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# Navigation for Professional Pilots

Ray Preston

2010

Navigation for Professional Pilots

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Navigation for Professional Pilots

Introduction:

This text was created for use in the course Avia 160 as part of the Selkirk College Professional Aviation Program, which leads to the Canadian Commercial Pilot License with Multi-engine and Instrument Rating. This text is intended as an adjunct to a 48 hour lecture series on the topic of navigation. Assignments, tests, and exams supplement this text and the lectures. Flight planning exercises include both VFR and IFR cross-countries. Students will become expert at preparing VNC maps and completing navlogs for VFR cross countries. They will also use LO charts and the Canada Air Pilot to plan IFR cross-countries. This book explains both theoretical and practical principles of flight navigation, including visual and radio navigation based on VOR, ADF, and DME. This course covers principles of intercepting and maintaining a radio course. It also covers flying DME arcs. An introduction to procedure turns is included. The text is supplemented by several computer simulations of the Selkirk College Aviation Intranet, which is on the web at Selair.selkirk.ca. Students in this course are expected to become expert at the use of the CR(or 6) navigation computer. This text was written based on the assumption that readers hold a private pilot license and as such have certain basic knowledge about aviation in general and navigation in particular.

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Navigation for Professional Pilots

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........................................................................ Dead Reckoning and Radio Navigation ......37 Indicated and Calibrated Airspeed (IAS and CAS) ................................19 Density Altitude .............29 Performance Rules of Thumb ........................................................ and Magnetic) ........................................................................................................................................................................................................28 Electronic Charts for the C-172P.........................35 True Airspeed (TAS) .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................13 Pilotage...............35 Mass – Distance – Time...........36 Equivalent Airspeed (EAS) ............................................................................................................................................................14 Sample Questions 1 ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................18 Pressure Altitude ..........................................................................................................................................................................23 Cold Temperature Corrections ..........................................................35 Velocity Expressed as Airspeed.........................Navigation for Professional Pilots Table of Contents: Chapter 1 .............................18 The International Standard Atmosphere .....................................28 Interpolation and Accurate Drawing Skill ...........................................................................................................................38 Heading (True....39 Page 5 ..............................................30 Weight and Balance Shift..........37 ICE-T ............................................................................ and two useful deductions from the definition ................................................................................................................................................................29 Electronic Charts for the Travelair ..................................................................................21 Sample Questions 2 ............................23 Performance Charts ................... The Fundamental Concepts of Physics ........................................................................................35 Definition of Velocity............................................................................13 Text Overview ..........................................................................16 Pressure and Density Altitude ..31 Chapter 2 .........................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................39 Wind and Drift ...................................................... ADF.............................................................................................................................56 Drift Estimation Challenge ....................................................49 Drift Estimation ..........Navigation for Professional Pilots Compass Deviation .............................................46 Calculation of Crosswind and Tailwind .................................................66 “Beating” the Computerized Flying Instructor ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................49 Estimate XW and TW .........................58 Drift Estimation Summary ....................................................................46 Groundspeed Defined .........40 Definitions: Crosswind and Headwind.................................................................................................................................................................................................................39 Wind Triangle: GS = TAS + Wind....................................................................59 VOR.............................................................. TW................................................................................50 Magic Number ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................59 Introduction to Radio Navigation ....... DME – Final Thoughts.................................................................................48 Sample Problems: .. and DME Channel Pairing .............................................55 Two-bit Math ..................................................58 Chapter 3 ...................................63 GPS Navigation ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................64 Establishing the Brackets ...................................................................... ILS... and GS with a CR ............................................61 VOR.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................47 Determining XW................................64 Bracketing ...............................................59 VOR Reception Range ......................................................................................................54 Estimation of Drift Based on Crosswind and Magic Number ...............45 Drift Angle Defined .................................................................................................................................. da...........................................................................................................................................................................................72 Page 6 ............................................................................................................................72 Break-out Logic ..

........................................................................................................97 Chapter 5 ......92 Chapter 4 ....................... 109 Time to a Station – ARC Speed .......................... 121 Page 7 ...........................................................................................................................81 Outbound PDTs ..............................................................................E......................... 103 Celsius to Fahrenheit Temperature Conversion ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 106 Speed Ratios – I...................................................................................................................................................................96 Separation of IFR Aircraft .......... Groundspeed Checks .96 IFR Alternate Airport .................78 Intercepting a Course (PDT) ................ 101 Unit Conversions ................................................................................................................. 106 Mach Number....................................................................................................................... 115 Standard Decent Gradient is 3° .................................................................................................................................................................................................................95 IFR Charts ...............89 Random PDT practice............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................73 Flying a DME ARC.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................91 Tracking and Intercepting Summary ....................................................................................................................................................................................................96 Preferred IFR Routes .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................96 Overview of IFR System ............... 101 A Ratio Machine ..........................................................................................................74 DME Groundspeed During an ARC .........95 LO Charts ...............................95 HI Charts.................................................................................................................................................. 101 The CR Computer ........................................................................................................................................................................ 109 Two IMPORTANT two-step CR Ratio Problems ............................................ 107 Miles per Minute ....................................................................................................Navigation for Professional Pilots Bracketing Summary .......

.................. 124 Procedure for “Slow and Low” Airplanes.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 151 True and Magnetic North (Variation) ........................................................ 125 Procedure for “Fast and High” Airplanes .................................................... 146 Map Theory .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 139 Navigation Theory ...... 131 Sample Questions 5 .................................... 122 Derive CAS given TAS and Forecast Temperature ..................................................................................... 139 Latitude ...................................................................................................................................................................... 141 Great-circles ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 155 Contour Lines and Hypsometric Tints .................................................................................................................................................................................Navigation for Professional Pilots TAS and CAS Conversions ......................................................................................................... 137 The Canada Flight Supplement ........................................ 153 Compass Deviation .... 127 Comparing Procedure for slow and fast Airplanes ............................................................... 146 Rhumb-Line ........... 139 Longitude..................................................................................................................................................................... 139 Shape of the Earth.... 133 Chapter 6 ....... 147 Lambert Conformal Conic Projection........................................................................ 137 Weather and NOTAMS................................................................................................................................................................ 158 Page 8 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 144 Convergence ................................... 157 Map Scale .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 156 Map Legend... 143 Small Circles.............................................. 137 Chapter 7 ............................................................................................................................................................................ 148 Transverse Mercator projection ........................................................................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................. 185 Tips for the Electronic Nav-Log ........................................ 163 Plotting Lines of Position (LOP) ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 179 Selection of Cruising Altitude .... 163 Chapter 8 .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 176 First Enroute leg (to TOC) ................... 175 Choosing a Set Heading Point (SHP) ....................................................................................................... 185 Reserve ............................................. 169 Introduction to Nav-logs ...................................................... 188 Filling in a Flight Plan Form ........................................................................................................................................................... 172 Ramp Fuel and Fuel Remaining .... 175 Filling in the Navlog.............................................................................................................. 186 Drawing a Line Across a 2-Sided Chart ..................... 169 Fly-by and Fly-over Waypoints .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 184 Checkpoints leading to Alternate Airport ......................................................... 178 Cruise Legs – Between Enroute Checkpoints ................................................................... 182 Top of Descent ............................................................................................................................................................ 183 Approach at Destination ............... 169 Flight Planning ....................................................................................................... 186 VFR Map Preparation Techniques................................................................................... 189 Page 9 .................................................................................... 169 Definition of a Leg ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Navigation for Professional Pilots Grid Navigation ............................................................................................................................ 183 Contingencies ................................................................................. 158 Grivation .................................................... 188 Measuring Track and Distance ................. 185 Approach at Alternate Airport .................................................................................... 171 Navlog Leg Groups ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

............................................................................... 208 Chapter 12 ................................................................................ 211 Point of No Return (PNR) ........................... 193 Descent Point in the Mountains ... 203 Time Awareness ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 199 Chapter 11 ..................................................... 214 Page 10 ......................................................................................... 206 Position Reports and Amending Flight Plan ......................................................................................................................................................... 203 Enroute Navigation Skills ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 193 Good-weather Mountain Cross-country ......................................... Pilotage in Mountain Flying ...................................................... 195 Chapter 10 ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 193 Mountain Cross Country .......................................................................... 207 Hybrid Navigation Procedure – Landfall ..................................................................... 204 Navlog keeping ................................................ 199 Block Flight Planning ............ 206 Diversions ........................................................................................................... 211 Critical Point (CP) ................... 199 Time Saving Flight Planning Techniques .............. 193 DR vs................................................................................. 194 In-flight Valley Navigation Procedures ............................................................ 194 Poor Weather Mountain Cross-country (Valley Crawl) ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 211 Oceanic Flight ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 199 Climb Penalty Planning ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 193 Set Heading Point(s) in the Mountains ........................................................... 205 Top of Descent ............ 203 Map Reading ..................................................................... 204 Reorienting if Lost .............................Navigation for Professional Pilots Chapter 9 .........

.........................................................................................Outbound PDT Practice Sheet .......................................................................................... 221 Appendix 4 – Definitions ...Inbound PDT Practice Sheet ............................................................................................................................................. 217 Appendix 2 ...........................Navigation for Professional Pilots Appendix 1– C-172 Interpolation Tables ......... 223 Page 11 ........................... 219 Appendix 3 ..................

Navigation for Professional Pilots Page 12 .

the point being made here is that flight planning is a large undertaking covering many different items of concern regarding a flight. to GPS. ATC fees. during. many international airline flights don’t fly by the shortest route for two reasons: For one every nation they over fly charges a fee. etc. or medical difficulties occur. so flights may detour around some . Where we will park upon arrival Customs and other passenger handling arrangements Food and refreshments arrangement prior. departure and arrival fees.Chapter 1 Text Overview Everyone knows what it means to “have a plan. For example your plan might require knowing: When we will leave When we will arrive Who will be on board What route we will take What will the weather be like What navigation equipment (from eyeballs. Experts also plan routes for optimum advantage (cost) taking wind. mechanical.) will be used What condition the airplane and its systems will be in What we will do if various contingencies such as weather.” In “flight planning” we develop a plan for a flight. and post flight Accommodation at destination Aircraft servicing at destination Customs arrangements ETC The above list is not complete. At an airline many people are employed to ensure that all the passenger handling aspects of flight planning are looked into. etc. The process can be very complex. to VOR. For example. into account.

We will consider the preferred IFR routes published in the Canada Flight Supplement. or a strong headwind avoided. if a strong tailwind (jet stream) can be located. You will learn where to find the required information. DR is by definition flight along a straight line path. For example. This is necessary when flying IFR. but saving in the long run by avoiding high ATC fees. For your commercial pilot flight test you are allowed 45 minutes. Radio navigation means that the location of the airplane is determined by referring to instruments such as VOR. Airline flight planners often adjust to avoid these. For example: to fly from Castlegar to Revelstoke simply follow the Columbia River. By the end of this course you must be fully competent at planning VFR flights. etc won’t receive a lot of attention due to our limited time. Dead-reckoning (DR) means to determine the one heading and time that will take the airplane directly to a point. By the end of this course you should be able determine time and fuel for a given flight within a few minutes.Navigation for Professional Pilots airspace spending more money on fuel. Route selection will be comparatively simple. By the end of this course you will be fully competent to plan an IFR flight from any point within Canada to any other point. But you must recognize that these things are crucial to real world commercial flight operations. International flights will covered in second year. After graduation. In this course we will concentrate on the planning time and fuel for a flight. and as such are governed by a set of regulations that you will learn to take into account during this course. In addition. We won’t usually concern ourselves with avoiding ATC fees or political boundaries because most of our flights will be domestic. where to park and service the airplane. Your skill at doing this level of basic flight planning quickly and accurately will free up the time for the logistics aspects of flight planning that your employer will expect you to master. Pilotage. In this course you will learn the basics of IFR radio Page 14 . allowing for wind. Flight logistics such as arranging food for passengers. and some of these matters will be included in the exercises. but we will concentrate on choosing an altitude that is optimum for the wind given a specified route. expect passenger handling and logistics aspects of flight planning to take considerably more of your time than calculating time and fuel. It is the way you drive your car and it is often a practical way to fly an airplane. the shortest route is not always the quickest. Most of this course is devoted to learning how to dead-reckon. one requirement is to have an alternate airport to divert to in the event that landing at the primary destination becomes impossible. ADF.” Pilotage means flying from point to point by visually following features on the ground. but that should be twice as much time as you actually need. and terrain and weather. or GPS. but. Dead Reckoning and Radio Navigation Two terms that will come up over and over are “pilotage” and “dead-reckoning. most commercial airline flights are IFR flights.

DR is the most efficient means of navigation. Even on a long flight some portions of all VFR flights require pilotage. in fact both can be applied to radio navigation. but if the terrain has good. DR dominates on long flights. Often some radio navigation will be used.Navigation for Professional Pilots navigation. Page 15 . Any VFR flight over water must be a DR flight for example. Pilotage dominates on shorter flights. Usually the leg just after takeoff until established at the set heading point requires pilotage. but it can only be used when the ground has distinctive features so that the pilot can accurately determine position visually. And the final circuit joining and landing is also a pilotage leg. and radio navigation. Radio navigation is NOT distinct from pilotage or DR. especially over terrain that lacks distinctive features. In this course we will generally keeps these techniques separated for instructional purposes. DR. In real-world VFR navigating. distinctive. features some pilotage is practical especially when doing things such as diverting around poor weather or special use airspace. even on a VFR flight – thus most flights require pilotage. pilots use a combination of pilotage and DR. but in the real world they should be used together to achieve an efficient flight with the lowest possible workload for the pilot.

c. This is DR navigation This is pilotage navigation This is radio navigation This is two or more of the above Page 16 . b. This is DR navigation This is pilotage navigation This is radio navigation This is two or more of the above 3. d. then right. d. then flies directly to the lake.Navigation for Professional Pilots Sample Questions 1 1. then left again. A pilot tunes a VOR and determines the track to the station is 030°. A pilot is trying to find a small lake. S/he flies a heading of 220 until the lake comes into sight. c. c. a. S/he then turns to that heading without concern for the strong westerly wind. This is DR navigation This is pilotage navigation This is radio navigation This is two or more of the above 2. following the VOR needle until s/he gets to the station. d. b. A pilot sees a local shopping mall and flies toward it. c. The pilot turns left. b. b. This is DR navigation This is pilotage navigation This is radio navigation This is two or more of the above 4. d. a. A pilot is over a town s/he recognizes and turns south to join left base for the active runway a. a.

Navigation for Professional Pilots 5. d. A pilot follows a road to a particular intersection then flies heading 360 until the airport comes into view. c. a. This is DR navigation This is pilotage navigation This is radio navigation This is two or more of the above Page 17 . b.

It is important to realize that temperature. i. The gas law states that pressure is proportional to density and temperature. pressure. The temperature. An aircraft’s Pilot Operating Handbook (POH) specifies how the aeroplane performs under standard. and density are inextricably connected to each other by a law of physics called the gas law. Page 18 .e. The standard temperature is 15 C at sea level and decreases 1. i.98 C per thousand feet in the troposphere. it specifies how temperature changes in the atmosphere. In the thermosphere temperature begins to rise again. By 36.100 feet the temperature has reached -56 C. and the force of gravity collectively determine the pressure and density of the air throughout the ISA. You can find more details on this in your aerodynamics text. To use the POH data pilots must determine what pressure altitude (PA) and density altitude (DA) the aeroplane will fly at. The chemical makeup of the atmosphere does not change with altitude. but no civilian aeroplanes fly that high so we will ignore the thermosphere.e.Navigation for Professional Pilots Pressure and Density Altitude The International Standard Atmosphere One of the valuable benefits of the International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) is that it makes it possible for manufacturers of aircraft to provide data for pilots to use in flight planning. stratosphere. and thermosphere. In the Stratosphere temperature remains isothermal (constant temperature) at -56 C. The ISA is simply a temperature model. chemistry of the atmosphere. ISA conditions. The ISA is divided into temperature layers known as the troposphere.

