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MC LC
PHN I: KHI NIM V CAD/CAM .............................................................................................................................. 3
1. 1 Vai tr v chc nng ca CAD/CAM trong nn sn xut hin i ............................................................................ 3
1.1.1.Gii thiu v CAD/CAM .................................................................................................................................... 3
1.1.2 i tng phc v ca CAD/CAM. ................................................................................................................... 4
1.1.3 Vai tr ca CAD/CAM trong chu k sn xut. ................................................................................................... 6
1.1.4 Chc nng ca CAD. ........................................................................................................................................ 7
1.2 Thit K Gia Cng To Hnh ................................................................................................................................... 8
1.2.1 Thit k v gia cng to hnh theo cng ngh truyn thng. ................................................................................ 8
1.2.2 Thit k v gia cng to hnh theo cng ngh CAD/CAM. .................................................................................. 9
1.2.3 Thit k v gia cng to hnh theo cng ngh tch hp (CIM). .......................................................................... 10
1.3 M hnh ha hnh hc ............................................................................................................................................ 11
1.3.1 Phng php m t ng cong. ..................................................................................................................... 11
1.3.2 Phng php m t mt cong. ......................................................................................................................... 12
1.3.3 Phng php m t khi hnh hc. .................................................................................................................. 13
1.3.4 Phng php m hnh ho hnh hc. ............................................................................................................... 13
PHN II: C S CA CAD/CAM................................................................................................................................. 14
4.1 GII THIU CHUNG. .......................................................................................................................................... 14
4.1.1. Xc nh mt h CAD. .................................................................................................................................... 14
4.1.2. Lch s pht trin ........................................................................................................................................... 16
4.2 QA TRNH THIT K ....................................................................................................................................... 17
4.3. NG DNG MY TNH VO CNG TC THIT K. .................................................................................... 20
4.3.2. Phn tch k thut. ......................................................................................................................................... 22
4.3.3. R sot v nh gi thit k. ........................................................................................................................... 22
4.3.4. V t ng...................................................................................................................................................... 23
4.3.5. Phn loi v ghi m cc chi tit my............................................................................................................... 23
4.4. TO RA C S D LIU SN XUT ........................................................................................................ 24
4.5 LI CH CA CAD .............................................................................................................................................. 25
PHN III: LM VIC VI PHN MM AUTOCAD ................................................................................................... 31
Ch-ng I: lm quen vi autocad ................................................................................................................ 31
1. Gii thiu chung v autocad. ............................................................................................................................... 31
2. Cc thao tc c bn. ............................................................................................................................................ 31
3. Cch lnh v file ................................................................................................................................................. 33
4. Cc h ta trong Autocad. .............................................................................................................................. 34
5. Cc phng php truy bt im. .......................................................................................................................... 35
CHNG II: CC LNH V C BN ..................................................................................................................... 37
1.
Lnh v ng thng Line (L). ....................................................................................................................... 37
2.
Lnh v ng trn Circle (C) ........................................................................................................................ 37
3.
Lnh v cung trn Arc (A). ............................................................................................................................. 38
4.
Lnh v ng a tuyn Pline(PL). ................................................................................................................. 39
5.
Lnh v a gic u Polygon (POL). ............................................................................................................... 40
6.
Lnh v hnh ch nht Rectang (REC). ........................................................................................................... 40
7.
Lnh v Ellipse (EL)....................................................................................................................................... 41
8.
V ng Spline (SPL). .................................................................................................................................. 41
9.
Lnh v im Point (PO). ............................................................................................................................... 42
10. Bi Tp .......................................................................................................................................................... 42
CHNG III. CC LNH CHNH SA I TNG.............................................................................................. 47
1.
Chia i tng thnh nhiu phn Divide (DIV). .............................................................................................. 47
2.
Lnh xo i tng Erase (E).......................................................................................................................... 47
3.
Lnh phc hi i tng va xo OOPS ......................................................................................................... 47
4.
Lnh hu b i tng va thc hin Undo (U)............................................................................................... 47
5.
Lnh ti to li mn hnh v hay lm ti i tng Redraw (RE) or viewres .................................................. 47
6.
Lnh to i tng song song vi i tng cho trc offset (O). .................................................................... 48
7.
Lnh ct xn i tng Trim (TR). ................................................................................................................. 48
8.
Lnh ko di i tng Extend. ...................................................................................................................... 48
9.
Lnh xn mt phn i tng gia 2 im chn Break (BR). ........................................................................... 49
10. Lnh thay i chiu di i tng Lengthen (LEN). ....................................................................................... 49
11. Lnh vt mp cc cnh Chamfer (CHA). ......................................................................................................... 50
12. Lnh vut 2 i tng Fillet (F). ..................................................................................................................... 51
13. Lnh di chuyn i tng Move (M). .............................................................................................................. 51
14. Lnh sao chp i tng Copy(CO) ................................................................................................................ 52

15. Lnh xoay i tng xung quanh mt im Rotate (RO). ................................................................................ 52


16. Lnh thu phng i tng theo t l scale(SC). ............................................................................................... 52
17. Lnh i xng qua trc Mirror (MI). ............................................................................................................... 53
18. Lnh ri v ko gin i tng Stretch (S). ..................................................................................................... 53
19. Lnh sao chp i tng theo dy Array (-AR hoc AR) ................................................................................. 53
20. Bi tp............................................................................................................................................................ 55
CHNG IV: LM VIC VI LAYER .................................................................................................................... 61
1.
To lp mi Lnh Layer (LA). ........................................................................................................................ 61
2.
Cc lu khi s dng lp ............................................................................................................................... 63
CHNG V : LM VIC VI BLOCK..................................................................................................................... 65
1.
Lnh to khi block. ....................................................................................................................................... 65
2.
Lnh chn block vo bn v. ........................................................................................................................... 66
3.
Lnh ph v Block. ........................................................................................................................................ 66
CHNG 6: GHI KCH THC V VT LIU ...................................................................................................... 67
1.
To cc kiu kch thc. ................................................................................................................................. 67
2.
Cc lnh ghi kch thc thng. ........................................................................................................................ 72
3.
Cc lnh ghi kch thc hng tm ................................................................................................................. 74
4.
Lnh ghi kch thc khc................................................................................................................................ 74
5.
Lnh hiu chnh kch thc ............................................................................................................................. 75
6.
Lnh ghi dung sai TOLERANCE (TOL). ........................................................................................................ 75
7.
V k hiu vt liu.......................................................................................................................................... 76
8.
Bi tp ghi kch thc: .................................................................................................................................... 77
9.
Bi tp v mt ct: .......................................................................................................................................... 78
10. Bi tp v hnh chiu: ..................................................................................................................................... 80
1.
Trnh t nhp v hiu chnh vn bn................................................................................................................ 87
2.
In bn v ........................................................................................................................................................ 89
CHNG VIII: MT S LNH HIU CHNH NHANH ........................................................................................... 93
1.
Lnh laytrans trong AutoCAD ........................................................................................................................ 93
2.
Lnh Find: ...................................................................................................................................................... 95
4.
Du nhy n " ' " .......................................................................................................................................... 97
5.
Lnh Filter...................................................................................................................................................... 97
6.
t phm tt.................................................................................................................................................. 100
7.
Mt s lnh khc .......................................................................................................................................... 101

PHN I: KHI NIM V CAD/CAM


1. 1 Vai tr v chc nng ca CAD/CAM trong nn sn xut hin i
1.1.1.Gii thiu v CAD/CAM
Thit k v ch to c s tham gia ca my vi tnh (Computer Added Design,
Computer Added Manufacture) thng c trnh by gn lin vi nhau. Tht vy, hai
lnh vc ng dng tin hc trong ngnh c kh ch to ny c nhiu im ging nhau bi
chng u da trn cng cc chi tit c kh v s dng d liu tin hc chung: l cc
ngun th hin th v d liu qun l.
Xut pht t nhu cu cho trc, vic nghin cu m nhn thit k mt m hnh
mu cho n khi th hin trn bn v biu din chi tit. T bn v chi tit, vic trin
khai ch to m nhn lp ra qu trnh ch to cc chi tit cng cc vn lin quan
n dng c v phng php thc hin.Hai lnh vc hot ng ln ny trong ngnh ch
to my c thc hin lin tip nhau v c phn bit bi kt qu ca n.
* Kt qu ca CAD l mt bn v xc nh, mt s biu din nhiu hnh chiu khc
nhau ca mt chi tit c kh vi cc c trng hnh hc v chc nng. Cc phn mm
CAD l cc dng c tin hc c th cho vic nghin cu v c chia thnh hai loi:
Cc phn mm thit k v cc phn mm v.
* Kt qu ca CAM l c th, l chi tit c kh. Trong CAM khng truyn t
mt s biu din ca thc th m thc hin mt cch c th cng vic. Vic ch to bao
gm cc vn lin quan n vt th, ct gt vt liu, cng sut ca trang thit b, cc
iu kin sn xut khc nhau c gi thnh nh nht, vi vic ti u ho g v dng
c ct nhm m bo cc yu cu k thut ca chi tit c kh.
Nhm khai thc cc cng c hu ch, nhng ng dng tin hc trong ch to khng ch
hn ch trong cc phn mm ho hin th v qun l m cn s dng vic lp trnh v
iu khin cc my cng c iu khin s, do vy i hi khi thc hin phi nm vng
cc kin thc v k thut gia cng.
Trong ch to, vic s dng cc d liu tin hc phi lu n nhiu mi quan h
rng buc. Cc rng buc ny nhiu hn trong thit k. Vic ct gt vt liu trn mt
my cng c iu khin s hay mt my cng c vn nng thong thng l nh nhau,
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trong hai trng hp vt liu khng thay i v tnh cht. Trong khi cc d liu tin
hc c trong mi trng cng nghip cng c trong cc xng gia cng. Cc ngun d
liu ny ci thin k thut ch to, chuyn i phng php v dn n thay i quan
trng trong cc cng vic hon thnh khi lp qui trnh cng ngh cng nh trn v tr
lm vic. Ngoi cng vic cho php iu khin s cc nguyn cng gia cng, vic thit
lp cc d liu tin hc mang li nhiu s ci thin v kt cu lin quan n cu trc my
v g, cc phng php ch to v kim tra sn phm, thit k dng c ct v cc c
cu t ng khc. Mt khc, cc ng dng tin hc ny cng cho php khai thc tt hn
cc kh nng mi ca my v dng c.
Ngy nay vic chuyn bin t mt tng tru tng thnh mt sn phm thc t c
th theo mt qu trnh hon ton c chi phi bi my tnh in t.
Ta phn bit hai loi dng c tin hc trong nghin cu thit k:
- Cc phn mm v c s tham gia ca my tnh in t (Dessin Assist par
Ordinateur-DAO hay Computer Aided Drawing - CAD).
- Cc phn mm thit k c s tham gia ca my tnh in t (Conception Assiste
par Ordinateur-CAO hay Computer Aided Design-CAD).
Trong ting Anh ta s dng t CAD chung cho c hai phn mm ny. Trong trin
khai ch to ra sn phm t bn v thit k, ngy nay c cc phn mm ng dng l
cc phn mm ch to c s tham gia ca my tnh in t ( Fabrication Assiste par
Ordinateur FAO hay Computer Aided Manufacturing - CAM)
Khi s tch hp trn my tnh in t cho cc hot ng thit k v ch to c thc
hin, tc l khi vic thc hin c th trc tip da vo cc d liu s c to ra bi
vic thit k, tp hp cc hot ng c trng ca CAD/CAM c m t di khi
nim ch to c tch hp bi my tnh in t (Fabrication Intgre par Ordinateur
FIO hay Computer integrated Manufacturing - CIM).
Do vy CIM biu din cc hot ng tng ng vi thit k, v, ch to v kim tra
cht lng ca mt sn phm c kh.
1.1.2 i tng phc v ca CAD/CAM.
Xu th pht trin chung ca cc ngnh cng nghip ch to theo cng ngh tin tin
l lin kt cc thnh phn ca qui trnh sn xut trong mt h thng tch hp iu khin
bi my tnh in t (Computer Integrated Manufacturing - CIM).
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Cc thnh phn ca h thng CIM c qun l v iu hnh da trn c s d


liu trung tm vi thnh phn quan trng l cc d liu t qu trnh CAD. Kt qu ca
qu trnh CAD khng ch l c s d liu thc hin phn tch k thut, lp qui trnh
ch to, gia cng iu khin s m chnh l d liu iu khin thit b sn xut iu
khin s nh cc loi my cng c, ngi my, tay my cng nghip v cc thit b ph
tr khc. Cng vic chun b sn xut c vai tr quan trng trong vic hnh thnh bt k
mt sn phm c kh no.
Cng vic ny bao gm:
- Chun b thit k ( thit k kt cu sn phm, cc bn v lp chung ca sn
phm, cc cm my.v.v...)
- Chun b cng ngh (m bo tnh nng cng ngh ca kt cu, thit lp qui
trnh cng ngh)
- Thit k v ch to cc trang b cng ngh v dng c ph v.v...
- K hoch ho qu trnh sn xut v ch to sn phm trong thi gian yu cu.
Hin nay, qua phn tch tnh hnh thit k ta thy rng 90% thi lng thit k l
tra cu s liu cn thit m ch c 10% thi gian dnh cho lao ng sng to v quyt
nh phng n, do vy cc cng vic trn c th thc hin bng my tnh in t
va tit kim thi gian va m bo chnh xc v cht lng.
CAD/CAM l lnh vc nghin cu nhm to ra cc h thng t ng thit k v
ch to trong my tnh in t c s dng thc hin mt s chc nng nht
nh.
CAD/CAM to ra mi quan h mt thit gia hai dng hot ng: Thit k v Ch
to.
T ng ho thit k l dng cc h thng v phng tin tnh ton gip ngi k
s thit k, m phng, phn tch v ti u ho cc gii php thit k.
T ng ho ch to l dng my tnh in t k hoch ho, iu khin v
kim tra cc nguyn cng gia cng.

