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Chap 2

Chap 2

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DESIGNPROCEDUREFORSTEEL

FRAMESTRUCTURESACCORDING
TOBS5950

2.1 Introduction
Structuraldesignisgrosslyabbreviatednameofanoperation,whichformajorprojects
mayinvolvetheknowledgeofhundredsofexpertsfromavarietyofdisciplines.Acode
ofpracticemaythereforeberegardedasaconsensusofwhatisconsideredacceptableat
the time it was written, containing a balance between accepted practice and recent
researchpresentedinsuchawaythattheinformationshouldbeofimmediateusetothe
design engineer. As such, it is regarded more as an aid to design, which includes
allowable stress levels, member capacities, design formulae and recommendations for
goodpractice,ratherthanamanualortextbookondesign.
Once the decision has been taken to construct a particular building, a suitable
structuralsystemmustbeselected.Attentionisthengiventothewayinwhichloadsare
toberesisted.Afterthat,criticalloadingpatternsmustbedeterminedtosuitthepurpose
of the building. There is, therefore, a fundamental two-stage process in the design
operation.Firstly,theforcesactingonthestructuralmembersandjointsaredetermined
byconductingastructuralsystemanalysis,and,secondly,thesizesofvariousstructural
II
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 27
members and details of the structural joints are selected by checking against
specificationmember-capacityformulae.
Section 2.2 starts with definitions of basic limit-states terminology. Then,
determination of loads, load factors, and load combinations are given as requested by
the British codes of practice BS 6399. Accordingly, ultimate limit state design
documents of structural elements are described. In this, the discussion is extended to
cover the strength, stability and serviceability requirements of the British code of
practice BS 5950: Part 1. Finally, the chapter ends by describing methods used, in the
presentstudy,torepresentthechartsoftheeffectivelengthfactorofcolumninswayor
non-swayframesinacomputercode.
2.2 Limitstateconceptandpartialsafetyfactors
Limit state theory includes principles from the elastic and plastic theories and
incorporatesotherrelevantfactorstogiveasrealisticabasisfordesignaspossible.The
following concepts, listed by many authors, amongthemMcCormac(1995),Nethercot
(1995),Ambrose(1997),andMacGinley(1997),arecentraltothelimitstatetheory:
1. account is taken of all separate design conditions that could cause failure or make
thestructureunfitforitsintendeduse,
2. the design is based on the actual behaviour of materials in structures and the
performanceofrealstructures,establishedbytestsandlong-termobservations,
3. the overall intention is that design is to be based on statistical methods and
probabilitytheoryand
4. separatepartialfactorsofsafetyforloadsandformaterialsarespecified.
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 28
The limiting conditions given in Table 2.1 are normally grouped under two
headings:ultimateorsafetylimitstatesandserviceabilitylimitstates.Theattainmentof
ultimate limit states (ULS) may be regarded as an inability to sustain any increase in
load. Serviceability limit states (SLS) checks against the need for remedial action or
some other lossofutility. ThusULSareconditionstobeavoidedwhilstSLS couldbe
consideredasmerelyundesirable.Sincealimitstateapproachtodesigninvolvestheuse
of a number of specialist terms, simple definitions of the more important of these are
providedbyNethercot(1995).
Table2.1.Limitstates(takenfromBS5950:Part1)
UltimateStates Serviceabilitystates
1. Strength(includinggeneralyielding,
rupture,bucklingandtransformation
intomechanism)
5. Deflection
6. Vibration(e.g.windinduced
oscillation
2. Stabilityagainstoverturningandsway 7. Repairabledamageduetofatigue
3. Fractureduetofatigue 8. Corrosionanddurability
4. Brittlefracture

Figure 2.1 shows how limit-state design employs separate factors
f
γ , which
reflectthecombinationofvariabilityofloading
l
γ ,materialstrength
m
γ andstructural
performance
p
γ .Intheelasticdesignapproach,thedesignstressisachievedbyscaling
down the strength of material or member using a factor of safety
e
γ as indicated in
Figure2.1,whiletheplasticdesigncomparesactualstructuralmemberstresseswiththe
effectsoffactored-uploadingbyusingaloadfactorof
p
γ .

DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 29

BS 5950 deliberately adopts a very simple interpretation of the partial safety factor
conceptinusingonlythreeseparateγ-factors:
• Variability of loading
l
γ : loads may be greater than expected; also loads used to
counteracttheoverturningofastructure(seesection2.6)maybelessthanintended.
• Variability of material strength
m
γ : the strength of the material in the actual
structuremayvaryfromthestrengthusedincalculations.
• Variability of structural performance
p
γ : The structure may not be as strong as
assumed in the design because of the variation in the dimensions of members,
variability of workmanship and differences between the simplified idealisation
necessaryforanalysisandtheactualbehaviouroftherealstructure.
Avalueof1.2hasbeenadoptedfor
p
γ which, whenmultipliedbythevaluesselected
for
l
γ (approximately 1.17 for dead load and 1.25 for live load) leads to the values of
Numericalvalues
Plasticdesign
Elasticdesign
Limitstatedesign
Strengthofmaterial
orofmember
Stressesorstressresultants
duetoworkingloads
×
f
γ

÷
e
γ
×
p
γ
÷
m
γ

Figure2.1.Levelfordifferentdesignmethodsatwhich
calculationsareconducted(Nethercot,1995)
(takenfromNethercot1995)
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 30
f
γ , which is then applied to the working loads, examples of which are discussed in
Section 2.3. Values of
m
γ have been incorporated directly into the design strengths
given in BS 5950. Consequently, the designer needs only to consider
f
γ values in the
analysis.
2.3 Loadsandloadcombinations
Assessment of the design loads for a structure consists of identifying the forces due to
both natural and designer-made effects, which the structure must withstand, and then
assigningsuitablevaluestothem.Frequently,severaldifferentformsofloadingmustbe
considered, acting either singly or in combination, although in some cases the most
unfavourable situation can be easily identifiable. For buildings, the usual forms of
loadingincludedeadload,liveloadandwindload.Loadsduetotemperatureeffectsand
earthquakes,incertainpartsoftheworld,shouldbeconsidered.Othertypesofstructure
will have their own special forms of loading, for instance, moving live loads and their
corresponding horizontal loads (e.g. braking forces on bridges or braking force due to
thehorizontalmovementofcranes).Whenassessingtheloadsactingonastructure,itis
usuallynecessarytomakereferencetoBS6399:Part1,2,and3,inwhichbasicdataon
dead,liveandwindloadsaregiven.
2.3.1 Deadload
Determinationofdeadloadrequiresestimationoftheweightofthestructuralmembers
together with its associated “non-structural” component. Therefore, in addition to the
bare steelwork, the weights of floor slabs, partition walls, ceiling, plaster finishes and
others (e.g. heating systems, air conditions, ducts, etc) must all be considered. Since
certainvaluesofthesedeadloadswillnotbeknownuntilafteratleastatentativedesign
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 31
isavailable,designersnormallyapproximatevaluesbasedonexperiencefortheirinitial
calculations.Apreliminarilyvalueof6-10kN/m
2
forthedeadloadcanbetaken.
2.3.2 Liveload
Live load in buildings covers items such as occupancy by people, office floor loading,
and movable equipment within the building. Clearly, values will be appropriate for
different forms of building-domestic, offices, garage, etc. The effects of snow, ice are
normallyincludedinthiscategory.BS6399: Part1givesaminimumvalueofthelive
loadaccordingtothepurposeofthestructuralusage(seeBS6399:Part1).
2.3.3 Windload
The load produced on a structure by the action of the wind is a dynamic effect. In
practice,itisnormalformosttypesofstructurestotreatthisasanequivalentstaticload.
Therefore, starting from the basic speed for the geographical location under
consideration, suitably corrected to allow for the effects of factors such as topography,
groundroughnessandlengthofexposuretothewind,adynamicpressureisdetermined.
Thisisthenconvertedintoaforceonthesurfaceofthestructureusingpressureorforce
coefficients,whichdependonthebuilding’sshape.
InBS6399:Part2,forallstructureslessthan100minheightandwherethewind
loadingcanberepresentedbyequivalentstaticloads,thewindloadingcanbeobtained
byusingoneoracombinationofthefollowingmethods:
• standard method uses a simplified procedure to obtain a standard effective wind
speed,whichisusedwithstandardpressurecoefficientstodeterminethewindloads,
• directional method in which effective wind speeds and pressure coefficients are
determinedtoderivethewindloadsforeachwinddirection.
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 32
Theoutlineoftheprocedure,forcalculatingwindloads,isillustratedbytheflow
chart given in Figure 2.2. This shows the stages of the standard method (most widely
used method) as indicated by the heavily outlined boxes connected by thick lines. The
stagesofthedirectionalmethodareshownasboxesoutlinedwithdoublelinesandare
directlyequivalenttothestagesofthestandardmethod.
The wind loads should be calculated for each of the loaded areas under
consideration,dependingonthedimensionsofthebuilding.Thesemaybe:
• thestructureasawhole,
• partsofthestructure,suchaswallsandroofs,or
• individualstructuralcomponents,includingcladdingunitsandtheirfixings.
The standard method requires assessment for orthogonal load cases for wind
directions normal to thefacesofthe building.Whenthebuildingisdoubly-symmetric,
e.g. rectangular-plan withflat,equal-duopitchorhippedroof,thetwoorthogonalcases
shown in Figure 2.3 are sufficient. When the building is singly-symmetric, three
orthogonal cases are required. When the building is asymmetric, four orthogonal cases
arerequired.
In order to calculate the wind loads, the designer should start first with evaluating the
dynamicpressure
2
e s
613 0 V . q = (2.1)
where
e
V istheeffectivewindspeed(m/s),whichcanbecalculatedfrom
b s e
S V V = (2.2)
where
s
V isthesitewindspeedand
b
S istheterrainandbuildingfactor.
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 33

Yes
Stage1:Dynamicaugmentationfactor
C
r

Stage3:Basicwindspeed
b
V
Stage4:Sitewindspeed
s
V
Stage5:Terraincategories,effective
heightH
e

Stage7:Standardeffectivewind
speedV
e

Stage8:Dynamicpressure
s
q
Stage9:Standardpressure
coefficientsC
pi,
C
pe

Stage10:WindloadsP
Buildingisdynamic.Thispartdoes
notapply
Siteterraintype,levelofupwind
rooftopsH
o
,separationofbuildingsX
Directionalandtopographiceffects
S
c
,T
c
,S
t
,T
t
,S
h

Dynamicpressureq
e,
q
i

DirectionalwindloadsP
No
Figure2.2.Flowchartillustratingoutlineprocedureforthedeterminationofthewind
loads(accordingtoBS6399:Part2)

Stage2:Checklimitsofapplicability
C
r
<0.25,H<300m
Basicwindspeedmap
AltitudefactorS
a
,directionalfactor
S
d
,seasonalfactorS
s

DirectionaleffectivewindspeedV
e

DirectionalpressurecoefficientsC
p

InputbuildingheightH,inputbuilding
typefactor
Stage6:Choiceofmethod
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 34
The terrain and building factor
b
S is determined directly from Table 4 of BS
6399:Part2dependingontheeffectiveheightofthebuildingandtheclosestdistanceto
thesea.
Thesitewindspeed
s
V iscalculatedby
p s d a b s
S S S S V V = (2.3)
where
b
V isthebasicwindspeed,
a
S isthealtitudefactor,
d
S isthedirectionalfactor,
s
S istheseasonalfactorand
p
S istheprobabilityfactor.
The basicwindspeed
b
V canbe estimatedfromthegeographicalvariationgiven
inFigure6ofBS6399:Part2.
The altitude factor
a
S depends on whether topography is considered to be
significantornot,asindicatedinFigure7ofBS6399:Part2.Whentopographyisnot
considered significant, by considering ∆
s
, the site altitude (in meters above mean sea
level),
a
S shouldbecalculatedfrom
a
S =1+0.001
s
∆ .