58 19.74 -12.98 23. They do however have a thermometer to measure temperature and an altimeter.001545 0.001701 0.002048 0. When a pilot sets the altimeter scale to 29.001756 0.000’ the air pressure is 25.001596 0. Pilots do not have a barometer (an instrument for measuring air pressure) to measure pressure in units of inches of mercury.00 13.002175 0.001496 ISA Altitude 0 1. which measures air pressure.002241 0.09 22.000 14.000 8.000 Temp C 15.002111 0.72 -14.000 10. but in effect it is giving the air pressure from the table above. In the ISA the following values apply: Pressure Inches Hg 29.90 23.30 17.000 11. Fill in the values for air pressure in the table below: Page 19 .80 -6.000 9. If the pressure altitude is 4. Once set to 29.08 5.001648 0.23 21.82 25.70 Pressure Altitude The most convenient instrument available to pilots for measuring air pressure is the aircraft altimeter.000 13.84 24.89 Density 3 slugs / ft 0.92 28.78 -8.92 altimeter reads an altitude called pressure altitude.04 9. The gas law relates air density to these two values.000 3.06 7.02 11.92 it reads an altitude.82 26.84 -2.002308 0.82 -4.000 6.001811 0.000 4.001869 0.Navigation for Professional Pilots Aircraft performance depends on air density but airplanes do not come with an instrument to measure it.03 18.000 5.39 20.84 as shown in the table above.000 7.000 2.001927 0.000 15.001987 0.002377 0.58 16.000 12.14 -0.76 -10.86 27.79 19.10 3.12 1.

86.06 x 1000 = +1060. This is an approximation. so we need a method to estimate pressure altitude. Armed with this knowledge it is possible to calculate the pressure altitude without using an actual altimeter.86 and the pressure altitude is 1000’ as we can see from the table above.92 and read the value on the instrument. Notice that in the ISA pressure drops about one inch of mercury for every thousand feet up to 10. but it is pretty close. In this case the air pressure is 28. First a very simple example: An airport at sea level (such as CYVR) reports an altimeter setting of 28.Navigation for Professional Pilots Pressure Altitude Air pressure Inches Hg Sea level 3000’ 5. To calculate pressure altitude we need to know the current altimeter setting and the actual altitude of the altimeter setting source.06 Correction equals 1.000’.000 The only way to get a precise pressure altitude is to set a calibrated altimeter to 29.92 28.000 9. How would we calculate this mathematically? Standard setting: Altimeter setting: Difference 29. This is not convenient for flight planning however. Therefore pressure altitude = altimeter source altitude + correction Sea level + 1060 = 1060 Page 20 .000’ 7. This is convenient since it means we can flight plan without needing access to an altimeter.86 +1.

Once you know the pressure altitude (in effect the air pressure) and air temperature. density altitude can be calculated in accordance with the gas law. Density Altitude Density altitude represents the altitude in the ISA with the equivalent air density. Below is a more complex pressure altitude calculation in which the altimeter source is not at sea level.Navigation for Professional Pilots Notice that the calculation gives a value of 1060’ when the correct value is 1000’.92 it is like flying at a lower altitude. estimate pressure altitude as 2700 feet.67 Difference -0.75 Correction = -0.75 x 1000 = -750 Pressure altitude = altimeter source altitude + correction Pressure altitude = 3456 – 750 = 2706 Rounding off. which states that air density is proportional to air pressure and inversely proportional to air temperature. This small error is acceptable for flight planning purposes. and vice versa. TIP: You may find it hard to remember whether to add or subtract the correction from the altimeter source altitude.92 Altimeter setting 30. Page 21 . You should keep in mind that the calculation of pressure altitude results in estimation.67 Standard setting: 29. To get a precise pressure altitude you must use a calibrated altimeter. Remember that when the altimeter setting is more than 29. Altimeter source altitude: 3456 feet Altimeter setting: 30.

Navigation for Professional Pilots

Many Pilot Operating Handbooks are designed so that it is not necessary to calculate density altitude since the manufacturer provides performance charts based on pressure altitude and temperature. This is wise on their part because calculating density altitude accurately requires a complex formula. The C-172 and King Air manuals you will use in this course have charts based on pressure altitude and temperature. In effect the density altitude calculation is incorporated into the charts. For these airplanes it is not necessary to calculate density altitude. Our B95 charts are based on density altitude, and therefore you must calculate its value. Because temperature is usually close to standard a reasonable estimation of density altitude can be made by adjusting pressure altitude 120 feet for every degree the temperature varies from standard. For example if the temperature is 3 C colder than ISA then density altitude will be 3 x120 = 360 lower than the pressure altitude. If air temperature is 5 C above standard then density altitude will be 600 feet higher than the pressure altitude.

DA = PA + 120ΔT

[ΔT is deviation from standard temperature]

TIP: Warm air is less dense air and thus density altitude is greater when the air is warm.

TIP: The KLN90b GPS has a built in density altitude calculator. You can use it to get a more accurate density altitude. The KLN90b in the piston simulators can be used just as well as the ones in the airplanes.

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Navigation for Professional Pilots

Sample Questions 2

1. The altimeter source altitude is 1000, altimeter setting is 28.92, temperature at 1000 feet is 15 C. Calculate the pressure altitude (PA) and the density altitude (DA)

2.

The altimeter source altitude is 7000, altimeter setting is 28.92, temperature at 7000 feet is 15 C. Calculate the pressure altitude (PA) and the density altitude (DA)

3.

The altimeter source altitude is 8500, altimeter setting is 30.86, temperature at 8500 feet is 22 C. Calculate the pressure altitude (PA) and the density altitude (DA)

4.

altimeter source altitude is 1624, altimeter setting is 30.35, temperature at 1624 feet is 18 C. Calculate the pressure altitude (PA) and the density altitude (DA)

5.

The altimeter source altitude is 1624, altimeter setting is 29.71, temperature at 1624 feet is 7 C. Calculate the pressure altitude (PA) and the density altitude (DA)

**Cold Temperature Corrections
**

The altimeter in an airplane does not actually read altitude; it reads static air pressure and displays this as an altitude based on the following assumed pressure/altitude correspondence: Indicated Altitude 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 ISA Ps(Hg) 29.92 28.86 27.82 26.82 25.84 24.90 23.98 23.09 pressure difference 1.10 1.06 1.03 1.00 0.97 0.95 0.92 0.89 Measured Pressure 29.92 28.86 27.82 26.82 25.84 24.90 23.98 23.09

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Navigation for Professional Pilots

8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 13,000 14,000 15,000 16,000 17,000 18,000 19,000 20,000

22.23 21.39 20.58 19.79 19.03 18.30 17.58 16.89 16.22 15.57 14.95 14.34 13.76

0.86 0.84 0.81 0.79 0.76 0.74 0.71 0.69 0.67 0.65 0.63 0.61 0.59

22.23 21.39 20.58 19.79 19.03 18.30 17.58 16.89 16.22 15.57 14.95 14.34 13.76

This table is correct for an altimeter set with the Colesman scale on 29.92 The table shows that an altimeter “assumes” pressure will drop 1.10 inches of Mercury between sea level and 1000 feet and then drop 1.06 between 1000’ and 2000’ etc. Consequently an altimeter set to 29.92 will read 7000 feet when the air pressure is 23.09 regardless of how high the airplane really is. The Colesman scale on the altimeter simply “slips” the above scale to reset the zero point, as shown in the diagram below, which is for an altimeter set to 30.44

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Indicated Altitude 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 13,000 14,000 15,000 16,000 17,000 18,000 19,000 20,000

ISA Ps(Hg) 29.92 28.86 27.82 26.82 25.84 24.90 23.98 23.09 22.23 21.39 20.58 19.79 19.03 18.30 17.58 16.89 16.22 15.57 14.95 14.34 13.76

pressure difference 1.10 1.06 1.03 1.00 0.97 0.95 0.92 0.89 0.86 0.84 0.81 0.79 0.76 0.74 0.71 0.69 0.67 0.65 0.63 0.61 0.59

Measured Pressure 30.44 29.38 28.34 27.34 26.36 25.42 24.50 23.61 22.75 21.91 21.10 20.31 19.55 18.82 18.10 17.41 16.74 16.09 15.47 14.86 14.28

This table is correct for an altimeter with the Colesman scale set to 30.44. When the actual air pressure is 30.44 the altimeter reads zero.

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but the altimeter will read 0 feet if the actual air pressure is 30. which should then be added to the desired altitude to get the indicated altitude you will fly in order to be safe. if a particular airport is at 3000 asl an altimeter adjusted to read 3000 at that airport will “report” an altimeter setting of 30.44. A correction is required any time temperatures are significantly below standard.17 recommends allowing 4% height increase for every 10°C below standard temperature. Normal practice among pilots is to make a correction anytime ground temperature is 0°C or colder. Remember to keep ATC informed of what altitude you are flying. Taking the above table as an example. The thing to realize is that an altimeter setting permits the altimeter to read the correct altitude at the airport (3000 in the example).44 on that day. This is very dangerous for any pilot flying in instrument conditions and using the altimeter to avoid mountain tops.82 the altimeter reads 13. Thus we must correct for temperature error any time the temperature is cold. RAC 9.17 specifies that you should also report deviations from FAF crossing altitude and MDA. If the air pressure between ground level and 13. Memorize the rule of thumb and be able to use it.04 x (ISA deviation) / 10 x (Height AGL) [RAC 9. In order of preference in use they are: 1. Equation from RAC 9. etc.17] The above formula gives the required correction.17 Table in CAP GEN CR RAC 9. but as these are minimum altitudes that you Page 26 .37) is only hypothetical.000 feet. 2. Pressure decreases more rapidly in cold dense air. Any temperature correction that an over flying airplane makes need only be applied to the atmosphere between ground level and the true altitude of the airplane. Three methods of making the correction will be presented in this course. Since this is only a hypothetical possibility it is not important. because that is where the altimeter setting instrument is located. This rule of thumb should only be used down to temperatures of -15°C. This is particularly important if you will deviate from any specified altitude such as a missed approach altitude or an altitude on a DME arc. The actual sea level pressure may not be 30.000 drops exactly as shown in the table the altitude will be correct. RAC 9. The pressure difference between 3000 and sea level shown in the above table (30.44. More likely the pressure drop will vary from that shown and thus the true altitude will not correspond to the indicated altitude. In the table above you can see that when the air pressure is 18.17 specifies our legal obligation to calculate a temperature correction. 3. This will happen regardless of the true altitude. If the air pressure declines with altitude more rapidly than the above table the true altitude will be lower than the indicated altitude.Navigation for Professional Pilots IMPORTANT: altimeter settings are determined with an instrument located at the airport. the corresponding formula is: Temperature Correction = .44 – 27.

To use the table in the CAP GEN follow the instructions provided with the table. For temperature colder than -15°C use the table in the CAP GEN. Many mountain approaches however have procedure turn and intermediate segment altitudes higher than 5000 AGL. This table can also be used for temperatures of 0°C and -10°C. Page 27 . however it is based on an airport at sea level and therefore gives conservative corrections for airports that are higher than sea level.Navigation for Professional Pilots can choose to be above on any approach most pilots do not report these deviations. However.17 states that the table is not valid for heights more than 5000 ASL. When doing this always round up each value obtained in order ensure safety. Note that RAC 9. you must consider carefully whether any conflict with other traffic could result from your temperature correction and keep ATC informed as necessary. If you use the equation above you get a more accurate correction for airports that are above sea level. It is common practice among pilots to use the table by summing values. for example adding 5000 and 3000 to get 8000.

and graph cannot be provided here. and tables in the C-172P POH. c. For example you might be asked to ferry an airplane over a distance that exceeds its normal range. unless the instructions indicate otherwise. Normal aviation industry practice is for flight departments to establish a cruise power setting and use it for all but “special” flight situations. A special situation is one in which either an unusually long range is needed. C-172 manual King Air cruise tables CAP GEN temperature Correction charts Both these skills are vital. you might be asked to brake-in a new engine by operating it at 75% power for a certain number of hours. but if these are not enough you must practice until you perfect the skill. or some other situation requires a non-standard power setting. You will be given assignments to practice these skills. Accurately drawing lines on graphical performance charts a. 2. Consequently the assignments in this course – and the quizzes and exams – are to be completed without these online aids. Interpolation and Accurate Drawing Skill To use the various charts in your aircraft POHs you must learn two skills: 1. The aviation Intranet provides links to many electronic aids that ease your flight planning chores.Navigation for Professional Pilots Performance Charts You must master the use of all the performance graphs. b. or an unusually high speed. making it possible to plan a flight in a much shorter time. BE95 King Air Manual Other Transport category aircraft Accurately interpolate tabular data a. table. charts. but that can be achieved if slower than normal speeds are used. Practice these skills using the computer simulations provided for that purpose. c. Assignments are provided for you to practice using these planning aids and to confirm that you are using them accurately. Alternatively. Page 28 . and your Alsim (King Air) manual. In such cases you must flight plan for a power setting different from that normally used. You will be using these aids daily as you prepare for flights but it is CRITICAL that you can perform the calculations without them should the need arise. Supplements to the C-172P POH are found in Appendix 14 of your Program Manual. but most are self explanatory. A complete explanation of how to use each chart. Beechcraft Travelair Pilot Information Manual. b.

eliminating the need to use any charts in section 5 of the POH. and accurate. it performs the functions of a flight computer. For the C-172P you will find: C-172 Electronic Takeoff Chart Electronic Navlog (ENL) –includes weight and balance The Normal Takeoff distance graph is an electronic version of the two graphs in the C-172 Flight Planning Supplement. you must be able to do all the calculations long-hand when needed. The ENL has a built in weight and balance sheet. Page 29 . On your exams you will have to calculate without the electronic aid. and a Navlog calculator.e. The BE95 Electronic Takeoff Chart also calculates accelerate go and accelerate stop distance. as well as single engine climb performance. The ENL contains a weight and balance calculator for quick. so be sure to master them. It also calculates drift. ETE and fuel required for the flight i. and always gives the correct answer. These electronic planning aids are much quicker and easier to use than the paper products. Use it prior to all flights to get your normal takeoff distance. It is much quicker and easier to use. Use the tables on pages 5-12 and 5-13 when short field operation is called for. which makes things very quick. easy. rpm. a cruise performance calculator. The weight and balance calculator eliminates the need to use the charts in section 6 of the POH. On all your exams you will ONLY be permitted to use these paper charts. You will use these electronic aids for your day-to-day flight operations in the aviation program. It gives Normal Takeoff Distance.Navigation for Professional Pilots Electronic Charts for the C-172P The paper charts described above are all that you need to plan for any flight. and Accelerate Stop Distance. Electronic Charts for the Travelair The aviation Intranet contains several electronic aids for B95 flight planning. They are similar to the professional flight training aids used by modern airlines. easy and accurate weight and balance calculations. Navlogs are covered later in this course. The navlog automatically determines TAS. In all your assignments in Avia 160 use the paper charts. TIP: Remember that even though you will be using the electronic navlog for your day-to-day flying. They work essentially the same as the ones for the C-172. CAS. When doing assignments you should do all the calculations by hand and then use the electronic navlog to see if you made a mistake. IAS. On our Intranet website several electronic aids have been provided. groundspeed.

12 knot headwind and Vr = 94 therefore 90% . the charts do not cover all situations. Below are some rules of thumb that Transport Canada put together a number of years ago.(headwind component / rotation speed)% = percent change in takeoff roll and distance to clear obstacle. requires 75% more runway add 10% for 1 degree of up slope add 20% for 2 degree of up slope Subtract 5% for 1 degree of down slope 90% . etc. In Avia 100 you will learn to use the above rules of thumb to make reasonable go – no go decisions in tricky takeoff situations. snow. Most manuals do not provide charts for soft or rough fields and most light aircraft charts do not allow for a sloped runway for instance. (e. However. Page 30 . A change in weight of 10% changes takeoff distance by 20% (ratio 1:2) Most “good” grass runways require 25% more distance than a paved runway Long grass (more than 4 inches) requires 30% more runway Soft surface mud.g.12/94 = 77% 110% + (tailwind component / rotation speed)% = percent change in takeoff roll and distance to clear obstacle.Navigation for Professional Pilots Performance Rules of Thumb In the section above you learned to precisely use the charts that come with your airplane.

subtract to get the desired moment shift. how far do you need to move it? The above question is a Transport Canada favorite on the commercial pilot and ATPL exams. if you calculate the weight and balance for an airplane and discover that it weights 5000 pounds and the CG is at 47 inches aft of the datum. Let’s say you have 400 pounds to shift forward. At present we know the moment of the airplane is: Mcurrent = 5000 x 47 = 23. etc.Navigation for Professional Pilots Weight and Balance Shift As a licensed pilot you know how to calculate a weight and balance.500 The secret is to realize that the desired moment is: Mdesired = 5000 x 45 = 22. In summary: Step 1: Calculate the current moment and desired moment. For example. An important point to notice is that it makes no difference what the current location of this freight is. Step 2: Move the freight by an amount equal to moment-shift / weight-of-freight Page 31 . but the aft CG limit is 45 inches what do you do? In simple terms the answer is easy. but an important exercise you may not be familiar with is shifting a CG by a specified amount. In this case we have been told to shift 400 pounds of freight. so it must be moved 1000/400 = 2. you shift some freight forward. The solution is quite simple if you remember the meaning of the concept known as moment.5 inches. For example we could shift 1000 pounds forward 1 inch. only that we move it forward at least 2.5 inches. A moment is: weight x arm.500 The difference in moment. or 500 pounds by 2 inches. which is 1000 could be created by an infinite number of possible weight shift.