1.1.3 Vai tr ca CAD/CAM trong chu k sn xut.

R rng rng CAD/CAM chi phi hu ht cc dng hot ng v chc nng ca


chu k sn xut. cc nh my hin i, trong cng on thit k v ch to, k thut
tnh ton ngy cng pht huy tc dng v l nhu cu khng th thiu c.
1.1.4 Chc nng ca CAD.
Khc bit c bn vi qui trnh thit k theo cng ngh truyn thng, CAD cho php
qun l i tng thit k di dng m hnh hnh hc s trong c s d liu trung tm,
do vy CAD c kh nng h tr cc chc nng k thut ngay t giai on pht trin sn
phm cho n giai on cui ca qu trnh sn xut, tc l h tr iu khin cc thit b
sn xut bng iu khin s.
H thng CAD c nh gi c kh nng thc hin chc nng yu cu hay
khng, ph thuc ch yu vo chc nng x l ca cc phn mm thit k. Ngy nay
nhng b phn mm CAD/CAM chuyn nghip phc v thit k v gia cng khun
mu c kh nng thc hin c cc chc nng c bn sau:
- Thit k m phng hnh hc 3 chiu (3D) nhng hnh dng phc tp.
- Giao tip vi cc thit b o, qut to 3D thc hin nhanh chng cc chc nng
m phng hnh hc t d liu s.
- Phn tch v lin kt d liu: to mt phn khun, tch khun, qun l kt cu lp
ghp...
- To bn v v ghi kch thc t ng: c kh nng lin kt cc bn v 2D vi m
hnh 3D v ngc li.
- Lin kt vi cc chng trnh tnh ton thc hin cc chc nng phn tch k thut:
tnh bin dng khun, m phng dng chy vt liu, trng p sut, trng nhit ,
co rt vt liu,...
- Ni suy hnh hc, bin dch cc kiu ng chy dao chnh xc cho cng ngh gia
cng iu khin s.
- Giao tip d liu theo cc nh dng ho chun.
- Xut d liu ho 3D di dng tp tin STL giao tip vi cc thit b to mu
nhanh theo cng ngh to hnh lp th.
Nhng ng dng ca CAD trong ngnh ch to my:
To mu nhanh thng qua giao tip d liu vi thit b to mu nhanh theo cng
ngh to hnh lp th (o qut to )
Gim ng k thi gian m phng hnh hc bng cch to m hnh hnh hc theo
cu trc mt cong t d liu s.
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Chc nng m phng hnh hc mnh, c kh nng m t nhng hnh dng phc tp
nht.
Kh nng m hnh ho cao cho cc phng php phn tch, cho php la chn gii
php k thut ti u.
1.2 Thit K Gia Cng To Hnh
Theo lch s hnh thnh v pht trin ta c th phn bit cng ngh thit k v gia
cng to hnh nh sau:
- Thit k v gia cng to hnh theo cng ngh truyn thng.
- Thit k v gia cng to hnh theo cng ngh CAD/CAM
- Thit k v gia cng to hnh theo cng ngh tch hp CIM
1.2.1 Thit k v gia cng to hnh theo cng ngh truyn thng.
Trong cng ngh truyn thng, cc mt cong 3D phc tp c gia cng trn my
vn nng theo phng php chp hnh s dng mu hoc dng. Do vy qui trnh thit
k v gia cng bao gm c 4 giai oan phn bit (Hnh 1.4):
1. To mu sn phm,
2. Lp bn v k thut,
3. To mu chp hnh,
4. Gia cng chp hnh.
Qui trnh ny c nhng hn ch:
- Kh t c chnh xc gia cng, ch yu do qu trnh chp hnh,
- D dng lm sai do nhm ln hay hiu sai v phi x l mt s ln d liu
- Nng sut thp do mu c thit k theo phng php th cng v qui trnh
c thc hin tun t: to mu sn phm - lp bn v chi tit - to mu chp hnh phay chp hnh.

1.2.2 Thit k v gia cng to hnh theo cng ngh CAD/CAM.


S pht trin ca phng php m hnh ho hnh hc cng vi thanh tu ca cng
ngh thng tin, cng ngh in t, k thut iu khin s c nhng nh hng trc
tip n cng ngh thit k v gia cng to hnh (Hnh 1.5):
- Bn v k thut c to t h thng v v to bn v vi s tr gip ca my vi
tnh.
- To mu th cng c thay th bng m hnh ho hnh hc trc tip t gi tr ly
mu 3D.
- Mu chp hnh c thay th bng m hnh ton hc - m hnh hnh hc lu tr
trong b nh my vi tnh v nh x trn mn hnh di dng m hnh khung li.

Hnh 1.5 - Qui trnh thit k v gia cng to hnh


- Gia cng chp hnh c thay th bng gia cng iu khin s (CAM). V cng
ngh, khc bit c bn gia gia cng to hnh theo cng ngh truyn thng v cng
ngh CAD/CAM l thay th to hnh theo mu bng m hnh ho hnh hc.
1.2.3 Thit k v gia cng to hnh theo cng ngh tch hp (CIM).
T cng ngh CAD/CAM ta d dng thc hin tng lin kt mi thnh phn trong
mt h thng tch hp (Hnh 1.6). Theo cng ngh tch hp, cng vic m hnh ho hnh
hc - v - to bn v c tch hp trong CAD; kt qu mi thng tin v hnh dng
c lu li di dng CGM, lu tr trong c s d liu trung tm. Cng ngh tin tin
nht c kh nng h tr thc hin ton b qui trnh thit k v ch to theo cng ngh
tch hp:
Cho php thit lp m hnh hnh hc s CGM trc tip t tng v hnh dng.
c tr gip bi thit b ho mnh v cng ngh t mu, to bng hin i.
C kh nng thc hin cc chc nng phn tch k thut; lin k vi cc thit b to
mu nhanh theo cng ngh to hnh lp th; lp trnh ch to; iu khin qu trnh gia
cng iu khin s; lp qui trnh lp rp; to phi,...

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1.3 M hnh ha hnh hc


M hnh ho hnh hc l m t i tng hnh hc bi m hnh ton hc - m hnh
hnh hc s.
Khi nim m hnh hnh hc c s dng cho thc th hnh hc c th m t c,
l nhng thc th hnh hc c s, c s dng trn bn v k thut hay trn mn
hnh, l:
- im.
- ng cong, bao gm c on thng.
- Mt cong, bao gm c mt phng.
- Khi (cu trc c).
M hnh hnh hc c din gii bi con ngi nhng hnh thc m t chng phi
thch hp, r rng sao cho c th chuyn i thnh m hnh hnh hc s duy nht. Tc
l yu cu m hnh hnh hc phi c m t bi cc gi tr s chnh xc:
- im c th m t bi gi tr to ,
- ng cong c th c m t bi chui im hoc phng trnh,
- Mt cong c th c m t bi tp hp im hoc li ng cong,
hoc phng trnh,
- Khi c th c nh ngha bi cc mt cong bao quanh n.
1.3.1 Phng php m t ng cong.
1. ng cong 2D c m t bi 2 phng php:
a. S dng cc ng cong 2D c s.
b. Nh l chui im trn mt phng.
2. ng cong 3D c m t bi mt trong cc cch sau:
a. Chui im 3D
b. Giao tuyn gia 2 mt cong.
c. Hnh chiu ca ng cong 2D ln mt cong 3D.
d. Tp ng cong 2D trn cc mt phng hnh chiu trc o.
3. Phng php n gin m t ng cong 2D.
Ngi ta s dng h ng cong bc hai conic, bao gm: on thng,
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ng trn, ng lip, ng Parabol, ng Hyperbol. Chng c xc nh


r rng bi thng s ca chng nh: to tm, bn knh, tiu im.
Ta c th gi h ng cong conic l ng cong c s to nn ng
cong a hp bng cch ni kt lin tc theo chui, c th s dng gc ln ti v
tr yu cu t trn lng.
4. Phng php ph bin nht m t ng cong t do 2D v 3D.
y l phng php xc nh chui im ng cong i qua, phng
php gin tip m t ng cong 3D l xc nh giao tuyn gia 2 mt cong.
Trong trng hp ny ta khng th xc nh ng cong mt cch chnh
xc. Phng php ph bin xc nh dng cong 3D trong v k thut l xc
nh hnh chiu 2D ca chng, sau xc nh hnh chiu trn mt cong, y
chnh l php chiu ngc.
1.3.2 Phng php m t mt cong.
Ta khng th v mt cong hnh hc, nhng c th m t chng trn bn v
di dng m hnh:
- Mt hnh hc c s,
- Mt ni suy li ng cong,
- Mt qut hnh ng mt ct,
- Mt ni suy im,
- Mt kt ni hnh.
Tng ng l:
S dng cc mt cong c s.
M t mt cong bi m hnh li ng cong.
M t mt cong bi php qut hnh.
Mt cong ni suy im.
M hnh mt cong kt ni.

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1.3.3 Phng php m t khi hnh hc.


Khc bit c bn vi m hnh mt cong, ngoi d liu hnh hc thuc mt bao, phng
php m hnh ho theo cu trc khi, cho php qun l d liu thuc min khng gian
bn trong thc th hnh hc.
V phng php to hnh, phng php m hnh ho hnh hc theo cu trc khi s
dng thut ton BOOL (php ton v tp hp) trn cc khi hnh hc c s. Khi hnh
hc c s c th l:
- Khi c s bc hai.
- Khi qut hnh: hnh thnh trn c s qut hnh mt gii hn bi
ng vin 2D khp kn theo ng nh hnh.
1.3.4 Phng php m hnh ho hnh hc.
Theo phng php m t im, ng cong, mt cong, khi hnh hc cp trn,
ta c th xy dng gii thut m hnh ho hnh hc theo cu trc mt cong v cu trc
khi theo qui tc chung nh sau:
Thc th hnh hc c m t nh cu trc th hin mi tng quan gia cc thc
th hnh hc c s cng loi hoc khc loi.
Mt cong c m t bi php ni suy im; ni suy li ng cong; php qut
hnh ng mt ct; mt cong c s bc hai.
Khi hnh hc c m t bi php qut hnh mt ct; khi c s bc 2.
Trong trng hp tng qut, thc th hnh hc c xc dnh t nhng thc th c s
cp thp hn. V d nh ng cong c thit lp t im, mt cong t im v ng
cong, khi t cc b mt bao,... Cc thc th hnh hc cp thp v tham s thit k c
gi l yu t iu khin hnh hc, c th hiu chnh c thay i hnh dng v kch
thc.

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PHN II: C S CA CAD/CAM


4.1 GII THIU CHUNG.
4.1.1. Xc nh mt h CAD.
Cc h CAD hin i (cn gi l CAD/CAM) c xy dng trn c s ho my
tnh tng tc (Interative Computer Graphics) vit tt l ICG. H thng ho my
tnh tng tc l mt h hng n ngi s dng, trong my tnh c dng to
ra, chuyn i v hin th d liu di dng cc hnh v hay biu tng. Ngi s dng
y l nh thit k, thc hin truyn d liu v ra lnh cho cc my tnh thng qua
mt s thit b vo (INPUT) nh chut, bn phm ...Cn my tnh th lin lc vi con
ngi thng qua mn hnh CRT (CRT vit tt t ch Catode Ray Tube- ng phng
chm tia m cc). Ngi s dng to ra mt hnh nh trn mn hnh CRT bng cch
vo lnh gi nhng chng trnh con (Subroutine) cn thit ca phn mm lu tr
trong b nh my tnh. Hnh nh c xy dng t nhng phn t hnh hc c bn nh
im, ng thng, vng trn v.v... Hnh nh c th c sa i tu theo lnh ca
con ngi nh phng to, thu nh, di chuyn v tr trn mn hnh v theo cc php bin
i khc.Thng qua cc thao tc ny m nhng chi tit cn thit ca hnh nh s c
to ra theo mun ca ngi thit k. Mt h thng ICG in hnh bao gm phn cng
v phn mm .
* Phn cng gm c b phn x l trung tm (CPU), mt hoc nhiu trm cng tc
(Work Station) k c nhng terminal hin th ho, v cc thit b ngoi vi nh my
v, my in, v.v...
* Phn mm gm cc chng trnh my tnh thc hin vic x l ho trn h
thng. Thng thng cc chng trnh ng dng lp ra thc hin cc chc nng c
th ca hang hay cng ty. V d hng thit k xy dng thng phi c phn mm phn
tch ng sut - bin dng, hng thit k - ch to my thng phi c phn mm phn
tch ng lc hc c cu, hng thit k cng nghip ho cht no cng c phn mm v
truyn nhit v h thng ng ng, v.v...

