Chapter Objectives
To show how to use the method of sections for
determining the internal loadings in a member.
To introduce the concepts of normal and shear stress.
To analyse and design members subject to axial load
and direct shear.
To define normal and shear strain, and show how they
can be determined for various types of problems.
7.1 Introduction (8.1 in 2 ed.)
7.2 Internal Resultant Loadings (7.1 in 2 ed.)
7.3 Stress (8.2 in 2 ed.)
7.4 Average Normal Stress in an Axially Loaded Bar
(8.3 in 2 ed.)
7.5 Average Shear Stress (8.4 in 2 ed.)
7.6 Allowable Stress (8.5 in 2 ed.)
7.7 Design of Simple Connections (8.6 in 2 ed.)
7.8 Deformation (8.7 in 2 ed.)
7.9 Strain (8.8 in 2 ed.)
7.1 INTRODUCTION
Mechanics of Materials is a branch of mechanics that studies the
relationship between the external loads applied to a deformable
body and the intensity of internal forces acting within the body.
It mainly involves computing the deformation of the body, and
study of the bodys stability when the body is subjected to
external forces.
The design of any structure or machine involves:
 Use of principles of statics to determine the forces acting both
on and within its various members
 Understanding behaviour of material (mechanics of materials)
In short, the size of the members, their deflection, and their
stability depend both on internal loading (due to external load) and
behaviour of materials under loading
7.2 INTERNAL RESULTANT LOADINGS
In Mechanics of Materials statics is primarily used to determine
the resultant loadings that act within a body.
7.2 INTERNAL RESULTANT LOADINGS
Three Dimensions: four different types of loadings
7.2 INTERNAL RESULTANT LOADINGS
Three Dimensions: four different types of loadings
7.2 INTERNAL RESULTANT LOADINGS
Coplanar Loadings: only normalforce, shearforce, and bending
moment component exist at the section
N, acting normal to the cut section
V, acting tangent to the section
Couple moment Mo is referred as the bending moment
Determine 3unknowns using three equations of equilibrium
+ F
x
= 0;
+ F
y
= 0;
M
o
= 0;
7.2 INTERNAL RESULTANT LOADINGS
Procedure for Analysis
Support Reactions
Before cut, determine the members support reactions, if needed
Equilibrium equations are used to solve for internal loadings during
sectioning
FreeBody Diagrams
Keep all distributed loadings, couple moments and forces acting on the
member in their exact locations
Draw FBD of the segment having the least loads
Indicate the x, y, and z components of the force, couple moments and
resultant couple moments on FBD
Only N, V and M act at the section
Determine the sense by inspection
Equations of Equilibrium
Moments should be summed at the section
If negative result, the sense is opposite
EXAMPLE 7.1 (2 ed and 3 ed)
Determine the resultant internal loadings acting on the cross
section at C of the cantilevered beam shown in Fig. 73a.
7.3 STRESS (NORMAL & SHEAR STRESS)
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A
F
z
A
z
A
A
=
A 0
lim o
A
F
A
F
y
A
zy
x
A
zx
A
A
=
A
A
=
A
A
0
0
lim
lim
t
t
7.4 AVERAGE NORMAL STRESS IN AN AXIALLY LOADED
MEMBER
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A
P
= o
7.4 AVERAGE NORMAL STRESS IN AN AXIALLY LOADED
MEMBER
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READING QUIZ
1. What is the normal stress in the bar if P=10
kN and 500 mm?
a) 0.02 kPa
b) 20 Pa
c) 20 kPa
d) 200 N/mm
e) 20 MPa
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EXAMPLE 7.5 (in 2 ed Example 8.1)
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The bar in Fig. 714a has a constant width of 35 mm and a
thickness of 10 mm. Determine the maximum average
normal stress in the bar when it is subjected to the loading
shown.
EXAMPLE 7.5 (cont)
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Graphically, the normal force diagram is as shown.
By inspection, different sections have different internal forces.
Solution
EXAMPLE 7.5 (cont)
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By inspection, the largest loading is in region BC,
Since the crosssectional area of the bar is constant, the largest
average normal stress is
Solution
kN 30 =
BC
P
( )
( )( )
(Ans) MPa 7 . 85
01 . 0 035 . 0
10 30
3
= = =
A
P
BC
BC
o
7.5 AVERAGE SHEAR STRESS
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section the at area
m equilibriu of equations the from determined
section the on force shear resultant internal
section the on located
point each at same the be to assumed is
which section, the at stress shear average
=
=
=
=
A
V
A
V
avg
avg
t
t
READING QUIZ (cont)
2. What is the average shear stress in the
internal vertical surface AB (or CD), if F=20
kN, and A
AB
=A
CD
=1000 mm?
a) 20 N/mm
b) 10 N/mm
c) 10 kPa
d) 200 kN/m
e) 20 MPa
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
EXAMPLE
Determine the average shear stress in the 20mm diameter pin
at A and the 30mm diameter pin at B that support the beam in
following figure.
7.6 ALLOWABLE STRESS
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allow
fail
allow
fail
allow
fail
S F
S F
F
F
S F
t
t
o
o
=
=
=
. .
. .
. .
7.7 DESIGN OF SIMPLE CONNECTION
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For normal force requirement
For shear force requirement
allow
P
A
o
=
allow
V
A
o
=
EXAMPLE 7.10 (in 2 ed Example 8.9)
The control arm is subjected to the loading as shown.
Determine to the nearest 5 mm the required diameter of the
steel pin at C if the allowable shear stress for the steel is 55
MPa.
7.8 DEFORMATION
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7.9 NORMAL STRAIN
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s
s s
avg
A
A A
=
'
c
( ) s s A + ~ A c 1 '
s
s s
n A B
A
A A
=
'
lim
along
c
READING QUIZ (cont)
4. What is the unit of normal strain?
a) mm
b) mm/m
c) Micron
d) no unit
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7.9 SHEAR STRAIN
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' lim
2
along
along
u
t
t A C
n A B
nt
=
7.9 CARTESIAN STRAIN COMPONENTS
The approximate lengths of the sides
of the parallelepiped are
The approximate angles between sides, again originally
defined by the sides x, y and z are
Notice that the normal strains cause a change in volume
of rectangular element, whereas the shear strain cause a
change in shape
( ) ( ) ( ) z y x
z y x
A + A + A + c c c 1 1 1
xz yz xy
t
t
2
2
2
7.9 CARTESIAN STRAIN COMPONENTS (cont)
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EXAMPLE 7.14 (in 2 ed Example 8.15)
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Due to a loading, the plate is deformed into the dashed shape
shown in Fig. 26a. Determine (a) the average normal strain
along the side AB, and (b) the average shear strain in the plate
at A relative to the x and y axes.
EXAMPLE 4 (cont)
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Part (a)
Line AB, coincident with the y axis, becomes line AB after deformation,
thus the length of this line is
The average normal strain for AB is therefore
The negative sign indicates the strain causes a contraction of AB.
Solution
( ) mm 018 . 248 3 2 250 '
2
2
= + = AB
( ) ( ) (Ans) mm/mm 10 93 . 7
240
250 018 . 248 '
3
=
=
AB
AB AB
avg AB
c
EXAMPLE 4 (cont)
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Part (b)
As noted, the once 90 angle BAC between the sides of the plate,
referenced from the x, y axes, changes to due to the displacement of B
to B.
Since then is the angle shown in the figure.
Thus,
Solution
'
2
u
t
=
xy xy
(Ans) rad 121 . 0
2 250
3
tan
1
=

