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B GIA DC V O TO

TRNG I HC NNG NGHIP H NI




GS.TS.PHM XUN VNG (CH BIN)
TS.TRN NH KHUYN









GIO TRNH
K THUT BO QUN NNG SN











H Ni, 2006

Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 2


Chng 1

1.1. PHN LOI NNG SN
Nng sn l dng sn phm trong nng nghip rt a dng v phc tp. Nhn chung
nng sn bao gm sn phm ca hai ngnh sn xut chnh trong nng nghip: sn phm ca
ngnh trng trt v sn phm ca ngnh chn nui.
Cn c vo yu cu k thut chnh ca bo qun (hoc ch bin) v c im chnh
ca sn phm, ta c th phn loi cc sn phm nng nghip nh sau:
- Ht nng sn l loi sn phm quan trng nht ca nng nghip, gm: ht lng
thc (thc, ng, ...) thnh phn chnh l tinh bt; ht c du (vng, lc, ...) thnh phn chnh
l lipt; ht c gi tr s dng c bit (c ph, ht mt s loi qu). Ht nng sn dng lm
nguyn liu cho cng nghip sn xut go, du thc vt, ...
- C gm khoai, sn, ... dng lm lng thc, hoc trong cng nghip sn xut tinh
bt, ru v thc n gia sc.
- Rau qu bao gm cc loi rau n l (rau mung, bp ci, rau gia v, ...); rau n c
v r c ( su ho, c rt, c ci, ...); qu dng lm rau (c chua, bu b, xu xu, u c ve, ...);
cc loi qu (cam, chui, da, ...).
- Loi thn l nh ma, ch, thuc l dng trong cng nghip sn xut ng, ch,
thuc l.
- Tht l sn phm ca ngnh chn nui (tht ln, b, ...) thnh phn ch yu l m,
cht bo, vi khong, vitamin, ...
- Sa l sn phm ca loi ng vt c v.
- C, tm, cua l sn phm ca ngnh thu, hi sn.
Do nng sn rt a dng, nn yu cu k thut bo qun v ch bin cng rt khc
nhau. Yu cu k thut cn phi t c l:
i vi sn phm dng lm ging, cn phi gi gn tt tng t l ny mm, sc
ny mm v tng s lng ging tt cho v sau. i vi nguyn liu ch bin, tiu dng x
hi phi hn ch ti mc thp nht s suy gim v cht lng sn phm.
Trong ch bin cn phi tm mi bin php nng cao cht lng sn phm v tn
dng ph phm, nng cao gi tr s dng v gi tr thng phm ca nng sn.
1.2. CU TO NNG SN PHM
1.2.1. Cu to, c im hnh thi nng sn phm.
a/ Ht nng sn: Cc loi ht nng sn nc ta u thuc hai h: h ho tho (gramineae)
v h u (leuguminosae). Nu cn c vo thnh phn ho hc ca chng, ta c th chia
lm ba nhm:
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 3

- Nhm giu tinh bt: thc, ng, ...
- Nhm giu protein: ht u, .
- Nhm giu cht bo: lc, vng, ...
Tuy c khc nhau v tnh cht, nhng cu to thc vt ca ht nng sn tng i
ging nhau, bao gm mt s b phn chnh nh sau:
+) V ht.
V ht bao quanh ton b ht, bo v ht khi tc ng ca ngoi cnh (tc ng c
hc, thi tit, vi sinh vt).
Thnh phn ch yu ca v ht l cc cht x (xenlluloza v hemixelluloza) v ht
c th c hai loi:
- Loi v trn: ng, la m, u, ...
- Loi c v tru: thc, k, i mch, ...
Mt ngoi v tru (thc) c nhiu lng rp x x, chim t 18 24% khi lng
ton ht. Sc t v ht cng khc nhau (vng rm, vng thm, nu, ...).
Lp v ht l b phn quan trng bo v phi ht, do trong qu trnh bo qun
trnh gy xy xt. Lp v ht ng dy chng 0,3 0,5mm, chim t 5 8% khi lng
ton ht.
+) Lp Alrng.
Lp alrng bao quanh ni nh. Chiu dy lp alrng ph thuc vo ging, iu
kin canh tc. Lp alrng tp trung nhiu cht dinh dng qu nh protein, lipit, mui
khong v vitamin ( ht c bt nh ht thc). V vy trong vic ch bin ra go n, ngi
ta thng gi li mt phn lp alrng tng thm cht dinh dng cho go. Do c im
trn lp alrng rt d b xi ho v bin cht trong iu kin bo qun khng tt. Khi bo
qun lu trong kho ch xut khu, go cn c loi b ht lp alrng (xt trng), cho d
phi chu mt mt phn dinh dng (ch yu l vitamin B
1
). Lp alrng chim khong
6,1% khi lng ht go lt. i vi ht ng l 8%.
+) Ni nh.
Ni nh l phn chnh ca ht thc go, cu
to ch yu l tinh bt (chin 90%).
Tu theo ging v bin php canh tc, pht
trin ca ht thc m ni nh c th trng trong
hay c (phn nh t l amyloza v amylopectin).
Ht c ni nh c khi phi kh, t l rn nt, gy
ln. Khi xay xt t l go nguyn thp, cht lng
go km.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 4

Hnh 1.1. Cu to gii phu
ca ht thc
Ht nng sn c th c ni nh ln (h
gramieae, h ranunculaceae, h ppveraceae, ...),
c ni nh nh (h crucierae, h leguminosae) v
c th khng c ni nh (h rosaceae, h campositae).
Nhng ht c ni nh ln th sau lp alrng l lp ni nh. y l phn chim t
l ln nht trong thnh phn ca ht. Ni nh l ni tp trung cc cht dinh dng ch yu
ca ht. Loi ht c nhiu tinh bt th ni nh cha nhiu tinh bt. Loi ht c nhiu cht
bo th ni nh cha nhiu du. Ni nh l ni d tr nguyn liu cho h hp ca ht, do
trong qu trnh bo qun, ni nh hao ht nhiu nht. i vi ht ng, ni nh chim 70 72%
khi lng ht ng. Trong ni nh tinh bt chim 80%.
+) Phi ht.
L b phn cha nhiu cht dinh dng, l ni d tr thc n cho mm ht, thng
nm gc ht. Phi c bo v bi t dip (l mm). Qua l mm, phi nhn c y
cc cht dinh dng ch yu, duy tr sc sng v pht trin thnh cy con khi ht ny mm.
Phi ht cha nhiu cht dinh dng: protein, lipit, gluxit, vitamin v mt s enzim, ...
Phi chim 2,25% khi lng ht go lt. thc phi cha ti 66% tng s cc vitamin B
1
ca
ht. ng phi cha 40% tng lipit ca ht v 8 15% khi lng ton ht. Phi l b
phn xp mm, d ht m, d b bin cht, l ni d b vi sinh vt tn cng v ph hoi. Do
trong ch bin thng b loi b.
b/ Cc loi c.
+) Cu to gii phu c sn.
C sn c kch thc t 25 50cm, ng knh t 2 4cm. Cu to gm bn phn
chnh:
- V g: l lp bo v bn ngoi c sn, mu c th trng, vng, nu. V g cu to bi
celluloza v hemicelluloza, hu nh khng c tinh bt. V g mng chim khong 0,5
3% khi lng c.
V ci: dy hn lp v g, chim 8 20% trng lng c. V ci mm, cu to bi
celluloza v tinh bt, chim khong 5 8%, do trong ch bin khng nn loi b v ci,
m nn tn dng. Gia lp v l mng li ng dn nha, m. Trong v ci cn cha sc t,
c t v cht men, ...
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 5

Hnh 1.2. Cu to c sn ct ngang
1-V g; 2-V ci; 3-Rut c; 4-Li;
5-Mt c
- Tht sn (rut c): l phn ch yu ca c sn
gm cc m t bo mm cha nhiu tinh bt.
Lng tinh bt trong tht sn phn b khng
u, nhiu nht lp ngoi, ri gim dn vo
trong. Sn 1 nm th t celluloza, nu sn lu
mt s nm th nhiu x, mi nm mt lp x.
- Li sn: thng nm trung tm, sut t
cung ti ui c sn. Li chim 0,3 1%
trng lng, thnh phn ch yu l cellulo v
hemicellulo.








+) Cu to gii phu khoai ty, khoai lang.
Khoai ty c lp v c phn bit thnh v
trong v v ngoi. V ngoi rt mng l lp
bo v c trnh xm nhp vi khun vo bn
trong ph hoi c. V trong mm v kh tch
ra khi rut c. Gia lp v trong c cc m
mm v h dn dch c. Trn mt c c nhiu
mt (pht trin thnh mm), c cng to mt
cng r. Rut c l mt khi t bo mm, cha
nhiu tinh bt. Cng i su vo tm c, lng
tinh bt cng gim, nc cng tng. Rut c
chim 80 92% khi lng c.
Khoai lang l loi cy lng thc n
c. Dc theo c c h thng x ni ngn c
vi ui c. V khoai lang mng thnh phn
ch yu gm cellulo v hemillulo.
Rut khoai thnh phn ch yu l tinh bt v nc. V mt cu to tng t khoai ty. C
khoai lang to hn, nhiu dng khc nhau, nhiu x hn khoai ty.
Khoai lang ti cha nhiu nha (cha nhiu tanin). Tanin khi b xi ho thnh
flobaphen mu da cam sm. Tanin tc dng vi st thnh tanat mu en. Do khi ch bin
thng cho vo nc, trnh hin tng xi ho.
+) Cu to, c im hnh thi mt s loi rau, qu.
Rau l sn phm giu cht dinh dng, vitamin, mui khong v axt hu c. B
phn s dng c ca cy rau c th l thn, l, qu, c, ... Nc ta thuc vng nhit i,
do sn phm rau qu kh phong ph v a dng trong c bn ma. Qu ca cy n tri
cng rt phong ph v a dng, c gi tr cao v hng v v dinh dng.
Hnh 1.3. Cu to c khoai ty ct
ngang.
1-V ngoi; 2-V trong; 3-Lp m; 4-
Phn ngoi rut c; 5-Phn trong rut
c.
2
1
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 6

3
- Bp ci:










Hnh 1.4. Cc dng bp ci
a - Loi nhn u b - Loi bng u c - Loi trn u.
Bp ci bao gm hai phn chnh: thn trong v l bp ci cun thnh bp. di
ca thn trong lin quan ti cht ca bp, v thay i ph thuc vo ging t 40 60%
chiu cao bp. Thn trong cng ngn th gi tr ca bp cng cao.
L bp ci l phn s dng ch yu ca bp ci, xp xon chn c, cng ln trn l
cng xt vo nhau. L trong mu trng ng l ni d tr dinh dng, l ngoi xanh lm
nhim v quang hp. Trn th trng hin nay ph bin trng loi bp ci c l cun cht,
trng lng nh, ging ca Nht.
- C chua: C chua thuc loi qu,
c s dng nh rau. Qu cha nhiu
nc, hnh dng, mu sc qu ph thuc
mu sc v qu v tht qu (hng nht n
thm, vng da cam n vng ti). Cu
to ca c chua gm: v qu, tht qu, v
ht. V qu rt mng, rt kh tch khi tht
qu. Tht qu l phn chnh cha nhiu cht
dinh dng. Qu c th c nhiu , cc
qu cha nhiu ht t 50 350 ht mt qu
tu theo ging v iu kin canh tc. Qu
to t ht hn qu nh.

- Su ho: Su ho c cung l nh, trn
v di. Cung v l phn chia r rng. Qu
trnh sinh trng thn phnh to thnh c v ti
y tp trung ch yu cht dinh dng. C su
ho c cc hnh dng khc nhau: trn di, hnh
Hnh 1.5. Ct ngang qu c chua.
1-V qu; 2-Tht qu; 3- qu; 4-
Ht
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 7

cu, trn dt. Kch thc c su ho rt khc
nhau ph thuc ging v iu kin canh tc.
Ct dc c su ho, ta thy c gm hai
phn: v v rut c. C hai phn u cha mt
lng x kh ln, c bit nhng c gi.
Trong rut c v pha gc phn tht c cha
mt lng x ln hn.
Hnh c: Dng c trn, c lp bc rt mng, mu trng hoc hi . Thuc loi cy
c, r chm, l mc t gc, trn di v nhn. C c v cay, mi thm cha tinh du, v cht,
mt s cht fitonxt c tnh st trng. C ln, nh nhiu c. Hnh ty, thuc ging nhp
ngoi, nhiu b, t cay thng dng lm rau n. Loi ny kh bo qun, rt d b hng v
ny mm sm.
Ti: Ti l loi gia v c a chung, cu to tng t hnh. Ti cng l loi dc
liu, v trong c c cha nhiu cht st trng.
Hin nay, chng ta xut khu hng nm ti ra cc nc di dng ti, kh, nghin
dng bt kh hoc nho v i khi di dng ng lnh.
Cam: Tri cam c nhiu dng: hnh cu, trn di, trn dt, hnh trng, ... Kch thc
qu cng khc nhau (to, nh). Tri cam gm cc b phn sau:
V ngoi: cu to ch yu l cht sng
chng s bc hi nc t trong ra ngoi.
V trong: gm hai lp t bo: lp cha
sc t (flavedo) nh caroten, xanthophyl,
antocyan, ... v cc ti tinh du lp mu
trng, lp ci (alledo).
Cam c nhiu mi t 8 16 mi, t ht.
S lng ht ph thuc vo ging. Mi
cam cha nhiu tp cam (tht qu). Phn n
c ny do vch t phng pht trin ln
m thnh.
Qu da: Da thuc loi qu kp, gm
nhiu qu cm trn mt trc hoa. Qu da
bao gm: v qa, tht qu v li.
V qu: phn chia thnh cc mt da.
Mt da khc nhau ph thuc vo ging
v iu kin canh tc.
V mu vng ti vng da cam. Tht
qu cng c mu vng n vng da cam,
xung quanh c nhiu mt da. Tht qu
chim t l cao nht so vi cc thnh phn

Hnh 1.6. Ct dc c su ho.
1-Cung l; 2-V; 3-Rut c
Hnh 1.7. Ct ngang qu cam.
1-V qu ngoi; 2-V qu trong; 3-Mi
qu; 4-Tht qu; 5-Ht
Hnh 1.8. Qu da.
1-V qu; 2-Tht qu; 3-Li qu
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 8

khc ca qu da, ng thi cng cha
nhiu cht dinh dng. Hm lng x
trong tht qu kh cao. Li (trc hoa) chy
t cung hoa ti chi ngn, cha nhiu x.
Chui: Chui l loi qu rt ph bin nng thn nc ta t min xui n min
ngc. Chui l loi qu giu dinh dng, d n, d tiu ho. Nc ta vng nhit i nn
rt thch hp cho s pht trin ca chui. Chui c nhiu loi, mang nhiu tn gi khc
nhau.
V mt thc vt, chui kt ht theo li n tnh nn thng khng c ht. Nu chui
tr hoa iu kin khng thun li, th c th c ht.
V mt cu to, chui gm c v v tht qu. V qu do l i pht trin m thnh,
c th dy mng. Tht qu do bu nh pht trin, mu vng.
Thnh phn chnh l cc dng ng n v ng a, vitamin v mt t tinh bt.











Hnh 1.9. Cu to qu chui.
Xoi: Xoi c ngun gc n , Malaixia, ... Vit Nam xoi c nhiu Nam
B. Xoi l loi qu c mt ht, hnh thon bt. V ngoi qu dai, ngn cn s thot nc.
Tht qu mng nc bm vo hai bn mt ht qu. Ht chim 25 30% trng lng qu.
C ba loi xoi: xoi ct, xoi thm v xoi tng. Xoi ct v xoi thm c a thch
nht v c v ngt li rt thm ngon. Xoi tng qu to, p m nhng xanh v chua.
Vi, nhn, chm chm, na, thanh long.
+ Vi thiu c ci dy, v ngt m, ht nh. Vi ta c nhiu ging khc nhau, ht
to, ci mng, nhiu nc, hi chua.
+ Nhn cng c hai loi: nhn lng v nhn nc.
Nhn lng ci dy, ht nh, mi dn, hng v thm ngon. Nhn nc qu to, ci
mng, ht to nhiu nc, v rt ngt (trng pha Nam).
+ Chm chm: c kch thc gn nh qu vi, nhng v c gai mm, di. Chm
chm c ht to, ci dy, dai, dn hn vi, nhng hay dnh vo ht.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 9

+ Na: Na gm hai loi: mng cu na v mng cu xim.
Mng cu na: qu hnh tim, v li, khi chn th nt, tht qu mu trng, v ngt v
thm.
Mng cu xim: qu to hn, dt, v phng nhiu gai, khi chn c th bc c, tht
qu trng ng, nhiu nc, v ngt hi chua.
+ Thanh long: Loi qu trng nhiu vng Nam Trung B, trn cc vng c kh
hu khc nghit. Qu to, v dy, tht qu cha nhiu dinh dng. y l mt hng qu c
gi tr xut khu.
1.3. THNH PHN HO HC CA CC LOI NNG SN.
Nng sn bt k trong thnh phn ca n u c cha cc nhm hp cht hu c:
protein, gluxit, lipit, vitamin, axt hu c v cc cht khong, sc t, ... vi cc t l khc
nhau. c th bo qun tt, cn phi hiu r cc thnh phn ca n v tc ng cc yu t
bn ngoi ti n. Thng thng trong thnh phn ca n cha nhng hp cht sau:
a/ Nc:
Hm lng nc c trong nng sn, tu theo loi m c nhng t l khc nhau: thc,
go, ng, ... thng c thu phn t 11 14%. Khoai sn lt kh 9 10%, c sn ti, rau
qu, ... c th thu phn t 60% 90%, ... Ni chung, trong t bo cc loi nng sn
thng cha nc di dng: lin kt ho hc, lin kt ho l v lin kt c hc.
+ Nc lin kt ho hc: Nc lin kt ho hc rt cn cho s cu to ca ht nng
sn v thng chim t 6 9%. y l lin kt rt bn vng. V d Na
3
CO
3
.3H
2
O, mun
tch nc phi nung nng ln hoc bng tc dng ho hc ca cc cht khc.
+ Nc lin kt ho l: Kt hp vi vt liu khng theo mt t l nht nh. N gm
c nc hp ph, nc thm thu, nc cu trc. y l dng lin kt km bn vng. Mun
tch loi nc ny cn chi ph mt lng nhit bin nc t pha lng sang pha kh.
Hnh thi gii phu v trng thi keo a nc trong t bo sn phm. Rau qu ti
cha 65 95% nc, ht lng thc cha 11 12%. Ni chung ht nng sn cha nc
di dng:
- Nc lin kt ho hc: kt hp gia sn phm v nc t l nh lng chnh
xc. y l loi lin kt bn vng (v d Na
3
CO
3
.3H
2
O), tch nc cn phi s dng
nhit nhit cao hoc bng cc tng tc ho hc khc.
- Nc lin kt ho l: kt hp vi sn phm khng nh lng chnh xc. N gm:
nc hp ph, nc thm thu v nc cu trc. y l dng nc km bn vng, tch ra
bng cch bin i t pha lng sang pha hi nh tiu hao mt nng lng nht nh.
- Nc t do: y l dng km bn vng nht, chuyn dch trong sn phm th
lng. Mun tch cn sy trong t sy 105
0
C.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 10

Hm lng nc trong sn phm nh hng ln ti cht lng bo qun chng. Khi
hm lng nc cao l mi trng thun li cho vi sinh vt pht trin, lm cho cht lng
sn phm xu i.
V d i vi ng, nc chim 12 15% trng lng ht khi cha hon ton v
kh t nhin trong khng kh. N cng t gi tr ti 15 19% khi ng thu hoch ti.
Ngoi ra, i vi ging ng chn sm, chn mun, thi tit khi thu hoch v ngay cc ht
trn mt bp m cng khc nhau. iu ny c ngha quan trng khi bo qun ng.
Giai on chn sa, ht u bp c m cao. Khi ng chn hon ton ht cung
bp c m cao hn. (Theo Kulesov, na trn bp c m 19,8%, ht na di bp c
m 26,9%).
Ngi ta thit lp c quan h gia m trung bnh ca ht (x) v m ca li (y).
y = 2,39.x - 21,05.
Trong rau qu hm lng nc trung bnh 80 90% i khi ti 97%. Nc ch yu
di dng t do, ti 80 90% trong dch bo, phn cn li trong nguyn sinh cht v gian
bo. mng t bo, nc lin kt vi protopectin, hemixeluloza v xenluloza. Nc phn
b khng u, v d cam qut, hm lng nc trong v 74,7%, cn trong mi ti 87,2%.
Nc cha cc cht ho tan dng t do l ch yu, s cn li (<5%) dng lin kt trong
h keo ca t bo. Do sy hoa qu ti m cui cng 10 12% khng phi l kh, v
lc ny nc t do dng lng trong cc ng mao rt d bc hi ra ngoi. Nhng nu sy
ti hm m di 5% th rt kh khn, phi dng phng php c bit. Ngc li khi lm
lnh, phn ln nc ng bng -5
0
C, nhng ng bng ht s nc cn li cn
gim ti -35
0
C.
Do hm m cao, cc qu trnh trong rau qu xy ra mnh, lm tng h hp, tiu hao
cht dinh dng v sinh nhit, bc hi nc khi tn tr, gim khi lng sn phm, ho
nhanh v d h hng do vi sinh vt.
Rau qu sau khi thu hoch, lng nc mt i to ra mi trng xung quanh,
chnh l nguyn nhn lm gim khi lng rau qu khi tn tr. S mt nc cn nh hng
khng tt ti qu trnh trao i bnh thng, gim tnh trng nguyn sinh, dn ti ho. S
ho li lm tng qu trnh phn hu cc cht, ph v cn bng nng lng, gim sc
khng.
b/ Protein.
Protein l hp cht cha nit ch yu trong nng sn, l thnh phn dinh dng ch
yu ca sn phm c ht. Cc sn phm khc nhau, hm lng protein cha trong chng
cng khc nhau: La nc cha 7 10%, cao lng 10 13%, u H Lan 22 26%, u
tng 36 42%, c rt 2%, cc loi qu di 1%. (Tnh theo trng lng cht kh).
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 11

Ngi ta phn loi protein theo tnh ho tan ca n: albumin tan trong nc,
glubulin tan trong mui, prolamin tan trong etanol 70 80%, glutelin tan trong
natrihydroxyt v seleroprotein khng tan trong dung mi cha nc.
Ngi ta phn on protein ca ni nh ng bng phng php Mendel -
Orborne ci tin, thy prolamin (Zin) l phn chnh ca ng bnh thng t l ti 54,2%.
Bng 1.1. Tng s protein trong ni nh ng thng v ng Opaque 2.
(% tng s protein trong ni nh)
Protein Bnh thng Opaque 2
Albumin 3,2 13,2
Globumin 1,5 3,9
Prolamin 47,2 22,8
Glutelin 35,1 50,0
Hm lng protein trong ng trung bnh 10% (thay i trong gii hn 6 21%,
hoc 1/3 nm phn ni nh sng, s cn li nm phn cn li ca ht).
Trong s 3 loi protein cha trong ht ng, protamin tan trong ru, cn globulin
tan trong dung dch mui tinh, glutelin tan trong natrihydroxyt.
Zin l thnh phn ch yu ca protit ng, nhng li l protit gi tr thp v khng
c luzin v ch c vt tryptophan.
T l zin cao lm gi tr protit ca ng thp so vi protein ca cc loi ng cc
khc. Glutelin v protein ca phi c nhiu axt amin cn thit, n b xung thiu xt ca
zin, vic ny ch thc hin khi dng ton b ht.
Cht lng ca ng ph thuc vo thnh phn protit, chnh v th cht lng protein
c ngha quan trng khi nh gi gi tr dinh dng ca ng theo hm lng protein.
Trong rau qu hm lng protein rt thp (1 2%) thng cc loi rau cao cp
nh supl, c rt, khoai ty, ...
Trong qu trnh bo qun, nit tng s t thay i, nhng nit protein thay i kh
nhiu, chng phn gii thnh cc axit amin, lm cho hm lng axit amin tng ln.
S chuyn ho cc cht c nit trong sn phm cn ph thuc vo phng
php bo qun.
i vi rau qu nu dng C
2
H
4
bo qun, hm lng nit protein tng. Nu dng
CO
2
, th hm lng ny li gim. Khi bo qun thong, s phn gii nit protein tng mnh
hn bo qun kn.
Hm lng m trong rau qu tuy t nhng ng vai tr quan trng trong trao i
cht v dinh dng. Hm lng m trong chui tiu 1,8%, nhm rau u v ci 3,5 5,5%.
Cc hp cht nit trong rau qu nhiu dng: protein, axit amin, amit, axit nucleit,
amoniac v cc mui ca chng, nitrat v enzim. Trong rau qu nit protein chim phn
ln t 30% (c chua) ti 40% (mt s loi qu) v 50% (chui, ci bp).
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 12

Mt c tnh quan trng ca protein l s bin tnh, ngha l ph v lin kt nc
trong phn t protein lm n ng t khng thun nghch. Tc nhn gy bin tnh c th l
nhit, l axit hay bc x. S bin tnh protein cn c th xy ra khi tn tr qu lu. V d
u ht, xy ra nhit thp, protein cha b ng t m ch b gi ci, gim ho nc,
mt kh nng trng n trong nc. Nhng ht u ny khi nu s sng v km n, lu chn.
Trong rau qu c hu ht axit amin t do, c bit c c axit amin khng th thay
th. Ngoi thc n t ng vt, rau qu l thc n quan trng cung cp m cho c th.
Ni chung, trong qu trnh tn tr, nit protein gim (do b phn hu mt phn),
nit phi protein tng (lng axit amin tng).
c/ Cacbon hydrat.
Trong cc loi ht ng cc, ng cha nhiu cacbon hydrat. Trong tng phn ca ht,
hm lng cacbon hydrat khc nhau: ni nh cha 73% ( dng tinh bt, ng, xenlulza)
cn phi l dng ng, v dng xenluloza.
ng v tinh bt l cht d tr ch yu trong ht v c (60 70%). Rau qu ch
1%. V cu to cc loi tinh bt cng rt khc nhau nhng loi sn phm. Trong cc ht
cy ho tho, cc ht khc nhau: u, , lc, ... ch yu l ng th cp. Trong rau qu
cha cc dng ng c gi tr dinh dng cao: glucoza, fructoza, saccaroza v mt s
dng ng kh khc.
Trong qu trnh bo qun, tinh bt v ng b bin ng kh nhiu. Tinh bt ng
cha khong 72,5% (theo Earlz). Trong 72% amil v 28% amilopectin. Amilopectin
phn t nhnh, cha 40.000 n v glucoza. Amilo ch yu l n v mch thng cha
1000 n v glucoza. T lu ngi ta thy amilo c mt s tnh cht vt l, c th lm
nguyn liu cho mt s cng ngh (phim, si, ...).
ng tng s ca ht ng 1 3%. Gn 3/4 tng s saccaroza trong phi v 1/4
trong ni nh. Glucoza, fructoza v rafinoza c t trong ht. Hm lng ng trong ht
ng thay i ph thuc iu kin ngoi cnh v iu kin bn trong. (1,5 3,7%), trung bnh
1,97%.
Khi bo qun ng, hm lng cc loi ng kh tng, hm lng cc loi ng
khng kh gim. Trong iu kin bo qun km, hm lng ca c hai nhm ng u
gim. Ng cha t xenluloza, do ng d tiu v c gi tr khi lm lng thc v ch bin
thc n gia sc.
Trong rau qu, gluxit l hp phn ch yu ca cc cht kh. Chng va l vt liu
xy dng va l thnh phn tham gia chnh vo qu trnh trao i cht. Gluxit l ngun d
tr nng lng chnh cho cc qu trnh sng ca rau qu ti khi tn tr. Gluxit ca rau qu
gm cc thnh phn ng d tiu: saccaroza, glucoza, fructoza.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 13

Cc loi rau qu khc nhau, thnh phn cc cht gluxit cng khc nhau. Gluxit trong
khoai ty ch yu l tinh bt, trong u non lm rau n l tinh bt v ng, trong rau l l
xenluloza, trong tri cy chn l ng.
Cc gluxit trong rau qu thng c c ba dng: monosacarit, disacarit v
polisacarit.
Cc loi ng c ngt khc nhau. Nu ly ngt ca saccaroza l 100% th
ngt ca glucoza l 72%, ca fructoza l 152%.
Tt c cc loi ng u ho tan trong nc, ho tan tng khi nhit tng. Khi
tn tr rau qu ti, saccaroza b thu phn thnh ng kh di tc dng ca enzim
invectaza. Ngc li, trong qu trnh sng ca rau qu, li xy ra qu trnh tng hp
saccaroza t ng kh.
Trong cc loi rau qu khc nhau, s lng v t l cc loi ng khc nhau, lm
rau qu c v ngt khc nhau. Trong qu m, mn, o c t saccaroza, cn glucoza v
fructoza bng nhau. Trong cam, chanh, qut, bi, ... ng saccaroza l ch yu.
Ht tinh bt trong mi loi rau qu c hnh dng v kch thc c trng. Kch
thc ht tinh bt cng ln (>20m) th c cng b, xp khi nu chn. Khi tn tr lu, kch
thc ht tinh bt gim, lm c tr ln qunh hoc sng khi nu.
Thnh phn tinh bt ca c v ht ch yu l amilopectin (78 83%) cn trong qu
khng c hoc t.
Cc loi rau, u hm lng tinh bt tng ln khi gi, chn, hm lng ng gim.
i vi qu th tinh bt nhiu khi xanh. V d chui tiu xanh gi cha 20,6% tinh bt, khi
chn cn 1,95%. Hm lng ng tng t 1,44% ln 16,48%.
Xenluloza c trong rau qu phn v v m nng . Trong qu trnh tn tr rau
qu, xenlluloza t bin i. Hm lng xenlluloza trong tri cy 0,5 2,7%.
d/ Lipit (Cht bo).
Cht bo c trong cc loi qu v ht, c bit ht cy c du. N l cht d tr
nng lng. Tu theo loi nng sn, hm lng cht bo khc nhau. la nc 1,8 2,5%,
ng 3,5 7,0%, u tng 15 25%, ...
Trong cc loi ng cc ng c hm lng lipit cao nht. Phi cha 30 50% tng
s lipit. 85% s lipit trong phi l ngun du thng mi. Ngoi phi, lipit cn cha trong lp
alron ca ht.
Cn c vo thnh phn axit bo no v khng no cha trong cht bo ta chia ra cc
nhm sau:
- Nhm bay hi: ch yu l glyxerin ca axit linolenic (57 60%).
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 14

- Nhm bn bay hi: trong thnh phn t bo, ch yu gm glyxerin ca axit linolic
(40 57%) v cha mt t axit bo khng no nh axit leinnoic (28 50%). Kh nng xi
ho km hn.
- Nhm khng bay hi: thnh phn cha ch yu l glyxrin ca axit linolenonic
trn 83% v mt s axit bo khng no. Loi ny cha nhiu trong lc, vng.
Nng sn cha nhiu lipit, bo qun lu xy ra phn gii cht bo to thnh cc
sn phm ca axit bo, alehyt v xtn lm cho sn phm c mi i, kht, gim cht lng
sn phm.
Du ng ch yu l hn hp cc triglyxerit, ngoi lipit ra cn c c lipit lin kt vi
gluten, vi xenluloza, vi tinh bt v nhiu axit bo t do na.
Lipit ca phi cha rt t axit bo v cc cht x phng ho. Lipit ca tinh bt cha
17 90% axit bo v nhiu axit palmitric, trong khi lipit ca gluten v xenluloza cha
ti 32% cc cht khng x phng ho v 20% axit bo t do.
e/ Cc cht khong.
Trong ht ng, phytat ch yu tm thy trong phi. Ng thng cha 0,9% phytat.
Ng c gn 20ppm Zn, trong 70% phi. Trong phi cha gn 80% cht khong
(Bng 1.2) cho ta cc s liu sau.
Trong rau qu, mt phn nh cht khong dng nguyn t kim loi lin kt vi
cc hp cht hu c cao phn t nh magie trong clorofin, lu hunh, photpho trong thnh
phn ca protein; st, ng trong enzim. Phn ch yu cc cht khong trong thnh phn
cc axit hu c v v c. C th ngi rt d hp th cc cht khong dng lin kt ny.
Bng 1.2. Thnh phn khong trong ht ng (Theo Miller 1958).
Khong Khong bin thin Trung bnh
Canxi 0,00 0,45 0,03
Photpho 0,03 1,3 0,32
Kali 0,03 0,92 0,35
Mg 0,02 0,92 0,17
Fe 0,001 0,01 0,003
Na 0,00 0,13 0,01
S 0,01 0,19 0,12
Cc cht khong trong rau qu chia ra: a lng, vi lng, siu vi lng. Cc nguyn t a
lng trong rau l canxi, kali, photpho. St l trung gian gia a lng v vi lng.
Cc nguyn t vi lng: magie, mangan, iot, bo, km, ng. Cc nguyn t siu vi lng:
urani, radi, thorie, ... cha v cng nh trong rau qu.
g/ Vitamin.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 15

i vi ht kh, lng vitamin t. Khi ht ny mm th lng vitamin tng ln.
Trong ht ng, cc vitamin ch yu nm phi v lp ngoi cng ca ni nh cm vo lp
alrn. Trong lp alrn c tin vitamin A, riboflavin v axit nicotinic (vitamin PP). Phi
cha mt s nh nhng vitamin, nhng trong s c phn ln vitamin E v thiamin. Phn
cn li nm lp alrn.
Trong ng c cc loi vitamin nh sau:
- Vitamin A: Cc ging ng vng cha nhiu vitamin A v tin vitamin A. Trong c th
ng vt tin vitamin A d tr thnh vitamin A. Cc ging ng c ht mu da cam hoc
vng cha nhiu vitamin A. Cc ging ng trng cha t vitamin A.
- Vitamin B: Trong ht ng c nhiu vitamin B
1
(Thiamin), ng cha t vitamin B
2

(Riboflavin), B
6
(Pyridoxin) 60 80%, vitamin ny nm protein hoc tinh bt. Ng t
riboflavin hn la m v go. Hm lng vitamin ny thay i 0,77 2,29mg/Kg (trung
bnh 1,02 1,31mg/Kg).
- Vitamin PP (axit nicotinic): Ng c t vitamin PP hn la m v go, hm lng trung
bnh 29,08mg/Kg. Axit nicotimic tp trung lp alrn (cha ti 63%).
- Vitamin E: Cha nhiu trong phi. y l loi sinh t c gi tr trong sinh trng.
- Vitamin C: C nhiu nht trong rau qu. Tnh cht quan trng nht ca vitamin C, nht l
khi gia nhit, c khng kh v nh sng l d b oxi ho.
Vitamin C c bo v tt trong dung dch c nng ng cao. Cc mui st v ng
ph hu vitamin C.
Trong rau qa, vitamin phn b khng u, trong li ci bp, hm lng vitamin C cao gp
hai ln b.
- Vitamin P: Vitamin P thng i km vitamin C. V tr no rau qu cha nhiu vitamin C
th cng giu vitamin P.
1.4. TNH CHT VT L C BN CA HT NNG SN.
Trong qu trnh bo qun, nng sn vn l nhng vt th sng, n c nhng tnh
cht c trng v l hc, ho hc v sinh vt hc, ... Nhng c tnh ny c quan h nhiu
ti cht lng bo qun. Cn nm vng nhng tnh cht ca tng loi nng sn, gip ngi
lm cng tc bo qun ngn nga nhng tc hi hoc li dng n bo ton cht lng
nng sn. Khoa hc hin nay pht trin nhiu, cn i su nghin cu nhng tnh cht c
trng ca tng loi nng sn tm ra cc gii php bo qun hp l.
Khi ht l tp hp ca nhiu ht hp thnh (v d 1 tn thc c 34 35 triu ht; 1
tn ng c 4,5 11,5 triu ht). Ngoi ht chnh, trong khi ht cn ln tp cht v c v
hu c, cn trng v vi sinh vt, v mt lng khng kh nht nh trong khe rng ca khi
ht. l nhng tc nhn c nh hng ln n qu trnh din bin ca cht lng ht
trong bo qun.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 16

Trong mt khi ht cng mt ging, c nhng c tnh ging nhau v hnh dng,
mu sc, cht lng, ... Tuy nhin khi kho st k tng ht ta cng s thy c nhiu im
khc nhau, ngay trn cng mt bng s c ht chn hon ton, ht cha chn , ht xanh,
lp, ht to, nh, ... Tt c nhng vn nu trn y v tnh cht ca nng sn u c lin
quan ti cht lng bo qun, (hoc yu t gy h hng ht). Di y trnh by mt s
tnh cht chnh ca khi ht.
1.4.1. Tnh tan ri v t phn cp.
a/ Tnh tan ri: Khi khi ht t trn xung, khi ht s t phn cp thnh hnh nn, c
tnh gi l tnh tan ri. Do tnh tan ri ca ht ln, nh s khc nhau, hnh nn c to
thnh cng khc nhau. Ht c tnh tan ri nh (nng sn c m cao, nhiu tp cht, ...)
th hnh nn c y nh, gc y v chiu cao hnh nn ln. Gc y hnh thnh t ng
thc hnh nn gi l gc chy t nhin ca khi ht (khi ht trn mt nghing ngng ln).
Ht trn mt nghing ca chp nn trng thi tnh khng di ng do tn ti lc ma st
gia cc ht. Lc ma st cng ln, tnh tan ri cng nh v gc chy t nhin cng ln.
Ht cng c m cao, lc ma st gia cc ht cng ln, tnh tan ri cng thp.
Kim tra nh k tnh tan ri ca ht, c th d on c tnh trng ca ht, do s ra
c cc bin php khc phc, gim nhng tn tht ngoi mun.
Tnh tan ri ca ht cng quan h ti vic ng gi hoc xut nhp kho.
+ Xc nh gc nh (gc chy t nhin).
Dng bnh thu tinh khi ch nht, cho ht vo 1/3 th tch, t t lt bnh mt gc
90
0
. Ht b x v mt pha hnh thnh mt nghing. Dng thc o xc nh gc gia
mt phng ngang vi mt nghing ca lp ht (gc nh).














Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 17




Hnh 1.10. Xc nh gc nh v gc ma st.
+ Xc nh gc t chy (gc ma st).
Cho ht vo mt phng (vi cc vt liu khc nhau) nng dn mt u tm phng
ln, khi ht bt u ln, dng thc o gc gia tm phng v mt ngang, ta c gc t chy
hoc gc ma st gia ht v vt liu lm tm phng.
(Bng 1.3) cho ta gc nh ca mt s loi lng thc ph thuc hnh dng ht.
Bng 1.3.
Loi ht Gc nghing t nhin () Khong chnh lch ()
Thc 35 45 10
Ng 30 40 10
La m 23 38 15
u tng 24 32 8
Vng 27 34 7
b/ Tnh t phn cp.
Trong khi ht bao gm: cc ht c kch thc, hnh dng, trng lng khc nhau;
cc tp cht khc nhau. Khi ta khi ht trn xung sn, cc ht c tnh cht tng t
nhau v d ht chc c xu hng ri nhanh v nm di ng hoc gia ng. Cc ht
lp, nh, tp cht nh thng ri sau v nm trn, xung quanh ng thc. S d c hin
tng t phn cp nh trn l do tnh tan ri khc nbau dn ti. S khc nhau v tnh tan
ri lin quan ti lc ma st gia cc phn t khc nhau (do khi lng khc nhau) tc dng
ln cc phn t.
Khi cp liu vo kho hoc khi xut liu t kho ra bng phng php ht, y t
ng (kho sil hoc kho thp) ta c mt s nhn xt nh sau:
Khi cp liu: lp ht st vch thng c cht lng km (dung trng v trng lng
tuyt i thp hn cc v tr khc). Lp ht trn nh tp trung nhng ht v, ht to nhn.
Gia khi ht tp trung cc ht c cht lng tt.
Khi xut liu: hin tng t phn cp cng xy ra. Ht tt, khi lng ring ln
chy ra trc sau mi ti cc ht nh v tp cht nh.
Tnh hnh xut nhp c cht lng khi ht khc nhau l cha m bo yu cu k
thut bo qun. Khi ht trc khi a vo bo qun phi c lm sch kh tt, phn ln
tp cht nh phi c loi b. i vi ht lm ging, sau khi lm sch, cn phi c
phn loi cn thn (phn loi theo kch thc ht hoc theo trng lng ring).
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 18

T phn cp lm cho cc ht xu, ht v, ht c di tp trung li, d ht m v pht
nhit lm cho vi sinh vt c iu kin pht trin, gy tn tht, v lm gim ng u ca
khi ht.
Khi cp ht vo sil, trnh hin tng t phn cp, trn nh sil thng b tr
mt chp nn kim loi phn b ht trc khi chy xung sil. Trng hp mun cho ht
ri nhanh th cho chp nn quay. Trng hp xut kho cng lm tng t, ht c trng u.
Do tnh t phn cp, c khi phm cht lng thc ton khi bo m, nhng v c
tnh trn nn c khu vc ht c m cao, nhiu ht xanh, lp, tp cht, ... (khng ng
u). V vy khi kim tra cn ly mu nhiu im khc nhau trong ng c th nh
gi khch quan, ng thi pht hin nhng ni c tnh trng xu khc phc kp thi.
(Phng php ly mu thng k)
Phn tch khi hnh chp nn cho ta trong bng 1.4.
Bng 1.4
Khu vc Dung trng ht
(g/l)
Ht v
(%)
Ht lp
(%)
Ht c
(%)
Tp cht
(%)
1 704,1 1,48 0,09 0,32 0,55
2 706,5 1,90 0,13 0,34 0,51
3 708 1,57 0,11 0,21 0,36
4 705 1,91 0,47 0,10 0,35
5 677.5 2,20 0,47 1,01 2,14
Mu 1 - ly phn trung tm khi ht; Mu 2, 3, 4 - ly cc phn khc khi ht;
Mu 5 - ly gip vch kho.
1.4.2. Mt v rng.
rng trong khi ht l t l phn trm khng gian gia cc ht. Mt l t l
phn trm th tch m ht chim. Khi ht c mt cng ln th rng cng nh. Tng
ca mt v rng chim 100%. rng khi ht ln hay b ph thuc vo hnh thi,
cu to bn ngoi, ... ca ht quyt nh. Theo ti liu nghin cu, rng bnh thng ca
1m
3
ht lng thc nh sau:
Bng 1.5
Loi ht Trng lng trong 1m
3
(Kg) rng (%)
Thc 440 550 50 56
Ng 680 820 35 55
Bt 730 850 35 45
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 19

rng v mt lin quan ti cng tc bo qun. Gia cc ht c khong trng
l mi trng sng ca ht. Khong trng to iu kin cho khng kh lu thng, kh nng
m trong khi lng thc d thot ra ngoi, trnh c hin tng t bc nng ca khi ht
do ht h hp. Khi rng nh, ht b nn cht (tng mt ) gim khong trng gia cc
ht, gim lng khng kh lu thng. Qu trnh h hp ca ht km (thiu xi), hoc b bc
nng cc b, lm gim t l ny mm.
Mt ca ht ( cht) tnh theo cng thc:
100
V
C
W
=
y:
V - Th tch thc t ca khi ht v cc vt th rn.
W - Th tch ton b ca khi ht.
rng khi ht tnh theo:
100 1 100 100
W V V
R C
W W
| |
= = =
|
\

Trong : W - V l th tch khong rng chim bi khng kh.
1.4.3. Tnh hp th ca khi ht.
a - Tnh ht nh ca nng sn.
Cc loi ht nng sn u c kh nng ht, nh cc cht kh (khng kh m v cc
cht kh c mi) xung quanh n. Nh c rng ca khi ht, khng kh, hi nc v cc
cht kh khc xm nhp d dng vo trong khi ht. Bn thn ht tn ti cc ng mao dn
xen k t bo cu to nn ht. Kch thc ng mao c th t 1/1000 1/10.0000.000mm.
Do tnh ht nh ca khi ht u thc hin c hai mt: mt ngoi v mt trong ca
tng ht trong khi ht.
Hin tng hp th (ht) ca khi ht da vo tc dng khuch tn thc hin.
Th kh (hoc hi) ca vt cht t bn ngoi khuch tn vo bn trong khi ht cha y
cc khong trng, bao gm:
- Mt phn trn b mt.
- Mt phn thng qua mao qun ca ht xm nhp vo quanh t bo ri b vch
trong hp th. Khi th kh v th hi vt qua ngng bo ho s ngng t trong mao qun
thnh dch th m khuch tn.
- Mt phn thm thu vo t bo, lin kt vi cc ht keo, hoc phn ng ho hc
vi cht hu c trong ht, gi l hp ph ho hc.
Tt c cc hin tng trn gi l qu trnh hp ph. Phn t hi v kh thot ra khi
ht gi l qu trnh gii hp ph (nh).
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 20

Kh nng ht v nh cc cht kh t ht th hin rt r khi trong kho c cht kh no
c mi g th ht s ht vo v cng c mi . Khi ht c lm kh, thong sch th
ht s nh mt phn hoc ton b cc cht kh c mi .
Kh nng ht v nh hi nc ca ht c nh hng ln ti vic bo qun. Trng
hp ht m, thu phn ca ht tng, vi sinh vt pht trin gy tn tht cho sn phm.
Tnh hp ph ca ht mnh hay yu chu nh hng ca cc yu t sau:
- Nng kh ca mi trng cng ln, p sut kh ca mi trng v ht cng
chnh lch th kh nng hp ph ca ht cng tng.
- Nhit ca khng kh cng cao, nhit ht cng thp th tnh hp ph ca ht
cng mnh.
- Ht c cu to xp, mt ht khng nhn, hp ph mnh. Ht c cu to cht, mt
ht nhn, th kh nng hp ph yu.
- Tng din tch mt ht cng ln, cng tng cng hp ph.
Qu trnh nh m nh sau:
Ht trong mi trng bt nc t (khng kh kh v nng), nc bn trong ht dch
chuyn ra ngoi. Ban u nc dch chuyn t trong ra ngoi mt ht thng qua cc mao
qun, khuch tn vo mi trng cho ti khi nc t do hon ton mt. Qu trnh gi l
qu trnh nh m.
Tuy nhin kh nng ht, nh hi nc ca ht cng c gii hn, trng thi gii hn
gi l trng thi cn bng v thu phn.
b - Thu phn cn bng ca ht.
Trng thi thu phn ca ht khng thay i (khng ht, nh hi nc) gi l trng
thi thu phn cn bng ca ht. Vi mi m khng kh nht nh, ht s c m cn
bng nht nh. m ca khng kh cng cao, thu phn cn bng cng tng. Khi m
tng i khng kh t ti bo ho th thu phn cn bng ca ht t cc i. Trong cng
mt m, nu nhit thp th thu phn cn bng tng v ngc li. Nh vy yu t
m khng kh v nhit nh hng nhiu ti thu phn cn bng.
Qua nghin cu cho thy nhit 20
0
C ht lng thc c thu phn 10 13% v
m khng kh 40 60% d bo qun hn. Ht c thu phn trn 17% kh bo qun. Cn
lu ht c cha nhiu lipit th thu phn cn bng thp, v lipit khng ht nc. Tuy
nhin lipit trong ht ch chim th phn t, cc cht cn li nh protit, gluxit s ht nc
nhiu, do vn d lm hng ht. Di y l bng cho thu phn cn bng ca mt s
loi ht.
Bng 1.6
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 21

m tng i ca khng kh (%) Tn lng thc
20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Thc 7,5 9,4 10,4 11,4 12,5 13,7 15,2 17,6
Go 8,0 9,6 10,9 12,0 13 14,6 16,0 18,7
Ng 8,2 9,4 10,7 11,9 13,9 15,9 16,9 19,2
u tng 7,73 9,1 11,2 16,18
S phn b thu phn trong khi ht thng khng u, c ni thu phn cao, c
ni thp gy kh khn cho bo qun. S d s phn b thu phn khng u trong khi ht l
do:
- Trong mt ht thu phn khng u: phi thu phn cao hn ni nh v cc
phn khc. S d vy l do c im cu to, thnh phn ho hc trong ht khc nhau cc
phn; do kh nng ht m v tch lu m cng khc nhau.
- Cc ht khc nhau, kh nng ht m cng khc nhau: ht chc, ht lp. Ngoi ra
do hin tng t phn cp nn c nhng khu vc tp trung nhiu ht xu ht lp.
- nh hng ca m tng i ca khng kh ti khi ht. Khng kh bn ngoi
tip xc vi tng trn khi ht, nn tng ny b nh hng nhiu. m khng kh thay i
th thu phn ca lp ht trn cng thay i.
- S h hp ca ht to nhit v hi nc. Ni no ht h hp mnh th m ca
khng kh trong vng rng s tng, lm cho m khi ht tng khu vc khng u. Khu
vc m, vi sinh vt pht trin th mt s cht b bin thnh nc lm cho tng m cho khu
vc .
- S chuyn dch m trong khi ht do nh hng ca chuyn dch nhit . m
t lp di bc ln trn lm tng m lp trn, rt d gy hin tng mc do nm.
Trong ng ht ng cng nh cc loi ng cc khc, quan st thy c s chuyn m
di dng hi do truyn nhit trong ng ht. Trong kho ta thng thy ngng t m st
tng kho, sn kho, lp b mt ng ht, ... Hin tng ny gii thch s chuyn khi hi
trong lp ht. Vic ngng t l ngun gc to nn m cao, thc y qu trnh sinh l xy
ra mnh cc ni b ngng t m, ri lan truyn sang cc vng ht kh theo qui lut cn
bng m. Ngng t trong ng ht, kt hp vi nhit cao dn n ht b trng v
ny mm. Chnh v th, vic thot m cho khi ht c ngha quyt nh m bo an ton
ca khi ht trong khi bo qun.
Sc cn ca khi ht, lm cn tr qu trnh thot m. Sc cn c c trng bng
h s thot hi nc. H s thot hi nc l lng m (gam) i qua tit din 1m
2
ca
nguyn liu c chiu dy 1m, hiu s dn n ca hi nc i vi hai mt khi thc l
1mm thu ngn.
H s thot hi nc tnh theo:
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 22


( )
1 2
P g
l l F z m gi mm

| |
=
|

\


Trong :
P - Lng hi nc (g);
- Chiu dy lp nguyn liu (m);
l
1
, l
2
- dn n ca hi nc hai pha ca mu (mmHg);
z - Thi gian (gi);
F - Din tch b mt nguyn liu (m
2
).
Song song vi tnh thot m, ng cn c tnh ht m trong mi trng khng kh
khng thun li. Tnh ht m ca ng ch yu ph thuc vo nhit v m khng kh
bao quanh. Kh nng thot m v ht m c gii hn nht nh, dn ti hm m cn bng
ca ht. Bng di cho quan h gia hm m cn bng ca ht ng ng vi nhit v m
ca khng kh.
Bng 1.7. Thu phn cn bng (%).
m
tng i ca
khng kh
(%)

Hm m cn bng ca ht ng (%)
90 22 22 22 21,0 20,0 19 18 17
80 17 17 16,5 16,0 15,0 14,5 13,5 12,5
70 14 13,5 13,0 13,0 12,0 11,5 11,0 10,0
60 11,5 11,0 11,0 10,5 10,0 9,0 8,0 8,0
50 9,5 9,5 9,5 9 8,5 8,0 7,5 7,0
40 8,0 8,0 8,0 7,5 7,0 6,5 6,0 5,5
30 6,0 6,0 6,0 6 5,5 5,0 5,0 4,5
20 4,5 4,5 4,5 4,0 4,0 3,5 3,0 3,0
10 2,5 2,5 2,5 2,5 2,0 2,0 2,0 1,5
0 10
0
C 25
0
C 20
0
C 30
0
C 40
0
C 50
0
C 60
0
C 70
0
C

(Nhit khng kh
0
C)
i vi kh hu nc ta, m bo an ton cho ht, m thch hp bo qun <13%.
Bng di cho mi tng quan cc iu kin an ton cho ng.

Bng 1.8
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 23

m khng kh

(%)
Nhit khng kh

(%)
Hm m an ton ca ng cn bng vi
iu kin k bn
(%)
60 10 15 11,5
70 20 60 13,0
1.4.4. Tnh dn nhit
Ni chung khi ht c tnh dn nhit. Trao i nhit trong ng ht di tc ng
ca dng khng kh chuyn ng l dng truyn nhit i lu. i lu t nhin do chnh
lch p sut, ph thuc vo nhit . Trong mt s t trng hp xy ra qu trnh dn nhit.
Truyn nhit i lu lin quan ti rng ca ng ht. Qu trnh bo qun khi
ht c lun chuyn (co o), thng gi th hn ch c ngng t m.
Nhit khng kh ngoi tri khng nh hng ngay ti nhit ton khi ht, m
phi sau mt thi gian nht nh. Nhit cc i hoc cc tiu ca khi ht xut hin
trung bnh t 2,5 3 thng chm hn so vi cc i, cc tiu ca khng kh ngoi tri.
Tc trao i nhit ca khi ht ph thuc chnh nhit ca khi ht vi
nhit mi trng, cu trc kho tng, ... Kho c thng thong tt s hn ch s xm nhp
m v nhit t mi trng vo.
Qu trnh bo qun lu di s dn ti lm tng nhit trong ng ht. Ngoi ra khi
nhp kho, ht nhit cao, thm vo s t bc nng, lm gim cht lng sn phm.
iu kin nhit v m cao lm cho vi sinh vt pht trin.
Tnh dn nhit ca ht km c c hai mt tt xu. Mt tt l do khi ht nng ln
chm v dn nhit km, do nh hng ca nhit bn ngoi vo khi ht chm. Li
dng tnh cht ny, ma ng c th thi khng kh lnh vo kho. Mt khng tt l khi khi
ht b t nng, lm ngui n kh khn. Khi khi ht c s pht trin mnh ca vi sinh vt,
thi nhit nhiu, tch t dn gy ra t bc nng.
Nc ta thi tit lun thay i, c bit vo giai on giao ma, nhit b mt
ng ht thay i theo nhit mi trng; nhit ca ng ht thay i chm, d gy ra
hin tng tch t hi nc trn b mt khi ht.
H s dn nhit ca ht ph thuc m (gii hn m 10 20%) c tnh theo
cng thc:
0, 07% 0, 00233W =
y: W - m ht (%).
Gi tr trung bnh ca = (0,12 0,2) (Kcal/m.h
0
C)




Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 24

Chng 2.
CC QU TRNH BIN I GY H HNG NNG SN

Nng sn phm sau khi thu hoch, s ch (lm sch, lm kh) c a vo bo
qun trong cc kho trong iu kin mi trng nht nh. S thay i ca cc yu t mi
trng (nhit , m khng kh) c nh hng nhiu ti trng thi ca nng sn. Trng
hp khi nng sn c nhng bin i v sinh l, ho sinh, ... cng tc ng tr li mi
trng.
Yu t i kh hu nh hng trc tip ti yu t tiu kh hu v vi kh hu. Mc
nh hng ny ph thuc vo cu trc ca kho, s ngn cch gia khi ht v mi trng
xung quanh. Yu t tiu kh hu tt s to iu kin thun li cho vic bo qun. Nng cao
cht lng nng sn trc khi a vo bo qun ( sch, kh ca sn phm) gp phn
gim nh hng ca vi kh hu, lm gim tc ng xu ca vi sinh vt ti nng sn.
nc ta, nhit v m khng kh cao. Nhit cao nht vo cui thng 7 v
u thng 8, thp nht l thng 2. Nhit khi ht thng cao hn nhit mi trng
(nhit trung khi ht 31 33
0
C).
Nhit cao, lm tng cc qu trnh ho sinh, sinh ho trong ht.
m bnh qun hng nm ca khng kh 80%, lm tng thu phn ca sn phm.
S thay i thu phn ca nng sn ph thuc nhiu vo loi kho v tnh trng bo qun.
2.1. CC YU T GY H HNG NNG SN.
2.1.1. nh hng ca cc tnh cht.
Nng sn khi thu hoch lc u u chu nh hng ca cc tnh cht (vt l, ho
hc, ...) mc khc nhau tu thuc vo thi k v phng php thu hoch. Nhng nh
hng ny tc ng n khi ht trong khi bo qun v mang tnh cht tng h.
i vi bp ng, ngoi ht ra, li vi khi lng ln d ht nc, d cho vi sinh vt
xm nhp v pht trin (khi bo qun c bp).
Ht c phi ln, phi cng ht nc nhiu. Trong phi ch yu l cht bo, protein,
cacbon hydrat, c bit lng men, c nh hng ti cng hot ng ca vi sinh vt
v sinh ho ca ht. Trong ht ng cha nhiu vi sinh vt, ch yu l nm mc. Nm mc
cng thy ngay khi ng c m cao mi nhp kho.
2.1.2. Nhit
Nhit l yu t c nh hng quyt nh nht n qu trnh sng ca nng sn
khi tn tr, cng nh phm cht ca n. Tng nhit s lm tng cng phn ng cc
qu trnh c bn trong trao i cht. Theo nh lut Vant.Hoff. Khi tng nhit d ln 10
0
C
th tc phn ng tng ln khong hai ln. Tuy nhin, phm vi tng nhit tng
cng h hp cng b gii hn. Ngha l cng h hp tng n ti a mt nhit
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 25

nht nh, sau gim i. Khi gim t 25
0
C n 5
0
C th cng gim nhanh v khi nhit
gim n gn im ng bng th s gim cng h hp chm li.
nh hng ca nhit n cht lng ht ng trong khi bo qun bp m
30% ch trong bng 2.1.
Bng 2.1. nh hng ca nhit n cht lng ht ng trong iu kin bo qun bp
m 30% trong 6 ngy.
Hm lng cht kh %
Nhit
(
0
C)
ny mm
Tinh bt Cht bo
Ch s axit ca cht bo
mgKOH/1g cht bo
axit ca ht, ml
0,1N.NaOH/10g bt
Loi ng Mintta 13
Ban u 99,5 71,2 4,3 8,8 4,4
15 99 71,4 4,3 51,0 5,6
25 100 68 4,2 54,2 7,2
Loi ng Goruxepski
Ban u 97 70,9 3,7 12,0 4,2
15 97 70,7 3,6 40,0 6,4
25 94 69,2 3,5 68,3 6,7
Qua s liu cho thy, bo qun ng bp ( m 30%, 6 ngy 15
0
C), phm cht ht
bt u xu. ny mm, hm lng tinh bt, cht bo, cng nh mc bo qun ban
u, nhng ch s axit ca cht bo v axit ca ht tng mnh. Khi nng nhit ln
25
0
C, th qu trnh phn hu mnh m, ch s axit ca cht bo v axit ca ht tng
mnh, v lm gim hm lng tinh bt v cht bo r rt, gim ny mm ca ht.
i vi rau qu, tn tr lu cn gim nhit , nhng khng c di nhit
ng bng khng gy ra ph hu t bo do cc tinh th nc. im ng bng ca rau
qu t -2
0
C n -4
0
C v dch bo thng cha cc cht ho tan. Mt s rau nh hnh ty,
ci bp do kh nng trng nguyn sinh ca t bo rt cao, nn c th tn tr di 0
0
C
(hnh ty -3
0
C, ci bp -1
0
C) m t bo vn hi phc bnh thng v trng thi ban u sau
khi lm tan gi chm (cn lu , nu lm lnh ln th hai xung di 0
0
C, th kh nng
phc hi khng cn na).
Cc c tnh sinh l ring c th ph hu qu trnh trao i cht, hu hoi cu trc
t bo ca rau qu. V d c chua v h qu c mi tn tr di 3 5
0
C, mt kh nng
chn.
Mi loi rau qu c nhit tn tr nht nh, cng h hp (hiu kh) thp
nht, l nhit ti u:
Rau qu Nhit ti u (
0
C)
Da chut 10 12
C chua chn 1
Cam, bi, chanh xanh 4 6
Cam, bi, chanh chn 1 2
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 26

Mt s loi c nh khoai ty, cn thay i nhit tn tr tng thi k bo qun
theo s pht trin v bin i trng thi sinh l ca chng.
Ngi ta cng c th tng nhit y mnh qu trnh sinh l, sinh ho theo yu
cu sn xut. V d tng nhit y nhanh qu trnh chn cc l nguyn liu cn chn
trc a vo sn xut, hay cn gim lng ng trong khoai ty n mc ti thiu
a vo sn xut mt s sn phm.
Trong qu trnh bo qun cn n nh ch nhit . Vic thay i ch nhit
t ngt gy ra cc hin tng bnh l trong rau qu do cng h hp thay i t ngt.
2.1.3. m tng i ca khng kh v m ca sn phm.
m ca sn phm khi bo qun nh hng n cht lng r rt. V d ng bp
25
0
C, b nm mc lm hi m cao sau 6 nm bo qun. i vi ng vng m 13,8
14% l m ti hn khi bo qun.
Mt s nh nghin cu thy rng, bo qun ng vng m 17,4% 31,2%
nhit 25 45
0
C trong 12 ngy, m tng ln dn, ti tng t ngt, ch s axit ca cht
bo tng mnh, hm lng nit chung v nit ho tan trong nc tng t. Lng ng kh
tng, ng khng kh gim, kh nng sng ca ht gim. Khi tng m ca ht ng th
lng ng saccaroza ca ng gim theo t l vi m. Ch s hm lng ng khng
kh v ch s axit cht bo khng phn nh chnh xc h hng ca ht, ch c ngha
tng i. m ca ht trong tng giai on c th c nm mc khc nhau s gy tc hi
khc nhau. Bng 2.2 cho nh hng m khc nhau n cht lng ht ca bp ng khi
bo qun nhit 25
0
C.
Bng 2.2.
Hm lng cht kh
%

m
%

ny mm
% Tinh bt Cht bo
Ch s axit cht
bo mg KOH/1g
cht bo
axit bo ca
ht ml, 0,1N.
NaOH/1g tinh
bt
Loi ng Mineotta 13
Ban u 99,5 71,2 4,3 8,8 4,4
19 99,0 70,5 4,3 37,7 4,4
25 99,0 69,4 4,3 41,6 5,4
30 100,0 68,0 4,2 54,2 7,2
Loi ng Gruxepski
Ban u 97,0 70,9 3,7 12,0 4,2
19 96,0 70,3 3,6 46,4 4,2
25 95,0 69,3 3,5 57,5 5,8
30 94,0 69,2 3,5 68,3 6,7
Qua bng cho thy khi m tng t 19% n 25% v 30%, cht lng ht km i,
qu trnh phn hu ht tng, hm lng tinh bt v cht bo gim, tng ch s axit, ...
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 27

i vi rau qu, m tng i ca khng kh trong phng bo qun nh hng
nhiu ti s bc hi nc ca rau qu. m khng kh thp, lm tng qu trnh bc hi
nc ca rau qu, gim khi lng ca n v lm ho sn phm (c bn ngoi v bn
trong). Qu trnh ho xut hin hin tng co nguyn sinh, lm ri lon s trao i cht,
gim kh nng khng, ...
Qu trnh tng m khi bo qun do hai nguyn nhn: Do chnh qu trnh h hp ca
rau qu v tng m nhn to. Qu trnh bc hi ph thuc vo cu trc, ho nc ca h
keo trong m b. Tng cutin v lp sp bn ngoi v rau qu, c tc dng chng bc m
cao. m thp s hn ch s pht trin ca vi sinh vt gy h hng cho sn phm. Rau
qu trong thi gian tn tr cn duy tr m khng kh khong 80 90%.
2.1.4. nh hng ca thi gian bo qun.
Ngi ta nghin cu nh hng ca thi gian bo qun ng bp 5
0
C,
m 17 19%, ny mm ca ht t b nh hng, t b phn hu tinh bt, cht bo v
tiu th sn phm thu phn trong qu trnh sinh ho. Ch s axit ca cht bo v axit
ca bt khng tng khi bo qun 120 210 ngy.
Khi m ht t 17 19% v nhit dng, bo qun trn 4 thng th thnh phn
ho hc v hot ng sng ca ht ng thay i r rt. Trong iu kin khng thun li, ch
s axit bo thay i. Cn xc nh thi gian bo qun an ton ca ng cng nh cc sn
phm khc nhm gip xc nh c thi gian kim tra cn thit v c k hoch s dng
sn phm hp l. th di cho ta xc nh c thi gian bo qun an ton ng bp v
ng ht.















Hnh 2.1. th xc nh thi gian Hnh 2.2. th xc nh thi gian
bo qun an ton ng bp bo qun an ton ng bp.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 28

2.1.5. Thnh phn kh ca khng kh trong kho.
Thnh phn kh trong kho nh hng nhiu ti cng h hp, n qu trnh trao
i cht.
Tng hm lng CO
2
v gim xi trong khng kh lm hn ch h hp. Khi hm
lng CO
2
tng t 3 5% v lng xi gim i tng ng (ch cn 16 18%) th thi gian
tn tr rau qu c th tng 3 4 ln so vi iu kin bnh thng (0,03%CO
2
, 21% xi v
79% N
2
). Khi CO
2
tng qu 10%, s ph v qu trnh cn bng sinh l, lm mt kh nng
khng t nhin v lm rau qu thm en, h hng.
Tng hm lng N
2
cng l thi gian ko di tn tr. nh hng ca s thay i
thnh phn khng kh n trao i cht ca rau qu kh phc tp, lm gim cng h
hp v lm chm qu trnh chn tip. Lng ng gim, axit tng do to ra axit
xuxinic. Clorofin n nh. Khi duy tr thnh phn kh thch hp th cht lng rau qu c
th cao hn bo qun lnh. Ngi ta dng kh hyrocacbon khng no (nh tylen, axtylen,
propylen, ...) lm chui chn nhanh.
2.1.6. Cc h vi sinh vt.
Ht l c cht cha nhiu protein, cacbon hydrat l cht cn cho hot ng sng ca
vi sinh vt. C nhiu vi sinh vt tp trung trn b mt ht (khun hoi vt saphrophyte).
Trong ht tm thy cc loi vi sinh vt.
S pht trin ca vi sinh vt v nh hng ca chng ti cht lng ht ph thuc
vo iu kin bo qun. Mt s thuc loi bact herbicola aureun. Khng c kh nng ph
hoi t bo ca ht, bin mt dn.
Mt s loi khc trong iu kin bnh thng khng c hi n cht lng ht,
nhng trong iu kin thch hp li ph hoi ht.
i vi ng, nm pht trin lm km cht lng ht.
2.2. NHNG BIN I CA NNG SN TRONG QU TRNH BO QUN.
Trong qu trnh bo qun, khi ht l mt tp th vt th sng nn n din bin
thng xuyn, khng nhng ngoi ng m ngay sau khi gt v trong qu trnh bo
qun. Qu trnh hot ng ny phc tp, nh hng ti cht lng, s lng thnh phn cu
to trong ht lng thc. Chng ta cn nghin cu hiu cc hot ng sinh l ni ti ca
lng thc v cc iu kin khch quan lm nh hng ti nhng hot ng , c
nhng bin php bo qun thch hp, nhm hn ch cc thit hi. Trong hot ng sng ca
ht, th cht lng ca ht l yu t chi phi hng u. Ng cc nhp kho c cht lng
khc nhau, nh hng trc tip n iu kin sng ca ht. Nhng yu t k trn, kt hp
vi nm mc v cn trng, nhng ht b bnh, tp cht hu c, hot ng ca men trong
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 29



ht, thc y qu trnh hot ng sng ca ht. Hot ng sng mnh dn ln v lan to ra
c khi ht, lm chng b h hng.
Rau qu ti trong bo qun c mt s bin i vt l lm gim cht lng v khi
lng rau qu (bay hi nc, gim khi lng t nhin, ...). Qu trnh mt nc gy ri
lon sinh l, gim kh nng khng khun dn, lm cho rau qu chng h hng.
a/ S h hp ca lng thc.
Ht v mt s sn phm nng nghip nh rau qu, trong qu trnh bo qun vn xy
ra qu trnh h hp. Ch khi no lng thc b cht (rang, nu) th mi ngng s h hp.
Kt qu h hp s tiu hao cc cht dinh dng trong lng thc. Theo s liu
nghin cu, khi lng thc c m 33%, ht h hp rt mnh, lng cht b hao tn trong
24 gi t ti 0,1 0,2%. Bn cht ca hin tng h hp, chnh l s t chy ho hc;
hp ph xy chuyn ho cht dinh dng (ng, bt) trong ht sang dng nhit nng,
hi nc v kh CO
2
. Hin tng ny lm hi nc tch t trong ng lng thc, tng m.
Ht c th h hp trong iu kin c xy (him kh) hoc thiu xy (ym kh)
H hp hiu kh:
C
6
H
12
O
6
+ 6O
2
6CO
2
+ 6H
2
O + 674 Kcal.
(ng glucoza) (xy) (Kh cacbonic) (Nc)
i vi cht bo (axit tripanmitin)
(C
15
H
31
.COO)
3
C
3
H
5
+ 72,5O
2
51O
2
+ 49H
2
O + 761,7Kcal.
Qua cc phng trnh trn cho thy, lng oxy cn thit, lng CO
2
v nhit lng
to ra ph thuc vo cht b xi ho.
Qu trnh h hp chu nh hng ca nhit , m v thng thong ca
ng ht, ...
nhit < 8
0
C h hp yu. Tng nhit , h hp tng dn v khi ti qu 45
0
C h
hp li gim nhanh chng. m 10% ht khng h hp, hot ng sng ngng. 14%
h hp ca ht yu, tiu hao dinh dng v to nhit km. m 15 16% ng vi lng
m thch hp ca h hp, ht h hp gp 10 ln ht c m 14% m 20%, hao ht
ti 100 ln so vi ht m 14%.
Cng h hp ca ht l ch s v cng hot ng sng ca ht. Ch s
cng h hp chung biu th hot ng sng ca ht v biu th mc hot ng ca vi
sinh vt trong khi ht. Ngi ta nh ngha, cng h hp l kh nng h hp ca mt
khi sn phm nht nh trong mt n v thi gian.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 30

Lng xy tiu th hoc CO
2
nh ra cng ln th cng h hp cng mnh. Ch
s cng h hp ph thuc vo nhiu yu t: tnh trng cu to tng phn ca khi ht,
chn, m, nhit , iu kin v thi gian bo qun, ...
Cng h hp c xc nh theo ba hng:
- Xc nh lng O
2
hp th vo hoc CO
2
nh ra.
- Xc nh lng vt cht kh hao tn.
- Xc nh lng nhit nng to ra.
th di cho ta nh hng ca nhit v m n cng h hp ca bp
(1), li (2) v ht ng (3) trong khi bo qun.











23IX 4X 14X 24X 5XI 19XI 5XII 17XII 29XII


Hnh 2.3. Quan h gia cng Hnh 2.4. Cng h hp ca bp (1), li (2)
h hp vi nhit v m v ht ng (3) trong khi bo qun.
Qu trnh h hp i vi nng sn khi bo qun gy ra mt s tc hi:
- Qu trnh h hp l qu trnh phn hu cc cht dinh dng to ra nhit. V d khi
ht ny mm, h hp chim 40 60% cht dinh dng.
- Khi h hp, gluxit, protein v cht bo thay i lm bin i mt s ch tiu sinh ho.
- H hp lm tng CO
2
v hi nc, do lm tng thu phn khi ht, to iu
kin cho vi sinh vt pht trin. Nhit ca khi ht tng ln, lm tng kh nng t bc
nng ca khi ht.
Bng 2.3. Cng h hp ca ht ng nhit v m khc nhau.
Nhit (
0
C) m ca ht (%)
15 25
14 15 10,2 28,0
16,7 17 24,5 37,6
18,5 19 30,4 73,6
C

n
g

p

g

C
O
2

t
r

n

1
k
g

h

t

t
r
o
n
g

2
4

g
i


Ngi quan st
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 31

Qua bng cho thy m v nhit cao, cng h hp ca ht tng mnh.
nhit cao th m ca ht ng khng nn vt qu 12 13%. Khi tng m
ca ht ln 1%, cng h hp ca ht tng gp i. m bo an ton cho ht ng
(kh nng sng), nu ng c m 24,3% th ch nn lm nng ti 45
0
C. nhit cao
hn, lm nguyn sinh cht ca t bo b tn tht, lm gim kh nng sng ca ht.
b/ chn sau ca ht.
Nng sn sau khi thu hoch vn tip tc chn sinh l v sinh ho, tip tc hon
thnh vic trao i hon chnh cc cht dinh dng trong ht. Nhiu tc gi cho rng, nhit
dng nh hng su xa n v ht v ny mm ca ht. ny mm thp l do
chn v thm hi nc, xy ca v ht khng tt. Trong khi chn ht thc y qu trnh
tng hp polysaccarit, cht bo, protit; cn hot ng ca men trong cc phn catalaza v
tirolaza b yu i. Lng cht bo ca ht tng, ch s axit gim xung. Vic tng hp
protit hon thnh bng cch s dng m khng protit tng hp protit v tng cht lng
ht. Cc loi rau n l, n c, r khng cn giai on chn sau. Cc loi ht chn sau di cho
t l ny mm thp v sc ny mm khng u. Giai on chn sau ngn rt d b ny mm
ngay ngoi ng hoc trong kho khi m cao.
c/ Trng thi ngh ca ht ging v ht nng sn.
Ht nng sn cn sng nhng khng ny mm gi l ht ngh. Nguyn nhn ht
ngh l do: phi ca ht cha chn hoc t chc ca phi phn ho cha hon thnh, ht
cha hon thnh giai on chn sau, nh hng trng thi v ht (khng thm nc, khng
ht kh, ...).
i vi nhng ht ging, trong thi gian bo qun, cn ko di thi gian ngh, bng
cch c ch s hnh thnh t bo mm c (i vi khoai ty ngi ta dng ho cht M - 1
hoc M - H).
d/ Hin tng ny mm ca ht v c ging trong thi gian bo qun.
Yu c ngoi cnh c nh hng ln ti s ny mm ca ht. V d nu mi trng
xung quanh m t, ng s ht nc, kt hp vi nhit thch hp, lng xy ht vo, s
lm cho ht ny mm. Nc l mi trng cn thit cho cc loi men hot ng. Nhit
20 35
0
C l nhit thch hp cho ht ny mm. Nu ht ny mm th s xy ra qu
trnh bin i phc tp v lm gim gi tr dinh dng ca ht. Di tc dng ca men, tinh
bt s bin thnh ng; cht m, cht bo b phn hu thnh nhng cht n gin d ho
tan nui mm. Khi mc mm thnh phn ho hc ca ht ng nh sau:
Bng 2.4.
i tng nghin cu
Tinh bt
(%)
ng
(%)
Cht bo
(%)
Tro
(%)
Xenluloza
(%)
Ht nguyn 73,95 Khng c 5,36 1,80 5,98
Ht mc mm 17,15 21,04 3,31 3,46 29,64
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 32

Qua cho thy gi tr dinh dng gim khi ht mc mm.
Bin php phng ht mc mm trong khi bo qun l phi kim sot cc yu t
nh nhit , xy v m. Vic khng ch nhit v xy do cu trc ca kho tng.
Khng ch m do vic bo m tiu chun cht lng khi nhp kho.
Khi pht hin trong kho ht c hin tng ny mm, cn phi phi, sy ngay, mm
non s b qut i do men bn trong b tiu dit, hn ch c mt phn thit hi. Phi duy
tr m ca ht thp hn m cn thit ht ny mm, ngha l m bo m an ton
trc khi nhp kho. Ht c du duy tr m < 8 9%, ht cha nhiu gluxit m < 13,5%.
e/ Tnh bc nng ca khi ht.
Mt trong nhng qu trnh gy nguy him cho khi ht, l qu trnh bc nng.
Nguyn nhn ca qu trnh bc nng trong khi ht l hot ng h hp ca nng sn. Kh
nng dn nhit ca sn phm km, do nhit tch t dn khng thot ra ngoi kp lm tng
nhit ca khi lng thc. Hot ng sinh ho ca khi ht cng mnh, gy tn tht cc
cht dinh dng, to iu kin cho vi sinh vt pht trin. Nh vy ngun nhit do chnh
nng sn v h hp ca vi sinh vt l ngun ch yu lm nhit khi ht v m ca n
tng lin tc. Khi bc nng th nhit tng nhanh v xut hin mi l. Mi nng dn thnh
mi hi du v sau thnh mi m thi mc. Khi ht nhiu ht xanh, lp, ht ny mm, ht
khng hon thin, ... h hp ca chng mnh hn ht bnh thng. Vic bo qun tnh
trng qu m hoc sau b m cng gy ra qu trnh bc nng.
Hot ng ca vi sinh vt xy ra trn cacbon hyrat, protein v cht bo trong ht,
lm tng axit. Do hot ng ca hin tng ny, lm tng lng ng kh v gim
lng tinh bt, lng axit bo t do trong cht bo tng gy to m v nhit thc y qu
trnh bc nng.
Kh nng cch m v cch nhit ca kho, mc thong cng nh hng ti qu
trnh bc nng. Vit Nam vng kh hu nhit i, nng v m, ma nhiu, nn d nh
hng ti nng sn bo qun. Nhit thay i chm, khi thi tit thay i t ngt, d
gy tch t nc trn mt ng ht hoc ven tng, st sn. Qu trnh t bc nng cn ph
thuc vo iu kin bo qun trong yu t chiu cao ng ht c nh hng tng i
r. m khi ht cng cao th chiu cao ng ht cn phi thp. V d: khi m <
13,5% ht sch cho php chiu cao ng ht c th ti 4m; khi m tng 14 15%, chiu
cao gim xung cn 2m,
Th nghim cho thy, thi gian bc nng cng di th cht lng khi ht cng
gim. Qu trnh bc nng ca khi ht c th chia lm ba giai on:
- Giai on th nht: Nhit tng u v chm ti 25 28
0
C. Tuy ht b bc nng,
nhng cha c hin tng m hi; vi sinh vt v cn trng cha pht trin mnh, cht
lng ht bin i cha r, mu sc, mi v bnh thng (tr ht xanh v phi ng bt u
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 33

bin mu). Trng hp ny nu kp thi thng thong cho ht to nhit, th vn gi c
an ton cho ht.
- Giai on th hai: Nhit ln ti 34 38
0
C, ht m hi, tan ri gim, mu
sc, mi v thay i r rt, v ht sm li, trn phi ht xut hin khun lc ca nm mc,
cht lng ht gim st nhanh. Nu khng c khc phc ngay, th sau vi ngy chuyn
sang giai on th ba.
- Giai on th ba: Nhit tng ln ti 50
0
C, khi ht c mi nng ru v mc,
v ht b en. 50
0
C t bo nm mc b cht, ch cn li bo t. Nh vy 50
0
C l nhit
gii hn chm dt hot ng ca vi khun v nm mc, cn li l vi sinh vt a nhit.
Trng hp khi ht b bc nng nh c th x l bng cch gim chiu cao lp ht
( m 14%, chiu cao l 3m; m 16 18% chiu cao l 1,2 1,5m, ...). Lm nh th
gim c m v thot nhit nhanh. Phng php thot nhit tch cc trong cc kiu kho
(c kho sil) l dng h thng thng gi cng bc.
Trng hp khi ht b bc nng mnh cn x l bng tiu th sn phm. Qu trnh
bc nng thng khng xy ra cng mt lc ton ng, m c tnh cht lan truyn.
Ngi ta chia cc dng bc nng nh sau:
Bc nng lp di: thng do nn kho m t. Bc nng ny rt nguy him v
rt kh pht hin. Nguy him v n lan truyn ln tng gia v tng trn. Chnh v th yu
cu quan trng l nn kho phi kh ro.
Bc nng tng trn mt ng: Loi ny thng xy ra vo ma ng hoc ma
ma, cch mt ng khong 50cm. Bc nng tng ny t nguy him v d pht hin v d
b gi thi kh.
Bc nng . y l dng bc nng tng vng, do m khng ng u ton
khi ht. ti vng c m cao s gy ra bc nng mnh, cc vng khc c m thp s
gi nhit bnh thng. Qu trnh bc nng s lan truyn v cng rt kh pht hin.
Bc nng khi ht gip tng.
Loi bc nng ny do tng khng cn m v nhit xm nhp t ngoi vo, hoc
do chnh lch nhit gia khi ht v tng kho, ... Yu t dn nhit km cng lm
thun li cho s bc nng.
Phng php ch yu ngn nga bc nng l h thp m ca ht, ngn nga
hot ng ca vi sinh vt, lm sch sn phm, ch chm sc khi ht.




Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 34






Hnh 2.5. Qu trnh t bc nng ca kho la.
Qu trnh t bc nng khi ht lm gim cht lng ht, gim ny mm v thay
i thnh phn ho hc ca ht.
Vi thc sau khi bc nng lm gim cht lng go. Kho thc bc nng 46
0
C
ny mm gim t 90% xung cn 16%, hm lng ng tng t 0,36% ln 0,43%, axit
bo tng ti 85mg/100g ht, lng nit khng thuc protein tng nhiu.












Hnh 2.6. Dng mm t bc nng.
1 - Bc nng lp trn 2 - Bc nng 3 - Bc nng lp di 4 - Bc nng gip tng.
Trng hp khi ht cha trong cc sil bng thp hoc bng b tng ct thp, s
thay i nhit mt ngy m trong khi ht ch trong lp ht dy 15cm st thnh. nh
hng ca tia nng mt tri lm tng nhit thnh sil mnh hn nhiu so vi nhit
mi trng.
Th nghim cho thy, nhit mi trng 28
0
C, nhit bn trong thnh sil pha
tip xc vi ht c nhit 39
0
C khi thnh ngoi sn sng v 37
0
C khi thnh bng tn
sng km. Hnh di cho thy bin ng nhit ca kh quyn lm cho nhit ca ht
trong sil thay i.







N
h
i


Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 35









Hnh 2.7. Nhit trong sil b tng dng tr chn la m
1 - Nhit khng kh bn ngoi 2 - Nhit ht cch thnh trong 2,44m.
Vo ma ng, tm sil di lp ht trn c nhit cao hn phn cn li ca
sil. Ngc li vo ma h, tm sil gn y th lnh nht. Hnh di cho s phn b nhit
trong sil tr cha la m.











Hnh 2.8. Nhit trong sil tr dung tch 97m
3
cha la m Kansas (Schmidt.J.L).
A - Thng 1 - 1942 nhit trung bnh trong sil 12
0
C.
B - Thng 10 - 1942, nhit trung bnh trong sil 22
0
C.
C - Thng 8 - 1942, nhit trung bnh trong sil 25
0
C.
D - Thng 10 - 1942, nhit trung bnh trong sil 22
0
C.
Phn b m ht trong sil tr dung tch 97m
3
vng Bc acta (theo
Schmidt.J.L).









B

c

B

c

N
a
m

N
a
m

Thi hn bo qun (ngy)
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 36

Hnh 2.9. S phn b m ht la m trong sil tr dung tch 97m
3
Bc Dacta.
A - Thng 5 - 1942 sau 10 thng bo qun.
B - Thng 1 - 1944 sau 30 thng bo qun.
g/ S thay i axit ca bt v go.
Qu trnh bo qun axit ca bt v go lun tng, bo qun cng lu axit cng
cao. axit tnh theo lng mililit dung dch NaOH hoc KOH - 0,1N trung ho 100g
cht kh. Ngi ta dng axit xc nh ti ca bt v go.
Nh men v vi sinh vt phn hu protein thnh axit amin v cc sn phm trung
gian, gluxit thnh cc axit hu c, ...
m v nhit sn phm cng cao th qu trnh phn hu cc cht nhanh, lm
axit ca bt v go tng nhanh. Bo qun sn phm ch bin (bt, go) kh hn bo qun
nguyn liu (ht nguyn). m ca bt thch hp cho bo qun khong 13 14%. nhit
> 20
0
C axit tng rt nhanh. bn bo qun ca go ph thuc vo cht lng thc,
phng php ch bin v iu kin bo qun (m , nhit , ...). Thc t ngi ta bo
qun thc, khi cn s dng mi ch bin thnh go.
























Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 37

Chng 3.
CC PHNG PHP BO QUN NNG SN

3.1. BO QUN NNG SN TRNG THI THONG.
Bo qun thong l khi ht trc tip tip xc vi khng kh ngoi tri, nhm
m bo m v nhit khi ht thch hp, ng thi c th iu chnh c hai thng
s trn trong nhng iu kin c th, m bo an ton cho khi ht. bo qun trng thi
thong cn phi c h thng kho va thong li va c th kn. Trng hp m v nhit
ngoi tri thp, c th dng khng kh ngoi tri thi vo khi ht gim nhit v
m ca ht. Khi nhit v m khng kh cao hn trong kho, ta cn ng kn ca
kho nhm trnh khng kh nng m bn ngoi xm nhp vo kho. Phng php thng gi
ny chia lm hai loi: Thng gi t nhin v thng gi cng bc.
3.1.1. Thng gi t nhin.
Trong iu kin thun li ( m v nhit khng kh) thng gi t nhin c th
h m khi ht xung bt i 1%. c th thng gi t nhin khng kh ngoi tri phi
c nhit thp hn nhit khi ht (k c m khng kh). Do chnh lch p sut
khng kh bn ngoi lu thng vo kho mang theo nhit v hi m ra ngoi. Trng hp
tri ma khng c dng phng php ny. Cn lu nhit ng sng ca khng kh
trong kho phi thp hn khng kh ngoi kho trnh ngng t nc vo khi ht. u tin
m ca kho cho khng kh bn ngoi thi vo, sau m ca hai bn kho v cui cng m
ca kho khng kh thot ra ngoi. Phng php m ca ny lm cho nhit v m
trong kho thay i t ngt.
3.1.2. Thng gi cng bc.
y l phng php tt nht gi cho sn phm c ch nhit, m thch hp,
nng cao cht lng bo qun sn phm. i vi kho sil bt buc phi dng phng php
ny. Khng kh thi vo kho phi p ng cc yu cu sau:
- Khng kh phi sch, khng gy nhim cho lng thc.
- Lng khng kh cn m bo gim nhit v m khi ht.
- m khng kh ngoi tri phi thp hn khi ht.
- Nhit khng kh ngoi tri phi thp hn khi ht.
- Phn b u lung gi, trnh gy cho khi ht c m v nhit khng u, to
iu kin cho qu trnh h hp mnh (c hi) v vi sinh vt pht trin.
thng gi cng bc cho khi ht ta phi dng qut, qut to cho lung gi c
p sut ln, xua khng kh trong khong trng gia cc ht thot ra mang theo nhit v m.
Lng khng kh cung cp ring tnh theo cng thc:

Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 38

Q
q
G
= m
3
/h,Tn.

Trong : Q - Lu lng khng kh thi vo khi ht (m
3
/h).
G - Khi lng l ht (Tn).
Theo ti liu ca Vin lng thc Lin X ta c bng sau.
Bng 3.1. Lng cung cp khng kh ring v chiu cao lp ht ph thuc m ht.
m ca
ht
(%)
Lng cp
kh ring ti
thiu
(m
3
/h.T)
Chiu cao ti
a ca lp ht
(m)
m
ca ht
(%)
Lng cp kh
ring ti thiu
(m
3
/h.T)
Chiu cao ti
a ca lp ht
(m)
15 30 3,5 22 80 1,7
18 40 2,5 24 120 1,5
20 60 2,0 26 160 1,5

Bng 3.2. Lng cp kh ring v thi gian qut gim m ph thuc m ca thc.
m ca thc (%) Lng cp kh ring ti thiu (m
3
/h.T) Thi gian qut (h)
Ti 16 200 40
16 18 300 50
18 20 500 50
th (hnh 3.1) cho ta nh hng ca m ht ti lng khng kh ti thiu cn
thit phi qut. T xc nh c lng khng kh, khi bit m ht.















Hnh 3.1. Lng khng kh ti thiu cn thit phi qut ph thuc m ht
L

n
g

c

p

k
h

n
g

k
h

n
h

c
h
o

1
t

h

t
,

m
3
=
/
h

m ca ht
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 39

Trng hp m khng kh cao nn t nng khng kh trc khi qut nhm gim
m tng i ca n. V d: m khng kh 80% cn tng nhit thm 3 5
0
C, m
90% thm 5 7
0
C, ... Khi m khng kh di 65% th khng cn t nng trc.
Phng php thi cng bc minh ho trn (hnh 3.2). H thng qut thng gi
cng bc khi ht chia thnh ba loi: loi di ng, na di ng v loi c nh.
Loi c nh gm qut v h thng rnh phn phi gi c nh nn kho. H rnh
c nh li gm h rnh chm v ni. H rnh chm xy dng di mt sn. Khng kh thi
t ngoi vo theo rnh, qua lp vn c khe h, phn b u ln khi ht.












Hnh 3.2. S qut khng kh vo khi ht
1 - Dng kh thng ng 2 - Dng kh ngang 3 - Dng kh phi hp
H thng rnh ni bao gm cc hp bng gi t trn nn kho. Khng kh qua loa
phn gi vo hp phn gi ri phn b u trn khi ht.
H thng thng gi di ng gm qut v ng phn gi khng t c nh trong mi
kho. Khi cn thng gi cho ng ht no th cm ng phn gi vo ng ht v cho qut
hot ng. Kt thc li di chuyn sang kho khc. Tuy cn hot ng th cng nhng trong
hon cnh nc ta vn cn c tc dng.









Hnh 3.3. S thng gi v lm ngui khi ht di ng.
Qut lm
vic theo
cch y
Qut lm
vic theo
cch ht
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 40

Trong thi k ma lnh t thng 11 n thng 3. Nhit ngoi tri thp t 12 25
0
C,
khi c gi ma ng bc, nhit cn h di 10
0
C. Nhit khi ht ph bin 30 35
0
C,
chnh lch nhit gia khi ht v ngoi tri 10 18
0
C. Do bng thng gi c th h nhit
xung, m bo an ton cho ht (nhit khi ht cn 20 25
0
C).
V d: kho cha 200 tn thc (Kho A
1
Th Tang), khi thng gi cm 3 qut y, 1
qut ht su 1,4m. Ti 10 im b bc nng, nhit ht gim 8 9
0
C v nhit
trung bnh khi ht 24
0
C. y l nhit bo qun an ton.










Hnh 3.4. S b tr qut ht v y.
Bng 3.3. Din bin nhit khi ht khi thng gi kho A
1
Th Tang.
Nhit ng ht su 1,4m (
0
C) Thi
gian
qut (h)
Nhit
trung
bnh
khng
kh (
0
C)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Trc
khi qut
31,5
3 14 26,5 33,2 31,5 33,5 24,5 28,5 21
6 17 23,5 27,5 27,5 23,5 26,5 24 21,5
12 19 23,4 23,5 25,5 24 26,5 25 21,5
20 15 16 23,5 23,5 24 24 25,5 24 24
gim
nhit
(
0
C)
8 12 10,5 10,5 5,5 9 4 1 2 3
Trong kho sil thng p dng hai phng php thng gi: thng gi nm ngang v
thng ng.
Thng gi cng bc nm ngang, phn t thng gi t trn tng kho. Phng
php ny khng ch thng gi theo mt chiu m cn c th tin hnh tun hon theo chiu
thun nghch. Nh con chn c th thay i v tr thng gi khu vc ny hoc khu vc
khc theo chiu cao ph thuc nhu cu cn thng gi.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 41

Nguyn tc lm vic ca h thng nh sau:
Khng kh c p t qut qua ng3 c th dn ti rnh bn 1 hoc 2 ph thuc vo v
tr ca ca 4. Trng hp hnh v, khng kh vo rnh bn 1 (rnh bn 2 ng ca), xm
nhp vo khi ht qua ca 5 v thot ra rnh 2 i ra ngoi qua ng 6. Con chn 7 dng
iu chnh v tr cn phi chn, thng gi vo vng cn thit do ngi s dng yu cu.
Thng gi cng bc thng ng, khng kh i qua ton b khi ht t di ln trn
v thot ra ngoi. Mi ngn thng gi c b phn tip nhn khng kh 1 b tr cnh y
kho. Kh thot ra khi khi ht gom vo ng 2 v x ra ngoi tri. Qut ht 3 b tr trn
nhm to chnh p sut gia pha trn v pha di khi ht. Khi qut lm vic, khng
kh bn ngoi i vo qua ca 1, lun qua khi ht v thot ra ca 4.





























Hnh 3.5. Thng gi nm ngang. Hnh 3.6. Thng gi thng ng.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 42

3.2. PHNG PHP BO QUN HT TRNG THI KN.
Khng ph thuc vo lng m trong ht, phng php bo qun kn da trn
nguyn tc nh ch s trao i khng kh gia nng sn v mi trng bn ngoi. Bo
qun kn l bo qun trong iu kin thiu xy, nhm hn ch h hp ca ht, hoc np vo
kho mt th kh khc ri ng kn li.
Cc c th sng mun tn ti phi cn nng lng, nng lng xut hin trong qu
trnh h hp. Qu trnh h hp ca ht kho st phn trc. Bo qun ht bng phng
php kn c u im:
- Cc loi cn trng v vi sinh vt b tiu dit v khng c kh nng xm nhp vo
khi ht. Khng kh ngoi tri khng xm nhp, nn m khng tng nhiu.
- Trng hp ht kh, th vi sinh vt khng pht trin c, hin tng t bc nng
khng xy ra, tuy nhin axit trong ht vn tng v vn cn h hp ym kh.
Tuy nhin bo qun kn khng dng bo qun ht ging. gim lng xy ta
c th thc hin bng cc bin php sau:
- Cu t sng trong khi ht ch h hp ym kh (lng xy t) v tch lu kh CO
2
.
Trong giai on u cn nhiu xy, hot ng sng vn mnh nn lm thay i cht lng
ht, sau gim dn.
- Np kh CO
2
vo khi ht di dng bng. Khi chuyn thnh hi, CO
2
s thu
nhit, lm gim nhit khi ht.
- Np Nit nhm y xy ra.
Khi bo qun kn, tnh cht ca ht kh thay i khng ng k. Tuy nhin khi bo
qun ht c m cao (>16%), tnh cht ca ht s thay i. Di y kho st mt s yu
t sau:
- Thnh phn khng kh trong khong trng gia cc ht.
Trng hp thnh phn khng kh gia khong trng cc ht, c m tng i > 70%,
m ht tng ng 14%, vi sinh vt s tiu th xy v nh kh CO
2
, n cng khng b cht
ngay khi khng c xy m ch trng thi tnh (khng hot ng). Sau khi loi b xy, nu
m tip tc tng vt qu 16%, qu trnh to CO
2
li tip tc v ti khi hm lng ca
CO
2
trong khong trng t hm lng ti 95% (Hnh 3.7 v Hnh 3.8).








K
h


C
O
2

%

K
h


C
O
2

%

Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 43

Ngy

Hnh 3.7. To kh CO
2
trong sil thp kiu hn,
dung tch 10tn vi la m m 17, 19 v
23%.

Hnh 3.8. Hm lng CO
2
trong sil thp
cng nghip lin kt bu lng khi bo qun
i mch c m 18 20% hoc 20
22%.

- V nhit : Trong thi gian kh CO
2
bc hi mnh, nhit ca ht tng khng
ng k, sau gim v ma thu v ma ng, v khng c hin tng t bc nng. a s
nghin cu cho thy, dao ng nhit ngy m ch c nh hng mt s centimet lp
ngoi ca ht. Nhit ht gn thnh sil gim nhanh hn khi ht chnh, to thnh
gradient nhit nh hng ti m ht.













Hnh 3.9. S thay i nhit ht i mch m 18 22% tm sil kim loi dung tch 60tn












Hnh 3.10. S thay i nhit tm sil bng polyvinylclorit
khi bo qun i mch m 19%.
1 - Nhit mi trng (hoc thnh sil) 2 - Sil polyvinylclorit.
N
h
i


Ngy
N
h
i


Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 44

- m: Thng mong mun m ca ht khng i, tuy nhin ngi ta nhn
thy m ca ht lp trn v st thnh sil tng, do m tng i khng kh trong
khong trng gia cc ht, bi v lp ngoi ca ht c lm lnh nhanh hn lp ht chnh
(Hnh 3.11). Trong sil kim loi v sil bng vt liu mm m ht tng t 16 22,4%
(Bng 3.4).

Bng 3.4. m ht i mch trong sil mm.
Lp
ngang
Hng ng
I II III IV V
Th 6
(trn)
19,6

18,4 18,1 19,1 19,4


(20,5) (23,1) (17,1)

(24,1) (20,9)
Th 5 20,8 19,4 19,1 20,3 20,2
(20,8) (20,0) (19,7) (20,1) (21,1)
Th 4 19,4 19,1 18,9 18,7 18,8
(19,7) (18,0) (18,1) (18,8) 18 (18,9)
Th 3 18 18,0 17,8 (17,5) 17,6
Th 2 (18,0) (17,8) (17,7) 16,7 17,1 (18,0) 17,1
17,5 (17,4) (17,1) 17,4 (17,4)
(17,8) 17,3 20,5 17,7 (17,4) 17,2
Th 1
(di)
(17,0) (17,3) (17,3) (17,5)
Ghi ch: - S trn mi cp: m (%) khi sil np y. S di: khi x ht khi sil.
- Lp trn tm bo v bng bao, do nhit ht t thay i so vi b mt cn li.
- Kh nng sng: Tn tht kh nng sng ca ht l mt trong nhng tiu chun
nh gi s h hi ca ht. Kh nng sng ca ht gim nhanh trong iu kin bo qun
khng thun li. Thiu xy khi bo qun kn lm gim s ny mm ca ht. Mc kh
nng sng ph thuc vo nhit v m ca ht. Nhiu nghin cu cho thy kh nng
ny mm gim ti 0 khi ht bo qun mt s tun m 22% v cao hn. Do sil kn
khng nn bo qun ht m dng gieo hoc lm bia.







y

m

m
,

%

Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 45

Ht
Hnh 3.11. Gim ny mm ca ht c m khc nhau trong bo qun kn
nhit 15
0
C v 25
0
C.
- Thnh phn ho hc: Nhiu nghin cu cho thy thnh phn ho hc ca ht b thay i
i vi ht m bo qun kn. Khi m di 16% thnh phn ho hc hu nh khng thay
i. m cao hm lng anbumin v m tng s cng khng thay i, ch tng hm
lng ng kh v gim hm lng ng khng kh. Khi m ti 25% axit tng
khng ng k.
3.3. PHNG PHP BO QUN HT.
Bo qun lnh nhm h thp nhit ca khi sn phm xung nhm lm yu hoc
lm t lit hot ng sng trong khi sn phm, ng thi lm t lit hot ng ca vi sinh
vt v cn trng. Hin nay tn ti hai phng php lm lnh.
Lm lnh t nhin l li dng nhit thp ca khng kh trong mi trng bo
qun h thp nhit ca sn phm qua thng gi t nhin hay cng bc. Phng php
ny dng bo qun ht (ht ging, ht lng thc v c bit l ht la lai F
1
).
Lm lnh nhn to l s dng cc kho lnh, lun gi nhit n nh ch
nhit thch hp. Phng php ny dng bo qun tht, rau qu ti, ...
nhit -1
0
C 0
0
C lm ng dch t bo mt cht (p lnh); cht lng thc
phm vn tt v dch bo khng b ng bng. Bo qun lnh ng, sn phm lun
-10
0
C -15
0
C hoc thp hn. Cc hot ng sng b t lit, nc trong sn phm b
ng bng. Phng php ny c nhc im l lm thay i mt s tnh cht ca sn
phm v gi thnh thit b cao.
Tng qut cho thy c s cn bng gia m an ton v nhit an ton, ngha l
nhit ht cng thp, th m an ton ca n cng cao. T suy ra rng, khng nht
thit phi s dng sy. bc hi m ca ht cn chi ph nng lng ln hn lm lnh
cng mt khi lng. Th d: Nng lng loi b m 6% ca khi ht ln gp 6 ln
nng lng lm lnh cng khi lng ht t 25
0
C xung 5
0
C. Chnh v th c th
khng cn dng bin php sy nu nh thi gian bo qun khng di. Trng hp ht phi
bo qun lu hoc dng xut khu cn phi sy kh cn thn khng b h hng khi
nhit v m thay i t ngt (trong khi vn chuyn).
Thng bo qun lnh ht m cao, h hi ln nht trong iu kin cho l
xut hin nm v mc, do cng nh hng ti ny mm ca ht. Nm thng tn ti
trn b mt ht khi thu hoch. Trong iu kin bo qun bnh thng trng thi kh, c
bit khi nhit cao ca mi trng xung quanh, thng nm b cht v xut hin mc khi
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 46

Thi gian bo qun kh
bo qun. Tuy nhin m cao v c bit khi nhit thp nm s sng st v pht trin
cng vi mc.

Vn quan trng khi bo qun ht m phi trong iu kin nhit cn thit xc
nh. Qua nghin cu cho thy, ngn nga s pht trin ca nm trong ht m, cn nhit
thp ng k di 0
0
C.
Theo mt s tc gi th Aspergillus glaucus, mt s dng Penicillium, Cladosporium,
Fusarium, Mucor v mt s men pht trin nhit -5
0
C - 8
0
C, mt s 0
0
C.
Trong (bng 3.5) trnh by thi gian bo qun tnh ton ca ht i mch khng
xut hin mc nhit v m khc nhau.












Hnh 3.12. S tng cng nm mc (xut hin dng ng) khi m cao trong kho
khng kn v nhit bo qun trung bnh 3,8 ( 2
0
C).
Bng 3.5. Thi gian tnh ton cc i (tun) bo qun ht i mch khng xut hin mc
nhit v m khc nhau.
Nhit (
0
C) m %
-6

0

5 10 15 20 30
16 > 100 > 100 > 100 > 100 > 100 40 10
17 > 100 > 100 > 100 100 30 10 4
18 > 100 > 100 80 30 12 5 2
19 > 56 >32 40 17 6,5 3 1,5
20 56 32 9,5 5,5 3 1,5 1
20

---- ---- 15 8 4 2 1,5


22 40 12 4 2,5 1,5 1 0,5
22

---- ---- 9 5,5 3 1,5 1


24 32 6 2,5 1,5 1 0,5 0,5
24

---- ---- 4,5 2,5 1,5 1 0,5


26 24 4 1,5 1 0,5 0,5 ----
26

---- ---- 3,5 2 1 0,5 ----

y

n
h
i

m

n

m

m

c
,

%

m

Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 47

Theo Barenly.
Khi thng gi tng ng.
- nh gi tn tht gy ra do nm.
Nhit sinh ra do qu trnh trao i cht khi h hp ca nm, gy cn tr s lm lnh
ht. Cng h hp ph thuc vo m, nhit d, mc h hng ht, lng bi, ...
gy tn tht anbumin, cacbonhydrat, cht bo ca ht. S h hng ca ht c th c tnh
trn c s tn tht khi lng ht. Trong (bng 3.6) trnh by tn tht cht kh ca ht i
mch, la mch ng trung bnh hng ngy ph thuc nhit v m %.
Bng 3.6. Tn tht khi lng cht kh trung bnh ca i mch, la mch v ng ph
thuc m % v nhit .
m (%) Nhit

(
0
C)
Dng
ht 18 20 22 24 24
26

26 28 30
2,5 Ng

0,006 0,0086

0,0116 0,0135 0,0166
5

0,0094 0,0135

0,0179 0,0217 0,0278
10 La
mch
0,0035

0,0086

0,0304

0,050
10 Ng

0,001 0,019 0,026

0,036 0,042 0,050
15 i
mch

0,009 0,022

0,035

20 La
mch
0,0163

0,056

0,137

0,170
20 i
mch

0,016 0,04

0,065

25

0,055

0,09

30

0,075

0,12

30 La
mch
0,0583

0,13

0,321

0,335
35 i
mch

0,37 0,094

0,15

3.4 - PHNG PHP BO QUN BNG HO CHT.
Thc cht ca phng php ny l dng thuc hn ch hot ng sng ca nng
sn v do tnh c ca ho cht m vi sinh vt v cn trng cng b tiu dit.
Thi gian thuc lu di t lc nhp kho ti khi s dng, thay i tu theo mc
ch s dng ca nng sn. y l phng php c hiu qu cao. Khi s dng thuc cn
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 48

m bo an ton tuyt i sc kho con ngi, khng nh hng ti cht lng sn phm
v nm trong danh mc thuc theo qui nh ca nh nc.
Tu theo tng loi sn phm m dng thuc v nng thuc thch hp. Cc loi
ht thng dng thuc cloropicrin, bkaft, ... i vi rau qu thng dng anhydric sunfuar,
axit sorbic, axit boric, ... i vi cc loi c chng ny mm sm thng dng M-1
(este mtyl), M-2 (este imetyl).
3.5 - PHNG PHP BO QUN TRONG KH QUYN IU CHNH.
Phng php bo qun trong kh quyn iu chnh c dng t lu bo qun
nng sn, nht l rau qu. Ngi ta iu chnh cc thnh phn cht kh (xy, kh cacbonic)
v gim nhit kho bo qun nhm gim hoc lm chm qu trnh h hp. Cht kh hin
nay c dng bo qun rau qu l CO
2
, nng thch hp l 10 12%. Vit Nam vi
nng ny rau qa chn chm hn 2 3 ln so vi iu kin bnh thng. i vi sn
phm chung th gii hn thay i ca hai thnh phn ca khng kh ca kh quyn thch
hp nh sau:
xy: 2 5%; CO
2
: 3 5%. Lng xy ch va lng cn thit cho nng sn h
hp ti thiu. Phng php bo qun trong kh quyn iu chnh thng kt hp vi
phng php bo qun lnh s cho hiu qu cao.
3.6 - PHNG PHP BO QUN BNG BC X.
Ngi ta c th s dng bc x hng ngoi tiu dit vi khun. Kh trng ht
ging trc khi a sn phm vo bo qun. c im ca bc x hng ngoi l c kh
nng tit trng cao, khng lm tng nhit v khng nh hng ti mu sc, cht lng
v hng v ca nng sn. V d ng khi c x l trc khi bo qun, nm mc rt kh
pht trin.
Ngi ta cng c th s dng tia bc x ca cc cht ng v phng x hn ch
h hp, tiu dit vi khun dng bo qun rau qu, chng ny mm sm khoai ty.
Ngun bc x dng l Cban 60 (C
60
). Cht lng qu t thay i, khng c, gi
thnh ch bng 50% so vi bo qun lnh. Nhc im chnh l gim sc khng ca rau
qu, c mi l.
Hi ngh quc t ti Ginev nm 1980 do FAO, WHO v IAEA kt lun v tnh
khng c hi ca thc phm chiu x. Mun gy ra phn ng ht nhn to nn cht phng
x cm ng th nng lng phng x gama phi ln hn 5 MeV, nng lng phng x
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 49

electron phi ln hn 10MeV. Nng lng phng x ca C
60
ch 1,25MeV, do nng sn
khng b cm ng, khng b nhim x.
Khi chiu x, nng sn khng gy ra tnh c hoc gy bnh ca vi sinh vt, m cn
lm gim lng vi sinh vt ko di thi gian bo qun. Vi liu lng nh hn 1KGy
tn tht dinh dng khng ng k. Liu 10 15Kgy c tn tht vitamin.
Bng 3.7. nh hng liu lng chiu x n sinh vt
Liu lng (KGy) Mc b tc ng

0,01 Cht ngi
0,01 0,25 Hn ch ny mm, ra r ca khoai, hnh
0,15 0,35 Dit giun sn v sinh sn cn trng
1 10 Dit phn ln cn trng, vi sinh vt
15 50 Dit ton b cn trng, vi sinh vt
5 10 Dit Salmonella
50 Dit Clostridium botalinum
50 100 Phn hu enzim

Ghi ch: 1Mrad = 10
6
rad = 10Kgy.
1rad = 0,01J/Kg = 10
-2
Gy.
Bng 3.8. Phn loi liu lng theo yu cu tn tr.
Mc ch i tng Liu lng
(KGy)
Liu thp <1KGy
Dit cn trng, vi trng Da, hnh, ti, gng 0,05 0,15
Lm chm qu trnh chn Rau qu 0,15 0,50
Liu trung bnh (1 10KGy)
Ko di thi gian bo qun Du ty, c ti 1,5 3,0
Dit vi khun Hi sn (ti, kh), tht gia cm 2,0 5,0
Nng cao cht lng Nho (ngt hn) 2,0 7,0
Rau kh (nu chng mm) 2,0 7,0
Liu cao (10 50KGy)
Kh trng gia v Gia v, ngun thc vt (t kh, ...) 10 50
Ch phm enzim 10 50
Kh trng thc phm Tht gia cm, hi sn 30 50
Thc n ch bin sn, iu dng 30 50
Ghi ch: - Kt hp vi mui, lnh, th gim liu lng chiu x.
- Sau chiu x, bo qun lnh, ko di thi gian.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 50

Nh tnh kh trng mnh, nhanh, gi thnh r v c th ko di thi gian bo qun,
nn phng php ny c nhiu trin vng p dng.Tuy nhin i vi rau qu ti, chiu x
cn c nhc im l lm gim sc khng ca n, lm tng qu trnh trao i cht, lm
hao tn cc thnh phn dinh dng, ...





































Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 51

Chng 4.
KHO BO QUN NNG SN

4.1. NHIM V, YU CU K THUT V PHN LOI.
4.1.1. Nhim v.
Kho bo qun c nhim v bo qun v tn tr cc sn phm nng nghip trc v
sau khi ch bin.
Kho ng vai tr quan trng trong bo qun nng sn. V vy, vic xy dng kho
nhm ch yu phc v bo qun ch khng n thun ch l ni cha ng. Ni mt cch
khc, nh kho l c s vt cht k thut tin hnh cc qu trnh bo qun nng sn, l
yu t u tin v quan trng quyt nh ti cht lng bo qun nng sn. i vi mi
loi sn phm khc nhau, cn phi c loi kho tng ng thch hp, nht l cc trang b cn
thit phc v cho vic s ch, kim tra theo di, pht hin v x l kp thi cc s c khng
bnh thng trong kho. Tuy nhin gi cho sn phm trng thi an ton c lu di,
ngoi vic xy dng kho theo ng tiu chun, th cng cn phi qun l tt cc tiu chun
v cht lng t khi thu hoch cho ti khi nhp kho. Mun m bo yu cu cht lng,
nng sn phi c thu hoch ng lc ( chn), la chn, phn loi ng tiu chun quy
nh, kim tra phm cht ban u trc khi nhp kho v cc ch tiu: sch, m, mc
nhim su bnh, thnh phn dinh dng. Trong vn chuyn phi lu ngn nga nhng
tc ng c hc bn ngoi lm h hng ht: gy v, dp nt, ...
4.1.2. Yu cu k thut.
bo qun nng sn c lu vi t l hao ht thp nht, khi xy dng kho cn
m bo cc yu cu k thut sau:
- C dung tch cha ht khi lng sn phm cn lu tr.
- Kho phi c xy dng da trn a hnh cao ro, d thot nc, khng ngp ng
khi tri ma ko di.
- Hng b tr trc dc ca kho l hng ng - Ty, gim ng k nh hng ca
bc x mt tri.
- Kt cu kho phi p ng c cc yu cu trong bo qun nh: cch nhit, cch
m, trnh to iu kin cho cn trng pht trin v loi gm nhm (chut) c khot, ng
thi phi to iu kin thun li cho cng tc kim tra v x l s c, tin li cho tiu dit
vi sinh vt c hi v cn trng.
- Phi c trang thit b s ch trc khi nhp kho hoc x l cc s c khng
bnh thng xy ra trong kho: thit b lm sch, sy, thng gi, ... c bit l phi c cc
phng tin vn chuyn c kh ho vic bc d, xut nhp kho.
4.1.3. Phn loi.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 52

Da trn c s loi nng sn cn bo qun ta chia ra: kho bo qun ht, kho bo
qun c, kho bo qun rau qu, kho bo qun sa, tht, c, ...
Da trn mc c kh ho c: kho n gin, kho c gii, kho sil.
Kho n gin l loi kho hu nh khng c trang thit b km theo, mi cng vic
trong kho ch yu dng sc lao ng ca con ngi. Kho c gii c trang b cc phng
tin vn chuyn c kh ho ton b cng vic xut nhp kho. Vic thng gi, iu chnh
nhit v m u gii quyt bng c kh hoc t ng ho.
Kho sil l loi kho hin i, tin tin nht hin nay. Ngoi nhng tnh cht nh kho c
gii, n cn c trang b cc phng tin thc hin cc phng php bo qun lnh, thong,
kn, ...
4.2. NGUYN TC XY DNG KHO V CCH B TR NGUYN LIU TRONG
KHO.
4.2.1. Nguyn tc xy dng kho.
- Mng kho.
Mng kho c lm bng btng ct thp, cao hn b mt t ngoi cng trnh
30 40 cm, thng c g p xung trnh chut khi tro ln. Mng phi c xy
trn nn t cng, khi b ln.
- Sn kho
Cu trc ca sn kho c nh hng ln ti bn ca kho v iu kin p dng c
kh ho. Sn kho phi p ng mt s yu cu k thut sau:
+ Bn vng, chu c ti trng ring ln (Trng lng sn phm trn 1m
2
sn).
+ Cch m tt, ngn c mch nc ngm v kh m bn ngoi vo.
+ Bo m khng cho cn trng v su b xm nhp vo kho.
Kho cha ng cc, sn kho thng hi nghing d dng cho vic c kh ho xut
ht. Sn kho ng rau qu thng lm phng, chia thnh cc ngn dc ngang kho. Gia cc
ngn c li i ln to thng thong v cc phng tin vn chuyn i li trong kho
bc d hng.
Sn kho hin nay thng c ba loi: sn g, sn gch v sn btng ct thp. Sn c
th c gm thng thong pha di, trnh m t di theo mch nc ngm ngm vo. Sn
btng thng dy v c lp chng thm bng bitum.
- Tng kho.
Tng kho thng c mt lp hoc hai lp. Gia hai lp c lp chng thm v cch
nhit. Tng kho phi m bo vng chc, khng b nt n, ...
- Mi kho.
Mi kho thng lm bng tn, phibr ximng hoc btng. Yu cu i vi mi
kho phi cch nhit tt (gim bc x mt tri). m bo cch nhit ngi ta c th s
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 53

dng bng thu tinh. i vi mi ngi thng phi c trn bng vi rm. Trn loi ny r
tin, nhng hiu qu cng tt, nhng c nhc im l bn km.
- Ca kho.
Cc ca ra vo phi b tr hp l cng vic kim tra, xut nhp, x l s c c
thun tin v nhanh chng. Ca s pha trn phi c mng ht, trnh ma ht vo. Ca
thng gi phi c hai lp, lp trong bng li, pha ngoi bng knh hoc chp, trnh chim
chut xm nhp v khi thng gi c th m ca d dng. Kch thc ca ph bin
2,52,5m ng kn.
4.2.2. B tr nguyn liu trong kho.
Ta khng th sp xp cc bao ht y kn trong kho. Cn phi c li vo, ra rng
cc phng tin vn chuyn i li cht hng vo kho v ly hng ra khi kho. Khong
trng trn v xung quanh cc ng bao cn thit cho vic thng gi, lm v sinh v phun
thuc phng tr, ... Ngi ta qui nh vi kho cha 500 tn th th tch s dng c th t
hn 50% tng th tch bn trong tnh ti di ch bt u mi cha. Khi kch thc ca kho
tng ln th th tch s dng cng tng ln (ti a 80% vi kho cha 10.000tn).
i vi mi th tch nh kho nht nh, th tch s dng cng gim do s loi sn
phm lu kho gia tng, b su bnh, qun l khng tt, ...
Chm sc nng sn trong kho vi nhng ni dung sau:
- Khi xy dng, tm sn c b tr nhiu lp trong c lp ngn m xm nhp t
di t ln bng lp nha bitum. ng thi bao sn phm khng t trc tip ln sn m
thng qua gi .
- Ngn nc m t tng thm vo nng sn: khi nng sn khng c xp tip
xc trc tip vi tng m cn c khong cch thch hp.















Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 54

Hnh 4.1. Gi v gi lt.
- Xp cc bao ng quy cch: iu ny c ngha l phi m bo s dng ti a
khng gian kho, lm v sinh mt sn d dng, kim tra nng sn, kim tra s lng d
dng. To khong cch thng gi cho cc bao.
- Phng tr chut v su bnh: Phi bt kn cc l ni n nu ca chut. Bo m
kho sch tuyt i, dn v hu cc ph phm b nhim bnh.














Hnh 4.2. Khong cch gia nng sn v tng.



















Hnh 4.3. Qun l tt nh kho.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 55

Gi lt l mt vt liu t gia sn kho v bao ng ht, nhm ngn khng cho m
thm vo nng sn t sn, dn ti mc v h hng ht.
Gi lt n gin nht l tm nilng dy khng b thng t trc tip xung sn v
trn cc bao ht. Gi lt g (thng gi l palet nng hng) cu to gm cc thanh g ngang
v dc, bao nng sn t trn cch ly vi sn. Cn lu trc khi dng cn ty trng
sch, trnh nhim su bnh.
Cch xp bao nh hnh v di, trnh cho bao b v lm cho vic kim k kho d
dng.
Lp l Lp chn S bao ca mi lp



Mi lp 3 bao






Mi lp 5 bao






Mi lp 8 bao



Hnh 4.4. Phng php xp cc bao nng sn.









Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 56

Hnh 4.5. Xp cc bao ht nng sn trong kho.














Hnh 4.6. Ht nng sn ng, pha tng cao 3m, tm ng 5m.
4.3. CU TO HOT NG CA MT S LOI KHO THNG DNG.
4.3.1. Bo qun ht nng sn.
a/ Kho n gin.
Kho bo qun ht trong gia nh l n gin nht (ngi ta thng gi l ct thc).
Hin nay loi kho ny khng cn v qu n gin v khng m bo cht lng bo qun,
kh nng chng chut v su b.
Kho dng d tr lng thc quc gia hin nay tn ti di ba dng: Kho A
1
, kho A
2

v kho cun.
+ Kho A
1
, A
2
: Loi kho dng ph bin trong ngnh lng thc nhng nm 60 ca
th k trc. Kt cu ca kho A
1
gm:
Mi gi, dm g v nhiu ko g chu lc. Di lp mi c lp trn bng vi rm
cch nhit. Tng xy bng gch, c lp vn g ghp (chiu cao tng g 3 3,5m) sn
bng xi mng, hoc lt g. Sn thng l loi sn trt (thp v cch m khng tt) hoc sn
c vm cun, c lp khng kh m, chng m. Mi ngn kho A
1
thng c sc cha
130 250 tn ht. Kch thc ph bin: di 23 46m, rng 8 12m, cao t 4 6m.
u im ca kho A
1
: kin c, c kh nng chng c ma bo, kh nng thot
nhit tt, tng khng c mng pha trn, tng trc v sau c mi hin nn chng c
ma ht. Kho A
1
thch hp bo qun thc, go v c bt.
Nhc im ca loi kho ny l tn nhiu g (lt tng v sn). Tuy nhin hin nay
v ko g c thay bng kim loi. Kh nng chng xm nhp m vo kho km. Kh
nng lm kn cha tt, do cn kh trng kho bng hi st trng gp nhiu kh khn. Su
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 57

mt v chut d xm nhp v hot ng (c bit kho A
1
thng thong) v lan t khoang
ny sang khoang khc.
c im ca kho A
2
l mi gi, ct, dm chu lc bng g, sn v tng cng bng
g. Sn cch nn kho t 50 80 cm. Loi kho ny c nhiu trung du v min ni. Gn
y cc loi kho ny b loi b.
+ Kho cun: Kho cun l loi kho ph bin nht ta hin nay. Nguyn liu chnh
xy dng l gch, vi, ct, ximng, cn rt t g. Kt cu chu lc l tng chu lc
(ng thi cng l tng ngn gia hai khoang) v vm cun mi.
Kch thc c bn ca mt khoang kh: di (8 15m), rng (4 6,5m) cao (4 6m).
Mi ngn kho cun cha t 50 140 tn thc.
Kho c nn cao v di c vm cun, dng lp khng kh m chng thm nn.
Trn vm cun mi c gn mt lp ngi lp ngoi. V phng din bo qun kho
cun c mt s u nhc im chnh sau:
u im:
- Nh kho chc chn, c kh nng chng ma bo v ho hon.















Hnh 4.7. Kho mi ngi, sn ximng; 3 khi nh.
- Mi c kh nng cn nhit do bc x mt tri tt.
- Kho kh kn (khi cn kn), chim, chut rt kh xm nhp.
- Nu cht lng thc ban u tt, bo qun trong kho cun s an ton.
Nhc im:
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 58

- Ngn kho c tit din ch nht nn s phn b nhit v m trong ng ht khng
u; cng vo gia gian kho, nhit ng ht cng cao; gn tng v ca nhit
thp hn.
- Kh nng thot nhit ca kho cun km hn kho A
1
v kho A
2
. Trng hp ht
nhp kho khng t cht lng bo qun, ht d b bc nng. Nhit ng ht trong ma
h t 38 42
0
C. Chnh v th trnh ng sng v men mc lp mt, yu cu quan
trng l ng ht phi c co o thng xuyn.
- Lp ximng chng thm mng trn tng ngn gia hai gian kho th b rn nt.
Vo ma ma ko di trong hai thng 2, 3, cc mng u b thm t, lm m tng ngn.
Thc gn st tng ngn d b mc.
- Do chia nhiu ngn, din tch kho hp, ca thp nn rt kh c kh ho xut nhp
kho. Trong bo qun cng gp nhiu kh khn.
Nhn chung cc loi kho ph bin hin nay cn tn ti nhiu vn :
- Cc kho cha p ng c yu cu bo qun l chng m v chng thm, do
lng thc bo qun thng hay b mc (st tng v nn). Khc phc hin tng ny
thng phi dng khung ng, k lt tng v nn gy lng ph v tn km bo dng,
thay th hng nm.
- Mc cha ht ( ng, khng ng bao) cn thp, chiu cao ng ht ch
t 3 3,5m. Mc cha ht mi ch 50 60% th tch nh kho, cn 40% l khong
khng v ch. Chnh khong khng ny l mi trng thun li khng kh m bn ngoi
xm nhp v tc ng vo lng thc, lm cho su mt v vi sinh vt c hi pht trin, ph
hoi lng thc.
- Nhng nh kho bo qun lng thc cn th cng. bo qun tt lng thc
cn thit phi c kh ho cc khu nh xut, nhp, x l lng thc trc khi nhp, x l
trong qu trnh bo qun.
b/ Kho c gii: Kho c gii khng c thit b s ch dng bo qun ht.










Hnh 4.8. S cu to kho c gii khng c thit b s ch.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 59

1 - Bng ti 2 - ng thi khng kh 3 - Qut 4 - Bng ti nhp 5 - Tm chn.
Trong kho trang b b phn vn chuyn kiu gu ti, a nguyn liu t di ln
cao v vo bng chuyn 4 t trn nc, chy sut chiu di kho. Trn tng on bng ti
c thit b gt ht xung tng kho mt. Ht c ly ra di y nghing cng l mt
bng ti 1 chy dc kho.
Khi ht trong kho theo tng giai on c thng gi cng bc khi cn thit nh
h thng ng thi khng kh 2 t trn mt nn theo hng ngang.
ng phn phi kh bng thp, pha trn b tr l. Trn ming l lp tm chn 5
ht khng ri vo ng v khng kh trn ra hai bn. H thng thi khng kh cng bc vo
ng gm qut cao p 3.
i vi kho c gii c thit b s ch (Hnh 4.9). Thit b s ch gm bung sy,
sng lm sch ht v mt s thit b khc thc hin vic bc d, vn chuyn, xut nhp
kho hoc x l nhng s c nguy him (bc nng, cn trng ph hoi, ...). Loi kho ny c
th hon thnh cc qu trnh cn thit trong qu trnh bo qun.
Trng hp nhp ht kh sch vo kho, thc hin theo trnh t sau:
1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 8 - 9 - Kho.
Trng hp ht m v nhiu tp cht:
1 ht m - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 4 - 5 - 7 - 4 - 5 - 8 - 9 - Kho.
Trng hp ht nhp kho c nhiu tp cht.
1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 4 - 5 - 8 - 9 - Kho.
Trng hp xut ht.
Kho - 10 - 4 - 5 - 1.
Du () hoc () l k hiu ht i qua thit b ln 2 v ln 3.











Hnh 4.9. S cu to kho c gii c thit b s ch.
1 - Xe vn chuyn 2 - Thng tip nhn 3, 8 - Bng ti 4 - Gu ti 5 - Thng phn phi
6 - Sng lm sch tp cht 7 - Bung sy 9 - C cu tho liu 10 - Bng ti xut.
c/ Kho sil.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 60

Kho sil thng c dng bo qun ht. y l phng php bo qun ht tin
tin nht hin nay. Hu ht cc nc pht trin u s dng phng php ny.
Cu to kho gm mt s thp hnh tr (sil) bng thp hoc bng btng ct thp,
y dng hnh chp. Hnh 4.10 s cu to kho sil ni chung. Ht c a ln cao nh
gu ti 1 v phn phi xung cc sil bng bng ti 2. Ht c ly ra y sil v vn
chuyn bng bng ti 5.
Trn tng sil, theo chiu cao c cc ng dn khng kh 4 thi gi ngoi tri vo ht
nhm iu chnh nhit d v m ca khi ht. Vic theo di c t ng ho nh cc
cm bin t trong sil cc cao khc nhau ca sil (5 7m t mt chic). Cc tn hiu
nhn c qua b chuyn i o, b khuch i ti ch th o, ...
Ngoi h thng iu khin, iu chnh k trn, ngi ta cn trang b bung sy ht,
qut gi, h thng vn chuyn xut nhp kho, o ht, ... Nh thit b in t v h thng
my tnh chng trnh, cng vic ca kho c t ng ho hon ton. Kho c sc cha
20.000 tn ch cn 1 2 ngi phc v. Kho sil vn u t ln, nhng hiu qu kinh t li
rt cao, do gim c h hng sn phm v gim chi ph lao ng.













Hnh 4.10. S cu to kho sil.
1 - Gu ti 2, 5 - Bng ti 3 - B phn tho liu 4 - ng dn khng kh 6 - Sil.









Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 61

Hnh 4.11. Kho sil bng thp, dng lc gic Php, sc cha mi sil 200 tn ht.

















Hnh 4.12. Sil bng thp, tit din trn.
















Hnh 4.13. Kho sil bng btng
d/ Kho tn tr rau qu ti.
c nhiu phng php tn tr rau qu ti: vi trong ct, trong hm, ng
trong bao kn, ... nhng cch ny ch tn tr tm thi, cht lng rau qu ph thuc nhiu
vo kh hu, thi tit bn ngoi. Ngy nay c kho tn tr hng nghn tn, hin i, c
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 62

trang b my lnh, h thng vn chuyn, h thng iu khin t ng ra i. Tuy nhin bn
cnh cc kho hin i vn tn ti cc kho n gin.
Kho tn tr trong iu kin bnh thng.
tn tr rau qu ngn ngy, ta dng kho thng ngha l khng c lnh hoc bt
k cch x l no ngoi h thng thng gi.

















Hnh 4.14. Cc phng php thng gi.
1 - Thng gi t nhin; 2 - Thng gi cng bc; 3 - Thng gi tch cc.
Thng gi t nhin, theo nguyn tc i lu nhit. Khng kh nng nh bc ln trn,
khng kh lnh hn chuyn xung di gy ra i lu t nhin.
Tc dch chuyn ca khng kh ph thuc chnh lch p sut.
( ) ( ) v f P f h = =
Trong :
v - Tc chuyn ng ca khng kh (m/s);
P - chnh p sut (Kg/m
2
);
h - Chiu cao gia ming ht (di) v ming y (trn) (m);
- Chnh lch khi lng khng kh bn ngoi (nng) v khng kh
nng bn trong (nh hn).
V nh v h khng th qu cao nn tc v nh, rt kh p ng c thng gi
tt, do cn phi thng gi cng bc. Thng gi cng bc m bo phn phi khng
kh u khp, lm ngui nhanh, ng thi c th tng khi lng rau qu trong kho.

Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 63

Kho lnh.
Kho lnh ch yu tn tr rau qu ti. Ngi ta cng dng kho mt bo qun
la lai F
1
. Tuy nhin vic tn tr ny cng ch trong mt thi gian vi thng. Kho lnh c
dung lng t vi chc ti hng nghn tn sn phm. bo m n nh nhit trong
kho, ngi ta phi tnh ton cch nhit tt trn, tng v sn kho.
V kt cu xy dng c nhiu phng php khc nhau. i vi kho lnh t 500 700 m
2
,
ngi ta thng dng cc kt cu nh lp ghp, l cc kho lnh lp ghp ln. Phn chu
lc thng l kt cu thp hnh. Tm cch nhit xp c tiu chun ho theo dy
1,8m, 2m, 2,2m, ...
Cc kho lnh thng c nhiu kch c khc nhau. Di y l s kho lnh tin ch.






















Hnh 4.15. Kho lnh tin ch.
Ph thuc vo h s truyn m ca hi nc, hi nc s b ngn li ti cc lp bao
ph ca vt liu cch nhit. Qu trnh truyn nhit l do c s chnh lch nhit bn trong
v bn ngoi tng kho (gradien nhit ). S khuch tn hi nc l do chnh p sut
hi nc qua tng. Trong phng lnh thng p sut hi nc thp, do hi nc bn
ngoi c xu hng xm nhp vo kho. Do vt liu chng m cn t cc yu cu sau:
- Khng gin n qu mc.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 64

- D c nh vo tng.
- n nh nhiu nm.
- m bo trng thi ng sut tt, c h s cn khuch tn hi nc cao.
Thng thng ngi ta s dng vt liu cch m nh: nha ng, bitum, du ho,
brulin, aming, perganin v giy du.
Cch nhit cho nn cn lu chng xm nhp m t nn t vo kho (Hnh 4.16).

















Hnh 4.16. Cu trc nn kho.














Hnh 4.17. Cu trc tng kho.
1 - Va ximng ct; 2 - Gch chu lc; 3 - Va; 4 - Bitum cch m;
5 - Hai lp cch nhit; 6 - Li thp 7 - Va.
B tng
Ct thp
Mt cn m
Xp
Ct thp
B tng
Si
Ct
1 2 3 4 5
6 7
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 65

Cch nhit cho mi nhm gim nh hng ca nhit cao ca mi trng v bc
x mt tri xm nhp vo kho. Thng dng cc tm panen cch nhit trong khong gia
mi v trn, kt hp vi thng gi. (Hnh 4.17) cho thy cu trc tng kho lnh ph bin
hin nay. Chiu dy lp va 10mm, lp cch m 2,5 3mm. Hai lp cch nhit cn b tr
so le, trnh cu nhit. Li thp chng xm nhp cc loi gm nhm,va lm nn cht
va.
V nguyn tc lm lnh c th l gin ng bay hi t trc tip trong phng, bng
gin ng nc lnh khi gin ng bay hi nhng trong b nc mui. Hai phng php
ny khng to nn i lu tt ca khng kh nn nhit trong phng khng ng u.
Hin nay ngi ta dng mi cht lnh (anmnic, fron 12, fron 24...) ho lng trong my
nn v bc hi trong dn lnh, thu nhit t mi trng cn lm lnh. Nhit h xung.
Thng dng qut gi thi qua dn lnh vo trong phng.



a/












b/




Hnh 4.18. S nguyn l lm lnh phng bo qun lnh
a) Lm lnh bng gin ng bay hi t trc tip trong phng
b) Lm lnh bng gin ng nc mui lnh.
1 - Bnh ngng; 2 - Gin bay hi; 3 - Van tit lu;
4 - B nc mui; 5 - Bm; 6 - Gin lm mt.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 66


Phng php ny m bo nhit trong phng ng u, va c th iu chnh
c m khng kh trong phng di 90% nh b phn phun m.
Phng php lm lnh v khng kh xung quanh phng c nhiu u im. Lp v
khng kh khng thng vi khng gian bung lnh. Trong lp v b tr gin ng bay hi v
qut, do lp v c nhit ng u. Hi nc khng ngng t v ng bng trn gin
bay hi, do m khng kh trong phng khng b gim.











Hnh 4.19. S phng php lm lnh Hnh 4.20. S lm lnh v phng bo
dng qut c iu chnh m. qun lnh
1 - Qut gi; 2 - Gin bay hi; 1 - Lp v khng kh; 2 - Gin bay hi
3 - B phn lm m khng kh; 3 - Qut gi; 4 - Phng bo qun.
4 - phng bo qun.
`
Cch b tr sn phm trong bung lnh: Rau qu a vo phng lnh ng trong cc
st, xp chng cch trn 25 - 30cm. St k trn bc cao 15cm cch tng 40 - 50cm, cch
gin lnh 50 - 60cm v nn c tm chn bc x nhit trc tip cho nhng trn gn gin
lnh. Khong cch gia cc chng 10 - 15cm. Lu nguyn liu a vo phng lnh cn
lm sch s b v khi ly ra khi phng cn nng nhit t t, trnh gy bin i nhit
t ngt s lm ng nc, h hng nguyn liu.
2/ Kho ngm (kho bo qun kn)
Kho bo qun kn nhm ngn xm nhp xy.
Kho ngm v na ngm di mt t c s dng cc vng c nhit i: Nam
Chu M, Chu Phi, n . u im ca kho l rt kn, nhit bo qun tng i n
nh, t chu nh hng ca mi trng bn ngoi. Tuy nhin cng c nhc im l rt
kh khn trong x l mch nc ngm.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 67

M cc kho ngm thng l b tng, c lp cch m, cch nhit. Khi xy dng
nn chn ni khng c mch nc ngm hoc su hn y kho.
Khu t chn lm kho ngm nn c nghing d thot nc. Np hm phi
bn, cch m.i vi kho c mt phn l thin nn sn bng mu trng trnh hp ph
nhit. Ht lun y kho v lp y thit b o nhit, m, nng O
2
v CO
2
.
Ngy nay bo qun khi lng lng thc ln hng triu tn c th dng kho si
l hoc kho ngm. Thi nghim cho thy sau hn mt nm bo qun ngm, cht lng, s
lng lng thc vn bo m tt, c bit khng b cn trng ph hoi.





























Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 68

Hnh 4.21. Xy dng mng chng thm kho ngm

















Hnh 4.22. Chng thm np kho ngm





















Hnh 4.23. S kho ngm
Nha asphalt
Sn trng
My an
Chng thm
Sn btng
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 69

Tng, mi, nn nh kho phi c chng thm, dt, chng ht tt, v nc ta nm
trong vnh ai ma nhiu.
- Kho phi p ng c yu cu thot nc nhanh v cn c nhit bn ngoi
xm nhp vo, c bit chng c bc x nhit qua mi, tng. p ng yu cu ny,
trc dc ca kho (trc ln) nn b tr theo hng ng ty. B tr nh th trnh c khi
tng hai bn c din tch rt ln khng chu tc ng trc tip ca bc x mt tri. Hai
bn tng c ca, din tch nh hai u kho hng v phi mt tri t sng ti chiu. Mi
kho thng lm trn cch nhit chng nng.
Bn thn lng thc lun h hp sinh nhit. Nu lng nhit sinh ra ln hn lng
nhit thot ra ngoi, s c hin tng tch t nhit, khi lng lng thc b bc nng.
Thng th nhit trong lng ng ht bao gi cng cao hn nhit ngoi tri t 2 -15
0
C.
- Kho phi bo m khi cn kn th rt kn chng xm nhp t ngoi vo. Khi cn
thng gi thot nhit thot m lng thc ra ngoi th kho phi bo m rt thong.
- Nh kho phi bo m yu cu v sinh, d qut dn, d st trng, chng c su
mt n lu v ly lan sang cc khoang khc ca kho.
- Nh kho phi bo m yu cu thun tin cho vic xut nhp, c th c gii ho
mt cch thun li.
- Cht lng sn phm khng b suy gim trong thi gian bo qun.
4.1.3 Phn loi kho bo qun lng thc.
a) Kho truyn thng.
L loai kho n gin, c th b tr trong nh, ct thc l loi in hnh cho loi kho
ny. Thc a vo cn phi phi kh, qut sch. Trng lng mi ct thc c th vi t ti
mt tn. Va la kn bng tre an, bc ct rt kh loi tr xm nhp m v chut. hin nay
loi kho ny cn rt t nng thn.
b) Kho cun
Kho cun l loi kho ph bin nht nc ta hin nay. Kch thc ph bin ca
mt ngn kho.
Di :8 - 15m
Rng : 4 - 6,5m
Cao : 4 - 6m
Mi ngn kho cun cha 50 - 140 tn thc.
Cc loi kho cun hin nay thng phn mng xy cun vm cn tr xm nhp t
di nn vo sn kho. Nn c b tng v c lp cch m bng tum; trn cng sn g.


Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 70

4.4. X L CC S C V TRNG HP KHNG BNH THNG.
Trong qu trnh bo qun lu nng sn thng hay xy ra cc s c, rt d gy h
hng ht nh trnh by cc chng trn. m v nhit tng cao (do m xm nhp
t ngoi vo, do h hp, bc nng, ...). chnh l cc yu t quan trng v iu kin thch
hp cho vi sinh vt pht trin, ng thi nm v su b cng vi ht xm nhp vo kho, lan
truyn v sinh si ny n, hoc cng tc v sinh kho tng trc khi nhp nng sn lm cha
tt. Bin php phng tr nh sau.
a/ Kim tra v sinh nhm pht hin nhim dch hi, nh v ni nhim dch hi, c bin
php phng tr thch hp. Cng vic kim tra bao gm:
- Kim tra khu vc quanh kho xem c loi thc vt no cha chp dch hi, c vt
o bi ca loi gm nhm khng?
- Kim tra bn ngoi v bn trong kho, xem c vt rn nt khng?
b/ X l su mt, vi sinh vt.
- Dng thuc ho hc vi liu lng thch hp thch hp tiu dit. Nn dng
phng php xng hi trnh d lng cht c (s nu k phn sau).
- Sy ht nhit cao 65 - 70
0
C (ht lng thc) sau lm ngui. nhit
ny hu ht cc su mt hoc vi sinh vt c hi trong ht u b tiu dit.
Vic sy c th chuyn ht ra khi kho v a vo thit b sy hoc sy trc tip
bng cch thi gi nng vo khi ht, lm ngui bng thi gi lnh. Thi gian kt thc sy
xc nh bng cch kim tra khi ht khi khng cn vi sinh vt, su mt.
c) X l ht b m, b bc nng.
Khi ht b m v b bc nng thng c x l bng phng php thng gi
cng bc nh qut gi cao p. Khi ng ht b bc nng, nhit ca n c th ln ti 40
- 50%; thng gi b h nhit ca n xung nhit an ton, khng b bc nng tr li
nh khi dng bin php co o. Thng gi lm cho nhit ng ht theo chiu cao ng
u hn so vi t nhin, hn ch ng sng v nem mc lp gn mt ca ng ht.
Qua thc t nghin cu trong iu kin Vit Nam cho thy, mt kho thc ang b
bc nng th nhit ng ht > 40
0
C, thu phn ca khi ht bng 13,5 - 14%. Nu dng
qut thng gi lm ngui ng ht xung 32 - 35
0
C v lm kh ng ht ti thu phn
12,5% th h c gi thnh x l mt tn thc kh nhiu. Bin php quan trng nht
gi cho cht lng tt, hn ch tn tht v s lng v cht lng l phi lun gi cho thu
phn ca thc nh hn 12 - 12,5% trong sut qu trnh bo qun. trong qu trnh bo qun
do iu kin thi tit m t (thng3, 4, 7,8) v nhng iu kin ngoi cnh khc lm thc
b m, d gy hin tng h hng. Mun ch ng bo qun, gi gn tt cht lng ca
thc, c bit thc d tr bo qun lu di, bin php k thut quan trng nht l ch ng
lm kh thc trong qu trnh bo qun. Thng gi l bin php n gin v hiu qu v mi
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 71

mt. Nh thng gi thu phn ca thc t 13 - 14% c th xung 12 - 12,5% m khng cn
phi di chuyn ton b s thc ra ngoi x l, khng cn nhin liu t nng
khng kh nh trong sy ht. Trng hp khi m ht cao, cn phi ph sy, khng nn
ko di vic thi khng kh lnh di ngy lm gim cht lng v tn km. Nu thng gi
cng bc bng khng khi nng th nhit khng khi trc khi thi vo ht l 35 - 45
0
C
(Hnh. 4.24) cho thy hiu qu gim nhit trong sil cao 10m cha 100 tn ht
(Php v B).

















Hnh 4.24. Lm ngui ht trong sil cao 10m, cha 10 tn ht
A - Trc khi lm ngui (10/8/1964)
B - Sau khi lm ngui
1
18
2
gi (11/8/1964)
C - Sau khi lm ngui 41 gi (12/8/1964)
+ Nguyn l lm kh ng ht bng thng gi.
Khi ht tip xc vi khng kh c m v nhit nht nh th ht s ht hoc
nh m vo khng kh t ti thu phn nht nh no . Thu phn gi l thu
phn cn bng ca ht ti m v nhit ca khng kh.
Th d: khng kh c m 60%, nhit t = 30
0
C thi vo khi ht thc y qu
trnh trao i m t ti m cn bng ti m 60%, t = 30
0
C l 11,93%, khng kh
s lm kh ht i ti gn 11,93%. Ngc li s lm cho ht m ln ti gn 11,93%.
m v nhit ca khng kh khi i qua ht mi ch cho bit kh nng, cn thc
t ht c lm kh hay lm m ln cn ph thuc vo thi gian thng gi, khi lng
A B C
Nhit cui cng
Dng khng kh
Hi nng

Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 72

khng kh thi qua, nhit ng ht...Mun thng gi lm kh ng ht th u tin
khi khng kh tip xc vi ht phi c m v nhit th no thu phn cn bng ca
thc m v nhit phi thp hn thu phn ca ng ht. Thc t cho thy khi
thi dng kh ngui i qua ng ht nng th khng c t nng ln v nhit t cn
bng (c khi cn ln hn nhit ng ht 1 2
0
C).
Khng kh i qua ng ht, cha ly m ca ht, m tuyt i (hm lng hi
nc cha trong 1m
3
khng kh) khng thay i. Khng kh b hm nng, nhit tng ln
th m tng i s gim i (Nu m tuyt i, c tng ln 1
0
C th m tng i
gim 4-5%).
Th d: m khng kh 84%
nhit ngoi tri t= 20,4
0
C
nhit ng ht t= 36
0
C
Ta c cng thc
x= d.(%).C
y
x - m tuyt i (g/m
3
)
d - m tng i (%)
c - m bo ho(g/m
3
)

84
17, 32 14, 55
100
x = = (g/m
3
)
( m bo ho 20,4
0
C l 17,32 g/m
3
)
Khi thi khng kh ny qua ng ht, nhit khng kh tng t 20,4% tng ln bng nhit
ng ht t = 36
0
C. Ti t =36
0
m bo ho l 41,28 g/m
3
. m tng i ca khng
kh lc ny l

14, 55
100 35%
41, 28
d = =

Nh vy khi thi dng khng kh qua ng ht, khng kh c hm nng bng
nhit ng ht, m gim t 84% xung 35% v t = 36
0
C.
Khng kh khi tip xc vi ht (nu khng ly m ca ht) c m 35% v t = 36
0
C l
khng kh rt kh, nn c xu hng lm ht kh i ti thu phn cn bng bng 9% (Bng
thu phn cn bng ca ht 35% v t = 36
0
C). Thu phn thc t ca ng ht khi a
vo bo qun l 12,5% ln hn thu phn cn bng, nn ht s bc m i, ht kh hn.
Nh vy kh nng lm kh ht khi thng gi khng phi l thu phn cn bng ti m v
nhit ngoi tri, m l thu phn cn bng ti m v nhit ca khng kh khi tip
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 73

xc vi ht. Tm li mun thng gi lm kh ng ht th ta c iu kin l thu phn
ca ht phi ln hn thu phn cn bng. Ngc li ht s m thm.

4.5 - L THUYT TNH TON KHO BO QUN.
4.5.1- Sc cha ca h thng kho bo qun.
Lng ht trong kho v s lng kho cn thit ph thuc vo nhiu yu t. u tin
l loi sn phm cha trong kho, t xc nh s lng kho cn thit ti thiu. Vn th
hai l trang tri cn trang b mt kho ln hay nhiu kho nh. La chn ny ph thuc vo
mc ch s dng ht, phng php vn chuyn, nhp thu hoch. Khi s dng cc trang
thit b c kh ho, cn lu ti nng sut tng ng ca trc vt v h thng vn chuyn
khi lng ht gia cng. m bo an ton bo qun ht, m cho php phi ph hp
vi bng sau(theo Ba-r) trng hp khng t yu cu s lm cho ht mau h hng.
Bng 4.1. m cho php khi bo qun vi cc loi ht khc nhau.
Loi ht m % cht kh Loi ht m % cht kh
i mch 13 u tng 11 - 12
Ng ht 13 Tiu mch 12 - 14
La 12,5

Nguyn tc chung l phi m bo dung tch ca kho phc v cho cha khi sn
phm trong mt nm. sai lch ph thuc vo vic s dng kho bo qun. Di y cho
nng sut trung bnh trong nm mt s sn phm.
Bng 4.2. Ch tiu thu hoch
Loi ht Nng sut
dao ng
(t/ha)
Nng sut
trung bnh
(t/ ha)
Loi ht Nng sut
dao ng
(t/ha)
Nng sut
trung bnh (t/
ha)
Ng 38- 75 50 u tng 10- 27 17
i mch 11 - 27 16 Ht ho
bn(khng
ti tiu)
16 - 31 22
Tiu mch 9 - 36 13 Ht ho
bn(khng
ti tiu)
16 - 31 22
La 36- 72 54 C iu
kin ti
tiu
31- 85 53
Sau khi chn dung tch ca kho, cn chn nng sut ca h thng vn chuyn yu
cu tc di chuyn ca ht sau khi thu hoch.Bng 4.3 cho ta mt s kiu thu hoch, h s
hu ch khi thu hoch 75%.




Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 74

Bng 4.3. Nng sut my thu hoch
Nng sut my lin hp T/ gi khi
sn lng T/ha
Kiu my Tc thu hoch
ha/gi
2 4 6 8
My thu hoch ng 1
hng
0,24- 0,28 - 1,1 1,6 2,2
My thu hoch ng 2
hng
0,44 0,53 - 1,9 2,9 3,9
My thu hoch ng 2
hng(c t)
0,44 0,57 - 2,0 3,0 4,0
My lin hp 2,44m 0,49 0,57 1,1 2,1 3,2 4,2
My lin hp 3,66m 0,43 1,05 2,0 4,0 5,9 7,9
My lin hp 4,88m 1,17 1,78 11,8

Hnh di trnh by ton tnh ton sc cha loi kho trn (sil) y phng.

























Hnh 4.25. th tnh sc cha kho trn y phng.
ng knh
(m)
Sc cha
(m)
Chiu cao
(m)
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 75

4.5.2 Kho bo qun thng thng .
a) Dung tch ca kho.
Dung tch ca kho xc nh trn c s lng ht tn tr ti a cha trong kho, trong
thi gian nht nh. i vi kho ch bn, dung tch kho bng s lng hng c sn xut
ra theo k hoch. Trng hp trong sn xut va c nhp, va bn th dung tch kho bng
sn lng thu hoch tr i lng hng bn ra trong thi gian .
i vi kho nguyn liu sn xut th dung tch kho bng cng sut nm ca x
nghip tnh theo nguyn liu. Nu nguyn liu nhp kho gii u trong nm th dung tch
kho tnh bng nguyn liu d tr trong mt qu cng thm lng nguyn liu cho na thng
sn xut. c th tnh chnh xc dung tch kho i vi c kho ch bn v ch sn xut
phi xy dng biu xut nhp theo thi gian trong nm.
i vi cc loi sn phm khc nhau( ht, rau qu...) cch bao gi khc nhau hoc
khng c bao gi, cn xc nh dung tch cha thc t ca kho cho mi loi sn phm cn
bo qun, t xc nh kch thc kho.
Trng hp i vi ht t do vo kho; khi ht hnh thnh c dng hnh thang.
Dung tch kho ph thuc gc chy t nhin ca khi ht.













Hnh 4.26. Hnh khi ht trong kho khi ht t do.
( ) h H
2
b R
2
a L
h R L V |

\
| +

+
+ =
y : V - l dung tch kho (tn)
L,R - chiu di v chiu rng ca kho (m)
a,b - chiu di v rng ca khi ht (m)
H - chiu cao khi ht (m)
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 76

h - chiu cao khi ht st tng(m)

( )
( ) =
=
g cot h H 2 R b
g cot h H 2 L a

Trong : - gc chy t do ca ht ().
Trng hp khng chy t do m gt bng th dung tch kho khng ph thuc m ph
thuc chiu cao khi ht.
b) Xc nh kch thc xy dng ca kho.
Kch thc xy dng ca kho phi m bo cha ht khi lng sn phm v c h
s s dng th tch ln nht. p ng c yu cu trn kho phi bo m khng gian
cha ht, khong trng i li, chm sc, qun l. Chiu cao, chiu rng ln cc
phng tin bc d c th hot ng c. Ph bin b rng ng i trong kho 4m. Sn
phm b tr cch tng 1m; Chiu cao trn kho ln khong cch gia trn v kin
hng trn cng ti thiu l 1m.
Bng di cho s liu v kch thc kho.
Bng 4.4. Cc thng s c bn ca kho bo qun ca Slamk (Anh)
Kch thc
(m)
Kho nh Va Ln Rt ln
Di 10 20 40 100
Rng 5 10 15 20
Chiu cao
tng
3 4 5 6
Din tch (m
2
) 50 200 600 2000
Th tch (m
3
) 150 800 3000 12000
a) Phn loi sil.
Ngi ta xp loi sil theo 2 loi ln:
+ Sil nng nghip: trong s sil nng nghip bao gm:
Sil kn
Sil ca hp tc x.
Sil cng.
+ Sil cng nghip: Dng cha nguyn liu: than cc, than v sil dng cha
cc vt liu khc nhau (pht pht, ng....).
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 77

Nhng sil nng nghip thng trang b cho cc trang tri (mt hoc nhiu sil)
cha ng cc. Nhng sil ny gm nhiu kiu: sil ngoi gm nhiu n nguyn, sc
cha 50 100 tn vi mi c bit, bn cnh kho thc hoc nh cha. Sil kiu ny
thng bng thp, i khi bng b tng. Sil trong c ngha l t trong mt nh kho v
trang b n nguyn 15 - 50 tn bng kim loi, hoc g.... Nhng sil kiu ny d dng
trong lp ghp v tho d.
Sil hp tc x c sc cha thay i t 1000 - 10000 tn vt liu lm sil c th
bng thp hoc bng b tng tu thuc vo gi v ngi s dng. Loi sil ny cn phi
c trang b h thng thng gi cng bc cho ht. Cc n nguyn c sc cha t 80 1000 tn.
Sil cng c sc cha cao, t 5000 n 50000 tn; thng bng b tng ct thp,
rt t bng kim loi (v vng bin, kim loi d b n mn)
Cc n nguyn ca nhng sil ny 400 1000 tn.
Sil cng nghip thng bng thp hoc b tng c bit chc chn.























Hnh 4.27. Trung tm c sc cha 600 tn ht tp trung v lm sch ht thu hoch mt
s trang tri trc khi gi cha vo cc sil bo qun.
A - phu tip nhn B - vt trong phu C - n nguyn 8
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 78

D - n nguyn bn xoay E - sn F - Dy chuyn E
1

G - Dy chuyn E
2
H - Lm sch I - Cn
J - Vt cung cp V
2
K - Vt cung cp V
3
L - Vt qut
M - Vt di sn V
4
N - Vt di sn V
5

b) Xc nh p xut nn thnh sil.
p sut thng ng tng ln nht

max max
Q S q =
y: S - Din tch tit din trong ca sil
q
max
- p sut thng ng cc i trung bnh
xc nh lc y cc i lm theo cch thng thng: Kho st mt lp ngang
c chiu dy dz bn trong sil, trng lng ca n l:
S dz
y: - trng lng mt mt khi vt liu cha trong sil. Trn thnh tn ti p
sut bn theo c chu vi:
z
P L dz
p sut ny tng theo su z v t gi tr cc i P
max
.Lc ma st cn bng vi
chnh trng lng ca lp kho st. Ti thi im ny ta c:
'
max
tg P L dz S dz =
Rt ra lc y cc i:

max '
S
P
L

=
tg
hoc
max '
r
P

=
tg
(1)
y: L - Chu vi bn trong thit din tnh ton
r - Bn knh thu lc trung bnh
S
r
L
=

- Gc ma st gia vt liu v thnh sil.


+ Lc y bn v p sut thng ng.
Trng ti cn bng su z vi lc ma st tng ng p sut Pz trn c chu vi
ca lt ngang dy dz l:

'
Pz L dz tg
Trn ton chiu cao t O n Z, trng ti cn bng vi lc ma st trn thnh:

'
0
z
Pz L dz

tg
Gi q
z
l p sut thng ng trung bnh bi khi vt liu cha trong sil ln lt kho
st. Ti trng tng trn lt ct:

z
q S
Trng lng tng ca vt liu cha trong sil:
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 79

S z
y:
'
0
z
z z
S z q S L P dz = +

tg (2)
Nu bit q
z
ta c th tch:

'
0
z
z
z
S z q S
P dz
L

tg
T y rt ra c P
z
.
Tng t nh trn, khi bit s ph thuc ca p sut bn P
z
, ta rt ra.

