Critical Analysis of Value Addition from Continuous Replenishment System & Distributor Financing In Unilever Bangladesh Ltd

PREPARED FOR Mr. Saif Noman Khan Lecturer IBA, University of Dhaka

PREPARED BYTamanna Ikram BBA 13, Roll-12 & Management Trainee Unilever Bangladesh Ltd

Internship Report

Critical Analysis of Value Addition from Continuous Replenishment System & Distributor Financing In Unilever Bangladesh Ltd

Prepared for: Md. Saif Noman Khan Lecturer

Prepared by: Tamanna Ikram BBA 13, Roll-12

June 24, 2009 Institute of Business Administration, University of Dhaka

Letter of Transmittal June 24, 2009 Professor G M Chowdhury Chairman Internship & Placement Program Institute of Business Administration University of Dhaka Dear Sir: I would like to draw your kind attention towards the submission of my Internship Report. The Report titled “Critical Analysis of Value Addition from Continuous Replenishment System and Distributor Financing in Unilever Bangladesh Limited” was assigned as a requirement for the completion of the degree. In this report, I have endeavored to incorporate the knowledge and experiences gained on a practical level. I have tried to produce as well written and informative a report as possible. However, because of the confidentiality policy of Unilever Bangladesh Limited, this study has not turned out to be as informative as I would have preferred. Working on this project was a delightful experience for me as many unknown things were explored while working on the project. I will be available for any clarification and modification that may be required.

Warm Regards and Thanks Sincerely yours,

Tamanna Ikram BBA-13, Roll-12 IBA, University of Dhaka

At the very onset, the author would like to express gratitude towards the faculty advisor, Md. Saif Noman Khan, Lecturer, IBA, who has given invaluable support from the very beginning through giving the direction for the report and also leading about the rules and procedures for internship completion.

Honest appreciation goes to organizational supervisor, Mr. Aminul Bari, Management Accountant-CD Support, Unilever Bangladesh Ltd., who has been a constant inspiration to carry out the project as well as to operate smoothly in the cross-functional tasks. He has also shown immense support and generosity to help in preparing the report.

Sincere gratitude goes to Mr. Mohammad Hedayet Ullah, Project Manager for CRS implementation, for providing the author with valuable information, guidelines and his cooperation in collecting the required data.

The author would also like to extend gratefulness to Mr. Mahtabuddin Ahmed, Finance Director, Unilever Bangladesh Ltd, for helping the author in selecting the topic of this report. His insight into the subject matter and review of the report has augmented the whole report manifolds. Sincere gratitude is also extended to Mr. Debdulal Karmaker, Corporate Risk Controller, for his continuous encouragement and guidance

Their valuable contribution has facilitated the successful completion of this report to a great extent.


The Continuous Replenishment System (CRS). Such systems are already in place in other Unilever operating companies. Thus. 5 . This has been done by a comparative analysis of (i) Pre CRS implementation measured by the CCFOT-which was actually 10% lower as a result of higher Out of Stock situations. The results have been largely conclusive. CRS has provided the company with a true picture of how much of the demand from the market through the customers were being fulfilled. to address certain problems in the system such as: Lack of an accurate stock level forecasting and demand planning leading to stock build up in distributor’s warehouse.with the cash problem having been solved. orders not reflecting true market demand as result of modification due to: (i) Prior knowledge about stock availability in UBL warehouse. Post CRS implementation & (ii) Performance of CRS+DF distributors against non CRS+DF ones.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The objective of this report is to conduct a pilot analysis of the value addition to the company. around the world. while Distributor Financing arranged by UBL will ensure that CRS suggested inventory levels are fully implemented by the distributors. CRS will address the forecasting issues of inventory management. with Distributor Financing in 19 Distribution Houses of Unilever Bangladesh Ltd. The objective of this report is to analyze how successfully this has been implemented in Unilever Bangladesh Ltd. by identifying where the problem lied. This prompted actions to increase true CCFOT by 6%. with DF was implemented by UBL to address the above stated issues to improve business efficiency and to reduce lost sales as a result of it. First of all. with Distributor Financing (DF) project has been undertaken in Unilever Bangladesh Ltd. as a result of the recent implementation of the Continuous Replenishment System. (ii) Cash status of the distributors (since UBL does not sell on credit) CRS.

the former group of distributors have reduced their stock cover days. should also explore other banks for providing the service as backups and to obtain better deals. thereby reducing lost sales as a result of Out of Stock %. Thus.than those without CRS+DF. 6 . compared to those without CRS+DF. Thus. CRS+DF has delivered business values in the pilot group of distributors. The author has recommended working with the banks to speed up the process of providing Distributor Financing to all distributors. majority if not 100% distributors need to be brought under the CRS+DF umbrella. Unilever Bangladesh Ltd. Finally. For the benefits to be realized by Unilever Bangladesh Ltd. Thirdly. to sum up the superior performance of the CRS+DF distributors. their average Return on Investment (ROI) is also higher than those without CRS.CRS has helped UBL to remedy their CCFOT situation. while achieving higher levels growth. Also. on a company level. CRS+DF implementation has resulted in higher sales growth for the 19 distributors. Secondly. CRS+DF has brought greater accuracy in the demand planning and stock level forecasting leading to achieving higher growth by maintaining lower stock levels. Only then can significant improvements in company sales levels can be seen.

...........2 UNILEVER BANGLADESH LIMITED.................................................................................................2 TRADE STRUCTURE ..................................................................................................................................................................4 UBL SALES CHANNELS ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 12 2.....................................3 UNILEVER’S CORPORATE PURPOSE .................. 10 OBJECTIVES..................................................................1 OUTLET BUSINESS STRUCTURE IN BANGLADESH .................................................................................................................................... 46 3................................................................................... 18 3...................................................................................................................................................................................................6 DETAILED STRUCTURE: FINANCE & IT ................................................................................................ 11 LIMITATIONS:..1 UNILEVER GLOBAL ..............................0 CUSTOMER DEVELOPMENT: BACKGROUND...................................................... 10 ORIGIN ...................................... 43 3................................................................................ 46 7 ..... 15 2.............. 11 2...........................4 UNILEVER AT A GLANCE ........................................... 16 2......... 10 METHODOLOGY ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 12 2............................................................TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.............................................7 BRANDS ............................3 MANAGING TRADE: UBL MODEL ........................................................ 14 2...............................0 THE ORGANIZATION PART ................................................... 13 2.................... 10 SCOPE ......................5 ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE: ................................................................. 42 3....................... 43 3..............................................................................................................0 INTRODUCTION .......... 17 2..................................................

.............0 CONCLUSION ...................59 FIGURE 7 UBL CCFOT JAN-'09...................................................1 CONTINUOUS REPLENISHMENT SYSTEM ........................................................................................................5 CRS PROCESS FLOW .............................................................44 FIGURE 4 UBL TRADE MODEL................................................................... 48 4...... 51 5...............46 FIGURE 5 UBL SALES CHANNELS.............................................................................66 FIGURE 8 OUT OF STOCK% JAN'09-MAY'09 ..................................0 EVALUATION OF CONTINUOUS REPLENISHMENT SYSTEM AND DISTRIBUTOR FINANCING ..........................................................................3 CRS INFORMATION FLOW .........0 THE SOLUTION: CONTINUOUS REPLENISHMENT SYSTEM .................................................... 64 7...............................................................................................................................................................2 CRS IN UBL INVOLVES: ................................... 67 FIGURE 9 STOCK DAYS COVER TREND FOR CRS+DF DISTRIBUTORS .................................................................... 57 5.................................................................................................................................................................................... 53 5......3................................................................... 76 FIGURE 10 STOCK DAYS COVER TREND FOR NON CRS+DF DISTRIBUTORS ............... 53 5......................................................... 57 5............................................................................................ 59 6. 18 FIGURE 3 SALES REGIONS OF UBL.................... 80 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1 MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE ORGANOGRAM .. 17 FIGURE 2 COMPANY LIST OF POSITIONS ...... 76 8 ...................5 REDISTRIBUTION PROCESS ..................MAY'09....................0 BUSINESS ISSUE ..........................................................................................................................47 FIGURE 6 CRS PROCESS FLOW.............................................................................

........................ 70 TABLE 4 NON CRS+DF DISTRIBUTORS CHANGE IN GROWTH RATE FROM 2008 MAY YTD................................................................................................................................. 77 FIGURE 12 RELATION BETWEEN DISTRIBUTOR ROI AND STOCK DAYS ........................................................................................2009 MAY YTD ..............................................................................................................................................FIGURE 11 STOCK DAYS COVER FOR CRS VS NON CRS DISTRIBUTORS ..................MAY 2009 YTD ....................................................................................... 25 TABLE 2 PRODUCT CATEGORY WISE CCFOT ............... 68 TABLE 3 CRS+DF DISTRIBUTORS CHANGE IN GROWTH FROM MAY 2008 YTD.......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 79 FIGURE 14 CRS+DF DISTRIBUTORS ROI 2008 VS 2009............................................................... 76 TABLE 7 DISTRIBUTOR ROI COMPARISON OF CRS+DF & NON CRS+DF .................... 79 LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1 KEY COMPETITORS OF UBL ................................ 75 TABLE 6 NON CRS+DF DISTRIBUTORS DAYS COVER FROM JANUARY 2009 TO FEBRUARY 2009.......................... 78 9 ............................................... 78 FIGURE 13 DISTRIBUTOR ROI COMPARISON OF CRS+DF & NON CRS+DF DISTRIBUTORS ............. 71 TABLE 5 CRS+DF DISTRIBUTORS DAY COVER FROM JANUARY 2009 TO MAY 2009 .............

Lecturer. IBA.1. Management Accountant. Unilever Bangladesh Limited.0 INTRODUCTION ORIGIN This report was assigned as a requirement for the successful completion of the internship program. the author has completed 10 week period of attachment with the organization. DU acting as the Academic Advisor. The full benefit of the new system could only be realized 10 . OBJECTIVES The objectives of the report as follows: To explore the reasons behind the implementation of CRS+DF To discuss the process and methodology of the workings for CRS+DF To evaluate the effect of CRS+DF on CCFOT To evaluate the effect of CRS+DF on Distributors Sales Growth To evaluate the effect of CRS+DF on Distributors Stock Levels To evaluate the effect of CRS+DF on Distributor ROI SCOPE The scope of this report includes only the 19 distributors who have been implemented with both CRS and Distributor Financing. Unilever Bangladesh Limited acting as the organizational advisor. Mohammad Saif Noman Khan. and Mr Aminul Bari. which is itself a partial requirement of the BBA Program. In accordance with the specifications of the Program. The report was prepared under Mr. Institute of Business Administration.

Primary: Key Informant Interviews with people involved in the CRS roll out and with people involved in obtaining bank financing for the Distributors have been used to write this report.otherwise the results could show any strong findings. but representations of these data has also been used to write this report. 11 . have been mentioned in the report due to confidentiality reasons. distributor sales growth. and Annual Reports of Unilever plc. the other 60 distributors who are using only the CRS software without Distributor Financing have been left out of the scope of this report. distributor ROI are not published data. company sales records. METHODOLOGY The data for the creation of this report has been collected from both primary and secondary sources. Also. out of the total 119 distributors of Unilever Bangladesh Ltd-which is only 16% of the total. the impact of these distributors on UBL’s total business is not significant enough.if both are in operation. However. The quality of analysis would have been better if more distributors could have been used for the analysis. some data have been concealed. CCFOT. at this time. these 19 distributors constitute the population of this analysis. not all the data that could have been shown to gully illustrate the impacts of the CRS+DF program implementation. replaced and/or kept intentionally vague owing to confidentiality concerns. LIMITATIONS: All analysis has been done using the 19 CRS+DF distributors performance. journal articles. They are as follows: Secondary: Published literature on Continuous Replenishment System. In addition. has been used. So. In addition. As a result.