(2.4)
The directional factor
d
S is utilised to adjust the basic wind speed to produce
windspeedswiththesameriskofbeingexceededinanywinddirection.Table3ofBS
6399:Part2givestheappropriatevaluesof
d
S .Generally,whentheorientationofthe
buildingisunknown,thevalueof
d
S maybetakenas1.
Theseasonalfactor
s
S isemployedtoreducethebasicwindspeedforbuildings,
whichareexpectedtobeexposedtothewindforspecificsubannualperiods.Basically,
for permanent buildings and buildings exposed to the wind for a continuous period of
morethan6monthsavalueof1shouldbeusedfor
s
S .
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 35
Theprobabilityfactor
p
S isusedtochangetheriskofthebasicwindspeedbeing
exceeded from the standard value annually, or in the stated subannual period if
s
S is
alsoused.Fornormaldesignapplications,
p
S maytakeavalueof1.
The second step of calculating the wind loads is evaluating the net surface
pressure p is
i e
p p p − = (2.5)
where
e
p and
i
p are the external and internal pressures acting on the surfaces of a
buildingrespectively.
Theexternalpressure
e
p is
a pe s e
C C q p = ,(2.6)
whiletheinternalsurface-pressure
i
p isevaluatedby
a pi s i
C C q p = (2.7)
where
a
C is the size effect factor,
pe
C is the external pressure coefficient and
pi
C is
theinternalpressurecoefficient.
Values of pressure coefficient
pe
C and
pi
C for walls (windward and leeward
faces)aregiveninTable5ofBS6399:Part2accordingtotheproportionaldimensions
of the building as shown in Figure 2.3 and Figure 2.4. In these figures, the building
surfaces are divided into different zones (A, B, C, and D). Each of these zone has a
differentvalueof
pe
C and
pi
C asgiveninTable5ofBS6399:Part2.
Valuesofsizeeffectfactor
a
C aregiveninFigure4ofBS6399:Part2inwhich
the diagonal dimension (a) of the largest diagonal area to the building category is
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 36
considered.Thecategoryofthebuildingdependsontheeffectiveheightofthebuilding
andtheclosestdistancebetweenthebuildingandthesea.
a
C takesvaluesbetween0.5
and1.0.
ThethirdstepofcalculatingthewindloadsistodeterminethevalueoftheloadP
using
pA P = .(2.8)
Alternatively,theloadPcanbetocomputeby
¿ ¿
+ − = ) C ( ) P P ( . P
r r f
1 85 0 (2.9)
where
¿ f
P isthesummationhorizontalcomponentofthesurfaceloadsactingonthe
windward-facing walls and roofs,
¿ r
P is the summation of horizontal component of
the surface loads acting on the leeward-facing walls and roofs and
r
C is the dynamic
augmentationfactorwhichdetermineddependingonthereferenceheightofthebuilding
r
H . The factor 0.85 accounts for the non-simultaneous action between faces.
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 37

Wind
Wind

D
Plan
(a)Loadcases:windonlongfaceandwindonshortface
Plan
D
B
B
Plan
B
C
A A
D
B/2
B/4
B/10
Wind
(b)keytopressurecoefficientzones
Figure2.3.Keytowallandflatroofpressuredata
Wind
Elevationofsideface

D
A B
B/5
H=H
r

BuildingwithD≤B
Wind

C B A
D
B
H=H
r

B/5
BuildingwithD>B
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 38

Wind Wind
Wind
Wind
C C
C
C
B
B
B
B
A
A
A
A
H
2
=H
r

H
r

(b)Cut-outupwind:tallpartlong
(a)Cut-outdownwind:tallpart
long
H
2
=H
r

A
A
B
H
2
=H
r
B
H
r

H
r

H
1
H
1

(c)Cut-outdownwind:tallpartnarrow (d)Cut-outupwind:tallpartnarrow
Figure2.4.Keytowallpressureforirregularflushfaces(takenfromBS5950)

DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 39

2.3.4 Loadcombinations
Allrelevantloadsshouldbeconsideredseparatelyandinsuchrealisticcombinationsas
tocomprisethemostcriticaleffectsontheelementsandthestructureasawhole.These
combinationsareillustratedinBS5950:Part1bythefollowingtable.
Table2.2.Loadfactorsandcombinations(takenfromBS5950)
Loading Factor
f
γ
Deadload 1.4
Deadloadrestrainingupliftoroverturning 1.0
Deadloadactingwithwindandimposedloadscombined 1.2
Imposedloads 1.6
Imposedloadactingwithwindload 1.2
Windload 1.4
Windloadactingwithimposedorcraneload 1.2
Forcesduetotemperatureeffects 1.2
Craneloadingeffects
Verticalload 1.6
Verticalloadactingwithhorizontalloads(crabbingorsurge) 1.4
Horizontalload 1.6
Horizontalloadactingwithvertical 1.4
Craneactingwithwindload 1.2
Theloadpatternthatshouldbeusedtoobtainthecriticaldesignconditionsisnot
obvious in all cases. The following comments given by MacGinley (1997) are
commonlyusedinthedesignpractice:
• All spans fully loaded should give near the critical beam moments. Other cases
couldgivehighermoments.
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 40
• Theexternalcolumnsarealwaysbentindoublecurvature.Fullloadswillgivenear
criticalmomentsthoughagainasymmetricalloadscouldgivehighervalues.
• Thepatternstogivecriticalmomentsinthecentrecolumnmustbefoundbytrials.
2.4 Serviceabilitylimitstates
2.4.1 Deflectionlimits
The deflection under serviceability loads of a building or part should not impair the
strength or efficiency of the structure or its components or cause damage to the
finishing.
When checking for horizontal and vertical deflections, the most adverse realistic
combination and arrangement of serviceability loads should be used, and the structure
may be assumed to be elastic. Therefore, BS 5950: Part 1 gives recommended
limitations(
all
∆ forcolumnsand
all
δ forbeams)inTable2.3.Theselimitationscanbe
expressedby
1
all
L U
mem
c
mem
c


∆ − ∆
n n
and(2.10)
1
all
max
mem
b

δ
δ
n
(2.11)
where
L U
mem
c
mem
c
n n
, ∆ ∆ are the upper and lower horizontal displacements of a column
under consideration respectively. The vertical displacement
max
mem
b
n
δ is the maximum
valueofwithinthebeamunderconsideration.
TwoalternativeloadingpatternsarerequestedbyBS5950:Part1.Theseare:
• theserviceabilityloadsaretakenastheunfactoredimposedloads,and
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 41
• when considering dead load plus imposed load plus wind load, only 80% of the
imposedloadandwindneedtobeconsidered.
Table2.3.Deflectionlimitsotherthanforpitchedroofportalframes(seeBS5950)
Deflectiononbeamsduetounfactoredimposedload
Cantilevers Length/180
Beamscarryingplasterorotherbrittlefinish Span/360
Allotherbeams Span/200
Purlinsandsheetingrails Seeclause4.12.2
Deflectiononcolumnsotherthanportalframesduetounfactoredimposed
loadandwindloads
Topsofcolumnsinsingle-storeybuildings Height/300
Ineachstoreyofabuildingwithmorethanonestorey Height of storey under
consideration/300
Cranegantrygirders
Verticaldeflectionduetostaticwheelloads Span/600
Horizontal deflection (calculated on the top flange
propertiesalone)duetocranesurge
Span/500
Note 1. On low-pitched and flat roofs the possibility of ponding needs
consideration.
Note2.ForlimitingdeflectionsinrunwaybeamsrefertoBS2853.

2.4.2 Durabilitylimits
In order to ensure the durability of the structure under conditions relevant to both its
intended use and intended life, reference should be made to BS 5493 and BS 4360.
Generally,thefactors(e.g.theenvironment,theshapeofthemembersandthestructural
detailing,whethermaintenanceispossible,etc)shouldbeconsideredatthedesignstage.
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 42
2.5 Strengthrequirements
Situations will often arise in which the loading on a member can not reasonably be
representedasasingledominanteffect.Suchproblemsrequireanunderstandingofthe
way in which the various structural actions interact with one another. In the simplest
cases this may amount to a direct summation of load effects. Alternatively, for more
complex problems, careful consideration of the complicated interplay between the
individual load components and the resulting deformations is necessary. The design
approach discussed in this context is intended for use in situations where a single
memberistobedesignedforaknownsetofendmomentsandforces.
Before presenting the strength requirements, a basic idea on classification of
sectionsaccordingtoBS5950isindicated.Thiscanbepresentedasfollows:
(a) Plastic cross section. A cross section which can develop a plastic hinge with
sufficient rotation capacity to allow redistribution of bending moments within the
structure.
(b) Compact cross section. A cross section which can develop the plastic moment
capacity of the section but in which local buckling prevents rotation at constant
moment.
(c) Semi-compactcrosssection.Acrosssectioninwhichthestressintheextremefibres
shouldbelimitedtoyieldbecauselocalbucklingwouldpreventdevelopmentofthe
plasticmomentcapacityinthesection.
(d) Slendercrosssection.Acrosssectioninwhichyieldoftheextremefibrescannotbe
attainedbecauseofprematurelocalbuckling.
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 43
Inordertodifferentiatebetweenthosefourtypesofcrosssections,Table7ofBS
5950: Part 1 illustrates the limiting width to thickness ratios, depending on the type of
cross section (e.g. I-section, H-section, circular hollow sections, etc), within which the
sectioncanbeclassified.Theselimitingratiosaregovernedbytheconstant
y
275
p
= ε (2.12)
where
y
p isthedesignstrength,andmaybetakenas

>

=
s s s
s s s
y
84 0 if 84 0
84 0 if
U . Y U .
U . Y Y
p (2.13)
where
s
Y and
s
U areyieldstrengthandultimatetensilestrength.Alternatively,
y
p can
bedeterminedaccordingtotheflangethicknessasgiveninTable2.4.Incaseofslender
crosssections,
y
p shouldbeevaluatedbymultiplyingthevaluesgiveninTable2.4bya
reductionfactortakenfromTable8ofBS5950:Part1.
Table2.4.Designstrength
SteelGrade
Thicknesslessthanor
equalto(mm)
Designstrength
y
p (N/mm
2
)
16 275
40 265
63 255
43
100 245
2.5.1 Shearstrength
BS 5950: Part 1 requires that the shear force
v
F isnot greaterthanshearcapacity
v
P .
Thiscanbeformulatedas
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 44
1
v
v

P
F
.(2.14)
Theshearcapacity
v
P canbeevaluatedby
v y v
6 0 A p . P × × = (2.15)
where
v
A istheshearareaandcanbetakenasgiveninTable2.5consideringthecross-
sectionaldimensions(t,d,D,B)showninFigure2.5.
Table2.5.Sheararea
SectionType
v
A
RolledI,Handchannelsections tD
Built-upsections td
Solidbarsandplates
g
9 0 A .
Rectangularhollowsections [ ]
g
A ) B D ( D +
Circularhollowsections
g
6 0 A .
Anyothersection
g
9 0 A .

B
D
D
Y
T
d
Y
X
X

t
(b)Rolledbeamsandcolumns (a)Circularhollowsection(CHS)
Figure2.5.Dimensionsofsections
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 45
Whenthedepthtothethicknessratioofawebofrolledsectionbecomes
ε 63 ≥
t
d
,(2.16)
thesectionshouldbecheckedforshearbucklingusing
1
cr
v

V
F
(2.17)
where
cr
V istheshearresistancethatcanbeevaluatedby
t d q V
cr cr
= .(2.18)
In this equation, the critical shear strength
cr
q can be appropriately obtained from
Tables21(a)to(d)ofBS5950:Part1.
2.5.2 Tensionmemberswithmoments
Anymembersubjectedtobendingmomentandnormaltensionforceshouldbechecked
for lateral torsional buckling and capacity to withstand the combined effects of axial
loadandmomentatthepointsofgreatestbendingandaxialloads.Figure2.6illustrates
the type of three-dimensional interaction surface that controls the ultimate strength of
steel members under combined biaxial bending and axial force. Each axis represents a
singleloadcomponentofnormalforceF,bendingabouttheXandYaxesofthesection
(
X
M or
Y
M )andeachplanecorrespondstotheinteractionoftwocomponents.

y e
p A
F
CX
X
M
M

CY
Y
M
M

Figure2.6.Interactionsurfaceoftheultimatestrengthundercombinedloading
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 46
2.5.2.1 Localcapacitycheck
Usually,thepointsofgreatestbendingandaxialloadsareeitheratthemiddleorendsof
membersunderconsideration.Hence,themembercanbecheckedasfollows:
1
CY
Y
CX
X
y e
≤ + +
M
M
M
M
p A
F
(2.19)
whereFistheappliedaxialloadinmemberunderconsideration,
X
M and
Y
M arethe
appliedmomentaboutthemajorandminoraxesatcriticalregion,
CX
M and
CY
M are
themomentcapacityaboutthemajorandminoraxesintheabsenceofaxialloadand
e
A
istheeffectivearea.
Theeffectivearea
e
A canbeobtainedby

>

=
g n e g
g n e n e
e
if
if
A A K A
A A K A K
A (2.20)
where
e
K isfactorandcanbetakenas1.2forgrade40or43,
g
A isthegrossareataken
fromrelevantstandardtables,and
n
A isthenetareaandcanbedeterminedby
¿
=
− =
ϕ n
i
i
A A A
1
g n
(2.21)
where
i
A istheareaoftheholenumberi,and ϕ n isthenumberofholes.
The moment capacity
CX
M can be evaluated according to whether the value of
shear load is low or high. The moment capacity
CX
M with low shear load can be
identifiedwhen
1
6 0
v
v

P .
F
.(2.22)
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 47
Hence,
CX
M should be taken according to the classification of the cross section as
follows:
• forplasticorcompactsections

>

=
, Z p S p Z p
Z p S p S p
M
X y X y X y
X y X y X y
CX
1.2 if 1.2
1.2 if
(2.23)
• forsemi-compactorslendersections
CX
M =
X y
Z p (2.24)
where
X
S is the plastic modulus of the section about the X-axis, and
X
Z is the elastic
modulusofthesectionabouttheX-axis.
Themomentcapacity
CX
M withhighshearloadcanbedefinedwhen
v
v
6 0 P .
F
>1.(2.25)
Accordingly,
CX
M is
• forplasticorcompactsections

