Introduction to Java Programming

Kary Främling

Introduction to Java programming


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I originally wrote this document for the needs of the Java Basics course at Arcada Polytechnic in spring 1999. The document has hardly been updated at all since then, so it remains on the level of Java version 1.1. Despite this, it should be quite good as an introductory book to Java programming. Since I had been working very intensively with Java programming for over two years in 1999, I have tried to include as many practical issues as possible that Java programmers are faced with. In the future, I might update the book so that it would correspond to recent evolution of the Java language. That way it would serve its original purpose, i.e. give essential skills in Java programming without necessarily having to buy an expensive book. Kary Främling, April 3rd, 2003

Introduction to Java programming


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Table of Contents
1. What is java ........................................................................................................................5 1.1 1.2 1.3 2. Different kinds of Java applications ...........................................................................5 Platform independence ...............................................................................................9 History of Java..........................................................................................................10

Java development tools.....................................................................................................13 2.1 2.2 The Java Development Kit (JDK) ............................................................................13 Online documentation...............................................................................................17


Java syntax........................................................................................................................18 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Variable declarations ................................................................................................18 Arrays .......................................................................................................................18 Flow control..............................................................................................................20 Standard input and output.........................................................................................21 Programming style....................................................................................................22


Classes and objects ...........................................................................................................23 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 Class declarations .....................................................................................................24 Class variables and instance variables......................................................................25 Method definitions....................................................................................................26 Creating and referencing objects ..............................................................................27 Garbage collection....................................................................................................29 Java Bank Account ...................................................................................................29 Class hierarchies and inheritance .............................................................................31 How to declare and use global constants and variables............................................33


Applets..............................................................................................................................35 5.1 5.2 Passing parameters to applets from a HTML page...................................................35 Animation .................................................................................................................37

.......47 User interaction...............................................................................................Främling Page 4 5..........................................................3 8.......................................2 8......1 6...................................................................................................................................................................................................58 Other input/output classes ......................................2 6...............................................................49 Window-related user interface elements ...........................56 8......56 Reading and writing text files...................................................................................1 7.................................54 8....52 7...................................................................................... Window layout ................60 The “File” class ..........................3 Reacting to a user click inside the applet display area ......................50 7........... Abstract Classes and Interfaces .....................3 5.........2 7................................4 6.............................................................................................................60 9..................................................................................... Sound effects ..........45 Double-buffered animation.........57 Reading a file using a URL .......5 File dialogs for opening and saving files...................................................................52 The "null" layout.............................49 6............... File reading and writing.........49 User interface elements ..................................52 Dialog windows....................................................................62 .................................................4 8.1 8..............Introduction to Java programming K...........................................................3 Window layout managers ................................................................................................................

. • 100% compatible yet.Introduction to Java programming K. 1. Java is not: • Slower than any other Object Oriented language. Windowing applications that use a graphical user interface. since it has collected the best parts of the existing ones. These three kinds of application may all easily be included in the same Java program as can be shown by the following examples. What is java Java is: • • A new Object Oriented Programming Language developed at Sun Microsystems. Microsoft Internet Explorer. Easier to learn than most other Object Oriented programming languages. that support creating graphical user interfaces. • Virtual machines can be embedded in web browsers (such as Netscape Navigator. • A programming language that supports the most recent features in computer science at the programming language level. Applets used in Internet browsers. and IBM WebExplorer) and operating systems. The three main ones treated here are: • • • Programs with a textual interface. • A standardized set of Class Libraries (packages).Främling Page 5 1. • A language that is standardized enough so that executable applications can run on any (in principle) computer that contains a Virtual Machine (run-time environment). controlling multimedia data and communicating over networks.1 Different kinds of Java applications Java applications can be of several kinds. since the same application does not always look the same on all platforms due to virtual machine implementation bugs and differences. Java applications can always be compiled to native code and run as fast as any other program.

java” (if the Java development environment is set up correctly). we first save it as a file named ”HelloWorld. so everything has to be contained in classes (no global functions like in “C” or C++). } } The first line “public class HelloWorld” defines a “class” that is called HelloWorld. the file name always has to be the same as the class name for a public class and it has to have the extension ”. Any class may contain a ”main” function. which is the object that corresponds to the standard output. This is useful for test and debugging purposes. . if we are in the same directory as the saved file. world!"). we can compile it with the DOS command ”javac HelloWorld.println("Hello. We run it with the command line ”java HelloWorld” (if we are still in the same directory and the Java environment is set up correctly).Främling Page 6 Example 1. The resulting output is the given text followed by a newline character. Java is a pure object oriented language. To compile this program. These concepts will be explained in detail further on.” just writes out the text that we want onto the standard output.println("Hello.out. ”System” is a pre-defined class that contains the member ”out”. ””. Simple text interface application (compiled and run) public class HelloWorld { public static void main(String argv[]) { System.Introduction to Java programming K. world!"). so the same program may have several program entry”. ”println” is a method of this object that takes the text to write out as a parameter. Then. ”public static void main(String argv[])” is the standard declaration for a program entry point in Java. In fact.out.

Applet. import java.APPLET&gt. 25). world!".” draws the given string at the given position of the applet display area. just like “. 25). world!". world!” in the HTML page shown." Your browser is completely ignoring the &lt. for some reason. so we only need to redefine the behaviour that we">The source</a>. </body> </html> Example 2 shows a very simple applet. In this case.drawString("Hello. 0. public class HelloWorldApplet extends Applet { public void paint(Graphics g) { g. Then we define the class “HelloWorldApplet” that is a derived class from the Applet class. tag! </applet> <hr> <a href="HelloWorldApplet. The first two lines.Introduction to Java programming K. A derived class is a class that inherits from the behaviour of its’ base class.*.applet.Applet.” and “import java. that just writes out “Hello.APPLET&gt. 0. “import java.*. The Applet class already contains most of the program code for executing the applet.h”-files in “C” and C++.awt. we only override the method “public void paint(Graphics g)” with our own behaviour. tag but isn't running the applet.awt.” are for including external libraries.class width=100 height=50> alt="Your browser understands the &lt. .applet.Främling Page 7 Example 2. The resulting page is shown in Figure 1. } } The corresponding HTML page looks like this: <html> <head> <title>Hello World Example for the Java Basics Course</title> </head> <body> <h1>Hello World Example for the Java Basics Course</h1> <hr> <applet code=HelloWorldApplet. Simple applet (compiled and run) import java. which is indicated by the words “extends Applet” at the end of the line.drawString("Hello. “g.

tell the browser to go to a new page. Simple applet screen. however. . An applet may. It takes a number of arguments.Introduction to Java programming K. which are: • • • code: name of the “.class” file that contains the compiled applet. alt: a text to show if the browser is not capable of executing the applet. for instance.Främling Page 8 Figure 1. The applet is included in an HTML page using the ”applet” tag. Applet display is only possible within the display area that has been reserved for it. height: width and height of the display area reserved for the applet. width.

0. .” declares a variable f that is a reference to a Frame object.Introduction to Java programming K. public class HelloWorldFrame extends Applet { public static void main(String argv[]) { Frame f. f.setLayout(new GridLayout()). 25). f = new Frame(). It is obvious that this is necessary in Internet applications. Simple “app-applet” (compiled and run) import java. This kind of an application is often called an “app-applet” since it may be included as an applet in a HTML page or it may be run as an independent application. which creates a window (a “Frame” object) that the applet can be displayed in. since any kind of machine may be used to see WWW pages. adds the “HelloWorldFrame” applet to it and then displays the frame. 100). world!". f. f.Främling Page 9 Example 3.setSize(100.awt. The trick is to create a normal program entry Platform independence Platform independence means that the same (compiled) program can be executed on any computer. then the “HelloWorldFrame” could be derived from the “Panel” base class.e. for instance.” creates a new “Frame” object and makes “f” reference it. f. 1. } } Example 3 shows how to make the applet executable as an independent application (i. The following lines set up some characteristics of the frame. “Frame f. This is why most recent Internet browsers include a Java Virtual Machine (JVM) that executes instructions generated by a Java compiler.drawString("Hello. import java.applet. If no applet behaviour is needed.add(new HelloWorldFrame()). } public void paint(Graphics g) { g.Applet. without any need for an Internet browser).*. “f = new Frame().