14

H ICG ch l mt b phn ca cng tc thit k c s dng my tnh m thi, phn


quan trng chnh l ngi thit k. H ICG l cng c trong tay ngi s dng gii
quyt nhng vn v thit k cng trnh. y ngi s dng m nhn nhng k
nng sng to ca con ngi, cn my tnh m nhim phn vic ph hp vi n nht
(tc tnh ton, hin th hnh nh, lu tr d liu s lng ln ...)
S dng h CAD (h ICG) cho php ta t c cc thun li sau:
1. Nng cao nng sut thit k ca ngi k s:
Hin th ho sn phm v cc b phn cu thnh sn phm ln mn hnh my tnh.
Gim thi gian tng hp, phn tch v lp h s, t liu thit k cho ngi k s.
H gi thnh sn phm v gim thi gian thit k.
2. Nng cao cht lng thit k:
Cho php phn tch k thut mt cch ton din v thu o hn.
Cho php a ra nhiu phng n phn tch, so snh.
Gim sai st trong thit k, nng cao chnh xc ca bn n.
3. Ci thin v nng cao iu kin trao i thng tin:
To ra cc bn v k thut tt hn so vi thit k truyn thng.
Tiu chun ho trong cc bn v cao hn.
Cht lng h s, t liu thit k cao hn.
Bn v p, r rng v t sai st.
4. To ra mt c s d liu trong my tnh phc v cho giai on ch to.
Trong qu trnh xy dng h s t liu thit k cho mt sn phm, cc chi tit to nn
sn phm, c tnh k thut, vt liu v.v... s to nhng c s d liu cn cho vic ch
15

to sn phm, ng thi cng c to ra v lu tr trong b nh ca my tnh.


4.1.2. Lch s pht trin
Lch s pht trin ca CAD lin quan trc tip ti s pht trin ca ho my tnh.
ng nhin CAD bao hm mt ni dung rng ln hn ho my tnh, song h ICG
l b phn c bn ca CAD. Lch s pht trin ca ho my tnh din bin qua nhiu
thi k:
Mt trong nhng d n quan trng u tin trong lnh vc ho my tnh l d n
trin khai ngn ng APT ti Hc vin Cng ngh Massachusetts vo gia thp k 50.
APT l ch vit tt ca thut ng Automatically Programed Tools, c ngha l my
cng c c lp trnh t ng. D n ny c quan h mt thit vi tng trin khai
mt phng php thun tin thng qua my tnh xc nh cc yu t hnh hc phc
v vic lp trnh cho my cng c iu khin s. Mc d s pht trin ca APT l mt
ct mc quan trng trong lnh vc ho my tnh, nhng vic s dng ngn ng APT
trc y li t lin quan vi ho my tnh.
Mt tng khc, ra i vo khong cui thp k 50 c tn l bt quang.
tng v bt quang xut hin khi nghin cu cch x l d liu ra a ca mt d n
quc phng gi l SAGE (Semi-Automatic Ground Environment system). Mc ch ca
d n ny l trin khai mt h thng phn tch d liu raa v lm r mc ch c coi
l my bay ch trn mn hnh CRT. tit kim thi gian vo vic hin th my bay
nh chn ca ch nh chng li my bay ch, ngi ta ngh ra bt quang, dng c
dng v hnh nh trc tip ln mn hnh v gip cho CPU nhn bit v tr c th ca
mn hnh va c bt quang tip xc.
Nm 1963 Ivan Sutherland cng b mt s kt qu u tin v ho my tnh, cho
php to ra v lm ch cc hnh nh trong thi gian thc trn mn hnh CRT.
Nhiu tp on cng nghip nh General Motors, IBM, Lockheed-Georgia, Itek
Corp, Mc. Ponell, v.v... bt u thc hin nhng d n v ho my tnh t nhng
nm 60. n cui thp k 60 mt s nh cung cp h thng CAD/CAM c thnh
16

lp, trong phi k n hng Calma vo nm 1969. Cc hng ny bn trn gi theo


kiu cha kho trao tay, trong gm c hu ht hoc ton b phn cng v phn mm
theo yu cu ca khch hng. Mt s hng khc pht trin theo hng cung cp phn
mm ho nh hng Pat Hanratti m cng ty thnh vin ca n l MCS cho ra i
AD 2000 (vi phin bn sau l ANVIL 4000), c coi l gi phn mm CAD ph
dng.
Ngy nay CAD/CAM thc s tr thnh mt cng ngh c tc pht trin cc k
nhanh chng, rt nhiu hng sn xut v cung cp sn phm trong lnh vc ny. Trong
c AutoCAD ra i t cui nm 1982 n nay c Version 14 chy trn Windows;
AutoCAD 2000 v AutoCADIX chy trn Windows v trn mng Internet; hng Gulf
Publishing vi cc phn mm thit k, dy hc v t vn trong lnh vc ho cht v du
kh, c thnh lp t nm 1985 ti London.
Vit Nam, CAD/CAM xut hin thng qua cc phn mm mua ca nc ngoi
hc tp, nghin cu v ng dng. Tuy nhin cng c nhng c gng bc du theo
hng t sn xut phn mm trong nc. Chng hn Vin Tin hc nm 1992 cho ra
i gi phn mm TOWER tr gip thit k mu thm len trong khun kh D n
VIE/88/035, nm 1988 Cng ty t nhn Hi Ho cho ra i gi phn mm thit k kin
trc - xy dng...
4.2 QA TRNH THIT K
C th ni qu trnh thit k l mt qu trnh lp, gm cc bc c bn sau:
1. Pht hin nhu cu.
2. Xc nh vn .
3. Tng hp.
4. Phn tch v ti u ho.
5. nh gi.
6. Th hin.

17

Pht hin nhu cu l bc u tin, thng do mt ngi no pht hin ra, i


khi bt ng, rng mt ni no c mt vn cn xem xt, sa cha, b sung. N
c th l mt nhc im ca mt c my ang s dng do ngi k s nhn ra, cng
c th l mt nhu cu mi ca khch hng do ngi tip th nhn bit c.
Xc nhn vn lin quan n vic xc nh c tnh k thut tng qut ca mt
hng s c thit k ra, gm: cc c tnh v chc nng, gi thnh, cht lng, vn
hnh...
Tng hp v phn tch l hai bc lin quan mt thit vi nhau v c tnh lp cao
trong qu trnh thit k. Mt chi tit hay mt b phn cu thnh mt sn phm hon
chnh nh mt my chng hn, s c ngi thit k tru xut ho, phn tch, ci tin
thng qua bc phn tch ny ri c thit k li cho ph hp hn. Qu trnh c
lp i lp li cho n khi no bn thit k l ti u theo nhng iu kin rng buc t
ra cho ngi thit k. Ri chi tit hay b phn c tng hp vo trong ci chung
(mt my hon chnh chng hn) m n l mt b phn hp thnh, theo mt qu trnh
lp nh trn.
nh gi mt bn thit k l cn c vo cc yu cu k thut c thit lp trong
bc xc nh vn c lng, cn nhc, o lng xem n t c n u. Vic
nh gi ny thng cn n s ch to v th nghim mt mu tht xem xt chc
nng vn hnh, cht lng, tin cy v cc ch tiu khc.
Th hin l bc cui cng ca qu trnh thit k. N bao gm vic thit lp t liu
thit k trong c cc bn v, cc thuyt minh k thut, vt liu ch to, bng lit k
cc chi tit v b phn lp ghp v.v... Vic lp t liu ch yu l phi to ra c mt
c s d liu v thit k. Hnh 5.1 th hin cc bc ch yu ca qu trnh thit k trong
cho thy bn cht lp ca qu trnh ny.

18

Hnh 4.1. Qu trnh thit k


Theo truyn thng, cng tc thit k k thut c tin hnh trn bn v trong bn
thit k c thit lp di dng cc bn v k thut. Tu theo tng lnh vc m bn
thit k c nhng yu cu ring, chng hn thit k c kh, ngoi bn v tng th, cc
bn v chi tit v cc bn v cm, cn km theo bn v dng c ct gt v g ch
to ra sn phm. Thit k in gm cc s mch, c tnh k thut ca cc linh kin
in t v.v...
Bn thit k ca cc lnh vc khc nh xy dng, ho cht, ch to my bay, ngoi
c im chung c bn, cng c nhng nt c th ring nh vy. Trong tng lnh vc
ni trn, phng php tip cn truyn thng l tng hp mt bn thit k s b theo
cch th cng ri mi qua phn tch di mt dng no . Bc phn tch ny c th
gm nhng bn tnh ton k thut phc tp hoc phi qua nh gi hon ton ch quan
v phng din thm m m bn thit k yu cu. Qu trnh phn tch l t c
nhng ci thin trong nhng ch tiu c th v nh ni trn, y l mt qu trnh
lp. C mi ln lp, ch tiu c ci thin thm mt t ng thi cng tiu hao thm
19

mt lng lao ng tng ng. Nu khng c s tham gia ca my tnh th s tiu hao
ny s c th l rt ln hon thin mt n thit k. V vy di dy chng ta s
xem xt vn ng dng my tnh vo cng tc thit k nh th no.
4.3. NG DNG MY TNH VO CNG TC THIT K.
Cc nhim v lin quan n thit k m mt h CAD hin i thc hin c th chia ra
lm 4 lnh vc sau:
M hnh ho hnh hc.
Phn tch k thut.
R sot v nh gi thit k.
V t ng.
4.3.1. M hnh ho hnh hc.
Trong CAD, m hnh ho hnh hc tng ng vi giai on tng hp, i hi m t
hnh dng hnh hc ca mt i tng di dng ton hc theo cch my tnh c th x
l c. M hnh ton hc cho php hnh nh ca i tng c th hin th v thao tc
trnMmn hnh my tnh thng qua tn hiu ly t CPU ca h CAD. Phn mm ho
phi c thit k sao cho thun tin v c hiu qu vi my tnh v c ngi s dng.

Hnh 4.2. ng dng my tnh vo qu trnh thit k


20

Trong lnh vc m hnh ho hnh hc, ngi thit k xy dng nhng hnh nh ca
i tng trn mn hnh my tnh bng 3 loi lnh:
- Loi lnh to nn nhng yu t hnh hc c bn nh im, ng thng, vng trn...
- Loi lnh thc hin cc php bin i nh dch chuyn, thu nh, phng to, quay...
- Loi lnh lm cho cc yu t hnh hc lin kt li thnh mt hnh dng mong mun.
Trong qu trnh ny, my tnh chuyn i cc lnh thnh hng m hnh ton hc
tng ng ri lu tr m hnh ton vo cc tp d liu ca my tnh v hin th n
thnh mt hnh nh trn mn hnh CRT. M hnh ton ni trn cui cng c th gi ra t
cc tp d liu xem xt li, phn tch hoc sa i. C cc phng php khc biu
din i tng thnh m hnh hnh hc:
1. M hnh khung dy. y l dng c bn th hin i tng tc l vt th. Theo
phng php th hin ny, vt th c hin th ln mn hnh thnh nhng nt lin lin
kt vi nhau. M hnh khung dy c chia ra thnh 3 loi tu theo kh nng ca h
ICG:
a. 2D hay ho 2 chiu dng cho i tng 2 chiu.
b. 2,5 D th hin nhng i tng 3 chiu n gin nh tr, lp phng.
c. 3D hay ho 3 chiu th hin nhng i tng 3 chiu phc tp.
tng kh nng th hin mt i tng phc tp, m hnh khung dy c m rng
ra thnh loi c nt khut v loi khng c nt khut. Ngoi ra, m hnh khung dy cn
c mt bin th na cho php th hin b mt theo ch lm cho ngi quan st c cm
nhn l vt th c. Tuy vy vt th vn c lu tr trong my tnh di dng m hnh
khung dy.
2. M hnh c l cch th hin tt nht vt th 3 chiu. Phng php ny s dng
nhng hnh dng hnh hc c gi l cc nguyn th dng nn i tng.
3. ho mu l kh nng th v m ngy nay h CAD no cng c. Nh c mu m
hnh nh c hin th ln mn hnh mang nhiu ni dung thng tin hn, n gip cho
21

cc chi tit trong mt bn v lp tr nn d phn bit, lm ni bt nhng kch thc


quan trng hoc nhng b phn ch cht v nhiu li ch khc na.
4.3.2. Phn tch k thut.
Khi trin khai mt n thit k k thut thng cn n mt s phn tch no tu
theo loi cng trnh nh v ng sut, bin dng, truyn nhit hoc m t s ng x ng
hc ca h thng. My tnh ch th gip thc hin cc nhim v ny mt cch nhanh
chng v c hiu qu. i vi nhng bi ton thit k c th, nhm phn tch k thut
c th t vit ly phn mm chuyn bit s dng trong ni b,cn i vi nhng bi
ton c tnh cht ph thng th thng c gii quyt bi cc gi phn mm mua th
trng. Cc h CAD/CAM ph bin thng bao gm cc phn mm phn tch k thut
hoc c th giao din vi cc phn mm ny.
Phn tch thuc tnh khi lng: din tch b mt, trong lng, th tch, trng tm,
mmen qun tnh,v.v.. i vi mt mt phng hoc tit din ngang ca mt vt th n
cn cho ta bit c chu vi, din tch v c thuc tnh qun tnh na
Phn tch phn t hu hn: l mt trong nhng kh nng mnh nht ca mt h
CAD. Vi k thut ny vt th c chia thnh nhiu phn t vi s lng hu hn tu
. Mi phn t l mt ch nht hay tam gic, tt c to nn mt mng li gm cc
nt. Nhiu h CAD c kh nng t ng phn chia cc nt v xc nh cu trc mng
li ca ton vt th, ngi s dng ch cn a ra mt s thng s cn thit cho m
hnh phn t hu hn ri h CAD s lm cc cng vic tnh ton tip theo. u ra ca
bi ton phn tch phn t hu hn thng c th hin di dng ho ln mn hnh
CRT ngi s dng d quan st.
4.3.3. R sot v nh gi thit k.
1. R sot l cng vic c tin hnh sau khi thit lp xong bn v nhm kim tra
chun xc thit k v s ng n ca vic la chn kt cu, mi ghp,v.v... Vic kim
tra chun xc thit k nu c thc hin trn mn hnh ho th rt thun tin v
c hiu qu. Cc kh nng ca phn mm v t ng ghi kch thc v cho dung sai
22