Laos. Bangladesh. Unilever is present in twenty countries including Australia. a logical merger as palm oil was a major raw material for both margarines and soaps and could be imported more efficiently in larger quantities. Colworth and Port Sunlight in England. Bangalore in India. Unilever was created in 1930 by the amalgamation of the operations of British soap-maker Lever Brothers and Dutch margarine producer Margarine Unie. and Vietnam. 12 . Sri Lanka. Both Unilever companies have the same directors and effectively operate as a single business. England. The company is one of the top 100 Fortune 500 companies in the world (Rank 106 in 2006 in terms of revenue). starting off with just soap and margarine. Unilever has two parent companies: Unilever NV in Rotterdam. personal care and foods products. Pakistan. Malaysia.0 THE ORGANIZATION PART 2. Netherlands and Unilever PLC in London.1 UNILEVER GLOBAL Unilever is one of the leading multinational Fast Moving Consumer Goods Company in the world that owns many of the world's most popular consumer product brands in foods. Thailand. etc. China. Philippines. Some of it laboratories are as such: Vlaardingen in the Netherlands. Formed of Anglo-Dutch parentage. In Asia. Indonesia. Japan. the company is a multinational in truest of senses. Hong Kong. Cambodia. Nepal. and Taiwan and enjoys the position of market leader in many Asia pacific countries such as India. Singapore. Korea. and personal care products. New Zealand. factories and research laboratories in every major country. With 400 brands spanning 14 categories of home. The company is widely listed on the world's stock exchanges.2.with operating companies. cleaning agents. and Englewood Cliffs. beverages. Trumbull. its history can be traced back to the 1930s. Connecticut. no other company touches so many people’s lives in so many different ways as Unilever. Today. New Jersey in the United States.

Nestlé. To manage these brands.25% to the Bangladesh Govt. After independence the eastern plant was declared abandoned. as a joint venture company of Unilever PLC and the Govt. 13 .75% to Unilever and 39. personal care and food product market of Bangladesh. 2.2 UNILEVER BANGLADESH LIMITED Unilever started its operations in Bangladesh nearly 61 years back. Unilever employed more than 174. was a subsidiary of Unilever is leading the home care.000 people and had worldwide revenue of €40. Mars Incorporated. Middle East and Turkey). It was a private limited company with 55% share held by Unilever and the rest by the Government of Pakistan. has local manufacturing facilities. Chittagong with a soap production capacity of approximately 485 metric tons. was inaugurated at Kalurghat. Unilever owns more than 400 brands as a result of acquisitions.5 billion as per figures available in 2008. and reporting to regional business groups for innovation and business results. of Bangladesh with a share arrangement of 60. the company focuses on what are called the "billion-dollar brands". The reporting region for Unilever Bangladesh (UBL) is Asia AMET (Asia. The brands fall almost entirely into two categories: Food and Beverages. Reckitt Benckiser and Henkel. 13 brands which each achieve annual sales in excess of €1 billion.For better control and management and for reporting purposes Unilever operations around the world have been divided into different regions. and Home and Personal Care. Unilever's major competitors include Procter & Gamble. Kraft Foods. however. Lever Brothers Bangladesh Ltd. and CEC (Central and Eastern Europe). Unilever Bangladesh Ltd. On 25th February 1964 the eastern plant of Lever Brothers Pakistan Ltd. But on 5th July 1973 it was registered under the name of Lever Brothers Bangladesh Ltd. Unilever's top 25 brands account for more than 70% of sales. with the regional headquarter being in Singapore.

Fair & Lovely. UBL had set up its production plant in 1964.Operating in Bangladesh since 1948. 2. Axe. Knorr and Lipton Taaza among others. based on a deep understanding of local culture and markets. but as of 2002 the corporate offices are located in Dhaka. Dove. with over 90% of the households using one or more of UBL products. Over the years it has consolidated its strength in the FMCG sector and it is now the leading consumer products manufacturer in the country. While many of its brands are big international names.’s portfolio of mega brands includes Wheel. Previously. Today the company is an integral part of the lives of the people of this country. the product mix are developed locally. leading the market in most of the categories it operates in. whereas production remained at Kalurghat Heavy Industrial Area in Chittagong. a strength shared across Unilever globally. to anticipate the aspirations of the consumers and customers and to respond creatively and competitively with branded products and services which raise the quality of life. Lifebuoy. Close Up. Unilever Bangladesh Ltd. Rexona. which guides UBL in its approach to doing business. Ponds'. 14 . Lux. manufacturing Lux and Lifebuoy soaps. is the drive to serve consumers in a unique and effective way.3 UNILEVER’S CORPORATE PURPOSE UBL’s purpose is to meet the everyday needs of people everywhere. both the head offices and the factory were located in Chittagong. Sunsilk. Over the last four decades. Back in December of 2004 Lever Brothers Bangladesh Ltd changed its corporate identity to Unilever Bangladesh Limited in line with the parent company’s global identity. Unilever Bangladesh (UBL) has been constantly bringing new and world-class products for the Bangladeshi people. At the heart of the corporate purpose.

Their deep roots in local cultures and markets around the world are their unparalleled inheritance and the foundation of their future growth. Tea based Beverages.25% Product categories: Household Care. Operations: Home and Personal Care. Foods Constitution: Unilever . They believe that to succeed requires the highest standards of corporate behavior towards their employees. Colour Cosmetics. Hair Care. Skin Care. This is Unilever’s road to sustainable. Fabric Cleaning.75% shares. to working together effectively and to a willingness to embrace new ideas and learn continuously.39. Deodorant. growth for their business and long-term value creation for their shareholders and employees. to meet everyday needs for nutrition. profitable.4 UNILEVER AT A GLANCE Mission: Unilever's mission is to add Vitality to life. consumers and the societies and world in which Unilever live. 2. Oral Care. look good and get more out of life. Skin Cleansing. hygiene and personal care with brands that help people feel good. They bring their wealth of knowledge and international expertise to the service of local customers – a truly multi-local multinational.60. Their long-term success requires a total commitment to exceptional standards of performance and productivity. Government of Bangladesh . 15 .

5% of UBL employees are locals and there are equal numbers of Bangladeshis working abroad in other Unilever companies as expatriates. which are owned and run by third parties exclusively dedicated to Unilever Bangladesh. Vaseline & Lakme. distributors and service providers.Brands: Wheel. Vim. Close Up. Lux. These departments are: • • • • • Brands & Development Department Customer Development Department Finance & IT Department Human Resource Department Supply Chain Department 16 . Dove. they have two chairmen leading the company worldwide. Lipton Taaza. They have divided their worldwide business into different region and have different business groups to manage them. MANUFACTURING FACILITIES: The company has a soap manufacturing factory and a personal products factory located in Chittagong. 2.5 ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE: In terms of Unilever. UBL has five Management Committee (MC) members in charge of five departments. Pepsodent. Besides these. and Axe. 99. They have seven top directors leading seven different departments. there is a tea packaging operation in Chittagong and three manufacturing units in Dhaka. Pond's. Lifebuoy.000 people directly and indirectly through its dedicated suppliers. Fair & Lovely. Clear. Rexona. Surf Excel. EMPLOYEES: Unilever Operations in Bangladesh provide employment to over 10. Sunsilk. Unilever Bangladesh limited has one chairman who is the Managing Director (MD).

Here the managers at various levels besides reporting to next higher level also directly report to the director. Management Accounting 5.6 DETAILED STRUCTURE: FINANCE & IT The finance function is further divided into six functions: 1. The management consists of six layers starting from junior managers to manager Grade v. Factory Commercial Management 3. IT 17 . Corporate Risk Management 2. FIGURE 1 MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE ORGANOGRAM 2. Financial Accounting 4.The organization is basically flat in nature. Legal & Corporate Affairs 6. Apart from the management cadre other layers are staffs and operatives The present Managing Director/Chairman of UBL is Mr. Rakesh Mohan with five Management Committee (MC) members in charge of five departments.

Detailed breakdown of the different product categories and brands under them are shown below: 1.FIGURE 2 COMPANY LIST OF POSITIONS 2. Fabric Wash • WHEEL: o Wheel Laundry Soap o Wheel Washing Powder 18 . since brands are developed regionally.7 BRANDS Unilever globally divides the Brands function into Brand Development and Brand Building. The product range of Unilever can be divided into two broad divisions: Household and Personal Care. and Foods. UBL is responsible for only the Brand Building part.

House Hold Care • Vim o Vim Scourer o Vim Bar o Vim Liquid 3.o Wheel Power White • SURF EXCEL 2. Skin Care • Fair and Lovely: o FAL Cream 19 . Skin Cleansing • Lux o o o o • Peach Milk Strawberry Crystal Shine Aqua Sparkle Lifebuoy o LB Regular o LB Gold o Care o Nourish o LB Liquid Hand wash: o Total o Care Dove: Dove Beauty Cream Bar o Pink o White o Dove Body Wash o Beauty Moisture o Fresh Moist • • 4.

White Glow Lightening Cream o Pond's Perfect Result Multi Benefit Illuminating Cream o Pond's Flawless White Deep Whitening Facial foam o Pond's Beauty Pinkish .White Glow Lightening Facial Foam o Pond's Age Miracle Daily Regenerating Facial Foam o Pond's Age Miracle Dual Eye Therapy UV o Pond's Age Miracle Overnight Repairing Cream o Pond's Age Miracle Daily Resurfacing Cream o Pond's Age Miracle Concentrated Resurfacing Cream o Pond's Flawless White Light Infusing Under-Eye Cream • Lakme: Sunscreen Lotion Winter Care Moisturizer Peach Milk Moisturizer Deep Pore Cleansing Milk Strawberry Silk Splash Face Wash MATTeffect Purifying Face Wash MATTeffect Icy Fresh Gel MATTeffect Mattifying Fluid • Dove Skin: o Dove Facial Foam 20 .o Multivitamin o Ayurvedic o Skin Clarity o FAL Menz Active o FAL Body Fairness Milk • Ponds o o o o o o o Ponds Dream Flower Talc Ponds Vanishing Cream Ponds Cold cream Ponds Dream Flower Lotion Ponds Face wash Ponds Facial scrub Ponds Premium Range: o Pond's Perfect Matte Oil Control Cleansing Foam o Pond's WB Pinkish .White Glow Lightening Facial Foam o Pond's WB Pinkish .

Hair Care • Clear: o All Clear o Complete Soft Care o Anti Dandruff o Hair Fall Defense o Ice Cool o Clear Menz: o Hair Fall Defense o Style Express o Active Sports o Clear Hair Oil Sunsilk o Shampoo: o Anti Dandruff o Black o Hair Fall Defense o Thick and Long o Soft and Smooth o Conditioner o Scalp Lotion o Hair treatment • Dove Hair o Shampoo: o Daily o Dry o Breakage Therapy o Hair Fall Therapy 21 • .o Beauty Moisture o Gentle Exfoliating • Vaseline: o Vaseline Petroleum Jelly o Vaseline Lotion o Cool and Fresh o Total Moisture 5.