.

\

=
xy
CONCEPT QUIZ
1) The thrust bearing is subjected to the loads
as shown. Determine the order of average
normal stress developed on cross section
through B, C and D.
a) C > B > D
b) C > D > B
c) B > C > D
d) D > B > C
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CONCEPT QUIZ (cont)
2) The rectangular membrane has an
unstretched length L1 and width L2. If the
sides are increased by small amounts L1
and L2, determine the normal strain along
the diagonal AB.
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( )
( )
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2 1
2 1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
D) C)
B) A)
L L
L L
L L
L L
L L
L L
L
L
L
L
+
A + A
+
A + A
+
A + A A
+
A
CONCEPT QUIZ (cont)
3) The rectangular plate is subjected to the
deformation shown by the dashed line.
Determine the average shear strain
xy
of the
plate.
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( )
2 2
200 150
3
200
150
200
3
150
3
+
D) C)
B) A)
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All solved examples
All Fundamental Problems related to each section
And Selected Problems (3ed)
7.3,7.8,7.9,7.10,7.19,7.20,7.24,7.25,7.26,7.35,7.38,
7.39,7.50,7.51,7.54,7.55,7.61,7.62,7.83,7.84,7.87
7.88,7.91,7.92,7.95,7.97,7.98,7.99
Problems to be practiced (ch.7 of R.C. Hibbeler, 3ed)