> −
≤ − −
=
X y v X y X y
X y v X y v X y
CX
2 1 if 2 1
2 1 if
Z p . ) S S ( p Z p .
Z p . ) S S ( p ) S S ( p
M
ξ
ξ ξ
(2.26)
where
v
S is taken as the plastic modulus of the shear area
v
A for sections with equal
flangesand
5 1
5 2
v
v
.
P
F .
− = ξ ,(2.27)
• forsemi-compactorslendersections
CX
M =
X y
Z p .(2.28)
The moment capacity
CY
M can be similarly evaluated as
CX
M by using the
relevantplasticmodulusandelasticmodulusofthesectionunderconsideration.
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 48
2.5.2.2 Lateraltorsionalbucklingcheck
For equal flanged rolled sections, in each length between lateral restraints, the
equivalent uniform moment M is should not exceed the buckling resistance moment
b
M .Thiscanbeexpressedas
1
b

M
M
.(2.29)
The buckling resistance moment
b
M canbeevaluatedformembers withatleast
oneaxisofsymmetryusing
X b b
S p M = (2.30)
where
b
p isthebending strengthandcanbedeterminedfromTable11ofBS5950in
whichtheequivalentslenderness(
LT
λ )and
y
p areused.
Theequivalentslenderness
LT
λ is
λ λ nuv =
LT
(2.31)
where n is the slenderness correction factor, u is the buckling parameters, v is the
slendernessfactorand λ istheminoraxisslenderness.
Theslendernessfactor v canbedeterminedfromTable14ofBS5950according
tothevaleof λ andtorsionalindexofthesection.
Theminoraxisslenderness
Y
eff
r
L
= λ (2.32)
should not exceed those values given in Table 2.6, where
eff
L is the effective length,
and
Y
r istheradiusofgyration abouttheminoraxisofthememberandmaybetaken
fromthepublishedcatalogues.
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 49
Table2.6.Slendernesslimits
Description Limits
Formembersresistingloadsotherthanwindloads
1
180

λ

Formembersresistingselfweightandwindloadonly
1
250

λ

For any member normally acting as a tie but subject
toreversalofstressresultingfromtheactionofwind
1
350

λ

Theequivalentuniformmoment M canbecalculatedas
M =
A
M m× (2.33)
where
A
M isthemaximummomentonthememberortheportionofthememberunder
consideration and m is an equivalent uniform factor determined either by Table 18 of
BS5950:Part1orusing

2
2 2

< + +
≥ + + + +
=
43 . 0 0.10 0.33 0.57 if 43 . 0
43 . 0 0.10 0.33 0.57 if 0.10 0.33 0.57
β β
β β β β
m (2.34)
where β istheendmomentratiosasshowninFigure2.7.

M
Figure2.7.Determinationoftheendmomentratio( β )
β negative β positive
β M
β M
β M
β M M
M
M
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 50
2.5.3 Compressionmemberswithmoments
Compression members should be checked for local capacity at the points of greatest
bending moment and axial load usually at the ends or middle. This capacity may be
limited either by yielding or local buckling depending on the section properties. The
member should also be checked for overall buckling. These checks can be described
usingthesimplifiedapproachillustratedinthefollowingsections.
2.5.3.1 Localcapacitycheck
Theappropriaterelationshipgivenbelowshouldbesatisfied.
1
CY
Y
CX
X
y g
≤ + +
M
M
M
M
p A
F
(2.35)
wheretheparameters F ,
X
M ,
Y
M ,
g
A ,
y
p ,
CX
M ,and
CY
M aredefinedinSection
2.5.2.1.
2.5.3.2 Overallbucklingcheck
Thefollowingrelationshipshouldbesatisfied:

1
Y y
Y
b
X
C
g
≤ + +
Z p
M m
M
M m
p A
F
(2.36)
where
C
p isthecompressivestrengthandmaybeobtainedfromTable27a,b,candd
ofBS5950.
2.6 Stabilitylimits
Generally, it is assumed that the structure as a whole will remain stable, from the
commencement of erection until demolition and that where the erected members are
incapable of keeping themselves inequilibriumthensufficientexternalbracing willbe
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 51
provided for stability. The designer should consider overall frame stability, which
embracesstabilityagainstswayandoverturning.
2.6.1 Stabilityagainstoverturning
The factored loads considered separately and in combination, should not cause the
structure or any part of the structure including its seating foundations to fail by
overturning,asituation,whichcanoccurwhendesigningtallorcantileverstructures.
2.6.2 Stabilityagainstsway
Structures should also have adequate stiffness against sway. A multi-storey framework
maybeclassedasnon-swaywhetherornotitisbracedifitsswayissuchthatsecondary
momentsduetonon-verticalityofcolumnscanbeneglected.
Sway stiffness may be provided by an effective bracing system, increasing the
bendingstiffnessoftheframemembersortheprovisionofliftshaft,shearwalls,etc.
To ensure stability against sway, in addition to designing for applied horizontal
loads, a separate check should be carried out for notional horizontal forces. These
notionalforcesarisefrompracticalimperfectionssuchaslackofverticalityandshould
betakenasthegreaterof:
• 1%offactoreddeadloadfromthatlevel,appliedhorizontally;
• 0.5%offactoreddeadandimposedloadsfromthatlevel,appliedhorizontally.
The effect of instability has been reflectedon thedesignproblembyusingeither
theextendedsimpledesignmethodortheamplifiedswaydesignmethod.Theextended
simple design method is the most used method in which the effective lengths of
columns in the plane of the frame are obtained as described in section 2.6.2.2.
Determining the effective lengths of columns which is, in essence, equivalent to
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 52
carryingoutastabilityanalysisforonesegmentofaframeandthismustberepeatedfor
all segments. The amplified sway design method is based on work done by Horne
(1975). In this method, the bending moments due to horizontal loading should be
amplifiedbythefactor
( ) 1
cr
cr
− λ
λ
(2.37)
where
cr
λ isthecriticalloadfactorandcanbeapproximatedby
s.max
cr
200
1
φ
λ = .(2.38)
Inthisequation,
s.max
φ isthelargestvalueforanystoreyoftheswayindex
s
φ =
i
n n
h
L U
mem
c
mem
c
∆ − ∆
(2.39)
where
i
h isthestoreyheight,
L U
mem
c
mem
c
and
n n
∆ ∆ arethehorizontaldisplacementsofthe
topandbottomofacolumnasshowninFigure2.5.
Inamplifiedswaydesignmethod,thecoderequiresthattheeffectivelengthofthe
columns in the plane of the frame may be retained at the basic value of the actual
columnlength.
2.6.2.1 Classificationintosway/non-swayframe
BS 5950: Part 1 differentiates between sway and non-sway frames by considering the
magnitudeofthehorizontaldeflection
i
∆ ofeachstoreyduetotheapplicationofaset
ofnotionalhorizontalloads.Thevalueof
i
∆ canthereforebeformulatedas
i
∆ =
L U
mem
c
mem
c
n n
∆ − ∆ .(2.40)
This reflects the lateral stiffness of the frame and includes the influence of vertical
loading.Iftheactualframeisuncladoriscladandthestiffnessofthecladdingistaken
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 53
into account in the analysis, the frame may be considered to be non-sway if
i
∆ , for
everystorey,isgovernedby
i

4000
i
h
≤ .(2.41)
If,asinfrequentlythecase,theframeworkiscladbuttheanalysisiscarriedouton
the bare framework, then in recognition of the fact that the cladding will substantially
reducedeflections,theconditionisrelaxedsomewhatandtheframemaybeconsidered
asnon-swayifthedeflectionofeverystoreyis
i

2000
i
h
≤ .(2.42)
2.6.2.2 Determinationoftheeffectivelengthfactor
WorkbyWood(1974a)hasledtothedevelopmentoffew‘simple-to-use’charts,which
permit the designer to treat the full spectrum of end restraint combinations. The
approachisbasedupontheconsiderationsofalimitedframeasindicatedinFigure2.9a
where
U
K ,
L
K ,
TL
K ,
TR
K ,
BL
K , and
BR
K are the values for I/L for the adjacent
upper,lower,top-left,top-right,bottom-leftandbottomrightcolumnsrespectively.
For non-sway frames, the analysis is based upon a combination of two possible
distorted components-joint rotations at the upper and lower end of the column under
considerationandthecalculationoftheelasticcriticalloadusingthestabilityfunctions.
For structures inwhichhorizontalforcesaretransmittedtothefoundationsbybending
momentsinthecolumns,asimilarlimitedframeisconsideredasshowninFigure2.9b.
For non-sway frames, the solution to the stability criterion is plotted as contours
directly in terms of effective length ratio as shown in Figure 23 of BS 5950. On the
other hand, for sway structures, the analysis from which the chart (Figure 24 of BS
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 54
5950) is derived has considered not only rotations at the column ends but also the
freedomtosway.Utilisingtherestraintcoefficients
1
k and
2
k evaluatedfrom
BR BL L C
L C
2
TR TL U C
U C
1
and
K K K K
K K
k
K K K K
K K
k
+ + +
+
=
+ + +
+
= .(2.43)
The value of the effective length factor L L
eff
X
may be interpolated from the
plotted contour lines given in either Figure 23 of BS 5950 established for a column in
non-sway framework or Figure 24 of BS 5950 prepared for a column in sway
framework.

WhenusingFigure23and24ofBS5950,thefollowingpointsshouldbenoted.
1. Anymembernotpresentornotrigidlyconnectedtothecolumnunderconsideration
shouldbeallottedaKvalueofzero.
(a)Limitedframeforanon-swayframe (b)Limitedframeforaswayframe
TL
K
L
eff
X
L
L
K
TR
K
U
K
L
I
K =
C

BR
K
BL
K
A
c
t
u
a
l

l
e
n
g
t
h

E
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e

l
e
n
g
t
h

L
I
K =
C

BL
K
U
K
TR
K
TL
K
BR
K
L
K
Figure2.9.Limitedframeforanon-swayandswayframes
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 55
2. Any restraining member required to carry more than 90% of its moment capacity
(reducedforthepresenceofaxialloadifappropriate)shouldbeallottedaKvalueof
zero.
3. Ifeitherendofthecolumnbeingdesignedisrequiredtocarrymorethan90%ofits
moment-carryingcapacitythevalueof
1
k or
2
k shouldbetakenas1.
4. If the column is not rigidly connected to the foundation,
2
k is taken as minimal
restraint value equal to 0.9, unless the column is actually pinned (thereby
deliberatelypreventingrestraint),when
2
k equalsto1.
5. If the column is rigidly connected to a suitable foundation (i.e. one which can
provide restraint),
2
k should be taken 0.5, unless the foundation can be shown to
providemorerestraintenablingalower(morebeneficial)valueof
2
k tobeused.
Thefirstthreeconditions reflectthelackofrotationalcontinuityduetoplasticity
encroaching into the cross-section and the consequent loss of elastic stiffness, which
mightotherwisebemobilizedinpreventinginstability.
Three additional features, which must be noted when employing these charts,
namelythevalueofbeamstiffness
b
K tobeadopted.Inthebasicanalysisfromwhich
the charts were derived it was assumed that the ends of the beams remote from the
column being designed were encastre (Steel Construction Institute, 1988). This is not
howeveralwaysappropriateandguidanceonmodifiedbeamstiffnessvaluesislistedas
follows:
1. For sway and non-sway cases, for beams, which are directly supporting a concrete
floorslab,itisrecommendedthat
b
K shouldbetakenas L I
b
forthemember.
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 56
2. Forarectilinearframenotcoveredbyconcreteslabandwhichisreasonablyregular
inlayout:
a) For non-sway frames, where it can be expected that single curvature bending will
occurinthebeamasindicatedFigure2.10a,
b
K shouldbetakenas L I .
b
5 0 .
b) Forswayframes,whereitcanbeexpectedthatdouble-curvaturebendingwillexist
asindicatedinFigure2.10b,theoperativebeamstiffnesswillbeincreasedand
b
K
shouldbetakenas L I .
b
5 0 .Ariderisaddedtothisclausewhichnotesthatwhere
thein-planeeffectivelengthhasasignificantinfluenceonthedesignthenitmaybe
preferable to obtain the effective lengths from the critical load factor
cr
λ
.
This
reflectsthe approximatenatureofthechartsandthegreateraccuracypossiblefrom
criticalloadcalculation.
3. Forstructureswheresomeresistancetosideswayisprovidedbypartialswaybracing
orbythepresenceofinfillpanels,twootherchartsaregiven.Oneforthesituation
wheretherelativestiffnessofthebracingtothatofthestructuredenotedby
3
k is1
andthesecondwhere
3
k =2.

Figure2.10.Criticalbucklingmodesofframe(takenfromBS5950)
(a)Bucklingmodeofnon-swayframe (b)Bucklingmodeofswayframe
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 57
2.7 Flowchartofdesignprocedure
Figure2.11showsthelimitstatedesignprocedureforastructuralframework.

