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DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS IN INDIA

Demography is the scientific study of human population. A slogan


for family planning- “Delay the first,postpone
the second and prevent the third”
India is the 2nd most populous country in the world,next only to
China,whereas 7th in land area.With only 2.4 % of the world’s land
area,India is supporting about 16.87 % of the world’s
population.India’s population is currently increasing at the of 16
million each year.India’s population numbered 238 million in
1901,doubled in 60 years to 439 million(1961);doubled again,this time
in only 30 years to reach 846 million by 1991.India’s population to
crossed 1 billion mark on 11 May 2000,and is projected to reach 1.53
billion by the year 2050.This will then make India the most populous
country in the world,surpassing China.
At first a comparison of Basic facts and Figures between some top
countries:-

Countries USA RUSSIA CHINA INDIA


Population 295 million 145 million 1306 million1100 million
Area 10 million 17 million 9.5 million 3 million sq
sq km sq km sq km km
Population growth 0.9 % - 0.3 % 0.6 % 1.4 %
rate
Population density 32 persons 9 persons 140 persons363 persons
per sq km per sq km per sq km per sq km
Urban(town)/ Urban-80 % Urban-75 % Urban-40 % Urban-30 %
Rural(village)distribution Rural- 20 % Rural- 25 % Rural- 60 % Rural- 70 %
Health and Education: Male-74 yrs Male-62 yrs Male-72 yrs Male-62 yrs
Life expectancy(average) Female-80 Female-73 Female-74 Female-64
yrs yrs yrs yrs
Infant mortality rate 7 deaths per 15 deaths per 24 deaths per 56 deaths per
1,000 live 1,000 live 1,000 live 1,000 live
births births births births
Population per doctor 255 people 240 people 600 people 2500 people
Population per hospital 280 people 80 people 420 people 1300 people
bed
Literacy rate 99.5 % 99.8 % 88 % 70 %
Number of students per 15 students / 17 students / 20 students / 41 students /
teacher, primary school teacher teacher teacher teacher
Unemployment rate 6% 8% 4% Not available

Age and Sex composition:


The proportion of population below 15 years is showing
decline,whereas the proportion of elderly in the country is
increasing.This trend is to continue in the time to come.The increase
in the elderly population will impose a greater burden on the already
outstretched health services in the country.

Sex Ratio: Sex ratio is defined as “the number of females per


1000 males”.One of the basic demographic characteristics of the
population is the sex composition.In any study of population,analysis
of sex composition play a vital role.The sex composition of the
population is affected by the differentials in mortality conditions of
males and females,sex selective migration and sex ratio at birth.
The sex ratio in India has been generally adverse to women,i.e., the
number of women per 1000 men has generally been less than
1000.Apart from being adverse to women,the sex ratio has also
declined over the decades.In 1901 the sex ratio of India was 972
females per 1000 males and afterwards the ratio is continuous
decreasing and in 2001 the ratio was 933 females per 1000
males.Kerala has a ratio of 1058 females per 1000 males in 2010.It is
only state with a sex ratio favourable to females.

Dependency Ratio: The proportion of persons above 65 years of


age and children below 15 years of age are considered to be
dependent on the economically productive age group(15-64
years).The ratio of the combined age groups 0-14 years plus 65 years
and above to the 15-65 years age group is referred to as the total
dependency ratio.It is also referred to as the societal dependency
ratio and reflects the need for a society to provide for their younger
and older population groups.The dependency ratio can be subdivided
into young age dependency ratio (0-14 years); and old age
dependency ratio (65 years and more).These ratios are, however,
relatively crude, since they do not take into consideration young
persons who are employed or working age persons who are
unemployed.Trends in dependency ratio in India-Total and child
dependency is decreasing but old-age dependency is increasing
continuously.

Density of population: One of the important indices of


population concentration is the density of population.In the Indian
census, density is defined as the number of persons,living per square
kilometer.Density of population in India in 1901 was 77 persons/sq.km.
but in 2001, 324 persons/sq.km.

Family size: It refers to the total numbers of persons in a


family.The family size depends upon numerous factors, like, duration
of marriage,education of couple,the number of live births and living
children,preference of male children,desired family size, etc.

Total fertility rates in selected developed and developing


countries in 2002:
PakistanNepal Banglades India Myanma USA Sri China UK
h r Lanka
5.1 4.3 3.5 3.1 2.9 2.1 2.0 1.8 1.6

Urbanization: Growing urbanization is a recent phenomenon in


the developing countries.The proportion of the urban population in
India has increased from 11% in 1901 to 27.8 % in 2001.The United
Nations defines mega-cities as those with a population of 10 million or
more.In 1950 only New York was classified as mega-city.By 1995 the
number rose to 14 mega-cities and Mumbai,Kolkata and Delhi were
included in the list.Population projections indicate that by 2015
Hyderabad will also become a mega-city.
The increase in urban population has been attributed both to natural
growth(through births) and migration from villages because of
employment opportunities, attraction of better living conditions and
availability of social services such as education, health, transport,
entertainment etc.

Literacy and Education: The 1948,the Declaration of Human


Rights stated everyone has a right to education.Education is a crucial
element in economic and social development.Spread of literacy is
generally associated with modernization, urbanization,
industrialization, communication and commerse. Higher levels of
education and literacy lead to greater awareness and also contribute
to improvement of economic conditions, and is required for acquiring
various skills and better use of health care facilities. It was decided in
1991 census to use the term literacy rate for the population relating to
7 years age and above. A person is deemed as literate if he or she
can read and write with understanding in any language. A person who
can merely read but cannot write is not considered literate. The
national percentage of literates in population above 7 years of age is
about 66% with literate males about 76% and females lagging behind
with about 54%.State Kerala has occupy the top rank in the country
with 92% literates.Government of India has made education
compulsory upto age 14 years in the country.

Life expectancy: Life expectancy - or expectation of life – at


given age is the average number of years which a person of that age
may expect to live, according to the mortality pattern prevalent in that
country.Life expectancy at birth has continued to increase globally
over the years. Most countries in the world exhibit a sex differential in
mortality favouring women – females live longer than males. Contrary
to this biological expectation, the life expectancy of women in Nepal
and Maldives is lower than that of men, while in Bangladesh and India
it is almost equal.
Trends in life expectancy show that people are living longer, and they
have a right to a long life in good health, rather than one of pain and
disability.
Japan leads in life expectancy for both males and females, 77.7 and
84.7 years respectively for the year 2001.

Expectation of life at birth in selected countries 2001:


Countrie India USA UK Russia Japan
s
Males 62.8 74.0 75.4 60.6 77.7
Females 64.0 79.7 80.4 72.9 84.7

Китай
20,43 %

Индия
17,01 % Другие
страны
40,66 %

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