Since the next lowest option is 65 that is the correct choice on this multiple choice question. Shift this weight to at least: a) 85 b) 75 c) 65 d) 55 Your calculations should reveal that: Mcurrent = 9000 x 73 = 657000 Mdesired = 9000 x 71 = 639000 M-change = 18000 CG-shift = 18000 / 600 = 30 The answer is therefore: 104 – 30 = 74. but that is WRONG. Page 32 .Navigation for Professional Pilots Here is a typical transport Canada exam question. There is 600 pounds of freight at 104 inches aft of the datum. If you move the weight to arm 75 it is still one inch too far back. The aft CG limit is 71 inches aft of the datum. choose the correct answer: An airplane weighs 9000 pounds. Most people will therefore choose b. The CG is 73 inches aft of the datum.

Navigation for Professional Pilots Page 33 .

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The direction is imparted to the velocity by the orientation of the distance. To be more precise Groundspeed and direction of flight are the fundamental concepts in navigation. The Fundamental Concepts of Physics In Newtonian Physics there are three fundamental concepts upon which everything else is based: 1. 2. Mass – Distance – Time. so review this material often. If you don’t understand and retain it 100% there will be a problem. power. are all composites of these three concepts. Everything in this chapter is vital. which in turn is the composite of distance and time. energy. and two useful deductions from the definition Velocity is the simplest of the composite concepts in physics: V = d/t [d = distance. In other words it has both magnitude and direction. etc. Mass Distance Time All other concepts from simple ones live velocity and acceleration to complex concepts such as work. 3.Chapter 2 This chapter introduces you to the fundamental concepts of navigation. Once we know our groundspeed (GS) and track-made-good over the ground (TMG) we know everything we need to know to predict the time it will take to complete a flight. Definition of Velocity. t = time] Velocity is a vector quantity. for example temperature is really just a measure of the velocity of particles. Even concepts that may not at first appear to be composites of the above three actually are. From the above definition come two crucial deductions: d = Vt T = V/d Velocity Expressed as Airspeed Velocity is THE fundamental concept in navigation. Unfortunately there is a confusing array of speeds that we must learn to sort through: . Think about what this means and we will discuss it in class.

and we always fly our approach at a certain EAS.) An airplane always stalls at a certain EAS. so we must learn to convert indicated airspeed (IAS) to Calibrated Airspeed (CAS) and then to EAS and finally TAS. It is NOT desirable to have an ASI show TAS even if it could. calibration error) Compression error Density error See diagram below for the hierarchy of airspeed errors. 4. 5. Think of EAS as the pressure you would feel on your face if the airplane had an open cockpit. In summary – life for pilots would be much better if there was only EAS and TAS. Unfortunately airspeed indicators do not show EAS either. Page 36 . Groundspeed (GS) (which is TAS + wind) Indicated airspeed (IAS) Calibrated airspeed (CAS) Equivalent airspeed (EAS) True airspeed (TAS) Accurate flight planning requires accurate knowledge of TAS and GS. This value is normally forecast in the POH for the airplane. 3. You can also determine TAS in flight by reading your IAS and applying correction for: Position error (aka. 2. Unfortunately we must learn to deal with the undesirable IAS and CAS True Airspeed (TAS) True airspeed tells us how fast the airplane moves through the air.Navigation for Professional Pilots 1. What a pilot actually requires to fly safely is the Equivalent Airspeed (EAS. You should already know that an airspeed indicator (ASI) does not show TAS.

TAS = EAS at sea level TAS > EAS at all altitudes above sea level. Most of the time it is reasonable to assume that the indicated speed is the same as equivalent speed. So.000 feet there will an error. So we must learn how to convert indicated airspeed (IAS) into EAS. for these airplanes you may feel free to say that EAS = CAS. above 200 knots and 20.e. Indicated airspeed is by definition the speed shown on the airspeed indicator. When we say that an airplane is cruising at 300 KEAS we are saying that it experiences the same dynamic pressure as an airplane flying at 300 knots at sea level on a standard day.Navigation for Professional Pilots Equivalent Airspeed (EAS) The equivalent airspeed compares flight at altitude to flight at sea level. In fact the difference between EAS and CAS is less than one knot for airplanes flying less than 200 knots and less than 20. Page 37 . therefore calibration error is frequently called position error. At very slow speeds (high angle of attack) there will be a significant error. Calibrated airspeed is pretty close to equivalent airspeed in most cases. and also at very high speeds and high altitudes. Once you apply the correction factor you will have calibrated airspeed (CAS.) Most of the calibration error is due to the position of the static vent on the fuselage. Mathematically: TAS = EAS/√σ [σ is the density ratio. i. Like any instrument and airspeed indicator is imperfect and as such a calibration chart must be provided. Unfortunately airspeed indicators are not perfect. The calibration chart compensates for the imperfect measurement of Pitot tube and static port on the airplane.000 feet. The good news is that there is usually not much difference between IAS and EAS. The calibration chart is found in the POH. That covers both the C-172P and Travelair. density of air divided by sea level standard density] Indicated and Calibrated Airspeed (IAS and CAS) In an ideal world the airspeed indicator would show EAS.

Your CR flight computer automatically applies compression correction. Always convert IAS to CAS. ICE-T To convert from IAS to TAS it is necessary to apply the corrections in the proper order.Navigation for Professional Pilots For any airplane flying above 20. but that is because the EAS compensation is built into the computer. So an airplane flying at 250 KCAS at 30. CAS is always more than EAS. Remember that with the CR you go directly from CAS to TAS. use the pneumonic ICE-T. then EAS to TAS. Compression refers to the fact that air entering a Pitot tube is compressed and thus its pressure rises. We cover use of the CR later.000 feet is experiencing less than 250 KEAS. if you use the “professional method” for converting CAS to TAS. then CAS to EAS. To remember the sequence.000 feet (which includes the King Air) it will be necessary to apply a compression correction factor. Page 38 . consequently airspeed indicators always over read. The “simple method” DOES NOT allow for compression error.

i. Each aircraft compass comes with a deviation card that shows the extent of the error. The magnetic North Pole is many miles from the real North Pole and thus there is a difference between magnetic headings and true headings. Heading can be expressed in magnetic. moving south. allowing for drift. You follow it and discover that it more-or-less drifts in a straight line. Meridians appear on your map and you will learn to orient your protractor to these lines of longitude when measuring the true track (TT. As a pilot you must consult the deviation card and take it into account when setting the heading indicator to correspond to the compass. The difference is called variation. When flying over the poles neither true nor magnetic heading reference is satisfactory. This is important because it will be difficult to flight plan if air moves in random fashion. The error in the compass is called deviation. etc. These lines define true north. Straight lines drawn between the poles are called meridians of longitude. The primary complication in navigation planning involves allowing for this movement of the air (wind) i. When we say the wind is north at 15 knots we are saying that it is coming from the north. and Magnetic) Heading is the direction that TAS acts. true. but on most days you will see it drift sideways. at least over a distance of a few miles. Heading is expressed as an angle from north.e. Page 39 . In such cases another reference system known as grid is used. 30 NM south after two hours. If the air is perfectly calm it will float straight up. In the southern domestic airspace. Wind is described by specifying the direction the air is coming from and how fast. If you release your balloon into this air mass it will be 15 NM south after one hour. We will be covering map theory in detail later. Imagine that your balloon rises a few hundred feet and then maintains that altitude. Fortunately it generally moves in a steady continuous fashion.) In the northern domestic airspace pilots set their heading indicators to true. Movement of the air is wind. pilots set their heading indicators to magnetic. Compass Deviation Like any piece of equipment a compass is never calibrated perfectly. The earth spins around an axis that passes through the north and south poles. and you will find it marked on your maps. Wind and Drift Imagine stepping outside with a helium-filled balloon and letting it float away. but always in units of degrees.Navigation for Professional Pilots Heading (True. This horizontal motion results from the air mass moving relative to the ground.e. or grid. In that case the headings displayed on the heading indicator are true headings. 15 nautical miles every hour.

Your task is to determine the heading that is required to maintain that track and the resulting groundspeed (so that you can calculate time to destination. The airplane flies at a true airspeed of 100 knots. but the movement of the air (wind) adds to the net movement of the airplane never-the-less.Navigation for Professional Pilots Most people find it pretty easy to visualize a balloon drifting in the wind. While it is obvious that a balloon drifts it is equally true. True airspeed is a vector quantity that expresses how quickly an airplane moves through the air. The distance between them is 240 NM and the true track is 050°. Do NOT think of wind as something that happens in the air but as a property of the whole air mass you fly in. To explore the meaning of drift examine the simulation called Drift on the Intranet website. An airplane’s net motion is the sum of true airspeed and wind.) Make a small “x” in the lower left quadrant of the sheet to represent airport A. 2. Wind Triangle: GS = TAS + Wind The most fundamental concept of navigation is: Groundspeed = True Airspeed + Wind GS = TAS + wind All three of these entities are vectors. Draw a vertical line roughly in the center of the paper which we will use to represent a meridian of longitude (i. So.e. it represents true north. An airplane moves through the air. The main difficulty is in realizing that wind is a large scale phenomenon not a stream within the air but the whole air. No calculators or mathematics is required. We will simply draw a picture.) We will now learn the simplest method of solving the above problem. Page 40 . When dead reckoning you start with a known true airspeed and a forecast wind plus a track you wish to fly. The wind is from 270° at 20 knots. which a balloon does not. and in what direction. We put it in the lower left quadrant because we are going to fly north-east so we want to allow room to draw the line to airport B. if less obvious. that an airplane does also. For our first sample problem we wish to fly from airport A to airport B. Get a blank piece of paper and complete the following steps: 1. all we have to do is remember how to add two vectors. But it must be an accurate picture so get out your navigation-ruler and protractor and follow along.

Your sheet should now look like the one below: 5. We call this the track-made-good (TMG.) Take your ruler and laying it accurately from the wind dot to the 270° mark measure the distance 20 NM from the TMG in the direction of the wind. (When drawing TAS-Wind triangles always place the wind vector near the destination end of the TMG.) We don’t need to mark on airport B. 4.Navigation for Professional Pilots 3. At this point your paper should look like the one below: The line represents the track to airport B. Center your protractor on airport A and orient it to north using the line of longitude. Place your protractor on the TMG somewhere in the upper right quadrant. Next we will draw a vector representing the wind. Page 41 . Mark 050° and then draw a line from airport A in the direction 050°.) Orient your protractor using the meridian and then mark a dot at the center of your protractor and another mark at 270° (the wind direction.

Your diagram should now look like the one below: Page 42 .Navigation for Professional Pilots The most accurate way to perform the next step is with a measuring instrument known by geometers as a compass.) Put the tip of the compass at the beginning of the wind vector and draw an arc that intersects the TMG near airport A. but it will likely be less accurate. Set your measuring compass (shown above) to exactly 100 NM (the TAS. 6. If you don’t have one it is possible to measure with a ruler.

The TMG must be exactly 050°.Navigation for Professional Pilots To work properly a TAS-Wind triangle must be drawn accurately. 7. and it should look like the one below: Page 43 . This line is exactly 100 NM long and it represents the true airspeed. Draw a line from the point where the arc cuts the TMG to the beginning of the wind vector. the wind vector must be exactly 20NM long and the arc must be exactly 100NM long. The diagram is now complete. If these conditions are met you will get an accurate wind triangle.

The heading you must fly is represented by the TAS vector and you can measure it with your protractor. and drift angle is 8°. Measure the distance from the arc to the point where the wind vector intersects the TMG.Navigation for Professional Pilots The angle labeled (da) above is called the drift angle. We now have all the items we set out to determine: True heading: 042° Ground speed 115 Knots From this we can calculate the amount of time it takes to fly the 240Nm from airport A to airport B. If you drew your diagram accurately true heading is 042°. This represents the distance flown in one hour – i. The distance is 115 NM. it is your groundspeed. It is NOT necessary to draw the full picture but if we did it would look like the one below: Page 44 .e.

Definitions: Crosswind and Headwind TAS-Wind triangles are excellent for visualizing drift and determining groundspeed. This model can be applied using an electronic calculator or a CR flight computer.Navigation for Professional Pilots The purpose of the above diagram is to convince you that the net drift for the entire trip is proportional to drift for one hour. But. so da is the same in both triangles. but they are a bit unwieldy for practical flight planning. Thus we will introduce a mathematical model for determining drift and groundspeed. which is represented by the line labeled “wind/whole trip” above. as you can see it is in proportional to the length of the trip. The flight from airport A to airport B takes 2:05 during which time the airplane drifts a total of 42 NM. Page 45 .

To see an active version of this definition examine the simulation called Crosswind.Navigation for Professional Pilots The wind vector in the above diagram has been broken into two components. but this is NOT correct. It is critical to remember that XW and TW are by definition relative to TMG not TAS. In slang pilots refer to tailwind as “wind on the tail” which implies that it is relative to the airplane. crosswind (XW) and tailwind (TW) that are perpendicular and parallel to TMG respectively. this is a common mistake. and crosswind are all relative to the TMG. Drift Angle Defined From the diagram above the relationship between drift-angle (da) crosswind (XW) and TAS is easy to see. Rather than memorize this you should be able to reproduce the defining diagram and extract the definition from it: da = Sin-1(XW/TAS) Groundspeed Defined The following diagram extends the one above to define groundspeed (GS) Page 46 . tailwind. Tailwind. tailwind. headwind. drift angle definitions on the Intranet website. which is the course that is to be flown.

but to get the precise value the cosine of drift angle must be applied. The formula is: GS = cos(da) x TAS + TW It is very worthwhile to realize that as long as da is small there is not much difference between cos(da) x TAS and TAS. What is missing is a method of determining crosswind and tailwind. but the CR also makes this allowance as we will see. To this value the tailwind must be added to get groundspeed.Navigation for Professional Pilots Note that TAS forms the hypotenuse of a right-triangle the base of which equals cos(da) x TAS. To do that we must know the relative wind angle (rwa) as defined in this diagram: Page 47 . Calculation of Crosswind and Tailwind The above definitions show how we will use crosswind and tailwind to determine drift angle and groundspeed. That is to say that cosine of a small angle is almost one. It is quite obvious that you can do this with an electronic calculator. Thus when performing a quick estimate of groundspeed it is usually acceptable to add tailwind directly to TAS.

The relative wind angle is therefore 40°. da. In the example problem the wind speed is 20 knots and the relative wind angle is 40° therefore XW = sin(40) x 20 = 13 knots and TW = cos(40) x 20 = 15 knots. Note that these values match the ones previously determined using the TAS-Wind Triangle. Drift angle is da = sin (13/100) = 7° and groundspeed is GS = cos(7) x 100 + 15 = 115 knots. The explanation of how to use the CR wind side starts on page 30 of the Jeppesen CR manual. The CR flight computer performs the same calculation. The CR performs the calculations described above by taking advantage of the mathematical fact that when multiplying two numbers. Determining XW. say A x B = C then Log(A) + Log(B) = Log(C). Using these values the drift angle and -1 groundspeed can be calculated.Navigation for Professional Pilots The relative wind angle is the absolute value of the angle between the wind direction and the track made good. Once we know the relative wind angle the crosswind and tailwind can be calculated by simple trigonometry as: XW = sin(rwa) x Windspeed TW = cos(rwa) x Windspeed The above formulae can be used to determine crosswind and tailwind with an electronic calculator. The CR has a “wind disc” that allows you to visually determine XW and TW and a logarithmic outer scale that determines da and cos(da) x TAS. In the example above the wind direction is 090° and the track made good is 050°. and GS with a CR Now that we know the mathematical formulae and can apply them with any electronic calculator (or spreadsheet) we will learn to more easily evaluate them using the wind side of the CR computer. as described above. Page 48 . TW.