nhng ni ngi thit k yu cu khin cho nhng sai st trong vic ghi kch thc ln
bn v c gim i rt nhiu. Ngi thit k cng c th thu nh hay phng to mt chi
tit no xem xt cn cnh.
2. nh gi nhm xem xt sn phm nu c ch to theo bn thit k th c t
c cc ch tiu v ng hc, thao tc vn hnh v.v...nh ban u ra khng. Nt c
trng ca cc h CAD hin i l kh nng nh gi ng hc, l kh nng hot ho
chuyn ng ca cc c cu trong bn thit k nh khp treo, cc khu truyn ng,
ng thi gip ngi thit k kim tra ln ca cc phn t khi chuyn ng khc
phc.
4.3.4. V t ng.
V t ng l dng my v to ra bn v k thut trn giy, trc tip t c s d
liu ca h CAD. Khi gi thnh ca mt h CAD cn kh cao th vic mt phng thi k
c v t ng l cn phi cn nhc, nhng khi gi thnh h xung thi vic v t ng
ngy cng tr nn ph bin cc c s thit k.
Mt h CAD thng cho php tng nng sut trong khu xut bn v ln gp nm
n mi ln so vi v th cng. Hn th na, n cn c nhiu u im v x l ho
nh t ng ghi kch thc v mt ct, thu phng bn v, c t tng phn hnh v hoc
quay vt th theo mt gc t chn. N cn cho php chuyn i hnh chiu, chng hn
t chiu song song sang chiu phi cnh. Trong php chiu trc giao, hu ht cc h
CAD u c kh nng to ra su hnh chiu tng ng vi su mt phng chiu nu
thy cn. Ngoi ra cc h CAD cn cho php ngi thit k lp trnh b sung a cc
tiu chun ring ca bn hng no .
4.3.5. Phn loi v ghi m cc chi tit my
Ngoi bn chc nng nu trn, h CAD cn to ra mt c s d liu tin hnh xy
dng mt h thng phn loi v ghi m cho cc chi tit my hoc chi tit kt cu cng
trnh. Vic phn loi v ghi m c lin quan ti vic nhm cc bn thit k cu nhng
chi tit my ging nhau thnh tng loi v dng h thng s m lin kt cc c
23

im tng ng li vi nhau. Ngi thit k c th s dng h thng phn loi v ghi


m gi nhng bn thit k chi tit my hay kt cu cng trnh c ra s dng ch
khng phi thng xuyn thit k li nhng chi tit my mi. Trong giai on ch to,
nhng h thng nh vy cng rt cn thit v c nhiu ng dng trong cng ngh nhm,
l mt cng ngh thuc lnh vc CAM.

4.4. TO RA C S D LIU SN XUT


Mt ng dng khc na ca CAD l n c th to ra mt c s d liu ch to ra
sn phm. Trong chu trnh sn xut c in tn ti by lu trong cng nghip, bn v do
k s thit k v ra c k s cng ngh s dng li lp ra mt bn quy trnh cng
ngh ch to. Cc hot ng thit k hon ton tch bit vi cc hot ng lp quy trnh
cng ngh v nh vy, trn thc t tn ti mt quy trnh hai giai on ring bit.
iu lm tng gp i chi ph thi gian v u t nhn lc.
Ngy nay vi h tch hp CAD/CAM, mt mi lin kt trc tip gia hai lnh vc
thit k v ch to c thit lp. Mc tiu ca CAD/CAM khng dng li ch t
ng ho mt s khu no trong lnh vc ch to m cn nhm t ng ho vic
chuyn i t lnh vc thit k vo lnh vc ch to. Hin ngi ta trin khai nhng
h thit k - ch to ly my tnh lm nn tng to ra hu ht d liu v h s t liu
phc v cho vic lp k hoch v iu khin cc hot ng sn xut ra sn phm. C s
d liu ch to l mt c s d liu tch hp CAD/CAM. N bao gm tt c nhng d
liu v sn phm c c qua giai on thit k (s liu v hnh hc, lit k chi tit, d
tr vt liu, thuyt minh k thut, v.v...) cng nhng d liu b sung cn cho giai on
ch to m a s l da vo bn thit k.

24

Hnh 4.3. Mi lin h gia C s d liu vi CAD/CAM

4.5 LI CH CA CAD
Li ch ca CAD c nhiu, song ch c mt s trong l c th nh lng c
thi. Mt s li ch khc kh c th lng ho c m ch th hin ch cht lng
cng vic c nng cao, thng tin tin dng, iu khin tt hn v.v...
Mt s li ch cu CAD trong h tch hp CAD/CAM
1. Nng cao nng sut k thut
2. Gim thi gian ch dn
3. Gim s lng nhn vin k thut
4. D ci tin cho ph hp vi khch hng
5. Phn ng nhanh vi nhu cu th trng
6. Trnh phi k cc hp ng con kp tin
7. Hn ch li sao chp n mc ti thiu
8. chnh xc thit k cao
9. Khi phn tch d nhn ra nhng tng tc gia cc phn t cu thnh
10. Phn tch chc nng vn hnh tt hn nn gim khu th nghim trn mu
25

11. Thun li cho vic lp h s, t liu


12. Bn thit k c tnh tiu chun cao
13. Nng cao nng sut thit k dng c ct
14. D tin liu v chi ph, gi thnh
15. Gim thi gian o to hi ho vin v lp trnh vin cho my NC
16. t sai st trong lp trnh cho my NC
17. Gip tng cng s dng cc chi tit my v dng c ct c sn
18. Thit k d ph hp vi cc k thut ch tc hin c.
19. Tit kim vt liu v thi gian my nh cc thut ton ti u.
20. Nng cao hiu qu qun l trong thit k.
21. D kim tra cht lng sn phm phc tp.
22. Nng cao hiu qu giao din thng tin v d hiu nhau hn gia cc nhm
k s, thit k vin, hi ha vin, qun l v cc nhm khc.
Sau y chng ta s phn tch k thm mt s li ch in hnh.
1. Nng cao nng sut thit k
Nng sut cao gip cho v th cnh tranh ca mt hng c nng ln v gim c
yu cu nhn lc ca mt n, dn ti h gi thnh v thi gian xut xng ca mt
sn phm. Tng kt mt s n v c s dng h CAD cho thy nng sut c th tng t
3 10 ln so vi cng ngh thit k c, thm ch cn cao hn, tu theo cc yu t sau
y:
phc tp ca bn v k thut
Mc t m ca bn v
Mc lp i lp li ca chi tit hay b phn c thit k
Mc i xng ca b phn c thit k
Tnh dng chung ca cc chi tit lp th vin.

26

2. Gim thi gian ch dn


Thit k vi h CAD nhanh hn thit k theo cch truyn thng, ng thi n cng
y nhanh cc tc v lp biu bng v bo co (lp cc bng lit k cm lp ghp chng
hn) m trc y phi lm bng tay. Do vy, mt h CAD c th to ra mt tp bn v
cui cng v cc chi tit my v cc bo co, biu bng km theo mt cch nhanh
chng. Thi gian ch dn trong thit k c rt ngn dn n kt qu l lm gim thi
gian k t khi nhn n t hng n khi giao sn phm.
3. Phn tch thit k
Cc chng trnh phn tch thit k c sn trong mt h CAD gip qu trnh thit k
din ra theo nhng khun mu tc nghip c logic hn, khng cn phi trao i i li
gia nhm thit k v nhm phn tch m cng nhng con ngi y, h vn c th tin
hnh cng vic phn tch khi bn thit k hy cn nm trn my tnh ca trm thit k.
iu gip cho ngi k s tp trung t tng hn v h ang i thoi trc tip vi
bn thit k cu mnh. Nh kh nng phn tch ny m bn thit s ti u hn. Mt
khc, thi gian thit k ni chung cng s c tit kim hn do s phn tch thit k
gi y ng x nhanh hn v khng cn mt thi gian trao i i li t bn v ca
ngi thit k ti bn lm vic ca ngi phn tch nh trc y na.
Hy ly vic thit k ng c my bay lm v d. y trng lng ca ng c l
ch tiu rt quan trng, do vy tng chi tit ca n phi c xc nh t m. Theo cch
thit k th cng thi xc nh trng lng ca mt chi tit my, nht l nhng chi
tit c hnh dng phc tp, cn chia n ra thnh nhng mnh n gin tnh ri cng
li bit trng lng chung ca chi tit y. Sau cng trng lng tt c cc chi tit
bit trng lng ton b ng c. Cui cng, em so snh xem phng n thit k
no cho ng c c trng lng b nht th chn phng n y. Nh h CAD vi chc
nng phn tch khi lng ca n m cng vic ny c thc hin trn my tnh mt
cch d dng v vi chnh xc cao.

27

Do cc h CAD cho php phn tch v sa i mt bn thit k s b mt cch d


dng v thun li nn ngi ta c th a ra nhiu phng n nghin cu, so snh,
v v th c th ni thit k trn h CAD cho kt qu tt hn trc y nhiu.
4. Gim sai st thit k
Cc h CAD vn c kh nng trnh cc sai st v thit k, v v lp h s t liu,
thuyt minh k thut. Do vy cc li vo (input) v di chuyn d liu ... thng xy ra
khi lp lit k chi tit v lm d tr vt liu bng cch th cng th y u b loi b.
S d c th chnh xc nh vy ch yu l do khi c bn v ban u ri th cc thng
tin v n khng cn phi qun l bng cch th cng na. Mt khc, cc cng vic lp
i lp li, tn nhiu thi gian sau khi c bn v ni trn nh di chuyn nhiu k hiu hay
hnh v, sp xp theo khu vc hay theo chi tit cng loi v.v... u c thc hin
nhanh chng vi kt qu chnh xc v nht qun. Nh kh nng tng tc ngi - my,
cc h CAD cn c kh nng t cu hi xem d liu a vo c mc li khng. ng
nhin cc kh nng kim tra vic vo d liu loi ny tu thuc vo nh ca cc nh
thit k h CAD mun t cu hi cho d liu u vo no v hi ci g ngi thit
k t kim tra li xem mnh vo ng cha.
5. Cc php tnh thit k c chnh xc cao hn
chnh xc ton hc trong h CAD l 14 con s c ngha sau du chm thp phn.
c bit chnh xc khi thit k cc ng v mt ba chiu th cho n nay cha c
phng php tnh tay no so snh c. chnh xc do s dng cc h CAD cn th
hin rt nhiu phng din. Chng hn cc chi tit c t tn v nh s nh th
no th chng vn c bo ton trong trong ton b cc bn v. Hoc nu c mt s
thay i no ca mt chi tit th s thay i y vn c bo ton trong ton b gi h
s v tc ng ti tt c cc bn v c s dng chi tit y. chnh xc do h CAD
mang li cn lm cho vic lp tin lng v d ton cng trnh c chnh xc hn, tin
mua sm vt t c st sao hn.

28

6. Tiu chun ho cc th tc thit k, lp bn v v lp t liu


Trong mt h CAD, ch c mt c s d liu duy nht v mt h iu hnh (DOS
hoc WINDOWS chng hn) c thng nht dng chung cho mi trm thit k ca h.
Do vy, mt cch t nhin, h cung cp mt tiu chun thng nht cho mi th tc v
mi qu trnh thit k cng nh thit lp bn v. Cc bn v u c v ra theo mt
quy nh thng nht, khng h b ln ln v nhng quy nh ny c thit lp sn
trong h CAD ri.
7. Bn v d c v d hiu hn
CAD to ra v sa i mt bn v hnh chiu trc lng, chiu xin cng d dng
nh vy i vi bn v hnh chiu trc giao. Ni chung, tnh d c d hiu ca mt bn
v ph thuc trc tip vo php chiu c s dng trong bn v : chiu phi cnh d
hnh dung hn chiu trc lng, v chiu trc lng d hnh dung hn chiu trc giao.
Trn thc t, hu ht cc bn v kt cu l t cc ng nt kt hp li, nu c nh
bng thm vo th chng cng d hiu hn, v nh mu cng lm ni bt hn na.
Cui cng, php hot ho hnh nh trn mn hnh CRT cng gip cho ngi quan st d
hiu thm mt mc na.
8. Cc th tc thay i k thut c ci thin hn
Cc bn v v cc t liu gc c lu tr trong c s d liu ca h CAD. iu
cho php truy nhp d hn l khi chng c ct trong kho lu tr thng thng, cho
php kim tra li chng mt cch nhanh chng da theo nhng thng tin mi. Do vic
lu tr d liu l rt m bo nn cc thng tin qu kh trong cc bn v trc kia vn
rt d dng lu li trong c s d liu ca h CAD, thun tin cho vic so snh vi
nhng yu cu ca bn v hay bn thit k mi.