Yes No
Applynotionalhorizontalloadingcondition,computehorizontal
nodaldisplacementsanddeterminewhethertheframeworkis
swayornon-sway
Applyloadingconditionq=1,2, Q , Λ :iftheframeworkissway,
thenincludethenotionalhorizontalloadingcondition
Analyzetheframework,computenormalforce,shearingforce
andbendingmomentsforeachmemberoftheframework
Designofmember
mem
n =1,2,
mem
N , Λ
Evaluatethedesignstrengthofthemember
B A D
Tension
member?
Computetheeffectivebucklinglengths
Checktheslendernesscriteria
Determinethetypeofthesection(compactorsemi-compactor
compactorslender)utilisingTable7ofBS5950
C
Figure2.11a.Flowchartofdesignprocedureofstructuralsteelwork
Start
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 58

No
Yes
No
Yes
D B A
Localcapacitycheck
Localcapacitycheck
Lateraltorsionalbuckling
check
Overallcapacitycheck
Checktheserviceabilitycriteria
Is
mem
n =
mem
N ?
Isq=Q?
Computethehorizontalandverticalnodaldisplacementsduetothe
specifiedloadingconditionsfortheserviceabilitycriteria
Carryoutthecheckofshearand
shearbucklingifnecessary.
C
End
Figure2.11b.(cont.)Flowchartofdesignprocedureofstructuralsteelwork

DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 59
2.8 Computerbasedtechniquesforthedeterminationofthe
effectivelengthfactor
The values of the effective length factor given in Figures 23 and 24 of BS 5950 are
obtained when the condition of vanishing determinantal form of the unknown of the
equilibrium equations is satisfied (see Chapter 3). The slope deflection method for the
stability analysis is used (see Wood 1974a). This method is based on trial and error
technique. Accordingly, it is difficult to link such this method to design optimization
algorithm. Therefore, to incorporate the determination of the effective length factor
L L
eff
X
for a column in either sway or non-sway framework into a computer based
algorithm for steelwork design, two techniques are presented. These techniques are
describedinthefollowingsections.
2.8.1 Technique1:Digitizingthecharts
It can be seen that each of these figures is symmetric about one of its diagonal thus,
digitizingahalfoftheplotwillbesufficient.Thefollowingprocedureisapplied.
Step1.ThechartshavebeenmagnifiedtotwicetheirsizeasgiveninBS5950:Part1.
Step 2. Each axis (
1
k and
2
k ) is divided into 100 equal divisions, resulting in 101
values{0.0,0.01,…,1.0}foreachrestrainingcoefficient.
Step3.Morecontourlineshavebeenaddedtogetagoodapproximationforeachchart.
Step4.Thevalueof L L
eff
X
wasreadforeachpair(
1
k ,
2
k )ofvaluesaccordingtothe
division mentioned above. These are graphically represented as shown in Figures 2.12
and 2.13 for non-sway and sway charts respectively. In Figure 2.13, values of L L
eff
X

greaterthan5arenotplotted.
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 60
Step5.Twoarrays,namedSforswayandNSfornon-sway,arecreatedeachofthemis
a two-dimensional array of 101 by 101 elements. These arrays contain the 10201
digitizedvaluesof L L
eff
X
.
Step 6. The calculated values (
1
k and
2
k ) applying equation (2.43) are multiplied by
100, and the resulting values are approximated to the nearest higher integer numbers
named
h
1
k and
h
2
k .Thevalueof L L
eff
X
maythenbetakenfromthearraysas
L
L
eff
X
=

+ +
+ +
frame. sway - non a in column a for ) 1 1 (
frame sway a in column a for ) 1 1 (
h
2
h
1
h
2
h
1
k , k NS
k , k S
(2.44)
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 61

L
L
eff
X

1
k
2
k
Figure2.12.Surfaceplotoftherestraintcoefficients
1
k and
2
k versus L L
eff
X
for
acolumninarigid-jointednon-swayframe
1.0
0.8
0.4
0.2
0.0
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
0.2
0.6
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
L
L
eff
X

1
k
2
k
Figure2.13.Surfaceplotoftherestraintcoefficients
1
k and
2
k versus L L
eff
X
for
acolumnarigid-jointedswayframe
1.0
0.8
0.4
0.2
0.0
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
0.2
0.6
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 62
2.8.2 Technique2:Analyticaldescriptionsofthecharts
In this section, polynomials are obtained applying two methodologies. Firstly, a
statistical package for social sciences named SPSS is used. Secondly, the genetic
programmingmethodologyisemployed.
2.8.2.1 Regressionanalysis
In thissection,polynomialsareassumedandtheirparametersareobtainedbyapplying
the Levenberg-Marquart method modeled in SPSS (1996). Several textbooks discuss
and give FORTRAN code for this method among them Press et al. (1992). SPSS is a
general-purpose statistical package, which is used for analysing data. In this context,
pairsof(
1
k ,
2
k )andtheircorresponding L L
eff
X
valuesareusedtoformpolynomials,
which can then be tested. A guide to data analysis using SPSS is given by Norusis
(1996).Theprocedureusedcanbedescribedasfollows:
Step1.ThechartsaremagnifiedtotwiceastheirsizeasestablishedinBS5950.
Step 2. Each axis (
1
k and
2
k ) are divided into 20 equal divisions. This results in 21
values[0.0,0.05,…,1.0]foreachaxis.Morecontourlinesarethenaddedtoeachchart.
Hence, the value of L L
eff
X
was approximated for each pair (
1
k ,
2
k ) according to the
divisiongivenabove.
Step 3. The data SPSS data file is prepared. Here, the dependent L L
eff
X
and
independent(
1
k ,
2
k )variablesandtheanalysistype(linearornonlinear)ischosen.
Step4.Ageneralshapeofapolynomialisassumed.Thegeneralforms
2 1 5
2
2 4
2
1 3 2 2 1 1 0
eff
X
k k a k a k a k a k a a
L
L
+ + + + + = ,(2.45)
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 63
3
2 9
3
1 8
2
2 1 7 2
2
1 6
2 1 5
2
2 4
2
1 3 2 2 1 1 0
eff
X
k a k a k k a k k a
k k a k a k a k a k a a
L
L
+ + +
+ + + + + + =
and(2.46)
2
2
k k a k k a k k a k a
k a k a k a k k a k k a
k k a k a k a k a k a a
L
L
2
1 14
3
2 1 13 2
3
1 12
4
2 11
4
1 10
3
2 9
3
1 8
2
2 1 7 2
2
1 6
2 1 5
2
2 4
2
1 3 2 2 1 1 0
eff
X
+ + +
+ + + + +
+ + + + + + =
(2.47)
areutilisedtoexpressthe2
nd
,3
rd
and4
th
orderpolynomials,wherea
0
,a
1
,…,a
n
arethe
parameters.
Step5.Carryingouttheanalysisbyexaminingrelationshipsbetweenthedependentand
independentvariablesandtestingthehypotheses(seeNorusis,1996).
Step6.Acceptingtheobtainedresultsorrepeatsteps4and5.
When applying the proposed technique to achieve polynomials of L L
eff
X
of a
columninswayframework,a poorperformanceoftestingthehypothesesisperformed
because the infinity values of L L
eff
X
is estimated. This occurs when either of the
column ends becomes pinned.Thus,valuesof L L
eff
X
greaterthan 5aretruncatedand
thetechniqueisrepeated.
For a column in non-sway framework, the obtained polynomials of L L
eff
X
are
listed in Table 2.7. Table 2.8comprisespolynomialsforacolumninswayframework.
The4
th
orderpolynomialsaredepictedasshowninFigures2.14and2.15foracolumn
in non-sway and sway framework respectively. The sum of square of the differences
diff
SUM betweenthecalculated
cal
eff
X , i
) L L ( andread
dig
eff
X , i
) L L ( is
diff
SUM =
2
441
1
dig
eff
X
cal
eff
X
¿
=

i
, i , i
L
L
L
L
(2.48)
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 64
Table2.7.Polynomialsobtainedfor L L
eff
X
ofacolumninanon-swayframe
Equation
diff
SUM
2 1
2
2
2
1
2 1
eff
X
094815 . 0 0772 . 0 0772 . 0
11803 . 0 11803 . 0 50562 . 0
k k k k
k k
L
L
+ +
+ + + =

0.00025
3
2
3
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2 1
2
2
2
1
2 1
eff
X
042576 . 0 042576 . 0 06252 . 0
06252 . 0 0.0302258 1098 . 0
1098 . 0 0.134267 0.134267 0.499363
k k k k
k k k k - k
k k k
L
L
− −
+ +
+ + + + =

0.000736
2
2
2
1
3
2
1 2
3
1
4
2
4
1
3
2
3
1
2
2
1 2
2
1
2 1
2
2
2
1
2 1
eff
X
032727 . 0 053263 . 0 053263 . 0
032573 . 0 032573 . 0 1343541 . 0
1343541 . 0 015352 . 0 015352 . 0
0.0005816 185809 . 0 185809 . 0
0.1129124 0.1129124 0.51496
k k k k k k
k k k
k k k k k
k k - k k
k k
L
L
− +
+ + +
− − +
+ +
+ + + =

0.000579
Table2.8.Polynomialsobtainedfor L L
eff
X
ofacolumninaswayframe
Equation
diff
SUM
3
2
3
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2 1
2
2
2
1
2 1
eff
X
36469 . 2 36469 . 2 629751 . 2
629751 . 2 3.822909 93426 . 2
93426 . 2 1.78797 1.78797 0.78173
k k k k
k k k k - k
k k k
L
L
+ +
+ +
− − + + =

1.8086
2
2
2
1
3
2
1
2
3
1
4
2
4
1
3
2
3
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2 1
2
2
2
1
2 1
eff
X
89349 . 5 22176 . 5
22176 . 5 579345 . 3 579345 . 3
91641 . 6 91641 . 6 41008 . 10
41008 . 10 7.00754 5268 . 5
5268 . 5 1.32226 - 1.32226 - 14112 . 1
k k k k
k k k k
k k k k
k k k k k
k k k
L
L
+
+ + +
+ − −
− − +
+ + =

0.555406
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 65

(a)Surfaceplot

(b)Contourplot

Figure2.14.Graphicalrepresentationofthe4
th
orderpolynomialof L L
eff
X
for
acolumninarigid-jointednon-swayframe
L
L
eff
X

1
k
2
k
1.0
0.8
0.4
0.2
0.0
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
0.2
0.6
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
0.0 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.1 0.2
0.0
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
0.1
0.2
Fixed
Fixed
Pinned
Pinned
k
1
k
2
0
.
5
2
5
0
.
5
5
0
.
5
7
5
0
.
6
0
0
.
6
2
5
0
.
6
5
0
.
7
0
0
.
7
5
0
.
8
0
0
.
6
7
5
0
.
8
5
0
.
9
0
0
.
9
5
1
.
0
0
.
5
0
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 66

(a)Surfaceplot

(b)Contourplot

L
L
eff
X

1
k
2
k
1.0
0.8
0.4
0.2
0.0
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
0.2
0.6
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
Figure2.15.Graphicalrepresentationof4
th
orderpolynomialof L L
eff
X
for
acolumninarigid-jointednon-swayframe
0.0 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.1 0.2
0.0
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
0.1
0.2
Fixed
Fixed
Pinned
Pinned
k
1
k
2
1
.
0
5
1
.
1
0
1
.
1
5
1
.
2
0
1
.
2
5
1
.
3
0
1
.
5
0
1
.
6
0
1
.
7
0
1
.
4
0
1
.
8
0
1
.
9
0
2
.
0
2
.
2
0
3
.
0
∞ ∞∞ ∞
4
.
0
5
.
0
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 67
FromFigure2.14,itcanbeobservedthatthe4
th
orderpolynomialobtainedforthe
determinationof L L
eff
X
ofacolumninnon-swayframeworkisalmostidenticaltothe
originaldatathatisshowninFigure2.12.ItcanbealsodeducedfromFigure2.15that
that the 4
th
order polynomial obtained for the determination of L L
eff
X
of a column in
swayframeworkisnotinagoodagreementwiththeoriginaldatashowninFigure2.13.
2.8.2.2 Geneticprogramming(GP)
This section describes the analytical description of Figures 23 and 24 of BS 5950.
ToropovandAlvarez(1998)suggestedtheuseofGPmethodology(Koza,1992)forthe
selectionofthestructureofananalyticalapproximationexpression.Theexpressionsare
composedofelementsfromaterminalset(designvariables
1
k and
2
k ),andafunctional
set (mathematical operators +, *, /, -, etc), which are known as nodes. The functional
set, as shown in Figure 2.16, can be subdivided intobinarynodes,whichtakeanytwo
arguments,andunarynodes,whichtakeoneargumente.g.squareroot.