In VFR flight you are already familiar with the need to plan a diversion should weather Page 49 . wind. we will use the term drift angle for both. or a computer program. a spreadsheet.) Once you have worked through the CR manual try the following sample problems: Sample Problems: Given TAS. a CR. when flying it is often necessary to change course without the opportunity to accurately recalculate the drift. TW. For example TMG is the same as what Jeppesen calls true course (TC. and GS: TAS 100 100 100 100 155 155 350 350 80 80 460 460 True Wind 270/20 270/20 270/20 270/20 330/30 330/30 080/15 080/15 120/25 120/25 320/140 320/140 TC 050 330 130 220 300 180 100 010 090 210 270 170 XW TW Da GS Drift Estimation The accurate mathematical calculation of drift angle and groundspeed as explained above can be performed with an electronic calculator.Navigation for Professional Pilots There are a few minor terminology differences between your CR manual and those used in this text. However. and desired true course (TC) determine XW. Read pages 30 to 50 doing all the sample problems (the short section on addition and subtraction on page 32 can be skipped.) Jeppesen draws a distinction between drift angle and crab-angle. for example when cleared to hold or to do an approach the pilot must establish a designated course (TMG) or when the assigned route is changed drift must be determined on the new route. da. Numerous IFR examples come to mind.

Locate the magnetic wind direction on the heading indicator and determine how many degrees from the nose or tail of the course bar the wind is. as though it is a CR. It is therefore extremely valuable to have a technique for estimating drift and groundspeed using only mental calculation (estimations. If your aircraft has an HSI set the desired course on the course-bar.) Estimate XW and TW The first step is to estimate crosswind and tailwind. Remember that the upper wind forecast is in true. so you must apply variation to get the magnetic wind. The is the relative wind angle. You will need to know the magnetic wind. Now you must memorize the following three proportions: Page 50 . To estimate crosswind and headwind use your heading indicator (HI) or preferably and HSI. A good pilot always knows the wind direction and speed.Navigation for Professional Pilots or some other circumstance require you to change course.

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These percentages must be memorized. if the wind is 60° from the course or tail then 90% is crosswind and 50% is headwind or tailwind. so for estimation purposes we can say that GS = TAS + TW or GS = TAS – HW. When “on the tail” it is all tailwind with no crosswind.Navigation for Professional Pilots In the above diagrams it is assumed that the pilot turned so that the desired course TC or TMG is “on the nose. not the heading.” (This point is covered again below in the description of the simulation called Drift Estimation Challenge. We learned previously that we should first multiply TAS by cos(da) but this typically makes only one or two knots difference. It seems like it will be much more difficult to estimate da since we need to evaluate the equation da = sin 1 (XW/TAS). Use this method to estimate the XW and TW for the following sample problems: Wind speed 20 20 20 30 30 30 40 40 40 Angle from nose or tail 30 from course 45 from course 60 from course 30 from tail 45 from tail 60 from tail On the course On the tail “On the wingtip” i. If there is a 30 knot wind and 50% is crosswind and 90% is headwind then crosswind is 15 knots and headwind is 27 knots.e. If the wind is 45° from the course or tail then 70% is crosswind and 70% is tailwind or headwind. Had the wind been 30° from the tail (reciprocal of course) the only difference would be that the tailwind would be 27 knots. 90° from course XW HW Note that when the wind is “on the nose” it is all headwind with zero crosswind. It is crucial to realize that in this case we are using the word nose to represent the course. While this sounds impossible to do in your head there is a simple mathematical trick that - Page 52 . This example corresponds to a wind 30° from the course. And finally. if the wind is “on the wingtip” it is all crosswind with no headwind or tailwind.) If the wind is 30° from the course or tail then 50% of it is crosswind and 90% tailwind or headwind. Similarly. Once we know the headwind or tailwind we can estimate the groundspeed by subtracting or adding to the true airspeed.

Navigation for Professional Pilots makes it quite simple. Note that so far no approximations have been made. in units of radians. and the formula for circumference of a circle.e. It is important to recognize the close relationship between arc-length and the subtended angle (ra. the above definitions are precisely valid. Next we will look at how we can substitute the definition of the radian as an approximation for estimating drift angle. Page 53 . This may not be sounding like something that will be easy to do in your head but stick with me. To convert ra to units of degrees multiply by 180 and divide by pi. by dividing arc-length by radius.) The angle ra can be precisely determined. To explain we will review the definition of the angle unit called radians. i.

it is called the “Magic Number.e.” Since TAS is the same from day-to-day we can calculate the value TAS time pi divided by 180 and memorize this number. Once you know the magic number for your airplane drift is easy to estimate. The point to notice is that the length of XW is very nearly the same as the length on an arc drawn from TAS to TMG. TAS / 57. Since we want da in units of degrees the formula becomes: Da = (XW x (180/Π)) / TAS You may be thinking. That being the case da in radians equals XW/TAS. It is helpful to know Page 54 .” There is one final step that transforms the above equation into a simple method. Magic number is simply TAS x Π / 180 i. it is simply: da = XW / Magic Number Magic Number Magic number was introduced in the previous section. “This still doesn’t seem too easy to do in my head.3.Navigation for Professional Pilots Examine the diagram above that redefines XW as the wind component perpendicular to TMG. we call it the magic number. It is important for you to memorize the magic number of the airplanes you fly. For small values of da it is reasonable to say that acr-length = XW.

In the table below some magic numbers corresponding to the C-172.5 4 5 8 8 Estimation of Drift Based on Crosswind and Magic Number Once you commit your magic number to memory estimating drift angle is easy. Since magic number is used for estimations there is no sense in calculating it overly accurately. what would it be in a King Air. If you are flying a Piper cub with a 20 knot crosswind drift is 20°.Navigation for Professional Pilots your magic number for both cruise and hold/approach speeds so that you can estimate drift in cruise as well as holds and approaches. above 180 KTAS determine magic number to the nearest whole number.5° (20/8. as previously covered.) Page 55 . other examples have been provided: Aircraft type True airspeed Magic Number 1 1.5 2. and King Air have been left blank for you to fill in. Simply estimate crosswind.) What would drift be in a jet airliner with a magic number of 8? The answer is 2. then drift angle equals crosswind divided by magic number. Travelair. For true airspeeds up to 180 KTAS determine magic number to the nearest ½.5 Piper cub Cessna 172 Cessna 172 Piper Arrow Beech 95 Beech 95 King Air King Air Dash 8 Lear Jet Airliner 60 KTAS 85 KTAS on approach 105 KTAS in cruise 140 KTAS in cruise 105 KTAS on approach 150 KTAS in cruise 120 KTAS on approach 220 KTAS in cruise 300 KTAS in cruise 440 KTAS in cruise 480 KTAS in cruise 2. The answer is 5° (20/4.

Try the following examples for yourself: Page 56 . And so on. You would have freaked if I had asked you to divide 1.5. but it seemed simple when you think of it as money.67/0.5. then think of the result as the price of your snack and pay for it in quarters. Now compare the above calculation to the one you wish to do in your head XW/2.50. You may find it challenging to divide by 2. etc. therefore drift equals XW/2. two are required for items up to 50 cents. for example 20/10 is 2.25. Of course dividing any number by 10 is very simple since all you have to do is shift the decimal one place left.25 in your head. but you have actually just divided 1. therefore da = 6°. Can you see how to use this trick to estimate drift angle? Simply take the XW and divide it by 10.Navigation for Professional Pilots Complete the following drift estimations: Magic Number Crosswind (Knots) 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 6 8 25 30 20 30 45 25 30 30 30 Estimated drift angle (da) Two-bit Math The magic number of a Beech 95 in cruise is 2. that becomes $1.67 by 0.5. For example if the crosswind is 15 knots. 33/10 is 3. You reach into your pocket and discover you have a bunch of quarters.5 in your head but there is a simple trick that makes it easy. You most likely just remember that each dollar is four quarters and you know that one additional quarter covers items up to 25 cents.67. Anything over 75 cents would have required an eighth quarter. How many do you give the clerk? You probably had no trouble realizing you needed seven quarters to pay for your snack. which will take six quarters. You do this particular calculation so often that it seems trivial to you. This is the same as saying (XW/10)/0.25. Answer the following question: You go to the 7-11 store to by a snack for $1.3. and three for items up to 75 cents.

5 10 15 17 20 22 24 28 32 36 $1.5 2.5 2.5 2.Navigation for Professional Pilots Magic Number Crosswind (Knots) Dollar amount Estimated drift angle (da) 2.5 2.50 $1.00 $1.70 4 Page 57 .5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.

Navigation for Professional Pilots Drift Estimation Challenge From the Intranet website you should now examine the simulation called Drift Estimation Challenge. Page 58 . The drift estimation techniques from this simulation combined with the bracketing technique in the next simulation will give you all the skills you need to efficiently navigate IFR. In the next simulation you will learn a technique called bracketing that will pick up from this point and allow you to determine drift to the nearest degree. Work your way through the first 7 sections and then do the challenge in section 8 until you can quickly score an at “ATPL” level of skill. Drift Estimation Summary In this simulation you developed the skill to estimate wind drift reliably to within two or three degrees. Follow the instructions below.

DME.e. under Sim-Multimedia there are several interactive tutorials covering: “How VOR Works” “How ADF Works” and “How DME Works.75 those frequencies in which the first digit after the decimal is odd are ILS frequencies. L stands for low altitude.) Between 108. or GPS is used to define a track over the ground. approach transitions etc. VOR stations with frequencies less than 112.75 all frequencies are VOR. and Auto-standby. ILS. applies. and DME Channel Pairing VOR receivers in airplanes are able to tune frequencies between 108. From 112. the desired course (TC.” AFTER you have reviewed all the simulations continue with the following. DME and GPS work. Read all of section 2 (Navigation Systems) in your Instrument Procedures Manual before continuing.) On the KLN-90B GPS (in the B-95 and piston simulators) the map “super-nav 5 mode” can be set to VOR TLH. and GPS work.00 and 111.0 to 117. which are the ones between 108. VOR.0 to 117.0 are classified as terminal VORs and usually transmit on a lower power output. It is important to have a basic understanding of how VOR.75. To help you grasp what I mean look in your CAP and write down the frequencies for the following ILS transmitters: . Your task is to calculate the heading that will keep you on course and the groundspeed.75 and are powerful enough for use up to 100 NM (provided the airplane is high enough – because VOR requires line of sight. T stands for terminal VORs. On the Intranet. which are all the VORs used on high altitude airways (see HI charts below. or TMG. they are used for approaches. ADF.) Once a course is established drift theory. covered above. ADF. i.00 and 117.85.Chapter 3 Introduction to Radio Navigation In this section you will learn how VOR. this will explain all the navigation aids.00 and 111.” You will find further clarification about how DME works by reviewing the simulations: “DME Jitter” and “Squitters. which are all the VORs on Victor airways (see LO charts below. They normally are not part of the airway structure.) H stands for high altitude. When doing radio navigation a VOR. while those where the first digit is even are VORs. It is important to realize that there is no difference at all in the objectives or methods of flight planning for IFR flight and VFR flight. ADF. VORs for use on airways have frequencies 112. These radio aids are used to guide pilots during the enroute phase of flight.

50 IEM 109.15 107.70 109.20 111.0 so not an ILS Terminal .Navigation for Professional Pilots Airport Vancouver (CYVR) Vancouver (CYVR) Vancouver (CYVR) Vancouver (CYVR) Victoria (CYYJ) Victoria (CYYJ) Abbotsford (CYXX) Kelowna (CYLW) Calgary (CYXC) Calgary (CYXC) Calgary (CYXC) Lethbridge (CYQL) Runway 26R 26L 08R 08L 09 27 07 16 16 28 34 05 ILS Ident Frequency IFZ IVR 110.15 109.30 109.low power Comment Not a valid freq Page 60 .85 109.45 112.55 111. Note above 112.30 IQL To confirm your understanding of the frequency allocation system complete the following table: Frequency 107.60 VOR/ILS n/a ILS VOR ILS VOR VOR Terminal – low power Airway.

VOR Reception Range To receive a VOR you must be high enough to have line of sight to it. This means that you must be above the horizon of the VOR. up to 112. There are more TACAN channels than VOR channels so the first DME channel used in civilian flying is 17 and TACANs 57 to 66 inclusive are not used either. but in reality if the VOR signal is blocked by building. DME channels are numbered according to the military TACAN channel.95 109.30 117. etc. There is no reason to memorize the DME channel assignments although you should understand how the frequencies are assigned. By convention.9 corresponds to DME channel 106X.5 in your AIM. But ILS 26R is frequency 111. mountains. (See COM 3. It is important to realize that a specific DME channel always goes with a specific VOR / ILS frequency and that is how your Nav radio is able to tune the DME without you needing to input the DME channel. 40 ILS and 160 VOR. Page 61 .) In the diagram that follows no shadow effect is considered. as shown in the diagram below. for example YVR frequency 115. etc the reception range will be less than indicated by the formula.15 114. Operationally there is no difference between an X channel and a Y channel – both transmit squitters on the same frequency but listen for interrogation on different frequencies therefore they will interfere with each other and must not be used in the same area. The complete list is found in your CFS section D2. which is shown on the charts. with X channels corresponding to VOR and ILS frequencies that end in decimal 00 while the Y channels correspond to VOR and ILS frequencies that end in decimal 05.85 112. which corresponds to DME channel 56Y. Because of the numbering protocol there are two VOR frequencies then two ILS frequencies.00. on LO charts and in the CAP the X is dropped from DME channels – only the Y is shown.95.70 There are a total combined 200 VOR and ILS frequencies. but if you look on the map it just says DME Channel 106.Navigation for Professional Pilots 115. DME channels alternate between X and Y.

Navigation for Professional Pilots In the diagram it is clear that the aircraft’s altitude plus the radius of the earth forms the hypotenuse of a right triangle with r and distance from VOR (s) as the other sides.000 10.000 S .500 5.VOR reception range (NM) 50 87 123 VOR range may be limited to 150 NM by power Page 62 .000 20.23(alt).5 + 9 [alt in feet. But actual reception range is not zero when at ground level. s is in NM] To receive a VOR you must be within the slant range (s) given by the equation above. Using Pythagoras’ theorem and solving for s results in an equation. A few sample values are: Altitude (agl) 1. Thus the recommended formula is: S = 1.

This is distinctly different than ADF. The ADF in Selkirk College airplanes can tune frequencies up to 1200 (higher bands are not useable. If a heading indicator fails or is set incorrectly an RMI will NOT point at the VOR. which you cannot do with a VOR. When you fly over the station a DME shows your altitude in nautical miles. Usually you use your ADF radio with non-directional beacons (NDBs) but it can also tune commercial AM radio stations. Because of the slant range error groundspeeds calculated by a DME are not accurate when close to the station. but if you are at 40.000 150+ NM – dependent of power VOR. It does so even if the heading indicator is set incorrectly. if working properly. always points at the station. On the other hand. Consequently an RMI needle can only point accurately at a VOR if the heading indicator is accurate. The bottom line for pilots is to know and understand the differences between VOR and ADF in normal and heading-reference-failed modes of flight. you can always find your way to the station even with a failed heading indicator. There is a simulation on Intranet that fully explains the indications of the various navigation displays you will encounter in this program.Navigation for Professional Pilots 30. discussed below. As a result you will be flying on the WRONG course if your heading indicator is not accurate. DME – Final Thoughts Perhaps the most important thing to be aware of about VORs is that VOR receivers determine what radial you are on but have NO WAY of knowing the relative bearing to the VOR. it always does this even if the heading indicator is wrong.) A complete list of every radio station in Canada is on page D27 of your CFS. ADF. In other words. An ADF. if you are at 4000 agl you need to be at least 4NM away to get an accurate groundspeed. The rule of thumb is to consider DME based groundspeed accurate only when distance from station in nautical miles is greater than altitude in thousands of feet. It examines the most common navigation indicators: Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) Standard VOR/ILS indicator Radio Magnetic Indicator (RMI) Fixed Card Indicator Page 63 .000 feet you need to be 40NM away to get an accurate groundspeed. An RMI needle rotates so that the tail of the needle corresponds to the radial the airplane is on. It is important to know that DME gives “slant-range” which is the actual distance from the airplane to the DME station. The simulations show that an RMI does not always point at the station.

so this is obvious when you stop to think about it. Consequently GPS is more accurate than VOR or ADF for the enroute phase of flight. the accuracy of GPS is the same regardless of where you are on the airway. Also read section 2. but you won’t determine the heading that keeps you on track and will thus tend to chase wildly back and forth when you get further from the station where the signal is less sensitive.Navigation for Professional Pilots Each navigation display has its advantages. many pilots use pilotage anyway. The link can be found under Avia 100. Pilotage in terms of VOR or ADF navigation means “chasing the needles.” If you simply turn so as to push the needle back where it belongs (centered for a standard VOR indicator) you will stay on course.) Bracketing It might not seem so at first but radio navigation can be done in accordance with the principles of DR or pilotage. You will learn all the legal requirements for RAIM in Avia 120 and 220. Thus GPS gives accurate groundspeed even when close to “the station” (of course there really is no station. A major problem with GPS is that it can fail in certain ways without giving a warning to the pilot.) When using VOR and ADF navigation accuracy is greatest close to the stations and less accurate farther away. They will be covered in Avia 260. Read this entire slide show before continuing. You will see for example that as wonderful as an HSI is it doesn’t work with ADF.) There are pros and cons to this and you MUST learn to translate between both in your mind (more on that later. You will also see that while an RMI is a great thing to have. it doesn’t work with ILS. and Avia 260. Avia 160. etc. An important thing to realize is that a properly functioning GPS is a very accurate source of time. Take every opportunity to set your watch to the GPS in the airplane. In the following description of the Nav Displays simulation marker beacons and ILS is mentioned for completeness. (Note: the GPS in the simulators does not give accurate time. Page 64 . and your GPS is a legal source of accurate time. i. Sadly. This material is also covered in the readings assigned above.e. Since GPS has no stations. they are NOT slant range. what it displays and what it doesn’t. You will learn what each of these indicators looks like. GPS Navigation The basic operating principles of GPS are explained in a slide-show on our Intranet. The theory of their operation is not part of this course. Pilots should always set their clock (watch) accurately for IFR flight.) GPS gives distance off track rather than angle off track (VOR and ADF give angle off track. When we defined these terms (review if you don’t remember the meanings) we said that DR is a more sophisticated form of navigation.2 (Navigation systems) in the Instrument Procedures Manual. and you will also have a very hard time avoiding wild swings in close proximity to the station where the needle can move very quickly due to increased sensitivity. Distance values displayed on a GPS are horizontal. RAIM is one method of improving warning that a failure has occurred.