29

9. Cc li ch trong giai on ch to
C s d liu ca h CAD/CAM c dng cho c giai on thit k v vic lp k
hoch v iu khin sn xut. Cc li ch trong giai on ch to bao gm:
Thit k g v dng c ct ch to sn phm
Lp trnh NC
Lp quy trnh cng ngh bng my tnh.
Lit k bn v lp (do h CAD lp) sn xut.
D khuyt tt bng my tnh
Lp k hoch tay my ngi my.
Lp cng ngh nhm
Tt c nhng li ch ny c c l nh c s d liu do h CAD/CAM to ra m
khi u l nhng d liu c to ra t giai on CAD.

30

PHN III: LM VIC VI PHN MM AUTOCAD


Ch-ng I: lm quen vi autocad
1. Gii thiu chung v autocad.
- L mt phn mm quan trng trong lnh vc c kh, xy dng v mt s lnh vc khc.
- Bt u t th h th 10 tr i th autocad c chuyn bin mnh thay i thn thin v
d s dng.
- Mt s chc nng chnh ca autocad:
+ Kh nng v chnh xc l u im ln nht ca autocad.
+ Sa cha v bin i tng v ra, kh nng cng mnh hn so vi cc th h sau.
+ Autocad c cc cng c phi cnh v h tr v trong khng gian 3 chiu, gip cc gc
nhn chnh xc hn trong cc cng trnh thc t.
+ Autocad in bn v chnh xc ng t l, v c th xut bn v ra cc tp tng thch
vi cc phn mm khc.
2. Cc thao tc c bn.
- Khi ng autocad.
C1: Kch p chut vo biu tng autocad c trn mn hnh.
C2: Vo start/all
program/autodesk/autocad2007
Sau khi khi ng autocad s xut hin hp thoi startup.
Chn start from scratch(m mt bn v nhp).
Chn h metric.

31

Ch : Nu khi ng autocad m khng xut hin hp thoi startup th vo


tools/option/system.
Mc startup chn show startup dialog box.

- Cc cch vo lnh trong Autocad( c 3 cch vo lnh).


+ Vo bng cu lnh, bng bn phm thc hin dng command
+ Vo t thc n th xung bng chut.
+ Vo bng thanh cng c (Toolbar).
Ty vo thi quen v thi quen ca tong ngi nn s dng cc cch khc nhau. Nhng
cch vo lnh c s dng nhiu nht.
- Mt s chc nng c bit trong Autocad.
F1: Tr gip
F2: Chuyn qua ch mn hnh hoc vn bn.
F3: Bt tt ch truy bt im.
F4: Chuyn qua li cc mt chiu trc o.
F6: Hin th ta tc thi ca con tr.
F7: Tt, m mng li im.
F8: Gii hn chuyn ng ca con tr theo phng thng ng hoc nm ngang.
F9: Bt tt bc nhy.
ENTER bt tt cu lnh hoc nhp d liu.
32

Trong autocad th phim space (phm cch) v enter c chc nng nh nhau.
ESC: Hy lnh hoc thot lnh.
Ctrl+S: Thc hin lnh save.
Chut tri: Chn i tng.
Chut phi: Tng ng phm Enter
Chut gia: Phng to thu nh,di chuyn.
3. Cch lnh v file
- To file mi.
C1: Toolbar
C2: Menu file/new
C3: command(cmd): New hoc ctrl+N
- Lu bn v.
C1: TOOLBAR
C2: Menu: file/save
C3: cmd: save hoc Ctrl+S
Trng hp bn v cha lu thnh file
th thc hin lnh save as.
+Save in: Chn ni mun lu bn v.
+File name: t tn cho bn v.
+ File of type: Chn file ghi vi cc
phin bn trc.
Sau kch save.
- M file c sn.
C1: TOOLBAR
C2: File/open
C3: cmd: open hoc Ctrl+O
- ng bn v.
+ cmd: close
+ menu: file/close.
- Thot autocad
+ Menu: exit
+ cmd: exit
33

4. Cc h ta trong Autocad.
Trong autocad c th s dng ta Decac hoc h ta c cc.
Chng ta khng cn khai bo m chi cn nhp theo quy c.
- H ta Decac.
H ta trong khng gian 2D gm c trc X v trc Y vung gc vi nhau.Ta ca
mt im c xc nh qua thng s tung v honh .V d A(30,50)
- Ta tuyt i: L ta xc nh t gc ta O(0,0)
- Ta tng i: L ta xc nh im lion k trc khi v.
- H ta c cc: V tr im c xc nh bi khong cch v gc so vi gc ta
O(0,0)
- Cch nhp ta :
+ Vi h ta tuyt i ch cn g 2 tham s cch nhau bi du phy.
V d: (50,40)
Tc l X=50, Y=40
+ Vi ta tng i ta nhp tham s sau du @.
V d: @ 50,40 Tc l X=50, Y=40
+ Vi ta cc tuyt i: Khong cch<gc.
V d: 80<45 l ta im cch gc ta 80 v gc l 45 o
+ Vi ta tng i: @ khong cch<gc,
@80,45 l ta ca im cch
im lin trc mt khong 80 v gc quay l 45.
V d: V hnh ch nht c im P(0,0) theo cch nhp ta Decac.
P(0,35)

P(0,0)

P(40,35)

P(40,0)

C1: Ta Decac tuyt i.


Command: l
LINE Specify first point: 0,0
Specify next point or [Undo]: 40,0
34

Specify next point or [Undo]: 0,35


Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: -40,0
Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: 0,-35
C2: To Decac tng i.
Command: l
LINE Specify first point: 0,0
Specify next point or [Undo]: @40,0
Specify next point or [Undo]: @0,35
Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: @-40,0
Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: @0,-35
5. Cc phng php truy bt im.
C1: Menu Tools/Drafting setting.
C2: cmd: OS

Endpoit: Truy bt im cui.


Midpoit: Truy bt trung im(im gia i tng)
35

Center: Truy bt tm ng trn, cung trn.


Node: Truy bt mt im
Quadrant: Truy bt im 1/4( i ng trn v cung trn)
Intersection: Bt giao im 2 i tng.
Extension: Bt im ko di (t dng)
Perpendicular: Bt im vung gc.
Tangent: Bt im tip xc.
Nearest: Bt im gn nht.
Parallel: im song song.
- Gi SHIFT+ Chut phi.

36

CHNG II: CC LNH V C BN


1. Lnh v ng thng Line (L).
C1:Menu Draw/line
C2:TOOLBAR
C3: Cmd: L
LINE Specify first point: (Nhp to im u) y chng ta c th nhp to
hoc l kch chut.
Specify next point or [Undo]: Nhp to im tip theo.(Dng bng cch kch chut
hoc l nhp gi tr VD: @100<45
Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: Nhp tip hoc C ng, U xo ng thng va v.
2. Lnh v ng trn Circle (C)
C1: TOOLBAR
C2: Menu Draw/Circl
C3: cmd:C
C 6 phng php v ng trn.
2.1. V ng trn vi tm v bn knh (ng knh).
Command:C
Specify center point ...:(Nhp to tm hoc l dng phng php kch chut.
Specify radius of circle or [Diameter]: Nhp gi tr bn knh hoc nhp D (tc l
ng knh)
Specify radius of circle: Nhp thng s.
Ch : Trong autocad ch trong ngoc vung [ ] c gi l gi tr ngm nh.
V d: Lnh v ng trn ta khng chn D hay R m enter lun th cad hiu theo ngm
nh l [Diameter].

37

2.2. V ng trn i qua 2 im 2 Point (2P)


cmd: C
Specify center .... or [3P/2P/Ttr] : Ti dng nhc ny ta g 2P
Specify first ...: Nhp im u ca ng knh.
Specify second end point...: Nhp im cui ca ng knh.
2.3. V ng trn i qua 3 im 3 Point (3P)
Specify center...: Ti dng nhc ny ta g 3P
Specify first point...: Nhp im u
Specify second point ...: Nhp im th 2
Specify third point ..: Nhp im th 3
2.4. V ng trn tip xc vi i tng v c bn knh R.
Command: C
Specify center point ...[3P/2P/Ttr:T
Specify point on object for first ...:Chn i tng th nht ca ng trn tip xc.
Specify point on object for second ...: Chn i tng th hai ca ng trn tip xc.
Specify radius ...: Nhp bn knh
2.5. V ng trn tip xc vi 3 i tng:
Menu Draw/Circle/tan tan tan
Dng chut chn ln lt 3 i tng m ng trn tip xc.
3. Lnh v cung trn Arc (A).
C1: TOOLBAR
C2: Menu Draw\ARC\
C3: cmd: A
Autocad c 10 la chn khc nhau v cung trn.
3.1. V cung trn i qua 3 im.
cmd: A
- Specify start: Nhp im th ht
Specify second point of.: Nhp im th 2
Specify end point of arc..: Nhp im th 3.
3.2. V cung trn vi im u, tm v im cui: Start, Center, End
38

Cmd: A
ARC Specify start point of arc or [Center]: Chn im u
Specify second point of arc or [Center/End]: Kch chn tm, hoc nhp ta tm
Specify end point of arc: Chn im cui.
3.3. V cugn trn vi im u im cui v bn knh. Start, End, Radius
Cmd: A
ARC Specify start point of arc or [Center]:im u
Specify second point of arc or [Center/End]: E
Specify end point of arc: Chn im cui
Specify center point of arc or [Angle/Direction/Radius]: Chn bn knh hay ng knh,
gc.(A,D,R)
Specify radius of arc: Nhp s.
Ngoi ra cn c chc nng khc tham kho thm.
4.

Lnh v ng a tuyn Pline(PL).

l ng c b rng nt thng dng v mi tn.


C1: TOOLBAR
C2: Menu Draw\Polyline
C3: cmd: PL
Command: pl
Specify start point: Nhp im bt u
Current line-width is 0.0000:( chng ta ang v l ng 0.0000)
Specify next point or Specify next point or [Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]:
Chn im tip theo hoc chn cc thuc tnh sau.
+ ARC (A): V cung ng trn ni tip vi ng thng.
+ Close (C): ng ng pline bi 1 on thng line.
+ Halfwidth (H): nh na chiu rng phn on sp v.
Specify starting: Nhp na gi tr chiu rng u.
Specify ending .. : Nhp na gi tr chiu rng cui.
+ Width (W): nh chiu rng phn on sp v.
Specify starting: Nhp gi tr chiu rng u.
Specify ending ..: Nhp gi tr chiu rng cui.
+ Length (L): v mt phn on c chiu nh on thng trc.
Specify length ..: Nhp chiu di phn on sp v.
39

5.

Lnh v a gic u Polygon (POL).

C1: Toolbar
C2: Menu Draw/ Polygon
C3: cmd : POL
Enter number of sides <4>: Nhp s cnh ca a gic.
Specify center: Nhp to tm ca a gic
Enter an option. <I>: Ni tip hay ngoi tip. chn I l ni tip, chn C l ngoi tip.
Specify radius: Nhp gi tr bn knh.

6.

Lnh v hnh ch nht Rectang (REC).

C1: TOOLBAR
C2: Menu Draw/ Rectang
C3: cmd: REC
+ Command: rec
Specify first corner point or [Chamfer/Elevation/Fillet/Thickness/Width]:
Chn im u hoc chn phng php sau.
Nu kch chn im ban u.
[Area/Dimensions/Rotation]: Nhp kch thc VD: @50,80
* Specify first corner point or [Chamfer/Elevation/Fillet/Thickness/Width]:
+ Chamfer (C): Vt mp 4 nh.
Command: rec
Specify first corner point or [Chamfer/Elevation/Fillet/Thickness/Width]: C
Specify first chamfer.: Nhp gi tr cnh vt th nht VD: 4
Specify second:Nhp gi tr cnh vt th hai VD: 4
Specify first:
Dng chut kch chn im bt u [Area/Dimensions/Rotation]: Nhp gi tr di
rng cho hnh ch nht VD: @50,100
+ Fillet (Bo trn cc nh)
Command: REC
Specify first corner point or [Chamfer/Elevation/Fillet/Thickness/Width]: F (Bo trn
cc nh)
Specify fillet radius:Nhp bn knh
40

VD: 5
Specify first: Dng chut kch chn im bt u
[Area/Dimensions/Rotation]: Nhp gi tr di rng cho hnh ch nht
VD:@50,100
+ Width(W): rng nt.
[Chamfer/Elevation/Fillet/Thickness/Width]: w
Specify line width:Chn rng nt. VD:5
Specify first [Chamfer/Elevation/Fillet/Thickness/Width]:
Chn cc la cch v tng t pp trn.
Ch : v li hnh ch nht nh bnh thng th ta vo lnh va v v chn
thng s v 0.
7.

Lnh v Ellipse (EL).

C1: TOOLBAR
C2: Menu Draw/ Ellipse
C3: cmd: EL
* Command: EL
Specify axis endpoint..: Nhp im u trc th nht
Specify other endpoint..: Nhp im cui trc th nht
Specify distance to ..: Nhp khong cch na trc th 2.
* Command: EL
Specify axis endpoint ..[Arc/Center]: C tc l chn tm cho elip.
Specify center....: Nhp to tm hoc kch chut chn to bt k.
Specify endpoint..: Nhp khong cch na trc th nht VD:@100<0
Specify distance ..: Nhp khong cch na trc th 2. VD:30
8.

V ng Spline (SPL).

C1: Toolbar
C2: Menu Draw/spline
C3: cmd: SPL
Specify first point ..:Chn im th nht.
Specify next point: Chn im tip theo

41

Specify next point or [Close/Fit tolerance] Chn im tip theo hoc C ng min
li.
Mun ngt lnh ny ta chn phm Enter 3 ln.
9.