Figure 2 also shows the development process a typical Java programmer uses to produce byte codes and execute them. which contains the byte code. Their project was called *7 (Star Seven) and its’ goal was developing a universal system for small. HotJava was presented to various companies. personal digital assistance in set top” file.3 History of Java 1990 – 1993: James Gosling and others at Sun were working on a project that needed a new programming language. . We call the JVM a virtual machine because the Java compiler produces compiled code whose target machine is this virtual machine instead of being a physical processor or computer. Java virtual machines nowadays exist for most operating systems.class” file.class” file is then loaded across the network or loaded locally on your machine into the execution environment on that platform. The first box indicates that the Java source code is located in a “. so Sun named it Java. Inside that environment is the Java virtual machine. ”Oak” was the original name of the language developed. including Netscape Communications. as illustrated by Figure 2. 1993 – 1995: World Wide Web (WWW) emerged and made Sun develop a web browser that was originally named WebRunner and later HotJava. after many visits to a local coffee shop! Java is not an acronym. 1995 – 1996: Companies begin to license the Java technology and to incorporate it into their products. who incorporated it in their product. The Java compiler produces a file called a “.Introduction to Java programming K.Främling Page 10 This Java virtual machine can also be incorporated or embedded into the kernel of the operating system. The “. named after the tree outside James Gosling's office. whose target architecture is the Java Virtual Machine. which is processed with a Java compiler called “javac”. But Oak turned out to be an existing programming language. 1. which interprets and executes the byte code. It is a trademark of Sun Microsystems. Figure 2. A Java program is said to be compiled to byte-codes. Compilation of a Java program to byte-codes and executing it with the Java VM.

method declaration.). Java was already from the start meant to be multi-platform. Java is still a very young language.7A: Appeared in 1997.0. Similar OO structural syntax (classes. Java begins to be used for application develoment.2: Appeared in 1995. . Networking was also improved. access to objects via reference only.1.. Contained the complete specification of the language and a class library for the most essential things.1. especially concerning the size of the compiled programs and the size of the virtual machine.Främling Page 11 1997 . which make C++ a very difficult language to learn.Introduction to Java programming K. Characteristics common with Smalltalk are: • Similar object model (single-rooted inheritance) hierarchy. which are Smalltalk and C++. What makes Java more interesting than both these languages is that it has borrowed all the best ideas in Smalltalk and avoided the bad ideas in C++.0 . constructors. • 1.1 – 1. especially for distributed computing. Dynamic memory layout plus garbage collection. Included improvements in the graphical interface and added most of the functionalities that are usually included in proprietary class libraries (MFC. Common characteristics with C++ are: • • Same syntax for expressions. access protection. OWL.: Java becomes increasingly popular and most operating systems provide a Java Virtual Machine. Java shares many characteristics of the two most important existing object oriented programming languages. • • • Compiled to byte-code (initially interpreted).. …). Microsoft understands the threat that Java represents and tries to ”pollute” the language in order to take it over. not only for applets. . . statements. Simple inheritance.. These are the main reasons for its’ suitability for WWW applications. This is the reason why there exists several specification levels of the language: • 1. It was also intended to be very light-weight.. and control flow.).

Java Beans are specified and supported. The Java virtual machines become very rapid by version 1. .Främling Page 12 Java takes a direction where it provides all the functionalities that are normally provided by the operating system. Most of the contents of this course stay within the limits of the 1. Unfortunately.1 specifications only recently.2 specification. • Java 2: Appeared in December 1998. since most Internet browsers have updated to 1.Introduction to Java programming K. New interface libraries and several improvements.0.7A. especially in handling multimedia and distributed computing.1. this version seems to be very slow (at least the beta versions tested).

• javadoc: Generates API documentation in HTML format from Java(tm) source code. 2. All the basic tools needed are still free. • java: The Java Interpreter that you use to run programs written in the Java(tm) Programming Also see Writing Doc Comments for Javadoc. but is intended primarily for end users who do not require all the development-related options available with the java tool. • jre: The Java Runtime Interpreter that you can use to run Java applications.Främling Page 13 2. The version that is meant for the Windows environment contains an automatic installer that takes care of the installation. General information about Java and the corresponding development tools may be found at the address http://www. These files provide the connective glue that allow your code written in the Java Programming Language to interact with code written in other languages like C. • appletviewer: Allows you to run applets without a web browser.javasoft. Only setting up the Windows PATH may require some manual intervention. . The jre tool is similar to the java tool. • javah: Creates C header files and C stub files for a Java(tm) class.Introduction to Java programming K. • jdb: The Java Language Debugger that helps you find and fix bugs in Java(tm) programs. • javap: Disassembles compiled Java(tm) files and prints out a representation of the Java bytecodes. Java development tools Sun is the main distributor of Java development tools.1 The Java Development Kit (JDK) The Java Development Kit (JDK) is the minimal file you need to download in order to develop in Java. The JDK contains everything you need to develop general-purpose programs in Java: • Base Tools • javac: The Java Language Compiler that you use to compile programs written in the Java(tm) Programming Language into bytecodes.

bat: Launches the program. It is.rmi. useful to create straight away at least the following two script files for each project: • makeit. • serialver: Returns the serialVersionUID for one or more classes. which contains only what is necessary for running a Java application (JVM and libraries). It may be useful to associate this with using various "make" tools for project management.Remote interface. • JAR Tool • jar: Combines multiple files into a single Java Archive (JAR) file. • runit. If you have developed an application in Java and want to deploy it. It may be freely distributed with your application. • Digital Signing Tool • javakey: Generates digital signatures for archive files and manages the database of entities and their keys and signatures. however.Introduction to Java programming K. The remote object registry is a bootstrap naming service which is used by RMI servers.Främling Page 14 • RMI Tools • rmic: Generates stub and skeleton class files for Java objects implementing the java. • rmiregistry: Starts a remote object registry on a specified port. but no development tools. It is possible to use the JDK as the only development environment for any development project. • Internationalization Tools • native2ascii: Converts non-Unicode Latin-1 (source code or property) files to Unicode Latin-1.bat: Contains the command line for compiling the whole project. you need to download the Java Runtime Environment (JRE). . • Environment Variables • CLASSPATH: Tells the Java Virtual Machine and other Java applications where to find the class libraries.

*/ public int testField. For instance: * @param g The Graphics object to draw to. */ public class HelloFrameDoc extends Applet { /** * This is a documentation comment for the testField * variable. } } We compile it with the command: .Främling Page 15 It is also useful to have a script file for generating the program documentation with javadoc. it is void! */ public void paint(Graphics g) { g.setSize(100. * There are special codes for documenting parameters.add(new HelloFrameDoc()). f = new Frame(). HelloFrameDoc is a class for demonstrating how to use * the javadoc tool. f. 100). * <B>Creator</B>: Kary FR&Auml. } /** * This is a documentation comment for the paint() function. /** * This is a documentation comment for the whole class.applet. It should * appear just before the class definition.setLayout(new GridLayout()). world!". Inserting documentation comments (compiled and run) import java. */ public static void main(String argv[]) { Frame f. f. 25).awt.MLING. Javadoc uses special documentation comments in the program for creating an HTML documentation that is identical to the one that comes with the JDK. Example 4. * The first phrase of the comment is used as an introduction * and the rest in the detailed description.Introduction to Java programming*. /** * This is a documentation comment for the main() function. import java. f. return * values and so on.drawString("Hello. but you can look at the Sun documentation * about javadoc for more details. * @return Nothing at all. 0. f. * So.

Främling Page 16 javac HelloFrameDoc.7A) directory into the . Other development environments have been developed by Microsoft. They usually offer a complete development environment including a text (for JDK 1. Figure 3.7A\docs\api\images" "HelloFrameDoc" directory.html" (Figure 3). For getting the images in the generated pages to display. like the class tree of his own classes.1. for instance. Example of a documentation generated with javadoc. Inprise (Borland).Introduction to Java programming K. Symantec etc. We can notice that the generated documentation contains a lot of interesting information even for the programmer Then we can start studying the documentation starting from the file " tree. it is enough to copy the "C:\jdk1. what methods are overloaded in what classes and so Then we generate the documentation with the command (-d HelloFrameDoc means that the documentation will be generated in the "HelloFrameDoc" directory): javadoc -d HelloFrameDoc HelloFrameDoc.

For JDK1.1.Introduction to Java programming K. It shows all inheritance relations between the classes. Experience has shown that this documentation is very practical to use for programming projects. it is a ZIP file that should be uncompressed into the appropriate directory. all class methods and their description and all class variables.Främling Page 17 editor. which all may contribute to programming more efficiently. this would normally be the directory "C:\jdk1.html" that is found in this directory.7B. This is a javadoc-generated HTML documentation for the entire standard class library of Java.1. above all.7B\docs". There is also an index to class and method names. The starting point for the documentation is the file "index. In the current versions.2 Online documentation An online Java and JDK documentation is available for download at the same place as the JDK. it is always accurate for the corresponding JDK since it has been generated from the source code of the JDK. a graphical debugger and project management. 2. And. .

// "public" is a modifier. Variables may be initialised as in "C". 64 bit IEEE 754-1985 Variable declarations consist of three parts: modifiers. "for"..Främling Page 18 3. "while". Example: public int a. This means that ia now references an array object which can contain an array of 3 integers. Control flow ("if". . To declare an array of integers. we would write: int[] ia = new int[3]. Java Syntax Java syntax is very close to that of "C" and C++. coded using Unicode 1. followed by a list of identifiers. "int a = 0. but the type and list of identifiers is not. c. followed by a type. Most keywords.2 Arrays Arrays are NOT declared as in "C".. 32 bit IEEE 754-1985 floating point real number. declarations and initialisations. In order to actually create the array at the same time. using 2's complement 16 bit signed integer. Variable declarations Standard primitive types in Java: boolean char byte short int long float double true or false 16 bit character. This is true for • • • • • 3.g.". . e. using 2's complement floating point real number. The modifiers are optional.5 8 bit signed integer.) etc. we would write "int[] ia. with a few new ones. b.1 Comments (+ documentation comment)." 3.1. using 2's complement 64 bit signed integer.Introduction to Java programming K. using 2's complement 32 bit signed integer. Variable names. This means that ia is a reference (compare with reference and pointer in "C" and C++) to an array of integers.