Sadly many IFR pilots never master bracketing.Navigation for Professional Pilots The secret to avoiding needle chasing is to use a technique called Bracketing. I recommend that you start with HSI or ALL. But. This is covered in a simulation on the Intranet. Examining a written record of the headings you have flown will show whether you are “zeroing in” on the required heading. However. The main ones are: A = All H = HSI S = Standard VOR Indicator R = RMI F = Fixed Card Indicator You may choose any navigation display you wish. In the simulation flying accurately is easy. but it can only get you roughly to the correct heading. you are not given any wind information at all. in the real world it can be more challenging. although it is easy if you use the autopilot. They just wallow around the sky chasing needles back and forth. The technique used to find the exact amount of drift is called bracketing. This is an invaluable technique and one you should use every day as an IFR pilot. When you fly the airplane you must try to fly headings as precisely as possible. Load the simulation called Bracketing – Tracking Technique In the previous simulation we learned to estimate wind drift based on the forecast wind. It should be pretty easy to remember them. The other thing you must do when bracketing is remember what headings you have been flying. Because winds aloft forecasts are not perfect you will need to adjust your heading enroute until you find the exact amount of drift. will you? To master bracketing one thing that is needed is to fly precisely. In the simulation. you won’t be one of those guys. If you can’t fly precisely you won’t be able to take full advantage of the procedures you are learning in this course. You will see that even in this worst-case scenario you can use bracketing to figure out drift. Page 65 . but for the first few times through this simulation you might like to have a pad of paper and write down what you have done. just to make things more challenging. as these are easier to see drift on. There are several secret codes built into this simulation. so you can observe which way the airplane is drifting. or wallowing.

12 miles west of the navaid.Navigation for Professional Pilots Establishing the Brackets The following explanation will take you through a tutorial using the Bracketing simulation – please complete this section while using the simulation. Set time compression to 1X unless you have a very slow computer. the instructor is waiting to see which way the airplane will drift.) Therefore he knows that 090 is too far right. Set time compression to zero (0X.) The “instructor’ mind” says 090 is the maximum heading he will ever fly. The instructor has begun searching for a left limit (see comment in instructor’s mind. The flying instructor is flying.) Page 66 .E. Whatever heading is needed to stay on course it MUST be less than this heading. I. Pretty soon the instructor sees that the needle is moving left (picture above. Read the “instructors mind” (the green box at the lower right. Tip: as you observe the simulation you should press the 2-key to restart the sequence if it gets ahead of your reading. We call this the right hand bracket. Press the 2-key The secret code places the airplane on course 090. Tip: set time compression to zero to freeze the motion after each turn the instructor makes. so you can keep up with the process.) Initially it says that the instructor is evaluating the heading 090.

Watch the instructor complete the above-described procedure. When the airplane is on heading 070 set time compression to zero. or just want to see it happen again. either press the 2-key again. the instructor flies heading 085 for a few seconds until he realizes that the CDI is still moving left. Next he tries heading 080.Navigation for Professional Pilots Here is what you will see. he tries 075. The IMPORTANT point is that it only matters WHICH WAY THE NEEDLE IS MOVING. So. “searching for left limit. so the instructor tries heading 070. First the instructor turns 5 degrees left. but the needle still moves left. After a few seconds on heading 070 the instructor sees that the CDI has begun to move to the right. or click the “Start Over” button. So. All this time the instructor’s mind says.” The needle still moves very slightly left on heading 075. It should now say: Minimum: 070 Evaluating: 080 Maximum: 090 Page 67 . If you miss part of process. Read the instructor’s mind. He then waits to see what the needle does.

The instructor realized the airplane was drifting right on heading 090.) A really good pilot could tell from all that has happened so far that the correct heading is closer to 070 than 090 (see comments below about “beating” the computerized flying instructor. Reading the instructor’s mind you now see that he realizes that heading 070 is less than the heading that WILL be required to stay on course.) However. he establishes 070 as the minimum heading (left hand bracket) Based on the above. then return time compression to zero. so increase time compression until he has time to think. This commitment prevents wild chasing of the needle back and forth (a common mistake of new IFR pilots. the instructor knows FOR SURE that the required heading to keep on course is between 070 and 090. so he established 090 as the maximum heading (right hand bracket) 2. To recap what has happened so far: 1. This is called the left hand bracket. NOTE: Whenever the airplane is off course always fly the corresponding bracket heading until back on course. Note that whenever the airplane gets off course the instructor will always go to (but NEVER beyond) the brackets – and will hold that heading until the airplane gets back on course. In this case the brackets are 070 and 090 so the instructor decides that when he gets back on course he will try heading 080. the instructor is programmed to just split the bracket into half. the instructor discovered that 070 was the first heading to the left that caused the CDI to move to the right. After searching. In his mind he indicates 080 as the heading he is evaluating. His mind now states that the minimum heading will be 070. So. Page 68 .Navigation for Professional Pilots Comments: Left-limit established If it doesn’t say the above you need to give the instructor a few more seconds to think. NOTE: The instructor will remain on heading 070 until the CDI re-centers.

notice that as soon as the instructor realizes he is drifting off he turns to the bracket heading (but not beyond the bracket. The revised brackets are 070 and 080. 075. 3.” i. and read his mind. as the heading he will evaluate next. The CDI moves right. The CDI moves left. Now read the instructor’s mind. even if he gets left of course at some point there is no need to fly a heading more than 080. Increase time compression from zero to see what happens. that the CDI moves left on heading 080. The CDI does not move. he chooses the midpoint. he on course and flying heading 080. The instructor immediately turns to his left bracket heading of 070. once he is back on course. As soon as he is on course he will turn to the evaluation heading. See how long it takes for you to realize the CDI is moving. Set time compression to zero once the instructor gets to heading 080. Increase time compression from zero and watch what happens. indicating there is more than 10-degrees of drift. and then tries heading 080 to see what happens: Increase time compression Watch the instructor. After a few seconds the CDI moves a bit to the left. The comment in his mind says that he is “trying evaluation heading. he revises his maximum heading (right hand bracket) to 080 (From now on. 2. indicating there is less than 10-degrees of drift. He will fly heading 070 until he gets back on course.Navigation for Professional Pilots The instructor remains on the left bracket (070) until back on course.) The instructor now realizes that 080 is not the correct heading to stay on course. In fact he now knows. First. Set time compression to zero again. Page 69 .e.) Read the instructors mind. There are only three possible outcomes to this situation: 1. 080. indicating that 080 is the required heading. So. He still states that the brackets (minimum and maximum) are 070 and 090. for sure. So.

The CDI moves left. If the CDI moves left the brackets will again be adjusted. although the instructor will keep going as far as he can. This tells the pilot that the drift MUST be very close to 15 degrees.5 degrees (heading 077. Once the airplane is within a mile of the station it is best to STOP bracketing and simply fly the evaluation heading until a mile beyond the station. A wise pilot would take the amount of time it took the CDI to move into account and revise the drift estimate to 14-degrees. See comments below about beating the computerized flying instructor.) After one bracketing cycle the brackets have been reduced from a 20 degree span to 10 degrees. His mind now says that he is evaluating heading 075 (i. indicating that there is exactly 15-degrees of drift. This tells the instructor that there is less than 15 degrees of drift. becoming 070 & 075. indicating there is less than 15-degrees of drift. Eventually the CDI starts to move right. 3. 2. Now the instructor is flying heading 075. then 2½ (in theory. slowly. Increase time compression again to see what happens. if it moves right the brackets will become 075 & 080. The brackets are at 070 and 080 respectively.5. indicating there is more than 15-degrees of drift. Soon they will span only 5 degrees. The CDI moves right. The computerized flying instructor is a stickler for purity so he revises the brackets to 075 and 080 and revises his drift estimate to 12. The CDI remains centered for a long time.Navigation for Professional Pilots After a few seconds on the left bracket (070) the CDI is again centered and the instructor turns to heading 075. The same three possibilities exist: 1. So no matter what happens we will have narrowed down the drift to a five-degree range. Can you now see how things keep going? Each time we evaluate a heading we reduce the span of the brackets in half.) Usually there is no practical need to get the brackets closer than 5 degrees to each other. Increase time compression and watch the instructor fly past the station.) He now turns to his right bracket heading of 080 to get back on course and then tries heading 078.e. The CDI does not move. Page 70 . guessing that there is 15-degrees of drift.

Bracketing is a foolproof system. After that all you have to do is maintain heading accurately and you have things made. You can click the “You have control” button at anytime to have the computerized flying instructor take over and demonstrate the procedure to you. so you can think about what the logic is. However.Navigation for Professional Pilots Theoretically the process continues exactly the same on the outbound leg. Press the F-key to switch to Fixed Card Indicator and practice bracketing. Make liberal use of setting time compression to zero. However.. because you usually are slightly off course (just a few feet. you MUST master bracketing with: Standard VOR Indicator RMI Fixed Card Indicator Press the S-key to switch to standard VOR indicator and practice bracketing. but it will be time very well spent. 4. The computerized flying instructor is programmed to open the brackets by +/. and 5 for more practice. Try secret coed 3.3-dgrees. Outbound bracketing then continues exactly as before If you use bracketing faithfully you can establish drift within one or two degrees in short order. I fully expect that you will spend several hours with this simulation before you are comfortable with bracketing. usually after each turn. Press the R-key to switch to RMI and practice bracketing. Page 71 . if only you will use it. Use ALL the Navigation Displays If you followed the advice above you started by practicing bracketing with an HSI. All the computerized flying instructor to demonstrate if you like. Repeat secret code 2 as many times as you need to until you fully understand all the logic of bracketing. we hope) at station passage it is wise to “open up” the brackets slightly once bracketing begins again on the outbound leg. If you “blow” a particular attempt use the “Start Over” button to try again.

However. This prevents the wild chasing of the CDI or RMI needle that commonly plagues new IFR pilots. above. or your heading indicator precesses. Similarly a human would move the left bracket NOT from 070 to 075 but only to about 073 (or so. if you check the box at the lower left of the simulation the computer will randomly include some outbound bracketing exercises for you. So.) Review secret code 2 above until what I have said here makes sense. In secret code 2. so you need to be able to navigate with only “raw” navigation data.Navigation for Professional Pilots Hide the Visual Aids By default the wind is hidden but all the other visual aids are visible. The point is that you don’t always have to divide each bracket exactly in half.) Break-out Logic A FUNDAMENTAL principle of bracketing is that you commit to NEVER fly outside the brackets. People are smart. but you should still do some outbound bracketing practice. when the instructor tries heading 075 and the CDI doesn’t move for a long time any human would realize that the drift is close to 15. if the wind changes. Within a few seconds the CDI should start to slowly come back to center. However. click the “Hide All” button at the bottom of the simulation to make the process more challenging. If precession is not the culprit then there are only two possibilities: Page 72 . If it doesn’t what do you do? If you have a manual HI check the compass and reset it. “Beating” the Computerized Flying Instructor Computers are dumb. and would only revise the heading to 076. As you have seen. IMMEDIATELY that you notice you are off course always turn to the relevant bracket heading.) But. there is no real difference between bracketing inbound and outbound. Use common sense (something the computerized flying instructor never does. Include Outbound By default the computer generates inbound bracketing exercises. the brackets won’t work anymore. most airplanes don’t have moving map displays. The idea of bracketing is that you always have two brackets in mind that you KNOW FOR SURE make the CDI move left and right (but only just.

Navigation for Professional Pilots 1. The computerized flying instructor has breakout logic. The question is. If you start with a +/. Therefore you start with your best estimate of the heading to stay on course. but NOT all the way to your original evaluation heading. 2. Usually the false indication will go away and you will see that you were on course the whole time.25 degrees closer to course he moves the bracket out by three degrees. In computer programming this is called breakout logic. With this head start you should have a near perfect heading bracketed out within a couple of minutes. For a CDI turn the OBS a few degrees. You then react to even small CDI deflections by turning to the appropriate bracket immediately. when you move the bracket should you change the evaluation heading? That depends on what you think caused the problem. Note: you can only tweak the evaluation heading one degree at a time if you can fly your heading accurately enough to make such judgments. Pretty soon you will have adjusted your heading and brackets so that you have two brackets about +/-5 degrees from your best estimated heading. with a totally unknown wind.10-degree bracket it should only take a minute until you can tell whether you need to adjust your evaluation heading left or right. move the bracket in. If he flies the bracket heading for 30 seconds and does not get at least 0. using the technique of drift estimation covered earlier. although it is amazing how many ILS approaches have bows in them caused by electronic interference on the ground. VOR and ILS are much less likely to give false indications. Bracketing Summary Bracketing is a fundamental tracking procedure. See if that changes the indication. Page 73 . (For example the ADF radio can be switched from ADF to ANT then back to ADF. if your bracket heading does not center the CDI you must CHANGE the bracket. tweaking it one degree at a time.10-degrees from there.) ADF is particularly prone to giving false indications so if you have no reason to believe the wind has changed just keep flying your heading for a minute and see what happens. The navigation display is wrong The wind changed If you have no reason to believe the wind changed then test the navigation radios. Once you determine that the off course indication is real. If it was a wind shift then you should change the evaluation heading in the same direction you opened the bracket. Check the Morse code identifier to make sure the station has not gone off the air. In this simulation the bracket always starts from the zero point. then reset the OBS. In the real world you should always know roughly what the wind is. Then you set your initial brackets at +/. When you do. but half as much. If the radio has a test button press it. also stand ready to close the bracket back in to where it was before. Using your judgment you revise your estimated heading. If you think the problem was a temporary navigation signal deflection then don’t change the evaluation heading.