'
0
z
z
L P dz

tg

'
0
1
z
z z
q S Z L P dz
S

(
=
(

tg
Trng hp khng bit s ph thuc ca p hoc ca q, tnh c p sut ln
thnh ca sil, ta phi chp nhn gi thit c bn bit trong l thuyt tnh tng chn
chu lc theo t s
q
p
p sut thng ng v p sut bn khng i v bng
2
1 sin 1
1 sin
4 2
q
p
tg


+
= =
| |

|
\

y: - gc ma st ti thiu gia vt liu v vt liu.
thay
( )
( )
1 sin
1 sin
p
q

+
=

vo (2) v rt gi tr p v q.
'
1
o
z
h
z
r
P e
tg

| |

= |
|
\
(3)
Hoc
0
max
1
z
h
z
P P e
| |
= |
|
\

V
' 2
4 2
z
r
q
tg tg

=
| |

|
\

Hoc
0
0
1
z
h
z
q h e
| |
= |
|
\
(4)
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 80

vi
0
' 2
4 2
r
h
tg tg

=
| |

|
\
(5)
Lc y cc i
max '
r
P
tg

=
p sut thng ng cc i s bit nu bit gi tr t s
q
p
= , ta c
max max
q p =
L thuyt ca Janssen v Kanen.
T s
q
p
c nh bng:
2
1 sin 1
1 sin
4 2
tg


+
=
| |

|
\










Hnh 4.28. Vng trn Morh.
T s trn l t s gia ng sut chnh cc cc trong khi sn phm dng bt cn
bng gii hn trong mi trng ng hng ca vng trn Morh.
Gi p l ng sut trung bnh, bn knh vng trn Morh l psin, y
ON
1
= p.(1- sin)
ON
3
= p.(1+ sin)
T c t s sc cng chnh

3
2
1
1 sin 1
1 sin
4 2
ON
ON
tg


+
= =
| |

|
\

Janssen nhn t s
q
p
th bng
2
1
4 2
tg
| |

|
\
l gii hn, ta c
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 81


max max
2 ' 2
1 1
4 2 4 2
q p r
tg tg tg

= =
| | | |

| |
\ \
(5a)
Nghin cu trn da trn c s t s
q
p
= const, nhng thc t
q
p
li thay i , do
ta s nghin cu vn ny phn di.
Sau y ta s nghin cu s thay i ca t s =
q
p
.
Phn trn chp nhn trong mt phng ngang, lc y bn p nn thnh khng i: hoc l
t l no trong trng hp sil tr hoc xi l v hn c thnh song song di v hn.
Ngi ta khng bit quy lut phn b p sut dc theo thanh phng ca sil. Trng hp
ny khng th gii c
0
z
z
p dz


+ Gi tr t s
q
p
.
T s
q
p
thay i vi su
Trnh by th s thay i ca t s
q
p
ph thuc su z. Trc honh su trong sil
v trc tung l t s
q
p
. ng thng song song trc honh c tung
1 sin
1 sin
q
p

+
=












Hnh 4.29. th thay i gi tr
q
p
ph thuc su z.
T s
q
p
thay i ph thuc dng sil.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 82

Trong trng hp ny t s
q
p
const.
Ta goi p
t
, q
t;
; p
v
, q
v
; p
tg
,q
tg
. l p sut n v bn l thng ng, cng mt su
nhng trong cc sil tr, vung, tam gic, cng bn kinh trung bnh. Qua th nghim cho
thy q
t
< q
v
< q
tg
.
Rt ra
t
t v tg
q
q q
p p p
tg
v
< < .
iu ny cho thy t s

q
p
s thay i ph thuc dng sil khc nhau.
+ S ph thuc ti trng cn bng bi lc ma st ln thang sil cho php tnh p
sut bn v thng ng.
B tr h trc to : trc honh su vt liu bn trong sil, trc tung l p sut
trn thnh v trn y sil. Gc 0 ng vi mc trn ca vt liu trong sil. Phn cn li
phi trn ca vt liu c nhiu cao l:
h R tg =
y R - bn knh sil (sil tr), trng hp sil dng a gic u th R l bn knh
vng trn tip xc vi cc cnh ca a gic.
Trng lng ca phn cn trn ca vt liu.
0
3
h
Q S =
Trng hp vt liu khng c ma st vi thnh, th trng ti trn y su z.
0 z
Q S Z Q = +
ng cong trnh by trn hnh di ca ti trng i vi Z 0 s l ng thng di (I)
ca h s (.S) v tung cch gc.

0
3
h
Q S =
Trng hp tn ti ma st ca vt liu trn thnh xi
l, th ti trng cn bng bi lc ma st biu din theo
ng cong (II) tip tuyn vi trc z gc v c
nhnh khng xc nh. Tung ca ng cong ny
khc nhau, gia tung ca ng thng y (ti trng
ln y sil khi ma st bng khng) v tung ng
cong ti trng thc trn y. Tim cn vi ng
cong (II) l ng thng song song vi ng thng
(I). Khong sai lch gc to ca hai ng thng
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 83

ny l gi tr cc i ti trng cc i Q
mx
trn y
sil. l tnh cht cho php xc nh s ph thuc
ca ng cong II (trnh by ti trng cn bng
bi ma st ln thnh sil).
Hnh 4.30. H trc to
trn sil trc
Gi s bit hm F(z), vi phn ca n l F

(z).dz.
Ti trng cn bng bi ma st trn thnh i vi lt ngang dy dz l
ta c:
'
' '
( )
z
z
P L tg dz
F z dz P L tg dz


=

Rt ra p sut bn trn
'
'
( )
z
F z
P
L tg
=

(6)
su z, ti trng vt liu l
( )
3 3
h h
S Z S S Z + = +
Ti trng ln y
( ) ( )
3
h
S Z F z +
p sut thng ng trung bnh

( )
( )
3
z
h F z
q Z
S
= + (7)
Khi bit quan h ca F(z) (cng thc 6 - 7) ta c th xc nh c lc y bn ca thnh
va p sut thng ng ln y.













Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 84

Hnh 4.31. th biu din ti trng cn bng
+ Nghin cu s ph thuc ng cong ti trng cn bng bi lc ma st ln thnh sil.
Qua quan h nghin cu cho thy, ng cong thc nghim II vi chnh xc cao,
c th l mt nhnh hyferbol dng.

2
A Z B Z C
y
D Z E
+ +
=
+

Phng trnh ng tim cn vi nhnh hyferbol l
( )
max o
Y S Z Q Q =
v h s gc .S ca ng tim cn tng ngvi gii hn ca
y
z
khi z

( )
2
y A Z B Z C
z Z D Z E
+ +
=
+

khi y ,
y A
z D

Ta c: lim
y A
S
z D
= = t A = DS
Hn na, khi z = 0 thi lc y bng khng, ti trng cn bng bi lc ma st bng khng,
v t s ca s ph thuc phi bng khng. y
C = 0
S ph thuc tr thnh

2
D S Z B Z
y
D Z E
+
=
+

ng cong tip tuyn vi trc z khi z = 0, o hm ca biu thc trn phi bng
khng khi Z = 0.

( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2
'
2
2 D Z E D S Z B D S Z B Z D
y
D Z E
+ + +
=
+

khi Z = 0 t s phi bng khng
0 B E =
E khng th bng khng v s ph thuc l tuyn tnh; do o hm bng
khng ta phi c B = 0
Ph thuc tr thnh

2
D S Z
y
D Z E

=
+

Tung gc ng tim cn - (Q
max
- Q
o
) ng vi gii hn
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 85

y S Z khi Z ta c

2
D S z E S z
y S z S z
D z E D z E



= =
+ +

khi z thi y S z

, gii hn chnh l gii hn ca t s vi phn. y


khi z
( )
max o
E S
y S z Q Q
D


= =

( )
2
max o
D S z
y
D Q Q
D z
S


=

+



2
max o
S z
y
Q Q
z
S

(8)
y chnh l cng thc c bn tnh sil, ta trnh by di dng

( )
2
z
S z
y F
z A

= =
+
(9) vi
max o
Q Q
A
S

(10)
p sut bn ln thnh sil:
S ph thuc ca ti trng cn bng bi lc ma st trn thnh bit

2
S z
y
z A

=
+

Ta bit gi tr ca p sut bn, bi cng thc (6)
Qua vi phn ta c

( )
( )
( ) ( )
2
'
( ) 2
2 2
2 2
2
'
( )
2
2
1
1 1
z
z
S z z A S z
F
z A
z A z A
S S
z a z A
z
F S
A

+
=
+
| |
+
= = |
|
+ +
\
(
| |
=
(
|
\
(


Thay vo cng thc (6) ta c

( )
2
'
1 1
z
S z
P
L tg A

(
| |
= +
(
|

\
(


Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 86

y
'
S
L tg

ch l biu thc ca lc y cc i ln thnh sil (cng thc 1)


cui cng, biu thc lc y bn ln thnh sil

2
max
1 1
z
z
P P
A

(
| |
= +
(
|
\
(

(11)
p sut thng ng ln y theo cng thc (7)

( )
3
z
z
F
h
q z
S

| |
= +
|
\


1
1
3
z h
z
A

(
| |
= + +
(
|
\
(


Tng ti trng tc ng ln y

z z
Q S q =
Ngi ta bit
3
o
h
Q S = v .S, cn xc nh Q
max
p sut thng ng cc i
ln y.


( )
'
1
,
Q S r
f


=
max


( )
'
, f l hm ma st thay i theo tng tc gi.
Nhng nghin cu trc c lin quan n s thay i ca t s
q
p
, v gi tr ca n
c gii hn. gii hn ny p sut thng ngn v l cc i v cho bi cng thc (5a).

max
' 2
1
4 2
q r
tg tg

=
| |

|
\

p sut thng ng cc i tng l
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 87


max max
' 2
max
' 2
' 2
4 2
4
4 2
3
4
4 2
S r
Q S q
tg tg
S D
Q
tg tg
D h
A
tg tg


= =
| |

|
\

=
| |

|
\
=
| |

|
\

Tng lc y ln thnh sil
Tng lc y trn n v chiu di chu vi thnh sil, su z, p dng cng thc (11)
t
2
'
0
1
1 1
z
z
r z
p dz
tg A
I dz

(
| |
= +
(
|
\
(

=



2
2
1
z
I dz
A

| |
= +
|
\

; u = 1
z
A
+
Ta c

2 2
1 2
1 1
1
z z
I dz dz dz I I
A A

(
| | | |
= + = =
(
| |
+
\ \
(



hoc I
1
= Z+ const

2
2 2
1
1
z dz
I dz
A
z
A

| |
= + =
|
\
| |
+
|
\



2 2
1 2
1
1
1
du dz dz Adu
A
A du A A
I
z
u u
A
A
I I I z
z
A
= =

= = + = +
+
= = + +
+

const const
const

i vi z = 0, lc y s bng 0, gi tr ca hng s.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 88

const = -A
( )
2
2
1 1
z A
I dz z A A A
A z A

(
| |
= + = +
(
|
+
\
(


=
2
A
z A
z A
+
+

Cui cng tng lc y trn 1 n v di chu vi ca thnh, trn ton b chiu cao z.

( ) ( )
( )
2
2
' '
2
'
z
z
z z A A A z A
r A r
P z A
tg z A tg z A
r z
P
tg z A

( + + + (
= + =
(
(
+ +

=
+

+ im t lc y tng hp ln chiu cao thnh:
Cn bit v tr lc y ca ht ln thnh sil xc nh phn lc ta phn trn v
chn ca thnh.
Khong cch Z
q
ca im t lc y tng, bt u t nh ca thnh

2
'
0
0
2
'
0
0
1 1
1 1
z
z
z
q z
z
z
d r z
z dz
z p dz
tg A
z
r z
p dz
dz
tg A

(
| |
+
(
|
\
(

= =
(
| |

+
(
|
\
(



hoc
2
0
2
1 1
z
q
z
z dz
A
z
A
z A
z A

(
| |
+
(
|
\
(

=
+
+


t
2
1
z
dz L
z
A
z dz h
=
| |
+
|
\
=


Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 89


1
z
u
A
dz
du
A
+ =
=
;
( ) 1 Z A u
dz A du
=
=


( )
2 2
2 2 2
1 A u
du du
J A du A A
u u u

= =



2 2 2
2
2
1
1
du Z
A A L u A L
u A
du A A
A
Z
u u
A
| |
= + = + +
|
\
= + = +
+

2
const const
const const

y
2
2
1
1
Z A
I A L
Z
A
A
| |
= + + +
|
\
+
2
const
cui cng
2
2 2
1 2
1
1
2
1
Z A
I I I Z A L
Z
A
A
| |
= = + +
|
\
+
const
Khi Z = 0, khong cch Z
q
= 0 v const = 0
Ta c gia gii hn 0 v Z


2
2
2 2
0
1
1 1 1
2
1
z
Z Z A
Z dz Z A L
Z
A A
A

(
| | | |
+ = +
(
| |
\ \
(

+


khong cch Z
q
ta c

2 2
2 2
2
1
2
1
q
Z Z A
A L A
Z
A
A
Z
A
Z A
Z A
| |
+ +
|
\
+
=
+
+

6) Vn thot ti ca sil.
Vn thot ti sn phm cha trong sil l c bit quan trng. Phn trn chng ta
tnh ton sil v lc tnh do ti trng tc ng ln thnh sil. Yu cu k thut i vi
sil l phi thot ti ton b sn phm m khng c cn tr no. Chnh v th trong tnh
ton cn lu ti lc ph khi xut ti. Nhng lc ny c bit nguy him khi thot ti
khng phi qua l trung tm m l lch tm so vi sil.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 90

+ c im ca vic thot ti.
i vi sil thng ng, thot ti do lc trng trng. ch cn thay i tnh cht c
hc ca sn phm cng c th gy nguy hi cho vic thot ti. V d c tnh kt dnh ca
vt liu cng nh hng ti qu trnh chy t nhin. (c bit i vi sil cha bt,
ng...vv). Nguyn nhn lm thay i tnh cht c hc gm:
Lp di b nn cht bi lp pha trn to ln kt dnh. (Ch cn v gam kt
dnh lm thay i gc ni ma st).
Ht m ca sn phm, gy kt t cc phn t ca sn phm.
Hm nng sn phm, do bo qun kn.
Nguyn nhn u thng gp trng hp sil cha bt hoc sn phm d lin kt
vi nhau, thng l v phng cu cha, tr trng hp c s can thip bng phng php
c hc nhm ph v s cn bng mi. Phng tin ny ch s dng loi sil c dung
lng nh. Dng vt xon thng ng x vt liu kt hp gy dung cho sn phm thng
tn km.
i vi vt liu kh nng kt dnh hoc lin kt km thng dng h thng ng thi
bng cao su hoc vt liu n hi lm phng ln nh kh nn. Nhn ng thi b tr rut theo
chiu cao sil hoc tng khu vc c th b kt dnh. M ngi ta dng tm kch ng
Pneu Bin trng to kt dnh.
Bng 4.5. Tiu chun i vi tm Pneu Bin (M)
Kch thc
tm (mm)
bin p sut
350 g/cm
2

(mm)
Th tch sn
phm dch
chuyn (dm
3
)
mi kch ng
Th tch khng
kh cn thit
(dm
3
) mi kch
ng
Lc tngt bi
tm (k6) vi
p sut 350
g/cm
2

Trng lng
tnh (kg)
101305 25 0,6 0,7 84 1,4
152457 59 2,5 3,6 190 3,4
305457 127 9,9 12 379 7,3
305610 140 13 16,4 505 10,9
305914 140 25,2 34,7 760 15,4
3051219 140 32,3 44 1010 19,5
4571219 152 47,9 65,9 1520 36,3
6101219 355 57 80,7 2020 66,3
6101524 355 136 181,2 2530 81,7
6101829 355 172,5 229,7 3030 97,2
9142438 610 935 1100 6070 97,2
Ch : Bin xc nh khi tm phng ln p sut 350 g/cm
2
. Vic o thc hin so
vi mt c s




Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 91

Hnh 4.32. B tr ng thi trong sil Hnh 4.33. S lm vic ca h thng ng thi.
a - Sil trong thi gian thot ti. (Phn en l sn
phn phm khng thot ti)
b - ng thi phng ln v rung xc tin qu trnh
thot ti.
V mt cu trc ca sil, c th khc phc hin tng trn bng phng php sau:
Thnh AB ca sil thng ng, thnh i din EF nghing mt gc . Tit din sil
tng dn t cao xung thp, qu trnh t chy d dng hn, khi gc cng ln. Lc ma st
ca vt liu ln thnh s khng i xng, lc nn ca lp vt liu gim khi tng dn t ng
tit din ngang ca sil. Tc dng gim lc nn rt quan trng, (bng cch lm nghing c
cnh AB v EF nhng gc tng ng
1
,
2
bng nhau hoc khng)















Hnh 4.34. Sil c thnh nghing tit din khng trn
i vi cc sil ghp, c th m t theo hnh di.












Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 92

Hnh 4.35. Thay i gc vi nhm sil ghp tit din khng trn
Thnh sil cn cch nhit, trnh hin tng ngng t nc mt trong. Sil kim
loi cn c hai lp thnh; sil b tng phi c chiu dy t nht khng nh hn 30 cm. Cn
lu , chiu cao sil ln nh hn 5 ln kch thc nh nht trong mt phng. Kch thc
nh ny l: Cnh hnh vung, cnh nh khi tit din ch nht v ng knh khi sil tr.
i vi nguyn nhn th 2 v 3, vt liu trc khi cha vo sil cn c x l.
Trng hp sn phm dng ht (c bit l ng) phi sy cho ti m khng qu 13
14% tu theo loi ht v vng lnh th. Khi cn thit phi thng gi.
+ nh hng dng sil ti tc thot ti.

Trng hp din tch tit din ngang v th tch bng nhau, sil tr ng c thi
gian thot ti t hn so vi sil tit din vung v tit din trn c chiu di nh hn chu vi
hnh vung. Thot ti ng tm chm hn so vi l thot lch tm (c bit i vi sil c
thnh nhn)
+ Thot ti lch tm.























Hnh 4.36. Tit din dc sil thot ti lch tm.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 93

ng nh tm cho php ht lp trn chy ng tm cho ti im a.
Ht chy qua phu di ng ab qua khong trn c.
Sil tr c xu hng b ovan ho di lc y lch tm. Mt h thng ng nh tm
cho php loi b hon ton nhng lc lch tm khi thot ti.
+ Thot ti ng nht ho
i vi sil thng ng, vt liu thot ti theo trt t c bit nhng ht trong sil
chy u tin ti cc ht phn cn. Tt c cc lp ht u tham gia chuyn ng nhanh
hay chm tu thuc vo tng vng. m bo chy u ta dng cc ng c l thng ng
ni lin vi l thot ti. L chnh gia ca sil chn bng tm che cn.







a/ b/






Hnh 4.37. Sil tr trang b ng c l thot ti
1 - Tm che trung tm
2 - ng nghing c l; 3 - ng ng c l
+ p sut d trong sil khi thot ti.
Mt sil cha y, khi m ca x v cung
nh, mt lng nh sn phm chy ra ngoi.
Mun khi sn phm chy hon ton, cn
ph v s cn bng iu lm tng ng
k lc y ln thnh sil.
Tc ht st thnh thng nh v
c lc ma st, tc tng trn trc thot ti
thng ng, ng thi hnh thnh phi trn
ng dng cn sat l.
Theo Morsche, ngi ta thy rng
khi ca x ca sil m, lm tng lc y bn
Khi lng chung













Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 94

v c th t gi tr gp ri lc ykhi sn
phm bt ng.
Nhiu tc gi cho rng vic tng hiu qu
ng lc l do ri lon t ngt. S cn
bng ca khi sn phm cha trong sil.





Hnh 4.38. S thot ca sn phm

gim p ngi ta b tr mt ng dn c l trn thnh theo sut chiu cao sil.
Cho ti v tr l thot ti di sil.















Hnh 4.39. Ct gim p cho sil.
Khi sil cha y ht, p sut tn ti trn thnh sil ph thuc bn knh thu lc
trung bnh ca sil, ln hn nhiu so vi ht cha trong. (C bn knh thu lc nh). Khi
m ca x ht, ht trong ng thot ra ngoi; ht trong sil hu nh bt ng. Theo mc
x, ht ln lt chui qua l vo ng; do gim ng k trng ti ng lc; khng tng p
sut ln thnh sil.












Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 95

Chng 5.
THIT B KHO BO QUN

5.1. THIT B THNG GI CNG BC.
Mun thi c dng khng kh i qua khi ht thng gi lm ngui v lm kh
ng ht, u tin phi c qut gi thch hp, h thng ng dn kh v cc c cu ph. Qut
phi c lu lng gi v p sut ln thng c lc cn ca khi ht, khng kh len
li trong cc khi ht gii phng lng nhit v lng m ra khi ng ht. Loi qut
dng thng gi cho khi ht thng l qut ly tm p sut trung bnh (100 - 300 kg/m
2
)
hoc p sut cao (300 - 1200 kg/m
2
). thng gi cho khi ht ngi ta dng rt nhiu loi
thit b khc nhau. Trong h thng thng gi c kh thi c cc b phn sau y: ca ly
gi hay ging ht khng kh ngoi tri; My qut, bung x l khng kh, bn trong c
li lc bi i vi khng kh ngoi tri, thit b lm sch v lm nng khng kh; Mng
li ng dn a khng kh t my qut n cc phn vn thng gi; cc l ca thi
khng kh vo khi ht; thit b iu chnh lu lng hay p sut (vng m tit lu, van
chn kiu tm l chp iu chnh hay kiu vt xoay vv...) c lp vo cc ch tip nhn
khng kh, trn cc ng ng vo hoc ra khi, my qut v ng vo thit b sy nng
hoc lm lnh v...v. Di y gii thiu loi thit b thng gi di ng mt ng cm vo
ng ht do Vin cng ngh thc phm v Vin thit k my nng nghip nghin cu, ch
to nm 1972 v c ph bin trong ngnh lng thc.
5.1.1. Qut thng gi mt ng.
a/ Cu to.
Thit b thng gi bao gm:
- Qut ly tm gm c hp qut, gung cnh. Gung cnh lp trc tip vo ng c
in. ng c in lp trn gi gn lin vi hp qut. Qut c ca ht v ca y.
Khng kh ht qua gung qua ca ht v to p sut cho dng kh thot ra ca y i vo
ng phn gi.
- ng phn gi cm vo ng ht. ng c ng knh ngoi 102 mm, bao gm hai
on (on trn di 1200 mm, on di di 1400 mm). c th cm ng vo trong khi
ht, on cui ca ng c dng cn nhn, c ba bc cnh vt. on cui ca ng phn gi
c khoan 14.000 l c ng knh 2mm thot gi vo ng ht. ng cm su vo ng
ht ti 2 - 2,2 m. ng c th i su vo khi ht, cn xoay ng, nh vt c bc 1000
mm, nn mi vng xoay, ng i su vo khi ht c 100 mm.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 96

Qut c th lm vic theo hai cch:
+ Qut lm vic theo cch y: khng kh trong khong khng ca kho c ht
qua ca ht ca ht, y qua ng phn gi vo trong lng ng ht nh cc l thot gi
cui ng. Khng kh c thi qua ng ht v thot ln trn b mt ng ht.
+ Qut lm vic theo cch ht: khng kh trong khong khng ca kho c ht vo
trong lng ng ht v sau ht vo ng qua cc l thot gi. Khng kh ny theo ng vo
ming ht ca qut v c qut thi ra ngoi.
Nh vy, khi lm vic theo nguyn tc y, ming y ca qut c lp vi ng
thng gi. Khi lm vic theo nguyn tc ht, ming ht ca qut c ni vi ng phn gi.
b/ Cch b tr qut khi thng gi.
Tu theo trng thi ca ng ht khi thng gi, ngi ta b tr qut theo nguyn tc
y hoc ht cho thch hp.
- Khi ng ht b bc nng pha trn, c thy phn v nhit cao, b tr theo
nguyn tc y l thch hp. Nhit v m thot khi khi ht nhanh v mnh.
- Trng hp b bc nng kh trong lng khi ht, nhit trong lng khi ht
cao, nhng thu phn li thp, nn ta s dng nguyn tc y.
- Trng hp b men mc bc nng ven tng, nn b tr qut theo nguyn tc ht
m gn tng.
- Trng hp ng ht b bc nng m trong lng ng ht, nn s dng nguyn
tc ht.
- Trng hp b bc nng gn y, th cm ng qut su 2 - 2,3 m v s dng
nguyn tc ht.
- Khi b tr qut theo nguyn tc lin hp: ht - y - ht y th dng kh s chuyn
t ng ca qut y sang ng qut ht, v s c nhiu khong ca ng ht khng c gi
thi qua, lm ngui s khng u. Do , ngi ta t dng phng php ny.
Khi qut lm vic, ng phn gi phi cm su vo khi ht t nht t 2m tr ln.
bo m lm ngui khi thng gi, lu lng gi cn cung cp cho 1 tn ht phi t 20 - 40
m
3
/T.h.
Thng thng mt gian kho cun 130 T ht khi thng gi cn s dng t 4 - 6 qut
gi mt ng.
Mi gian kho A
1
(250 T) cn 8 - 10 qut.
Mi gian kho cun cha 50 T ht cn 2 qut.
Mi gian kho A
3
cha 30 T ht cn 1 qut.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 97

Khi cm qut vo ng ht, cn phn b u gi cng c phn b u trong
ton khi ht (tr trng hp bc nng cc b).
Khong cch trung bnh gia qut 3 - 4m. Khong cch t tng 2 - 3m.







Hnh 5.1. B tr qut kho cun 130T Hnh 5.2. B tr qut kho A
1
250 T
c/ Thi gian thng gi lm ngui ng ht.
t c hiu qu lm ngui ng ht khi thng gi, cn tin hnh qut t 20 - 40 gi
th kt thc. Trong 10 - 15 gi u, nhit gim rt nhanh, sau chm dn. Thng gi lm
ngui ng ht c th tin hnh c ngy v m khi (t
0
ht
- t
0
khng kh
) > 5 - 6
0
C.
5.1.2. Tnh ton ng lc h thng thng gi.
a/ Khi nim c bn.
Tnh ton kh ng lc ng dn khng kh thc cht l gii quyt hai bi ton sau:
Bi ton thun: Cho bit lu lng thng gi cn thit, cn xc nh kch thc tit
din ngang ca ng, cng nh tn tht p sut trn cc on ng v ton b h thng
trn c s la chn c qut v ng c in.
Bi ton ngc: Cn xc nh lu lng khng kh chuyn ng trong cc ng dn
khi bit kch thc ng dn v hiu s p sut gia u v cui cc tuyn ng dn.
Khng kh chuyn ng c trong ng l nh p sut ca n ln hn p sut kh
quyn (khi lp vo ng mt qut y) hoc nh hn p sut kh quyn (khi lp vo qut
ht). Hiu s p sut gia khng kh trong ng v kh quyn c gi l p sut tha ca
dng kh trong ng dn v bng tng p sut tnh v p sut ng ca dng kh.
p sut tnh xc nh th nng 1 m
3
khng kh tit din xt. p sut trn thnh
ng dn l p sut tnh P
t
.
p sut ng xc nh nng lng ng lng hc (ng nng) ca 1m
3
khng kh, P

.










Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 98

Ta c:
2
.
2
v
P
d

= (Pa)
v - vn tc dng kh (m/s)
p sut ton phn P = P
t
+ P


Khi tnh ng dn khng kh ta phi k ti tn tht p sut P (tng tn tht do ma
st v tn tht do lc cn cc b)
+ Tn tht p sut do ma st: xt hai tit din ng (I I) v (II II) cch nhau l, ng
knh d, tc dng kh chuyn ng trong ng v, din tch mt ct ngang ng f, chu vi tit
din C v lu lng khng kh L (m
3
/h). p lc tnh trong tit din I - I v II - II tng ng
l P
t I
v P
t II
.
Ta c: P
t I
> P
t II
.
Lc tc dng (P
t I
- P
t II
).f n khi kh gia hai mt ct cn bng vi lc ca sc
cn ma st trn thnh ng dn (T
0
.l.C), ta c:
(P
t I
- P
t II
).f = T
0
.l.C (5.1)
y: T
0
- sc cng tip xc b mt thnh ng dn

( )
C l
f P P
T
tII tII
.
.
0

= (5.2)
Nhng T
0
li t l thun vi p sut ca dng kh

2
.
2
0
v
T

= (5.3)
- h s ma st trong cng thc ca Veisbas.
Cn bng (5.2) v (5.3):

( )
2
.
.
2
v
C l
P P
tII tI

=

(5.4)
Nu thay
4
ms

= ta c cng thc ca Darsi, tnh tn tht p sut.



2
.
4
.
2
v
f
C l
P
ms ms

= (5.5)
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 99

i vi ng trn f/c = 0,25 ta c:

2
.
.
2
v
d
l
P
ms ms

=
H s sc cn ma st
ms
c th tnh gn ng theo cng thc

25 , 0
68
11 , 0
|
|

\
|
+ =
d
K
R
c
ms

y: R
c
- s Reynol;
K - nhm tuyt i ca thnh ng.
d - ng knh ng (mm)
Bng 5.1. nhm tuyt i K
Vt liu thnh ng
dn
K Vt liu thnh ng dn K
Thp tm
Tm x, thch cao
Tm b tng x
Gch xy
Gch xy trt va v
b mt nhn
0,1
1,0
1,5
5 - 10
3 - 6
Va trt trn li thp
Nhng tm, ng xi mng
aming
G dn
ng, knh
ng cao su
10
0,11

0,1 - 0,3
0,0015 - 0,01
0,006 - 0,01
+ Tn tht cc b
Ti cc v tr van chn, thay i hng dng kh v...v u thy c s gim p sut,
gy ra tn tht cc b.
Tn tht p sut do sc cn cc b P
cb
t l thun vi p sut ng ca dng kh

2
.
2
v
P
cb

= .
y: - h s cn cc b
Tng tn tht p sut do sc cn cc b ca h thng.
Z = . P


Tng tn tht p sut chung P
c
= P
cb
+ P
ms
.
5.1.3. S phn b p sut trong h thng thng thng gi.
S phn b p sut trong h thng thng gi gip iu chnh s lm vic ch
ti u, xc nh ng lu lng khng kh cc on ng nhnh ca h thng v gii quyt
mt s bi ton trong lnh vc thng gi.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 100

S hnh di, trc honh l p sut d ca khng kh trong ng dn v kh quyn
qui c bng 0.
Ti tit din I I p sut tnh bng 0 v p sut ng bng p sut ton phn. Ti tit
din II - II, p sut ng ln hn so vi I I v p sut tnh
P
tI I
> 0. Ti tit din III - III ta c P
III
= P
II
. Ti ng khuch tn (nm gia III-III v IV-
IV), do tc khng kh gim dn nn P
III
< P
IV
v P
t III
> P
t IV
.
Ti tit din IV - IV, p sut ton phn trn on ng y (im A) do qut to ra
khc phc tn tht do ma st v sc cn cc b (ng khuch tn, ming ra....). T xy
dng c biu p sut trn ng ng ht gi.








Hnh 5.3. Biu phn b p sut trong ng ng ht v y.
5.1.4. Tnh ton kh ng h thng thng gi.
+ Xc nh kch thc cc on ng dn chnh.
Din tch tit din ngang ca on ng

V
L
f =

y:
L - lu lng tnh ton ca khng kh (m
3
/s)
V - tc chuyn ng ca khng kh trong on ng (m/s)
T y xc nh c ng knh ng (trn) hoc kch thc ab (ng tit din ch nht)
Vn tc thc t trong ng dn xc nh theo din tch thuc f
t


t
t
f
L
V =

+ Xc nh tn tht do ma st
n gin ta khng s dng cng thc (5.5), m tnh theo biu thc:
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 101

P
ms
= R. l
y: l - chiu di on ng dn (m)
R - tn tht p trn 1 m chiu di ng dn ( Pa/m, Kg/m
2
.m)
Cc gi tr ca R tra trong biu , s dng ng dn bng tn (K = 0,1 mm) tit din
trn, ng knh d v nhit khng kh i trong ng l 20
0
C. i vi ng dn tit din
ch nht, cn tnh i sang ng knh tng ng d
t
.
Trong tnh ton c th s dng ba loi ng knh tng ng theo vn tc d
v
,
theo lu lng d
L
v theo din tch d
f
.
ng knh tng ng theo vn tc d
v
xc nh t iu kin tn tht p sut do
ma st trong ng ng trn v vung l bng nhau khi vn tc khng kh nh nhau.
d
v
= 2.a.b/(a + b)
Mun tm tr s R trong biu , ta cn da vo vn tc thc V
t
v d
v
khng cn lu
ti lu lng.
ng knh tng ng theo lu lng d
L
tng t trn:

5
3 3
.
. 265 , 1
b a
b a
d
L
+
=
T d
L
v L ta xc nh c R.
ng knh tng ng theo din tch d
f

/ . . 2 b a d
f
=
Khi tnh ton ng dn khng lm bng tn v khng c nhm K = 0,01 mm nhit
khc 20
0
C ta s dng bng hiu chnh
R
T
= R. l..
y: R - tr s tn tht p sut tra bng hay biu ;
- h s hiu chnh nhm thnh ng;
- h s hiu chnh nhit .
+ Tn tht p sut do sc cn cc b

=
2
.
2
v
Z
i


y:
i
tng sc cn cc b vi mi loi sc cn khc nhau





Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 102

Bng 5.2. H s hiu chnh tnh ng dn vi nhm thnh ng khc nhau.
khi k (mm) v
(m/s)
0,01 0,2 0,5 2 5 10 15 20
0,3
0,5
1
2,5
3
5
10
15
0,996
0,993
0,986
0,996
0,96
0,938
0,849
0,861
1,005
1,008
1,015
1,034
1,093
1,057
1,088
1,107
1,019
1,031
1,057
1,12
1,136
1,184
1,27
1,316
1,082
1,127
1,216
1,388
1,429
1,549
1,712
1,8
1,183
1,267
1,42
1,682
1,74
1,908
2,13
2,247
1,304
1,413
1,637
1,973
2,045
2,253
2,254
2,666
1,407
1,552
1,792
2,173
2,245
3,487
2,79
2,998
1,488
1,65
1,915
2,329
1,418
2,669
2,996
3,166

Bng 5.3. H s hiu chnh tnh ng dn vi nhit khng kh khc nhau.
Nhit (
0
C)

Nhit (
0
C)

Nhit (
0
C)

5
10
15
20
1,03
1,02
1,01
1,00
25
30
35
40
0,99
0,98
0,97
0,96
45
50
60
70
0,95
0,94
0,93
0,92













Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 103

Hnh 5.4. Biu xc nh tn tht p sut ma st (ng dn) khi thng gi cng bc
+ Tn tht p sut trn on ng dn
P
ch
= R.l.. + Z
+ Tn tht p sut trong h thng thng gi
Bao gm tn tht p sut trn cc on ng v tn tht p sut ca ra vo v...v.

( )

= =
+ =
m
i
tb
n
i
ht
P l R P
1 1
. . .

5.2. THIT B BC D V VN CHUYN.
Trong qu trnh vn hnh kho, cn phi bc d v vn chuyn mt khi lng sn
phm rt ln. Chnh v vy vn c gii ho v t ng ho l yu cu bt buc i vi
cc loi kho c kh c sc cha hng trm ti hng nghn tn sn phm. Gim nh sc lao
ng v tng nng sut lao ng l mc ch ca vic s dng cc phng tin bc d v
vn chuyn. Trong qu trnh bo qun cn phi xut nhp sn phm cn phi x l nhit khi
sn phm c m vt qu tiu chun... C nhiu phng tin vn chuyn, tu iu kin
c th c th s dng loi phng tin thch hp. Hin nay ngi ta s dng ph bin hai
loi: loi bng chuyn, gu chuyn v loi vn chuyn bng hi. Loi bng chuyn gm:
my vn chuyn ln cao, my vn chuyn ngang v loi vn chuyn hn hp.
5.2.1. My vn chuyn ln cao
Gu ti l thit b vn chuyn ti ri ln cao. cao chuyn ti c th ti 70-80 m, do
gu ti c dng rng ri trong cc kho bo qun ht. Hnh 5.6 trnh by s cu to gu
ti vn chuyn sn phm ln cao. Thit b bao gm phu cp liu 1 t cao hn trc ngang
ca tang di, thn gu ti 2 bng tn bc kn h thng gu ti, b phn chuyn ng 3
(xch ng bc con ln hoc ai dt), gu 4 c ch to bng tn v lp ghp vo b phn
chuyn ng bng bulng, d dng tho lp khi sa cha, thay th; ng c in 5, tang
ch ng 6 (a xch 7 hoc bnh ai); ca ra ht 8, tang cng hoc tang b ng 9, gi
tang cng 10 v c cu iu chnh 11.
Nguyn tc lm vic nh sau: Ht t phu cp liu vo cc gu ti ang chuyn
ng ln trn. Khi gu ti trn cng, ht vo ng rt ca ca ra nh hp lc R gia trng
lc P v lc ly tm F tc dng ln ht (hnh 5.6b)
Tc chuyn ng ca gu ti la chn tu thuc vao phng php cung cp ht
vo gu. Trng hp ht rt vo gu, tc t 0,4-0,8 m/s, khi gu xc ht th tc t 0,8-2
m/s.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 104

mun m bo ht ng ng rt th gia tc chuyn ng ca xch ko (hoc
bng) v ng knh tang ch ng phi ph hp thoe cng thc
V=(1,87 : 2,2) D (m/s)
y V - vn tc b phn ko (m/s)
D - ng knh tang ch ng (m)
Bng 5.4. c im k thut ca b phn chuyn ln cao kiu gu (ng ht).
Kch thc
gu (cm)
Khong cch
hai gu (cm)
Tc ko
(m/ph)
Nng sut
(T/gi)
Cng sut
W/m
7,6 5,1 20,3
10,3
20,3
10,3
1,3
2,5
10
10
10,2 7,6 20,3
15,3
20,3
82
5,1
7,6
24
31
15,2 10,2 10,8
10,8
82
102
13,3
17,8
49
61

17,8 12,7 20,3
15,2
20,3
102
22,9
30,5
73
81
22,8 12,7 17,8
15,2
81
92
40,7
45,7
122
122
22,7 15,2 30,3
15,2
117
117
38,1
76,2
153
306











Hnh 5.5. My vn chuyn ln cao.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 105

5.2.2.My vn chuyn ngang
a/ Bng ti
Bng ti ngang l thit b vn ti thng dng trong cc kho bo qun, c bit l
kho bo qun ht. Ngi ta thng dng hai loi: Loi c v tr tho c nh (hnh 5.6a) v
loi c vi tr tho di ng (hnh 5.6b). C hai loi u dng chuyn ti ht vo kho v rt
ht vo cc khc nhau, hoc chuyn ht t kho ra ngoi.
i vi bng ti c v tr tho ht c nh, b phn tho liu lp c nh. Ht t
phu cp liu vo bng ti v c n chuyn i v tr tho. Ti y nh hp lc ca
lc ly tm v trng lc, ht c vo mng b phn tho; sau ri vo ni cn cha.
i vi bng ti thay i v tr tho, my tho c ming tho 1 bn. Ht vo mng
tho nh hai tang quay lm thay i chiu bng. Ton b hai tang quay v phu to tnh
rut khi di ng trn khung ca bng nh 4 bnh xe (gi l xe tho liu). Nh vy c th
thay i c v tr tho ht trn sut chiu dc tho ht ca bng. Pha di bng c cc
con ln , gi cho bng n nh. Khong cch cc trc ln bng c ti r 0,9 - 1,8 m.
nhnh khng ti khong cch ny c th gp i.






