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ENGRD 221 – Prof. N. Zabaras SOLUTIONS TO HOMEWORK 5 Problem 1 (Carnot Cycle): One kilogram of air as an ideal gas executes a Carnot power cycle having a thermal efficiency of 60%. The heat transfer to the air during the isothermal expansion is 40KJ. At the end of the isothermal expansion, the pressure is 5.6 bar and the volume is 0.3m3 .Determine (a) The maximum and minimum temperatures for the cycle, in K. (b) The pressure and volume at the beginning of the isothermal expansion in bar and m3 , respectively. (c) The work and heat transfer for each of the four processes in KJ. (d) Sketch the cycle on p-v coordinates. Known: 1 kg of air undergoes a Carnot cycle for which, η = 0.6 . Find: Determine the minimum and maximum temperatures, the pressure and volume at the beginning of the isothermal expansion, the work and heat transfer for each process, and sketch the cycle on pv coordinates.

10/01/2007

Schematic and given data:

Assumption: The system shown in the schematic consists of air modeled as an ideal gas. Analysis: (a) using the ideal gas model equation of state T2 =

Then since

PV2 2 ⇒ T2 = 585.4 K mR

η = 1−

TC ⇒ TC = TH (1 − η ) = T2 (1 − η ) = 234.2 K TH

T3 = T4 = TC (b) For process 1-2, Q12 = 40 KJ . An energy balance leads m(u2 − u1 ) = Q12 − W12 But since internal energy of and ideal gas depends on temperature and T1 = T2 and 2 2 mRT V H dV = mRTH ln 2 . Solving and inserting W12 = Q12 . Further W12 = ∫ pdV = ∫ 1 1 V V1 values:

Page 1 of 11

Also Eq. An energy balance reduces to W41 = m(u4 − u1 ) = m(u3 − u2 ) = −256. An energy balance reduces to W23 = m(u2 − u3 ) With data from Table A-22. p2V2 = mRT ⇒ p2V2 = p1V1 ⇒ p1 = p2V2 = 7bar V1 (c) For process 2-3: Q23 = 0 . N.1 ENGRD 221 – Prof. Q41 = 0 . W34 = −16 KJ TC TH For process 4-1. Zabaras ln V2 W12 = = 0.7 − 167.4(40 KJ ) = 16 KJ ⇒ Q34 = −16 KJ .0) = 256.24m3 V1 TH 10/01/2007 Since T1 = T2 p1V1 = mRT .7 KJ (d) Page 2 of 11 .7 kJ .2381 ⇒ V1 = 0. For process 3-4 W34 = Q34 . 5. W23 = 1kg (423.6 is applicable | Q34 | | Q12 | = ⇒| Q34 |= 0.

2) The specific heat ratio k is constant (required for part (b) only). and energy balance for process 1-2 reduces to U2-U1 = Q12 – W12 where U2 = U1. Find: Show that: V4V2 = V1V3 T2 ⎛ p 2 =⎜ T3 ⎜ p3 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ k −1 k T2 ⎛ V 3 ⎞ ⎟ =⎜ T3 ⎜ V2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ k −1 Assumptions: 1) The system shown in the figure consists of an ideal gas. 4 4 mRT ⎛V ⎞ C W34 = ∫ pdV = ∫ dV = mRTC ln⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎜V ⎟ 3 3 V ⎝ 4⎠ Page 3 of 11 . QH = Q12 and QC = Q34. For the cycle shown above.1 ENGRD 221 – Prof. Thus. Analysis: (a) The thermal efficiency of the cycle can be written as: Wcycle η cycle = Qin where Wcycle = QH – QC. Q W η cycle = 1 − 34 = 1 − 34 Q12 W12 Furthermore. 3) The system undergoes a Carnot cycle. Since the internal energy of an ideal gas depends only on temperature. Demonstrate that (a) V4V2 = V1V3 10/01/2007 (b) (c) T2 ⎛ p 2 ⎞ ⎟ =⎜ T3 ⎜ p3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ T2 ⎛ V 3 ⎞ ⎟ =⎜ T3 ⎜ V2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ k −1 k k −1 Known: A Carnot cycle is executed by an ideal gas with constant specific heat ratio k. Zabaras Problem 2 (Carnot Cycle): : The pressure-volume diagram of a Carnot power cycle executed by an ideal gas with constant specific heat ratio of k is shown here. N. 2 2 mRT ⎛V ⎞ H W12 = ∫ pdV = ∫ dV = mRTH ln⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎜V ⎟ 1 1 V ⎝ 1⎠ Similarly for W34. Therefore. Q12 = W12.