Modelling the expression evolves through the action of three basic genetic
operations: reproduction, crossover and mutation. In the reproduction stage,
p
N
SQ
+
k
1

k
2

+
a
0

a
2
a
1

Unarynode
Binarynode
Terminalnode
Figure2.16.Typicaltreestructurerepresenting ( )
2
2 2 1 1 0
k a k a a + +
×
×
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 68
expressions are randomly created and the fitness of each expression is calculated.
Astrategymustbeadoptedtodecidewhichexpressionsshoulddie.Thisisachievedby
killing those expressions having a fitness below the average fitness. Then, the
population is filled with the surviving expressions according to fitness proportionate
selection.Newexpressionsarethencreatedbyapplyingcrossoverandmutation,which
provide diversity of the population. Crossover (Figure 2.17) combines two trees
(parents) to produce two children while mutation (Figure 2.18) protects the model
againstprematureconvergenceandimprovesthenon-localpropertiesofthesearch.

Parent2

+
k
1

SQ
/
+
k
2

+
k
1

SQ
/
+
k
2

SQ
k
2

SQ
k
2

k
2

k
1

k
1
k
2

Parent1
Child1 Child2
Figure2.17.Crossover
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 69

TheGPmethodologyhasbeenappliedwherethe4
th
orderpolynomial
(2.49) 03272728 0 053263 0 053263 0
032573 0 032573 0 1343541 0 1343541 0
015352 0 015352 0 0.0005816 185809 0
185809 0 0.1129124 0.1129124 0.51496
2
2
2
1
3
2 1 2
3
1
4
2
4
1
3
2
3
1
2
2 1 2
2
1 2 1
2
2
2
2 1
eff
X
1
k k . k k . k k .
k . k . k . k .
k k . k k . k k - k .
k . k k
L
L
− +
+ + + −
− + +
+ + + + =

isobtainedforthedeterminationoftheeffectivelengthfactorofacolumninnon-sway
framework.Foracolumninswayframework,the7
th
orderpolynomial
(2.50) 9215 49 9215 49 4783 39
4783 39 5579 18 5579 18 97372 8
97372 8 73689 164 37368 141 37368 141
925149 75 925149 75 31407 31 31407 31
337 202 337 202 82327 124 82327 124
49748 47 49748 47 678021 140 84266 103
84266 103 380878 39 380878 39 12882 19
12882 19 2545 45 2545 45 9.269518
70571 4 70571 4 0.843802 0.843802 982287 0
4
2
3
1
3
2
4
1
5
2
2
1
2
2
5
1
6
2 1 2
6
1
7
2
7
1
3
2
3
1
4
2
2
1
2
2
4
1
2
5
1
5
2 1
6
2
6
1
2
2
3 3
2
2
2
4
1
4
2 1
5
2
5
1
2
2
2
1
3
2 1
2
3
1
4
2
4
1
3
2
3
1
2
2 1 2
2
1 2 1
2
2
2
2 1
eff
X
1 1
1
k k . k k . k k .
k k . k k . k k . k .
k . k k . k k . k k .
k k . k k . k . k .
k k . k k . k k . k k .
k . k . k k . k k .
k k . k . k . k .
k . k k . k k . k k
- k . k . k k .
L
L
+ +
+ + + +
+ + − −
− − − −
− + + +
+ + + −
− − − −
+ + + +
− − + + =

isachieved.ThisexpressionisdepictedinFigure2.19.

+
k
1

SQ
k
1

k
2

+
Figure2.18.Mutation
×
×
k
1

SQ
k
1

k
2

DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 70

(a)Surfaceplot

(b)Contourplot
1.0
0.8
0.4
0.2
0.0
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
0.2
0.6
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
L
L
eff
X

1
k
2
k
Figure2.19.Graphicalrepresentationof7
th
orderpolynomialof L L
eff
X
for
acolumninarigid-jointednon-swayframe
0.0 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.1 0.2
0.0
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
0.1
0.2
Fixed
Fixed
Pinned
Pinned
k
1
k
2
1
.
0
5
1
.
1
0
1
.
1
5
1
.
2
0
1
.
2
5
1
.
3
0
1
.
5
0
1
.
6
0
1
.
7
0
1
.
4
0
1
.
8
0
1
.
9
0
2
.
0
2
.
2
0
1
.
0
3
.
0
∞ ∞∞ ∞
4
.
0
5
.
0
DesignProcedureforSteelFrameStructuresaccordingtoBS5950 71
2.9 Concludingremarks
Thischapterreviewedanoverallbackgroundtotheconceptofthelimitstatedesignfor
steelframeworkmemberstoBS5950.Abriefintroductiontotheappliedloadsandload
combination is presented. The serviceability, strength as well as sway stability criteria
employed in the present context are summarised. Furthermore, a general layout of the
developed computer-based technique to framework design is presented. Finally,
analytical polynomials are achieved to automate the determination of the effective
lengthfactor.Inthisinvestigation,thefollowingobservationscanbesummarised.
• For columns in a non-sway framework, the 2
nd
or 3
rd
or 4
th
order polynomials
presented in Table 2.8 can be successfully used to determine the effective length
factorindesignoptimizationbasedtechniques.
• For columns in a sway framework, the 7
th
order polynomial can be applied when
bothofthecolumnrestraintcoefficientsarelessthan0.95.Otherwise,thetechnique
discussedinSection2.8.1maybeutilised.
This chapter now will be followed by theory and methods of computing the
critical buckling load employed for more accurate evaluation of the effective buckling
length.

Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950

27

members and details of the structural joints are selected by checking against specification member-capacity formulae. Section 2.2 starts with definitions of basic limit-states terminology. Then, determination of loads, load factors, and load combinations are given as requested by the British codes of practice BS 6399. Accordingly, ultimate limit state design documents of structural elements are described. In this, the discussion is extended to cover the strength, stability and serviceability requirements of the British code of practice BS 5950: Part 1. Finally, the chapter ends by describing methods used, in the present study, to represent the charts of the effective length factor of column in sway or non-sway frames in a computer code.

2.2 Limit state concept and partial safety factors
Limit state theory includes principles from the elastic and plastic theories and incorporates other relevant factors to give as realistic a basis for design as possible. The following concepts, listed by many authors, among them McCormac (1995), Nethercot (1995), Ambrose (1997), and MacGinley (1997), are central to the limit state theory: 1. account is taken of all separate design conditions that could cause failure or make the structure unfit for its intended use, 2. the design is based on the actual behaviour of materials in structures and the performance of real structures, established by tests and long-term observations, 3. the overall intention is that design is to be based on statistical methods and probability theory and 4. separate partial factors of safety for loads and for materials are specified.

Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950

28

The limiting conditions given in Table 2.1 are normally grouped under two headings: ultimate or safety limit states and serviceability limit states. The attainment of ultimate limit states (ULS) may be regarded as an inability to sustain any increase in load. Serviceability limit states (SLS) checks against the need for remedial action or some other loss of utility. Thus ULS are conditions to be avoided whilst SLS could be considered as merely undesirable. Since a limit state approach to design involves the use of a number of specialist terms, simple definitions of the more important of these are provided by Nethercot (1995).

Table 2.1. Limit states (taken from BS 5950: Part 1) Ultimate States 1. Strength (including general yielding, rupture, buckling and transformation into mechanism) Serviceability states 5. Deflection 6. Vibration (e.g. wind induced oscillation

2. Stability against overturning and sway 7. Repairable damage due to fatigue 3. Fracture due to fatigue 4. Brittle fracture 8. Corrosion and durability

Figure 2.1 shows how limit-state design employs separate factors γ f , which reflect the combination of variability of loading γ l , material strength γ m and structural performance γ p . In the elastic design approach, the design stress is achieved by scaling down the strength of material or member using a factor of safety γ e as indicated in Figure 2.1, while the plastic design compares actual structural member stresses with the effects of factored-up loading by using a load factor of γ p .

Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950

29

Numerical values Plastic design Strength of material or of member
÷γm

Limit state design
÷γe ×γp ×γf

Stresses or stress resultants due to working loads Elastic design Figure 2.1. Level for different design methods at which calculations are conducted (Nethercot, 1995) (taken from Nethercot 1995) BS 5950 deliberately adopts a very simple interpretation of the partial safety factor concept in using only three separate γ-factors: • Variability of loading γ l : loads may be greater than expected; also loads used to counteract the overturning of a structure (see section 2.6) may be less than intended. • Variability of material strength γ m : the strength of the material in the actual structure may vary from the strength used in calculations. • Variability of structural performance γ p : The structure may not be as strong as assumed in the design because of the variation in the dimensions of members, variability of workmanship and differences between the simplified idealisation necessary for analysis and the actual behaviour of the real structure. A value of 1.2 has been adopted for γ p which, when multiplied by the values selected for γ l (approximately 1.17 for dead load and 1.25 for live load) leads to the values of

in addition to the bare steelwork. live and wind loads are given.3.3. Consequently. Frequently. plaster finishes and others (e. ceiling.g. the usual forms of loading include dead load. 2.g. which the structure must withstand. Loads due to temperature effects and earthquakes. Therefore. several different forms of loading must be considered. in certain parts of the world. should be considered.3 Loads and load combinations Assessment of the design loads for a structure consists of identifying the forces due to both natural and designer-made effects. acting either singly or in combination. moving live loads and their corresponding horizontal loads (e. it is usually necessary to make reference to BS 6399: Part 1. in which basic data on dead. Values of γ m have been incorporated directly into the design strengths given in BS 5950. Other types of structure will have their own special forms of loading. examples of which are discussed in Section 2. the weights of floor slabs. although in some cases the most unfavourable situation can be easily identifiable. which is then applied to the working loads. braking forces on bridges or braking force due to the horizontal movement of cranes). 2.1 Dead load Determination of dead load requires estimation of the weight of the structural members together with its associated “non-structural” component. etc) must all be considered. partition walls. and then assigning suitable values to them. air conditions. Since certain values of these dead loads will not be known until after at least a tentative design . For buildings. live load and wind load. ducts.Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950 30 γ f . When assessing the loads acting on a structure. and 3. heating systems. for instance. 2. the designer needs only to consider γ f values in the analysis.

offices. Clearly. which is used with standard pressure coefficients to determine the wind loads. which depend on the building’s shape.Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950 31 is available. • directional method in which effective wind speeds and pressure coefficients are determined to derive the wind loads for each wind direction. designers normally approximate values based on experience for their initial calculations. In BS 6399: Part 2. This is then converted into a force on the surface of the structure using pressure or force coefficients. and movable equipment within the building. 2. . a dynamic pressure is determined. A preliminarily value of 6-10 kN/m2 for the dead load can be taken. values will be appropriate for different forms of building-domestic. the wind loading can be obtained by using one or a combination of the following methods: • standard method uses a simplified procedure to obtain a standard effective wind speed. Therefore. BS 6399: Part 1 gives a minimum value of the live load according to the purpose of the structural usage (see BS 6399: Part 1).3. etc. for all structures less than 100 m in height and where the wind loading can be represented by equivalent static loads. 2.3. starting from the basic speed for the geographical location under consideration.2 Live load Live load in buildings covers items such as occupancy by people. In practice. ground roughness and length of exposure to the wind. ice are normally included in this category.3 Wind load The load produced on a structure by the action of the wind is a dynamic effect. The effects of snow. office floor loading. suitably corrected to allow for the effects of factors such as topography. it is normal for most types of structures to treat this as an equivalent static load. garage.

including cladding units and their fixings. equal-duopitch or hipped roof. the designer should start first with evaluating the dynamic pressure qs = 0. The wind loads should be calculated for each of the loaded areas under consideration. three orthogonal cases are required. is illustrated by the flow chart given in Figure 2. parts of the structure. e. such as walls and roofs.2. The standard method requires assessment for orthogonal load cases for wind directions normal to the faces of the building. When the building is asymmetric. The stages of the directional method are shown as boxes outlined with double lines and are directly equivalent to the stages of the standard method.g. depending on the dimensions of the building. for calculating wind loads. which can be calculated from Ve = Vs S b where Vs is the site wind speed and S b is the terrain and building factor. the two orthogonal cases shown in Figure 2. rectangular-plan with flat.2) . (2.613 Ve2 where Ve is the effective wind speed (m/s).3 are sufficient.1) (2. four orthogonal cases are required. When the building is doubly-symmetric. In order to calculate the wind loads. When the building is singly-symmetric. or individual structural components.Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950 32 The outline of the procedure. This shows the stages of the standard method (most widely used method) as indicated by the heavily outlined boxes connected by thick lines. These may be: • • • the structure as a whole.

2. input building type factor Stage 2: Check limits of applicability Cr < 0. qi Stage 9: Standard pressure coefficients Cpi. separation of buildings X Stage 6: Choice of method Directional and topographic effects Sc. directional factor Sd.Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950 33 Stage 1: Dynamic augmentation factor Cr Input building height H. seasonal factor Ss Stage 5: Terrain categories. This part does not apply Basic wind speed map Stage 4: Site wind speed Vs Altitude factor Sa. effective height He Site terrain type. Cpe Directional pressure coefficients Cp Stage 10: Wind loads P Directional wind loads P Figure 2. St. Sh Stage 7: Standard effective wind speed Ve Directional effective wind speed Ve Stage 8: Dynamic pressure qs Dynamic pressure qe.25. Flow chart illustrating outline procedure for the determination of the wind loads (according to BS 6399: Part 2) . Tt. level of upwind rooftops Ho. Tc. H < 300 m Yes Stage 3: Basic wind speed Vb No Building is dynamic.