If an exception occurs in a program that does not handle it.out. When this occurs.length . for ( i = 0 . This is why we can get the length of the table with "itabl1.main(Compiled Code) Example 5 shows how tables can be initialized in Java. we say that an exception occurred. Table initialisation and index exceptions (compiled and run) public class TblExample { public static void main(String argv[]) { int i.length". i < itab1. // Table initialisation. Invalid table indexes are automatically detected in Java. i++ ) System. table indexes start from 0. That is why the second loop goes too far. 30}.println("We got away from the Exception!").out. System. } } Screen output: 10 20 30 10 20 30 java. If our program wants to handle exceptions graciously. i <= itab1. then the program exits immediately.Introduction to Java programming K.println(itab1[i]). we could define an exception handler by replacing the for-loop that provokes the exception with the following code: . A VERY IMPORTANT improvement in Java compared to languages like "C" and C++ is that tables "know" themselves how big they are.println(itab1[i]).length .ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException at TblExample. Just like in "C".Främling Page 19 Example 5. In programming terms we call this throwing an exception. for ( i = 0 . int[] itab1 = {10.out. // Create an "IndexOutOfBoundsException" here. i++ ) System. 20.lang.

3. continue.length . i++ ) System.Främling Page 20 // Create an "IndexOutOfBoundsException" here. Example 6. This will be treated more in detail later.println(itab1[i]).out. try { for ( i = 0 .println("We caught it!").out. for instance. return But there is no “goto” statement! Instead. } } } } Screen output: . as shown in the following example. j < 10 . which makes Java programs much more stable than "C" or C++ programs. } catch ( IndexOutOfBoundsException e ) { System.println("i = " + i + ".Introduction to Java programming K. Labelled breaks (compiled and run) public class LabelledBreak { public static void main(String argv[]) { brkpnt:for ( int i = 0 . Java proposes labelled breaks. i <= itab1. } There are a lot of pre-defined exception classes in Java and the programmer may define new ones. System. but this is a very important feature in the Java language. j = " + j). i < 10 .out. i++ ) { for ( int j = 0 .3 Flow control Flow controls which have an identical syntax to that of "C" are: • • • • • • if-else switch-case while do-while for break. j++ ) { if ( j == 3 ) break brkpnt.

” in Example 6.println("Square: " + n*n + " } } Cube: " + n*n*n). This class offers very basic reading capabilities. j = 2 If we would have an ordinary “break. BufferedReader stdin = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(System. 3. System. However.4 Standard input and output The global class "System" contains the fields "in".out.Främling Page 21 i = 0. the labelled break breaks the outer loop straight away and we do not even finish the first repetition of the outer loop. which correspond to standard input. then we would go through the outer loop 10 times and through the inner one 3 times for each outer loop repetition. Using standard input and output in Java (compiled and run) import java. "out" and "err". j = 0 i = 0.Introduction to Java programming K. */ class StdioExample { public static void main(String args[]) throws IOException { int n.print("Enter an integer: ").in" is an object of class "InputStream".readLine()). n = standard output and standard error.*. // Program output: Enter an integer: 9 Square: 81 Cube: 729 "System. Using these is illustrated by the following example: Example 7.parseInt(stdin. System. . j = 1 i = 0.out. System. which is the reason why we "embed" it into an "InputStreamReader" and then a "BufferedReader" (more about this in the chapter about file reading and writing). /** * Example showing the use of standard input and output.

• Comments (class and method definitions. documentation comments). Local variable names (this_is_a_local_variable). "n = Integer. See what happens if you do not feed in an integer! Integer is a standard Java class. This means: • • • • • • • Indentation. but is highly recommended to increase program readability. which contains a (static) member function called "parseInt()" that converts the given argument string into an integer and returns the value. This does not seem to be used by Sun.flush(). Class variable/field names (thisIsAClassMemberVariable). .parseInt(stdin. "System.readLine()). Constant names (THIS_IS_A_CONSTANT)." is one possibility to convert a string into an integer. 3.Främling Page 22 The commented line "System. It is highly recommended to use the same programming conventions that have been used by Sun in their class libraries.5 Programming style. This exception might occur in the call to "readLine()" and since we do not catch it. where the standard output is buffered.println()" always flushes the output stream automatically.Introduction to Java programming K. Class names (ThisIsAClassName). In that case the display might be deferred and not occur until the buffer is full. Function parameter names (thisIsAFunctionParameter).out." might be necessary on some systems.out. "throws IOException" in the method declaration means that the method might throw an exception of type IOException. Method names (thisIsAMethodName). we just pass it on.

In Object Oriented Programming (OOP). where derived classes inherit behaviour from their base class. for instance. Others (have a look at your car's fuse boxes to get an idea). These are used for the internal operations of the object. methods implement the communication protocol between the objects. we will use cars as an example of a system with various objects that interact with each other. In a car. Only some of all the methods are visible to other objects. A class corresponds to the factory or machine that produces these subsystems.Främling Page 23 4. it means that there is no way for one subsystem to interfere with the internal functioning of another one. they become objects that communicate through well-defined protocols in such a way that (hopefully) makes the car work and makes it possible to drive with it. Breaking system (including ABS). Steering system. for instance. This is called encapsulation in OOP. It would then be directly accessible only to the breaking subsystem. be a private class to the breaking subsystem. we could for instance say that the clutch. These are the public methods. Classes and Objects A class is a template that defines how an object will look and behave once instantiated.Introduction to Java programming K. since there is no way why the injection system should have access to the private calculations of the ABS system. break and accelerator classes are all derived from the "PedalControlledDevice" base class. We also have private methods and private variables. We may also have private classes. . This means that we can define class hierarchies. In a car. A car contains subsystems which may be considered as objects. Ignition system. In this course. Then the "PedalControlledDevice" would define all the behaviour common to the derived classes. Another important concept in OOP is inheritance. This is natural. The ABS system might. which are only visible to the object itself. Once these subsystems are installed in a car. such as: • • • • • Injection system.

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The third classical concept in OOP is polymorphism, which means that we may have several methods which the same name, but with different parameters. This means that the actual behavior of the method depends on the kind of data that it works on. An example of this is the "toString()" method that is defined for all classes in Java and gives a textual description of the object, no matter what the type of the object is. 4.1 Class declarations

A class declaration has the following syntax:
[public, private or protected] class <classname> [extends <baseclassname>] [implements <classname, classname, …>] { /* Variable and method declarations. */ }

Example: A minimal class definition for a bank account.
public class BankAccount { } // No semicolon

A minimal class declaration just contains the keyword “class” and the classname. A class is private by default, which is usually not very useful. If it should not be private, the class declaration should be preceded either by the keyword “public” or the keyword “protected”. A public class is visible in the entire program. A protected class is accessible only to classes in the same package (more about packages later). In both cases, the class definition has to be in a file of its’ own, which has the same name as the class (case sensitive!) and the extension “.java”. If the class is derived from another class, then we add “extends <baseclassname>” to indicate the base class to use. There may be only one base class. If there is no "extends" statement, then the class has the "Object" class as its' base class. In Java, the class "Object" is the root of the class hierarchy, so it is the ultimate base class for all classes. The “implements” keyword is a way of achieving a kind of multiple inheritance. It is possible to implement several abstract classes or interfaces with this keyword. Abstract classes and interfaces will be treated later, but C++ programmers should at least know what abstract classes mean.

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Attention! There is no semicolon after the closing bracket in Java, which is a difference from “C” structures and C++ classes. 4.2 Class variables and instance variables

Every object stores its' state in its' instance variables. For a bank account, instance variables could be "balance" and "id". There may also be instant variables that are set to constant values (like "#define" or "const" in "C"). Example: Class definition with instance variables and constants.
public class BankAccount { // Class variable public static int nextID = 100; // Instance variables private double balance; private int id; // Constant value private final int }


All variable declarations are private unless specified otherwise (so the "private" keywords in the example are not necessary). The keyword "final" signifies that we define a constant value. Public variables are accessible from any other object in the application. Protected variables are only accessible to the classes in the same class package. Class variables are indicated with the keyword "static". Class variables can be used directly through the class name, e.g. "BankAccount.nextID". So, this is a property of the class itself, not a property of the objects of this class (it is, however, directly accessible to instance methods). Usually static variables are initialised at their point of declaration, but a class may also have a special static initialisation block.

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Example: Static initialisation block.
static { nextID = 0; }


Method definitions

Methods are functions that are associated to a class (class methods) or the objects of a class (instance methods). There is a special kind of method that is called a constructor method. This is a method that is called when a new object is created using the “new” keyword. A constructor initialises the newly created object, which mainly means that it sets up values for the object’s instance variables. There may be several constructors in the same class. Example: Constructors for the “BankAccount” class.
public BankAccount() { this(0.0) ; } public BankAccount( double initBal ) { balance = initBal; id = newID(); }

The name of a constructor function is always the same as the class name and there is no return type, but it should be declared public. There are two constructors for the class “BankAccount”. The first one is the default one, which takes no parameters. This one is used in a call like “BankAccount ba = new BankAccount()”. The only thing that it does is to call the other constructor, which takes an initial balance as a parameter. The second constructor sets the balance of the new “BankAccount” object to the value passed as a parameter and affects it a new ID. Normal method declarations consist of an access specifier (“public”, “protected” or “private”), a return type, the name of the method and the list of parameters and their type. There may be class methods and instance methods. Access to methods is determined in the same way as for variables. “newID” is a class method that returns the next unused account ID. This method has to be a class method, since there is no way that the newly created object could know what ID to use by itself. It is like in a car factory – it is the factory that knows what serial number to give to a newly manufactured car, not the car itself.