Lnh v im Point (PO).

C1: Toolbar
C2: Menu Draw/point
C3: cmd: PO
Ch :
- chn kiu im vo Format\point style.
- Point size: Chn kch c im.
- Set size Re..: chn c im ph hp vi mn
hnh.
- Set size in Abso..: Chn kiu im hp vi t l
bn v.
10. Bi Tp

42

43

44

45

46

CHNG III. CC LNH CHNH SA I TNG


1. Chia i tng thnh nhiu phn Divide (DIV).
C1: Menu Draw\Point\Divide
C2: cmd: DIV
Command: DIV
Select object....: Chn i tng cn chia.
Enter the number ...: S on cn chia VD: 5
2. Lnh xo i tng Erase (E).
C1: TOOLBAR
C2: Menu Modify/ Erase
C2: cmd: E
Select objects: Chn i tng cn xo.
3. Lnh phc hi i tng va xo OOPS
cmd: OOPS
4. Lnh hu b i tng va thc hin Undo (U).
C1: TOOLBAR
C2: Menu Edit/ Undo
C3: cmd: U
5. Lnh ti to li mn hnh v hay lm ti i tng Redraw (RE) or viewres
cmd: RE
( Lm trong thi m nht thi).
cmd: Viewres
Lm ti, mn i tng cho bn v lu di.
Command: viewres
Do you want fast zooms? [Yes/No] <Y>:
Enter circle zoom :20000

47

6. Lnh to i tng song song vi i tng cho trc offset (O).


C1: Toolbar
C2: Menu Modify/Offset
C3: cmd: O
Specify offset distance..: Nhp khong cch gia 2 i tng song song.
Select object..:Chn i tng.
Specify point on side..:Chn hng bt k cho i tng cn to.
tip tc lnh
7. Lnh ct xn i tng Trim (TR).
C1: Toolbar
C2: Menu Modify/Trim
C3: cmd: TR
* Command: TR
Select objects: Chn ng chn
Select objects..: Chn tip ng chn hoc ENTER kt thc vic la chn ng
chn.
Select object to trim: Chn i tng cn xn
Select object to trim: Chn tip i tng xn hoc ENTER kt thc lnh.
* Command: TR
Select objects or :
Select object..: Chn i tng cn xn
Select object to trim:Chn tip i tng xn hoc ENTER kt thc lnh.
8. Lnh ko di i tng Extend.
C1: Toolbar
C2: Menu Modify/Trim
C3: cmd: EX
Select objects or <select all>: Chn ng chn.
Select objects: Chn ng chn tip hoc ENTER thc vic la chn ng chn.
Select object to extend..:Chn i tng cn ko di.
Select object to extend..: Chn i tng cn ko di hoc ENTER kt thc lnh.
48

9. Lnh xn mt phn i tng gia 2 im chn Break (BR).


C1: Toolbar
C2: Menu Modify/ Break
C3: cmd: BR
*Chn 2 im
Cmd: BR
Select object: Chn on u cn xn
Specify second ..:Chn on cui.
*Chn i tng v 2 im
Cmd: BR
Select object: Chn i tng cn xn.
Specify second ..[First point]: F
Specify first ...: Chn im th nht
Specify second ..:Chn im th 2
*Chn 1 im
Cmd: BR
Select object: Chn i tng m ta mun xn ti im chn.
Specify second .:@
10. Lnh thay i chiu di i tng Lengthen (LEN).
C1: Menu Modify/ Lengthen
C2: cmd: LEN
[DElta/Percent/Total/DYnamic]:
+ Nu chn DE (Thay i chiu di i tng bng cch nhp khong tng).
[DElta/Percent/Total/DYnamic]: DE
Enter delta .... :Nhp gi tr tng VD:10
Select an object... : Chn i tng.
+ Nu chn P tc l thay i chiu di i tng theo phn trm so vi tng chiu di
i tng c chn.
[DElta/Percent....:P
Enter percentage ..:Nhp t l phn trm VD :150
Select an object... : Chn i tng.
49

+ Chn T thay i tng chiu di i tng mi nhp vo.


[DElta/Percent/Total/...:T
Specify total ...:Nhp gi tr mi VD:700
Select an object ..: Chn i tng.
11. Lnh vt mp cc cnh Chamfer (CHA).
C1 : TOOLBAR
C2: Menu Modify/Chamfer
C3 : cmd :CHA
Select first line or [Undo/Polyline/Distance/Angle/Trim/mEthod]: Chn cc thng s
t ch vt mp.
+ Chn D (nhp 2 khong cch cn vt mp)
Select first.. [Undo /Distance..]: D
Specify first ..:Nhp khong cch th nht VD: 5
Specify second ..: Nhp khong cch th 2 VD:5
Select first line: Kch chut chn cnh th nht v th 2 cn vt.
+ Chn A (cho php nhp khong cch th nht v gc vt).
Select first..[Angle/Trim/..]: A
Specify chamfer ..: Nhp khong cch th nht VD: 5
Specify chamfer angle..: Nhp gc vt
VD: 45
Select first line: Kch chut chn cnh th nht v th 2 cn vt.
+ Chn T ( cho php ct b hoc khng ct b gc vt mp)
Select first..[ /Trim..]: T
Enter Trim mode... [Trim/No trim] <Trim>: La chn T hoc N la chn ct hoc
khng ct b gc vt.
Sau la chn A hoc D nh trn vt mp.
+ Chn P vt mp tt c.
Sau khi nhp khong cch th ta chn tham s P vt mp tt c cc cnh ca Polyline.

50

12. Lnh vut 2 i tng Fillet (F).


C1 : TOOLBAR
C2: Menu Modify/Fillet
C3: cmd: F
Select first object or [Undo/Polyline/Radius/Trim..]:Chn cc tham s vut.
+ Chn R Nhp bn knh vut gc.
Specify fillet radius : Nhp bn kinh gc vut VD: 3
Select first : Chn cnh th nht
Select second..:Chn cnh th 2.
+ Chn T ( cho php ct b hoc khng ct b gc bo trn)
Select first..[ /Trim..]: T
Enter Trim mode option [Trim/No trim] <Trim>: La chn T hoc N la chn ct
hoc khng ct b gc c bo trn
Sau la chn bo trn (vut) bng cch nhp bn knh.
+ Chn P sau khi nhp bn knh th ta chn P bo trn ht cc cnh Polyline

13. Lnh di chuyn i tng Move (M).


C1: Toolbar
C2: Menu Modify/Move
C3:cmd: M
Select objects: Chn i tng.
Select objects: Tip tc chn i tng hoc Enter kt thc vic la chn.
Specify base point..: Chn im chun hoc nhp khong ri (from) c th dng phm
chn ca chut, dng cc phng php truy bt im, to tuyt i, tng i.
Specify second point: im m i tng ri n c th dng phm chn ca chut
dng cc phng php truy bt im, to tuyt i tng i .

51

14. Lnh sao chp i tng Copy(CO)


C1: TOOLBAR
C2: Menu Modify/copy
C3: cmd: CO
Select objects: Chn i tng
Select objects: Tip tc chn i tng hoc Enter kt thc vic la chn.
Specify base point..:Chn im chun hoc im bt k, c th dng phm chn ca
chut dng cc phng php truy bt im, to tuyt i, tng i.
Specify second point: Chn v tr ca i tng sao chp, c th dng phm chn kt
hp vi cc phng thc truy bt im.

15. Lnh xoay i tng xung quanh mt im Rotate (RO).


C1: Toolbar
C2: Menu Modify/Rotate
C3: cmd: RO
Select objects: Chn i tng
Select objects: Chn tip i tng hoc enter kt thc vic la chn
Specify base point: Chn tm quay
Specify rotation angle or [Copy/Reference] : Ti y nu chn C th i tng quay s
c copy thm mt bn. Sau nhp gc hoc c th nhp gc quay lun.
16. Lnh thu phng i tng theo t l scale(SC).
C1: Toolbar
C2: Menu Modify/scale
C3: cmd: SC
Select objects: Chn i tng
Select objects: Chn tip i tng hoc enter kt thc vic la chn.
Specify base point: Chn im chun thu phng.
Specify scale ..[Copy]:Nhp h s t l . Hoc chn C (copy thm mt bn gc)sau
mi nhp gi tr.
52

17. Lnh i xng qua trc Mirror (MI).


C1: Toolbar
C2: Menu Modify/Mirror
C3: cmd: MI
Select objects: Chn i tng.
Select objects:Tip tc chn i tng hoc enter kt thc vic la chn.
Specify first ..: Chn im th nht P1 ca trc i xng.
Specify second...: Chn im th 2 P2 ca trc i xng.
Erase source objects? [Yes/No] <N>: Chn Y xo i tng gc hoc N ko xo.
18. Lnh ri v ko gin i tng Stretch (S).
C1: Toolbar
C2: Menu Modify/stretch
C3: cmd: S
Lnh ri v ko gin i tng ,khi ko gin vn duy tr s dnh ni ca i tng.Cc
i tng l on thng c ko gin ra hoc co li, ng trn ko th ko gin m ch
di ri. Khi chn i tng s dng lnh ta dng phng thc la chn ko chut
bng ca s.
19. Lnh sao chp i tng theo dy Array (-AR hoc AR)
C1: Toolbar
C2: Menu Modify/array
C3: cmd : -AR
* Command: -AR
Select objects: Chn i tng
Select objects: Tip tc chn i tng hoc enter kt thc vic la chn.
Enter the type of array : P (sao chp i tng chung quanh 1 tm
Specify center point...: Chn tm.
Enter the number ...: Nhp s cc bn cn sao chp ra.

53

Specify the angle to fill (+=ccw, -=cw) <360>: Gc cho i tng sao chp ra c th
hoc + , nu khng mun i tng sao chp ra gc l 3600 th ta nhp gi tr khc VD:
900
Rotate arrayed objects? [Yes/No] <Y>: C quay i tng sao chp khng
* Command: -ar
Select objects: Chn i tng
Select objects: Tip tc chn i tng hoc enter kt thc vic la chn
Enter the type : Chn R( sao chp i tng ra hng, ct).
Enter the number of rows: Nhp s hng
Enter the number of columns: Nhp s ct
Enter the distance between rows..: Nhp khong cch gia cc ct khong cch ny c
th m hoc dng.
Specify the distance between columns:Nhp khong cch gia cc hng khong cch
ny c th m hoc dng.
* Nu nhp AR xut hin hp thoi Array.

- Chn Rectang.. hoc Polar sao chp theo kiu hng ct hoc quanh mt tm.
- Select..: Chn i tng.
- Center poit: kch du nhn v chn tm quay.
- Total number : Nhp s bn cn sao chp.. => OK

54

20. Bi tp

55

56

57

58

59

60

CHNG IV: LM VIC VI LAYER


1. To lp mi Lnh Layer (LA).
- Trong autocad cc i tng c cng mt chc nng c nhm thnh mt lp
(layer).
- Lp (Layer) l mt tp hp cc tnh cht nh loi ng nt (lin t), rng (m
nht) mu sc...
- Trong mt bn v c nhiu loi hnh v khc nhau v vy ta phi to ra nhiu lp
th hin cho cc loi hnh v.
V d : Nt chnh thnh 1 lp, mt ct kich thc 1 lp, v chn nt l continuous, nt
khut 1 ta s dng nt HIDDENS, nt tm ta s dng nt CENTER...
1.1. Cch to lp.
C1 : Format/layer
C2 : cmd : LA
Xut hin hp thoi Layer properties...

Mun xa 1 lp c ta kch chn lp v nhn phm Delete hoc du gch cho ,


mun i tn th nhn F2.
Mun to lp mi nhn nt New( biu tng t giy trng), sau chn tn VD: Net
chinh
Chn mu cho lp ta kch vo vung nh v chn mu.

61

+ Chn loi ng nt : Trn ct Linetype , nu cha c loi ng nt cn dng th ta


kch chn nt load xut hin hp thoi Select...

Chn loi ng nt cn thit Vd: Center2, hidden2.c th dng phm trn bn phm
nh nhn C 2 ln ta c Center2
Nhn H 2 ln ta c hidden2

Sau khi chn ng nt xong ta nhn OK.


Thoat khi hp thoi Load or ta chn nt ph hp vi tn t.

62

1.2. Cch s dng lp.


- i vi cc hnh v:
Kch chn vo i tng cn thay i lp v chn lp cn dng mc Layer

- i vi cc hnh sp v
Kch chn lp cn dng

Sau tin hnh v ( cc hnh ny s thuc lp va chn).


2. Cc lu khi s dng lp
- Thay i t l nt v cho c bn v ( nt t, nt tm) ti cmd: LTS sau g t l
mi.
VD: Cmd: lts
Enter new... <1.0000>: 2
- Thay i t l nt cho tng i tng, ta chn i tng v nhn t hp phm
Ctrl+1.
+ Linetype: Thay i t l nt v
+ Color: Thay i mu
+ Layer: Thay i layer
+ Lineweicht: Thay i kiu nt

63

- Bt tt lp kch biu tng bang n.


Nu cc lp tt th biu tng bng n khng sng v khng xut hin trn bn v,
mun hin ln phi bt n sng tr li.
- Kch biu tng kha th i tng ca lp ko chnh sa c.
- ng bng (biu tng mt tri).
Nu lp chn ng bng th khng hin ln mn hnh.
- Ta nn to cc lp ring cho i tng.
V d :
+ Nt m 1 lp, mu trng, nt l continuous
+ Nt khut 1 lp, mu khc nt m, ng nt l HIDDEN...
+ Nt tm 1 lp, mu ty chn, nt CENTER... c th chn kiu tm khc nhau ty quy
nh..
+ M ct v kch thc c th to chung 1 lp hoc 2, nn to 2 lp tin qun l.