Oral Care • Pepsodent o Pepsodent Toothpaste o Germicheck o Herbal o Pepsodent Toothpowder o Germicheck o Neem Close up • • • • 7. Deodorant • Rexona o Ice Cool o Silk o Power 22 • Minty Chill Red Hot Close Up Crystal Close Up Milk Calcium • Chicken Noodle Cream of Chicken Hot and Sour Tomato . Foods • Tazaa o Danadar o Tea Bag Knorr o o o o 8.o Conditioner o Leave on Lotion o Treatment 6.

there is a huge scope for growth in the shampoo market if the frequency of use can be increased. Penetration in the shampoo market is high but frequency of use or consumption is very low. while cold cream is strictly a winter product. Talc and Vanishing cream have sales only in summer months. 1 sachet in the rural area. Following is a brief description of some of the major categories and brands. Color Cosmetics o Lakme Color Cosmetics Personal care products like skin care and hair care contribute high in terms of margin.o Ionic • Axe o o o o Dark Temptation Vice Click Pulse 9. It was the pioneer in the category and is still the market leader by large. Hair Care 60% of the business comes from Tk. So. Most of pond’s product range is highly seasonal in nature. In the urban area the scenario is complete reverse with 60% of the business coming from bottle and 40% coming from sachet. Skin Care Fair and Lovely is one of the biggest brands in Unilever Bangladesh. whereas categories like fabric wash and skin cleansing make the highest volume contribution. This requires a 23 .

though packages are imported) and about 30% is imported from India (mainly color cosmetics).but is already outperforming expectations Lakme has the highest SKU list in the entire company portfolio.. Vaseline has only been introduced this year. and is targeted to the very upscale market. The price premium charged by UBL is often the reason claimed behind it. Foods Lipton Taaza is one of the very few brands that are market followers to another brand. Now the petroleum jelly is going for local production. Traders don’t associate Taaza with budget. The company aims at moving people up this in this list. Pond’s Premium Range is a very new addition to the portfolio. 24 . House Hold Care The 3 Vim variants are in ascending order of sophistication. and finally get them to use Vim liquid. with especially the face-wash growing phenomenally. but has not been able to do so successfully. to more upscale consumers. It is mainly targeted to urban areas. i.hugely delicate task of balancing the sales and volume projections to avoid unsold stock at the end of the season or vice versa.e. 70% of the total Lakme products are manufactured locally (creams and lotion are filled in locally. with Lakme SKU number totaling the sum of all SKUs of all other brands combined together. convert non users to powder users. It has tried to venture into the budget market. while petroleum jelly used to be imported. It is still too new to add much contribution to the business. powder users to bar users. Since its introduction. Local brands had already established a too strong foothold there already. Lakme has been seeing good growth. The lotion is currently it is being imported from India.

“Pocha” ball soap 25 . Savlon. Deodorant Rexona is available in different forms: Roll on. and in future there are lots of potentials for it. currently being imported from Pakistan. Bactrol Tibet. Tibet Beauty Soap. Axe has just been launched in Unilever Bangladesh. Chaaka. Now the challenge remains in removing illegal importers from the market completely.Knorr is only a new addition to UBL’s portfolio.8 COMPETITIVE SCENARIO The following table summarizes the competitive scenario for UBL: TABLE 1 KEY COMPETITORS OF UBL Category Personal Wash Products of UBL LUX Competition Keya Beauty Soap. It has sold quite well. In other Unilever operating companies Knorr has proved to be hugely successful. even better than expectations. Laundry and Wheel Laundry Soap Household Wash Dettol. Keya Laundry Soap. Brand relevance is very low for deodorants in Bangladesh. and Sachets – to drive penetration through low income groups. there is a huge potential if it can be developed properly. 2. and claim all of Axe sales for Unilever Bangladesh. Ltd itself. It already has a very strong foothold in Bangladesh due to product infiltration through the grey market. Tubes. Camelia Lifebuoy Detergent. So. since the only competitor here is Maggi from Nestle. Aromatic.

Ariel Trix . Johnson & Johnson Fair and Lovely Hair Care Sunsilk All Clear Deodorant Rexona Axe Food Lipton Taaza Ispahani Mirzapore. Emami Pantene and other foreign brands Head & Shoulders Mostly foreign brands 2. 26 .Wheel Powder Tibet Washing Powder. Scrub Pond’s Lotion Pond’s Powder Tide. Saaf Dettol Liquid Colgate.9 SWOT ANALYSIS Strengths: • Brands have the added appeal for international heritage and connection. Medi Plus Magic toothpowder Mostly different foreign brands Meril. Fresh Gel White Plus. Keya Washing Powder Surf Excel Vim Liquid Lifebuoy Liquid Oral Care Close Up Pepsodent Pepsodent Powder Skin Care Pond’s Face Wash. Tetley. Meril Talc. Johnson & Johnson Tibet Talcum Powder. Almost all the brands are the top brands in their respective categories. Finley Fair and Care.

which helps them to get raw material more in a more cost effective manner. competitors find it very easy to make their own foothold. • Huge potential for growth as the Bangladesh economy gathers momentum. In such situation. Opportunities: • Has access to numerous global brands targeted to any and all target segments that can be sourced anytime by Unilever Bangladesh Ltd.• • Strong hold over the distributors Has competitive advantage in terms of consumer insight.with demand in the market often exceeding supply. 27 . has less opportunity to impact a brand’s direction. With no huge brand building costs. on-shore manufacturing experience. Weaknesses: • Suffers from consistent supply chain issues. and efficient human resources. • World wide supply chain network. • • As a brand developing country. • Has access to top notch process and systems designed for Unilever by the best consultants • Can implement tried and tested processes of innovation and process simplification wit help for Unilever global assistance teams. Many global and regional decisions may not be in line with business’s well being at country level • Bangladesh trade structure is a lot different than majority of other Unilever operating countries: with modern trade being a very minuscule proportion of the business in Bangladesh. This is something local competitors can never do. • Offers the consumers value for money with world-renowned brands at an affordable price. whereas elsewhere it is often an important-if not majority of the business.

it provides a huge opportunity to capitalize on the untapped market and limitless sales growth opportunities Threats: • • Slow down of the economy in general can effect sales growths in the coming periods New tax policy can effect growth and penetration of brands aimed at the upscale market • Competitors are not fully compliant with government regulations. It has been one of the fastest growing businesses for Unilever in entire Asia and has developed leading edge activation. Foreign products therefore are now entering the domestic market with greater ease. The growth percentages are provided: TABLE 2: FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF UBL FROM 2000-2008 (GROWTH %) 2006 Turnover Total Cost Gross Profit 28 22% 26% 15% 2007 21% 24% 17% 2008 35% 38% 29% .10 FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE Unilever Bangladesh Ltd. Deodorant is very low. Most of them evade taxes and therefore are able to offer the traders a higher margin. penetration in personal products such as: Toothpaste. • Grey market imports and selling of Unilever brands could hurt UBL’s business. trade barriers are slowly being lifted. customer management and general management practices that are being showcased and emulated by other Unilever Companies. While this is a challenge. • As a result of globalization. has delivered sustained double-digit top-line growth at an average of nearly 3 times the country’s GDP growth for the last eight years. 2. Shampoo. The following table summarizes the performance for 2008 and compares it to that of 2007.• In Bangladesh.

The company has no long term outstanding debt.3 days. average inventory outstanding 47 days and average day’s receivable outstanding of nearly 23 days. Also. while calculating working capital. It is among the top five tax payers of Bangladesh Government.Total Advertisement & Promotion Profit before indirect Indirect Trading results Trading contribution 20% 11% 9% 13% 8% 4% 25% 40% 14% -19% 7% 40% 1% 78% 82% After nine consecutive years of double digit sales growth in the period 1999-2007. UBL delivered a staggering top line growth of 35% in 2008. it tries to make the most profit by making selective investments. 2. Average days sales outstanding was 18 days. The company has been operating at a negative working capital over the last few years. However. and with respect for the human rights and interests for their employees. according to its financial principles. They will similarly respect the legitimate interests of those with whom they have relationships. Unilever Bangladesh Limited had revenue of over Taka 16 billion in 2008.5% to global Unilever revenue.175 million in 2007. The cash flow growth rate for 2008 was over 50%.476 million as opposed to BDT 12.11 CODE OF UNILEVER’S BUSINESS PRINCIPALS: Standard of Conduct They conduct their operations with honesty. integrity and openness. Unilever does not take into account cash. contributing about 0. 29 . In 2008. The turnover for 2008 was BDT 16. Moreover the profitable growth was delivered as marked by the 53% improvement of Profit before Tax and 62% improvement of Profit after Tax. the company had a cash cycle of 37.

They respect the dignity of the individual and the right of employees to freedom of association. structure. They maintain good communications with employees through company based information and consultation procedures. employ and promote employees on the sole basis of the qualifications and abilities needed for the work to be performed. Shareholders Unilever conducts its operations in accordance with internationally accepted principles of good corporate governance. compulsory or child labor. They will recruit. They are committed to safe and healthy working conditions for all employees. They will not use any form of forced. Business Partners Unilever is committed to establishing mutually beneficial relations with our suppliers. Employees Unilever is committed to diversity in a working environment where there is mutual trust and respect and where everyone feels responsible for the performance and reputation of their company. They provide timely. customers and business partners. advertised. They are committed to working with employees to develop and enhance each individual’s skills and capabilities. Products and services are accurately and properly labeled.Obeying the Law Unilever companies and their employees are required to comply with the laws and regulations of the countries in which they operate. regular and reliable information on our activities. and which are safe for their intended use. In their business dealings they expect their business partners to adhere to business principles consistent with their own. financial situation and performance to all shareholders. Consumers Unilever is committed to providing branded products and services which consistently offer value in terms of price and quality. and communicated. 30 .

Competition Unilever believes in vigorous yet fair competition and supports the development of appropriate competition laws. No employee may offer give or receive any gift or 31 .Community Involvement Unilever strives to be a trusted corporate citizen and. They conduct their operations in accordance with the principals of fair competition and all applicable regulations. in the development of proposed legislation and other regulations. as an integral part of society. increase understanding of environmental issues and disseminate good practice. which may affect legitimate business interests. They co-operate with governments and other organizations. The Environment Unilever is committed to making continuous improvements in the management of their environmental impact and to the longer-term goal of developing a sustainable business. Business Integrity Unilever does not give or receive whether directly or indirectly bribes or other improper advantages for business or financial gain. They work on the basis of sound science applying rigorous standards of product safety. Innovation In their scientific innovation to meet consumer needs they respect the concerns of their consumers and society. Public Activities: Unilever companies are encouraged to promote and defend their legitimate business interests. They work in partnership with others to promote environmental care. to fulfill our responsibilities to the societies and communities in which they operate. both directly and through bodies such as trade associations. They neither support political parties nor contribute to the funds of groups whose activities are calculated to promote party interests.

fund or asset will be established or maintained. Conflicts of Interests All Unilever employees are expected to avoid personal activities and financial interests. Education. or maybe construed as being. which could conflict with their responsibilities to the company. and visiting dentists regularly to help avoid major pain and discomfort. 200. which is. Women’s Empowerment. or offer of. 2. a bribe must be rejected immediately and reported to management. No undisclosed or unrecorded account. and Disaster Relief.payment. Your company also continued the operations of 32 .000 contacts per year have been made since its inauguration. UBL believes in placing the interest of the society right up in front which is reflected by the widespread CSR activities that the company undertakes. HEALTH Pepsodent Dentibus: A mobile dental unit of professional dentists offering free check up and advice continued its operations to various schools and neighborhoods. 1. They must not seek gain for themselves or others through misuse of their positions.12 CSR ACTIVITIES UBL believes in being a good corporate citizen and is fully aware of its responsibilities toward the society it operates in. Any demand for. a bribe. Unilever focuses its CSR efforts in areas of Health. Their accounting records and supporting documents must accurately describe and reflect the nature of the underlying transactions. This program intends to increase the level of awareness in Bangladesh about the need of good and regular oral care.

recognizing the dire need in the region for good health care. 2004. However due to insufficient resources it could not cater to all the requirements of the patients .Lifebuoy Friendship Hospital which aims to bring medical advice to the doorsteps of the underprivileged and water locked people in the chars.despite the executive committee’s best intentions. and an opportunity to help provide access to world-class surgical facilities through this hospital that caters for less privileged citizens of Chittagong. The involvement of UBL in bringing modern surgical facilities to this hospital did not stop at the OT.5 Million Taka towards modernizing the existing operating theatre and in setting up a new operating theatre together with an advanced Intensive Care unit. Obstetric. This is where UBL came in as a sponsor and besides financial help extended personal involvement of UBL managers in ensuring speedy completion of the project. In this endeavor. It treats around one and a half lakh patients annually providing Pediatric. new needs for equipment have led to further 33 . Blood Transfusion. Chittagong Maa Shishu O General Hospital: Unilever Bangladesh sponsored the setting up of a modern operation facility at the Maa Shishu O General Hospital (Mother. child and General hospital) in the Port city of Chittagong. Having its major manufacturing facilities in Chittagong. This hospital brings essential health care to the water locked population in Bangladesh and provides a platform to talk about a healthy and hygienic lifestyle in areas beyond the reach of traditional media. Anesthesia machines etc. The Maa Shishu O General Hospital was set up in 1979 and is a popular reference in Chittagong for the treatment of mothers and infants. With regular assessment. This was a much needed upgrade of the hospital which is one of the very few health care facilities in the city with a population of 2. The new OT now has world class surgical equipment including Life support.5 million. Unilever Bangladesh has a long-standing association with Maa Shishu O General Hospital and this initiative will radically enhance the services of the hospital. This facility was inaugurated on May 25th. UBL was actively involved in this project. UBL has spent 6. Gynecology . Diagnostic services etc.

