ aw ¼ exp à À uB GAB (Lewicki.] A.05 0.3 0..5 – water content when aw = 0.m. 1998) u¼ F ð1Àaw ÞG F À 1þaH w water content u [g H2O/g d.] d – heat of sorption of monomolecular layer of water [K] R – universal gas constant = 8.m.] F.5 0. Strawberries osmotically dehydrated in starch syrup (C) achieved statistically significant lower solid gain value (SG) (about 50%) in comparison to the fruit osmotically dehydrated in glucose (B) and sucrose solution (A). can more easily penetrate into tissue through existing pores and free spaces (Fig.C. 2007). 0. it was shown that strawberries osmotically dehydrated in sucrose. B – constant of equation aw – water activity u – water content [g H2O/g d. which can be related to lower hygroscopicity of osmotically dehydrated dried material (Janowicz et al.

therefore.156 0.999.74 R2 MRE [%] Experimental water content [g H2O/g d. Agnieszka.132 0. For osmotically dehydrated fruit.975 tigation made by Kowalska et al.] IC I 0.15 0. Type of osmotic solution: IA – sucrose.999 0. At the same time.057 0. Type of osmotic solution: A – sucrose./g d.24 2.048 0. Osmotic dehydration in sucrose solution (IA) caused a statistically significant decrease in the rate of water vapour sorption in comparison to strawberries osmotically dehydrated in starch syrup (IC) and glucose solution (IB). for freeze-dried strawberries osmotically dehydrated. Moreover. Dried strawberries were marked by similar experimental and calculated water contents after 20 h of the sorption process. Freeze-dried strawberries IA IB IC I Coefficients of equation a 0.26 2.15 g H2O/g d. IB – glucose. IC – starch syrup.283 0.25 C. Sugar solutions A B C SG [g s. Table 3 The effect of pre-treatment on solid gain (SG). it was decided to apply an exponential equation for the description of sorption kinetics.32 9. while the highest for strawberries osmotically dehydrated in glucose solution (IB). I – without osmotic dehydration. For the mathematical description of the relationships between water content in freeze-dried strawberries and sorption time range an exponential equation was chosen (1) (Fig.37 4. For instance. when osmotic dehydration of pumpkin was carried out in glucose solution.178 0. (1) was in the range of 0.05 IC significance level 0. statistically significant differences were noted in water content between osmotically dehydrated freeze-dried strawberries depending on the type of osmotic solution used (Fig.18 13. osmotic pre-treatment in glucose solution (IB) did not cause any statistically significant difference in the shape of curves in relation to fruit without osmotic dehydration (I).05–0. With reference to freeze-dried strawberries without osmotic dehydration (Fig. Independently Table 4 À Á Parameters of fitting exponential equation u ¼ a þ b à 1 À expðÀcÃsÞ to describe water vapour sorption kinetics for freeze-dried strawberries osmotically dehydrated. Table 4). and comparatively low for most of the relations mean relative error (MRE) for both experimental and predicted data concerning the water content at the beginning and after 20 h of water vapour sorption. I – without osmotic dehydration.087 0.163 0.219 0.043 b 0. aw of environment – 0. Type of osmotic solution: IA – sucrose.028 0. 5): high correlation coefficient (R2) for freeze-dried strawberries.60 0.m. Also Lenart (1990) showed that osmotic dehydration decreases water vapour sorption rate in convectively dried apples.197 . Analysing the shape of curves of water vapour sorption rate in the function of water content in the common water content range 0.232 0. u0 – initial water content.m. 5).m.37%.18–9.057 0. 6). 5. L.67 0. water content (u) and water activity (aw) in strawberries osmotically dehydrated in sugar solutions. it was discovered that osmotic dehydration in sucrose solution (IA) and starch syrup (IC) resulted in statistically significantly lower rates of water vapour sorption in relation to strawberries without osmotic dehydration (I) (Fig.154 c 0.. IC – starch syrup.979 0.034 u20 0.998 8.045 0.1 IA IB predicted 0. The lowest value after 20 h of water vapour sorption process was obtained for freeze-dried strawberries osmotically dehydrated in sucrose solution (IA). statistically significant differences in water vapour sorption rate with regard to the type of osmotic solution were found. The following factors had substantial influence on the choice of Eq.648.161 0. the correlation coefficient (R2) of the chosen exponential Eq.158 0. while for freeze-dried strawberries (I) not subjected to osmotic pre-treatment it was higher (13. Influence of osmotic dehydration and the type of osmotic solution on water content (u) as a function of time. As a result of osmotic pre-treatment.998 0. Furthermore.039 0.05 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 I time t [h] Fig.031 0. the value of mean relative error (MRE) was in the range of 4.m.34 u [g H2O/g d.999 0. (1) for modelling sorption of water vapour curves in the investigated time range (Fig.m.] 2. 5.134 0.57 aw 0.976 0. likewise. it was similar and lower in the case of sucrose and starch syrup solutions.s.232 0. the effective diffusion coefficient of water and solids was the highest.] u0 0.199 Predicted water content [g H2O/g d. The observed considerable MRE value increase resulted from discrepancies between experimental and predicted initial water content for freeze-dried fruit.186 0. 6). B – glucose. the qualitative and quantitative character of water content in the function of time changes.] u0 0.272 0. (2008).045 0.030 0.] 0.2 experimantal water content u [g H 2 O/g d.m.998–0. who confirmed the differences in the influence on the effective diffusion coefficient for water and solids by using various osmoactive substances. 5). Andrzej / Journal of Food Engineering 97 (2010) 267–274 IA IB 0. IB – glucose.7%).043 u20 0. u20 – water content after 20 h. C – starch syrup. while osmotic pre-treatment in glucose solution (IB) resulted in obtaining the highest rate of water vapour sorption (Fig.

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