” This simulation is for practicing DME arcs.Navigation for Professional Pilots Because bracketing is so powerful you can easily see that when combined with the drift estimation technique covered earlier you can perform very accurate DR radio navigation even in the absence of completely precise wind forecasts. Now we will learn to fly a perfectly circular path.0NM up. so that it acts like an RMI. DME arcs are normally flown using an RMI. If an airplane has an HSI but no RMI you can still do an arc by manually turning the HSI to keep it centered. Therefore the simulation includes an RMI. The navigation display also includes an HSI. A left arc means the RMI points at the left wingtip. They allow airplanes to get lined up for approaches without the high workload (for controllers) of radar vectors. Smaller arcs are never used. I have not provided the option for doing arcs without an RMI in this simulation. The easiest way to explain arcing is through an example. you are cleared for a practice DME arc. Intercept the 8 DME arc from the 120 radial and arc counter-clockwise to intercept the course 180. that means the RMI points at the right wingtip. Your lead radial will be 014. If you are arcing right. Flying a DME ARC So far we have been concentrating on flying in a perfectly straight line. To fly an arc you must first fly a path that crosses the arc. Once you intercept the arc turn so that the RMI needle points at the wingtip. Another common way is to be vectored until you intercept the arc. DME arcs are used on many IFR approaches and terminal arrival procedures. but it is best to master this simulation first. Please load the simulation and follow along with the example below.” Page 74 . If you have neither RMI nor HSI it is not good practice to fly DME arcs. Press the 1-key This secret code brings up a clearance that reads: “Pilot 200. The simplest way to do this is to fly directly toward the VOR until you reach the desired distance to arc. Load the simulation called “Flying a DME ARC. You can also fly arcs using the Alsim simulation. a standard VOR indicator and an RMI. DME arcs can be assigned at any distance from a DME station from 7.

which is the designated start radial. 8 DME arc means that the airplane must fly a circular orbit around the VORTAC at a distance of 8. (Indicated on DME radio. Lead radial will be 014 means that when the airplane crosses the 014 radial it will be 2 NM from the assigned course. (Later we will do an example where the airplane flies inbound on the 120 radial.Navigation for Professional Pilots The picture below shows the computerized flying instructor about half way through complying with this clearance. Let’s start by breaking down the clearance to make sure we understand it. (Press the 1-key to restart if necessary. so you generally stop arcing and turn to intercept the assigned course (at 45°.) Page 75 . When you get to the lead radial you are almost at your assigned course. Initially the airplane is flying outbound along the 120 radial.) Set time compression as required and watch the entire demonstration.) From the 120 radial means that the arc starts at the 120 radial Counter-clockwise is the direction or orbit. Intercept course 180 means that the objective is to wind up flying inbound on the 000 radial.) Watch the Flying Instructor demonstrate the arc. Think of lead radials like a wakeup call.0 Nm.

so ½% is about . Page 76 . (1% = 1. At 7. He states that he intends to lead the turn onto the arc. In the example the RMI points to 300 so the first heading must be 300 + 90 = 390 degrees – but that is 030. He plans to turn when the DME reads 7. Simply look at the tip of the RMI needle and turn 90° from that. you should add an extra 0.0 Nm as he rolls out on that heading.Navigation for Professional Pilots The instructor’s mind can be read at the lower right.) Keep in mind that the airplane must be in the turn at the designated distance.8 Nm.8 Nm.6 Nm. Assuming that the turn will be at rate one a simple mathematical formula for radius of turn can be derived: R = Groundspeed / 200 In other words: r = .1 to 0.5% of Groundspeed For example an airplane flying 156 Knots groundspeed would need to lead the turn by about . so the groundspeed equals the TAS. At the calculated lead distance the instructor starts his turn. Allowing about six seconds to get up to rate one turn.2 Nm he makes a left turn to heading 030. If the lead was correct the DME should read 8.2 to the calculated value.2 (the value will be different if you chose a cruise speed other than 150 KIAS. The pilot must turn so that the RMI is on the left wingtip.) The above diagram shows that the turn to intercept an arc should start at a distance equal to the radius of turn of the airplane. Watch the flying instructor. In this demonstration the wind is zero.

0 as the RMI needle approaches the wingtip the instructor will turn to keep the needle ahead of the wingtip. we use a technique of making a series of short straight legs that approximate the arc. bringing the RMI needle five degrees ahead of the wingtip again. maintains whatever heading he is on) the airplane will move out on the arc. The airplane would fly a perfect arc. which shows your radial. If the airplane gets a bit wide (DME reads 8.Navigation for Professional Pilots The only instruments needed to arc are the RMI and DME.1 or more) he turns so that the RMI needle is MORE than 5 degrees in front of the wingtip. once the airplane is established on the arc the instructor will set the HSI to the assigned course (180 in this example) and set the OBS to the lead radial (014 in this example. Therefore. closer to the VORTAC. This pattern repeats over and over.) Page 77 . in theory. Correcting this is simple. In this case we are flying a counter-clockwise arc so the RMI needle must point near the left wingtip. Just like a rock on the end of a string moves out instantly if you let go of the string the instructor realizes that if he simply stops turning.) With the HSI set the pilot can visualize how the arc is going. the instructor realizes that he is inside the designated arc. He then maintains a constant heading until the RMI needle drops to five degrees behind the wingtip. If the DME drops to 7. To understand an arc you must remember what your high school math teacher taught you. The HSI and OBS are not needed to fly the arc. In zero wind all you need do. The #2 CDI will center as the airplane crosses the lead radial. The airplane will be slightly more than 90degrees from the final course when the lead radial is reached.e. and that is easy to see on the HSI. a line tangent to a circle is always at right angles to the radius. He then turns 10 degrees left. (i. Consequently the RMI needle. (Prior to reaching the lead radial the CDI always deflects to the center of the arc. As this happens the RMI needle will move past the wingtip.0 the instructor resumes the usual arc procedure by turning to bring RMI needle near the wingtip again. Once the DME reaches 8. The instructor turns so that the RMI needle is five degrees ahead of the left wingtip. Watch the flying instructor fly the demonstration and note how it is done. What do we do if we drift off the designated DME distance? The instructor constantly monitors the DME. must always be at or near the wingtip when flying an arc. Unfortunately it is not possible to do such a perfect arc. If the DME is remains at more than 8. is keep the RMI needle on the wingtip and the DME will not change. Once the needle is below the wingtip DME will start to increase.9. Therefore. As long as the RMI needle is kept in front of the wingtip the airplane will move in.

again. we are flying a prefect arc. Once again the instructor calculates that 0. Now it is your turn to fly the arc. Remember we learned in chapter two that DME actually shows closing speed. So when the DME reads a speed of zero the airplane is NOT moving in or out on the arc. Then press the “I Have Control” button. In this case we are moving away from the DME station at the indicated rate. Then press the “I Have Control” button.2 deviations from the assigned DME. and DME is telling you how quickly. but you should not permit 0. Whenever the RMI needle is behind the wingtip there is a small DME groundspeed. Press the 2-key The assigned practice arc is exactly the same as the previous one. then tracks inbound using the usual bracketing technique.Navigation for Professional Pilots As the airplane crosses the lead radial the instructor will STOP arcing and turn to make a 45-degree intercept of the assigned course. Practice the procedure until you can keep the DME within 0. I. Whenever the RMI needle is ahead of the wingtip there is a small DME groundspeed. He simply holds the 45-degree intercept heading until on the course. DME Groundspeed During an ARC As you watch the instructor fly the arc notice the DME groundspeed readout.8 Nm lead is needed. These statements are only true if the airplane is flying straight (i. Tip: remember to set the HSI to 180 and the OBS to 014 once you are established on the arc.1 of the assigned value. Page 78 .e.8 Nm.) Press the 1-key. If the groundspeed is increasing the airplane is getting further away from the VORTAC. From this point on the demonstration is exactly the same as before. An important to rule to note is that if the groundspeed is decreasing the airplane is getting closer to the VORTAC.1 variations.E. Every time the RMI needle passes the wingtip the groundspeed reads zero. not turning. You will find it impossible to prevent 0. again. Press the 2-key. Common sense tells us that we are “cutting in” on the arc. not groundspeed. Now try the intercept from outside the arc on your own. so he starts the turn at 8. As before the first turn is to heading 030. The only difference is that this time the airplane is flying inbound to the arc along the 120 radial.

Press the 3-key. Repeat this exercise until you can stay within 0. That is good.) A wise pilot would realize that the first heading should not be 030.0 Watch the DME groundspeed.1. so every time he gets back on the arc he turns to place the RMI only 5-degrees in front of the wingtip. Page 79 . the computerized flying instructor has not been blessed with common sense. we saw that the closing speed was zero when the RMI was exactly on the wingtip. but not excellent. Now it is your turn to try arcing with a wind blowing you outside the arc. From the map you can see that the wind is going to blow the airplane wide on the arc. But. again. because of wind drift. He then monitors the DME. He then keeps turning to maintain the RMI needle ahead of the wingtip until the DME returns to 8. until you are better than the instructor. BUT the difference is a 30-knot west wind. Watch and see what happens when he turns to 030. he keeps being blown outside the arc. Eventually he discovers an amount that causes the DME do decrease. As the airplane is blown wide on the arc the instructor sees the DME reach 8. the “zero point” changes as the airplane proceeds around the arc. and that is not enough. Rather than using the wingtip as the zero reference use the point where the groundspeed reads zero.2 Nm of the arc (i. Then press the “I Have Control” button. But. we must lead the turn to the arc by 0. And. What adjustments to the previous procedure will be needed? First notice that the groundspeed as we fly along the 120 radial is almost 180 knots. At that point he turns to move the RMI needle 10 degrees ahead of the wingtip.9 Nm this time (these values will be different if you chose a different cruise speed. in this case the closing speed is zero when the RMI is slightly ahead of the wingtip. when the wind was zero.Navigation for Professional Pilots Press the 3-key This time the same arc clearance is issued. When it is your turn you will do better. A wise pilot would use this information to arc better.e. In the previous example. See if you can do better. Unfortunately the computerized flying instructor doesn’t know that. If the distance does not decrease he turns to move the RMI needle further in front of the wingtip. So. because the angle the wind makes to the arc keeps changing. and most of the time within ¼ mile. So. Right? The good news is that even with his limited intelligence the instructor keeps the airplane within half a mile of the arc.

10. Then press the “I Have Control” button.) A wise pilot would realize that in this situation the RMI needle should be kept behind the wingtip. Unfortunately most airplanes don’t have this feature. Page 80 .0 DME. This time the groundspeed along the 120 radial is only 130 knots. Press the 5-key This time there is a new arc clearance. This arc goes clockwise. Now it is your turn to try arcing with a wind blowing you into the arc. Take note of the groundspeed on the DME (too bad the instructor doesn’t do that. Watch the instructor demonstrate this arc. Learn from the instructor’s mistakes.2 Nm of the arc. It is also at a different distance. Try keeping the RMI needle further behind the wingtip than you did with zero wind. But. Watch as the instructor flies the arc. You can do better than he.6 Nm. but now the wind is 30 knots from the east. again. so the arc need only be lead by 0. click the “Hide All” button at the bottom of the page and try repeating the arc with no map to help you. again. press the 4-key Once again we have the exact same arc clearance. Turn the visual aids on again. The instructor will therefore keep flying straight legs. so the first turn is to heading 270 + 90 = 360. Press the 4-key. allowing the RMI needle to drop further behind the wingtip to get back on the arc.) Predictably he is blown back inside the arc and has to correct again.Navigation for Professional Pilots Hide the visual aids. Having the moving map to help you judge the arc makes it easier. Then. There is a 20-knot wind from the southeast so the wind is blowing the airplane outside the arc. So. The start radial is 270. The wind will keep blowing the airplane inside the arc. As usual the instructor doesn’t keep the RMI needle far enough ahead of the wingtip. Then press the “I Have Control” button. You should be able stay within 0. the instructor is a bit too dense for that. Every time he gets back on the arc he turns to put the RMI needle five degrees ahead of the wingtip (as you would in zero wind. Press the 5-key. so he keeps blowing outside the arc.

Click the “Do Another” button. If you wish to limit your practice to only one of these situations adjust the checkboxes. You can make your choice from: Page 81 . Remember that with the wind blowing you out of the arc you need to keep the RMI needle slightly in front of the wingtip. The process of intercepting a particular course is called a PDT (Pre-determined Intercept. 2.” Outbound intercepts can be completed regardless of how many degrees you are currently off course. You will be mastering two separate skills: 1. All the procedures you have learned so far still apply. At this point we have covered all the techniques of arcing. The arcs are at distances from 6 miles to 12 miles. “Desired to the head. plus 30. Intercepts Inbound Intercepts Outbound To intercept a course inbound we use a simple little saying. If you are able to arc successfully with this simulation you should be ready to try it in the real airplane. plus 30. Load the simulation called “Intercepting a Course – Procedure Turn” As usual choose your cruise speed before clicking the “begin” button to start the simulation. The two checkboxes at the bottom of the simulation labeled “Inside Intercept” and “Outside Intercept” are both checked by default. “Tail to desired. Every time you click the “Do Another” button the computer generates a random arc clearance with a random wind. Intercepting a Course (PDT) Every IFR fling involves establishing yourself on an airway and an approach. If you are off course more than that go directly to the station and perform a procedure turn to establish yourself on the assigned course. Thus you will get both intercepts from inside and outside the arc. You can only complete an inbound intercept if you are currently within 60 degrees of the course you wish to intercept.) It is one of your most fundamental skills. Choose a Navigation Display Before we begin you must choose a navigation display. Make sure you are practicing successfully with all the visual aids hidden before moving on.” You will soon see what that means.Navigation for Professional Pilots Now it is your turn to try the clockwise arc. To intercept a course outbound we use another simple little saying. What you need now is lots of practice.

Leave the checkbox at the bottom of the simulation set to “Within 60 PDTs” for now. Therefore I recommend you start with the option “A” for all. Page 82 . you are cleared to intercept the 180 degree radial inbound to the YPB VOR. if you have chosen either the “R” for RMI or “F” for fixed card navigation displays the clearance reads: “Pilot 200. At the right side of the screen the red box contains the clearance. However it is MUCH easier with an HSI and RMI than without. When dealing with VOR or VORTAC navaids the controller (red box) uses the terminology radial to refer to the course.” Alternatively.” Note the difference in terminology. Indeed the very reason people spend so much money to have HSI in airplanes is to make intercepts easier to visualize. Press the 1-key The clearance reads: “Pilot 200. But when dealing with NDBs the controller uses the term course. or “H” for HSI. you are cleared to intercept the course 360 inbound to the CM beacon. By default the simulation generates a random inbound intercept.Navigation for Professional Pilots A = All H = HSI S = Standard VOR Indicator R = RMI F = Fixed Card Indicator The procedure for conducting predetermined intercepts (PDT) and flying procedure turns is exactly the same regardless of what navigation display you have.

He figures out that he needs to fly a heading of 070 to intercept the course. 3. From the picture it is pretty easy to see that we need to fly eastward. 7. The question is. As you are reading this. the instructor is flying. Assigned Course Desired Course Present Bearing (head) Present Radial (tail) Head Tail Track Error “Within 60” Page 83 .Navigation for Professional Pilots The clearance requests the pilot to intercept the 180 radial inbound. 6. 8. or RMI indicators. as depicted in the picture above. how does he know that he should fly heading 070? We must define: 1. Once on heading 070 everything falls into place. 5. But. 2. 4. in a real airplane there won’t be a map (in most cases) so we must learn to figure out which direction to fly by looking at the HSI. standard VOR.

The arrowhead of the RMI is called the Head. would take you to the station. Desired course is a synonym for assigned course. The PDT procedure we are about to learn only works if you are within 60 degrees.Navigation for Professional Pilots For an inbound intercept the assigned course is always the direction TO the station. you are FROM the station. (It is easy to visualize on an RMI/HSI combination instrument (see picture below). Your first task is to set the HSI to the assigned course (if you have an HSI.) For a radial put the tail of the course bar on the assigned radial to set the inbound course. If you have an RMI the present bearing is the direction the RMI needle is pointing. If you have only a standard VOR indicator it is the bearing you get when you center the CDI with a FROM flag. Page 84 . The present bearing is the direction that. The difference between the assigned course and the present bearing is called the track error. The opposite end of the RMI needle is called the Tail. Therefore if the controller has assigned the intercept in terms of radial you must take the reciprocal to get the assigned course. If you have an RMI it is found by reading the tail of the RMI needle. If you have only a standard VOR indicator you must center the CDI with a TO flag to get the present bearing. For an outbound intercept the assigned course is always the direction FROM the station. If track error is more than 60 you must fly directly to the station and do a procedure turn. The present radial is the direction that. There is no need to take a reciprocal when dealing with outbound courses. at present.) If track error is less than 60-degrees we say we are within 60. at present. as the angle between the RMI needle and the Course bar.