with algebra we find that V ln⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎜ V ⎟ 4⎠ ⎝ = 1 ⇒ V4V2 = V3V1 V2 ⎞ ⎛ ln⎜ ⎟ ⎝ V1 ⎠ (b) and (c) Process 2-3 is adiabatic. for a Carnot cycle the thermal efficiency is also defined as η cycle = 1 − Thus. therefore a energy balance in differential form reads: dU = δQ − δW 0 where δW = pdV and with assumption (1) dU = mcvdT. the thermal efficiency is V mRTC ln⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎜ V ⎟ 4⎠ ⎝ = 1− mRTH ln⎛V2 ⎞ ⎜ V ⎟ 1⎠ ⎝ TC TH 10/01/2007 η cycle However.1 ENGRD 221 – Prof. Collecting these results and using PV = mRT and c v = R we find that: k −1 1 d ln T = −d ln V k −1 Integrating. and assuming k is a constant (assumption (2)) gives: ⎛T ln⎜ 3 ⎜T ⎝ 2 Finally. N. using V = mRT / p T2 ⎛ p 2 T2 ⎞ ⎟ =⎜ T3 ⎜ p 3 T3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ k −1 ⎞ ⎛V ⎟ = − ln⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎜V ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ k −1 ⎛V ⎞ T ⇒ 2 =⎜ 3⎟ T3 ⎜ V2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ T2 ⎛ p 2 ⎞ ⎟ =⎜ T3 ⎜ p3 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ k −1 ⇒ k −1 k Page 4 of 11 . Zabaras Thus.

the term σcycle ⎛ ⎞ …. (c) If there were no irreversibilities within the system during the cycle. Zabaras 10/01/2007 Problem 3: Known: A system undergoes a cycle while receiving QH at T’H and discharging QC at T’C. For heat transfer to occur from the system to the cold reservoir.(4) vanishes in Eq. (c) Obtain an expression for Wcycle when there are (i) no internal irreversibilities (ii) no irreversibilities.(3) ⎟ Wcycle = QH ⎜1 − C ⎟ − T 'C σcycle ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ T' ⎠ ⎟ ⎝ H (b) For heat transfer to occur from the hot reservoir to the system. Find: (a) Determine an expression for Wcycle in terms of QH. TH ≥ T’H.(2) T 'H T 'C where σcycle is the amount of entropy produced within the system. respectively. TH = T’H and T’C =TC. ⎛ T' ⎞ …. ⎛ T ⎞ ⎟ Wcycle = QH ⎜1 − C ⎟ which is the maximum theoretical work that can be obtained.(4) then becomes. Eq. T’H. T’C and σ. T’C ≥TC. (1) for Wcycle. ΔS = 0. N. ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ T ⎠ ⎟ ⎝ H Page 5 of 11 . since the system undergoes a cycle.(1) An entropy balance gives Q Q ΔScycle = H − C + σcycle …. QH and QC are with hot and cold reservoirs at TH and TC. Schematic and Given Data: Analysis: (a) An energy balance gives Wcycle = QH – QC.(3) leaving.(2) for QC and substituting in Eq. If these are also absent. Solving Eq. Wcycle = QH ⎜1 − T 'C ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ T' ⎠ ⎟ ⎝ H External irreversibilities are associated with heat transfer between the reservoirs and the system. (b) State relationships of T’H to TH and T’C to TC. ….1 ENGRD 221 – Prof.