} public int id() { return id. Example: Instance methods of ”BankAccount”. In Java. Just like instance variables. This means that we do not need to worry about stack handling and “copy constructors” in the same way as in C++.g. public double balance() { return balance. all objects are situated in “global memory”. let us have a look at a small example that shows how objects are created and how references to them are managed: .toString() + "(id:" + id + ".Introduction to Java programming K.4 Creating and referencing objects What happens in Java when we use the operator “new” is that the virtual machine reserves enough memory for containing all the data of the newly created object. So.Främling Page 27 Example: The class method newID. instance methods can only be accessed through an object.newID” if “newID” would not be private). } public void deposit(double amt) { balance +=amt. } public void withdraw(double amt) { balance -=amt. “BankAccount. we could access the method “balance” by writing “ba. The result of the operation is a reference to the newly created object. } A class method may be accessed from an object of another class (if it is not private) simply by writing the class name. Now. } 4. private static int newID() { return nextID++. } public String toString() { return super. bal:" + balance + ")" . if we have an object “ba” of class “BankAccount”.balance()”. a dot and the name of the method (e.

object1. “instanceof” also works for base classes. Java contains an operator which allows us to check the class that an object belongs to. Computer memory object2 object1 object4 References object3 object6 object5 Figure 4. while “object1 instanceof Point” is false. Illustration of "object space". . In fact. object1. where one object has a link to the next one and so on. ObjCreationExample object6 = new ObjCreationExample(). ObjCreationExample object4 = new ObjCreationExample(). the test “object1 instanceof ObjCreationExample” is true in the preceding example.firstObject = object4. ObjCreationExample object3 = new ObjCreationExample().firstObject = object3. ObjCreationExample object2 = new ObjCreationExample(). what we have set up is a minimal kind of “linked list” (quite uncompleted here). public class ObjCreationExample { public ObjCreationExample firstObject. secondObject. This means that the test “object1 instanceof Object” is true too.Främling Page 28 Example: Object creation and referencing (compiled). which shows the objects that we created and the reference links that we set up. ObjCreationExample object5 = new ObjCreationExample().Introduction to Java programming K.secondObject = object5. So. public static void main(String args[]) { ObjCreationExample object1 = new ObjCreationExample(). object2. “instanceof”. } } This example sets up the “object space” shown in Figure 4.

This is because all the variables that reference them are local to the main-function. It is not necessary thanks to garbage collection.Främling Page 29 All objects are uniquely identified by their address. Those which are no longer referenced are unusable for the program. that is called before the object is destroyed by garbage collection. Garbage collection was also used in Smalltalk from the start.5 Garbage collection In Java. all the objects would be automatically deleted once we exit from the “main” function (well. The memory address is different if you have different pieces of data. Having no “delete” operator. if there are any non-Java resources used by the object that have to be liberated (a communications port reserved by the object. there is no destructor function in Java neither (unlike C++). In the example of the previous chapter. However.6 Java Bank Account Now our complete “BankAccount” example looks like this: . 4. Garbage collection means that there is an automatic functionality that regularly goes through the object space and checks which objects are still referenced and which are not. there is no “delete” keyword. there may be a “finalize()” method. so they no longer exist once we return from main. And since these references no longer exist. there is no reason to keep all these objects in memory.Introduction to Java programming K. 4. for instance). they would anyway since we exit the program). so it is safe to liberate the space they use.

System.println("b=" + b.Främling Page 30 Example 8.0) .exit(0).75) bal:125. System. } // Class method private static int newID() { return nextID++. } public BankAccount( double initBal ) { balance = initBal.out. } } // no semi-colon Screen output: a=BankAccount@1cc803(id:100.toString() + "(id:" + id + ".0) bal:9. Complete BankAccount example (compiled and run) public class BankAccount { // Class variable public static int nextID = 100.withdraw(5. BankAccount b=new BankAccount(). // Constant value private final int PREFERENCE_CLIENT_LIMIT = 10000. id = newID(). a=BankAccount@1cc803(id:100.25). System.deposit(125. private int id.toString() ). a.50). .99).println("a=" + a. } public int id() { return id. public BankAccount () { this(0. } public String toString() { return super. b=BankAccount@1cc802(id:101. } public void withdraw(double amt) { balance -=amt.out.println("b=" + b). } public double balance() { return balance. b.out.toString() ). bal:15.println("a=" + a). } public void deposit(double amt) { balance +=amt. System.out. // Instance variables private double balance.99) The method “toString()” is special since it allows us to make a string value of the object. } // Another "special" class method public static void main(String args[]) { BankAccount a=new BankAccount(15. bal:" + balance + ")" .25) bal:0. System. b=BankAccount@1cc802(id:101.Introduction to Java programming K.

you have to use that name.out. and it says that the super class' “toString” is going to be invoked. The “toString” method of class “Object” actually returns the class name. It cannot take any parameters and it must return a String value.” that writes out a string describing the object. This also guarantees that you can use the string concatenation operator “+” for all objects.add(new CircleExample()).println("a=" + a).show().exit(0)” statement means to stop the Java virtual machine right now with an exit value of 0. f. Circle drawing using a class derived from the standard “Point” class (compiled and run). f.setLayout(new GridLayout()). It is the function that is used in the operation “System. f. since it reduces the programming work needed and simplifies maintenance.toString”. Since we have not defined any superclass for “BankAccount”. it is essential to use existing class libraries as much as possible. the class “Object” is implicitly used as base class. f = new Frame(). . At the end. the “System.awt.*.Främling Page 31 This name is fixed. 200).toString if you don't want to. @. 4. we notice something like “super. and then the address of the object. it's there only if you need it. private MyPoint myPoint1.Applet. The word “super” is a keyword in the Java language. You don’t have to use super. import java.setSize(250. Example 9.applet. in fact. public static void main(String argv[]) { Frame f.7 Class Hierarchies and Inheritance When developing an object oriented program. import java. If we look a little closer at the toString method. public class CircleExample extends Applet { private final int RADIUS_INCREMENT = 6. myPoint2. but it is very useful for exiting the program in severe error situations.Introduction to Java programming K. f. myPoint3. This statement is not necessary here.

drawIt(g).setRadius(r).sqrt(d.radius.drawIt(g).Introduction to Java programming K.radius. radius = r. r). } public void setFilled(boolean b) { isFilled = b. private boolean isFilled = true. } public void paint(Graphics g) { myPoint1. y . myPoint2. while ( r <= Math.drawIt(g). myPoint3. 50). } MyPoint(int x.width/2.drawOval(x . } public void setRadius(int r) { radius = r. 2*radius). y . int r = 1.setLocation(50. myPoint2. d. } . else g. } } } class MyPoint extends Point { private int radius. Dimension d = size(). myPoint3 = new MyPoint(d.radius.height/2. 10). 2*radius.radius.width*d. myPoint2 = new MyPoint(50. } public void drawIt(Graphics g) { if ( isFilled ) g.height) ) { myPoint3. 50.fillOval(x . int r) { super(x. MyPoint(int r) { radius = r. r += RADIUS_INCREMENT. 2*radius. myPoint3.Främling Page 32 } CircleExample() { myPoint1 = new MyPoint(20). // Then we use some information about our size to draw a // centered figure.width + d. 2*radius).height*d. y).setFilled(false). int y.

Främling Page 33 } This program gives the window shown in Figure 5. One solution is to define a few special classes.8 How to declare and use global constants and variables The only things that are "global" in Java are classes. In Example 9 we have used the standard class "Point" as a base class for our own class "MyPoint" (it should actually have been called "Circle" or simething alike). one for the global variables and one for general utility functions. Figure 5. Window of the CircleExample program. 4. Also notice that "MyPoint" is a private class. So it is impossible to declare global constants or variables anywhere you like as you would in "C" or C++. It might be a good solution to have one class for the global constants. This means that "MyPoint" inherits some useful properties and methods. This is sufficient since it is a class that is used only by the class "CircleExample" and since it is defined in the same source file as "CircleExample". like a constructor for setting the initial position and a "setLocation()" method for changing it. which contain these constant declarations and variables as static members.Introduction to Java programming K. . Since having global constants and variables is very useful in most industry-scale applications. there is a very convenient workaround for the problem.

Introduction to Java programming K.aGlobalVariable" and "GlobalFunctions. This convention requires some more writing for referencing global items... This is extremely important for program documentation purposes and for program maintainability. .. . A_GLOBAL_CONSTANT". } Now these are accessible from anywhere in the program as "GlobalConstants.. public class GlobalConstants { public static int A_GLOBAL_CONSTANT = 10. } public class GlobalVariables { public static int aGlobalVariable. "GlobalVariables. variables and functions. ... int val2) {} ...aGlobalFunction(. but it has the advantage of clearly indicating when global items are used and modified. } public class GlobalFunctions { public static void aGlobalFunction(int val1.Främling Page 34 Example: Classes for global constants.)".