S d is the directional factor. when the orientation of the building is unknown. by considering ∆s .001 ∆s . the value of S d may be taken as 1. which are expected to be exposed to the wind for specific subannual periods. (2.3) where Vb is the basic wind speed. The seasonal factor S s is employed to reduce the basic wind speed for buildings. Basically. as indicated in Figure 7 of BS 6399: Part 2.4) The directional factor S d is utilised to adjust the basic wind speed to produce wind speeds with the same risk of being exceeded in any wind direction. Generally. When topography is not considered significant.Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950 34 The terrain and building factor S b is determined directly from Table 4 of BS 6399: Part 2 depending on the effective height of the building and the closest distance to the sea. S a should be calculated from S a = 1+ 0. . Table 3 of BS 6399: Part 2 gives the appropriate values of S d . The basic wind speed Vb can be estimated from the geographical variation given in Figure 6 of BS 6399: Part 2. the site altitude (in meters above mean sea level). S a is the altitude factor. The site wind speed Vs is calculated by Vs = Vb S a S d S s S p (2. for permanent buildings and buildings exposed to the wind for a continuous period of more than 6 months a value of 1 should be used for S s . The altitude factor S a depends on whether topography is considered to be significant or not. S s is the seasonal factor and S p is the probability factor.

B. C.5) where p e and pi are the external and internal pressures acting on the surfaces of a building respectively. For normal design applications.Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950 35 The probability factor S p is used to change the risk of the basic wind speed being exceeded from the standard value annually. Values of pressure coefficient C pe and C pi for walls (windward and leeward faces) are given in Table 5 of BS 6399: Part 2 according to the proportional dimensions of the building as shown in Figure 2. the building surfaces are divided into different zones (A. The external pressure p e is p e = qs C pe C a . C pe is the external pressure coefficient and C pi is the internal pressure coefficient. (2.3 and Figure 2.7) where C a is the size effect factor.6) while the internal surface-pressure pi is evaluated by pi = qs C pi C a (2.4. Each of these zone has a different value of C pe and C pi as given in Table 5 of BS 6399: Part 2. Values of size effect factor C a are given in Figure 4 of BS 6399: Part 2 in which the diagonal dimension (a) of the largest diagonal area to the building category is . In these figures. and D). or in the stated subannual period if S s is also used. S p may take a value of 1. The second step of calculating the wind loads is evaluating the net surface pressure p is p = p e − pi (2.

The third step of calculating the wind loads is to determine the value of the load P using P = pA . The factor 0. the surface loads acting on the leeward-facing walls and roofs and C r is the dynamic augmentation factor which determined depending on the reference height of the building H r .85 ( Pf − Pr ) ( 1 + C r ) (2.8) Alternatively. .9) where Pf is the summation horizontal component of the surface loads acting on the Pr is the summation of horizontal component of windward-facing walls and roofs. the load P can be to compute by P = 0. C a takes values between 0. (2.Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950 36 considered.85 accounts for the non-simultaneous action between faces. The category of the building depends on the effective height of the building and the closest distance between the building and the sea.0.5 and 1.

Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950 37 Plan D Plan D Wind B Wind B (a) Load cases: wind on long face and wind on short face D Wind B/5 Elevation of side face Wind D B A B H=Hr B/5 A B C H=Hr Building with D ≤ B Plan D Building with D > B C B/2 B/10 A B A B/4 Wind (b) key to pressure coefficient zones Figure 2.3. Key to wall and flat roof pressure data .

4. Key to wall pressure for irregular flush faces (taken from BS 5950) .Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950 38 Wind H2=Hr A B C (a) Cut-out downwind: tall part long Wind B A B A H2=Hr Hr C (b) Cut-out upwind: tall part long Wind Wind B A H1 H1 Hr A B Hr C C B A H2=Hr (c) Cut-out downwind: tall part narrow (d) Cut-out upwind: tall part narrow Figure 2.

4 Load combinations All relevant loads should be considered separately and in such realistic combinations as to comprise the most critical effects on the elements and the structure as a whole.3.6 1.4 1.4 1.Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950 39 2.6 1.4 1. .2 1. Load factors and combinations (taken from BS 5950) Loading Factor γ f Dead load Dead load restraining uplift or overturning Dead load acting with wind and imposed loads combined Imposed loads Imposed load acting with wind load Wind load Wind load acting with imposed or crane load Forces due to temperature effects Crane loading effects 1.0 1.2 1.6 1.2.2 1. Table 2.4 1.2 Vertical load Vertical load acting with horizontal loads (crabbing or surge) Horizontal load Horizontal load acting with vertical Crane acting with wind load 1. The following comments given by MacGinley (1997) are commonly used in the design practice: • All spans fully loaded should give near the critical beam moments. Other cases could give higher moments.2 The load pattern that should be used to obtain the critical design conditions is not obvious in all cases. These combinations are illustrated in BS 5950: Part 1 by the following table.

Full loads will give near critical moments though again asymmetrical loads could give higher values.11) where ∆Umem . These limitations can be expressed by ∆Umem − ∆L mem n n c c ∆ all max δ n mem b ≤ 1 and (2. These are: • the serviceability loads are taken as the unfactored imposed loads. BS 5950: Part 1 gives recommended limitations ( ∆ all for columns and δ all for beams) in Table 2.10) δ all ≤1 (2. Two alternative loading patterns are requested by BS 5950: Part 1.4 Serviceability limit states 2.4. 2.1 Deflection limits The deflection under serviceability loads of a building or part should not impair the strength or efficiency of the structure or its components or cause damage to the finishing. When checking for horizontal and vertical deflections. the most adverse realistic combination and arrangement of serviceability loads should be used.3.Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950 40 • The external columns are always bent in double curvature. and the structure may be assumed to be elastic. ∆L mem are the upper and lower horizontal displacements of a column n n c c max under consideration respectively. The vertical displacement δ n mem is the maximum b value of within the beam under consideration. Therefore. • The patterns to give critical moments in the centre column must be found by trials. and .

12. 2. the environment.3. For limiting deflections in runway beams refer to BS 2853. only 80% of the imposed load and wind need to be considered. On low-pitched and flat roofs the possibility of ponding needs consideration. the factors (e. the shape of the members and the structural detailing. Note 2. Table 2. etc) should be considered at the design stage.2 Deflection on columns other than portal frames due to unfactored imposed load and wind loads Tops of columns in single-storey buildings Height/300 In each storey of a building with more than one storey Height of storey under consideration/300 Crane gantry girders Vertical deflection due to static wheel loads Span/600 Horizontal deflection (calculated on the top flange Span/500 properties alone) due to crane surge Note 1. .4. Deflection limits other than for pitched roof portal frames (see BS 5950) Deflection on beams due to unfactored imposed load Cantilevers Beams carrying plaster or other brittle finish All other beams Purlins and sheeting rails Length/180 Span/360 Span/200 See clause 4. Generally.2 Durability limits In order to ensure the durability of the structure under conditions relevant to both its intended use and intended life.Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950 41 • when considering dead load plus imposed load plus wind load. reference should be made to BS 5493 and BS 4360.g. whether maintenance is possible.

A cross section which can develop the plastic moment capacity of the section but in which local buckling prevents rotation at constant moment. Such problems require an understanding of the way in which the various structural actions interact with one another. A cross section in which yield of the extreme fibres can not be attained because of premature local buckling.5 Strength requirements Situations will often arise in which the loading on a member can not reasonably be represented as a single dominant effect. This can be presented as follows: (a) Plastic cross section. A cross section which can develop a plastic hinge with sufficient rotation capacity to allow redistribution of bending moments within the structure. a basic idea on classification of sections according to BS 5950 is indicated. . A cross section in which the stress in the extreme fibres should be limited to yield because local buckling would prevent development of the plastic moment capacity in the section. (d) Slender cross section. (b) Compact cross section. The design approach discussed in this context is intended for use in situations where a single member is to be designed for a known set of end moments and forces.Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950 42 2. Before presenting the strength requirements. careful consideration of the complicated interplay between the individual load components and the resulting deformations is necessary. for more complex problems. In the simplest cases this may amount to a direct summation of load effects. Alternatively. (c) Semi-compact cross section.

These limiting ratios are governed by the constant ε= 275 py (2.Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950 43 In order to differentiate between those four types of cross sections. and may be taken as py = Ys 0. p y should be evaluated by multiplying the values given in Table 2.13) where Ys and U s are yield strength and ultimate tensile strength. etc). circular hollow sections. p y can be determined according to the flange thickness as given in Table 2.4 by a reduction factor taken from Table 8 of BS 5950: Part 1. Design strength Steel Grade Thickness less than or equal to (mm) Design strength p y (N/mm2) 16 43 40 63 100 275 265 255 245 2. In case of slender cross sections.1 Shear strength BS 5950: Part 1 requires that the shear force Fv is not greater than shear capacity Pv . Table 7 of BS 5950: Part 1 illustrates the limiting width to thickness ratios.5.84 U s if Ys > 0. H-section. depending on the type of cross section (e. within which the section can be classified.4. This can be formulated as .84 U s if Ys ≤ 0.g. I-section.12) where p y is the design strength. Alternatively. Table 2.84 U s (2.4.

Shear area Section Type Av tD td 0. H and channel sections Built-up sections Solid bars and plates Rectangular hollow sections Circular hollow sections Any other section [D ( D + B )] Ag 0.6 Ag 0.5.5.5 considering the crosssectional dimensions (t. D.6 × p y × Av (2. d.Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950 44 Fv Pv ≤ 1.14) The shear capacity Pv can be evaluated by Pv = 0.5.9 Ag Rolled I. Dimensions of sections . B) shown in Figure 2. (2.9 Ag B D T Y X d t X D Y (a) Circular hollow section (CHS) (b) Rolled beams and columns Figure 2.15) where Av is the shear area and can be taken as given in Table 2. Table 2.

2 Tension members with moments Any member subjected to bending moment and normal tension force should be checked for lateral torsional buckling and capacity to withstand the combined effects of axial load and moment at the points of greatest bending and axial loads.6 illustrates the type of three-dimensional interaction surface that controls the ultimate strength of steel members under combined biaxial bending and axial force. F Ae p y MX M CX MY M CY Figure 2.5. t the section should be checked for shear buckling using Fv Vcr ≤1 (2. (2. bending about the X and Y axes of the section ( M X or M Y ) and each plane corresponds to the interaction of two components.Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950 45 When the depth to the thickness ratio of a web of rolled section becomes d ≥ 63ε . the critical shear strength q cr can be appropriately obtained from Tables 21(a) to (d) of BS 5950: Part 1.16) where Vcr is the shear resistance that can be evaluated by Vcr = q cr d t . Each axis represents a single load component of normal force F.17) (2. Interaction surface of the ultimate strength under combined loading .18) In this equation. 2. Figure 2.6.

Ag is the gross area taken from relevant standard tables. The moment capacity M CX can be evaluated according to whether the value of shear load is low or high.5.22) . The moment capacity M CX with low shear load can be identified when Fv ≤ 1.19) where F is the applied axial load in member under consideration.1 Local capacity check Usually. and An is the net area and can be determined by An = Ag − nϕ i =1 Ai (2. The effective area Ae can be obtained by Ae = K e An Ag if K e An ≤ Ag if K e An > Ag (2.2.6 Pv (2.Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950 46 2. the member can be checked as follows: F Ae p y + MX M CX + MY M CY ≤1 (2. Hence.2 for grade 40 or 43. and nϕ is the number of holes.21) where Ai is the area of the hole number i. 0. M X and M Y are the applied moment about the major and minor axes at critical region. M CX and M CY are the moment capacity about the major and minor axes in the absence of axial load and Ae is the effective area. the points of greatest bending and axial loads are either at the middle or ends of members under consideration.20) where K e is factor and can be taken as 1.

M CX is • >1.2 p y Z X if p y ( S X − S vξ ) ≤ 1. (2. and Z X is the elastic modulus of the section about the X-axis. (2.26) where S v is taken as the plastic modulus of the shear area Av for sections with equal flanges and ξ= • 2. (2.6 Pv Accordingly.24) where S X is the plastic modulus of the section about the X-axis. .2 p y Z X .25) for plastic or compact sections M CX = p y ( S X − S vξ ) 1.2 p y Z X (2.23) • for semi-compact or slender sections M CX = p y Z X (2.5 Fv Pv − 1.28) The moment capacity M CY can be similarly evaluated as M CX by using the relevant plastic modulus and elastic modulus of the section under consideration.2 p y Z X if p y S X ≤ 1.Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950 47 Hence. M CX should be taken according to the classification of the cross section as follows: • for plastic or compact sections M CX = py SX 1.2 p y Z X if p y S X > 1.2 p y Z X if p y ( S X − S vξ ) > 1.5 . The moment capacity M CX with high shear load can be defined when Fv 0. (2.27) for semi-compact or slender sections M CX = p y Z X .