N. Find: Evaluate T f in terms of TH and TC and the amount of entropy produced. The rod is then insulated on its ends and eventually comes to a L final equilibrium state where the temperature is T f . Schematic and Given Data: Analysis: The final temperature can be determined using an energy balance which reduces to give ΔU = Q − W = 0 . The rod is then insulated on its ends and L eventually comes to a final equilibrium state where the temperature is T f . Evaluate T f in terms of TH and TC and show that the amount of entropy produced is ⎞ TC TH ln TC − ln TH ⎟ TH − TC TH − TC ⎝ ⎠ where c is the specific heat of the rod. The temperature within the rod initially varies linearly with T −T position z according to T ( z ) = TH − ( H C ) z . σ = mc ⎜1 + ln T f + ⎛ Known: The temperature within the rod initially varies linearly with position z according T −T to T ( z ) = TH − ( H C ) z . and thus contributes to the change in internal energy Page 6 of 11 .1 ENGRD 221 – Prof. Each element of rod dz changes temperature from T(z) to the final temperature T f . Zabaras 10/01/2007 Problem 4 (Compute entropy increase): A cylindrical rod of length L insulated on its lateral surface is initially in contact at one end with a wall at temperature TH and at the other end with a wall at a lower temperature TC .

we have T f = L TH + TC . 2 To find the entropy production. Zabaras ΔU = ∫ du = ∫ c(T f − T ( z ))dm = ∫ c(T f − T ( z )) ρ Adz 0 0 0 10/01/2007 L L L = ∫ c(T f − TH + ( 0 L TH − TC ) z ) ρ Adz L L ⎡ T − T z2 ⎤ = ρ Ac ⎢(T f − TH ) z + H C ⎥ L 2 ⎦0 ⎣ T −T ⎤ ⎡ = ρ AcL ⎢ (T f − TH ) + H C ⎥ 2 ⎦0 ⎣ Since ΔU = Q − W = 0 . an entropy balance reduces to give 2 δQ ΔS = ∫ +σ = σ 1 T 0 Eq 6. N.24 ⇒ dS = dm × c ln L L Tf T ( z) = ρ Ac ln Tf T ( z) dz Tf T ( z) dz ⇒ σ = ΔS = ∫ dS = ∫ ρ Ac ln 0 0 L L = ρ Ac ∫ ⎡ln T f − ln T ( z ) ⎤ dz = ρ Ac ⎡ L ln T f − ∫ ln T ( z )dz ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 ⎣ ⎦ Since T ( z ) = TH − ( So L TH − TC T −T L dT ) z . dT = −( H C )dz ⇒ dz = − L L TH − TC TC ∫ 0 ln T ( z )dT = ∫ ln T ( z ) TH −L L dT = TH − TC TH − TC ∫ TH TC ln T ( z )dT = L T [T ln T − T ]TCH TH − TC ⎡ T ln TH TC ln TC ⎤ = L⎢ H − − 1⎥ ⎣ TH − TC TH − TC ⎦ Substitute into L σ = ρ Ac ⎡ L ln T f − ∫ ln T ( z )dz ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 0 ⎣ ⎦ We have ⎛ ⎞ TC TH σ = mc ⎜1 + ln T f + ln TC − ln TH ⎟ TH − TC TH − TC ⎝ ⎠ Page 7 of 11 .1 ENGRD 221 – Prof.