5.Introduction to Java programming K. .1 Passing parameters to applets from a HTML page Applet behaviour may be parameterised by passing parameters to them in the <applet> tag of the HTML page. Applets Most Java applications are still applets.e. usually small applications that are run inside a WWW browser like Netscape Navigator or Microsoft Internet Explorer. These parameters correspond to command line parameters of classical programs. Their main purposes are to present information in a user friendly and interactive way. i.Främling Page 35 5. They are also used for animating Internet pages just in order to make them more interesting.

i < repCount .*. y = 10 . else theString = DEFAULT_TEXT.awt.applet. private String private int theString. public class AppletParam extends Applet { private final String DEFAULT_TEXT = new String("No text parameter!"). if ( p2 != null ) repCount = new Integer(p2). Corresponding HTML page: . // Second parameter is the number of repetitions.Applet.Introduction to Java programming K.Främling Page 36 Example 10. import java. String p1 = getParameter("Text"). where “<paramName>” is the name of the parameter. y). Passing parameter values from HTML to an Applet (compiled and run) import java.drawString(theString. else repCount = DEFAULT_COUNT. } } } This applet takes the text string to draw and the number of times to draw it as parameters. y += 20 ) { g. } public void paint(Graphics g) { int i. String p2 = getParameter("Count"). private final int DEFAULT_COUNT = 1. We get the values of these parameters with the method “getParameter(“<paramName>”)”. This method is defined in the Applet class. y. if ( p1 != null ) theString = p1. public void init() { // First parameter is the string to show. repCount. 0. i++.intValue(). for ( i = 0.

class width=350 height=150> <param name=Text value="Hello. There is already an empty “init()” method defined in the class Applet. ." Your browser is completely ignoring the &lt. world!"> <param name=Count value="5"> alt="Your browser understands the &lt. tag but isn't running the applet. What we did here was just to overload it and do what we needed to do. tag! </applet> <hr> <a href="AppletParam.Introduction to Java programming K. </body> </html> Figure 6.APPLET&gt. opens files etc. Netscape Navigator window for applet parameter passing example.2 Animation We will first start off with a small example that just shows an image in our applet display area. So this is where the applet initialises instance variables.Främling Page 37 <html> <head> <title>Applet parameters</title> </head> <body> <h1>Passing parameters from HTML to Applets</h1> <hr> <applet code=AppletParam. for some">The source</a>. 5. The “init()” method is a special method that is always called by the browser when the applet is loaded.APPLET&gt.

Främling Page 38 Example 11. import java.drawImage(animImage. . animImage = getImage(getDocumentBase().awt. we again have a “init()” method. Showing an image in an applet (compiled and run). */ import java. if ( animImage != null ) { g. public void init() { // Read in the image to display. This time it loads the image that we want to display. Netscape window for applet animation Example 11. 0.jpg"). } } } As in the previous example. this).applet. 0.Introduction to Java programming K. public class AnimationExample1 extends Applet { privateImage animImage.*. "anim1. } public void paint(Graphics g) { // Just draw the image if we have finished loading it. Figure 7.Applet. /** * Simple applet that just displays an image.

this). nor any other user interaction. 0). // This loop is not a very good idea!!! while ( true ) { g.width. which memorises the current position of the caveman: private Point imgPos = new Point(0. which means that it is no longer capable of reacting to events coming from outside. Dimension d = size(). We will speak more about threads later. For now it is enough to know that a thread is a process that gets execution time on regular intervals and has a certain time to do it.x = (imgPos.height.x. So. imgh.Främling Page 39 We leave it up to the reader to construct the corresponding HTML page. imgPos. In order to do this correctly. This means that it is not notified about display area size changes. Now we make the caveman move.getHeight(this). What our thread will do is to regularly “kick” our applet and make it move the animation forward. we will first add a “Point” (standard Java object) to the instance variables of our class. that is a handle to the thread: .x + 1)%d.getWidth(this). imgPos. imgPos.drawImage(animImage.Introduction to Java programming K. if ( animImage != null ) { imgw = animImage. Then we modify the “paint()” method to look like this: public void paint(Graphics g) { int imgw. we have to use a thread which is activated on regular intervals and which avoids our applet to get blocked. } } } This is a very simple way of getting the caveman to glide down from the upper left corner of the applet display area towards the lower right corner.y. we first add a new instance variable. if ( imgw == -1 || imgh == -1 ) return. imgh = animImage.y = (imgPos. Doing an animation like this is not a good idea!!! What happens now is that our applet is in an eternal loop.y + 1)%d. imgPos.

jpg"). The browser calls the “start()” method straight after having called the “init()” method.start(). } public void start() { animThread = new Thread(this). "anim1. “stop()” is called each time the browser exits from a page that contains the applet. a “start()” method that starts the animation and a “stop()” method which stops it. } Now we will have a thread running that knows it should “kick” us regularly. “start()” and “stop()”. we obviously have to have an “init()” method that sets up our thread object. } public void stop() { animThread. We also have two other special methods.white). that looks like this: . For our animation example.stop(). These three methods now look like this: public void init() { animImage = getImage(getDocumentBase(). But this “kick” has to be realised by calling one of our methods.// We use a Thread object for animation! We have already seen the “init()” method that gets called before an applet starts executing.Introduction to Java programming K. “start()” also gets called each time that the browser gets to a page where the applet is included. There is a standard method that is called “run()” for this purpose. animThread.Främling Page 40 private ThreadanimThread. setBackground(Color.

We have to change our class declaration line to look like this: public class AnimationExample3 extends Applet implements Runnable The “implements” keyword means that our class contains all the methods required by the “Runnable” interface. imgPos.y.Främling Page 41 // This is the method that makes the animation work correctly! public void run() { Dimension d. repaint(). g. if ( imgw == -1 || imgh == -1 ) return.x + 1)%d. The new “paint()” method looks like this: public void paint(Graphics g) { int imgw. } catch ( InterruptedException e ) {} } } “Thread.height.y + 1)%d.width.sleep(10). while ( true ) { d = size().x. } try { Thread. so we have to have a try-catch here.y = (imgPos. imgh = animImage.getWidth(this). It even wipes out the previous image of the caveman. } } Java is a language that has a strict type control.getHeight(this).sleep(10)” determines the animation speed by pausing the animation during 10 ms. This is why our class has to implement a standard interface called “Runnable” in order to compile (more about interfaces later). so we will try to reduce this. if ( animImage != null ) { imgw = animImage. However. imgh.Introduction to Java programming K. we notice that it flickers a lot. so that we don’t get a “trace”. imgPos. The reason for this flickering is that each time we call the standard “repaint()” method.x = (imgPos. So we override the default “repaint()” method with our own: .drawImage(animImage. Now our applet works correctly. imgPos. if ( d != null ) { imgPos. this). Now we have moved the animation logic into the “run()” method instead of having it in the “paint()” method. it first clears the entire applet display area before calling our “paint()” method. Exception handling is compulsory in this case.

Dimension d.Främling Page 42 public void update(Graphics g) { paint(g).x. imgh.y = (imgRect. it now contains some extra tests for setting up the initial display rectangle.y + imgRect. Java loads images asynchronously.height. if ( imgw != -1 && imgh != -1 ) { if ( imgRect == null ) { imgRect = new Rectangle(0. } else { imgRect.Introduction to Java programming K.drawImage(animImage. imgh. so that it scales the image on the fly to fit into the correct rectangle: g. } repaint().width = imgw. this). in separate threads.y. } catch ( InterruptedException e ) {} } } In addition to the turning logic. else imgRect.sleep(10). 0. imgRect.width. imgRect. } We will also make the caveman turn while he is moving. .getHeight(this). 0.y + 1)%d. So our applet just has to wait for the image to be loaded far enough before it knows the size of the image. imgRect.width. Our “run()” method has now grown a lot bigger: public void run() { int imgw. imgRect.x = (imgRect. imgw. We modify the “drawImage()” call in our “paint()” method correspondingly. while ( true ) { d = size(). which requires quite a few modifications. // Rectangle instead of Point.getWidth(this). imgh = animImage. In fact. if ( d != null ) { if ( animImage != null ) { imgw = animImage.x + 1)%d. imgRect. We start by having an image display rectangle instead of just a point: private Rectangle imgRect = null. } } } try { Thread.width == -imgw ) imgRect. imgh).width--.x + imgRect. This is necessary because the size of the image is not known immediately at load time. imgw. if ( imgRect.height. 0.