64

CHNG V : LM VIC VI BLOCK


1. Lnh to khi block.
Nhm cc i tng li thnh mt i tng duy nht gi l Block.
1. Lnh block.
C1: TOOLBAR
C2: Menu Draw\Block\Make
C3: cmd: B
Xut hin hp thoi Block Definition.
- Pick poit: Ch nh im chun lm block
- Select objects: Chn i tng nhm li.
- Name: t tn cho block.
-Retain: Gi i tng chn nh l cc i tng
ring bit.
- Convert to Block chuyn i tng chn thnh
block sau khi to block.
- Delete: xa i tng sau khi block.
-> OK
2. Lnh lu Block thnh File dng nhiu ln ( Lnh Wblock).
Cmd: W
Xut hin hp thoai write block
- Pick poit: Ch nh im chun lm
block
- Select objects: Chn i tng
nhm li.
-File Name: t tn file cho block.V
lu file vo cng.
* To file t i tng bn v. Chn
Objects
* To file t Block to t lnh B th
chn Block v chn block cn to file.

65

2. Lnh chn block vo bn v.


C1: TOOLBAR
C2: Menu Insert\Block
C3: cmd: I
- Name: Chn block to ra t lnh Block(B), hoc l Browse v chn file to ra t lnh
Wblock OK->sau ch nh im chn.

3. Lnh ph v Block.
1. Ph v block bng lnh Expolde.
Cmd: X
Select objects: Chn i tng
Select objects: Tip tc chn i tng hoc Enter kt thc la chn.
2. Ph v block bng lnh Xplode.
Command: XP
Select objects: Chn i tng
Select objects: Tip tc chn i tng hoc
Enter kt thc vic la chn.
[All/Color/LAyer/LType/LWeight/Inherit from parent block/Explode]: Chn cc kiu
ph, theo layer, theo mu, theo ng nt.
66

CHNG 6: GHI KCH THC V VT LIU


1. To cc kiu kch thc.
C1: Toolbar
C2: Menu Dimension\Style
C3: cmd: D
Xut hin hp thoi sau: Dimension style Manager

+ Style: Danh sch cc kiu kch thc c sn trong bn v.


+ List: Chn cch lit k cc kiu kch thc.
+Set Current: Gn mt kiu kch thc ang chn lm hin hnh.
+ New: To kiu kch thc mi lm xut hin hp thoi creat new dimension style

t tn cho kiu kch thc sau nhn Continue sau gn cc ch cho kiu kch
thc ny.
67

+ Modify: Hiu chnh cc kch thc c sn.


+ Override: Hin thi hp thoi Override Dimension Style trong c th gn chng tm
thi cc bin kch thc trong kiu kch thc hin hnh.Autocad ch gn chng ch
khng ghi li trong danh sch style
+ Compare: Hin th hp thoi Compare Dimension Style trong ta c th so snh gi
tr cc bin gia 2 kiu kch thc.
1.1. To kiu kch thc mi.
to kiu kch thc mi ta chn New khi xut hin hp thoi New Dimension
style.

t tn v chn continue
1.2. Trang Lines.

+ Color: Chn mu cho ng ging.


+ Linetype: Chn kiu nt
+ Lineweight: nh chiu rng nt v cho ng ging.
+ Suppress: B cc ng ging.
+ Extend beyond dim line: Khong cch nh ra khi ng kch thc.
68

+ Extend beyond ticks: Khong cch kch thc nh ra khi ng ging.


+ Offset from origin: Khong cch t gc ng ging n vt o.
1.3. Trang Symbol and Arrows.

+ Arrowsheads: Thit lp mi tn ca ng kch thc.


+ Arrows size: Kch thc mi tn.
1.4. Trang Text

69

+ Text style: Chn kiu ch.


+ Text color: Chn mu cho ch.
+ Text hight: Chn chiu cao ch
+ Vertical:Chn kiu ch trn, di hoc gia ng ging.
+ Horizontal:
+ Text style kch chn vung xut hin hp thoi text style.
+ Font name: Chn kiu ch
+ height: Chn chiu cao cho ch
+ Font style: Chn kiu ch, nghing, bo
Sau chn Apply-> Close

+ offet from dim line: Khong cch ch so vi ng ging.


+ ISO standard: Kch thc theo tiu chun.
1.5. Trang Primary Units

70

nh cc thng s lin quan n hnh dng v ln ca ch s kch thc. Gn dng


v chnh xc ca n v di v gc
- Linear dimensions: Gn dng v n v cho kch thc di.
+ Unit format: Gn dng cho tt c cc kch thc tr gc
+ Precision: Gn cc s thp phn c ngha
+Decimal Separator: Gn du tch gia s nguyn v s thp phn.
+ Round: Gn quy tc lm trn s.
+ Scale factor: Gn h s t l o chiu di cho tt c cc dng kch thc tr kch
thc gc.
1.6. Trang Alternate Units.
Gn cc n v lin kt, gn dng v chnh xc n v chiu di, gc, kch thc, t
l o ca n v lin kt.

71

1.7. Trang Tolerances.


iu khin s v hnh dng ca ch s dung sai

2. Cc lnh ghi kch thc thng.


2.1. Ghi kch thc nm ngang v thng ng.
C1: Toolbar
C2: Menu Dimension\Linear
C3: cmd: DLI
Command: dli
Specify first extension: im gc ng ging th nht
Specify second extension..: im gc ng ging th hai
Specify dimension [Mtext/Text/Angle/..]: Chn im nh v tr ng kch thc
hoc nhp ta tng i.Nu nhp M xut hin hp thoi Text Formatting. Trn
hph thoi ny ta nhp ch s kch thc.

72

2.2. Ghi kch thc theo ng nghing


C1: Toolbar
C2: Menu Dimension\Aligned
C3: cmd: DAL
Command: dal
Specify first extension..: im gc ng ging th nht
Specify second extension ..: im gc ng ging th hai
Specify dimension ...[Mtext/Text/Angle]: Chn im nh v tr ng kch thc
hoc nhp ta tng i.Nu nhp M xut hin hp thoi Text Formatting. Trn
hph thoi ny ta nhp ch s kch thc.
2.3. Ghi kch thc song song vi kch thc c sn.
C1: Toolbar
C2: Menu Dimension\Baseline
C3: cmd: DBA
Nu ta ghi chui kch thc song song vi kch thc va ghi (Kch thc P1P2) th
tin hnh nh sau:
Command: DBA
Specify a second extension..: Gc ng ging th 2 P3
Specify a second extension : Gc ng ging th 2 P4
..
Specify a second extension : Enter hoc ESC ngt lnh.
2.4. Ghi chui kch thc ni tip vi mt kch thc c sn.
C1: Toolbar
C2: Menu Dimension\Continue
C3: cmd: DCO
Nu ta ghi chui kch thc song song vi kch thc va ghi (Kch thc P1P2) th
tin hnh nh sau:
Command: DBA
Specify a second extension..: Gc ng ging th 2 P3
Specify a second extension .: Gc ng ging th 2 P4

73

Specify a second extension ..: Enter hoc ESC ngt lnh.


3. Cc lnh ghi kch thc hng tm
3.1. Ghi kch thc ng knh.
C1: Toolbar
C2: Menu Dimension\Diameter
C3: cmd: DDI
Command: DDI
Select arc or circle: Chn ng trn ti 1 im bt k
Specify dimension line location or [Mtext/Text/Angle]: Chn v tr ng kch thc.
3.2. Ghi kch thc bn knh.
C1: Toolbar
C2: Menu Dimension\Radius
C3: cmd: DRA
Command: DRA
Select arc or circle: Chn ng trn hoc cung trn ti 1 im bt k
Specify dimension line location or [Mtext/Text/Angle]: Chn v tr ng kch thc.
3.3. Lnh v ng tm
C1: Toolbar
C2: Menu Dimension\Center mark
C3: cmd: DCE
Command: DCE
Select arc or circle: Chn ng trn hoc cung trn ti 1 im bt k
4. Lnh ghi kch thc khc
Ghi kch thc gc.
C1: Toolbar
C2: Menu Dimension\Angular
C3: cmd: DAN
Command: DAN
Select arc, circle, line, or <specify vertex>: Chn on thng th nht
Select second line: Chn on thng th hai
Specify dimension [Mtext/Text/Angle]: V tr ng kch thc
74

5. Lnh hiu chnh kch thc


5.1. Thay i v tr v phng ca ch s kch thc.
Cmd: DIMTED
Select dimension: Chn kch thc cn hiu chnh
Specify new ..[Left/Right/Center/Home/Angle]: Di ch s kch thc n v tr cn
thit hoc chn L, R, C
5.2. iu chnh gi tr, v tr, gc quay ca ch s kch thc.
Command: DED
Enter type of dimension editing [Home/New/Rotate/Oblique] :
- Home: a ch s kch thc v v tr ban u khi ghi kch thc.
Enter type of dimension editing [Home/New/Rotate/Oblique] <Home>: H
Select objects: Chn kch thc cn hiu chnh
Select objects: Chn tip hoc ENTER ngt lnh
- New: Thay i ch s cho kch thc ghi.
- Rotate: Quay ch s kch thc
Enter type of dimension editing [Home/New/Rotate/Oblique] <Home>:R
Specify angle for dimension text: Nhp gc quay
Select objects: Chn ch s kch thc
6. Lnh ghi dung sai TOLERANCE (TOL).
C1: Toolbar
C2: Menu Dimension/ tolerance
C3 : cmd: TOL

Ch : v mi tn ta dng lnh
cmd: LE
75

7. V k hiu vt liu
7.1. Gch vt liu
C1: Toolbar
C2: Menu Draw\Hatch
C3: cmd: H
- Trang Hatch:
+ Type: Chn mu vt liu
+ Pattem : Chn tn mu
+ Swatch : Hin th hnh nh cc
mu
+ Add Pick point : Chn im trong
vng vt liu
+ Add select ojects: Chn bin dng
gch vt liu.
+ Preview: Xem th
+ Angle: Nhp nghing
+ Scale: T l cho vt liu
- Trang Gradient

76

+ One color : Xc nh vng t s dng s bin i gia bng v mu nn sng ca


mt mu.
+ Two color : Xc nh vng t s dng s bin i gia bng v mu nn sng ca
hai mu.
Chn vng gch vt liu tng t nh trang Hatch.
7.2. Hiu chnh vt liu.
C1: Menu Modify\object\Hatchedit
C3: cmd: HE
Hoc c th kch p chute vo vt liu cn hiu chnh.
8. Bi tp ghi kch thc:

77

9. Bi tp v mt ct:

78

79

10. Bi tp v hnh chiu:

80

81

82

83

84

85

86

CHNGVII: NHP V CHNH SA VN BN, IN BN V


1. Trnh t nhp v hiu chnh vn bn
1.1. Trnh t nhp vn bn.
to mt i tng vn bn trong bn v AutoCAD thng thng ta tin hnh theo
cc bc sau:
* To kiu ch cho vn bn bng lnh Style
* Nhp k t hoc on vn bn bng lnh Text (hoc MText)
* Hiu chnh ni dung vn bn th hin bng lnh Ddedit
on vn bn trong Autocad cng l mt i tng (tng ng cc i tng Line,
Arc, Rectangle...) do vy cng c th c sao chp, ct dn tng t nh cc i tng
khc ca Autocad. iu cng c ngha l vn bn trong AutoCAD u c hiu
nh cc i tng ho do nu trong bn v c cha qu nhiu vn bn th khi thc
hin cc lnh thu phng s b chm, khc phc tnh trang Autocad cho php s
dng lnh Qtext thay th cc dng ch (on vn bn) bng mt mt khung hnh ch
nht
a. To kiu ch.
C1: Menu Format\Text Style
C2: cmd: ST
Xut hin hp thai

+ New: t tn cho kiu ch cn khai bo


+ Font Name : chn Font ch ca kiu nh to (v d chn Font .VnTimeH)
+ Font Style : kiu ch th hin (bnh thng, ch m, ch nghing...)
87

+ Height : chiu cao ca ch. Nu nhp tr s chiu cao =0 (mc nh) th mi khi
nh lnh Text hoc MText s c li nhc yu cu nhp chiu cao ch s xut hin.
Nu tr s Height c nhp vo ti y l tr s >0 th k t y mi k t vit ra trong
hnh u c cng chiu cao l Height.
- Upside down : dng ch i xng theo phng ngang
- Backwards : dng ch i xng theo thng ng
- Width factor : h s nn ch theo phng ngang. Nu h s <1 ch s b nn li,
ngc li ch s c gin rng ra theo phng ngang.
- Oblique Angle : nghing ca dng ch so vi phng ngang .
Ch : Khi chn cc font trong AUTOCAD th ta nn chn kiu g ph hp
VIETKEY hoc UNIKEY.VD
Nu chn font ch bn v l .vntime g ting vit th b g vietkey ta chn bng m
TCVN3.
Nu chn font ch bn v l Arial g ting vit th b g vietkey ta chn bng m
Unicode.
b. Nhp ch cho vn bn
C1: Toolbar
C2: Menu Draw\Text\Multiline Text
C3: cmd: T
Kch chn theo ca s v nhp vn bn.
1.2. Hiu chnh vn bn
C1: Menu Modify\Object\Text
C2: cmd: ED
Chn i tng vn bn cn chnh sa( Cc ng kch thc, vn bn)
Lnh DDEDIT cho php thay i ni dung cc dng ch v cc nh ngha thuc tnh
ta c th gi lnh ED hoc l nhp p chut vo dng ch cn hiu chnh sau chn
OK.