Pepsodent: The Pepsodent team concentrates on schools across the country and suburban localities to promote oral hygiene. Promoting hygiene awareness: Bangladesh has a population of over 142 million and 80% of this population lives in rural areas. a 3 month long Nurses’ Training Programme was organized at the Hospital. It is the company’s firm belief that to help bring vitality everywhere. there remains a general ignorance about the importance of hygiene. Initiatives like the Dental Support Program and Dental Health Awareness Week. The management quarterly visits the hospital to take patients’ feedback and meet with the administration to review the quality of services and carry out need assessments to enhance the services of the hospital. Lifebuoy: lifebuoy concentrating on all rural communities has a team of trained personnel to visit neighborhoods.5 million Taka in 2005 as well. it must first take steps to improve the well-being in the community that it operates in. critical treatment and recovery facilities for the port city residents and increased the hospital’s ability to do surgery. UBL’S 2 health related brand: Lifebuoy and Pepsodent have done significant work on this issue. In 2007 again. schools etc and communicate the importance of a healthy lifestyle through flipcharts and leaflets.investment of another 1. The company not only sponsors projects at Maa Shishu O General Hospital but also actively supports and monitors its improvement. both of which have been quantum leaps in developing good oral hygiene practices. This is then followed by demonstrating the use of Lifebouy soaps – which have been made available in small packs for people of all income groups. All these activities helped improve the emergency. 34 . The programme covered several skill areas and had experts from outside the country help enhance nursing related skills. UBL is working with the Hospital management to enhance the skills and capabilities of the hospital staff and management as well to be able to provide better health care to the patients. Although there has been a lot of social progress and economic development in these areas since the country’s independence in 1971. market places.

300 dentists at 257 clinics in 64 districts gave free dental check-up to 12.500 people. Lifebouy and Pepsodent have been instrumental in bringing the message of a better lifestyle. It is therefore necessary that women be progressively brought into the main stream of economic activities. the day was organized on November 16. More than 3 million school children have been covered through this Program and Unilever is committed to continue providing this service to the community. Unilever Bangladesh and Bangladesh Dental Society (BDS) have been working together for over a decade to promote oral health of Bangladeshi people. Unilever Bangladesh reached out to educate imams at mosques on dental hygiene. People called in for appointment at a stipulated time to have his or her teeth checked by dental professionals. 2. Together. Unilever believe. the Program reaches out to countless others indirectly by training primary and secondary school teachers.The Dental Support Program is a mammoth community exercise that encompasses both direct and indirect dissemination of the need and importance of oral hygiene. In 2007. Not only does a qualified dentist visit schools to educate school children. so that they can disseminate the message to their congregations. with economic and 35 .Bangladesh Dental Society Oral Health Day. Furthermore. Unilever setup temporary dental facilities in districts where there were no clinics available. to millions of people across Bangladesh. WOMEN’S EMPOWERMENT Fair & Lovely Foundation: Unilever strongly believes in the importance of empowering women in Bangladesh. The Day provided people with an opportunity to be aware of the condition of their teeth and also promoted general awareness of oral hygiene. One of the major activities that is carried out in partnership is the Pepsodent . free from germs and associated trauma. because the progress of any society will be constrained if a significant part of its population is neglected and excluded from the benefits of development.

Fair & Lovely Foundation was set-up as a social initiative by Unilever Bangladesh Limited on 15 June 2004 under its leading skin care brand Fair & Lovely. After the successful project entitled "Uttoroney Nari" in 2003 where 1. Career and Enterprise" Education: Even in the twenty-first century. Keeping this mind and women’s empowerment at the forefront. The mission of the Foundation is to "Encourage economic empowerment of Bangladeshi women through information and resources in the areas of Education. the Fair & Lovely Foundation aired a 13-episode TV series in Channel i. and an inspiring success story to instigate interest. Each episode showcased one particular career… encapsulating detailed information about its prospects. During its inception in 2004. Yet. 36 Engineering. Defence. Fair & Lovely Foundation tailor-made yet another scholarship programme for women seeking higher education. in 2004. Career showcased in the programme were – Law. This programme aims at providing women with basic and higher education. Advertising. as well as training and assistance. Bangladeshi women’s economic empowerment is looked upon as a luxury. It is this realization that has brought about the Fair & Lovely Foundation Scholarship Programme. Banking. Supplementary scholarship programs are also ongoing in partnership with the Faria Lara Foundation.educational empowerment. Fashion Designing.500 women students (at standard 10 level) received courses on basic IT from NIIT. women can become more vocal about their rights and become stronger in withstanding repression in any form. means of undertaking it. Career: Education is like a beacon for the right career. . it will be most unfortunate if a significant part of it is neglected and excluded from the benefits of development. Any Bangladeshi female student with good academic track record is eligible to apply for these scholarships. Graphic Designing. It hints at what one is good at. it is easy to make a wrong decision. with so many choices that are available. While the economic growth of a country is dependent directly on the level of education of its general population. This led to the Fair & Lovely Foundation’s Career Guidance Programme.

So. The programme received a huge response in terms of viewer enquiries and letters. These women (Joyeetas) are serviced from the distributor through a third party agency at a regular interval. The women termed as Joyeetas are given a task of selling Unilever products and communicating the brand values in the rural households of their village. Hence with a sizeable margin they would be able to generate sustainable income for themselves and hence be financially empowered. The success story of Joyeeta is taken even further with a similar project named “Aparajita” with the support from CARE. The project started in August 2003 in a nearby Thana of Manikganj as a pilot for six months. In recent times Non Government Organizations (NGO)s and government bodies are collaborating to establish self-help groups for the development of rural women supported by microcredit program. This Programme assists both urban and rural women by providing practical knowledge as well as business expertise. UBL will be able to expand initiative to reach 20 more Upazillas of the country’s northern and eastern districts. Joyeeta is derived from the Bengali word ‘Joy’ which means ‘Win’. Joyeeta is the embodiment of a fearless female spirit trying to better her socio-economic condition by trying new options given her surroundings and ground realities. Architecture. From an initial twenty-five Joyeetas the number has now increased to over two thousand. Project Joyeeta: ‘Joyeeta’ is a unique initiative of Unilever Bangladesh to provide sustainable opportunities for over 2900 women in rural Bangladesh to earn their livelihood. Medicine and Business. 3. The Fair & Lovely Foundation Entrepreneurship Programme was set up to explore the endless possibilities that lie in this sector for women. Project Joyeeta came out as a realistic venture of Unilever Bangladesh aimed at improving the lives of rural women bringing them into a sustainable income generation through entrepreneurial skills. 37 . Journalism. IT. Enterprise: Unilever believe that small & medium enterprises are crucial to the economic development of a country like Bangladesh.Merchandising. Under this project.

spoken and written English. This program continues in 2008 as well. Under this project 40 female SSC students from 16 secondary institutions in the district went through a three-month training program on basic computer skills. The effectiveness of the course was evaluated by a final exam conducted by Adcomm. Towards the end of 2004.These Unilever led projects will continue to empower women all over the country and give them the 3. 20 SSC and 20 HSC Examinees were given the opportunity to train for three months in Borguna District. UBL’s agency for executing the various projects related to FAL Foundation. School for slum children sponsored (SSKS): Unilever came forward to support an institution that provides free primary education to children of lowest income families. In April 2005. Besides entrepreneurial training and other activities. FAL Foundation came forward to work with this organization to assist semi-urban female students to acquire spoken/written English and basic Computer skills after their SSC Exam and help them to compete with their urban peers. Barguna District. the 38 . There exist some institutions that provide education to these hapless children and one such organization is Shathee Samaj Kalyan Samity (SSKS). UBL Chairman Sanjiv Mehta officially handed over a cheque of Taka 5 Lakh and 10 computers to Selina Hossain. In 2007 May. Executive Director of the Faria Lara Foundation. Fair & Lovely Foundation again re-started the programme of providing Supplementary Education programme with Faria Lara Foundation. EDUCATION IT scholarships for women: Faria Lara Foundation is a voluntary organization working in the remote village of Halta Dawatala in Bamna Upozila. The courses were conducted by Certified IT professionals and English language professors. SSKS runs a free evening school for children residing in slums and was funded by an international NGO thus far. an NGO working for the slum residents in the city’s posh residential area. in the south of the country.Banani.

Education and Women’s Empowerment. Chevening Scholarships:Unilever Bangladesh Limited and the British High Commission signed an agreement on 11thSeptember 2006 to jointly fund a Chevening Scholarship titled the “Unilever Chevening Scholarship” for a Bangladeshi national wishing to study in a University in the United Kingdom. Chevening Scholarships are prestigious scholarships awarded by the UK’s Foreign and Commonwealth Office.supporting organization wrapped up its activities from Bangladesh which left SSKS floundering for funds. 39 . or Pepsodent toothpaste with each correct answer creates a flurry of eager hands to jumping up to answer that makes it a sight to see! The existence of the school is a great support for the children living in Banani. In January 2005. Good behavior. Pop quizzes through which the children could win Lifebouy soaps. UBL volunteers also visits the school to demonstrate the importance of hygiene and health. and other administrative outflows. Electricity and safety etc. aimed at providing opportunities for post-graduate study in the UK for young professionals in early or mid-careers who demonstrate both academic excellence and the potential to become leaders. Badda slum areas and UBL provides support for opportunities such as training for teachers and sports lessons for the students. company managers volunteer to spend time with the children and take innovative learning sessions. decision-makers and opinionformers in their own countries. Unilever Bangladesh initiated the sponsorship of the school' major expenses. uniforms and books for the students. The children eagerly await such visits which inspire their creative thinking and are a break from the everyday school work. Gulshan. The sponsorship helps to cover salaries for the teachers and staff. Unilever's Pepsodent Dentibus also visits the school premises to create awareness about good oral hygiene. The fields of study included for the Unilever Chevening Scholarship are the areas of Health. Nurturing the intellect and development of the children coming to this school can help build a strong example of conscientious involvement of the privileged society in support of the needy. These include Origami. Moreover.