import java. // Needed for clearing. For doing this. oldRect.width. oldRect.clearRect(oldRect. oldRect. Rectangle imgRect = null. // Needed for clearing.Främling Page 43 Asynchronous image loading is extremely useful for internet purposes.width. public void init() { animImage = getImage(getDocumentBase(). but now there is no longer anything that would clear the previous image.Introduction to Java programming K.jpg"). public class AnimationExample5 extends Applet implements Runnable { private private private private Image animImage.awt. is that we memorise the previous display rectangle of the caveman image and clear only that instead of clearing the entire applet display area. } Our final touch to the animation is to make the caveman bounce against the borders of the applet display area. -oldRect. else g.height).clearRect(oldRect.x + oldRect.x.width. Thread animThread.width > 0 ) g.Applet. we first need a new instance variable that stores the old rectangle: private Rectangle oldRect = null. "anim1. } . Then we add the following code into our “paint()” method just before the call to “drawImage()” for clearing the previous rectangle: if ( oldRect == null ) { oldRect = new Rectangle(imgRect). Animation example with a turning image that bounds against the sides of the applet display area (compiled and run). } else { if ( oldRect. setBackground(Color.white). oldRect. What we do. Example 12.setBounds(imgRect). Rectangle oldRect = null.y.*. where image loading might be long and where there may be several images to display in the same page. oldRect. oldRect. Example 12 shows the entire applet code.height). import java.applet.y. We notice that the flicker disappeared. This means modifying the “run()” method accordingly.

y.drawImage(animImage.width. oldRect. 0. imgh.y.width > 0 ) g. this). } .x.getHeight(this).width.getHeight(this).y. animThread. } g.width. imgRect.clearRect(oldRect. imgRect. imgh = animImage. } public void paint(Graphics g) { int imgw. } public void run() { int imgw.stop(). Dimension d. int xincr = 1. oldRect. if ( d != null && animImage != null ) { imgw = animImage. imgh).x.height.start(). else g.height).height). oldRect. imgh.Introduction to Java programming K.width.getWidth(this).x + oldRect. imgRect. oldRect. } else { if ( oldRect. if ( oldRect == null ) { oldRect = new Rectangle(imgRect). wincr = -1. oldRect. imgh. // Here we clear what has to be cleared from previous // animation step.Främling Page 44 public void start() { animThread = new Thread(this). 0. 0. yincr = 1.getWidth(this). if ( animImage != null ) { imgw = animImage.clearRect(oldRect.setBounds(imgRect).y + imgRect. while ( true ) { d = size().x + imgRect. if ( imgw == -1 || imgh == -1 ) return. -oldRect. } } public void update(Graphics g) { paint(g). oldRect. imgh = animImage. imgRect. } public void stop() { animThread. if ( imgw != -1 && imgh != -1 ) { if ( imgRect == null ) { imgRect = new Rectangle(0. imgw. imgw.

We also add two new instance variables to our class for storing the references to the two audio clips that we use: private AudioClip private AudioClip bounceSnd.x + imgRect.Främling Page 45 else { if ( imgRect.3 Sound effects We will add a background sound to our applet. which makes the background sound play continuously (“loop()” is a method of the class AudioClip): .au"). if ( imgRect. There will also be a sound when the caveman bounces against the walls.AudioClip.height >= d. We will improve this while adding a few sound effects. } } try { Thread.y + imgRect. } imgRect. which plays continuously.x + imgRect. } else if ( imgRect. Doing this requires that we import the standard Java class AudioClip: import java. if ( imgRect.width >= d. if ( imgRect.sleep(10). 5. "0.width <= -imgw ) { wincr = 1.Introduction to Java programming K.width += wincr. } repaint().width >= imgw ) { wincr = -1. In the “start()” method we add this line.width <= 0 ) xincr = 1. bgSnd. In the “init()” method we add the following lines for initially loading the two sounds: bgSnd = getAudioClip(getCodeBase(). "spacemusic. imgRect.applet.x += xincr. if ( imgRect. } catch (InterruptedException e) {} } } } The animation still flickers quite badly. bounceSnd = getAudioClip(getCodeBase().au").width || imgRect.width ) xincr = -1.y <= 0 ) yincr = 1. imgRect.x <= 0 || imgRect.y += yincr.height ) yincr = -1.x >= d.

width < 0 ) oldr = new Rectangle(oldRect. oldr. This is just one simple way of doing it.x.x. imgRect.x.4. but at least we reduce flicker.clearRect(oldr. oldr.height).width .height). We do it just by clearing the borders of the old rectangle instead of clearing the entire rectangle. 4.4.height). we call the “play()” method of the bounce sound: bounceSnd.stop(). We introduce a new method for doing it: private void clearOldRect(Graphics g. -oldRect. . bounceSnd. Now we have the sound effects that we wanted. g. Each time that the caveman changes his direction in the “run()” method. which is rapid and makes the transition from one animation step to the next one very fluent.y + oldr. Rectangle newRect. newr.clearRect(oldr.width. oldr.Främling Page 46 bgSnd.y.setBounds(imgRect). oldRect. oldr.width. } clearOldRect(g. where the graphical operations take place. Then this off screen image just gets copied onto the screen. oldr.y.y. g.x + } Then we replace the clearing code of our “paint()” method with the following: if ( oldRect == null ) { oldRect = new Rectangle(imgRect). Another quite common way is to have an off screen image.clearRect(oldr. oldr. This is not a very sophisticated solution. oldr. Rectangle oldRect) { Rectangle oldr. g.loop(). 4).Introduction to Java programming K. oldr. // Flip coordinates to make it easier. In our “stop()” method we add lines for stopping the sounds when the browser leaves the page: bgSnd. oldRect. It is possible to reduce or eliminate animation flicker in many ways.x + oldr. oldRect).y.clearRect(oldr. 4). oldRect. else oldr = new Rectangle(oldRect).stop(). g.width. if ( oldRect. so we will work a bit more on reducing screen flicker.width.height . 4.

Then this off screen image just gets copied onto the screen. What we do here is to set up an off-screen image of exactly the same size as the applet display area. … “createImage()” is a method that is defined in the “Component” class that is one of the base classes of “Applet”. if ( offscreen == null ) offscreen = createImage(d.Främling Page 47 5.Introduction to Java programming K.height). We set up the off-screen image in the “run()” method: while ( true ) { d = size(). we set it to null so that we can easily test if it has been initialised or not. As usual. imgw = animImage. which is rapid and makes the transition from one animation step to the next one very fluent.width.getWidth(this). It would be more complex for a normal window. An applet is an easy case.4 Double-buffered animation Another quite common way to avoid flicker in animations is to have an off screen image. where the graphical operations take place. if ( d != null && animImage != null ) { // Set up offscreen buffer. d. Then we modify the “paint()” method to look like this: . What we need to do first is to declare an instance variable to contain the off-screen image: private Image offscreen = null. since the size of its’ display area never changes.

// Clear the needed areas of old display. We could even use clearing of the entire old image area again. } We first check that we have both a valid animated image and a valid off-screen. if ( oldRect == null ) { oldRect = new Rectangle(imgRect).sleep()”.y. imgRect. Animation speed depends on the delay that we define in the call to “ Thread. } clearOldRect(offscreen_g.Främling Page 48 public void paint(Graphics g) { int imgw. Graphics offscreen_g. g. if the animation itself is slower than this delay. This is a very rapid and flicker-free operation since it happens scanline by scanline.y + imgRect. Then all drawing which previously went directly to the screen now goes into the off-screen image. imgRect.getGraphics().x + imgRect.getGraphics().height.x. This change only slightly affects animation speed. instead of just clearing the borders. 0. this). offscreen_g. “getGraphics()” is a method defined in the class “Image”. if ( imgw == -1 || imgh == -1 ) return. stepping two or more).getHeight(this). then the classical method is to increase the animation step length (instead of one pixel. if ( animImage == null || offscreen == null ) return. The call “offscreen. 0.getWidth(this).width. imgh. The final call to “drawImage()” just copies the off-screen image onto the screen. imgh = animImage.drawImage(offscreen. imgRect. oldRect.setBounds(imgRect). imgRect. offscreen_g = offscreen.” returns a “Graphics” object which allows us to draw into the image just like we would draw onto the computer screen. this). imgRect. 0. 0. so it is difficult to see the transition. .drawImage(animImage. imgh. oldRect). However.Introduction to Java programming K. Just clearing the borders sometimes runs into synchronisation problems and “leaves behind” a small part of the image. imgw = animImage. imgw.

int y) { imgRect. modular programs. This is to be sure that our applets will work fine even with older internet browsers.x virtual machines have become a great majority. 6. 6. But in more complex ”. This is a public course. which is accessible through links in the JDK documentation. It might be a good idea to add the “synchronized” (more about this together with threads) keyword to the method declaration.x += imgRect.0. The caveman always ends up by being flipped correctly.1. In the current case.x to there is no big danger. return true. we will use the existing course at “http://developer. This especially concerns the handling of events. we might just be in the middle of the turning operation. when we already have to repaint.width. we will stick to the 1. is that if the execution of the “mouseDown()” method is not finished when the animation thread interrupts it. } Here we are still working with our animation example from the previous chapter.x event model in this course. This would make our class “thread-safe”.sun.Främling Page 49 6. . int x. What could happen now.1.1 Reacting to a user click inside the applet display area All we need to do in order to react to a mouse click inside the applet display area is to override the “mouseDown()” method: public boolean mouseDown(Event evt.width. the program may end up in a weird state and start to behave strangely. What we do is that we flip around the caveman each time that the user clicks inside the applet display area.2 For User interface elements this chapter. Although version 1.Introduction to Java programming K. imgRect. User Interaction User interaction has changed greatly from version 1.0. The new model is much more flexible and simplifies writing well-structured.width = -imgRect.