88

1.3. Cc m iu khin cc k t c bit.


Ch : font Arial
%%C

Du ()

%%D

Du (0)

%%P

Du ()

V d:%%c30-0.05^

30-0.05

V d:%%c30^-0.05

30-0.05

V d:%%c300.05^-0.05

0.05
30
0.05

2. In bn v
2.1. Thit lp trc khi in
Vo File/page setup Manager xut hin hp thoi.
+ New: To bng kiu in mi
+ Chn kiu hin hin hnh.
+ Modify: Hiu chnh kiu in

89

thit lp kiu in vo Modify xut hin hp thoi Page setup

+ Name: Chn my in
+ Paper size: Chn kh giy
+ Drawing orientation: Portait, Landscape Chn kh ng hoc ngang.
+ Preview: Xem th bn in
+ What to plot: Chn windows (chn vng cn in)
+ Center the plot: Bn v gia kh giy.
+ Plot style table: chn kiu acad.ctb. Kch chn edit( vung)xut hin hp thoi.
Plot style: Chn kiu mu cn thay i
Color: gn kiu mu c in ra
Linetype: Gn kiu ng c in ra
Lineweight: gn rng nt v ( nu mun ng rng nt v khng c trong bng
danh sch th chn Edit Lineweight v nhp rng nt mi)
Fill style: Gn kiu t c

90

Sauk hi thit lp chn Save& Close, ti hp thoi Page setup chn OK=> Close
2.2. In bn v
C1: Toolbar
C2: Menu File/Plot
C3: cmd: plot
Xut hin hp thoi Plot
+ Chn OK in
+ Preview: Xem th ( mun in kch chut phi chn plot)
Mun in bn v khc ta chn windows v chn vng cn in => Apply to layout =>
OK

91

92

CHNG VIII: MT S LNH HIU CHNH NHANH


1. Lnh laytrans trong AutoCAD
Khi bn nhn bn v t ngi khc, hay mt bn v v nhiu ngi v hoc ni cc file
vo nhau. Layer s rt ln xn. Lm sao n gin ho v tiu chun ho layer bn
v? Layer trans s l s la chn tuyt vi ca bn lc ny.
Ti dng lnh
cmd: laytrans
Trn menu:
Trong layer Translator, bn ch nh layer trong file hin hnh m bn mun chuyn,
ri layer m bn mun chuyn ti.

Giao din lnh laytrans Translate From


Ch nh layer s c chuyn trong bn v hin hnh. Bn c th ch nh layer bng
cch chn layer trong danh sch Translate From hoc bng cch s dng h tr lc
chn.
Mu sc pha trc biu tng mu ca tn layer xc nh v tr nh x hoc khng nh
x trong bn v. Mt biu tng ti xc nh rng layer c nh x, mt biu tng
trng xc nh layer khng nh x. Cc layer khng nh x c th c xa khi bn v
93

bng cch phi chut trong danh sch Translate From v chn Purge Layers.
Filter Layer
Cc layer c ch nh c chn trong danh sch Translate From, c th s dng k
t i din (VD: *, ?, #,...) cho tn.
Load
Ti cc layer trong danh sch Translate To s dng mt bn v thng, mt bn v
mu, hoc mt file tiu chun m bn ch nh. Nu file c ch nh cha layer
mappings, nhng nh x ny s c p dng cho layer trong danh sch Translate From
v hin th ti Layer Translation Mappings.
Bn c th ti cc layer t nhiu file. Nu bn ti mt file cha layer cng tn vi layer
c load, layer gc s c gi li, layer trng s b b qua. Cng nh vy khi bn
load mt file cha nh x layer trng vi file layer gc.
New
nh ngha mt tn layer c hin th trong danh sch Translate To chuyn i.
Nu bn chn mt layer Translate To trc khi chn New, thuc tnh layer c chn
s c s dng nh mc nh ca layer mi. Bn khng th to mt layer mi cng tn
vi layer c.
Layer Translation Mappings
Lit k mi layer c chuyn v thuc tnh ca mi layer s c chuyn i. Bn c
th chn cc layer trong danh sch ny v thay i thuc tnh s dng phm edit.
Edit: M hp thoi Edit Layer, hiu chnh layer bn cn chuyn. Bn c th thay i
linetype, mu sc v lineweight ca layer. Nu ton b bn v c chuyn s dng plot
style, bn c th thay i plot style cho nh x layer.
Remove: Loi b nh x chuyn i c chn t danh sch Layer Translation
Mapping.
Save: Lu nh x chuyn i layer hin hnh vo file s dng cho sau ny.
nh x Layer c ghi vo file c nh dng DWG hoc DWS. Bn c th ghi vo
file c sn hoc to mt file mi. Layer Translator to cc layer nh x trong file v
cha bn nh x layer trong mi layer. Tt c cc linetype s dng bi cc layer
cng c copy vo file.
94

Settings: M hp thoi Setting, ni bn c th ty bin qu trnh chuyn i layer.


Translate: Bt u chuyn i layer theo bn nh x bn va chn.
Nu bn cha lu bn nh x layer hin hnh, bn s c nhc nh lu bn
trc khi thc hin chuyn i.
Bng setting ca laytrans
iu khin qu trnh chuyn i layer:
Force Object Color to BYLAYER: Xc nh mi i tng c chuyn i my sc
theo layer ca chng hay khng. Nu option ny c chn, mi i tng mang mu
theo layer ca chng. Nu option ny khng c chn, mu ca mi i tng theo
mu gc ca chng.
Force Object Linetype to BYLAYER: Ging nh trn nhng l Linetype.
Translate Objects in Blocks: Xc nh i tng nm trong block c c chuyn i
hay khng. Nu c chn, i tng nm trong block s c chuyn v ngc li.
Write Transaction Log: Ch nh c ghi li kt qu chi tit trong file log hay khng.
Nu option ny c chn, mt file log s c to trong th mc cha bn v chuyn
i. File log c gn cng mt tn file chuyn i. V ngc li.
Show Layer Contents When Selected: Xc nh cc layer hin th trong phn bn v.
Nu option ny c chn, ch nhng layer c chn trong hp thoi Layer Translator
hin th trong bn v. Nu option ny khng c chn, tt c layer trong bn v s
c hin th.
2. Lnh Find:
a. Cng dng: Tm v thay i nhanh
cc i tng c la chn... v
thay i mt s ch m trong bn v
rt nhiu khng th kch tong file
sa c.
b. Ra lnh
- cmd: FIND

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- Kch chut phi ln nn cad v chn Find


Trn hp thoi ta chn Select Objects (vung c hnh con chut bn phi hp thoi)
Find text string vit tn trong bn v
Replace with: vit ch cn thay th.
Sau Kch Replace all.
3. Lnh Quick Select
a. Cng dng: Tm nhanh v la chn
nhng i tng m bn mun
b. Ra lnh
- Trn Toolbar => Tools => Quick Select
- cmd: Quick Select
- Kch chut phi ln nn autocad chn Quick
Select
=> Cng nh lnh Find trc tin l "la chn
vng i tng" m ta cn tm, bng cch bm
vo "phm vung nh" bn phi > la chn
vng min cn tm i tng > nhn chut phi

quay

li

hp

thot

Quick

Select

=> Tip n, ti Object type ta chn kiu i


tng m cn tm ( y chn i tng l Multiple;cng c th tm vi Mtext ; Line ....
=> Ti Properties chn mt trong nhng la chn a ra (v d: chn mu i tng
cn tm, chn layer cn tm, chn chiu dy...v..v)
Chn Color > chn tt c cc i tng c Color (mu sc) m mnh mun chn...
=> Gi nguyn la chn =Equals
=> Ti Value > c th chn mu sc cho i tng cn tm
=> Bm OK vy l ta chn nhanh cc i tng m mnh mun (cc gi tr khc gi
nguyn, c th tm hiu thm.)
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=> sau khi la chn tt c cc i tng c mu sc ,Bm CTRL + 1 => vo


Properties => tha h chnh sa i tng theo bn
4. Du nhy n " ' "
Du nhy n " ' " c dng km vi cc lnh khc to hiu qu cao trong khi v.
Mt s v d c th nh sau:
1. Dng du nhy n kt hp vi lnh Cal (my tnh).
ng dng: Khi ang mun Offset mt i tng i mt khong cch m cn phi tnh
ton bn lm nh sau. Ti dng Command g O => 'Cal => Expression: g cng thc v
d 2200/3 chng hn; chn i tng cn offset v hng offset. Kt thc lnh i
tng s c Offset ng 1 khong bng 2200/3.
2. Dng du nhy n kt hp vi lnh Pan:
Khi ang thc hin mt lnh bt k bn mun kch hot lnh pan m khng lm mt
lnh hin thi bn g " 'Pan " s hin ra bn tay, bn c th dch chuyn mn hnh ti
im cn v ri g Enter kt thc lnh Pan v thc hin tip lnh hin thi.
5. Lnh Filter.
y l mt lnh rt hay, n b tr rt nhiu cho chng ta trong qu trnh chnh sa bn
v. N gip chng ta lc cc i tng cn chn mt cch nhanh nht.
ng dng: y l mt lnh dng b tr cho cc lnh khc. V d mun xa tt c cc
ng kch thc chng hn, quy trnh lm nh sau:
Command: FI
Trn mn hnh hin th mn hnh Objects selection

97

Trong mc Select filter n vo nt tam gic v chn Layer (V tt c nt kch thc


c v bng lp Kich thuoc).

98

Sau khi chn layer nhn tri chut vo nt Select, hin th ln tn tt c cc lp c


khai bo trong bn v, ko con tr xung v n tri chut vo Kich thc, ri nhn Ok.

Quay lai ca s Objects selection, bn n tri chut vo nt Add to list, s thy dng
Layer = Kich thc pha trn (Kt thc vic chn i tng lc).

99

Tip theo n qu trnh lc i tng: n tri chut vo nt Apply gc di bn phi


n hin ra mt vung cn di dng lnh hin th cu nhc >>Select Objects = Chn
i tng cn chn vng lc i tng. Nh hnh di vng chn chnh l hnh ch
nht mu trng. Khi tt c i tng c c v bng lp Kich thuoc s c chn.

Di dng lnh vn hin th Select Objects: Bn n Enter 2 ln lin tip thc hin
lnh xa tt c cc i tng lp Kich thuoc.
6. t phm tt.
Menu Tools\Custumize\Edit Custom Files\Program Parameters (acad.pgp) v sa
cc lnh tt trong ri save li. Nn nguyn cc lnh tt c thit lp li khi cn.
Nu qun lnh tt to ra, mun gi li lnh c ch cn g du "." trc cc lnh tt
mc nh l c. Sau khi save file li xong, dng nhp lnh bn g lnh reinit, kch
chn vo PGP file, OK!!! thit lp li ci t. Nu khng lm nh th ny, th
chng trnh s nhn ci t ln khi ng sau.
V d: i lnh CO thnh CC
REC=RR
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7. Mt s lnh khc
- Phc hi bn cad b xo hoc out gia chng.
M folder cha bn v i tn file *..bak thnh *.dwg
-Chc nng khi bn dng lnh filet c bn knh khi nhn Shift th cad s hiu r =0.
-Chc nng khi bn v line, pline khi nhn Shift th n c tc dng nh khi bn nhn F8
(mc d ta tt chc nng ortho ri).
- Khi chn i tng ri nu mun lc b bt gi Shift chn i tng hoc ko ca s
chn vng i tng.
- TRIM (Enter 2 ln) + Shift = EXTEND v ngc li
- Shift+Right Click =Hin danh sch cc phng thc truy bt im.
V d: bn mun thc hin lnh Extend nhng l tay bm lnh Trim
Cch thc hin lnh Extend t lnh Trim nh th ny:
Command: t : nh lnh Trim (nhng bn mun nxtend)
TRIM
Current settings: Projection=UCS, Edge=None
Select cutting edges ...
Select objects: Specify opposite corner: 1 found (Chnh chn i tng l hng
ro cn extend .)
Select objects: Enter thi chn i tng na
Select object to trim or shift-select to extend or [Project/Edge/Undo]: Chn i
tng cn Extend (phi nhn thm phm Shift)
Select object to trim or shift-select to extend or [Project/Edge/Undo]: Enter xong
bn mun thc hin lnh Trim nhng l tay bm lnh Extend : ngc li.
- cmd: MA Qut chn i tng.
- V i tng nhp to
V d:
- Command: c
CIRCLE Specify center point for circle or [3P/2P/Ttr (tan tan radius)]: from
Base point: <Offset>: @30,60
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( x=30, y=60)
Specify radius of circle or [Diameter]: d
Specify diameter of circle:30
Da vo ti v hnh sau.
Da vo h to x,y
OK
Hon thanh bn v mt s lnh khc.

102

TI LIU THAM KHO


1. Autodesk Inventor
NXB Khoa Hc V K Thut
PGS.TS.An Hip
TS. Trn Vnh Hng
KS.Nguyn Vn Thip

2. AutoCAD 2007
NXB.Tng Hp
TS.Nguyn Hu Lc

3. V K Thut
NXB.Khoa Hc T Nhin
Nguyn Vn Tun Trn Hu Qu

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