UBL partnered with the Bangladesh Army and set out to rebuild one of the worst-affected villages of the calamity. DISASTER RELIEF Char Nazir To help the victims of SIDR.4. installation of five deep tube wells. The BDT 8 million (80. The village was finally completed and formally inaugurated in July of 2008. Char Nazir.000 Euro) project included providing housing with sanitary latrines for all 75 families. rebuilding one retail outlet and providing ten cows and fifteen goats for income generation to the village people. 40 . The Army Engineering Corp designed the houses and oversaw the implementation of the project based on the plan conceptualized by UBL.

Project Part 41 .

The Customer Development Department. role of Customer Development has also been gradually shifting from traditional “Sales” to “Trade Marketing”. product manuals etc. Major thrust in rural market. The Distributor’s Sales Representatives (DSRs) perform the following functions: • • • • Direct selling to trade Immediate delivery to trade Product /POS display Market feed back The company sales force performs the following functions: • Manage distributors by: o Guiding distributor’s sales efforts o Supervising and training the DSRs both on the job and off the job 42 . and their key strengths are: Strong distribution network. is becoming critical day by day. wholesalers. etc The Customer Management Department is also responsible for merchandising to educate trade about benefits and to promote visibility to generate consumer awareness through tools such as point of sale (POS) displays. dealer service materials. Managing customers i. the role of Customer Development will evolve further and the whole game will be turned into “Relationship Marketing”. Wholesalers. Exploring and developing new channels are becoming critical to drive their business forward. etc. Space Management and In-store merchandising are becoming more and more important. Category Management.e. Effective and focused company sales force. is responsible for managing the actual sales of all company goods. and distributors. With more and more sophistication.0 CUSTOMER DEVELOPMENT: BACKGROUND UBL sales come from its customers: Distributors. previously called the Sales Department. Retailers.3. retailers. With the evolution of modern trade and aggressive local and international competition.

whereas in Rural it is 28. The Area Sales Mangers report to 43 . Sales Operation Manager and 6 Regional Sales Managers in charge if sales of each of the 6 sales regions. average brand per store is 44. 3. Processed Foods (except only Tea). in Urban. in Urban. Milk. Breaking this figure down.2 TRADE STRUCTURE The Customer Development director (CDD) heads the Customer Development Department. Breaking this figure down. However FMCG includes categories UBL does not operate in: Tobacco.1 OUTLET BUSINESS STRUCTURE IN BANGLADESH The average FMCG business in Bangladesh is approximately US$ 87/Month. etc The average Category per store on a national level is 14. UBL has organized its trade into the above stated 6 Regions. which is around 21%.o Expansion of coverage. The average SKU per store on a national level is 89.5. whereas in Rural it is 13. . Breaking this figure down. Reporting to him are the Trade Marketing Manager. average category per store is 16. average UBL business is approximately US$ 18 /Month. These are further subdivided into 9 Areas and then into 40 Territories. in Urban. average brand per store is 112. o Market feedback • Direct servicing through: o Redistribution o Merchandising o Trade relations 3. The average brand per store on a national level is 36. whereas in Rural it is 66. In comparison.

For UBL sale is recognized when primary sale happens.which are further subdivided into channels. Dhaka Outer Region: Contribution: 23% Growth: 40% Growth: 36% Distributor: 21 Distributor: 22 Dhaka Metro: Contribution: 18% Growth: 30% Distributor: 10 Sylhet Region : Contribution: 8% Growth: 27% Distributor: 12 Khulna: Contribution: 19% Growth: 33% Distributor: 32 FIGURE 3 SALES REGIONS OF UBL Chittagong Region: Contribution: 15 % Growth: 30% Distributor: 22 Of the 40 territories. what really matters is sales in the retail market to consumers. 38 deal with General trade. to be discussed later. Secondary Sale: When the distributor makes a sale to retailers. Bogra Region: Contribution: 17%.and they have the Territory Managers reporting to them. Unilever measures to kinds of sales: • • Primary Sale: When UBL makes a sale to the distributor. secondary sales are what really matters.the Regional Sales Managers and are in charge of their own areas. 44 . while the remaining 2 deal with Modern Trade & Shopping Complex-which are 2 separate channels altogether. but since it is an FMCG company rather than a B2B. Thus.

000 outlets were grouped into 27 different channels. UBL delivers to 37% of all outlets.2% Urban. which is around 3 lakh outlets. It is mostly traditional & rural. Usually distributors maintain seven days of secondary sales in stock as buffer.000 direct coverage – Rural This is done through 119 exclusive distributors with a distributor sales force of 2025 DSRs – calling on 75. and their breakdown is as follows: • • Approx 120. Kalurghat factory.000 outlets nationally.The sales flow of UBL goes as follows: Distributors Buys at list price (Primary Sales) Retailers Buys at trade price (Secondary Sales) Shoppers/Consumers (Buys at Retail Price) The distributors take their supply from any of the 6 depots that the company holds in Dhaka. And the number of outlets is growing @ 3. and finally in Chittagong. 45 . Khulna. Trade in Bangladesh is extremely fragmented.000 outlets /day.3.8% / Rural. Bogra. Sylhet.6%. Infrastructure geared to meet fragmented trade 700. with 23% in urban & 77% in rural.2.000 direct coverage in Urban Approx 130. with a total of 700. Barisal.

UBL has divided these 9 into 6 priority and 3 emerging channels. Channel Distributors Shopping Complex Out of Home 25% 75% Wholesale Use as gap-filler Retailer Under Direct Coverage Retailer Not under Direct Coverage FIGURE 4 UBL TRADE MODEL 3.3.5% UBL Warehouse 97.5% Distributors Sp. 9 contribute to the maximum chunk of business. for ease of serving. Priority Channels: • • • • • • Urban wet market grocer (UWMG) Urban neighborhood grocer (UNG) Urban general store (UGS) Urban HPC Tong Rural wet market grocer (RWMG) Rural neighborhood grocer (RNG) 46 . based on common characteristics of the outlets and the shoppers who usually visit them. etc.3 MANAGING TRADE: UBL MODEL Key Accounts 2.4 UBL SALES CHANNELS Of the 27 channels. target setting.

9% of outlets is not ignored. and Pollyduth. They are still serviced by UBL products. Alternative Root to Marketing. In addition to these. The cost of increasing direct distribution coverage is much higher than the sales growth benefits to be gained.1% of all retail outlets are under the direct coverage of UBL.Emerging Channels: • • • Rural cosmetic store Shopping complex/Cosmetic shop Key Accounts (modern trade) Urban Channels: Channels located in Thana HQs or Municipal areas Rural Channels: Channels not under the geography occupied by Urban Channels 9 UBL Channels 3 Emerging + 6 Priority FIGURE 5 UBL SALES CHANNELS Urban channels are those are located within Thana Parishad area of each Zilla. They are fed through indirect distribution coverage by the Alternate Route to Market which contributes the remaining 25% of value. Areas beyond that are referred to as rural. i. Urban hunters. but indirectly. Joyeeta.e. which contributes to 75% of total business. which covers – Wholesalers.. the rest of 68. 47 . there is the ATTM channel. However. UBL does not intend to increase direct coverage of outlets unless significant value addition could be gained from it. ALTERNATE ROUTE TO MARKET 31.

She buys goods from the hub and then sells those from door to door. In return the distributor gives away 3% of his commission to them. Modern Trade started to emerge in Bangladesh since 1999-2000. 5 Customers contribute 60% of MT business. 48 . (UBL) plays the leading role in making Unilever brands available in all the corners of the country. Unilever Bangladesh Ltd. There are mainly 4 big Customers with multiple stores.5 REDISTRIBUTION PROCESS ROLE OF THE DISTRIBUTOR Distribution business operation in Bangladesh is regarded as one of the benchmark system in today’s time. Distributors. and experiencing 40% cumulative growthalmost 3 times faster than General Trade in terms of value. Till date modern trade comprises of a total of 84 stores. Joyeeta is a lady from a far away village where there are even no retail stores. Distributor gives away 2% of his commission to Joyeeta and she also gets the retailers margin of 10-15%. Modern Trade in Bangladesh is nascent. but there is still an opportunity 3. the Pollyduth buy from the distributors and carry the materials to faraway places on their cycles. The distributor’s business growth and profitability plays a significant role for UBL’s business growth both in terms of volume and value. For example.5% of Dhaka sales. In the FMCG industry. Similarly. They are considered to be the backbone of UBL’s business. EMERGING MODERN TRADE Modern Trade is growing very fast in number. Modern Trade contributes 1% of National sales and 5. UBL has been able to reach this position over the years through rigorous activities and sound team work with its stakeholders. undoubtedly plays a key role in overall business operation of UBL.Special projects under ATTM have been undertaken to ensure that the supply of UBL also reaches places where there is no direct coverage.

on distribution effectiveness – BPC. competitors’ activities. POP Register. daily. brand innovation.places an order (Indent) to the Unilever Depot. current stock levels in the warehouse. prepare different report. They have to accommodate the territory manager and Area Sales manager of UBL. It is the DSR’s responsibility to ensure availability of the products.considering the order size of each product. the day’s orders are entered into system and invoice and memo is prepared • Next the distribution house manager. Distributors have to maintain various important files and registers on a day to day basis like Stock Register.UBL distributors function as business partners and have to strictly follow UBL guidelines.. distribution correction. OVERVIEW OF THE REDISTRIBUTION PROCESS This is the process of getting the products to traders through the distributors: • On one day of the week. LPC. 49 . • After returning to the distribution centre. etc.use of Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) to take orders or use of Distributor Management System (DMS) to record orders. Call Productivity. weekly. and cash available to the distributors. train and coach distributor team. and monthly. DMPR (Distributor’s monthly performance report). etc. ROLE OF THE TM The TM’s main responsibility is to manage the distribution. etc. DSRs take orders for the different product and enter the order into his hand held terminal (PDA). merchandizing activities. Distributor Sales Representatives (DSRs) all over the country visit the outlets according to the coverage plan. etc. They also accommodate and install various process innovations of UBL .

His main responsibility is to ensure visibility of the products through proper merchandizing and point of sales/purchase displays.• Distributor pays through Demand Draft and the stock is delivered the next morning to the distributor warehouse. The CM raises the availability token for cross checking the performance of the DSR. The CMs are paid for by Unilever. the ADSR makes it manually and informs the computer operator on getting back to office. channel characteristics. he notifies the ADSR about it o The ADSR then collects the goods from the shop in his next visit and submits it to the TM o Only on approval by the TM the good is replaced. A territory is divided into routes based on geographical proximity. It represents the outlets to be covered at one go. • Memo is sent to the warehouse and orders prepared and products loaded into the delivery vans (mechanized or non-mechanized) accordingly • ADSR carries the printed invoices and the respective supply to the market the next day. Routes are 50 . gives delivery and collects the money • In case of any change in memo – additions or deductions. • The grievance procedure for damaged goods follow the following sequence: o The trader first informs it to the DSR o If the DSR finds the claim to be logical as per company policy for replacement. necessary changes are then made in DMS+ and the corresponding Memo. etc. otherwise it is returned back to the trader The Contract Merchandisers visit shops in his route.

0 BUSINESS ISSUE The distribution system in UBL is one of the most advanced in the FMCG industry in Bangladesh. The distributor’s organogram is as follows: Territory Manager Distributor/Owner House Manager Supervisor Computer Operator Distributor’s Sales Representative (DSR) Contract Merchandisers (CM) Delivery Man Assistant DSR(ADSR) Driver 4.divided into sections – the number of times a route is serviced in a week. o times a week and household once) Mechanized vehicles cover 2 sections per day. To understand the need for the new system. 51 . non-mechanized vehicles cover 1 section per day. The objective of this report is to evaluate a recently implemented solution to bring increased efficiency in the distributor’s process of ordering inventory from UBL. Even then there are areas of improvement. we will first analyze the problems with the previous system of operation. There are several areas from where inefficiency rises in the business of the distributor and Unilever Bangladesh Ltd. whereas. Itself.