29) The buckling resistance moment M b can be evaluated for members with at least one axis of symmetry using M b = pb S X (2. and rY is the radius of gyration about the minor axis of the member and may be taken from the published catalogues.6. (2. u is the buckling parameters. The slenderness factor v can be determined from Table 14 of BS 5950 according to the vale of λ and torsional index of the section. .32) should not exceed those values given in Table 2.5. where Leff is the effective length. The minor axis slenderness λ= Leff rY (2.Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950 48 2. This can be expressed as M Mb ≤ 1.30) where p b is the bending strength and can be determined from Table 11 of BS 5950 in which the equivalent slenderness ( λ LT ) and p y are used. The equivalent slenderness λ LT is λ LT = nuvλ (2.31) where n is the slenderness correction factor. in each length between lateral restraints. the equivalent uniform moment M is should not exceed the buckling resistance moment M b . v is the slenderness factor and λ is the minor axis slenderness.2.2 Lateral torsional buckling check For equal flanged rolled sections.

7.10 β 2 < 0.10 β 2 ≥ 0.33 β + 0.34) where β is the end moment ratios as shown in Figure 2.43 (2.43 if 0. M βM M βM M βM β positive M βM β negative Figure 2.33 β + 0.57 + 0.43 if 0.6.10 β 2 0.Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950 49 Table 2.7.33 β + 0. Slenderness limits Description Limits For members resisting loads other than wind loads For members resisting self weight and wind load only λ 180 ≤1 λ 250 ≤1 ≤1 For any member normally acting as a tie but subject to reversal of stress resulting from the action of wind λ 350 The equivalent uniform moment M can be calculated as M = m× MA (2.33) where M A is the maximum moment on the member or the portion of the member under consideration and m is an equivalent uniform factor determined either by Table 18 of BS 5950: Part 1 or using m= 0.57 + 0.57 + 0. Determination of the end moment ratio ( β ) .

and M CY are defined in Section 2. M CX .1 Local capacity check The appropriate relationship given below should be satisfied.6 Stability limits Generally. 2.5.3 Compression members with moments Compression members should be checked for local capacity at the points of greatest bending moment and axial load usually at the ends or middle.35) where the parameters F . This capacity may be limited either by yielding or local buckling depending on the section properties.5.3. M X . it is assumed that the structure as a whole will remain stable. b.5.36) where pC is the compressive strength and may be obtained from Table 27a. These checks can be described using the simplified approach illustrated in the following sections. p y . M Y . Ag .1. F Ag p y + MX M CX + MY M CY ≤1 (2.2 Overall buckling check The following relationship should be satisfied: F Ag pC + mMX Mb + mMY py Z Y ≤1 (2. c and d of BS 5950. 2.Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950 50 2.3.2.5. from the commencement of erection until demolition and that where the erected members are incapable of keeping themselves in equilibrium then sufficient external bracing will be . 2. The member should also be checked for overall buckling.

applied horizontally. 0.Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950 51 provided for stability.6. in essence. 2. shear walls. equivalent to .6.2. The designer should consider overall frame stability. a separate check should be carried out for notional horizontal forces.6. The effect of instability has been reflected on the design problem by using either the extended simple design method or the amplified sway design method. These notional forces arise from practical imperfections such as lack of verticality and should be taken as the greater of: • • 1% of factored dead load from that level. The extended simple design method is the most used method in which the effective lengths of columns in the plane of the frame are obtained as described in section 2.2. increasing the bending stiffness of the frame members or the provision of lift shaft. etc. 2.1 Stability against overturning The factored loads considered separately and in combination. A multi-storey framework may be classed as non-sway whether or not it is braced if its sway is such that secondary moments due to non-verticality of columns can be neglected. which can occur when designing tall or cantilever structures. Determining the effective lengths of columns which is.2 Stability against sway Structures should also have adequate stiffness against sway. applied horizontally. To ensure stability against sway.5% of factored dead and imposed loads from that level. Sway stiffness may be provided by an effective bracing system. a situation. in addition to designing for applied horizontal loads. should not cause the structure or any part of the structure including its seating foundations to fail by overturning. which embraces stability against sway and overturning.

The amplified sway design method is based on work done by Horne (1975).39) where hi is the storey height.max . The value of ∆ i can therefore be formulated as ∆ i = ∆Umem − ∆L mem . the bending moments due to horizontal loading should be amplified by the factor (λcr − 1) where λ cr is the critical load factor and can be approximated by λcr (2. If the actual frame is unclad or is clad and the stiffness of the cladding is taken .6. In this method.2.5.Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950 52 carrying out a stability analysis for one segment of a frame and this must be repeated for all segments. φ 1 200φ s. n n c c (2. the code requires that the effective length of the columns in the plane of the frame may be retained at the basic value of the actual column length. ∆Umem and ∆L mem are the horizontal displacements of the n n c c top and bottom of a column as shown in Figure 2. 2. In amplified sway design method.max is the largest value for any storey of the sway index ∆Umem − ∆L mem n n c c φs = hi (2.40) This reflects the lateral stiffness of the frame and includes the influence of vertical loading.37) λcr = In this equation.1 Classification into sway /non-sway frame BS 5950: Part 1 differentiates between sway and non-sway frames by considering the magnitude of the horizontal deflection ∆ i of each storey due to the application of a set of notional horizontal loads.38) s. (2.

The approach is based upon the considerations of a limited frame as indicated in Figure 2. K TR . as in frequently the case. the analysis is based upon a combination of two possible distorted components-joint rotations at the upper and lower end of the column under consideration and the calculation of the elastic critical load using the stability functions.2 Determination of the effective length factor Work by Wood (1974a) has led to the development of few ‘simple-to-use’ charts. For non-sway frames. for every storey. and K BR are the values for I/L for the adjacent upper. then in recognition of the fact that the cladding will substantially reduce deflections. the frame may be considered to be non-sway if ∆ i . K BL . (2. top-left. the framework is clad but the analysis is carried out on the bare framework. the analysis from which the chart (Figure 24 of BS .6. top-right. for sway structures. bottom-left and bottom right columns respectively.Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950 53 into account in the analysis.42) 2. K TL .2. For structures in which horizontal forces are transmitted to the foundations by bending moments in the columns. For non-sway frames. which permit the designer to treat the full spectrum of end restraint combinations.41) If.9b. the condition is relaxed somewhat and the frame may be considered as non-sway if the deflection of every storey is ∆i ≤ hi 2000 .9a where K U . K L . a similar limited frame is considered as shown in Figure 2. (2. On the other hand. the solution to the stability criterion is plotted as contours directly in terms of effective length ratio as shown in Figure 23 of BS 5950. lower. is governed by ∆i ≤ hi 4000 .

Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950 54 5950) is derived has considered not only rotations at the column ends but also the freedom to sway. (2. Limited frame for a non-sway and sway frames When using Figure 23 and 24 of BS 5950. KU K TL Effective length KU K TR Actual length K TL K TR Leff X KC = I L L KC = I L K BR K BL KL K BR K BL KL (a) Limited frame for a non-sway frame (b) Limited frame for a sway frame Figure 2.9. . the following points should be noted. Utilising the restraint coefficients k1 and k 2 evaluated from k1 = KC + KU K C + K U + K TL + K TR and k 2 = KC + KL K C + K L + K BL + K BR .43) The value of the effective length factor Leff L may be interpolated from the X plotted contour lines given in either Figure 23 of BS 5950 established for a column in non-sway framework or Figure 24 of BS 5950 prepared for a column in sway framework. Any member not present or not rigidly connected to the column under consideration should be allotted a K value of zero. 1.

Any restraining member required to carry more than 90% of its moment capacity (reduced for the presence of axial load if appropriate) should be allotted a K value of zero. For sway and non-sway cases. 1988).9. This is not however always appropriate and guidance on modified beam stiffness values is listed as follows: 1.e. Three additional features. unless the column is actually pinned (thereby deliberately preventing restraint). The first three conditions reflect the lack of rotational continuity due to plasticity encroaching into the cross-section and the consequent loss of elastic stiffness. it is recommended that K b should be taken as I b L for the member. unless the foundation can be shown to provide more restraint enabling a lower (more beneficial ) value of k 2 to be used. 4. which must be noted when employing these charts. If the column is rigidly connected to a suitable foundation (i. If the column is not rigidly connected to the foundation. for beams. one which can provide restraint). namely the value of beam stiffness K b to be adopted. which are directly supporting a concrete floor slab. 5. when k 2 equals to 1. 3.5. . If either end of the column being designed is required to carry more than 90% of its moment-carrying capacity the value of k1 or k 2 should be taken as 1. In the basic analysis from which the charts were derived it was assumed that the ends of the beams remote from the column being designed were encastre (Steel Construction Institute. k 2 is taken as minimal restraint value equal to 0. which might otherwise be mobilized in preventing instability. k 2 should be taken 0.Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950 55 2.

10b.10. Critical buckling modes of frame (taken from BS 5950) . This reflects the approximate nature of the charts and the greater accuracy possible from critical load calculation.10a. For structures where some resistance to sidesway is provided by partial sway bracing or by the presence of infill panels. b) For sway frames. 3. K b should be taken as 0.5 I b L . where it can be expected that single curvature bending will occur in the beam as indicated Figure 2. two other charts are given. For a rectilinear frame not covered by concrete slab and which is reasonably regular in layout: a) For non-sway frames. where it can be expected that double-curvature bending will exist as indicated in Figure 2. (a) Buckling mode of non-sway frame (b) Buckling mode of sway frame Figure 2.Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950 56 2. the operative beam stiffness will be increased and K b should be taken as 0. A rider is added to this clause which notes that where the in-plane effective length has a significant influence on the design then it may be preferable to obtain the effective lengths from the critical load factor λ cr . One for the situation where the relative stiffness of the bracing to that of the structure denoted by k 3 is 1 and the second where k 3 = 2.5 I b L .

Λ . then include the notional horizontal loading condition Analyze the framework. shearing force and bending moments for each member of the framework Design of member n mem = 1.7 Flowchart of design procedure Figure 2.11 shows the limit state design procedure for a structural framework. N mem Determine the type of the section (compact or semi-compact or compact or slender) utilising Table 7 of BS 5950 Evaluate the design strength of the member Check the slenderness criteria No Tension member? Yes A B C D Figure 2.Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950 57 2. compute normal force. compute horizontal nodal displacements and determine whether the framework is sway or non-sway Compute the effective buckling lengths Apply loading condition q =1. Flowchart of design procedure of structural steelwork . 2. Start Apply notional horizontal loading condition.11a. Λ . 2. Q : if the framework is sway.

(cont.11b. Is n mem = N mem ? No Yes No Is q = Q? Yes Compute the horizontal and vertical nodal displacements due to the specified loading conditions for the serviceability criteria Check the serviceability criteria End Figure 2.) Flowchart of design procedure of structural steelwork .Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950 58 A B C D Local capacity check Local capacity check Overall capacity check Lateral torsional buckling check Carry out the check of shear and shear buckling if necessary.

12 and 2. 2. Step 1. values of Leff L X greater than 5 are not plotted. In Figure 2. These techniques are described in the following sections. Accordingly. k 2 ) of values according to the X division mentioned above. resulting in 101 values {0. The charts have been magnified to twice their size as given in BS 5950: Part 1. The slope deflection method for the stability analysis is used (see Wood 1974a).Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950 59 2.…. The value of Leff L was read for each pair ( k1 . . two techniques are presented. Each axis ( k1 and k 2 ) is divided into 100 equal divisions. Step 2. The following procedure is applied. 1. Step 3.0} for each restraining coefficient. it is difficult to link such this method to design optimization algorithm. Therefore. This method is based on trial and error technique.01. Step 4. 0.8 Computer based techniques for the determination of the effective length factor The values of the effective length factor given in Figures 23 and 24 of BS 5950 are obtained when the condition of vanishing determinantal form of the unknown of the equilibrium equations is satisfied (see Chapter 3). to incorporate the determination of the effective length factor Leff L for a column in either sway or non-sway framework into a computer based X algorithm for steelwork design.8.13 for non-sway and sway charts respectively. These are graphically represented as shown in Figures 2.0.1 Technique 1: Digitizing the charts It can be seen that each of these figures is symmetric about one of its diagonal thus. More contour lines have been added to get a good approximation for each chart. digitizing a half of the plot will be sufficient.13.

named S for sway and NS for non-sway. Two arrays. k 2 + 1) (2. k 2 + 1) for a column in a sway frame for a column in a non . The calculated values ( k1 and k 2 ) applying equation (2.44) . and the resulting values are approximated to the nearest higher integer numbers h named k1h and k 2 .Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950 60 Step 5.sway frame. These arrays contain the 10201 digitized values of Leff L . NS (k1h h + 1. X Step 6. The value of Leff L may then be taken from the arrays as X Leff X L = h S (k1h + 1.43) are multiplied by 100. are created each of them is a two-dimensional array of 101 by 101 elements.