Usually in a real world context you will know how far the airway you are trying to intercept is away from you. Next he locates the present bearing on the RMI and compares that to the course bar. or the heading indicator if there is neither. Once you know you are within 60 you simply following the little rhyme “Desired to head plus 30. Now that you know the procedure watch the computerized flying instructor execute it. Press the 1-key again. That is the heading you need to turn to. Make use of the time compression. when you need time to read the instructor’s mind. then move your eyes a farther 30 degrees. Look at where his finger is pointing (between the course bar and RMI head.” This simply means that you locate your desired course on the HSI then move your eyes to the head of the RMI needle. But. setting it to zero. Notice that the instructor sets the HSI to the assigned course right away.) Then he returns his finger to the desired course (head of course bar. in the context of this simulation you must find your present bearing (head) and compare that to the desired course (arrow on HSI) confirming the difference is less than or equal to 60. As the instructor does the PDT he points at the HSI (if available) or the RMI if there is no HSI. so I recommend starting with that navigation display. See picture above. make sure you are within 60. Later you can have him demonstrate the procedure with other navigation displays.Navigation for Professional Pilots Next. or observe where he is pointing.) Page 85 . so this will be an obvious step. It is much easier to follow his explanations if there is an HSI.

then press the 2-key The airplane is back at the exact same starting point. but NOT on your start heading. Make sure you go through the procedure methodically. Now repeat the PDT yourself. Set time compression to a value greater than zero. Repeat the rhyme to yourself and try it. the head is at 040. Watch the computerized flying instructor do the PDT. so once again the required heading is 070. and the exact same clearance is given.) Then he moves his finger another 30-degrees. Why does he do that? Page 86 .) Finally he turns to the heading of 070 and flies that heading until he is on the assigned course. Then press the “I Have Control” button.Navigation for Professional Pilots Then he moves his finger to the head of the RMI needle. NOTE: When we say plus 30. plus 30. After confirming you are within 60 say to yourself “desired. Set Time Compression = 0. That is all there is to it. (Labeled in picture above. again. (See picture above. Therefore the heading he decides to turn to is more than 070. Because you set time compression to zero the instructor is on hold. The other thing that probably surprised you is that he decided to turn left. rather than right. Press the 1-key. Because the airplane is moving the present bearing is more than 040 by the time the instructor gets around to checking it. It is important to realize that the heading you must turn to depends on where you are. to head. we mean 30 beyond the desired course.” When that makes sense to you move on. In this example that is a heading of 070. The desired bearing is 360.

I find that in real world IFR flying you never really need to worry about this sort of thing. In the example given he is turning to heading 080 but the RMI needle points to about 050. if he turned right he would fly right through heading 050. But. The rule programmed into the computerized flying instructor is that if the RMI needle is ahead of the wingtip he simply turns to the chosen heading. if you and your instructor are practicing PDTs and remaining within 10 miles or so of the station you will find it prudent to take care which way you turn. Since he is programmed not to do that he turns the other way. That could be a good thing in many cases. But. You can see that if he had turned right he would have intercepted the course much closer to the station. The picture below shows what you might have expected him to do. if the RMI needle is behind the wingtip he will never turn through the RMI needle. So. But. Page 87 .Navigation for Professional Pilots The picture above shows what the instructor does. if the airplane is already close to the station it can create difficulties. Just turn the most direct way to the chosen heading.

Keep the checkbox at the bottom of the simulation set to “Within 60 PDTs” only. so things are changing. Do so at your own discretion. Note that the procedure is always the same. But the airplane is flying northeast bound. allow the computerized flight instructor to demonstrate the differences in where you must look to get the required information. Press the 4-key Once again we are assigned to intercept the same course. Watch the instructor do the PDT. The difference is only in where you get the required information. But. You can even challenge yourself by setting the time compression to more than real time. this time we are on the other side of the course. again. Here is your chance to see what happens if you turn left rather than right. That way you have all the time you need to figure out what heading you want to turn to. The procedure however is exactly the same. Set time compression to zero when you need time to analyze what he is doing. Then press the “I Have Control” button. As in secret code 2 the instructor will turn the long way around. and do lots of PDTs. If you do. if you wish to do some PDTs with the RMI. It’s a lot harder with the map hidden. again. Page 88 . Pay attention to his finger. And we are at the same starting point as the previous secret code. Click the “Hide All” button at the bottom of the simulation.Navigation for Professional Pilots Press the 3-key Once again the clearance is to intercept the same course. When you are feeling confident with the procedure: Hide all the visual aids. However. However. Use the “Do Another” button Before moving on to do outbound PDTs you will need lots (and lots and lots) of practice doing inbound PDTs. standard VOR indicator or Fixed Card indicator you may do so now. TIP: When you first start doing PDTs you should set time compression = 0 BEFORE clicking the “Do Another” button. Now repeat the PDT yourself. once you are getting the PDTs correctly you need to be able to do them in real time. Press the 4-key. Then press the “I Have Control” button. and in how easy it is to visualize. I recommend mastering PDTs fully with HSI before using the other navigation displays. Press the 3-key.

you are cleared to intercept the 000 degree radial outbound from the YPB VOR.” Page 89 .” If you have the visual aids turned off click the button at the bottom of the simulation labeled “Show All. Turn the Visual Aids On. “Tail to Desired plus 30. Press the 5-key The clearance reads: “Pilot 200. The good news is that this is even easier than inbound intercepts.” I also recommend returning to the “A” for all or “H” for HSI navigation display. To perform an outbound intercept we have a different rhyme. NOTE: there is NO within 60 limit for outbound intercepts.” The picture below shows the objective pictorially.Navigation for Professional Pilots Outbound PDTs Now we will learn to intercept a course outbound from the station. When intercepting the course outbound I will teach you to use an intercept of 30-degrees. Reset navigation display to “All” or “HSI.

you will see that you MUST do the procedure as described above. Then he looks a further 30 degrees. This is true. Watch the flying instructor perform the PDT. Page 90 . Now. or 111 degrees. The second reason is that only the procedure described here will work with an RMI or Fixed Card indicator. The first is that without doing this you don’t know if you are off track 11 degrees. The required heading in this example is 330. if the CDI were deflected right you would fly a heading 30 right of the desired course. Then he looks at the HSI course. I recommend checking the RMI for two reasons. You may be thinking to yourself that all these steps are not really needed. But. The picture above shows the instructor demonstrating the same PDT but with an RMI indicator. If the CDI were deflected left you fly a heading 30 left of the desired course. then we move our eyes to the desired outbound course (set on the HSI) then move our eyes a further 30degrees to find the required heading. In this one we start at the tail of the RMI. To see this press the R-key then click the “Start Over” button.) Press the 5-key again. All you actually have to do is look at the HSI. First he sets the assigned course (000) on the HSI. (If you wish to do a 45-degree intercept just move your eyes 45 past the desired instead. Then he looks at the tail of the RMI.Navigation for Professional Pilots Notice that this is a different rhyme than for inbound intercepts.

Fly the PDT yourself. Random PDT practice Now it is time for you to practice all the skills you have learned in this chapter.” If you wish to do only outbound PDTs turn off the “Within 60 PDTs” checkbox.” When you are ready: Click the “I have control” button. Change the checkbox at the bottom of the simulation to “Include Outbound. RMI and Fixed Card indicator. Keep saying to yourself “tail to desired plus 30. Do several PDTs until you are getting comfortable with the procedure. If you desire. Then Press the 6-key With the airplane frozen you now have all the time you need to go through the procedure. Initially set the time compression to zero before clicking the “Do Anther” button so you will have time to think the procedure through. Set Time Compression = 0. At the bottom of the simulation there are three checkboxes labeled: Page 91 . Hide the Visual Aids Practice outbound PDTs with no visual aids.Navigation for Professional Pilots Return to the HSI display by pressing the A-key or H-key. Then set time compression to more than zero when you know what heading you want to turn to. then: Press the 6-key This time we are assigned the same course to intercept and we are at the same starting point. Make sure the “Over 60 PDTs” checkbox is NOT selected. Use the “Do Another” button. then set time compression to more than zero. Despite this the instructor comes up with the same intercept heading. practice outbound PDTs with standard VOR indicator. But. our start heading is different. 330.

Use all the navigation displays. Some will be over 60. Page 92 . Use Time Compression as needed Initially feel free to set time compression to zero to give yourself time to think what you should do. Tracking and Intercepting Summary You now know how to track accurately along any assigned course. If you need a demonstration you can give the instructor control at any time. some won’t. 3. such as the Fixed Card indicator you must be certain you won’t encounter one in your real world IFR flying. You can estimate the drift and then use bracketing to zero in on the exact amount of drift. Some will be inbound and some outbound. Be sure to practice PDTs with all the navigation displays. Using the map makes it far too easy to do PDTs. Most airplanes don’t have a moving map. Every time you click the “Do Another” button the computer will generate a random PDT. 2. Include Outbound Within 60 PDTs Over 60 PDTs Check all three of these check boxes then: Click the “Do Another” button at the top of the simulation. So. If you decide not to use a particular display. But. You know what a lead radial is and how to set up the HSI and OBS when flying an arc. You also know how to fly a circular arc around a VORTAC using a DME and RMI. once you understand the procedure hide the visual aids and practice with only the navigation instruments. If you know for certain that the airplane you are doing your IFR rating in has an RMI you may consider skipping Fixed Card indicator – perhaps returning to learn how to use it later. you must work your way up to doing the exercise in real time. Hide the visual aids. Read the clearance carefully then try to comply. If the instructor is flying click the “I have control” button.Navigation for Professional Pilots 1.

inbound or outbound. Keep your bracketing skills at the ready. In chapter 6 we will learn to do approaches where you will be able to use al l the skills you have just learned. In the next chapter we will learn to perform holds. from a VOR or an NDB. When an inbound course is within 60 degrees you can go right to it.Navigation for Professional Pilots You know how to intercept any course. When the course is more than 60-degrees from your present bearing you know how to fly to the station and perform a procedure turn. including arcs and procedure turns. Page 93 . With the above skills you have all the knowledge you need to master holds and approaches.

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which are for airplanes flying less than 18.G. The LO charts give the magnetic tracks for these airways. They show the “low altitude” airways and air routes. for example airway B22 is referred to as “Bravo two two.000’. Airways are based on either VOR or ADF. The charts you will use regularly in this course are: LO HI Terminal These are explained in your AIM. You will learn the regulations governing these in Avia 130. section MAP 3.2 in your AIM. The VOR airways are called “Victor airways. for example V100. The charts also show distances so no ruler or protractor is necessary when flight planning with LO charts. LO charts also show air routes. If not then review that material before proceeding. or R.Chapter 4 IFR Charts Read section Map 3. To fly IFR on an airway you need an IFR clearance. In an IFR clearance these would be referred to as Victor one zero zero and Victor three zero two. The standard phonetic terminology is used. High level airways are shown on the HI charts discussed below. . which is explained below.” Review the legend on your LO1 chart and then do the assignment to confirm you know all the symbols on the charts. LO Charts LO charts are used for enroute navigation within the low level airspace. ADF airways are commonly called “Low frequency airways.B. or V302.” All Victor airways have a number which is preceded by the letter V.0. Even if you are navigating with GPS or Loran-C the airways you fly on are based on the positions of VORs and NDBs. If you have worked through the designated simulations you know how to tune and interpret VOR and ADF radios with either HSI or standard VOR indicators and fixed card or RMI. In Canada all airways are based on either VOR or ADF.” they are always designated with the letter A. which are similar to airways but uncontrolled.

but you will learn how to prepare an IFR nav-log and flight plan. 4000. 5000.) Most high altitude airways are based on VORs but some are based on NDBs. Preferred IFR routes. and 8000 creating a risk of colliding head-on with westbound traffic in each case. VFR airplanes are “separated” from IFR by 500 feet (you already know the cruise altitudes for VFR. STARs. in this course you need to know that IFR procedures are for the purpose of keeping airplanes from colliding with one another. You will learn about this in Avia 130 and Avia 260.) Cruising altitude rules for separating opposite direction flights is not satisfactory in the vicinity of busy airports because large numbers departing and arriving airplanes are climbing and descending creating a night-mare scenario for the controller.) This system works well for airplanes in cruise but is problematic when many airplanes need to climb or descend. Cars pass each other at combined speeds of 200+ KPH missing head-on collisions by four or five feet (pretty terrifying when you stop to think about it. Obviously an airplane climbing to 9000 feet (eastbound flight) must climb through 2000. and SIDs are the answer.” Examine the legend of your HI altitude chart and then do the assignment to confirm you understand it. Indeed airways are generally laid out like spokes on a wheel radiating out from VORs and NDBs. In Avia 260 you will learn all about IFR separation. Separation of IFR Aircraft IFR airplanes are allowed to fly in clouds. at and above 18. Preferred IFR Routes Page 96 . all are named with a letter “J” followed by a number. In a clearance this is referred to as “Jet five eight five. Separation must be lateral (side to side) or vertical. These are not unlike one-way streets you find in big cities. In IFR flight the ATC system takes on that task Airplanes flying along airways in opposite direction cannot pass the way cars on a highway do. every time. When in cloud pilots cannot see other aircraft.e.000 feet in the southern domestic airspace (all flight in high level airspace is IFR. etc. Eastbound airplanes fly at “odd thousand” altitude (1000. To do that you need to understand the basics of how the “IFR system” operates.) while westbound flights are at “even thousand” altitudes. Overview of IFR System This course is NOT designed to teach you IFR procedures. Air traffic controllers are charged with making sure no collision takes place (and your life depends on them doing it. Note that HI charts do not symbolically indicate which direction corresponds to even and odd cruise altitudes because these altitudes change according to the cruising altitude orders.Navigation for Professional Pilots HI Charts HI Charts are used for enroute navigation in the high altitude airspace. Imagine trying to do it blindfolded. unlike VFR airplanes. On highways traffic lights and stop signs prevent collisions at intersection. Airways are like highways and like highways they must sometimes cross each other.) Airplanes are separated by having opposite direction airplanes at least 1000 feet apart vertically. i. 3000. 6000. for example J585.

Any other services that controllers provide are secondary to the primary function. Departing airplanes can be cleared to climb without fear of opposite direction traffic. In short the ATC system solves only problem 1 above. While the CFS indicates that the system is not mandatory you will find it impossible to get a clearance that does not comply unless you indicate a safety concern (bad weather) or a special operational need (lack of pressurization. A few problems arise when flying in cloud however: 1. 3. the following highly simplified explanation of IFR flight is provided to get you started. The controller only needs to ensure that faster and slower airplanes don’t “overrun” each other. In this course you are also expected to designate an alternate on IFR flight plans. The key word in the previous sentence is procedure and we say that terrain avoidance in IFR flight Page 97 . Airplanes cannot see each other in flight. Pilots follow prescribed procedures and climb at specified climb gradients to avoid terrain during departure and when enroute they fly above minimum enroute altitudes (MEA. etc.) The bottom line is to use preferred routes. but at least one problem is eliminated.000 and HI for airplanes that cruise at and above) and choose the airway(s) that most directly take you from your departure airport to the destination. so some method of avoiding it must exist Airplanes cannot see the runway. It might seem obvious that you would simply look at the LO or HI chart (LO for airplanes that cruise below 18. for example departing Castlegar for Vancouver intercept the preferred route for Calgary to Vancouver.) MEAs are shown on LO charts. ATC finds it easier to control the flow of climbing and descending traffic (departures and arrivals) when outbound airplanes take one route (or set of routes) and inbound airplanes another. IFR flight makes it possible for airplanes to fly in cloud from departure to destination. special ferry flight. To clarify why. so some method of separating them must exist Airplanes cannot see the ground. which is still a substantial task for ATC. When departing from a small airport there is often no listed preferred route but if you are headed for a major airport you should use common sense and pickup a preferred route. and similarly arrivals can be permitted to descend.Navigation for Professional Pilots When planning an IFR flight one task you must obviously do is choose a route. so some method of descending and establishing visual contact with the runway is needed in order to land The ATC system exists PRIMARILY to keep airplanes from colliding during flight. IFR Alternate Airport In Avia 130 you will learn all the regulations about IFR alternate airports. thus largely removing weather as an impediment to flight. 2. Before doing that however you should look to see if there is a published “preferred route. If a preferred route exists you should use it. In all your flight planning in Avia 260 you will have to allow for an alternate airport. Preferred IFR routes are published starting on page C98 of your CFS. The full set of considerations will become clear during the Professional Pilot Program.” This is the aeronautical equivalent of one-way streets that you have probably driven on in large cities. Some aspects of this task have been indicated above.

In this case an alternate airport.” The required weather is specified in the CAP GEN and in RAC 3. Page 98 .Navigation for Professional Pilots is “procedural. It is always possible that the weather will be so bad that the pilot does not see the runway at the end of an IFR approach procedure. but it should be obvious that the alternate airport must have good weather so that there is NO CHANCE of being unable to land there. Pilots are responsible for that through the correct application of IFR procedures. You will learn to assess the FORECAST to determine that an airport is a “legal alternate. is needed. IFR approach procedures are published in the Canada Air Pilot (CAP) which you have purchased. So problem 2 and 3 above are both solved procedurally.14. On all IFR nav-logs you will include time and fuel to get to an alternate airport.” Note that it is NOT the responsibility of ATC to prevent terrain collision. where the weather is good. These are for the purpose of making a safe descent (taking terrain into account) to a point where the pilot MUST see the runway in order to land on it. You will learn all the regulations for this elsewhere.