The business issues are as follows:

1. Distributors need to maintain a certain amount of safety stock in their warehouses to account for unpredicted circumstances. Previously, Unilever Bangladesh Ltd. had mandated a fixed number of days cover for inventory. Stocking inventory requires forecasting, but most distributors lack forecasting tools; thus, inventory management is often done without them. Improper stock management methods result in capital blockage in slow moving stock and stock out in fast moving stock

2. There is no systematic method to measure how much stock of each product there should actually be. There is no forecasting and demand planning done by the distributor

3. Warehouse keepers don’t understand the proper stock requirement. Indent is made based on Judgment and Physical verification by the house manager

4. There is significant time loss in decision making regarding primary sales orders.

5. Indent is sometimes modified due to conversation between the distributor and the depot manager. If there is an order for a particular product but no stock available, then indent is not placed for that product. What happens as a result of this is that, true picture of the efficiency of production and Supply Chain Management is not apparent. And unless a problem is identified, it can’t be solved.

6. Finally, indent is often adjusted according to cash availability- since UBL does not sell on credit; order size is often reduced even though market demands more. This represents lost sales for UBL, since even though there is demand in the market & there might even be stock in UBL depots- sales is lost because of cash problem of the middleman- the distributor.



To address all of these issues, Unilever Bangladesh Ltd has decided to roll out state of the art software for turning the manual process of making indent into a fully automatic, standardized process. This system is called Continuous Replenishment System. To allow a better and more fully integrated application of the system, Unilever Bangladesh Ltd. has also devised another system called Distributor Financing.

Continuous Replenishment System and Distributor Financing run together can deliver the maximum benefits. CRS will address the forecasting issues of inventory management, while Distributor Financing arranged by UBL itself will ensure that the inventory levels suggested by the CRS system can be fully implemented by the distributors, with the financing problems taken care of by the banks-under the direction of UBL. Each process will be discussed in detail, and combined benefits of the 2 systems are analyzed to give future recommendations.

Currently in UBL, 60 distributors have been equipped with CRS, due to longer time & more formalities involved in processing bank financing. However, only 19 distributors have been implemented with CRS along with distributor financing. This is because arranging Distributor Financing is much more complicated by installing the CRS software. However work is underway on making all distributors CRS distributors with Distributor Financing


Continuous Replenishment System is the total automation of the Product replenishment from UBL to the Distributors. It starts from generating indent based on SKU wise stock norm and ends with receiving the stocks without any manual entry.


Electronic data interchange (EDI), used traditionally to exchange business documents, has recently been extended to facilitate inter-organizational collaborative processes such as the Continuous Replenishment System (CRS).

Manufacturers and retailers have been reengineering supply chains using information technology (IT) such as point-of-sale (POS) systems and electronic data interchange (EDI). While EDI has been used traditionally to exchange business documents between trading partners, its capabilities have been extended recently to facilitate collaborative business processes across firms. Continuous replenishment program (CRP) is one such IT-enabled reengineering effort. The key features of CRP are as follows: (1) Retailers provide the manufacturer with real time access to their inventory positions. (2) Based on this information, the manufacturer replenishes retailer inventory (3) Products are sold to retailers at an pre-agreed price

In CRS, retailer orders are essentially eliminated because manufacturers determine quantities to ship to retailers based on observed retail sales.

CRS is a way to cope with demand uncertainty because it coordinates the supply chain players to work with common forecasts. Theory of coordination or "coordination science" often focuses on the value of information sharing in achieving intra-inter-firm coordination (Malone and Crowston 1994). However, information sharing is only one aspect of coordination; business processes are also redesigned along with information sharing.

CRP restructures the supply-chain ordering process in two fundamental ways. • First, it requires the customer to share inventory level, which is traditionally viewed as sensitive and secret information. • Second, under CRS, the retailer inventory management is performed by the manufacturer and not by the not customer.


It is well known that traditional Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) reduces transaction costs and errors (Mukhopadhyay et al. 1995, Wang and Seidmann 1995, Srinivasan et al. 1994, Riggins and Mukhopadhyay 1994). Although the benefits of EDI for ordering were widely publicized, few firms in the retail industry had experienced significant savings from using EDI to automate the existing ordering process (Clark and Hammond 1997). Many authors have also noted that EDI must involve changes in business processes to realize savings enabled by the EDI innovation (Riggins and Mukhopadhyay 1994, Venkatraman 1994).

Case studies of CRS implementation speculated that for continuous replenishment systems to work effectively, demand must either be stable or reasonably predictable (Clark and Hammond 1997). Products that change frequently such as seasonal goods may not be appropriate for the CRS approach. Retail grocery product demands are relatively stable and are effectively managed by CRP (Clark 1994b).

When there is no CRS, the retailers communicate only their orders to the manufacturer. Under CRP, the manufacturer has real-time access to participant retailers' inventory levels, and the manufacturer replenishes the inventory for each participant retailer. CRS reduces the expected inventory holding costs of both the manufacturer and customer participants.

Research on CRS is recent. Pioneering empirical research has been carried out by Clark and others in a series of case studies of the grocery industry (Clark 1994a, Hammond 1995, Clark and Hammond 1997, Lee et al. 1999). The primary result of this stream of research is that channel transformation, defined as the combination of process and technological innovation, provides significantly greater performance improvements than either technological innovations or process redesign changes implemented independently.

Analytical modelling of the CRS innovation is limited and has focused primarily on channel coordination through information sharing. These studies discuss how a manufacturer can elicit information from retailers through inventory, lead-time, and shortage allocation policies (Bourland et al. 1996, Gavirneni et al. 1996, Aviv and Federgruen 1998, Moinzadeh and Bassok 1998, Cachon and Fisher 1998). In these studies, the benefit of information

A firm order is generated by the supply for the required quantities without further confirmation by the retailer.sharing to the manufacturer comes primarily from the manufacturer's ability to forecast more accurately the size of retailer's future orders and/or the actual timing of the future order placement. The key characteristics of CRS are the sharing of real-time inventory data by retailers with manufacturers and continuous replenishment of retailer inventory by manufacturers. the responsibility for inventory management and replenishment shifts totally to the supplier. When a supply chain is viewed as a demand chain. supplier or buyer.Co-Managed Inventory (CMI) and Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI). depending on which party. This is used by the supplier as input to ongoing forecasts and adjustments to the next production cycle. A proposed order is generated by the supplier and revised and confirmed by the retail buyer. This embraces two main initiatives . actually manages the inventory and on the extent to which information gets shared. INTEGRATED DEMAND MANAGEMENT The rationale behind Continuous Replenishment System is more than product replenishment. The consumers are ultimately better 56 . the buyer maintains the responsibility for inventory management and replenishment. VENDOR MANAGED INVENTORY (VMI): In VMI. Inventory and sales data is transferred electronically by the buyer to the supplier as often as the replenishment system is executed. can be used by the management for demand analysis and achievement of integrated demand management. with partnership being the key word traditional replenishment processes are fast giving way to the Continuous Replenishment concept. product numbering and bar-coding. CO-MANAGED INVENTORY (CMI) In CMI. the data captured along the chain. with a series of enabling technologies like Electronic Data Interchange. In today's global marketplace. The order messages sent merely update the retailer’s information system.

e. Nevertheless the effort of one party alone is not enough. based on received Indent logic. After authorization." CRS can help make warehouse function closer to a crossdocking operation where items are received. it will be freeze. the Indent will be uploaded to UniBD. 5.DMS+. then staged to go out. logic for indents which will be generated from the distributors’ computer system must be setup in Unilever central system. Activity. i. store and pull. Option will be provided to view the value of the Indent. 2) Indent Logic and lifting schedule will be sent to distributors system-DMS+ online using UniBD.e. 3) This system generated suggestive indent must be authorized by distributor/ distributor’s authorized person in DMS+. The goal of CRS is to bring in inventory when the customer needs it.3 CRS INFORMATION FLOW 1) Initially.Nucleus. The process applies lean principles to distribution operations as a way to increase inventory velocity. Innovation and Seasonal SKUs etc. As opposed to the old "receipt. Strong cooperation between trading partners is essential for the success of good demand management. Once an indent is authorized. Stock Norm by SKU. Indent will be generated in distributors system.2 CRS IN UBL INVOLVES: Full Automation of Indent process Electronically fund transfer & indent submission Electronically receiving the stock Stock Auto updating Cash transfer according to indent 5.served. There will be electronic signature of the acknowledgement regarding the indent and financial issues. 57 . Distributor will be able to change only three types of SKUs i. Lifting Schedule etc.

DMS+ operator in the distribution house will download the Invoice from UniBD to DMS+. firm invoice will be created and sent to UniBD through an Interface to change item codes compatible to DMS+. 5) From UniBD the indent will move to Unilever Main System. 10)Finally. The invoice will first enter as Transit Stock and after getting the product it will move to current stock. 9) Getting confirmation from bank. 8) The electronic advice will be uploaded to MFGPro as balance confirmation. 7) The Bank will arrange transfer of required fund to UBL account either from distributor’s balance or his OD limit and confirm UBL through electronic advice. 6) A pro forma invoice will be auto generated in MFGPro.MFGPro through an interface to convert DMS+ item code to MFGPro item code using a cross table. Supply Chain department can make limited correction with proper reason.4) RSM / ASM or their authorized person in their absence has to then authorize the indent in UniBD for their designated distributors. In any point of time distributor’s Current Stock = Physical Stock + Safety Stock 58 . The pro forma indent value will go to the concerned bank for financial clearance. which will be maintained in MFGPro.

b) Parameter for Indent calculation • • • Nucleus: Duration for Sales SKU wise ( Number of days ) Nucleus: SKU Factor – SKU wise manual entry ( with decimal ) Nucleus: Avg Lead Time : Distributor wise separate manual entry (Decimal) 59 . which are as follows 1) Master Setup: SKU a) Cross table: This is a table where there will be a related DMS+ item code for every MFGPro item code.DMS generated Indent Indent uploaded to UNIBD RSM/ASM authorization Pro forma Invoice Bank Declaration Firm Invoice Invoice uploaded in UNIBD Invoice downloaded in DMS Stock Updated in DMS Stock Norm Limited Edit Option Based on Availability OD Arrangement & Account Transfer FIGURE 6 CRS PROCESS FLOW 5. Option will be provided to upload manually from Nucleus to MFGPro.5 CRS PROCESS FLOW Nucleus will be basically used for setup necessary logic. Everyday this cross table will be uploaded to MFGPro.

default benchmark is the original SKU itself.• Nucleus: OCF=OCF Weight*SD (Order Cycle weekly (1. In this case distributor has to first upload the SKU flat file then the invoice.2.3. Then the NUCLEUS user will update the cross table and refresh the invoice. 60 . At the same time Nucleus user have to send the new SKU code to distributor also. For any innovative SKU where there are no history sales Benchmark SKU will be taken into consideration for Indent generation in DMS+ and provide the result in the original SKU. the corresponding flat file containing the total invoice information will go to NUCLEUS from MFGPro and in NUCLEUS there will be a pop up message for the user. DISTRIBUTOR a) Lifting pattern: Distributor wise lifting pattern will be entered in NUCLEUS and will be uploaded to DMS+ 2) INVOICE ISSUE : In MFGPro. if any invoice contains any new SKU code which does not have equivalent DMS+ code in cross table. 3) DOWNLOAD OPTION: One common download option under heading CRS DMS+ INDENT: 1) Indent Logic • DMS+ generated Indent date and the corresponding firm invoice in MFGPro must be in the same date. After that the invoice will go to UniBD using interface system.4 etc ) and Weightage (with decimal ) – Different for different lifting pattern) • Nucleus: SD of Lead time – distributor wise manual entry c) Benchmark SKU: Will be selected in current Stock Keeping Unit (SKU).