Menus are organised in a hierarchical fashion. maximising and restoring it etc. Menus contain "MenuItem". activating it. Various events are generated and sent to the window when the user uses one of these. since menu events end up in the "action()" method of the frame that contains them. Menu fileMenu. f. a window also has some buttons for closing it. "CheckboxMenuItem" or other "Menu" objects (for creating submenus). Menu and window event handling (compiled and run) import java. } MenuExampleFrame(String title) { super(title).pack(). so we could say that a menu belongs to a window. which (at least for the moment) is free.awt. there is a "MenuBar" object associated with the frame.Främling Page 50 Accessing this course requires registering to the Java Developer Connection (JDC). Only the chapters that are grouped together under the title “Widgets” are considered here. a window has a menu bar.Introduction to Java programming K. It is also possible to associate menu shortcuts to menu items. First. Actually. Example 13. . This menu bar contains "Menu" object. Usually. Example 13 shows how to add a menu bar and menus to a window and how to handle the window closing event. class MenuExampleFrame extends Frame { MenuBarmyMenubar. minimising. 6.3 Window-related user interface elements Menus are connected to a certain window (or a certain application on some operating systems). from which the various menus can be accessed. public static void main(String argv[]) { MenuExampleFrame f = new MenuExampleFrame("Menu example").show(). f. testMenu.*. It is generally a good idea to subclass the "Frame" class if the application uses menus.

.arg.")). myMenubar.. } /** Catch menu events.add(new MenuItem("Close")).target instanceof CheckboxMenuItem ) System. add(c).println(evt. If we forget to do this for "handleEvent()". else System..out. myMenubar. new MenuShortcut('s'))). fileMenu. sub_menu.add(new MenuItem("Open. for instance. 100). testMenu.handleEvent(evt). testMenu = new Menu("Test"). */ public boolean handleEvent(Event evt) { if ( evt. Canvas c = new Canvas(). // Set up the myMenubar = new MenuBar(). Otherwise we might interrupt the event propagation chain.add(fileMenu). what).add(new CheckboxMenuItem("test1")). fileMenu.add(new MenuItem("-")). sub_menu = new Menu("SubMenu"). return super. The type of the event can then be tested against some event codes that are defined in the "Event" class.add(new MenuItem("Save". */ public boolean action(Event evt.Introduction to Java programming K.handleEvent(evt)" for instance).getState()).exit(1). sub_menu. setMenuBar(myMenubar). return super.add(new CheckboxMenuItem("test3")). } } Window events are sent to the "handleEvent()" method. fileMenu.arg).resize(300.add(testMenu).WINDOW_DESTROY ) System.action(evt. testMenu.add(sub_menu).id == Event.equals("Exit") ) System. fileMenu = new Menu("File"). fileMenu.out. c.add(new MenuItem("Exit")).add(new MenuItem("New")).exit(1). if ( evt. Object what) { if ( evt. // Just so we get a size. fileMenu.add(new CheckboxMenuItem("test2")). then "action()" never gets called. fileMenu. It is usually a good idea to call the super-class' method for all standard event handling methods ("super. } /** Catch window events.Främling Page 51 Menu sub_menu.println(((CheckboxMenuItem) evt.

which (at least for the moment) is free. do not have the same window border widths or there might be other differences. . 7. "Colors" and "Fonts" are considered here. "Nested Panels". which is accessible through links in the JDK documentation. Java window layout managers are used for avoiding these problems. Window Layout Java applications should run in a similar way on any operating system.Introduction to Java programming K. This means that the user interface should look about the same in all cases. The programmer just defines some rules for the positioning and sizing of the elements in relation to each other and/or to the window and the manager respects this as well as possible.sun. different operating systems do not use exactly the same fonts. Only the chapters that are grouped together under the titles “Layout Managers”. Accessing this course requires registering to the Java Developer Connection (JDC). prefers controlling the size and location of the contents of a panel in absolute co-ordinates. for some . All these factors make it difficult to know exactly how big our user interface should be and where they should be positioned.ämling Page 52 7. This is a public course.1 For Window layout managers this chapter.html”. we will use the existing course at “http://developer. "Events". it is possible using the "null" layout.2 The "null" layout If the programmer. Unfortunately.

b.setLayout(new GridLayout()). f. add(b). b. b.Introduction to Java programming K. add(b). b. f.Främling Page 53 Example 14. b = new Button("Button 1"). 40). 100). In order to use a "null" layout we have to do at least the following: • Create a subclass that extends panel. Window created using a panel with "null" layout. 20).resize(50.resize(60. f. b.move(30.move(10.resize(60. } } This program gives the window shown in Figure 8.move(100. 50). add(b). b = new Button("Button 5"). b. 30). Using the "null" layout for absolute positioning of window elements (compiled and run). Figure 8. b. f. add(b). b. 50). public class NullLayoutExample extends Panel { public static void main(String[] argv) { Frame f = new Frame(). b = new Button("Button 2").resize(45. 20). import java. 150). 10).pack(). 25). } public Dimension getPreferredSize() { return new Dimension(200. b = new Button("Button 4").*. 20). b = new Button("Button 3").move(80. .add(new NullLayoutExample()). } NullLayoutExample() { Button b. b.awt.resize(80. add(b).move(50. setLayout(null).

especially modal such (which prevent input from all other windows of the application). true).show(). } public boolean action(Event evt. Clicking on the "Close" button closes the dialog window. 7. } return super. So we add the foloowing class definition to our existing source code: class AboutDialog extends Dialog { AboutDialog(Frame f) { super(f. "About me. Override the "getPreferredSize()" method so that it returns the size that you want the panel to be. } } Then we add the following method to our "NullLayoutExample" class: public boolean action(Event evt.Introduction to Java programming K. } Now.". We will continue to develop the example from the previous example. new Label("Java Basics Course")). return true..Främling Page 54 • • Set the layout of this panel to "null" with the "setLayout()" method. It is a good advice to never add any user interface elements directly into a frame! Just add a panel into it instead. add("Center". • Set the size and location of all user interface elements that you add into the panel. pack(). // "true" because modal. Object arg) { if ( evt.3 Dialog windows Most applications need to be able to display dialog windows. arg). This is the best way to avoid problems due to different window styles on different operating systems. new Button("Close")). then add other user interface elements into the panel.action(evt. every time that we click on a button in our "null" layout instanceof Button ) { (new AboutDialog(new Frame())). . we get a dialog window like the one in Figure 9. Object arg) { dispose(). return true.. add("South".

The default layout for dialogs is BorderLayout. Example dialog window. .Introduction to Java programming K. It is essential to call the constructor of Dialog in the constructor of AboutDialog. Otherwise frame management and display will not work correctly. which we have used here.Främling Page 55 Figure 9.

. FileDialog. just like C++. They are implemented by the class “FileDialog”.*. Before looking at the actual file reading/writing classes. based on the notion of streams. Using these classes directly is hardly ever practical nor efficient. import java. for instance. public class FileOpenDlg { public static void main(String[] argv) { FileDialog fd = new FileDialog(new Frame().Introduction to Java programming K.getFile()).LOAD).show(). They return the directory path (with and ending ‘/’ character) and the name of the file. Using the standard “Open” dialog (compiled and run). import java.println(fd. we will have a look at the standard facilities of Java for letting the user specify what file to create/open/write. if ( fd. "Open file. File Reading and Writing File reading and writing is done in quite a different way from how it is done in “C”.out. The principle is that we first have very low-level and simple classes for opening. The implementation is still quite different from that of C++. In order to read/write input streams more efficiently.println("Open cancelled!"). . Example 15. then “getFile()” returns “null”. } } The methods “getDirectory()” and “getFile()” are defined for the “FileDialog” class. 8.1 File dialogs for opening and saving files The AWT library contains standard dialogs for letting the user browse the hard disks for files to open or reading and writing files.". This is how we achieve buffered file reading. for instance. we chain them together. however.awt. which is derived from the standard class “Dialog”. It is.getDirectory() + fd. fd.*.Främling Page 56 8.out. else System. If the user cancels the dialog.getFile() != null ) System.

.*.out. 8. if ( fd. import java.Introduction to Java programming K. public class TextFileCopy { public static void main(String[] argv) { String line.out. public class FileSaveDlg { public static void main(String[] argv) { FileDialog fd = new FileDialog(new Frame().x.awt.0.getFile() != null ) System. else System.println("Save cancelled!").io.out.println("Syntax: java TextFileCopy <file1> <file2>").getDirectory() + fd.exit(1). This class library has actually changed and evolved a lot since the first version of it. FileDialog. since the “Reader” and “Writer” classes did not exist in Java 1. fd.. import java. especially when it should be done line by line.x in order to work. One limitation of this example is that it requires Java 1. Example 17. } . } } The standard “Save as” dialog has the interesting feature of asking the user if he wants to replace an existing file.*.*. import java. System.getFile()).Främling Page 57 Example 16.SAVE).println( "Save as. Copying a text file into another (compiled and run). Using the standard “Save as” dialog (compiled and run). Example 17 shows one of the easiest and most efficient ways of reading and writing text files.2 Reading and writing text files It would be possible to read and write text files in many different ways with the standard class libraries of the “io” != 2 ) { System. if ( argv.1.". This means that the programmer does not have to test for existing files.