and the ratio of mass flow rates m1 / m3 . an insulated mixing chamber receives two liquid streams of the same substance at temperatures T1 and T2 and mass flow rates m1 and m2 . Using the mass balance and rearranging. N.39 with assumptions of no heat transfer) reduces to: 0 = m1 s1 + m2 s2 . No heat or work transfer for the control volume. Zabaras 10/01/2007 Problem 5 (*): At steady state. Known: An insulated mixing chamber of steady state receives liquid streams of the same substance at m1 . 3. Find: a) Evaluate T3 b) Evaluate σ/ m3 Assumptions: 1. The control volume is at steady state. m2 . Energy balance equation results in 0 = m1 h1 + m2 h2 . A single stream exits at T3 and m3 . we obtain the desired result.m3 s3 + σ . (b) the rate of entropy production per unit of mass exiting the chamber in terms of c. obtain an expression for (a) T3 in terms of T1. T1.24 from the text) 0 = m1 c ln(T1/T2) + m3 c ln(T2/T3) + σ3 Solving for σ . respectively. Analysis: a) At steady state. we obtain the following: m3 ⎡ m ⎛T ⎞ ⎛ T ⎞⎤ σ = c ⎢⎢ 1 ln ⎜ 2 ⎟ + ln ⎜ 3 ⎟⎥⎥ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ m3 ⎝ T2 ⎠⎦ ⎣ m3 ⎝ T1 ⎠ Replacing T3 = T2 + m1 (T1 – T2). and m1 / m3 . The liquid streams are modeled as incompressible with constant specific heat c and negligible effects of pressure. we obtain: => (using equation 6. Combining with mass balance gives. 2. A single stream exits at m3 . m3 ⎡m ⎛T ⎞ ⎛ m ⎛ T ⎞ m ⎞⎤ = c ⎢ 1 ln⎜ 2 ⎟ + ln⎜1 + 1 ⎜ 1 ⎟ − 1 ⎟⎥ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ m ⎜T ⎟ m ⎟ m3 3⎝ 2⎠ 3 ⎠⎦ ⎝ ⎣ m3 ⎝ T1 ⎠ σ Page 8 of 11 . T2.1 ENGRD 221 – Prof./T2. T3. T1 and. Using an incompressible substance model with constant specific heat c. 0 = m1 (h1 – h2) + m3 (h2 – h3) => 0 = m1 c(T1 – T2) + m3 c(T2 – T3) => T3 = T2 + ( m1 / m3 )(T1 – T2) => 0 = m1 (s1 – s2) + m3 (s2 – s3) + σ b) Entropy balance reduces at steady state (Equation 6.T2.m3 h3. mass balance reads m1 + m2 = m3 .

T2 = 377 oC (c) carbon dioxide.723 − 8.01 With s 0 data from Table A23 and M from Table A1 212.0245ln 650 − 8.92119 − 1. Sketch the process on p-v and T-s coordinates.47632kJ / kgK Δs = 1.1 500 8. p2 = 3bar .02 (c) (d) (e) Problem 7 (Reversible process): One kilogram of water initially at 160 oC. v1 = 1.444 = 0.2701kJ / kg 28. p2 = 300kPa. p2 = 1MPa.007 ln (a) With s 0 data from Table A22 Δs = 1.4862kJ / kg ln 150 = 0. p1 = 100kPa.49364 − 1.01 With c p at 550K from Table A20 With s 0 data from Table A23 and M from Table A1 1 300 8.4769kJ / kgK 303 44. p1 = 150kPa. 1. internally reversible compression process to the saturated liquid state.9686 ln − = 0.678298 − 0 = 0.314 300 241. in each in kJ. T1 = 300 K . p1 = 1bar . Known: One kg of water undergoes an isothermal process between two specified states. p2 = 100kPa.1 ENGRD 221 – Prof.314 1 191.284 − 8.70203 − ln = 0.314 ln Δs = 1.24289kJ / kgK (b) With s 0 data from Table A22 8.47684kJ / kgK 28.75 300 28. N.444 Δs = 1. Associate the work and heat transfer with areas on these diagrams. T2 = 500 K .5 bar undergoes an isothermal.97 1 300 28.8389kJ / kgK 2 = −0.065ln − ln = −0.314 2 Δs = 2. Solve two ways: Use the appropriate ideal gas table.314 ln 3 = 0. Page 9 of 11 . (a) air.682 − 220.1m3 / kg .314 ln 2.01 150 Δs = 44.907 − 8. T2 = 300 K case Ideal Gas Table p Δs = s 0 (T2 ) − s 0 (T1 ) − R ln 2 p1 Constant Specific Heat T p Δs = c p ln 2 − R ln 2 T1 p1 With c p at 333K from Table A20 373 − 0 = 0. Zabaras 10/01/2007 Problem 6(Use tables): Employing the ideal gas model determine the change in specific entropy between the indicated states. T2 = 300 oC (d) carbon monoxide. T1 = 27 oC . T1 = 20 oC .01 With pv=RT With c p at 400K from Table A20 p2 T2 V1 500 1. T1 = 800 K .02 2 Δs = 28.2431kJ / kgK 293 With c p at 475K from Table A20 Δs = 1.314 = = = 2.033 − 214.2696kJ / kg p1 T1 V2 300 0.444 Δs = = 0. T2 = 100 oC (b) air. and a constant specific heat value from Table A-20. T1 = 30 oC .75m3 / kg (e) nitrogen. p1 = 2MPa.97 1 With c p at 438K from Table A20 With s 0 data from Table A23 and M from Table A1 300 573 8.8373kJ / kgK 800 28.314 ln Δs = 0. Determine the work and heat transfer. v2 = 0. in kJ/(kg K).047 ln − ln 2.719 − 197.