• If the Depot user fails to create firm invoice within the same date. ii) Unscheduled– Manually generated indent on non-lifting days. There will be no system generated suggestion for unscheduled indent. After receiving corresponding firm invoice or notification for not invoiced from MFGPro. c) Indent formula: • • SS – Safety Stock SD: StdDev = Standard Deviation 61 . will be of 8 digits – Distributor code (3 digit) + Flag (1 digit – ‘S’ . b) Indent will be generated in the benchmark SKU for innovation SKUs. i. For example D01S0815. Indent will be zero quantity with all SKUs. the indent will be closed automatically. • Indent no. i) Scheduled– Auto generated indent on lifting days. iii) Schedule Missed – If any schedule indent missed for any reason. indent will become ineffective in MFGPro & DMS+.scheduled.unscheduled) + Serial no (4 digit). ‘U’ . in the next day it will be treated as scheduled even if the day is unscheduled • Only one indent can be generated in a day. • If any invoice missed. but will be displayed for the original SKU. • 2 types of indent can be generated from DMS+.e. 2) Indent Generation ( Schedule and Unscheduled ): a) During indent generation DMS+ will check schedule or unscheduled day. Distributor must send a fresh indent from DMS+ in the following day maintaining the same approval process by RSM & ASM and with updated quantity. in the next day the indent will be closed and if distributor requires a fresh indent will be generated with updated quantity but in the same indent number.

b) Weekly allocation from month target will also be taken in to consideration during indent generation. Activity and Seasonal (definition should be set at Nucleus) SKUs only.3.2. But the user must enter a reason (drop down list) at the time of modification. a) After suggestive indent has been created. Sales^2 X SD of Lead Time^2) FC Value = Safety Stock + SKU Factor + OCF FC Days = FC Value / Average Sales Value FC Quantity = Round in Higher Side (FC Value / Trade Price ) ROQ = FC Quantity – Current Stock If ROQ is positive that will be suggestive quantity or if this will be negative than suggestive quantity will be zero. 62 .4 etc ) and Weight (with decimal) Distributor wise manual entry • Nucleus: SD of Lead time – Distributor wise manual entry SD = StdDev (Particular Duration Daily Sales Value) Avg Sales = Total duration sales value / Total duration SS = 3. user will be able to manually edit Innovation.72 X SqRt (Avg Lead Time X SD^2 ) + ( Avg.• • • • • • • OCF: Order Cycle Factor FC : Fixed Cover ROQ : Re-Order Quantity Nucleus : Avg Lead Time : Distributor wise separate manual entry (Decimal) Nucleus : Duration for Sales SKU wise ( Number of days ) Nucleus : SKU Factor – SKU wise manual entry ( with decimal ) Nucleus : OCF – Order Cycle weekly (1.

a flat file will be created in encrypted mode along with Site code and with not ordered SKU list. After indent generation. will be uploaded to UniBD along with tag (scheduled/ unscheduled). 63 .3.

EFFECT OF CRS IMPLEMENTATION ON CUSTOMER DEMAND SATISFACTION MEASURED THROUGH (CCFOT) Customer Case Fill on Time (CCFOT) is a measure to see how much of the demand from the market on time is being met by supply chain. case fill has been a key performance indicator (KPI) which measures what was shipped to customers. It enables measurement of customer service as seen by the customer and a common mechanism for sharing performance and major losses to facilitate improvement by the sharing of best practice. CCFOT has been given great importance in recent times both globally and locally. i. requiring the business to understand loss areas and develop action plans. CCFOT forms part of a root cause analysis process. 64 .0 EVALUATION OF CONTINUOUS REPLENISHMENT SYSTEM AND DISTRIBUTOR FINANCING The CRS+DF project proposal stated the above benefits to be realized after CRS implementation. With this in mind. Market demand is taken as the order every day from distributors every day. CCFOT is a consistent measure of Order to Delivery (OTD) performance across Unilever. it has become important to adopt a consistent measurement of its relationship with the customer including service to customer and efficiency in providing this service. distributors against what had been ordered.e. The process has been implemented in 19 distributors fo 1. More than a measure. Over recent years.6. As Unilever moves ahead globally to be the best supplier in its class. CCFOT enables the business to identify opportunities and actions necessary to improve the order to delivery process.

with minimum human intervention. Sales were being lost. the distributors only placed orders for the products currently in stock at the company depot. Because of this practice. which allows for automatic indent generation. This was another problem that was going to be addressed by CRS. but the CCFOT figures for that month show a completely misleading result of a very good performance.CCFOT in UBL This has always been measured in UBL. as demand was not being met in all cases. Thus. E. because there was no way of gauging the demand without a correct CCFOT figure. even though market was demanding the product. This was a big enough problem. and hence there was undersupply. This was a vicious cycle that needed drastic measures to come out of. However. that is. it was not possible to devise any remedies. Without a true picture of the situation. and has consistently shown strong positive resultsaround 90%.g. even the 10% gap between demand and supply didn’t seem to corroborate with the market feedback of gross undersupply.but there was no concrete way to measure these lost sales and to identify areas for action to be taken on. The production team did not remedy the production situation.on the basis that was not enough market demand for the product. 10% of potential sales was being lost every month. it is often seen that a particular products in currently under supplied in the market in a particular month. there were no orders placed for products which were under produced and hence undersupplied. The reason for such misleading CCFOT figures was a result of a common business practice of distributors to check stock levels with the depot manager before placing an order. CRS automatically calculates how much quantity of each product should be ordered given the current stock level and the market demand measured by memos from retailers-based on the prescribed 65 . After the conversation. the company used to run on the belief that almost 90% of market demand is being fulfilled.

CCFOT fell to 77% in April from 89% in January: a drastic 10% fall.stock norm built into the system as explained before. The potential sales being lost was actually 23%. FIGURE 7 UBL CCFOT JAN-'09. And the results of this move to automatic indent generation by CRS are quite obvious from latest changes in CCFOT. we see a sharp increase from the downward trend starting from Janaury’09. now there is simply a way to measure this and hence take corrective steps to improve it. Thus CRS generated indents from all the distributors in the country the company a real number of the demand for each type of SKU. The situation has always persisted in the company. i. This is again evident from the CCFOT results of May’09.MAY'09 It prompted the necessary changes in the business. the supply could now be adjusted accordingly. it is actually quite the opposite. Although this might seem deterioration in performance. This shows the company a true picture of how much of the customers’ (distributors’) demand. not 10% that was believed previously. Once the demand figure was accurate. the market demand is being fulfilled. 66 . In the very next month.e. The CCFOT figure rose to 83% in May from 77% in April: a rise of 6%. As we can see from the figure below: CCFOT for the Total Company has shown a drastic fall in April-which was the month that CRS was fully operation in more than 50% of the distributors. The business implication of this was huge. guided in the right direction by the CCFOT results.

67 . This shows changes being made to increase the supply vs demand ratio. The rest 9% is divided among the other 9 categories. Transit Time Delay. FIGURE 8 OUT OF STOCK% JAN'09-MAY'09 The figure above shows the changes in Out of Stock from January to May. the Out of Stock % rose only by 2% while CCFOT by 6%. Of the 23% lacking.CCFOT Components CCFOT calculation has 10 criteria of measurement.hence it can be said 14% of potential sales has been lost in April due to stock out situations alone. etc. and is a reason for a shortage from 100% CCFOT. Out of Stock criteria makes up about 14% of it. But due to positive steps taken the Supply Chain Team.which again reinforces our previous deduction. It was very low at 7% in January. These heads account for the balance between 100% and the CCFOT figure. The major ones among those are: Out of Stock. it fell by 2% to 12% in May.the CCFOT. and CCFOT could be greatly improved. So the only major category of inefficiency is Out Of Stock. Customer Order Issues. Each contributes to the CCFOT figure. However. The remaining was due to increase in efficiency in other areas such as: Transit Time Delay & Credit Limit Issue. 14% of all order cannot be supplied it is out of stock. From there it jumped to 14% in April. That is.

then at least a higher percentage of demand received from the market • Higher growth in sales by streamlining the supply chain 68 . Deodorant is a very young market in Bangladesh. All of these 3 categories are Personal Products. A further breakdown shows which categories have suffered the worst from out of stock situations: TABLE 2 PRODUCT CATEGORY WISE CCFOT Category Deodorant Skin care Oral care Skin cleansing Detergent Hair care Household care Tea Out of Stock 28% 24% 23% 13% 12% 9% 8% 1% The highest out of stock situation occurs in Deodorant. CCFOT could be significantly improved by focusing on these areas. & Oral Care. In addition.which carry the highest Gross Margin %. if not fully. and constant efforts are under way to increase its growth. Skin Care.Category Wise CCFOT Across all major categories as well. we can see that CCFOT has drastically fallen in April’09 contributing to the overall fall in Total Company CCFOT. The situation of Deodorant growth is even more hampered by such Out of Stock Situations. which consequently will have several impacts on the business: • Meeting. and hence the loss the company is even more.

As a result. However this can be attributed to extraordinary reasons. rather than an indication of performance. determined by forecasts. which they fear they might run out of. We have established previously that CRS+DF implementation has helped distributors lower their stock levels to an optimum level based on a stock norm.rather than achieving low or high inventory levels. companies can not only lose out on sales but also suffer reputation damage by not meeting customer needs.had to start paying them then. EFFECT OF CRS IMPLEMENTATION ON SALES GROWTH OF UNILEVER AND DISTRIBUTORS Forecasting sales and inventory levels is probably one of the most difficult jobs as companies need to unite demand signals with supply. We are going to evaluate the impact of CRS+DF implementation of distributor’s sales by comparing growth level of YTD 2008 and 2009 of CRS+DF distributors versus that of non CRS+DF distributors UBL Growth Rate The average growth level of all distributors in the company has fallen by 5% in 2009 compared Same Period Last Year. their costs rose and they had less cash to spare on trade and consumer 69 . UBL’s local competitor’s who were previously not paying income taxes and VAT. So distributors often make the mistake of overstocking: both for slow moving SKUs. in case there is an order in which case they don’t want to miss out. However. for us to get full view of the benefits and costs of CRS+DF implementation.2. But the impact of the decrease in stock levels on sales levels need to be examined. The key here is moving towards optimal stock levels. it has been proved over time to the contrary. although the initial instinct for distributors is to overstock rather than lose sales because of stock out situations. UBL saw a lot of changes in the marketplace and within itself in 2008. and also fast moving SKUs. • The Caretaker government was in power. By not carrying enough inventories. As a result. and law enforcement was much stronger than in any other democratic government.

an entirely different picture can be seen. the actual growth rate has fallen in comparison to 2008. However.and sometimes even less than planned. The actual names of the distributors have been encoded to protect confidentiality of information.promotions. CRS+DF Distributors’ Growth Rate Having established the falling growth rate of the company. In addition. So even though the growth of the company is modest by previous standards.MAY 2009 YTD Distributors Change In Growth Level 14% 18% -5% -5% 50% -2% 70 G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6 . TABLE 3 CRS+DF DISTRIBUTORS CHANGE IN GROWTH FROM MAY 2008 YTD. now we look at the growth performance of the 19 CRS+DF distributors are isolated from rest of the distributors. The growth rate comparison of these distributors can be seen below: The table below. • This was also coupled by a price hike the company pulled in 2008. while UBL sales rose while spending the same amount. with the democratic government back in power in 2009.which contributed to higher value from each product being sold All of these resulted in a 30%+ growth rate in 2008 from 2007.which was the highest in the history of UBL’ performance. Consequently competitor sales fell. “G” represents the change in growth rate from 2008 May YTD to 2009 May YTD. the base for growth in 2009 is much higher than ever. such huge sales growth is not possible this year.