*/ System.Introduction to Java programming K. After this the while loop does the actual copy.close(). When using buffered input/output it is often important to call the “close()” method for them. 8.3 Reading a file using a URL It is possible for an applet to open an “InputStream” object on any file that is located in its’ own code base directory or a subdirectory of it.readLine()) != null ) { out. Otherwise the buffer may not be flushed correctly at the end. . The try-catch mechanism is very useful here.out.close().println(line). PrintWriter out = new PrintWriter(new FileWriter(argv[1])). Then it creates a buffered reader for the given input file and a suitable writer (the “PrintWriter” class) for the given output file. while ( (line = in.println(e). } in. just print out the exception. error creating output file and all potential read/write errors. Example 18 illustrates a simple way of doing this. With one single try-catch block we treat the case of non-existing input file. } } } The program first checks that we have both the name of the file to read and the file to write and exits if both are not present.Främling Page 58 try { BufferedReader in = new BufferedReader(new FileReader(argv[0])). out. } catch ( IOException e ) { // An error happened.

fileName = getParameter("FileName").net. DataInputStream dinp = new DataInputStream(fileURL. if ( fileName != null ) { // Get an input stream and put in everything into TextArea. This seems to be a bug at least in certain versions of Netscape Navigator. Then it shows the contents of the file inside of the text area.awt.*.openStream()). private TextArea fileDisplay. import import import import java. } dinp. Otherwise it does not establish the connection to the file. } catch ( Exception e ) { System. . public URLread() { setLayout(new GridLayout()).close(). } public void start() { String line. try { URL fileURL = new URL(getCodeBase().Introduction to Java programming K. } public void init() { // Get the neme of the file to show.applet.Applet. public class URLread extends Applet { private String fileName.appendText(line + '\n').out. When running this example it is essential that the browser being used is already started up. add(fileDisplay).readLine()) != null ) { fileDisplay. } } } } This example reads a file whose name is given as a parameter to the applet from the HTML page that invokes it. while ( (line = dinp.*. java.*. java. Reading a file inside an applet (compiled and run).io.println(e). fileName).Främling Page 59 Example 18. java. fileDisplay = new TextArea().

There is a new generation of classes for reading character input. The same structure applies to output classes. If we then pile a "BufferedInputStream" on it. It has methods both for formatted input and output. For instance. Classes derived from "InflaterInputStream" and "DeflaterOutputStream" provide support for reading and writing ZIP and GZIP format compressed files. . Most output classes are derived from the class "OutputStream". 8.separator) and for separating several paths (File. It is recommended to use these classes for all character input whenever it is possible.4 Other input/output classes As shown by the examples on file input/output. it is recommended to use classes that are derived from the more recent class "Writer". For correct character output.5 The “File” class Functions for testing the existence of a file.Introduction to Java programming K.Främling Page 60 8. it is possible to "pile" stream objects after each other in order to achieve supplementary behaviour. Random access input/output is provided by the class "RandomAccessFile". for retrieving the list of files in a directory. If we still pile a "DataInputStream" on it. The "File" class also has public variables. which contain the system-dependent constants for separating directories in a file path (File. the most basic input behaviour is provided by the "InputStream" class. "readFloat()" etc. since they treat Unicode characters correctly.pathSeparator). These classes are derived from the "Reader" class. All these classes are derived classes from "InputStream" and belong to the first generation of data input classes. we get more efficient reading. we get access to methods like "readLine()". deleting and renaming files and performing other file system related operations are provided by the standard class "File". including the method "readLine()".

io.Främling Page 61 Example 19. else System. .java").")."). if ( f. Using the "File" class for testing the existence of a file (compiled and run). public class FileExample { public static void main(String[] argv) { File f = new File("FileExample.out.File.exists() ) System. import java.getName() + " exists.out.Introduction to Java programming K. } } File objects may be used when creating input/output streams as well as using the direct file names.println("File " + f.getName() + " does not exist.println("File " + f.

Abstract Classes and Interfaces An abstract class is a class which only implements a part of the functions that it is intended for. . which provides the sorting logic itself. Now implementing other benchmark tests simply requires creating a new derived class that implements the "benchmark()" method. if ( compare(list[i]. abstract void swap(Object o1. list[j]) < 0 ) swap(list[i]. j = 0. then call to compare and swap // methods.Främling Page 62 9. The main issue is that we have a partial implementation (the sort logic) while some parts of the implementation have to be provided by derived classes. Object o2). void sort(Object[] list) { int i = 0. One example of an abstract class could be a class for sorting objects (class "Sorter" for instance). where the benchmarking logic itself is defined in the abstract class "Benchmark". } } The sort logic is not written here. The following example shows an implementation of a benchmarking program. list[j]).Introduction to Java programming K. The method that performs the calculation used for benchmarking is then defined in the derived class "MethodBenchmark". // Some sort logic here. So the class "IntSorter" would have to provide an implementation for the methods that are declared abstract. The following class definition compiles alright: abstract class AbstractSort { abstract int compare(Object o1. but that is not the main issue. Then a class "IntSorter" would only need to provide one method for comparing two integers and another method for swapping those that are out of order. Object o2).

currentTimeMillis().currentTimeMillis() . public long repeat(int count) { long start = System. just like it is not possible to create objects of abstract classes neither. i < count . public static void main(String[] argv) { int count = Integer.Introduction to Java programming K. Abstract class for benchmarking (compiled and run). return (System..println(count + " methods in " + time + " milliseconds")..out. System. for ( int i = 0 . } } public class MethodBenchmark extends Benchmark { void benchmark() {} // Does not do much. i++ ) benchmark(). abstract class Benchmark { abstract void benchmark(). So it is not possible to create objects of interface classes.Främling Page 63 Example 20.start).repeat(count). long time = new MethodBenchmark(). } } Program output: C:\>java MethodBenchmark 1000 1000 methods in 60 milliseconds An interface is a class definition that only contains abstract methods (no method implementations at all).parseInt(argv[0]). .

else oldPos.setLocation(x.fillOval(x. void drawIt(Graphics g).setLocation(x. Interfaces (compiled and run). public static void main(String[] argv) { .y. y. public void drawIt(Graphics g) { g.*.event. 3. oldPos. 3). } public abstract void move().clearRect(oldPos. interface AnimatedObject { void move(). import java. 3. AnimatedPoint() { x = y = 10.*.awt.Främling Page 64 Example 21.*.1. y).awt. void clearOld(Graphics g). } public void clearOld(Graphics g) { if ( oldPos != null ) g. } } class YMovingPoint extends AnimatedPoint { public void move() { if ( oldPos == null ) oldPos = new Point(x. } } class XMovingPoint extends AnimatedPoint { public void move() { if ( oldPos == null ) oldPos = new Point(x. 3). else oldPos. import java. */ public class AnimationInterface extends Canvas implements WindowListener { AnimatedObject[] points = new AnimatedObject[2]. y). } abstract class AnimatedPoint extends Point implements AnimatedObject { protected Point oldPos = null.x. y).Introduction to Java programming K. * We only react to "WindowClosing" events for exiting the program. which * was included in Java 1. x++. y++. } } /** * This class implements the "WindowListener" interface. y).

f.clearOld(g).setLayout(new GridLayout()). "drawIt" and "clearOld". points[1]. } public public public public public public public } void void void void void void void windowOpened(WindowEvent e) {} windowClosing(WindowEvent e) { System.move().add(p). . try { Thread.Främling Page 65 Frame f = new Frame(). for ( int i = 0 . points[1]. f. c. f.drawIt(g).drawIt(g). Then the class "AnimatedPoint" implements most of this interface. Interfaces are Java's way of doing multiple inheritance.Introduction to Java programming K. p. } points[0]. p. 200). except for the method "move". the classes derived from "AnimatedPoint" implement the "move" method.setLayout(new GridLayout()). Panel p = new Panel().pack().exit(0). Finally. which declares that all classes that implement it should implement at least the methods "move". } public void paint(Graphics g) { // Make the points move 50 steps. but it can implement any number of interfaces. } AnimationInterface() { points[0] = new XMovingPoint(). A class can extend only one base class. i < 50 . points[1]. "AnimatedPoint" both extends the "Point" class and implements the "AnimatedObject" interface. } catch ( Exception e ) {} points[0].resize(300. } windowClosed(WindowEvent e) {} windowIconified(WindowEvent e) {} windowDeiconified(WindowEvent e) {} windowActivated(WindowEvent e) {} windowDeactivated(WindowEvent e) {} This example first declares the interface "AnimatedObject". so it is possible to create objects of these classes.sleep(50). f.drawIt(g). points[1] = new YMovingPoint().addWindowListener(c). In fact. points[1]. which is the reason why it has to be declared abstract. AnimationInterface c = new AnimationInterface(). points[0].move().clearOld(g). i++ ) { points[0].

we would have had to create a derived class from "Frame". it is possible to declare variables whose type is an interface class. we use a feature of the Java 1.x event model.Främling Page 66 As shown by this example.1. which would override the "handleEvent" method.0. With the Java 1. this means that we can only use methods defined in the "AnimatedObject" interface for these objects. .x event model. This is why it is possible to declare "AnimatedObject[] points". However. This is implementing the "WindowListener" interface.Introduction to Java programming K. including window closing events. For closing the application window. which makes it possible for any class to receive window-related events.

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