Hnh 5.6. Bng ti.
1-Phu cp liu 2-bng ti 3-Con ln 4-B phn tho liu 5-Tang ch ng
6-ng c in 7-Khung 8-Tang b ng 9-Xe tho liu







Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 106




Hnh 5.7. H thng vn chuyn trung tm bng bng chuyn ngang
phn phi ht trong kho.
b/ Vt ti
Vt ti ngang thng dng vn chuyn ht c ly ngn. Trong cc kho bo qun vt
ti thng t ngang hoc nghing vi gc nghing nh hn 15
0
. B phn vn chuyn kiu
ny thng khng c vn chuyn y ht. Nng sut vn chuyn ph thuc vo np
y tit din ngang ng bao. Trong bng 5.5 trnh by nng sut ca vt ti khi cht y ti 45%
Bng 5.5. Nng sut ca vt ti
ng knh vt
(cm)
Kch thc cc i
ca phn t (cm)
Tc quay cc i
c th (vng/pht)
Nng sut khi tc
cc i c th
(m
3
/gi)
15,2 1,9 165 11
22,8 3,8 150 34
30,5 5,1 140 76
40,6 7,6 120 159
50,8 8,9 105 286
Cu to vt ti gm vt xon 2 quay trong ng bao 11. Vt xon 2 c cu to bi
cnh xon hn trn trc 3 bng thp ng. Khi vn chuyn khong cch ln, vt xon c
chia lm nhiu on, mi on 3 - 4 m v ni vi nhau bng cc mt bch 5. Gia hai on
c nh v bng treo 4. Trc vt quay nh ng c in thng qua hp gim tc.
Nguyn tc lm vic nh sau:
Ht vo phu cp liu 1, ht b vt xon y dc theo ng bao 11 v thot ra
ca 10. Khi ht khng thot kp qua ca 10, ht s y ca trn 14 thot ra ngoi.
Vn chuyn bng vt ti c u im khng b ri vi do vn chuyn trong mng kn.
Tuy nhin vn chuyn ht d trc v th khng li v d lm ht b tn thng.






Hnh 5.8. S vt ti
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 107

Nghin cu nng sut vt ti ng knh 10 &15 cm khi vn chuyn cc sn phm
khc nhau c s khc nhau. i vi vn chuyn ht t c s sai khc gia vt ti ng
knh 10 &15 cm. Khi tng m ca ht, nng sut vn chuyn s gim. V d i vi ng
ht m 24%, nng sut vt ti ng knh 15 cm ch t 60% so vi m 14% tc
v gc nghing cnh vt khng i.
Khi tc vt ti t 200vng/pht v kch thc l 91cm so vi l kch thc
15cm, nng sut vt ti tng 10-50% theo mc nghing cnh vt t 0
0
-90
0
. khi tng tc
ln 800vng/pht, nng sut tng 50-100% cng khong thay i gc nghing. Nng
sut v chiu cao mng ca vt ti nh hng ti nhu cu cng sut.
Bng 5.6. c tnh k thut ca vt ti tiu chun ng knh 10cm
Tiu mch Tiu mch Ng ht u tng Gc
nghing
ca vt ti
() T

t

t

i

(
v
g
/
p
h

t
)

Nng
sut
(T/h)
Cng
sut
(w/m)
Nng
sut
(T/h)
Cng
sut
(w/m)
Nng
sut
(T/h)
Cng
sut
(w/m)
Nng
sut
(T/h)
Cng
sut
(w/m)
300 5,4 56 2,8 32 5,1 42 5,7 37
400 7,1 71 3,5 42 6,9 56 7,4 46
600 10,3 93 4,6 56 9,1 71 10,2 61


0
800 11,8 100 5,1 71 10,9 86 12,0 76
300 3,8 66 2,0 44 3,7 46 4,1 54
400 4,9 83 2,4 56 4,6 61 5,2 68
600 6,8 118 3,2 78 6,4 86 7,1 98

45
800 8,2 152 3,8 100 7,4 110 8,4 122
300 1,6 49 0,6 29 1,6 37 2,2 42
400 2,2 64 0,9 42 2,3 46 2,9 54
600 3,5 90 1,3 59 3,4 64 4,1 78

90
900 4,5 118 1,7 76 4,3 81 5,0 100
Bng 5.7. c tnh k thut ca vt ti tiu chun ng knh 15cm
Tiu mch Tiu mch Ng ht u tng Gc
nghing
ca vt ti
()
T

t

t

i

(
v
g
/
p
h

t
)
Nng
sut
(T/h)
Cng
sut
(w/m)
Nng
sut
(T/h)
Cng
sut
(w/m)
Nng
sut
(T/h)
Cng
sut
(w/m)
Nng
sut
(T/h)
Cng
sut
(w/m)
300 19,9 122 10,2 54 19,8 66 18,5 100
400 24,2 130 11,8 56 24,7 86 24,0 127
600 29,2 144 13,9 68 30,8 120 29,4 166


0
800 30,0 157 14,5 81 33,5 142 32,1 191
300 12,9 142 6,8 78 13,2 113 12,1 144
400 15,9 171 7,7 86 16,5 147 15,5 189
600 18,8 218 8,6 115 20,9 201 19,1 262

45
800 19,5 257 8,7 135 22,6 233 20,2 313
300 6,0 108 3,1 59 7,6 86 6,7 113
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 108

400 9,0 135 3,9 73 9,6 113 8,5 147
600 11,8 191 4,8 100 12,5 157 10,6 213
90
900 12,7 247 5,2 125 13,7 189 11,4 269
5.2.3. My vn chuyn hn hp.
a/ Bng ti nng
Bng ti nng l loi thit b vn chuyn n gin dng a vt liu t mt t ln
xe, t sn phi hay t xe vo kho...v c th di ng ti v tr cn lm vic.
Kt cu bng ti gm: phu cp liu 1, bng ti vi tm cao su 2, cc con ln 3,
ng c in 4, khung 5, bnh xe 6 v c cu iu chnh cng bng 7.






Hnh 5.9. S bng ti nng
















Hnh 5.10. Bng ti nng cp ht vo sil ng knh 6m, dung tch 50 - 70 tn thc
b/ My xc ht t co APP-125
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 109

My dng xc ht trong kho, tn sn...vo mt phng tin khc vn chuyn rt
tin li.
My gm ba b phn chnh: xe di ng 1, gung ti nng 2, gung ngang 3 hai
bn co vo gung nng gia.
Nh ng c 5, gung nng chuyn ng. ng c c cng sut 7KW. Pha di
gung b tr qut 4 cng sut 2,8KW thi khng kh ln pha trn tch cc tp cht nh.
Thit b di ng nh ng c c 1KW lm quay hai bnh xe 6 qua hp gim tc trc vt c
khp ly hp t ng.
Gung co 3 chuyn ng nh ng c 5 thng qua b truyn bnh rng cn v
xch. N c th nng ln h xung. Tc di chuyn ca thit b t 0,7km/h. Vn chuyn
i xa phi c xe ko.













Hnh 5.12. My xc ht t co APP-125.
5.2.4.My vn chuyn kiu hi
a/ Cu to v nguyn tc lm vic
Hin nay thit b vn chuyn kiu hi c s dng trong nhiu lnh vc: cng
nghip thc phm, xy dng v cc kho bo qun xut nhp nhanh. c im quan
trng ca thit b ny l va vn chuyn sn phm va c th lm sch n.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 110

Tu theo cng dng khc nhau, my c th c cu to khc nhau, nhng nhng b
phn chung l phi c qut, ng dn, c cu cht ti vo h thng v c cu tch khng kh
khi sn phm, c cu o v kim tra.
Nguyn tc chung ca my vn chuyn kiu hi c thit lp trn c s trn vt
liu cn vn chuyn trng thi l lng vi khng kh v di chuyn n trong ng. b
phn tch (xycln) sn phmc tch khi khng kh ri xung b phn thu. Khng kh
qua lc thot ra mi trng.









a/











b/





1
1
2
3
5
7
4
B

i

Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 111

/
Hnh 5.13. Thit b vn chuyn kiu hi.
a/ Loi ht b/ Loi y c/ Loi hn hp (ht - y).
Trong s a/ vt liu ht qua ming ht 1 vo ng 2 sau qua xycln 3, ht c
tch qua ca 5, cn khng kh ln bi c a vo b phn lc 4, ht qua bm chn khng
6 v thi ra ngoi mi trng.
S b/ khng kh i qua my thi 1, vt liu t b phn cung cp 2 ri vo ng gi
3. Ht c tch xycln 4, ri qua ca 6; cn khng kh tip tc qua b tch bi 5 v
phn t lc 7 thi ra ngoi mi trng.
S hn hp (s c/) l s phi hp ca c nguyn tc ht v y bao gm:
ming ht 1, ng dn 2, b phn tch 3, ca x 4,5 , b phn thi 6 v c cu thot ti 7.
Tr s p sut s khc nhau vi cc kiu thit b khc nhau. Loi p sut thp (di
8 KPa) ngi ta dng qut. Loi p sut trong bnh dng b phn thi khng kh (30-50
KPa) v loi p lc cao (200-300 KPa) dng my xn. Cc loi my vn chuyn kiu hi
hin i c xp loi theo mt hn hp thp, trung bnh v cao. Mt l s kg vt liu
trn 1kg khng kh (0,4 - 4, 4 - 20, 100 v ln hn ).
c im b phn vn chuyn p lc thp nh sau: sn phm vn chuyn thng l
ht, mt thp (0,4 - 4kg/kg), lng chi ph khng kh ln, tc 20m/s v ln hn khi
ng knh ng dn 100 - 200mm v ln hn, b mt lc ln.
c im b phn vn chuyn p lc cao nh sau: ch di chuyn vt liu dng bi,
mt hn hp cao (20 - 100kg/kg), tc gi nh (4 - 7m/s) khi dng ng dn c ng
knh nh (33 - 76mm).









Hnh 5.14. B phn d ti cho tu thu kiu hi. ng ng knh 150mm,
di 7,2m ni vi my nn kh.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 112
















Hnh 5.15. B phn tip nhn cng sut 30KW, 550 vg/pht (LGA90-3600-1) my nn, lu
lng khng kh 30m
3
/ph, p sut 3500mm ct nc, nng sut 30T/h (thc).
b/ Tnh ton thit b vn chuyn kiu hi
+Thit b p sut trung bnh v thp
Gi thit mt khng kh khng thay i sut theo chiu di ng. Chi ph khng
kh

. 6 , 3
T
K
Q
Q =
y:
Q
K
- chi ph khng kh (m
3
/s)
Q
T
- nng sut thit b khi vn chuyn vt liu cng (T/h)
- mt khng kh (kg/m
3
)
- mt hn hp (kg/kg)
T xc nh ng knh ng dn m bo vn tc vn chuyn

t
K
v
Q
D =

4

Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 113

y: v
t
tc khng kh tnh ton (m/s)
Tn tht p sut dc theo ng dn
P
c
= P
K
.(1 - K

)
y: P
c
- tn tht p sut khi chuyn ng kh ng hc ca hn hp (mm
ct nc);
P
K
- tn tht p sut khi khng kh chuyn ng (mm ct nc)
K - h s cn;
- mt theo trng lng ca hn hp kh ng (kg/kg)
ln tn tht p sut khng kh sch chuyn ng

=
D g
L v
P
K
. 2
2

Trong :
v - tc khng kh (m/s)
L - chiu di ng (m)
- h s cn ma st
- mt khng kh (kg/m
3
).
Gi tr gn ng ca = 0,02. Xc nh chnh xc theo cng thc:

25 , 0
Re
3164 , 0
=

D v.
Re =

y:
Re - s Reynol
- nht ng hc ca khng kh
Hoc c th dng cng thc ca Knakova

5 , 1 Re lg . 81 , 1
1
=


Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 114

Tn tht p sut do s phn tn vt liu vng vt liu i vo ng
t p
v
g
v
P =
2
.


y: v
t
- tc vt liu (m/s)
Tn tht p sut do cn cc b

( ) K
g
v
P
M
+ =

1
2
2

y: - tng h s cn cc b
Tn tht p sut nng vt liu

l
z
v v
v
Z P

= . .

y: Z - chiu cao nng (m)
v
l
- vn tc vatanhia (m/s)
Nh vy, tn tht ton phn l:
P = P
P
+ P
M
+ P
Z
+ P
K
+ P
C

+ Thit b p sut cao
i vi thit b p sut cao, tnh cht vt l ca khng kh thay i theo chiu
di ng dn, lm thay i p sut theo chiu di ng dn. ln p sut tuyt i cn thit,
xc nh theo cng thc:

cp
qt
P
D
L v
P =
. . .
1 . 10
2
2

(KPa)
y:
- h s xc nh ph thuc vo
D
L v
S
qt
. .
2

=

L
qt
- chiu di qui dn ca ng.
- mt hn hp
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 115

v - tc hn hp kh ng cui ng dn ca thit b y hoc u ng dn
thit b ht

qt T
L B v . + = (m/s)
y:
- h s tnh ti ln ca vt liu. Vt liu bt = 10 - 16, ht (d>1 mm)
= 17 - 20

T
- mt vt liu (kg/m
3
)
B - h s ph thuc m vt liu: B = (2 - 5)10
-5
(i vi vt liu bt nh
nhn gi tr nh)

kk cp
Z
P

=
2
10
.

kk
- mt khng kh (kg/m
3
). i vi thit b ht
kk
= 0,8 - 1 kg/m
3

i vi thit b thi
kk
= 1,6 - 2,0 kg/m
3
.
Trong cng thc xc nh p sut tuyt i, du (+) i vi thit b y, du (-) i
vi thit b ht.
5.3. CC THIT B KIM TRA V PHN TCH MU.
tin hnh kim sot trong qu trnh bo qun nng sn, ngi ta cn ly mu
theo tng giai on, trn tng l kim tra theo tiu chun k thut bo qun. Trong tng
l phi ly mu tng im ngu nhin m bo tnh khch quan, sau tin hnh phn
tch v tnh ton, nh gi thc trng ca khi nng sn c bin php x l kp thi.
5.3.1. Cch chia l kim nghim
n v kim tra l mt l ging vi khi lng qui nh, c cc tnh cht ging
nhau (cng ht, cng thi im thu hoch v cng iu kin bo qun).
Mi mu l mt n v c lp t u ti khi kt thc kim tra.
Ngi ta qui nh: i vi nng sn ng bao, n v kim nghim l 500 bao (ng
vi 20 T ht). Nng sn ri, mi n v l 75 T ht. Mi gian kho, mt kho, mt toa
xe...tuy khi lng t, nhng phi c coi l mt n v kim nghim, khng c ghp
nhiu n nguyn nh thnh n nguyn ln.
Ngi ta chia ra cc loi mu:
+ Mu im: l mt phn ca mu nguyn thu, ly mt tng, mt im, mt v tr
trong l kim nghim.
+ Mu nguyn thu: l mu gc, tp hp nhng mu ly ra tng bao, tng tng
trong l; cn ghi chp nhn xt trc khi nhp thnh mu nguyn thu.
+ Mu trung bnh: l mu hn hp trn u ca mu nguyn thu trong l...Cc
mu trung bnh c tch ring.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 116

+ Mu kim nghim l mt phn ca mu trung bnh
phn chia thnh mu kim nghim, nu khng c thng phn chia mu, ta dn
u trung bnh, chia thnh 4 theo hai ng cho. Hai phn nh nhp thnh mu lu, s
cn li lm mu kim nghim.
+ Mu lu: l mt phn ca mu trung bnh. Lu gi cc phng kim nghim
i chng khi cn thit.
5.3.2. Phng php ly mu
a/ i vi ht la ging.
+ Ht ng thnh bao
- L kim nghim di 10 bao: dng xin ly mu tt c cc bao, mi bao ly 3
im: u, gia v y bao. Mi mu khong 500 gam.
- L kim nghim t 11 - 30 bao: ly mu cc bao. V tr cc im ly mu cc
bao lun phin nhau: trn, gia v y. Lng ht cn ly 1000 gam.
- L kim nghim t 31 - 100 bao: chn 10 bao in hnh trong l (tng, im). V tr
ly mu cc bao lun phin nh trn. Lng mu 1000 g.
- L kim nghim t 101 - 500 bao: c 100 bao chn i din 10 bao, cch ly mu
nh trn. S cn li chn 6% s bao ly mu. Lng mu 1500 gam.
+ Ht ging ri: ly mu theo chiu cao khi ht
- Khi ht cao di 2 m: mi l kim nghim ly 5 im trn 2 ng cho; 4 im
ngoi ra cch tng 50cm. Cc im u ly mu 3 tng: tng trn cch mt khi ht 30 -
50 cm, tng di cch y 10 - 40 cm, dng xin di ly mu. Lng mu trung bnh 500g.
- Khi ht cao t 2 - 3 m: mi l kim nghim ly 5 im trn hai ng cho. Mi
im ly 3 tng nh trn. Lng mu trung bnh 1000g.
- Khi ht cao trn 3 m. Mi l kim nghim ly 5 im, mi im ly 4 tng.
Lng mu trung bnh 1500g.
b/ i vi loi ht cy trng khc.
i vi hoa qu ti:
T 1 - 5 st ly ra kim tra 1 - 5 st.
T 6 - 10 st ly ra kim tra 5 st.
T 11 - 50 st ly ra kim tra 6 - 10 st.
............................................................
Trn 1000 st ly ra kim tra 3 - 4%.
Mi st cn kim tra k 1/4.

Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 117

x x x x x x x x
x x x x x x
x x x x x x
Mu im
1
Mu im
2
Mu im
3
Mu im
n-1
Mu im
n
Mu gc
Mu trung bnh
1
Mu trung bnh
2
Mu trung bnh
3
Mu lu
Su
bnh

m
Tp cht
ht nh
Mu sc
Mi v
Su bnh
i tng
Ht c i
tng
Kh nng
ny mm
sch
Dung
trng
P
1000
ht
thun
Sc sng
P
1000
ht
thun
5.3.3. S qu trnh ly mu kim nghim
Di y l s tng qut qu trnh ly mu kim nghim.


























Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 118



Hnh 5.16. S ly mu v th t kim nghim cc mu trung bnh
5.3.4. Cc ch tiu kim nghim
a/ Xc nh thun ca ging
Kim nghim thun nhm trnh ln ging, nng cao cht lng ging, c lm
trc khi nhp v xut kho. Phng php kim nghim thun ca ging thc hin theo
cc phng php sau:
+ Ly ngu nhin mu kim nghim hai phn, mi phn 500 ht, dng thit b c
bit phn bit cc loi ht ging khc nhau ln trong ht chnh: v hnh thi, dng ht,
kch thc...
+ Gim nh cy con sau khi ny mm, ra l phn bit
+ Xc nh bng phng php ho hc
i vi la m, la nc c th dng mt s loi ho cht nh axit cacbonic, hydroxit
Natri... tc dng vi cc thnh phn ca ht; cho ta mu sc khc nhau.
+ Xc nh bng phng php vt l
Phng php ny ch dng trong phng th nghim c thit b hon chnh. Cn c
vo cu to khc nhau ca cc lp t bo thuc cc b phn trong ht ca nhng ging khc
nhau m phn bit thun chng ca ht ging.
b/ Xc nh sch ca ht
sch ca ht l t l khi lng tnh bng % ca ht chnh cha trong mu c
bn so vi khi lng mu . Ta cn phi phn bit sch ca ht vi sch sn phm
thng thng ta vn hiu. i vi ht ging sch c ngha l khng ln hoc ln vi 1 t
l no ht ging khc nhau ln trong mu. Ngoi sch, cn xc nh t l ht khng
hon thin, t l tp cht v ht c...
Mu trung bnh c sng k trn thit b chuyn dng, sau nht ring cc ht
c tnh l sch, cc ht b tn thng c hc, cc loi ht c di ... ghi tn v m.
Ht tri trn tm knh, xc nh cc ch tiu cm quan (mu sc, mi v ...) Ch
khi pht hin ht b bnh thuc i tng kim dch ca Vit Nam hoc nc ngoi th vic
kim nghim s dng li, nim phong v c quan kim nghim s cm dng sn phm ny
trong sn xut.
Ton b tp cht c cho vo a petri v xc nh khi lng. Mu kim nghim
sch phn thnh cc khi lng sau:
* Khi lng ht tnh vo sch, c phn bit vi ht khng hon thin.
* Khi lng tp cht.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 119

T l sch tnh theo:
sch
( )
=
|

\
|
+ + + +
=
2
100
T
t S
M
T
t S
S

S

Ht khng hon thin
S
K 100
=

T l tp cht = 100 -
S

Lng ht c trong 1kg ht
M
C 100
=

y:
S - khi lng phn lng c tnh vo sch
t - phn lng tp cht trong mu phn tch (g)
T - tp cht tch ra t mu trung bnh 1 (gm ht c, ht v ch, tp cht) (g)
K - cu phn ht khng hon thin (g)

S
- sch
C - lng ht c trong mu trung bnh
Ch : sch, t l khng hon thin, t l tp cht tnh bng %
M - khi lng mu xc nh ht c.
c/ Xc nh m ca ht
m l ch tiu quan trng c nh hng ln ti cht lng bo qun ht, l yu t lin
quan nhiu ti s h hng ht (cng vi nhit ht)
Xc nh m l xc nh lng nc t do trong ht. Mu c ly v bo qun
trong hp kn, c cn trc v ghi ln np hp.
Xc nh m vo cc giai on sau:
* Trc lc nhp kho, xc nh phng php bo qun;
* Trong qu trnh bo qun xc nh din bin ca ht, c bin php
x l kp thi.
* Trc khi xut sn phm xc nh kt qu bo qun.
Phng php xc nh m tin hnh nh sau:
Mu trung bnh trong phng 1 gi sau ly ra nghin nh. Lng mu ly 50g i
vi ht to v 20 g i vi ht nh. Sau khi nghin ht thnh bt mn, chia lm nhiu mu,
mi mu 5g. Cn hp nhm (k c np) c trng lng G
0
. Cho hai mu vo hai hp nhm
y np li, cn c trng lng G
1
cho hp vo t sy 140 - 145
0
C (m np). iu
chnh 130
0
C v sy trong 40 pht. Ht thi gian sy ly hp nhm y np li t vo
bnh ht m 20 pht, cn ring tng hp nhm c mu sau khi sy ta c trng lng G
2
.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 120

Ngi ta c th sy 105
0
C trong 4 gi sau vi ln cn li trng lng khng i, coi nh
ht kh.
m xc nh theo cng thc:

( )
0 1
2 1
100
G G
G G
W

=

y:
G
0
- trng lng hp nhm v np khi cha c mu (g)
G
1
- trng lng hp nhm v np khi mu cha sy (g)
G
2
- trng lng hp nhm v np khi mu sy (g)
Hai mu c trng lng sai lch khng qu 0,5% l t yu cu.
d/ Kim nghim sc sng ht.
Sc sng ca ht l kh nng sinh trng ca phi ht. C 3 phng php xc nh
sc sng ca ht ging:
+ Phng php cm quan.
Dng mi dao nh tch phi ht ra. Phi ht chc, phng, hi xanh v m l ht c
sc sng. Ht mu sm, phi xanh thm, tch phi ra thy trng v kh l ht khng c sc
sng.
S ht c sc sng
Sc sng ht (%) = .100
Tng s ht kim tra
Kt qu kim tra nm trong phm vi sai s cho php trong bng di:
Bng 5.8.
S t bo c sc sng (%) Sai s gia cc ln kim tra
> 95%
95 - 90
90 - 80
80 - 70
70 - 60
60 - 40
4
6
7
8
9
10
+ Phng php vt l:
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 121

Thay i nhit xc tin qu trnh ny mm ca ht, t phn on sc sng
ca ht. Trong iu kin nhit nht nh, lng oxy ho tan trong nc tng ln. Phi
ht tip xc vi nhiu oxy s thc y qu trnh oxy ho v ny mm.
Ta tin hnh nh sau: cho ht ny mm trong mi trng bnh thng theo qui nh,
ba ngy u t nhit 8 - 12
0
C. Sau nhit qui nh, s ngy tnh sc ny
mm tng ln 3 ngy. Nhng ht cha ny mm nhng trng to khng thi, thm 3
ngy na.
+ Phng php ho hc
y l phng php ph bin. Nhng ho cht thng c s dng nh axit
fushin 1%, Indigo carain 2/1000; triphenyl tetrajolium clorit 1%, Bisonat 5%, Dinitro
Benzol...
Trong phng php s dng Dinitro Benzol, cc t bo sng u c kh nng oxy
ho Dinitro Benzol khi h hp. Sau khi b oxy ho, Dinitro Benzol kt hp vi NH
3
to
thnh cht c mu hng ly ht bc v cho vo hp petri, nh dung dch Dinitro Benzol
ngm trong 2 - 3gi nhit 25 - 30
0
C. Ly ht ra v ngm vo dung dch NH
3
(c 10 ml
nc cho 10 - 12 git NH
3
). Sau 15 pht, t ht ln giy thm, ct qua phi v quan st.
Ht c phi nhum mu l ht sng.
e/ Kim nghim ny mm.
ny mm chnh l kh nng v sc ny mm ca ht, ly mu t phn lng ht
tinh sch.
Trc khi kim tra kh nng ny mm ca ht, cn ph v trng thi ngh. Kh nng
v sc ny mm ch c tnh trn cc ht mc thnh cy mm bnh thng (trong iu
kin cho).
Mi trng ny mm l giy lc, giy thm, giy bn, ct, bng thm nc, v
trng v pH = 6 - 6,5. Ct cn ra sch, rang k v c c ht lt qua sng 1 mm v nm
li trn sng 0,05 mm.
dy ca mi trng phi cha nc cho ht ht v pht trin mm.
Phng php thc hin nh sau:
Trn u mu v ly ra 4 mu th (mi mu 100 ht) ph v trng thi ngh ca ht
bng sy 35
0
C trong 2 - 5 ngy hoc ngm trong dung dch HNO
3
0,2% hoc ngm trong
KNO
3
0,2% trong khong 18 - 24 gi trc khi th ny mm. Ghi nhn vo tng mi
trng ny mm v lm m mi trng bng nc ct. t ht vo mi trng nhit 20
- 30
0
C m 80%, mi ngy kim tra mt ln, thi gian xc nh sc ny mm l 4 ngy.
Thi gian xc nh kh nng ny mm l 8 ngy.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 122

Trng hp b tr trong t ng, mi ngy phi thay i khng kh 3 ln, m np hp
petrin, kim tra nhit 3 ln, m 1 ln. Phi kim tra nhit ny mm trong t m
cho nhng mm ht cn trng thi ngh v kim nghim trng ti vi chu trnh nhit
thay i hng ngy nh sau:
30
0
C trong 8 gi lin tc;
20
0
C trong 16 gi lin tc.
Thi gian x l ht chm dt ngh khng tnh vo thi gian kim nghim ny
mm kt qu s tnh nh sau:
- Tng s ht mc thnh cy mm bnh thng tng mu;
- Tnh hiu s gia ln th c tr s ny mm cao nht vi ln th c tr s thp
nht. T l phn trm trung bnh ca 4 mu th c xc nhn l sc ny mm v kh nng
ny mm ca ht khi hiu s ca hai s bin nh hn hoc bng sai lch ln nht cho php
hai bng sau.
Bng 5.9.
T l trung bnh 4
mu hoc 3 mu
th (%)
Sai lch ln nht
cho php gia hai
s bin
T l trung bnh 4
mu hoc 3 mu
th (%)
Sai lch ln nht
cho php gia hai
s bin
99
98
97
96
95
93 - 94
91 - 92
89 - 90
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
87 - 88
84 - 86
81 - 83
78 - 80
73 - 77
67 - 72
56 - 66
51 - 55
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Bng 5.10.
Kt qu trung bnh gia
hai ln kim nghim
(%)
Sai lch ln
nht
Kt qu trung bnh
gia hai ln kim
nghim (%)
Sai lch ln
nht
98 - 99
95 - 97
91 - 94
85 - 90
2
3
4
5
77 - 84
60 - 76
42 - 50
6
7
8
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 123

Nu hiu s gia hai bin c sai lch ln hn sai lch ln nht ghi trong bng, ta
loi bt mt mu v lm li vi 3 mu cn li, tnh hiu s hai bin. Theo t l trung bnh 3
mu, nu ng vi sai lch cho php trong bng, c th chp nhn. Trng hp ngc li th
phi lm li. Kt qu 2 ln kim nghim c coi l thng nht khi hiu s gia kt qu y
khng vt qu sai lch ln nht cho php.
g/ Xc nh trng lng 1000 ht.
Trng lng 1000 ht c xc nh vi ht sch, c t l ht ng khng nh hn
99%. Trng lng 1000 ht c qui m v trng lng kh tuyt i, hoc qui v trng
lng 1000 ht m nht nh theo tiu chun k thut.
+ i vi ht nhng cy lng thc
* Phng php xc nh nhanh:
Ly 4 mu th, mi mu 100 ht, xc nh trng lng tng mu. Tnh trng lng
trung bnh n mu. Sau tnh hiu s hai s bin - Mu c trng lng ln nht tr i mu
c trng lng nh nht.
Trng lng 1000 ht l bnh qun trng lng 100 ht nhn vi 10. Kt qu ch
c cng nhn khi hiu s gia 2 bin nh hn hoc bng sai lch ln nht cho php ng
vi trng lng 100 ht.
Bng 5.11.
Trng lng trung
bnh 100 ht (g)
Sai lch ti a
(g)
Trng lng trung bnh
100 ht (g)
Sai lch ti a
(g)
< 2,0 g
2 - 2,2
2,21 - 2,4
2,41 - 2,50
0,12
0,13
0,14
0,15
22,51 - 2,70
2,71 - 2,90
2,91 - 3,00
> 3,0
0,16
0,17
0,18
0,19
* Phng php trng ti
Xc nh vi 8 mu th 100 ht. Trng lng bnh qun ca 8 mu

8
8
1

=
=
i
i
x
x

Sai lch chun

( )
1
1
2
2

=
n
x x
S
n
i
i
vi n = 8
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 124

H s bin phn

x
S
V
100
=

Trng lng 1000 ht xc nh trn c s trng lng 100 ht nhn vi 10 (V 1)
Nu V > 4 lm li vi 8 mu khc v tnh
x
, S, V theo n = 16. Loi b nhng mu
vi
x
ln hn 2 ln sai lch chun.
+ i vi ht ging rau
Thc hin cn 500 ht cho mt mu, ly 4 mu v xc nh trng lng trung bnh
ca 4 mu ny (
x
) v tnh hiu s gia hai s bin.
Phng php lm cng nh trn
Bng 5.12.
Trng lng 500 ht
(g)
Hiu gia hai s bin cho php
(Sai lch ln nht)
1,4 - 1,53
1,6 - 1,79
1,8 - 1,99
2 - 2,19
2,2 - 2,4
2,6 - 2,39
0,10
0,11
0,12
0,13
0,14
0,15
h/ Xc nh t l su bnh hi
Phng php ny dng cho ht nng sn v c qu
+ i vi cn trng
Quan st bng mt thng hoc tch qu b su tm trng su i vi nhng ht
hoc qu mu sng. Nhng ht nng sn c ng knh < 3mm hoc c mu ti, c th
dng sng ry, kch thc l 2 mm; 1,5 mm; 1mm ry trong 10 - 15 pht su mt
chui xung.
Phn loi v gim nh bng knh hin vi v gi mu li trong cc ng tut
+ i vi cc loi bnh hi
xc nh bnh hi c th dng cc phng php sau:
* Phng php ly tm.
Chn ht c vt bnh cho vo bnh tam gic (khong 30g), nc ct vo va sm
sp 1 cm, lc u trong 15 - 20 pht.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 125

i vi ht kh, c di c v cng th ngm 1 - 2 gi, sau lc 30 pht, gn nc cho
vo ng ly tm 3000 vng/ pht khong 5 - 10 pht. Gn ly phn kt ta v khuy u,
vch ln 3 lamen, mi lamen vch 3 ng ri soi trn knh hin vi xc nh v phn
loi bn cho chnh xc. Mt s loi ht c bo t kh xc nh cn nui cy cho ny mm
ri mi xc nh. (Mi trng nui cy l gelatin, agar...)
* Phng php gim nh trc tip.
Thng dng cho cc bnh trn l, trn cnh ghp....Tm vt bnh trn cy l, nh 1
git nc ln ram knh, khu nhng si nm vo git nc v xem trn knh hin vi.
* Phng php m
Dng a petri c bng mng trn giy lc, cho a vo t sy 105
0
C t 1 - 2
gi kh trng. M np petri cho nc ct v trng vo m, sau ct nhng m b
bnh thnh lt mng a ln knh hin vi.

6.1.1. c trng ca lp cn trng
Cc loi cn trng c nhng c im di y thuc phm vi lp cn trng:
- Thn do nhiu t hp thnh (u, ngc, bng)
- u c mt i ru, ngc c 3 t, mi t c mt i chn
- n khi trng thnh, ngc c 2 i cnh
- T lc trng n lc trng thnh phi qua thay i v hnh thi v tp tnh.
Lp cn trng chia lm 2 lp ph: lp ph khng cnh v lp ph c cnh.
a/ Lp ph khng cnh (Apterygota)
Nhm ny t gp v s lng t
i din: con nhy chia lm 4 b
- B hai ui (Diphura) thn nh thon di (8 - 10 mm), khng cnh ru hnh si,
khng c mt n, mt kp, khng bin thi.
- B 3 ui (Thysamura) thn hp di (10 - 20 mm) cui ui nhn c vy phin,
ru hnh si khng bin thi.
- B ui nguyn thu (Protura) thn nh v di (0,5 - 2 mm) khng c ru, bng 12
t, su non 9 t, khng ui, bin thi tng t, chn trc di c cng dng nh ru.
- B ui co dn (collemboda) thn nh (0,2 - 10 mm) khng cnh, ru c 4 - 6 t,
bng ti a c 6 t.
b/ Lp ph c cnh (Pterygota)
Gm a s cc loi cn trng thng gp
- B cnh cng (Ceoptera) 2 cnh trc rt dy p ln lng, 2 cnh sau ln di,
ming kiu nhai, ngc trc m. Bng c 10 t, nhng thng thy r 5 - 7 t, bin thi
hon ton. i din: b hung.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 126

- B cnh vy (Lepidoptera) 4 cnh c vy nh, mt kp n nang. Ming c vi ht
khng dng n th cun li. Bin thi hon ton. i din: bm.
- B cnh u (isoptera) c 4 cnh mng v u nhau (loi hu tnh). Loi v tnh
khng c cnh, chn 4 t, bng c 1 - 8 t. i din l mi.
6.1.2. c trng ca b cnh cng.
i vi cn trng thuc b cnh cng (Coleotera) ch ca n trong kho cha ri
tu theo tng loi m khc nhau. C loi thng sng gn trn mt khi hng, nhng c
loi li li thch sng tng gia hoc tng di khi hng. Ni chung i b phn cc loi
thuc nhm n hi thi k u thng hay su di mt tng trn ca khi hng. Cc
nhm n hi thi k sau thng hay ni ti m t, dm mt.
kho cha bao, tu theo cch sp xp m ni ca cc loi cn trng cng khc
nhau. Nu hng c khe rng ln, khng kh lu thng d dng th cc loi su non, cng
nh trng thnh (Mt) i b phn u chui su dn vo trong bao n hi, nhng tp
trung ch yu lp hng cnh bao. i vi ngi v bm ch sng ngoi bao, cn su
non ca n thng n lp hng cnh bao, t chui su vo gia bao. Cc hng c khe rng
b, cn trng ni chung u ngoi bao v lp cnh bao l chnh.
B cnh cng l b ln nht trong lp cn trng, hin trn th gii c trn 250.000
loi, phn b khp ni (trong kho, ngoi ng).n thc vt sng, thc vt mc nt, n cc
su b khc, ph hoi ht trong kho....
B ny c c im:
- Thn th loi to nht ti 150 mm, nh nht 0,5 mm.
- C ming nhai kho, gm mi trn mi di, hm trn hm di. C loi ming
chc cha ra trc nh ci m, c loi nh ci km.
- Ru c 11 t, cc kiu ru.
- Thuc loi bin thi hon ton.
B ny c ti 150 h, cn trng ch yu trong kho thuc cc loi h sau: h vi voi,
h chn b gi, h moth thc, h mt c thn, mt rng ca...
6.1.3. Cc loi cn trng c hi trong kho
A. c trng ca B Bt (A Carina)
+Mt thc (Tribolium Ferrugineum Fabr cius)





Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 127

Hnh 6.1. Mt thc
1 - Mt; 2 - Ru v mt kp; 3 - Trng; 4 - Su non; 5 - t bng cui; 6 - Nhng
Mt thc phn b khp th gii, Vit Nam hu ht cc vng u c. N c kh
nng n hi ti hn 100 loi thc n khc nhau: bt, thc, go, ng, rau c, lc, da, dc
liu...Trong cc loi bt m, thc go u b hi nhiu nht. N ph hai nghim trng
v khi n bi tit ra 1 cht dch thi lm cho lng thc b nhim mi hi. Ngun gc ca
loi ny t n , lan n vng nhit i v cn nhit i.
- c im hnh thi:
+Dng trng thnh: thn di 3 - 3,75 mm; rng 0,97 - 1,5 mm hnh bu dc di v
dp. Ton thn c mu nu nh, u dp v rng. Mt kp mu en, to. Nhn mt bng s
thy khong cch 2 mt kp bng ng knh 1 mt kp cnh cng, di che ph ht bng.
Trn cnh c nhng im lm lm thnh hng dc.
+ Trng: di 0,6mm, rng 0,4mm, hnh bu dc, mu trng sa, v trng th rp.
+Su non: mu vng, di 6 - 7mm, c 3 i chn ngc pht trin. t bng cui
cng x thnh 2 gai nhn cong ln. Trn mt lng ca mi t c khoang mu vng.
- c tnh sinh hc:
Mi nm sinh 4 - 5 la. Thi k trng 3 - 9 ngy, su non 25 - 80 ngy (tui 1 t 2 -
8 ngy, tui 2 t 4 - 9 ngy, tui 3 t 3 - 8 ngy, tui 4 t 2 - 11 ngy, tui 5 t 3 - 9 ngy,
tui 6 t 3 - 11 ngy, tui 7 t 4 - 8 ngy, tui 8 t 4 - 16 ngy).
Thi k nhng t 4 - 14 ngy, hon thnh mt vng i mt 32 - 103 ngy. Sc
sng ca su trng thnh (mt) khong 104 - 374 ngy. Con c c th sng ti 3 nm.
Mi con ci 1 ln 2 - 3 trng. mt i con ci c t 327 - 1000 trng (t l trng n
90%). Mt thng trn v ht, trn cc ng rnh ca ht, khe bao b. Mt thng c
tnh qun t v gi cht, leo b nhanh, bay kho. Nhit pht dc thch hp nht t 28 -
30
o
C. nhit ny hon thnh mt vng i ch mt 27 - 35 ngy. nhit di 18
o
C
khng thch hp vi vic pht dc v trn 40
o
C ngng pht dc v t lit.
+Mt thc tp: (Tribolium confusum)
C ngun gc Ethiopia. Phn b pha Bc nhiu hn vng nhit i. Ti Trung
Quc ngi ta pht hin loi ny tnh Hc - Long - Giang, Lim Winh, Sn Ty, Phc
Kin Vit Nam thy trong thc Thanh Ho, ng H Ni, cha ph bin nh loi mt
thc .
- c im hnh thi:
+Mt trng thnh: nhn bng mt thng d ln vi mt thc v chng u c
mu nu m, hnh dng rt ging nhau. Nu gim nh bng knh lp s phn bit vi mt
thc nhng c im sau:
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 128

Ru chui ht, c 4 hoc 5 t chng (nhn thy ru to dn khng thnh chng nh
mt thc )
Mt kp nh, nhn t mt bng: khong cch hai mt kp di gp 3 ln ng knh
mt mt kp.
+Su non: Ging vi su non ca mt thc , c 3 i chn ngc, t cui cng x
thnh hai gai nhn. t bng c nhng khoanh vng.
- c im sinh hc:
Mt trng thnh c cnh nhng khng bay, hot ng chm chp v sng lu hn
mt thc (con c sng hn 600 ngy, con ci sng hn 400 ngy). Thi gian trng
di, khong 8 thng. Mi ngy vi trng, tng s trng hn 400. Su non 6 - 7 tui.
Nhit thch hpc ho s pht trin cng nh ngng nhit (cc i v cc tiu) thp
hn ngng ca mt thc l 2,5
0
C. Trong iu kin nhit 32
0
C m 75% th vng
i ca su non khong 27 ngy. Su khng thch sng tp trung. Hai loi sng vi nhau
ch trong trng hp qun th nh v chng c tnh cnh tranh rt phc tp, lin quan n
nhiu yu t. Tuy nhin trong iu kin nhit i, mt thc vn chim u th hn.