N. Sketch the process on p-v and T-s coordinates. Eq.1 ENGRD 221 – Prof. As shown in the accompanying figure. W = PdV . (e) Two pounds mass of oxygen modeled as an ideal gas undergoing a constant pressure process to a higher temperature (f) Two kilograms of argon modeled as an ideal gas undergoing an isothermal process to a lower pressure.9427 − 7.8 kJ The magnitude of the heat transfer is represented by area 1-2-a-b-1 on the T-s diagram. negative. (a) Page 10 of 11 . (a) One kilogram of water vapor undergoing an adiabatic compression process (b) Two pounds mass of nitrogen heated in an internally reversible process (c) One kilogram of Refrigerant 134a undergoing an adiabatic process during which it is stirred by a paddle wheel. Then with ∫ 1 2 data from Tables A-2 and A-4. Problem 8 (Entropy change): For each of the following systems. Alternaltely. zero. 2. the system consists of 1 kg of water.K = −2391. The compression takes place isothermally and without internal irreversibilities. W = -2391. Schematic & Given Data: 10/01/2007 Assumptions: 1. Zabaras Find: Determine the heat transfer and the work.25) becomes Q = TdS = mT ( s2 − s1 ) . specify whether the entropy change during the indicated process is positive. Q = 1kg (433K )(1.86 – 2595.5 kJ.(6.2) kJ/kg = -471. Analysis: Using assumption 2. There is no change in kinetic and potential energy between the end states. 3. The magnitude of the work is represented by the area 1-2-a-b∫ 1 2 1 on the p-v diagram. With data from Tables A-2 and A-4.8 – 1 kg(674.4665) kJ / kg . (d) One-pound mass of carbon dioxide cooled isothermally. or indeterminate. The energy balance reduces to give W = Q – m(u2 – u1).

(d) CO2 cooled isothermally 2 δQ ΔS = ∫ + σ .1 ENGRD 221 – Prof. 2 δQ 2 δQ ΔS = ∫ +σ =∫ > 0 . Indeterminate! (b) Nitrogen heated internally reversibly. Increase! 1 T 1 T (c) R134a stirred adiabatically 2 δQ ΔS = ∫ +σ = σ > 0 1 T 0 Stir would increase entropy. N. Indeterminate! 1 T >= 0 <0 (e) Ideal gas undergoing a constant pressure process T2>T1 Using Eq.21(a) p Δs = s 0 (T2 ) − s 0 (T1 ) − R ln 2 = s 0 (T2 ) − s 0 (T1 ) > 0 Increase! p1 (f) Constant temperature p2<p1 p p Δs = s 0 (T2 ) − s 0 (T1 ) − R ln 2 = − R ln 2 > 0 Increase! p1 p1 Page 11 of 11 . 6. It can be + or 0 depending on the nature of the process. Zabaras ΔS = ∫ 2 10/01/2007 δQ T 0 1 + σ = σ ≥ 0 .

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