CRS+DF has thus enabled UBL distributors to only buy what they need based on the computer information. However.G7 G8 G9 G10 G11 G12 G13 G14 G15 G16 G17 G18 G19 Average 7% 1% 30% -9% -4% 13% -2% 22% 0% 6% 3% 3% 8% The average growth rate of the CRS+DF distributors have actually gone up by 8%.this performance is even more significant given the performance of the rest of the company. since a mere only 15% of total distributors are CRS+DF distributors. TABLE 4 NON CRS+DF DISTRIBUTORS CHANGE IN GROWTH RATE FROM 2008 MAY YTD.2009 MAY YTD Change In Growth Level Rest of the company -11% Thus. this enables us to see that CRS+DF has enabled these distributors to actually increase their growth levels while that of the rest of the company has gone down. we can conclude CRS+DF have enabled the distributors to achieved higher growth in sales. The combined effect on UBL is 5% decreases in growth level. while that of the rest of the 100 distributors have gone down by 11%. and ship the items when they arrive at their warehouse from the 71 .

So distributors often make the mistake of overstocking: both for slow moving SKUs. it has been proved over time to the contrary. rather than being afraid of running out of stock and buying additional inventory every time the company receives large new orders. although the initial instinct for distributors is to overstock rather than lose sales because of stock out situations. they will be able to sell it off faster.depot. They still carry a ‘comfort zone’ inventory level just in case shipments get delayed. they will have to buy more from UBL Lesser amount of claims for Trade Return. Inventory Management is a delicate process of balancing. and also fast moving SKUs. and becoming eligible for Trade Return.rather than achieving low or high inventory levels. but their inventory level is substantially lower compared to what they carried in the past. If the distributors buy of the right kind of stock at the right time in the right time. For many companies. which they fear they might run out of. As a result UBL enjoys 2 benefits: • • If the distributor sells more to retailers. companies can not only lose out on sales but also suffer reputation damage by not meeting customer needs.thus not building up stock reaching expiry dates. for us to get full view of the benefits and costs of CRS+DF implementation. However. in case there is an order in which case they don’t want to miss out. effective inventory management is a critical component of financial health. 3. We have established previously that CRS+DF implementation has helped distributors lower their stock levels to an optimum level based on a stock norm. The key here is moving towards optimal stock levels. But the impact of the decrease in stock levels on sales levels need to be examined. which has not at all resulted in increased lost sales due to stock out. Companies need to 72 . EFFECT OF CRS IMPLEMENTATION ON DISTRIBUTOR STOCK LEVELS Forecasting sales and inventory levels is probably one of the most difficult jobs as companies need to unite demand signals with supply. determined by forecasts. This is also beneficial for UBL itself. By not carrying enough inventories.

thus inventory. By not carrying enough inventory. companies can not only lose out on sales but also suffer reputation damage by not meeting customer needs. management is about two things: not running out. So bulk buying. UBL had previously mandated all distributors to carry at least inventory enough for 7 days stock cover. UBL works at to avoid. Essentially. The business needs to avoid stock outs. One of the established benefits of continuous replenishment as observed by the industry is stock level optimization. arbitrarily set. 3. Time . However holding too much of the wrong inventory can bring down the profitability of the distributor-which is something. Excess inventory ties up money and needs to be reduced in order to free up cash for investment in revenue-growth activities. and whether this has been realized by UBL will be tested using 2 measures: Stock Cover & Stock Value 73 .Inventories are maintained as buffers to meet uncertainties in demand. inventory is a reserve system to prevent a stock out.balance inventory to meet customer needs while accommodating shifting preferences. Uncertainty . There is often a paradox: holding too much inventory ties up valuable cash. businesses also don’t want to hold onto too much inventory because of holding costs. as important as it is to prevent such a stock out. supply and movements of goods. from supplier to user at every stage. requires that you maintain certain amount of inventory to use in this "lead time" 2. However. when he needs it" principle tends to incur lots of costs in terms of logistics. along with uncertainties in demand and supplier lead times are why inventory is maintained in the first place. but too little inventory is risky since some suppliers could lose their financial footing.The time lags present in the supply chain.Ideal condition of "one unit at a time at a place where user needs it. Economies of scale . and not having too much. Inventory There are three basic reasons for keeping an inventory: 1. movement and storing brings in economies of scale.

the last quarter sales data approach has been undertaken by UBL. Previously it was based on average Year Till Date (YTD) sales. In principle. Actual Days Cover is monitored every week. The formula for determining Stock Cover: Planned Distributor Stock Cover Value = Q1 Average Secondary Sales/ Sales days in the week* Days Cover as per lifting Sales Days in the week: This is fixed at 6. Distributor Stock Cover Value is fixed every quarter based on the average sales of the previous quarter. it is communicated to all distributors. Apart from buffer stocks that businesses sometimes need in case of shortages of supply and strategic stocks in case of war.Stock Cover Inventory days represent the number of days cover for inventory. Planned Q1 Days Cover as per lifting: This is pre-planned number of days fixed every based on the number of days delivery is made to a particular distributor. since UBL conducts selling on 6 days of the week. modern stock control theory tells us to minimise our investment in stocks. sudden changes in demand and so on. which is then implemented. the lower the investment in stocks the better. but to keep the plan more dynamic and most closely resembling current scenario. based on the weekly stock level 74 . This is divided into 3 categories: o For distributors that are not CRS implemented o For distributors that have a 6 day lifting and are CRS implemented o For distributors that have a 3 day lifting and are CRS implemented Actual Days Cover: After the plan is made every quarter.

CRS Distributors.0 11.8 7.4 7.9 6.0 7.1 5.0 5.0 7.8 5.8 6.0 8.4 7.2 6.1 7.6 April 6.2 6.9 6.8 7.1 7.1 6.8 7.9 5. TABLE 5 CRS+DF DISTRIBUTORS DAY COVER FROM JANUARY 2009 TO MAY 2009 Days cover D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10 D11 D12 D13 D14 D15 January 5.7 8.4 7. The actual names of the distributors have been encoded to protect confidentiality of information.5 8.2 8.6 5.4 6.7 6.7 8. “D” represents the stock days cover from January 2009 to May 2009.7 6.5 8.2 8.4 7.8 6.0 6.8 5.1 Average 6 6 7 8 8 6 10 6 7 6 6 7 7 7 7 75 .0 6.0 6.3 6.2 7.5 6. The distributors are in no particular order.2 7.5 6.8 10.4 4.6 7.0 7.1 6.2 6.9 6.4 6.maintained by the distributor.7 6.7 7.9 7.9 5.2 6.2 5. It measures how many days’ sales are maintained by each distributor.9 8.9 March 7.1 7.9 8.8 May 5.6 4. Actual Days Cover= Actual Stock Value/ (Q1 Stock Cover Plan/ Planned Days Cover) To find out whether CRS has helped distributors reduce their stock levels the stock cover for CRS distributors is compared with stock cover figure for Non.2 6.5 8.0 8.5 6.6 7.1 7.0 7.3 February 6.7 6.9 9.

D16 D17 D18 D19 Total Average 6.1 Average 8 The tables above show the month by month Average Days Cover for both CRS and Non CRS distributors.1 8.6 6.6 8.1 9.3 April 6.9 7.9 February 8.4 March 8.1 8 5.3 4. Below the tables are graphically represented FIGURE 9 STOCK DAYS COVER TREND FOR CRS+DF DISTRIBUTORS FIGURE 10 STOCK DAYS COVER TREND FOR NON CRS+DF DISTRIBUTORS 76 . TABLE 6 NON CRS+DF DISTRIBUTORS DAYS COVER FROM JANUARY 2009 TO FEBRUARY 2009 Days cover Total Others January 7.2 6. while the average Stock Cover of all the other Non-CRS Distributors is 8 days.9 8.4 6 6.5 8 6.1 8.0 8.2 6.1 6.2 7 6.9 6 6 7 7 8 7 As we can see Days Cover for CRS distributors is perfectly 7 days as recommended by UBL.0 9.4 6.5 6.8 May 7.

On the Other hand. as shown in the figure below. Days Cover for Non CRS+DF distributors have actually gone up in the months from January to May. We will examine whether and how this impacted their growth and profitability in the following hypotheses. FIGURE 11 STOCK DAYS COVER FOR CRS VS NON CRS DISTRIBUTORS Thus. The following bar chart again demonstrates that in each of the months in 2009. 4 EFFECT OF CRS IMPLEMENTATION ON PROFITABILITY OVER INVESTMENT OF DISTRIBUTORS The second objective of this report was to analyze the impact of CRS implementation on Return of Investment (ROI) of distributors. 77 . The ROI was expected to increase because of lower level of investment in stock. stock cover for CRS distributors have been significantly lower than that of Non-CRS Distributors. the hypotheses is proved that by implementing CRS+ DF in the selected distribution houses UBL has been able to reduce their stock levels compared to those operating without CRS+DF.As we can see from the figure above. Actual Days cover for CRS+DF implemented Distributors has been on a downward trend.which is supposed increase profitability over investment.

As shown in the table below. A lot of other factors play in a role in influencing ROI: Sales levels. Sales Growth.2.we can get a better picture. TABLE 7 DISTRIBUTOR ROI COMPARISON OF CRS+DF & NON CRS+DF January February March CRS+DF Non CRS+DF 45% 40% 28% 28% 35% 36% April 23% 24% Average 37% 32% 78 . This suggests it is unlikely to significantly raise ROI by simply reducing stock levels. we created a scatter plot of average ROI and average stock days cover of the CR distributors in 2009. which is a very weak negative correlation.To examine the relationship between stock days cover and ROI. Cost Structure. etc. instead of in isolation. ROI of CRS Distributors has been consistently higher than that of Non-CRS Distributors. in each of the months. If we view the ROI performance of CRS Distributors in comparison with that of Non-CRS Distributors. The chart is as follows: FIGURE 12 RELATION BETWEEN DISTRIBUTOR ROI AND STOCK DAYS The test yielded a correlation of -0.

FIGURE 13 DISTRIBUTOR ROI COMPARISON OF CRS+DF & NON CRS+DF DISTRIBUTORS The ROI performance of CRS+DF distributors could also be looked at from another anglecomparison of the ROI of these 19 distributors in 2009 against that in 2008. The results can be seen in the figure below. 79 . FIGURE 14 CRS+DF DISTRIBUTORS ROI 2008 VS 2009 As can be seen in the figure above. the ROI performance of the 19 CRS+DF distributors have gone up from 2008 by 6%.

higher sales growths and ultimately greater customer satisfaction of the distributors due to higher Return on Investment.Thus. Continuous Replenishment System with Distributor Financing implemental in 19 distributors of Unilever Bangladesh Ltd. The effectiveness of the model can be further improved if it is rolled out with majority of the distributors. That is probably when the high sales growth of the pilot distributors could be reflected on Unilever sales levels. 7. and after complete integration into business processes. using both measures we can conclude that implementing CRS+DF does have a positive influence on distributors’ profitability over investment. we can conclude that implementation of CRS+DF has delivered quite significant value additions in the pilot group of distributors.0 CONCLUSION From the above analysis. the results will be truly significant. Currently. 80 . that is the major time consuming part of the model. lower level of stock buildup. to maximize the benefits of CRS+DF implementation. As a pilot model. Unilever could explore alternative banks for distributor financing bring further efficiency in the process of approval of Distributor Financing to all distributors. has been quite successful. The model promises enormous benefit to the business in the form of more dynamic stock movement. In addition. although this is not due to lower level of stocks.

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