Hnh 6.2. Mt thc tp
1- u (pha lng); 2 -Ru v mt kp.
+ Mt khun en:(Alphitobius piceus Olivier)
Mt ny c khp ni trn th gii. Cc vng min Bc nc ta u c. N n hi
cc loi go, thc, bt, n cc cng trng v cc cht hu c mc nt. N pht trin trong
cc loi lng thc m t, d tr lu ngy v ni ti tm. Mc ph hoi kh ln.





Hnh 6.3. Mt khun en
1 - Mt, 2 - su non, 3 - trng, 4 - nhng.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 129

- c im hnh thi:
+ Dng trng thnh (mt): thn di 4,5 - 8 m, rng2,5 - 3cm, hnh bu dc
di, ton thn mu en nu m, c nh bng. Ru ngn c 11 t. Trn cnh cng c
nhng ng chy dc. Phn bng c lng ngn mu hng tha tht.
+Su non: khi ln di 11 - 13 mm, pha lng hi cao ln, pha bng bng
phng thnh hnh ng hi dp. u ln thnh hnh bn cu mu nu en, ni gn tip xc
ngc trc mu vn nu. Ming mu en nu. Ru c 3 t, t th hai di nht. T t
bng th 5 n t bung cui cng, pha lng ca mi t th na t v pha trc mu
nu en, na t v pha sau cng chia lm 2 phn: phn trc mu nu en, phn sau mu
en nu nht.
V pha bng t t ngc trc n t bng th 6 mu vng nu nht, t t bng
th 7 n t cui cng mu nu nht. t cui cng c 1 i chn gi.
+ Nhng: di 6 - 8 mm. Phn u v ngc to, rng; phn bng nh b hai
bn u c lng gai mu en tha. Bng c 6 hng lng gai. Di cng on ui nhng c
1 ui ph mm nh ra, nhng c th hnh lm vo dng mng.
- c tnh sinh hc: mi nm sinh 1 - 3 la. Sau khi nhng ho 5 - 7 ngy bt u
giao cu t trng. Trng ri rc trn b mt ht lng thc. Mi con ci thng
c 115 trng; thi k trng chng 85 ngy. Nhit trn 17
0
C trng bt u pht
dc; 18
0
C thi k trng trung bnh 18 ngy; 32 - 34
0
C khong 3 ngy. Su non khi
trn 17
0
C mi bt u pht dc; 32
0
C thi k su non trung bnh khong 30 ngy. 21
0
C
mt 45 ngy. 32 - 36
0
C thi k nhng mt 4 ngy. 18 - 24
0
C mt 8 ngy. Khi 32
0
C v
m 100% mt vng i mt 37 ngy. Sc sng trong iu kin nhit v m thch
hp c th sng c 1 nm, thng thng sng 2 - 3 thng.
Mt thch sng tp trung, hot ng mnh, c tnh gi cht, thng hay n tht ln
nhau hoc cc xc cn trng khc. N thng hay di cc phn vch l ct di gn
kho.
Su non thng thch n cc loi bt, lng thc m, b rt nhanh v cng c tnh
gi cht, tnh n tht.
+ Mt ru di: Laemophloeus pusillus schonheer.
Phn b u trn ton th gii. Vit Nam loi ny cng rt ph bin trong cc kho
lng thc, thuc loi cn trng quan trng thi k s cp.
- c im sinh thi:
+ Mt trng thnh: thn hnh rt nh, hp, di 1,5 - 2,5 mm mu nu sng.
u v lng ngc bng na chiu di thn.Ru si ch, ru con c rt di (t nht di 1,5
mm) thng di hn 1/2 chiu di c th. Ru con ci di ngn hn 1/2 chiu di c th.
Khi b, mt a ru v pha trc lc l, ung a c bit hn cc loi khc.Trong ging
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 130

Cryptolestes cso nhiu loi, 3 loi kh phn bit l C.Ferrugineur, C. pusillus v C. turcicus
(c kho phn loi ring)








Hnh 6.4. Mt ru di
1 - mt 2 - ru 3 - trng 4 - su non 5 - nhng
- c tnh sinh hc: Con ci khong 200 trng, trng ln trogn sn phm. Nhng loi
thuc nhm cn trng th cp (secondary pests) nguy him i vi ht ng cc, lc ...
Chng thng hi sau khi c cn trng s cp hi ri. Chng thng hi phi lm ht
ging mt sc ny mm.
iu kin thch hp mt pht trin l nhit 33
o
C, trn tng i 70 - 90%,
1 vng i cn khong 23 - 30 ngy (tu loi mt).
+ Mt thc ln: Tenebroides mauritanicus Linn.
Phn b khp cc nc trn th gii. Vit Nam c khp mi ni. n hi cc loi
lng thc: thc, go, ng, u..., cc vt liu g, bao ti v cn n cc loicon trng khc.
Mt ny thuc loi quan trng trong cc loi ph hoi thi k u (s cp).
- c im hnh thi
+Dng trng thnh: thn di 6,5 - 10 mm, hnh bu dc di, mu en trn
bng. u gn ging hnh tam gic. Ru hnh chu c 11 t. Ni tip ngc trc v cnh
cng thnh hnh ci c. Trn mi cnh cng c 7 ng chy dc.
+Su non: khi ln di 20 mm, di v bng, mu trng c nh. Ru ngn,
nh, ngc v bng c 12 t mu ghi trng, c nhiu ng vn hnh gn sng.


Hnh 6.5. Mt thc ln.
1 - mt 2 - ru 3 - trng 4 - su non 5 - nhng
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 131

- c tnh sinh hc: Mi nm sinh mt la. i con ci c th c 54 - 1300
trng. Trng ri rc hoc tp trung mi khi 10 - 46 trng. Su non c 4 - 5 tui; thi k
su non trong ng mt 69 ngy, trong go hoc bt m mt 180 ngy.
Nhit thch hp nht i vi s pht dc l 27 - 28
o
C. Ti nhit ny mt vng
i mt 65 ngy. Thi k trng khong 48 ngy, nhng khong 10 ngy. Nu nhit di
21
o
C, mi i ko di tp 287 - 352 ngy; thi k trng mt 15 - 17 ngy, su non 250 - 300
ngy, nhng 22 - 25 ngy. Nu nhit v thc n khng thch hp c th ko di ti ba
nm ri mi hon thnh mt vng i.
Sc sng ca mt c th t 1- 3 nm, n c tnh hung d, c th n tht cc loi cn
trng khc hoc ln nhau.
+Mt thc Thi Lan. Lophocateres fusillus Klug.
Mt ny c khp th gii, cc vng min Bc Vit Nam. N n cc loi thc, ng,
go,...Ch yu n hi thc. i vi cc ht nguyn, mt ny khng th ph hoi c, n
thuc loi cn trng ph hoi th cp.
- c im hnh thi: di 2,5 - 3 mm, rng 1,2 - 1,5 mm, hnh bu dc bng v dp,
mu hng nu; c lc c lng nh mu vng nu, khng c nh. Ru hnh di trng ngn
c 11 t. Ngc trc gn ging hnh ch nht c nhiu im nh, hai gc mp ngc trc
li v pha trc, hai bn ngc hi cong v c hai ng bin mng v hp.
+Su non: khi ln di 2 mm. Thn di v dp, mu xm trng, u tng i to,
gn ging hnh vung. Trn ngc trc khng c mnh cng v cc t ngc 2 v 3
khng c mnh nh. Ni chung gn ging su non ca mt thc ln.








Hnh 6.6. Mt thc Thi Lan.
1 - mt 2 - ru
+Mt c thn nh: Rhizopertha dominica Fabricius
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 132

Mt ny phn b khp th gii. Vit Nam phn b ch yu min Bc. N ph
hi cc loi thc, u . Khi n hi n c chui vo trong rut ht, lm ht b rng rut cn
lp v bn ngoi. N thuc loi ph hi nghim trng.
- c tnh sinh thi: Dng trng thnh thn di 2,3 - 3 mm, dng nh hi di, hnh
ng mu en nu sm hoc hng nu c. u to hng v di v rt vo ngc trc. Ru
hnh l lp c 10 t, 3 t u ru phng to v mi t gn thnh hnh tam gic. Trn lng
ngc c nhiu gai nh li ln.
Cnh cng nh v di hnh ng, u cnh cng hi qup xung cui bng. Hai mp
ngoi ca hai cnh cng chy gn song song v hi lun cong v pha bng che bng.
Trn cnh cng c nhiu im lm nh lm thnh nhng ng dc.
+Su non: khi ln di 2,3 - 3 mm, u nh hnh tam gic mu vng nu, ming
mu en nu; thn mu trng sa c 12 t. Phn trc tng i to mp, phn bng hi
nh v phn sau th, hi cong v pha bng. Ton thn lc c lng nh mu pht nu.
- c tnh sinh hc: mi nm sinh 2 la.S ngy cn thit cho mt la khong 43 -
91 ngy. Mi con ci mt i c th d c 200 - 500 trng, mi ln 2 - 3 trng. Trng
vo ht thc hay vo khong gia cc ht, ng thi tit ra mt s phn cun ln vo
trng lm vt bo v. Sc bay ca mt kh kho. Khi nhit khi ht ln ti 37
o
C lin b
ra khi mt khi ht, nht l nhng lc thi tit nng bc, n c th bay 1 - 2 pht trong
khng gian. Mt c th sng trn 1 nm.
Su non khi mi n rt nhanh nhn v c vo ht n hi cho ti khi ho nhng mi ngng
n hi lm cho ht cn li v. Su non lt xc 3 ln. Thi k su non khong 28 - 71 ngy.
Mt phn ln nhng v ho trong ht. Khi thn th cng s dng hm trn cn mt l ht
m chui ra.
Mt pht trin mnh c th lm ht bc nng ti 37 - 38
o
C. V khi thng phn
ht 8 - 10% vn sng c. Nhit 35 - 40
o
C v m 50 - 60% vn hot ng.








Hnh 6.7. Mt c thn nh.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 133

1- mt (nghing) 2 - mt (mt lng) 3 - ru 4- trng 5 - su non 6- nhng
+Mt rng ca: Cryzacphilus Surihamensis Linn.
Phn b khp th gii. Vit Nam thng hi lng thc, kho no cng bt gp. L
loi hi th cp (secondary pests)
-c im hnh thi:
+Mt trng thnh: di 2,5 - 3,5 mm, thn hnh nh, hp, mu nu m hoc nu
, c ph t lng mu trng.
Ru: hnh chui ht 11 t, 3 t chu, t ngoi cng hi nhn.
Lng ngc: hai b bn cong, mi bn c 6 rng nhn. Trn lng c nhng ng
lm chy dc cnh, c lng mn v 4 ng ni ln.
+Su non: mu trng, di 4 - 4,5 mm mu trng. C 3 i chn ngc, b nhanh.
- c tnh sinh hc:
Mt trng thnh b nhanh, t bay v sng lu (c th ti 3 nm). Con ci sng 6 -
10 thng. Thi gian trng hn hai thng. Mi ngy 6 - 10 trng. Mi con ci hn 300
trng. T l n 95%. iu kin nhit 27
o
C, trn tng i 84,5%, thc n la mch,
th vng i 20 - 27 ngy. iu kin thch hp pht trin 30 - 35
o
C v m 70 - 90%.








Hnh 6.8. Mt rng ca.
1 - mt 2 - trng 3 - su non 4 - nhng
+Mt u xanh: Bruchus chinemsis Linn
Cc loi u u b ph hoi bi loi mt nyn nhng ch yu vn l u xanh.
- c trng hnh thi: Dng trng thnh con c di 2,5mm, con ci di 3mm,
hnh bu dc ngn, ton thn mu en nu, c nhiu lng nh mu en nu, vng nu hay
mu xm trng. Ru c 11 t. Ru con ci hnh rng ca, ru con c hnh rng lc. Trn
mi cnh cng c 10 ng vn chy thng, nhiu lng mu vng nu.
+Trng: di 0,4 - 0,6mm, khng trong v khng c nh, u b u to.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 134

-Tp tnh sinh hot: mi nm sinh 4 - 5 la, trong iu kin thun li c th sinh 8 -
11 la. Thi k trng bnh qun 6 ngy, su non 13 - 34 ngy, nhng 3 - 18 ngy. Mi con
ci mt i c 80 - 120 qu trng. Trong kho mt trng trn ht qu u (nhiu
nht 12 trng). Khi trng n, su non c chui vo trong qu u. Khi thu hoch mang theo
vo kho, tip tc sinh sn v ph hi.









Hnh 6.9. Mt u xanh
1 - mt (c) 2 - mt (ci) 3 - trng 4 - nhng
+Mt u tng: Ancanthoscelides obtectus Say
N l loi nguy him ln nc ta cng nh cc nc. N l i tng kim dch.
- c trng hnh thi.
Dng trng thnh, thn di 2 - 5mm hnh bu dc di, mu nu c, bng mu
vng . Ru c 11 t ngn nh. Ton thn ph lng nhung c mu vng kim hay vng
lc.
- Tp tnh sinh hot.
Mi nm sinh 4 - 8 la, mi con ci t 20 - 209 trng, mi ngy 26 - 45 trng.
Thi k trng 5 - 45 ngy. Trong kho thng trn ht hay bao ti.





Hnh 6.10. Mt u tng.
1 - mt 2 - trng 3 - su non 4 - nhng 5 - ht u b mt c
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 135

B - B cnh vy (Lepidoptera)
+Ngi n : Plodia interpusietella Hiibner.
Phn b khp th gii, Vit Nam, tp trung khu vc min Bc. Su non n hi cc
loi ht ng, u, go...N thch n lp ngoi ca go vnh t kt cc ht lng thc thnh
vn, su non nm trong n hi v ho nhng. N thuc loi ph hi nghim trng.
Dng trng thnh (ngi) : thn di 6,5 - 9 mm, hai cnh trc cng ra di 13 -
18mm. u xm nu, c nhng vy phn mu xm nu hoc hng nu. Mt kp mu en.
Cnh trc di v hp, gn gc 1/3 cnh mu vng nht, 2/3 cn li mu hng
nu. Trn cnh trc c nhiu im mu en, hnh khng qui tc. Cnh mu xm
trng. Cnh trc v sau u c lng vin xung quanh.








Hnh 6.11. Ngi n
1 - ngi 2 - trng 3 - su non 4 - nhng
+ Su non: khi ln di 10 - 18 mm. u mu nu hng, thn mu trng nht hay
vng xanh nht. Khi cn nh thng mu hng nht. L th hnh trn. Ton thn c 13 t,
t th 11 ln nht. t 1 v t 10 tng i nh, cc t khc nh u nhau. Mnh cng
t ngc 1 mu vng nu nht, mnh cng trn t bng cui cng mu nht hn. Mnh
cng t bng th 9 ng mu vi mnh cng t bng th 10 nhng nh hn v khng r
rng. Pha trc t bng th 3 n th 8 c 1 gc lng hnh trn mu vng nht. ng
knh mnh gc lng ny bng ng knh ca l th. on cui bng c lng cng.
+ Nhng: di 5,7 - 7,2 mm; rng 1,6 - 2,1 mm, mnh nh di mu vng.
- c tnh sinh vt: mi nm sinh 4 - 6 la. Trng thng trn mt ng lng
thc hoc bao b. Mt con ci 1 i c 30 - 200 trng, nhiu nht l 350 trng. Mi
ln 12 - 30 trng. Thi k trng 2 - 17 ngy. Khi trng n ra, su non c ngay v ht
n hi. u tin c vo ni mm nht nh mm, sau n dn lp ngoi ca ht. Su non
thng nh t to thnh mng mng ph trn mt khi lng thc. Phn mu hng, mi hi
lm nh hng n cht lng lng thc. Thi k su non ma h 22 - 25 ngy, mu ng
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 136

34 - 35 ngy. Trc khi ho nhng su non ri khi lng thc tm ni ho nhng, nh
t lm kn mng chui vo trong ho nhng. Thi k nhng 1 - 2 tun, sc sng ngi
khong 8 - 14 ngy.
+ Ngi go en: Agossa - dimi diata hawouth
Phn b khp th gii, su non n hi cc loi thc, go, cc loi bt.
- c trng hnh thi:
+ Dng trng thnh (ngi): con ci di 12 - 14 mm, hai cnh trc cng ra di 32 -
34 mm. Con c di 10 - 12 mm, hai cnh trc cng ra di 22 - 26 mm. Thn mu vng
nu lc c cc vy phn mu en nu tm. Mt kp mu en, ru tng i di. nh u
c 1 khm lng mu vng xm. Cnh trc v sau rng v ln. Cnh trc mu vng nu
c lc c nhng im mu en tm. Mp trc ca cnh trc c 1 hng im en tm, u
cnh c 7 ci hnh rng ca. Cnh sau mu sng vng nu.
+ Su non: khi ln di 20 - 28 mm, u rng ln nhng ngn, c 6 t mt n.
Ngc v bng c nhiu ng nhn c nh sng. Su tui 1 v 2 u mu hng nu ti.
Mnh cng t 1 mu nu hng. Ngc v bng mu trng sa, lng mu vng, nh hn
v di, sau dn chuyn dn thnh mu en (nn gi l ngi go en).
- c tnh sinh hc: mi nm sinh 1 - 2 la. Su non qua ng n thng 3 hay
thng 4 nm sau mi ho nhng. T thng 5 - 7 nhng bin thnh ngi.







Hnh 6.12. Ngi go en
1 - ngi 2 - trng 3 - su non 4 - nhng
Mi con ci 267 - 798 trng, trung bnh 535 trng. N thng trng trn
v ht, trn bao b, nhng ni thiu nh sng, khng a sng. Ngi sng t 5 - 17 ngy. Su
non nh t v phn kt vi ht lm thnh nn hnh ng v nm bn trong n hi.
+ Ngi la m: sitotroga cralella Olivier
Phn b ton trn th gii, Vit Nam ph bin trong thc, m, ng...
- c trng hnh thi:
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 137

+ Ngi: c mu vng nh mu vng ht thc, cnh trc hp, u nhn. Trn cnh
s chm nh mu en, xi cnh di 10 - 18 mm.
Cnh sau: mu vng nht hoc trng, gc trc nhn. B sau c hng lng rt
di, rt dy. Chiu di ca lng di hn 1/2 chiu ngang ca cnh.
+ Su non: mi n di 1 - 1,5 mm c chn ngc r rng. Sau lt xc mt ln thn
th co rt li, chn ngc ch cn vt tch v thn mu trng. T 2 tui su non pht trin trong ht.








Hnh 6.13. Ngi la m
1 - ngi 2 - trng 3 - su non 4 - nhng
- c tnh sinh hc: ngi bay kho t ngoi ng vo trong kho v ngc li. Ngi
khng n, nhng nu c n thm nc ng, mt ong th nhiu trng hn. Trung
bnh t 200 trng trong vng 3 - 5 ngy. Trng ngoi ht su non tui 1 b nhanh
nhn, tm ch chui vo ht. Nhit 30
0
C m 80% su non pht trin trong ht mt
19 ngy. Vng i t trng trng thnh mt 25 - 28 ngy.
+ Ngi thc n (Plodia interpunetella Huen)
L loi ngi c tnh nguy hi ln nht, tnh n rng, c bit ph hoi lng thc,
qu kh....khi b ph hoi nng, su non thng kt dnh vi ht lm kt vn b mt lp
lng thc.






Hnh 6.14. Ngi thc n
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 138

Su trng thnh di 8 mm, cnh xo rng 14 - 16 mm trn mt c phin vy hnh
chng li ra pha trc. Ru u hnh si ch. Ru mi mi rt di c 3 t cha ra pha
trc. Cnh trc nh di, gc v 2/3 pha u cnh mu nu hng, gia mu
vng nu nht, mi nm 4 la, mt i 40 - 200 trng. Su non khi ln di 10 - 13
mm gn nh mu trng.
C - B c rng (Corrodentia)
+ Rp sch (Troctes divinatorius Mull)
Loi ny phn b khp ni trn th gii, cc vng min Bc nc ta u c. N n
ht thc, cc loi bt, qu kh, cc mu ng thc vt kh... ch yu n cc loi ht v nt,
cc loi bt.
Dng trng thnh di 1mm thn dp, bng nh mm. Mu sc bin i theo thc
n. Ming mu hng nu, mt kp nh mu en khng li ra ngoi, khng c cnh. Ngoi
v trng c th dch do nn khi ra trng dnh cht vo ht. Trng loi ny rt kh nhn
thy.
Mi nm 3 - 4 la. V ma h mi la
ht 4 - 6 tun thuc loi khng bin thi.
Trng tp trung, mi con ci mt i
20 - 136 trng.
+ Rp bi (Atropos pulsatorium Linn)
Phn b trn khp th gii, tnh n hi
ging rp sch.
Dng trng thnh thn di 1,5 - 2 mm,
gn ging rp sch v hnh dng bn
ngoi. Mt kp mu vng hi li ra, tp
trung, thch sng ni ti tm.









Hnh 6.15. Rp sch
D - B mi (JSOPTERA)
Mi c khong 2000 loi, Vit Nam mi
ph hoi kho tng, nh ca thuc hai dng:
coptotermes v Mirrotermes.
Mi sng tng n trong t. T
mi gn t chnh v t ph.
Mi thch sng khng nh sng v
a nc. Mi l loi cn trng ph hoi
nhanh v gy thit hi ln.






Hnh 6.16. Rp bi
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 139

6.1.4. Chut ph hoi
* Chut nh: Mus musculus
Loi chut ny phn b khp ni, gy tn tht ln. Thc n ca chut rt a dng,
hu ht cc loi ht, bt, khoai, cc loi thc n ca ngi, n c cn trng. Trong cng
nghip v xy dng chng cn ph cc vt liu nh g, vi, len, cp in gy ra nhng hu
qu nghim trng.
Chut trng thnh 2 - 3 thng tui, mang thai 19 - 21 ngy. Sau 1 nm c th
sinh si 100 h hng con chu. Chut c chn nh v thng khng ung nc. Chut
thng tha giy, vt liu mm...vo trong kho. Chut trng thnh thng hot ng v
m v rt nhanh nhn. Chng sng c t 1 - 3 nm, nhng chut ci him khi sinh sau 15
thng.
Chut di 70 - 90, vi ui di 60 - 80 mm. Mu lng nu xm.






Hnh 6.17. Chut nh Asian (Mus musculus)
* Chut en (Rattus rattus ssp.p)
Chut en ph hoi gy tn tht ln, rt pht trin vng nhit i. Thc n ca
chut l hoa qu, rau, ht. Chut trng thnh t 3 - 5 thng; t 3 - 6 la trong nm.
Chng thng lm t trn cy hoc cc hc ca cng trnh xy dng, him khi o hang
di t. Chut cn nc ung, do chng hay n rau ti. Khi trng thnh trng
lng chut 0,25 kg; c thn di, tai rng. Thn di 15 - 24 cm. Chut en thng gp
cc nc chu .





Hnh 6.18. Chut en (Rattus rattus rattus)
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 140

6.1.3.Chim
Chim l loi sinh vt gp phn gy tn hi trong kho. Cc nc chu v ng
Nam thng hay xy dng cc kho h thng gi, nhm gim nhit khi ht v lm kh
cho n. y chnh l iu kin cho chim ph hoi kho tng, tiu hao mt lng ht ng k.
Chim thng lm t trn cy v tri trn 1 vng rng ln.
Chim s nh:
Chim s sng 1 s thnh ph, nhng ch yu cc vng nng thn. Chim ch c
th n c cc loi ht nh, cn ng th t b tn cng cng nh cc ht qu di hoc qu
cng. Lng thc trong kho, k c bt cng l thc n ca chim. Mi nm sinh sn 4 - 6
la. Chim non sau khi lng cnh tp hp li thnh tng n, n chim c th lin kt
c vi loi trng thnh vo thi k ma ng. Chnh n chim ny s tn cng vo cc
kho lng thc khi ca m hoc khi cn thng gi.
Chim s phn b rt rng vi cc loi khc nhau (315 loi)











Hnh 6.19. Chim s nh
6.2. CC BIN PHP PHNG NGA
6.2.1. Nhng yu t nh hng ti s pht trin ca cn trng ph hi sn phm trong kho
Qu trnh pht trin ca cn trng ph thuc vo nhiu yu t: nhit mi trng,
m sn phm, thc n Thc n l yu t quan trng nht. Thc n c tnh cht quyt
nh ti s sng v pht trin ca cn trng. Mi loi cn trng a chung mt loi thc n
ring, c loi n c nhiu sn phm, c loi ch n c 1 loi sn phm, v d mt u
xanh ph hi ht u xanh 100% nhng vi u en ch ph 30%. Ngun thc n thiu
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 141

hoc khng ph hp s hn ch s pht trin ca cn trng. V d mt thc ln vng i
ch 68 ngy nu sng trong ng, la m. Nu sng trong kho i mch, go xay phi mt 83
ngy n 108 ngy.
Cn trng thiu thc n s cht nhanh hay chm cn ph thuc vo loi v mi
trng xunh quanh. Trng hp thiu thc n, nhit mi trng thch hp cho pht trin
nhng m khng kh thp s rt mau cht. Ngc li cn trng c kh nng chu i
m khng kh cao v nhit thp hn mc thch hp.
Trn c s nhng nhn xt trn, bo qun lng thc tt, ngn cn s ph hi
ca cn trng bng cch lun chuyn hng ho trong kho.
Thu phn ca lng thc chi phi s sng v mc n hi ca cn trng. Nc
l mt nhu cu khng th thiu c cho s sinh trng v pht trin ca cn trng. Tuy
nhin nu thu phn cao hoc thp qu s hn ch hoc tiu dit s sinh sn ca cn trng.
Th nghim vi 20 i mt go, nui sau 100 ngy cng mt loi go c thu phn
khc nhau trong iu kin nhit khng thch hp, ta c bng sau:
Thu phn
go (%)
8 10 13 15 17 20 24 30 35 40 45
S mt sinh
si (con)
0 8 16 542 1263 599 254 42 18 4 0

Ta khng th dng bin php tng thu phn ca lng thc hn ch s sinh sn
ca cn trng m phi dng bin php gim thu phn (sy). Ngoi thu phn ca lng
thc th m ca khng kh cng rt quan trng. m khng kh thch hp ca cn
trng l 80 90%. Cn hn ch m di 70%. Chnh v th cn qun l thu phn lng
thc v m khng kh trong cc khu: thu hoch, nhp kho, vn chuyn, ch bin, bo
qun hn ch s ph hi ca cn trng.
Nhit chi phi mi hot ng c hi xy ra nh : thc y vng sn h hp, thc y
vi sinh vt, cn trng pht trin. Ring i vi cn trng, nhit l mt nhn t c ngha
quan trng trong hot ng sng ca n, v n khng c nhit c nh trong c th m ph
thuc vo nhit mi trng. Nu nhit thch hp n s pht trin, ngc li s hn ch
hoc b tiu dit.
nc ta, nhit thch hp cho cc loi cn trng 23 -35
0
C. Cc loi cn trng khc
nhau c nhit thch hp khc nhau. V d mt go 25 29
0
C, mt thch hp 27 - 32
0
C.
Nhit chi phi c thi gian pht dc. Trng mt thc tp 35
0
C cn 3 5 ngy s n:
34
0
C cn 10 ngy v 25
0
C cn 60 ngy.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 142

Chnh v th trong qu trnh bo qun cn nm vng din bin ca nhit tn
dng vo vic phng tr cn trng.

Bng 6.2:
Tn mt trong kho Thi k Nhit .
Thi gian cht
(pht)
Mt u tng Phi 50
0
C 10
- Su non thi k u 55 20
- Su non thi k cui 55 20
- Nhng 55 25
- Su trng thnh 55 25
Mt go Su trng thnh 47,8-48,9
0
C 60
Mt thc Su non 41-42 210
Mt tp 1,1
0
C 98
V nh sng khng kh:
Phn ln cc loi cn trng trong kho u thch sng ni rm, ti, khng a nh
sng. Ti cn trng sinh sn nhanh hn ni c nh sng.
Khng kh rt cn cho s sng ca cn trng. Nu khng kh, cn trng s cht, do
ngi ta tiu dit cn trng bng cch bm thn kh vo kho kn.
6.2.2. Phng thc n hi v nguyn nhn ly truyn
Cn trng trong kho c nhiu cch n hi khc nhau, tng hp li ta c mt s cch
sau:
- Cch n t trong ra ngoi: c nhiu loi mt hay su non trong c thi k pht dc,
c vo trong ht n hi ti. Khi trng thnh mi chu ra ngoi, lm ht rng rut. V
d su non v mt ca cc loi: mt go (Sitophilus oryzae L) mt thc (Sitophilus granaria
L), mt c ph, su non ca ngi la mch v.v...
- Cch n t ngoi vo: R bc cc lp v, da, cc b phn bn ngoi, lm cho ht
ch con nn nh su non ca ngi la n v.v...
- Cch gm cn n. Mt s loi su non v trng thnh gm cn t ngoi
vo lm ht b nt nham nh, mt nguyn dng nh loi mt thc ln.
- Cch cun li n. Mt s loi su non thuc bc cnh vy, khi n hi thng
nh t cun ly mt s ht v bi rc lm thnh t vn v lm trong n hi.
Trong iu kin bo qun hin nay ca ta, s d trong kho c cn trng l do:
Khi kho cha nng sn, cng tc v sinh st trng trc khi dng lm cha tt,
cn trng n lp trong cc khe, ch kn. Khi a vo cha cn trng chui ra n hi.
Vt liu, dng c, phng tin bo qun nhiu cn trng mang vo kho.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 143

Trong cc nh my ch bin lng thc tp trung nhiu loi cn trng t sn phm
ca nhiu a phng. Cng tc st trng khng y s b ly truyn vo kho.
Cn trng c sn trong sn phm t ni sn xut, nhp kho s mang theo. Do
nhiu nguyn nhn ly truyn xm nhp ca cn trng vo kho, nn trong kho thng c
nhiu loi cn trng khc nhau.
Trong kho cha bao. Ni cc loi cn trng khng nht nh. Lng thc c rng,
khng kh lu thng d dng, lc u su non cc loi mt (b cnh cng) n hi cnh pha
ngoi bao ri chui su vo gia bao. Cc loi su non, ngi (b cnh vy) khi sp ho nhng
cng thng tp trung cnh bao.
6.2.3. Bin php phng tr
a. Bin php phng nga
Trong cng tc phng tr trc ht phi ly phng chm phng, tr i i, ly
phng l chnh. phng l hng c li nht, tch cc nht. Nu khng phng
chu o, cn trng sinh sn ph hi ri mi gii quyt, th va tn cng sc, tin
ca m vn lm tn tht v h hi lng thc. phng l da vo quy lut, c tnh
pht sinh, ph hi ca cc loi cn trng m ra mt s cch h thng cc bin php
ngn nga s ly truyn v tiu dit cc iu kin sinh sng thun li ca n; phn
u thc hin khu hiu kho tng, hng ho khng c su hi.
Dit tr l khi trong kho c cn trng pht. Cn c vo loi hng, loi cn trng
v giai on pht dc ca n, da vo tnh hnh thi tit, kh hu, thit b bo qun m ra
phng php dit tr cho thch hp v kt qu.
phng v dit tr l hai vic nhng phi thc hin ng thi v kt hp. Vic
phng nga cn trng pht sinh, ph hi bao gm nhiu mt trong ton b cc khu cng
tc ca qu trnh lu thng phn phi. phng nga cn trng cn lm tt cc yu cu
sau:
Lng thc phi t c cc yu cu k thut bo qun, c bit khng c ly
truyn cn trng.
Kho tng, dng c, phng tin bo qun, thu nhp, vn chuyn, ch bin phi
thng xuyn sch s, khng c cn trng sng st.
Thng xuyn kim tra kho tng, s pht hin kp thi s xut hin v din bin
ca cn trng c bin php x l. Mi thng kim tra 2 ln da trn nguyn tc kim
nghim ( ni phn trn). phng mc xm nhp t tng vo v t t nn. Sn
phm cn cch xa tng 60cm, xa t 50cm v trn 80cm.
Cch ly bit sn phm c v mi, tt v xu, ngn nga ly lan. Nhn vic lm
vic trong mi trng c cn trng cn x l khng cn cn trng mi c vo kho.
b. Bin php phng tr
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 144