0 4.0 Leff X L 3.0 0.13.8 Leff X L 0.6 0.4 0.0 0.0 k1 k2 Figure 2.2 0.8 0.0 1.12.8 1.5 1.0 0.4 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.6 0.0 0. Surface plot of the restraint coefficients k1 and k 2 versus Leff L for X a column in a rigid-jointed non-sway frame 5.4 0.0 0.2 0.0 2.8 0.9 0.8 1.Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950 61 1.6 0.2 0.0 k1 k2 Figure 2.0 1. Surface plot of the restraint coefficients k1 and k 2 versus Leff L for X a column a rigid-jointed sway frame .

SPSS is a general-purpose statistical package. The procedure used can be described as follows: Step 1. (1992).8.05. Step 3. Hence. Here.1 Regression analysis In this section.8. A guide to data analysis using SPSS is given by Norusis (1996). A general shape of a polynomial is assumed. 2. polynomials are obtained applying two methodologies.2.2 Technique 2: Analytical descriptions of the charts In this section. X which can then be tested. The general forms Leff X L 2 = a 0 + a1 k1 + a 2 k 2 + a3 k12 + a 4 k 2 + a5 k1 k 2 . Secondly. polynomials are assumed and their parameters are obtained by applying the Levenberg-Marquart method modeled in SPSS (1996). pairs of ( k1 . k 2 ) variables and the analysis type (linear or nonlinear) is chosen. the genetic programming methodology is employed. In this context. the dependent Leff L and X independent ( k1 .….0.Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950 62 2. The charts are magnified to twice as their size as established in BS 5950. This results in 21 values [0.0] for each axis. 0. k 2 ) and their corresponding Leff L values are used to form polynomials. 1. (2. Step 4. k 2 ) according to the X division given above. Several textbooks discuss and give FORTRAN code for this method among them Press et al. a statistical package for social sciences named SPSS is used. The data SPSS data file is prepared. Firstly.45) . the value of Leff L was approximated for each pair ( k1 . More contour lines are then added to each chart. Step 2. which is used for analysing data. Each axis ( k1 and k 2 ) are divided into 20 equal divisions.

For a column in non-sway framework. Accepting the obtained results or repeat steps 4 and 5.48) . a poor performance of testing the hypotheses is performed because the infinity values of Leff L is estimated. When applying the proposed technique to achieve polynomials of Leff L of a X column in sway framework.14 and 2.dig is X X 2 441 i =1 SUM diff = Leff X L i .46) a 6 k12 k 2 + 2 a 7 k1 k 2 + a8 k13 + 3 a9 k 2 Leff X L 2 = a 0 + a1k1 + a 2 k 2 + a3 k12 + a 4 k 2 + a5 k1k 2 + 2 3 a 6 k12 k 2 + a 7 k1k 2 + a8 k13 + a9 k 2 + a10 k14 + 4 a11k 2 (2. Step 5.dig (2.8 comprises polynomials for a column in sway framework.cal − Leff X L i . 1996). Thus. cal and read ( Leff L )i . an are the parameters. Step 6.Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950 63 Leff X L 2 = a 0 + a1k1 + a 2 k 2 + a3 k12 + a 4 k 2 + a5 k1k 2 + and (2. This occurs when either of the X column ends becomes pinned.15 for a column in non-sway and sway framework respectively.…. 3rd and 4th order polynomials. values of Leff L greater than 5 are truncated and X the technique is repeated. the obtained polynomials of Leff L are X listed in Table 2. Table 2. The 4th order polynomials are depicted as shown in Figures 2. Carrying out the analysis by examining relationships between the dependent and independent variables and testing the hypotheses (see Norusis.7. a1. where a0.47) + a12 k13 k 2 + 3 a13 k1k 2 + 2 a14 k12 k 2 are utilised to express the 2nd. The sum of square of the differences SUM diff between the calculated ( Leff L )i .

0.8.579345 k 2 + 5.22176 k 1 k 2 3 2 2 5.50562 + 0.14112 .91641 k 1 − 6.579345 k 14 + 3.555406 + .91641 k 2 + 4 3 3.51496 + 0.1098 2 k2 0.3.042576 k 1 − 0.053263 k 1 k 2 + 0.015352 k 1 k 2 − 0.78797 k 2 − 2.629751 k 1 k 2 + 2.36469 k 2 SUM diff 1.22176 k 1 k 2 + 5. Polynomials obtained for Leff L of a column in a sway frame X Equation Leff X L = 0.36469 k 1 + 2.094815 k 1 k 2 SUM diff 0.185809 k 2 .1343541 k 1 − 3 4 0.032573 k 2 + 3 3 2 2 0.629751 k 1 k 2 + 2 3 3 2.015352 k 12 k 2 + 0.1129124 k 2 + 2 0.499363 + 0.0772 k 2 + 0.0302258 k 1 k 2 + 0.1.41008 k 1 k 2 − 6.032573 k 14 + 0.00025 Leff X L 2 = 0.11803 k 2 + 2 2 0.06252 k 1 k 2 2 3 3 k 1 k 2 − 0.5268 k 2 + 7. Polynomials obtained for Leff L of a column in a non-sway frame X Equation Leff X L = 0.042576 k 2 + = 0.000736 0.8086 Leff X L = 1.Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950 64 Table 2.06252 Leff X L 2 .1.7.00754 k 1 k 2 − 10.822909 k 1 k 2 + 2.89349 k 1 k 2 0.93426 k 2 .1129124 k 1 + 0.78797 k 1 + 1.32226 k 1 .93426 k 12 − 2 2 2.32226 k 2 + 5.5268 k 12 + 2 2 5.41008 k 1 k 2 − 2 3 3 10.0.053263 k 1 k 2 − 0.1343541 k 2 + 0.000579 Table 2.1098 k 1 + 0.185809 k 12 + 0.0772 k 1 + 0.11803 k 1 + 0.0005816 k 1 k 2 + 2 3 0.78173 + 1.134267 k 1 + 0.032727 k 1 k 2 0.134267 k 2 + 0.

6 0. 5 0.9 1.9 Leff X L 0.3 0.6 0.0 0. 6 0.0 Fixed k1 Pinned (b) Contour plot Figure 2. 80 0.4 0.5 1.8 1.0 0.0 k1 k2 (a) Surface plot Pinned 1.4 0. 0 95 0. 90 0.0 0 0. Graphical representation of the 4th order polynomial of Leff L for X a column in a rigid-jointed non-sway frame .8 0. 5 62 65 0. 70 k2 0.1 25 5 0.5 0.2 0.6 0. 0 0.2 5 5 0.0 0.6 0.Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950 65 1.1 0.9 1.3 5 67 0.8 0.14. 0.5 0.7 7 0.4 0.0 0.7 0. 0.0 0. 85 0.2 0.2 0.6 0.7 0. Fixed 0.4 0.8 0.8 0. 0. 0. 5 57 5 0.

8 1.0 k1 (a) Surface plot k2 ∞ Pinned 1.9 0.1 0. 10 1. Fixed 0.0 0. 15 1.9 0 0 1 8 1. Graphical representation of 4th order polynomial of Leff L for X a column in a rigid-jointed non-sway frame .4 0. 3.6 0. 0 0.9 1. 0 0 2. k2 0.2 0.0 1. 5 0 1.Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950 66 5. 0 6 1.0 0.8 0.7 0.6 4. 50 1.0 Fixed k1 Pinned (b) Contour plot Figure 2.0 0.2 0.5 0. 0 0 2 .0 0.15. 20 5.0 4.0 2.7 0.6 0. 25 1.4 0. 70 1.2 0.2 0.4 0.5 4 1.3 0.6 0.8 0.4 0. 20 1.8 0.0 Leff X L 3.1 30 1.0 1.0 0.3 0. .

16. and a functional set (mathematical operators +. The expressions are composed of elements from a terminal set (design variables k1 and k 2 ).8. 1992) for the selection of the structure of an analytical approximation expression. can be subdivided into binary nodes.Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950 67 From Figure 2. which take any two arguments. The functional set. 2. -. as shown in Figure 2. *. and unary nodes.14. which are known as nodes.15 that that the 4th order polynomial obtained for the determination of Leff L of a column in X sway framework is not in a good agreement with the original data shown in Figure 2.2.2 Genetic programming (GP) This section describes the analytical description of Figures 23 and 24 of BS 5950. In the reproduction stage. etc).16. + Unary node Binary node × a1 k1 a0 SQ + × k2 a2 Terminal node Figure 2. N p .12. /. It can be also deduced from Figure 2. crossover and mutation. which take one argument e. Typical tree structure representing a 0 + ( a1 k 1 + a 2 k 2 ) 2 Modelling the expression evolves through the action of three basic genetic operations: reproduction. Toropov and Alvarez (1998) suggested the use of GP methodology (Koza. it can be observed that the 4th order polynomial obtained for the determination of Leff L of a column in non-sway framework is almost identical to the X original data that is shown in Figure 2.g.13. square root.

the population is filled with the surviving expressions according to fitness proportionate selection. SQ / + k1 SQ + k2 k1 k2 k2 Parent 1 Parent 2 SQ / + k1 SQ + k2 k2 k2 k1 Child 1 Child 2 Figure 2.17. This is achieved by killing those expressions having a fitness below the average fitness.17) combines two trees (parents) to produce two children while mutation (Figure 2. A strategy must be adopted to decide which expressions should die. Then. which provide diversity of the population. Crossover (Figure 2. New expressions are then created by applying crossover and mutation.Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950 68 expressions are randomly created and the fitness of each expression is calculated.18) protects the model against premature convergence and improves the non-local properties of the search. Crossover .

337 k 1 k 2 − 6 5 31.032573 k 2 + 3 2 0.9215 k13 k 2 (2.Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950 69 SQ SQ + + k1 × × k1 k2 k1 k2 k1 Figure 2.843802 k1 + 0.053263 k13 k 2 + 0.843802 k 2 − 4.70571 k 2 2 9. .84266 k13 k 2 − 3 2 5 103.2545 k1k 2 + 19.053263 k1k 2 − 0.185809 k 1 + 2 2 0.1343541 k13 − 0.015352 k1k 2 − 3 4 0.5579 k16 k 2 + 18.0. This expression is depicted in Figure 2.185809 k 2 .49) is obtained for the determination of the effective length factor of a column in non-sway framework.982287 + 0.925149 k1k 2 − 75.50) is achieved.1129124 k1 + 0.1343541 k 2 + 0.51496 + 0.4783 k12 k 2 + 49.03272728 k12 k 2 (2.97372 k17 + 7 6 2 8.82327 k14 k 2 + 202.18.9215 k14 k 2 + 49.73689 k13 k 2 + 8.19.82327 k1 k 2 + 124.31407 k 2 − 75.1129124 k 2 + 0.337 k 12 k 2 + 202.4783 k15 k 2 + 5 3 4 39.5579 k1k 2 + 39.380878 k 2 − 103.37368 k12 k 2 − 164.015352 k12 k 2 + 0. For a column in sway framework.0005816 k1k 2 + 0.269518 k1 k 2 + 45. Mutation The GP methodology has been applied where the 4th order polynomial Leff X L 2 = 0.2545 k12 k 2 + 45.678021 k12 k 2 + 47.37368 k14 k 2 − 141.49748 k 2 + 4 3 3 2 124. the 7th order polynomial Leff X L 2 2 = 0.49748 k15 + 47.97372 k 2 + 18.12882 k 2 − 39.925149 k15 k 2 − 2 4 3 141.380878 k14 − 39.31407 k16 − 31.12882 k13 + 3 4 19.84266 k1k 2 − 140.032573 k14 + 0.70571 k 1 − 4.

0 0. 15 1. 30 1. 05 1.4 0.6 0.4 0.6 0. k2 0.2 0.8 0.9 1.4 0.0 0 ∞ 0 2.4 0.5 0.0 1.1 0.8 1. 20 5 4.0 Leff X L 3.6 3.3 0. .0 Fixed k1 Pinned (b) Contour plot Figure 2.7 0.2 0.8 0.2 0.0 0. 25 1. .7 0.0 1.Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950 70 5. Fixed 0.3 0. 0 1.8 0.6 k1 k2 (a) Surface plot Pinned 1.1 40 1.0 2.0 0.2 0.0 0. 10 1. 0 2. 50 1. 90 1.9 0. Graphical representation of 7th order polynomial of Leff L for X a column in a rigid-jointed non-sway frame .80 1 70 1. 19.0 0.0 4.5 0.0 0. 60 1. 20 1 .

the following observations can be summarised.1 may be utilised. In this investigation.Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures according to BS 5950 71 2. Finally. • For columns in a non-sway framework. the 2nd or 3rd or 4th order polynomials presented in Table 2. the 7th order polynomial can be applied when both of the column restraint coefficients are less than 0. This chapter now will be followed by theory and methods of computing the critical buckling load employed for more accurate evaluation of the effective buckling length. analytical polynomials are achieved to automate the determination of the effective length factor.95. the technique discussed in Section 2. Furthermore. Otherwise. a general layout of the developed computer-based technique to framework design is presented. A brief introduction to the applied loads and load combination is presented. strength as well as sway stability criteria employed in the present context are summarised.8. • For columns in a sway framework. The serviceability. .8 can be successfully used to determine the effective length factor in design optimization based techniques.9 Concluding remarks This chapter reviewed an overall background to the concept of the limit state design for steel framework members to BS 5950.

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