Tu theo cc loi su kho m p dng cc phng php dit tr khc nhau.
+ Bin php vt l: Bin php c hc
Dng sng qut lm sch sn phm, ng thi loi b mt phn cn trng ln vo
bi rc ra ngoi. Cn lu lm xa v tr kho trnh ly lan. Ngi ta cng c th dng
phng php ng m ca kho dit mt s cn trng thch bay bng nh mt c thn,
mt thc , mt go Dng by n dit nhng loi a nh sng. Nhn chung bin
php vt l n gin, khng yu cu k thut cao, tuy nhin hiu qu cn hn ch.
+ Bin php nhit hc
Dng nhit dit cn trng tng i c hiu qu. C th nng nhit hoc h nhit
dit cn trng. V d 10
0
C trong vng 12 gi mt u xanh b tiu dit. Vic nng
cao nhit cn lu khng nh hng xu n ht ging v cht lng sn phm trong
kho.
V d 49
0
C trong vng 10-12 gi mt tribolium confusum Dwi b tiu dit 100%.
Ngi ta c th li dng nhit t nhin hay nhn to, nh sng mt tri phi lm kh
ht, cng c tc dng dit cn trng.
X l kho khi khng c hng bng hi qu nhit c th tiu dit ht cn trng n nu
trong cc khe hp hoc ch kn.
+ Bin php ho hc
Dng ho cht dit cn trng l bin php hiu qu nht hin nay. Mi loi c
cng dng ring bit v tnh cht s dng cng khc nhau. Tuy nhin mun s dng tt
v c hiu qu cn phi p ng cc yu cu sau:
Thuc phi c hiu qu cao i vi cn trng
D s dng v t nguy him i vi ngi. t nh hng ti cht lng ht bo qun.
Khng n mn vt liu xy dng v cc thit b, dng c trong kho.
Ho cht phi c tnh n nh cao, khng gy chy n v r tin.
p ng tt c cc yu cu trn th rt kh. Hin nay cha c loi thuc no tho
mn c cc yu cu trn. Theo tnh cht v con ng nhiu c ta chia ra cc loi sau:
- Cht tip xc
- Cht v c
- Cht c xng hi
Vic xng hi khc vi cc bin php dng cc cht tr dch hi nh phun, rc, lm
b c. Vic xng hi c nhng u nhc im sau:
u im: Cc cht c th kh d xm nhp vo su hi qua h thng h hp v qua
da; c th tiu dit su trong mi giai on pht trin ca chng. Cht xng hi c th
khuych tn nhanh v su rng trong khng gian x l, ng thi c th len li qua cc vt
th xp, c hng nn c th tiu dit c cc su hi n np trong cc khe hoc nm
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 145

trong ht. So vi cc phng php khc, nu lm ng k thut s khng li d lng
cc cht c trn sn phm. Do y l phng php tt v c s dng rng ri
phng tr su hi trong kho lng thc.
Nhc im:
Xng hi ch c th thc hin cc loi kho kn hoc phi dng bt PVC, cao su
ph kn sn phm.
V c tnh v tc ng ca cc cht xng hi ln su hi tng i phc tp. C loi
gy tc ng tng b phn, c loi ln ton thn, c loi ch tc ng trong mt thi gian
ngn nh PH
3
, ngc li c loi ko di nh CH
3
Br, CCl
3
NO
2
...
i vi cht xng hi c mt s yu t nh bay hi, nhit si, tnh hp th
c nh hng trc tip n hiu lc ca thuc, cn phi ch .
bay hi l nng hi ti a mt nhit d v p sut nht nh. V d 20
0
C
bay hi ca Cloropicrin l 184.000mg/m
3
...
nhit cao, bay hi tng, do s dng nhit cao c hiu qu cao hn
nhit thp.
Nhit si l nhit m cht xng hi bt u chuyn t th lng sang th
kh. Tc bc hi cng ln th tc ng ti su hi cng nhanh. Tuy nhit cc cht xng
hi c nhit si thp cng gy kh khn trong bo qun thuc. V d metyl bromua nhit
si l 3,56
0
C, do cn cha trong bnh cao p bng thp.
T trng ca cht xng hi lin quan ti kh nng khuych tn v thm thu ca
thuc vo khi ht, nh hng trc tip n hiu qu ca thuc. Thuc c t trng nh hn
khng kh thng l lng trn nn t c tc dng i vi lp di ca ht. Thch hp nht
l cc cht xng hi c t trng t 11,5 ln so vi khng kh. Do hp ph vo mt lp ht
nn thng li mi khng bnh thng. Cht xng hi c trng lng phn t ln, kh
nng hp ph ln. Qu trnh phn hp ph cng ln th tc gi v nhit cng ln. Do
sau khi xng xong, ngi ta m ca kho gii phng hi c.
Cht xng hi (nhm phtphua) khng nh hng ti ny mm ca ht, khng
lm hng giy, vi n mn kim loi. Ngc li cloropicrin li c nh hng.
+ Cht xng hi th lng
Cloropicrin
Tn khoa hc ca cloropicrin l triclonitrmtan. Cng thc tng qut l CCl
3
NO
2
.
Cng thc cu to



Cl
C
NO
2
Cl
Cl
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 146



Phng trnh phn ng iu ch cloropicrin nh sau:
2 C
6
H
2
(OH) (NO
2
)
3
+ 22 CaOCl
2
= 6 CCl
3
NO
2
+ 6 CaCO
3
+
3 Ca (OH)
2
+ 13 CaCl
2
.
Cloropicrin nguyn cht l cht lng dng du, khng mu, ngoi nh sng
chuyn dn sang mu vng nht. Khi lng phn t 164,39, khi lng ring 1,642,
nhit si 112,4
0
C; p sut hi 25
0
C l 23,9 mmHg
Di tc ng ca nh sng v hi m trong khng kh cloropicrin b thu phn
thnh oxyt v HCl c mu hi vng. Khi gp nhit cao (100
0
C) v nitrozin clorua
(NOCl). Di nh hng ca m ta c phn ng:
NOCl + H
2
O HNO
2
+ HCl
NOCl
2
+ H
2
O 2HCl + CO
2

Cloropicrin rt c v nguy him i vi ngi v ng vt. Liu ch t i vi
ngi l 0,8mg/l. Hu ht cc loi su hi trong kho u b tiu dit khi b Cloropicrin tc
ng. Chnh v th ch dng cho kho khng c sn phm, dng cho lng thc dng cha
ch bin c thu phn di 15%. Khng c dng cho lng thc ch bin, ht ging,
cc loi ht c du v bao b.
Khi s dng Cloropicrin phi theo trnh t sau:
- Trc khi xng hi phi kim tra cch sp xp hng ho, o th tch kho, xch
nh khi lng hng ho nh lng thuc. i vi hng cng knh c th xp cao qu
3m. i vi hng i ri, hng thp phi c ng thng hi t cch nhau 5 10m v
thng sut t mt ti y khi ht.
Cn dn kn kho, ti thiu 3 ln giy c bn cao (ch dn bn ngoi kho tiu
dit c su hi n np trong cc khe).
Trng hp dng bt PVC hoc cao su, cc mp bt phi kp cht khng lt kh
hoc dng ct hay t kh ti ln mp bt vi chiu cao ti thiu 50cm, rng 50cm v
ti nc.
a thuc vo kho c th dng mt trong ba phng php sau:
- Phng php ti trn bao : ly mt s bao ti c (1kg thuc cn 4-5 chic) ri 3 lp
bao thnh hng dc trn ng lng thc (cch nhau 0,51m), ti thuc ln bao ti v
ng kn ca.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 147

- Phng php dng ng thng: thch hp cho kho ri cao qu 1m. Dng ng
thng cm vo khi ht (ng thng c l xung quanh). Rut ng nht bao ti ct nh
thuc vo v bt kn ming. ng thng khng qu mt ng hng 20cm. Mi ng
0,51kg thuc.
- Phng php dng ng mng: thch hp cho cc kho hng ng bao hoc ri
cao di 1 m. Thuc t ngoi vo mng phn phi u trong kho


Bng 6.3. Liu thuc cn dng trong cc iu kin khc nhau
Kho
Lng thuc 1m
3

khng gian
Lng thuc cho
1m
3
lng thc
- Kho ng bao (dng ng mng hoc
vo bao ti
20 30g 35 70g
- Kho ri < 1m khng c n thng
( bao ti hoc dng ng mng)
20 30g 35 70g
- Kho ri cao >1m c ng thng 20 30g 35 70g
Sau khi xng hi xong phi ng kn ca kho ti thiu 72 gi thuc thm thu
khp ng lng thc. Dng giy bc tm dung dch Dimetyl anilin (C
6
H
3
N (CH
3
)
2
) 5
10% trong benzen. Nu c hi cloropicrin thot ra, giy s c mu vng.
Sau 72 gi cho m ca kho, phi chn ngy c nhit v m khng kh thp v
c gi thot hi c.
Cn lu , lng thc sau khi xng phi kim nghim, khi nhn ht hi c mi c
s dng.
+ Metyl bromua (CH
3
Br)
Cht lng khng mu, dng hi nng hn khng kh 3 ln, c tnh thm thu mnh.
Loi ny c c tnh cao. C th s dng cho cc loi nng sn v kh trng kho khng.
i vi mt t tc dng.
Metyl bromua khng c mi v nn s dng cn cn thn. Liu lng dng: 40
50g/m
3
sn phm. Thi gian xng 72 gi. Nhit trong kho khng c thp hn 14
0
C.
Th kh metybromua khng nh hng ti cht lng ca vi, giy, g, cht do.
Khng lm gim kh nng ny mm ca ht ging, khng n mn kim loi, kh nng hp
ph vo lng thc yu, nn c s dng rng ri.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 148

Cn lu khi s dng
nhng vng kho c in, cn ct in phng ho hon.
Khi vo kho x thuc t nht phi c hai ngi, phi c y trang b phng h lao
ng.
Sau khi x thuc phi cnh gii quanh kho, khng cho ngi v gia sc qua li v
cch kho t nht 50m.
Thng xuyn kim tra
Bng 6.4. Liu lng thuc s dng nhit
Nhit (
0
C)
Lng thuc
(g/m
3
)
Nhit (
0
C)
Lng thuc
(g/m
3
)
6-8 60 18-20 45
8-10 57 20-24 43
10-12 55 24-26 40
12-14 53 26-28 37
14-16 50 28-30 33
16-18 47 30-33 27
Bng 6.5
Nng thuc trong khng k
(phn triu)
Mu sc ngn la tng ng

0 Khng c mu
5 Mu xanh l cy nht
100 Mu xanh l cy m
Mu xanh l cy m, hi c mu vng
500 Mu vng nht
1000 Mu vng thm
+ Axit xyanhydric (HCN)
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 149

L cht lng khng mu, linh ng axit xyanhydric ch bn vng trng thi
nguyn cht. Di tc dng ca nh sng n hnh thnh aminiac, axit foocmic, axit oxalic
v cc cht khng tan khc. Khi b phn gii hay trng hp sinh kh NH
3
v CO c th gy
n.
Axit xyanhydric l cht c mnh vi cn trng v ngi nng 0,2 0,3g/l
gy cht ngi tm thi. i vi su hi, cht c tc ng nguyn sinh cht ca t bo
hp th, ho tan trong v xm nhp vo huyt dch. Ph hoi hot ng ca men, kch
ng thn kinh v lm t lit h hp. X l HCN < 10
0
C hiu qu thp. Khng kh m
khong kh cao, t l su hi b cht li gim v HCN d b phn hu trong mi trng m.
Axit xyanhydric c th dit c ca cc th h su hi, nhng trng v nhng li c kh
nng khng.
Liu lng dng trung kho: C 1m
3
kho cho khong 10 12g NaCN hoc KCN
(mui ca HC N) v 10 15g hoc 18g H
2
SO
4
cng vi 30 35g nc. Thi gian ng kn
ca kho 72 gi, khng lm gim ny mm ca ht.
+ Dicloetan (C
2
H
4
cl
2
)
L cht lng khng mu, c mi ging clorofom, t tan trong nc, tan trong cc
dung mi hu c. Thuc ny khng nh hng ti ny mm ca ht ging, mi v v
phm cht nng sn.
c tnh ca Dicloetan thp, so vi cloropiorin c ca dicloetan thp hn 64
ln. Do khi dng phi c liu lng ln (gp 10 ln cloropiorin hoc metylbronua) thi
gian ng kn kho ko di.
Phng php s dng tng t nh cloropicin. Thi gian xng hi t nht l 7 ngy.
Liu lng dng trong kho 350 500g/m
3
sn phm.
trnh gy n v chy, ta thng trn dicloetan vi tetraclorua cacbon vi t l
1/4 theo trng lng.
+ Cht xng th kh
Cht xng hi th kh khuych tn nhanh v u thp trong khi ht. Vic bo
qun cng c nhiu kh khn, do ngi ta s dng cc cht th rn, nhng do tc
dng thu phn hoc nhit phn s sinh ra kh c.
* Anhydric Sunfr (SO
2
)
L mt th kh mu trng, mi kh chu, d tan trong nc, d hp th vo sn
phm.
SO
2
l mt kh c mnh, ngoi dit su b n cn l cht tr nm mc c hiu qu.
i vi ngi v ng vt mu nng, SO
2
cng l mt kh c mnh. nng 0,006mg/l
c th nhn bit mi. i vi chut nng 0,1% trong khng kh, sau 15 20 pht s
cht.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 150

Cng tc chun b xng hi cng nh cc cht xng hi khc. Nu dng phng php
t lu hunh cn lu phng ho. Ngi ta c mt s cch dng:
- lu hunh vo cho gang 1 lp dy 2 - 4 con, ri lp ct trn mt lu hunh (1
2cm) cho than hng ln trn. lu hunh chy hon ton nn trn thm 4% kali nitrat
(KNO
3
). Cho t xa khi, lng thc 1,5 2m. Lng lu hunh cn dng cho 1m
3
lng
thc l 40 60gam v cho 1m
3
khng gian l 20 30gam.
- Dng SO
2
ho lng, chc dng ging metylbromul. Lng dng cho 1m
3
lng
thc l 40gam, 1m
3
khng gian l 24gam.
Thi gian ng kn ca ti thiu 72 gi. Thi gian thng gi x hi c t nht 10
ngy.
* Nhm phtphua (cn gi l phosphin) Brapht
c tnh ca phosphin (PH
3
) bit t lu. Vic s dng mi ch xut hin trong
vng 20 nm tr l;i y. iu ch sn xut ra kh PH
3
c th tin hnh bng nhiu
phng php khc nhau.
- Cho kim loi tc dng vi axit hoc nc.
Zn
3
P
2
+ 6Hcl 3Z
n
cl
2
+ 2PH
3

Hoc
Alp + 3H
2
O Al (OH)
3
+ PH
3
- Cho halogen photphoni tc dng vi nc hoc kim
PH
4
I + NaOH NaI + H
2
O PH
3

- Phn hu bng nhit cc axit thp ca photpho.
4H
3
PO
4
3H
3
PO
4
PH
3

Cch iu ch t photpho kim loi n gin hn c. Ht ging khi x l bng PH
3

ny mm thay i: T thc nghim a ti kt lun.
Dng PH
3
c th dit nhiu loi su mt tng 72 gi
Khng nh hng ti ny mm, gi tr thng phu, mu sc, cht lng dinh
dng ca lng thc.
Sau 14 ngy hu nh khng cn d lng trn lng thc.
PH
3
l kh c thn kinh, triu chng nhim c PH
3
rt in hnh: au u, kh
th, bun nn, chongc th cht nu nhiu c nng
Theo ti liu ca c, nng PH
3
trong mt mt khi khng kh (0,08 0,1%)
theo th tch c gy cht ngi trong 5 10 pht.




t
0

Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 151

Bng 6.6.
Thi gian Nng (mg/l) Nng cm
3
/m
3

Cht ngay 2,8 2000
Cht sau 30 1 gi 0,56 - 0,84 400 600
Chu c 30 1 gi khng c di hu 0,14 0,26 100 190
Chu c trn 1 gi khng c di hu 0,01 7
Chu c 6 gi khng c di hu 0,005 3,5
Nng PH
3
gii hn cho php khng kh 0,003mg/l. i vi lng thc thc
phm khn cho php c chi lng.
Qua kt qu nghin cu nc ta, nhm photphuca c tc dng dit su mt, chut,
gin. i vi hng ho c th s dng cho nhiu loi lng thc, nhiu hnh thc bo qun
v nhiu loi kho tng.
Theo qui nh ca ngnh, nhm photphuca c php dng dit su mt cho
lng thc v mt s nguyn liu thc phm. Ch dng nhm photphuca khi mt su
mt qu 5 con/kg v c n v bo qun cho php.
Nhng im t thuc, chun b mnh giy kch thc 25 x 25cm, hoc gp thnh
hp thuc, cch nhau 1,5 2cm. i vi ht ri th thuc t lp trn mt v lp
cch mt 50 70cm (qua ng thng). i vi hng ho ng bao th t thuc lp trn
mt, lp xung quanh. Ch khng thuc ln vo hng ho.
Liu lng dng 4 10 vin (mi vin 3gam) cho 1 tn lng thc. i vi
khng gian, c 10m
3
dng 2 5 vin. Liu dng cn thn trng, nu qu liu gy lng
ph v lm cho su mt quen thuc v gy nguy him.
Khi vo kho t thuc phi ce 3 ngi (2 ngi t, 1 ngi bo him ngoi) v
c trang b bo h lao ng y .
Sau khi hon thnh cc cng vic trn, phi dng loi thuc st trng cho kho
khng, pha ch ng k thut phun quanh kho, ca kho, gn khoSau khi gii phng
hi c, phi c tuyn phng trng treo ca kho ngn chn su mt xm nhp.
i vi kho kin c, nhit cao hn 25
0
C, thi gian ph kn l 5 ngy m.
i vi cc loi kho khc v lng thc ngoi tri, hng ho trn ng vn
chuyn, nhit < 25
0
C, thi gian ph kn 7 ngy m.
Trng hp cn gii phng nhanh hng ho, thi gian ph kn ti thiu l 4 ngy.
Sau 12 ngy k t khi thng thong, sn phm c th lu hnh trn th trng.
+ Cc cht tr mi
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 152

Hin nay trong nc s dng nhiu loi thuc tr mi khc nhau. Thuc tr mi
phi p ng 1 s yu cu sau:
+ Rt c i vi mi, t c vi ngi v gia sc
+ Thuc phi c tnh n nh cao, t bay hi c kh nng bm dnh, thm
thu mnh vo g v cc vt liu xy dng khc. Bn di nh nng, m v nhit .
Thuc khng nh hng ti bn ca vt liu: g, st thp.
Thuc Khng c mi hi thi nh hhng ti mi v ca lng thc
S dng, cn cn c vo mc ch v tc dng ca thuc m la chn thuc.
V d: Mun phun qut ln g xy dng kho hoc phun qut vo cc cu trc c
sn trong kho phng mi ph hi c th dng BQG
1
, hoc ho vo du MNC
1
, MNC
2

phun qut. Ngc li mun dit mi theo phng php ly truyn c th dng TM67 hoc
MNC
1
, MNC
2
trn vi bt talc phun ln mi.
















Hnh 6.20. Thit b xng hi Nhm -Photphua 600m
3
/h kh PH
3

Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 153

+ Thuc BQG
1

L thuc phng tr mi sn xut trong nc (tn l thuc bo qun g) thnh phn
chnh l DDT nguyn cht v Lindan (99,9%, 666) ho tan trong dung mi l mafut, sng.
Thuc c tc dng phng tr mi, mt trekhng n mn kim loi, t nh hng
ti tnh cht g.
Liu lng dng: 480 500ml/m
2
, g c dy >15cm phi phun, qut t 2 4 ln.
Nu dng ngm g trc khi gia cm th liu lng l 30kg/1m
2
trong 30pht.
+ Crt: L sn phm thu c trong qu trnh chng ct than . Thc c hiu lc
vi hu ht cc sinh vt ph hot g nh mi, mt, nmBn trong mi iu kin thi tit.
Liu lng dng 5l thuc/1 mt chiu di ho pha ngoi kho nhm ngn cn mi vo kho.
+ Napthamon (xylamon)
C nyhiu loi khc nhau. Hai loi thng dng nc ta l:
Napthamon mu nu en v Napthamon mu sng.
Cht hu hiu trong c hai loi l Napthalen clo ho. Thuc c th tr c mi,
mt v nm ph hoi g. t c vi ngi v gia sc.
Napthamon dng phun qut vo g vi liu lng 200 250ml/m
3
hoc ngm
vi liu lng 40 50kg/m
3
.
+ MNC
1

Thuc MNC
1
l hp cht clo hu c, c bn cao, tinh th mu trng, mi hi, khng tan
trong nc, tan trong xng, du haThuc c mnh qua ng tiu ho v ng tip
xc. Tc dng xng hi rt yu.
Thuc ho vo du mafut theo nng 5 7%. Mun cho tan ht, ly 50 70g
thuc cho vo 100ml xng, khuy mnh sau cho dung dch ny vo 900ml mafut.
Nu dng rc vo mnh mt dit theo phng php th trn vi bt phn mn theo
nng 2% (20g MNC
1
vi 980g bt phn mn). Dng chi qut ln g 3 4 ln vi liu
lng 250ml/m
2
. Qut chn ct, x vi liu lng nh trn. i vi chn tng ch cn
qut 2 ln l .
+ MNC
2

MNC
2
bn vng hn MNC
1
, nhng kh ho tan trong mafut hn. V vy cn tng
lng xng ln gp i v khuy mnh (cho 50 70g MNC
2
vo 200ml xng khuy cho
tan, sau tho 800ml mafut).
Thuc MNC
2
ch nn dng phun, qut phng tr mi, khng nn phun vo mnh
mi dit theo phng php ly truyn.
6.2.4. Bin php x l kh trng kho trc khi nhp nng sn v trong thi gian bo qun.
a. Mc ch v yu cu k thut
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 154

X l kh tng kho trc khi nhp nng sn v trong thi gian bo qun l cng tc
v sinh quan trng nhm tiu dit v loi b cc su mt ln qut trong cc khe nt, cc
thit b, cc ngun ly bnh, v hn ch s ly lan t ni ny sang ni khc v t cc sn
phm ny sang cc sn phm khc. Phi lm v sinh xung quanh kho: ct c, dn dp rc
bn, nhng vt c th l ni m nu ca su mt, chut.
kh trng tt v c hiu qu cao, cn phi lm tt mt s vic sau: gi cho nng
thuc khng thay i trong thi gian cn thit tiu dit cn trng. Ph thuc vo
c im ca i tng cn tiu dit, loi thuc m thi gian c th t 72 gi cho ti 5 7
ngy.
- Phi m bo an ton cho ngi v cho nhn vin trc tip lm cng tc kh
trng. Phi c y trang thit b an ton lao ng cn thit: mt n phng c, gn tay,
qun oNhn vin trc tip lm phi nm vng nguyn tc phng c v hiu bit v cc
loi thuc s dng.
b. Bin php k thut
+ i vi kho chnh sn phm
+ Phi dn kn cc khe h: ca thng hi, ca ra vobng giy c bn cao,
nhm trnh lt kh c ra ngoi lm gim nng thuc v nguy him cho ngi bn
ngoi kho. Sau khi x l phi kim tra xem kho c m bo kn hay khng nh phng
php kim tra trnh by phn trn.
Chun b y cc phng tin pha ch thuc theo ng liu lng quy nh, tu
theo loi thuc, ng thi chun b cc phng tin phun, rc hoc xng hi, cc
phng tin chng chy n.
i vi cc loi thuc dng nc, thng phun, qut ch yu dit cn trng bng
cch tip xc. i vi thuc xng hi cn cn c vo t trng ca n so vi khng kh
(nng, nh) b tr trn hoc pha di sn phm c mt s loi thuc thng dng ng
thng hi hoc mng nh ni phn trn.
ng thng hi lm bng g ghp, u nhn c l
nh. Trong ng c gi hay bng tm ho cht. Kh
c ca ho cht bc hi qua cc l nh thm su
vo trong ng ht. Ci ng thng bng cho
thm ho cht trnh ri vo khi ht.
- i vi kho khng cha sn phm
Phng php tin hnh tng t nh trn kho
cn phi qut dn sch bi rc, cc ht cn st
li pha dc thu dn mang i.
- i vi kho bt








Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 155

Chun b ng x thuc v b tr ng sao
cho thuc khuych tn u trong khi ht s
dng 1 ng cho 8m
2
b mt hng nng sn.
ng thng cm su vo lng khi ht.

Hnh 6. 21. ng thng hi.
1 - ng thng 2 - L nh
3 - u nhn trong c bng
Bt cn chn mp cn thn hn ch r r hi thuc. Liu lng thuc cn dng nn tnh
nhiu hn so vi kh trng trong kho kn.
Sau khi x kh, d bt theo kim cun chiu ngc chiu gi, thu dn cc ng thng
bo qun ni thng gi.
i vi nn kho v trn kho dng NaOH qut: NaOH 10% qut trn kho v
NaOH 15% qut nn kho.
Ngi ta cng c th dng hn hp vi vi du ho qut tng kho (10 lt nc +
1 lt du ho + 2kg vi). phng mi ph hi, di nn kho nn ph lp ho cht c
dit mi, cc dng c trong kho qut loi thuc hn hp dit mi.
Trong qu trnh x l kh trng kho khi pht hin t mi phi ph ngay v dng
thuc dit mi, hoc dng hn hp sau:
Hn hp 1: Hgcl
2
50%
AS
2
0
3
35%
C
7
H
6
O
3
10%
AS 5%
Hn hp 2: AS
2
O
3
80%
C
7
H
6
O
3
15%
AS 5%
Thng xuyn theo di thi tit, mi loi ho cht ch thch hp vi nhit v
m khng kh phm vi nht nh.
c. Phng chng ng c khi kh trng kho
Trong qu trnh s dng ho cht c x l kho, cn rt cn thn trnh gy nguy
him cho ngi. Biu hin chung ca ng c l chng mt, bun nn, kh th, c cm gic
b lnhTrng hp ng c nng c th dn ti co git, tc th. Khi gp cc trng hp
trn cn cp cu s b, t bnh nhn nm ni thong, chn k cao, lm h hp nhn to
(tr trng hp ng c bi CCl
3
NO
2
), cho bnh nhn ung ng, c ph hoc nc ch
c, c th chn nc nng. Nu ng c bi mtycbromua, cho bnh nhn ngi bng c
tm 3 5 git NH
3
hoc HNO
3
v a ngay ti bnh vin gn nht.



Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 156

6.2.3. Phng tr chut hi trong kho
Chut l lot ng vt sinh rt mnh, quanh nm v c bit l vo ma xun
chut rt tinh nhanh nn vic phng v dit phi lm thng xuyn bin php dit chut
c nhiu, nhng mt s bin php chnh nh sau:
- Thng xuyn v sinh sch s trong v ngoi kho hn ch ngun thc n ca
chng, ng thi dn dp rc, cy ci um tm l ni tr ng ca chng.
- Khi thit k kho tng phi ch ti cng tc phng tr ngay t u. Ca s, l
thng hi phi c li chn, chu ca kho phi c bc thp trnh chut c khot lm t.
Tch c tm ph hang v tiu dit chng. Ngoi nhng bin php trn ta cng cn dit
chut bng cm by v ho cht.
a. Phng php dit chut
Cc cht dit chut c c th rn, lng v kh. Tu theo loi thuc c th xm nhp
qua ng rut, ng h hp hoc tip xc. Yu cu c bn i vi thuc dit chut dng
lm b phi khng c mi l. Mu sc ca thuc khng nn khc thng m phi c mu
gn ging nhng thc n hng ngy n n hoc ph hi.
Phng php lm b c kh dng vi thuc dng bt, bao gm:
Thc n chut a thch l cc ht ng cc, c th dng nhng loi thc n trong kho
khng c m chut a thch nh: tm, cua, nhngcht c c trn trc tip vi thc n
(vi loi khng mi v) hoc giu trong thc n ( loi c mu v mi v khc thng). Tu
theo yu cu c th ch bin nng sut di dng ht, ming hoc bt.
i vi b c nc, chut sau khi n thng ra ngoi kho ung nc do lm b
c nc s c hiu qu. Khi kn v chut khng c iu kin ch ra ngoi ung nc, phi
ung nc b tr b c sn trong khocht c lm b nc phi khng tan trong nc,
m ni trn mt nc mt lp vng mng hoc tan trong nc nhng khng b phn hu v
mt tnh c. Thng kch thch chut c th cho vo b nc 3 5% (30 50g ng
ho vo 1 lt nc).
b. Thuc dit chut
+ Km photphua (Zn
3
P
2
)
Km photphua l mt th bt mu vng xm ti. Khi kh khng mi, m c mi
thi. Trong iu kin kh v mi trng trung tnh, km photphua tng i bn vng. Khi
gp m b thu phn v phn hy thnh kh photphin (PH
3
) l mt kh c theo phn ng
sau:
Zn
3
P
2
+ 6H
2
O 3Zn (OH)
2
+ 2PH
3

Zn
3
P
2
+ Hcl 3Zcl
2
+ 2PH
3

Km photphua rt c vi ngi v ng vt mu nng, l thuc dit chut rt
mnh. Khi n, di tc dng ca dch v, km photphua phn hu thnh PH
3
l kh rt
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 157

c i vi h thn kinh v mu. Chut sau khi n thng chy mu mi, kh th v
cht sau 3 10 gi lu nht l 24 gi.
Bng 6.6
Loi chut
Liu ch t (mg/kg)
Chut trng thnh
75 - 150
Chut nht
15 20
Chut ng
20 - 24
Thc n thch hp nht trong kho l cua, tm, nhng, c. Tt nht l nht thuc vo
bng cc con mi.
Liu lng thuc i vi chut nh sau:
- Chut nh: Trn 1 2% km photphua vo thc n
- Chut ln: Trn 3 5%
Trn 1m
2
t 1 2 gam b c v mi im t 30 40g b c. Lu trnh la
chut, trong 1 2 ngy u cha cho b vo thc n, sau mi cho. Thi gian thch hp l
17 18 gi hng ngy l lc chut sp hot ng, khng nn t vo ban ngy khng nn
bt b lin tc m cch nhau 10 15 ngy. Cn tm k chut cht v tiu hu.
+ Kruxit (C
11
H
10
N
2
S)
Kruxit l cht bt kt tinh, mu xm, khng mi v, d tan trong dung mi, tan
nhiu trong dch rut non ng vt.
Kruxit bn trong mi trng v trung tnh. Gp m v nng d b phn hu Kruxit t
c vi ngi v ng vt mu nng, c tc ng mnh vi chut cng. Liu ch t i vi
chut cng l 4.5 5 mg/ kg. i vi chut n hay chut nht liu ch t gp 2- 3 ln
Kruxit c th dng lm b c kh, nc v phun bt. i vi ni nhiu chut c th t b
trong thi gian di, lin tc. Mi tun nn thay b chut mt ln
Kruxit c th dng x l b mt vnh nc hoc nhng vng nc t,
chut c th ti ung nc. Liu dng 30g thuc/1m
2
b mt nc.
* Bari cacbonat ( BaCO
3
)
Bari cacbonat c th iu ch theo nhiu phng php
BaCl
2
+ Na
2
CO
3
BaCO
3
+ 2 NaCl
BaS + CO
2
+ H
2
O BaCO
3
+ H
2
S
Cn lu : Bari cacbonat phi cha rt t hp cht sun phua mi c tc dng dit
chut. V hm lng sunphua > 0.2% lm cho chut khng thch n b.
Bari cacbonat l cht bt mn, trng, khng mi, khng tan trong nc v dung mi
hu c. trng thi kh, mi trng trung tnh, Bari cacbonat bn vng. trng thi m v
di tc dng ca mi trng axit n phn hu v to ra CO
2
.
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 158

Do tc dng ca dch v ng vt, Bari cacbonat to thnh Bari clorua rt c

BaCO
3
+ HCl BaCl
2
+ CO
2
+ H
2
O
Bari cacbonat t c vi ngi, nhng rt c i vi chut. Bari Clorua lm tng p
sut thm thu trong chut, lm t bo b mt nc.
Baricacbonat dit chut tng i an ton, khng s nhim c lng thc v gy
c cho ngi. S dng Baricacbonat di dng b c. Liu lng cho vo b 20 25% (
1kg mi cn 200 250g thuc ). B c th ch bin sn ( 700g bt m + 200g thuc + 100g
bt ca cua kh) cho ngc vo cn mng v ct thnh tng ming 0,5 x 0,5cm. Trong kho
c 5m
2
t mt mi. Nu chut trong hang th th vo hang mi l 10 15 ming chut n
song s kht nc, ung v cht.


























Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 159

TI LIU THAM KHO

1. Bo qun v ch bin nng sn sau thu hoch.
Trn Minh Tn NXBNN 200
2. Bo qun lng thc.
Bi c Hi, Mai Vn L NXBKHKT 1987
3. K thut s dng cc cht tr dch hi trung kho.
V Quc Trung. B Lng thc v thc phm 1979.






















Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 160


PH LC
Chy nhanh
Lm t trong thng g
Bi
Nhy
Leo ct
Leo dy

Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 161










































Mc mt
t
Tng xy
Sn btng
S DNG SN BTNG
Tm kim loi cn
t bng kim
loi, nu thng
khng l kim loi
Mt t Mt ngoi kim loi
V tr vng
kim loi
Ht ng trong
thng tn trn
t vng kim loi
chn thng cha ht
Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 162










































Che l bng kim loi
Bc chn ca bng kim loi Lp l bng va

Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 163










































Ra tay sau khi
t b c
Hn hp khc
B c vi c

Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 164










































t b bt
chut
Hp st ty
Cha b c
Np l

Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 165










































t b st tng
ng i ca chut
Khng s vo
chut cht
By chut
t by gn hang v
ni chut i qua
t by gn bao ng cc

Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 166










































Bi rc
Kho
Chut khp ni
Cnh ng
Nh

Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 167










































Ph hoi nh ca, kho tng
Mang bnh
Chut lm g?
n trng
n ht v thc phm
Nui ch hoc mo


Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 168










































Lm sch xung quanh kho
Ct cnh cy rm
rp cnh nh
Ct bi c cho ngn
Lm sch
quanh nh

Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 169

V sinh ngoi kho






















Sil c v bc ngoi
1-Tn 10/10 ; 2-Bulng 6 ; 3-Tn 20/10 ; 4-Tm 20/10 ; 5-Tn 10/10 2000 1500 ;
6-Cnh bng tn ; 7-ng tr ; 8-Tm chn.












Sil xon c
1-Tr ngoi ; 2-Tr trong ; 3-Vch ngn ; 4- btng ; 5-Phu ; 6-Hm bng ti ;
7-Qut ; 8-Thng ph ca qut ; 9-ng khuch tn ; 10-B phn phn phi.

Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 170



















Sil Xilostra 42.000tn



















nh sil Xilostra



Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 171























Trung tm 600tn (tp trung v lm sch ht thu hoch)

















nh bn trong nh bn ngoi


Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 172



























S h thng sil Beris














nh chp sil Beris
Mt ng

Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 173



















Sil ca trang tri awassa (tripi) 5000tn





















Sil Beris 1000tn
lm sch
vng trn
Cn
Dy chuyn hc
4245
H tip nhn

Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 174




















Sil cha bt m 20.000 tn




















nh chp sil trn

Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 175

























Sil kim loi tit din vung hoc 6 cnh















nh chp sil


Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 176






















Kho sil bng t/rm - 250 tn ht


















H thng vn chuyn ca kho, nng sut 30 tn/gi

Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 177

















Kho bo qun ht, 2 n nguyn 20 24,5m






















Kho ht ngoi tri


Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 178























Tri tm plastic trn nn, bo v bao go

















Thm trn nn sil t st/rm (Thng Hi)

Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 179























Kho ngoi tri c ca thng gi 50 180cm. y g lt PVC

















Kho ngoi tri, 150 tn la

Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 180

MC LC

Chng 1
1.1. Phn loi nng sn ....................................................................................................2
1.2. Cu to nng sn phm............................................................................................2
1.2.1. Cu to, c im hnh thi nng sn phm....................................................................... 2
1.3. Thnh phn ho hc ca cc loi nng sn.............................................................9
1.4. Tnh cht vt l c bn ca ht nng sn..............................................................15
1.4.1. Tnh tan ri v t phn cp. ............................................................................................... 16
1.4.2. Mt v rng.............................................................................................................. 18
1.4.3. Tnh hp th ca khi ht. ................................................................................................. 19
1.4.4. Tnh dn nhit .................................................................................................................... 23
Chng 2. Cc qu trnh bin i gy h hng nng sn
2.1. Cc yu t gy h hng nng sn...........................................................................24
2.1.1. nh hng ca cc tnh cht............................................................................................. 24
2.1.2. Nhit .............................................................................................................................. 24
2.1.3. m tng i ca khng kh v m ca sn phm. .............................................. 26
2.1.4. nh hng ca thi gian bo qun................................................................................... 27
2.1.5. Thnh phn kh ca khng kh trong kho......................................................................... 28
2.1.6. Cc h vi sinh vt. .............................................................................................................. 28
2.2. Nhng bin i ca nng sn trong qu trnh bo qun. ....................................28
Chng 3. Cc phng php bo qun nng sn
3.1. Bo qun nng sn trng thi thong. ...............................................................37
3.1.1. Thng gi t nhin............................................................................................................. 37
3.1.2. Thng gi cng bc......................................................................................................... 37
3.2. Phng php bo qun ht trng thi kn. ........................................................42
3.3. Phng php bo qun ht.....................................................................................45
3.4 - Phng php bo qun bng ho cht.................................................................47
3.5 - Phng php bo qun trong kh quyn iu chnh...........................................48
3.6 - Phng php bo qun bng bc x. ...................................................................48
Chng 4. Kho bo qun nng sn
4.1. Nhim v, yu cu k thut v phn loi. .............................................................51
4.1.1. Nhim v. ........................................................................................................................... 51
4.1.2. Yu cu k thut. ............................................................................................................... 51
4.1.3. Phn loi. ............................................................................................................................ 51
4.2. Nguyn tc xy dng kho v cch b tr nguyn liu trong kho.........................52
4.2.1. Nguyn tc xy dng kho.................................................................................................. 52
4.2.2. B tr nguyn liu trong kho.............................................................................................. 53
4.3. Cu to hot ng ca mt s loi kho thng dng. ............................................56

Trng i hc Nng nghip H Ni Gio trnh K thut Ch bin Nng sn. 181

4.3.1. Bo qun ht nng sn....................................................................................................... 56
4.1.3 Phn loi kho bo qun lng thc................................................................................... 69
4.4. X l cc s c v trng hp khng bnh thng. ..............................................70
4.5 - L thuyt tnh ton kho bo qun. .......................................................................73
4.5.1- Sc cha ca h thng kho bo qun. .............................................................................. 73
4.5.2 Kho bo qun thng thng .............................................................................................. 75
Chng 5. Thit b kho bo qun
5.1. Thit b thng gi cng bc. .................................................................................95
5.1.1. Qut thng gi mt ng..................................................................................................... 95
5.1.2. Tnh ton ng lc h thng thng gi............................................................................. 97
5.1.3. S phn b p sut trong h thng thng thng gi......................................................... 99
5.1.4. Tnh ton kh ng h thng thng gi. ......................................................................... 100
5.2. Thit b bc d v vn chuyn..............................................................................103
5.2.1. My vn chuyn ln cao.................................................................................................. 103
5.2.2.My vn chuyn ngang.................................................................................................... 105
5.2.3. My vn chuyn hn hp................................................................................................ 108
5.2.4.My vn chuyn kiu hi ................................................................................................. 109
5.3. Cc thit b kim tra v phn tch mu...............................................................115
5.3.1. Cch chia l kim nghim.......................................................................................... 115
5.3.2. Phng php ly mu...................................................................................................... 116
5.3.3. S qu trnh ly mu kim nghim............................................................................ 117
5.3.4. Cc ch tiu kim nghim................................................................................................ 118
6.1.1. c trng ca lp cn trng............................................................................................ 125
6.1.2. c trng ca b cnh cng............................................................................................ 126
6.1.3. Cc loi cn trng c hi trong kho................................................................................ 126
6.1.4. Chut ph hoi ................................................................................................................. 139
6.1.3. Chim................................................................................................................................. 140
6.2. Cc bin php phng nga...................................................................................140
6.2.1. Nhng yu t nh hng ti s pht trin ca cn trng ph hi sn phm trong
kho 140
6.2.2. Phng thc n hi v nguyn nhn ly truyn............................................................. 142
6.2.3. Bin php phng tr......................................................................................................... 143
6.2.3. Phng tr chut hi trong kho......................................................................................... 156
TI LIU THAM KHO..................155
PH LC