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etc. Get out your CR and set one of the above ratios and see that you have them all. and eighteen thirty-sixths. now it is time to master the front-side. Work through your CR manual from page 1 to 29 (you should already have done the rest of the book. First a quick review of what a ratio is: ½ = 2/4 = 3/6 = 18/36.) A Ratio Machine The outer two rings on the front-side of the CR are a “ratio-machine. etc.Chapter 5 The CR Computer You have already learned to use the wind side of the CR. for our purposes. On a CR 10 can represent 1. These are simple examples of ratios and fractions. ratios should be thought of as fractions. One half equals two quarters.6 and so on. The CRUCIAL thing to realize is that you can set any ONE of these ratios on your CR and it will give you ALL the others.100. In the photo below you can see that all the ratios are given. three sixths. 10.8/3. 18/36 also represents 180/360 and 1. 1000. 100/200 and so on. Before we go further it is important to note how numbers are displayed on the CR. and an infinite number of other ratios. Thus 10/20 in the photo above represents ½ as well as 10/20.” You will learn to do many useful ratios all of which have practical application in your flying. It is your job to keep track of the decimal .

But there are many other ratios of importance in aviation. Solving problems with a CR requires you to ask. But in a given situation only a few of these ratios are of practical interest – even so it is important to understand that there are an infinite number of equivalent ratios The secret to making good use of a CR is in knowing which ratios are interesting. For example if you are paid $14 per hour and want to know how much you earn in 40 hours the CR can tell you. unit conversions. etc.) To use a CR effectively you must realize that this is a ratio (200/1. or your own CR.Navigation for Professional Pilots points when using your CR. The photo below shows that you earn $560 dollars in (per) 40 hours. From the photo above.5/35 and an infinite number of other ratios not previously listed. etc. you can see that ½ equals 17/34 and 17. what relationships are relevant? For example IFR departures require a minimum climb gradient of 200 feet per nautical mile (ft/NM. How many dollars do you earn in 8 hours? Page 102 .) A good clue is the word “per”. when you know that something happens “per” something else it is probably a ratio that you can solve with a CR. It is important to know that not only does ½ = 2/4 also equals 20/40 and 2000/4000. distance to a radio navaid. For example climb gradients. A common problem is time and distance. This depends on what question you are trying to answer. which we will deal with under the topic of speed ratios below.

statutemiles/kilometers and nautical-miles/kilometers. using your CR. For example you may have noticed on the speedometer of your car that 80kph equals 50 mph – set this ratio up on your CR and fill in the table below: 40kph 90kph 800kph _______ mph _______ mph _______ mph Page 103 .Navigation for Professional Pilots Unit Conversions Most unit conversions are simple ratios. If you establish ANY relevant ratio relating these values you can use it to determine ALL others. liters/gallons. Examples include pounds/kilograms.

The KM and Statute markings are found on both the outer and inner ring so you can set the CR up either way. Once this ratio is set all others can be read.Navigation for Professional Pilots 100kph 120kph _______ mph _______ mph To solve the above problem we started with the ratio 80/50 which we remembered from the speedometer of a car – but the CR has most of the common ratios marked on its face. Page 104 . Remember that any ratio will do. The photo above shows a ratio for km/sm. so Jeppesen simply marks the ratios wherever they fit without cluttering the face of the computer too much.

For example if you know that 2. Page 105 . Try it yourself to confirm you get the expected value.2 pounds equals one kilogram simply set that ratio on the CR to save the trouble of locating the marked ratio shown below: Set the above ratio and confirm that 2. You will often need to know that 1.0NM = 6080 feet. If you forget you can figure it out with a CR through a two-step process. How many pounds in five kilograms? How many pounds in 16 kilograms? The CR does not have a conversion from Nautical miles to feet. First determine how many KM = 1NM and then convert from meters to feet. The same process can be used to discover there are _______ feet in a statute mile.Navigation for Professional Pilots Ratios can also be found for: Liters to gallons (both imperial and US) Feet to meters Pounds to Kilograms Remember that if you know a conversion ratio from memory you can save the need to locate one on the CR.2/1 is an equivalent ratio.

That is a requirement for using ratios as a conversion method. Mach = TAS / speed of sound. The reason ratios don’t work is that 0°C does not equal 0°F. by definition (this is a ratio.) Assume the speed of sound is 600 knots and set the ratio 600/1 on your CR.Navigation for Professional Pilots Celsius to Fahrenheit Temperature Conversion You may need to convert from Celsius to Fahrenheit – this is NOT a ratio. With your CR set as above 1200 knots is what Mach number? The answer is 2.0 Page 106 . For all the other conversions we looked at so far the zero points match.) You can see that -40°C = -40°F but that 0°C = 32°F. It is a ratio. -40°C = -40°F but 1°C does not equal 1°F. as shown below. The CR has a temperature conversion scale on the front face (see photo below. 20°C = ____? Mach Number You will use Mach number extensively in flight planning.

0 has a TAS of _____ knots. what is your groundspeed? Setup your CR with the ratio 17/11.E. An airplane cruising at Mach 2. Set the Mach index to -25°C (the ISA temperature at 20. What would the TAS of the airliner be if the air 2 temperature was -56°C? Speed Ratios – I. the real speed of sound varies with air temperature.000’. Groundspeed Checks We will now explore a series of time and distance ratios. 1 610 KTAS 490 KTAS 2 Page 107 . as shown below. Let’s start with what pilots commonly call a “ground speed check. In fact this ratio is only approximately correct.8 has a TAS of _____ knots. You can see the index in the photo below. An airliner cruising at Mach 0.) What is the speed of sound? This amounts to 1 saying what TAS corresponds to Mach 1.” You have just flown 17NM in 11 minutes.0 . You will notice that once you set 600/1 on the CR a Mach index is visible that allows you to “fine tune” the ratio for the actual air temperature.Navigation for Professional Pilots A C-172 cruising at 105 knots has what Mach number? What is the Mach number of a King Air cruising at 240 knots? The above conversions from TAS to Mach number are simple but only accurate if the ratio 600/1 is correct. It is CRUCIAL to realize that “speed” is simply a ratio of distance over time.

Navigation for Professional Pilots To be cheeky you could say. Common sense says that it will Page 108 . sometimes. If the total length of the trip is 170 NM. Knot is defined as NM per hour. The airplane is covering 1. even though it has 1:00 written on it. how long will it take to get there? Note that since we are responsible for the decimal points the same ratio 17/11 gives the answer. but in reality it is NM per 60 minutes.” For example how many miles do we go in one minute. which means 93/60.54 NM every minute.54/1. How far do we go in 30 minutes.” That is a pretty weird unit. how far in 12 minutes? You can determine these and an infinite number of other ratios once17/11 has been set – it’s just that you don’t usually think to ask such questions. “My speed is 17 miles per 11 minutes. This is an important value to know. It is VITAL to realize that the symbol. It is however traditional to specify speed in units of Knots. actually represents six (6) or 60 on the CR. There are however other ratios that are important beyond the simple 93/60 ratio that is “our groundspeed. as you can see in the photo below: Thus we would say that our groundspeed is 93 knots. The photo that shows the 17/11 ratio also shows the ratio 1. but it is indeed your groundspeed.

Note that the answer is 60 KTAS. Arcs are common in IFR arrival procedures. and the theory behind them applies in other situations that we will discuss shortly. if you are flying 1 nautical mile per minute what is your groundspeed? In this case set 1/1 and look up x/60. How long would it take to fly 88NM? How long would it take to fly 214NM? Make up your own distances and confirm that you can find the time for any distance you choose. In the previous example the airplane flew 1. If you are flying 2 miles per minute your groundspeed is _____ Knots.5 NM/min 4 Page 109 . At 60 knots how long does it take to fly 18NM? How long for 78NM? How long for 156NM? The answer to all these is trivial and you should not require your computer. set 90/60 and then look up x/1.e. Time to a Station – ARC Speed The procedure for flying a DME arc was covered previously on page 74. What is x? To approach this problem from the other direction. 150 knots is _____ miles per minute. 60 knots – i. Consider the diagram below: 3 57 minutes 1.54 NM/min. If you are flying 3 miles per minute your groundspeed is _____ Knots.Navigation for Professional Pilots 3 take 110 minutes to fly 170 NM. If your speed is 90 knots how many miles 4 per minute are you covering? To find out. 1. Miles per Minute Nautical Miles per minute is a value that you will use in many situations so you need to become familiar with it.0 NM/min is an IMPRORTANT speed that we will use extensively so you must remember it.

Page 110 . your arc-speed is ______ degrees/hour. it will take ______ minutes to fly 57. At the moment shown it has flown 17° of arc in 11 minutes. How long will it take to fly 20 degrees? How long will it take to fly 60 degrees? Hopefully your reaction to the above is that it is trivially obvious (but you may be thinking it is unimportant – trust me it is VERY IMPORTANT. It will take _____ minutes to fly 60 degrees. Here are a few sample problems for you to work through just to be sure: You fly 14 degrees in 7 minutes. Simply set your CR for the ratio 17/11 and lookup the answer. which of course really means degrees per 60 minutes.) Be sure to examine the above until you fully understand it. but this time the arc-speed is 93 degrees/hour. The result is exactly the same as the groundspeed example above in which the airplane flew 17NM in 11 minutes. What is the arc-speed? Arc-speed has units of degrees per hour.3 degrees.Navigation for Professional Pilots The airplane in the diagram is flying around a circle.

First recall what an equilateral triangle is: An equilateral triangle is one that has all three sides the same length and all three angles equal. Now examine the following diagram: Page 111 . The three angles must all be 60 degrees (the sum of the three angles in every triangle is 180°) The three sides of an equilateral triangle are equal to each other. It is now time to review some high school trigonometry. Your arc-speed is _____ degrees/hour. it will take ______ minutes to fly 57.3 degrees. In the diagram above distances AB = AC = BC.Navigation for Professional Pilots You fly 37 degrees of arc in 3 minutes. It will take ______ minutes to fly 60 degrees.

Page 112 . The center point of the arc is B. Obviously the arc is longer. Look at the diagram and estimate the length of the arc compared to AC. consequently the triangle will not be exactly equilateral any more. just a bit less than 60°. 10%. such that the length of the arc is the same as the length of the sides AB and BC. what do you think? The difference is less than 5%. Consider the diagram below. but how much .1%.Navigation for Professional Pilots The diagram above is the same as the previous one with an arc added. It should be obvious that there is some angle. but it will be close. Obviously AC will have to be shortened.

15°.3°or 60°. we will now examine why. record the time from A to B and the angle X.3 degrees. Most pilots use this as the answer because it is a lot easier to remember 60 rather than 57. so it doesn’t matter if it is 4°. etc. 7°. As you can see. You will even more commonly need to know distance to the station. simply time whatever is convenient.E. AB = AC’ = arc.3 = 180/Π. but that is a two-step process which we will cover in just a moment.) Time to the station is a common problem in aviation.) The time to fly 60° is 39 minutes. 11°.) The angle X is usually fairly small.”) Angle X is arbitrary. Once you have a “time / x-degrees” ratio setup on your CR all you do is lookup time for 57. But.3 degrees of arc. The above use of “arc-speed” to determine time to a station when flying abeam is one of the most common uses of arc-speed theory. AB and AC’ have been labeled r in the diagram to remind us that they are the radius of the arc. but either will give an answer that is within 5% of the correct value.Navigation for Professional Pilots In the diagram above the angle through which the arc sweeps is reduced to 57. Returning to a previous example in which the airplane few 17° of arc in 11 minutes (setup your CR for the ratio 17/11. 57. To find out.3 (57. so the station must be essentially abeam the airplane (as in the diagram. The pilot wishes to know how long it would take to get to the VOR if s/he turned southbound directly to it. First let us consider the most common situation in which the above theoretical facts comes into actual practice. Neither will be precisely accurate.) The time to fly 57. This is the “special” angle for which the length of the arc is exactly equal to the radius. without the need to actually do it.3° of arc is 37 minutes. To be effective AB must approximate flying an arc.3° is known as one radian. it is an approximation since the airplane actually flies a Page 113 . In the above diagram the airplane is flying an eastbound track that passes north of a VOR. The sample problems above asked you to determine the time to fly 60 and 57. I. since the length of the arc equals the radius it obviously also takes 37 minutes to fly directly to the center of the arc (point B. typically less than 15° (but not too small or there will be “round off error.

Note that if you had used 9/60 as your ratio you would get 13. So set the ratio 9/57. but its value has been erased on the above photo. but the previous analysis that showed an equilateral triangle is very similar to a one-radian arc. Consider the modified approach plate 5 below : To fly this arc you start at the point marked and maintain a constant 9 DME arc to intercept the 087 radial (which lines you up for landing on runway 09. It is recommended that in these calculations you use 60° as the reference angle rather than 57.3 (i.) What should the LR be? See if you can figure it out based on arc-theory before reading the next paragraph.3°.Navigation for Professional Pilots straight line forming a triangle with the station.e. 5 The original is in the CAP3 under Brandon Page 114 . The LR is always 2NM prior to intercept of the final approach course (087 radial in this case.) Next we will consider a more precise use of arc-speed theory. think of the equilateral triangle analogy to help you remember how to do it. Either way you will round off to 13° and predict the 074 radial as your answer. since it is a 9 DME arc.) On the right side of the plate a Lead Radial (LR) is published. To answer the question we need to realize that 57.7°.3 on your CR and look up 2/a. The answer is 12.3° of arc will be 9NM.

so that this method is the only method of fixing position. Look it up before reading the next paragraph. so be sure you fully understand the above before moving on. the pilot would simply note the distance as s/he passed abeam the VOR. What would the lead radial have been? Two IMPORTANT two-step CR Ratio Problems There are two very important two-step CR calculations that we will cover next. The above uses of arc-speed are very typical of ones you will experience everyday as a commercial pilot. or featureless terrain. One is distance to a station. what radial should you start to slow down at? If you kept your CR set to 9/57. Learn them well and get comfortable with them. With your CR set to the ratio 9/57. The pilot wishes to determine if s/he is on track (the airplane could be in IFR weather conditions. but this particular airplane does not have a DME so we will have to do it the “hard way. Both demand full mastery of the ratio concepts covered so far. over water. Imagine the situation in which the flight plan route passes a certain number of miles north of the VOR.Navigation for Professional Pilots Imagine you are flying the above arc arrival and wish to slow down and start your pre-landing checklist 5NM prior to intercepting the final approach track. The answer is 32°. Distance to Station Below the same diagram previously examined has been repeated. The second is gradient to rate which is very important for IFR departure and arrival planning. So you will need to slow down at the 055 radial.3 the answer is right in front of you.3 lookup 5/a. If the airplane is equipped with DME the position check would be easy.” Page 115 . which extends the time to station calculation previously covered. Imagine the above DME arc had been 14NM instead of 9. It is much more likely that the pilot wishes to know the distance to the VOR rather than time to the VOR.

Navigation for Professional Pilots

First, it is important to note that we cannot solve this problem unless we already know the groundspeed of the airplane. We will assume that the pilot has been doing his/her job well and knows the groundspeed. Assume the following data and follow along with your CR. The airplane crossed the 355 radial at time 0:00 and crossed the 005 radial 7:00 minutes later. The groundspeed is known to be 144 knots. How far north of the VOR are we? This is going to be a two-step process. What is the first relevant ratio? Think it through on your own before reading the next paragraph. (Tip: what is the angle X?) The airplane has flown through an angle of 10° in 7 minutes. Setup the ratio 10/7 on the CR. Now determine how long it would take to fly 60°. The answer is 42 minutes (10/7 = 60/42.) So time to the station is 42 minutes. In the second step we will determine distance to the station. We know it would take 42 minutes to get there, but how far is it? We know that groundspeed is 144 knots. What ratio do we need to setup? Reason it out before reading the next paragraph. We setup the ratio 144/60 which represents distance in 60 minutes. The relevant ratios are 144/60 = a/42, where a represents the answer. The answer is 101 nautical miles. In summary: When flying abeam a station, calculate distance to the station by: 1. 2. Determining how long it would take to fly a 60° arc (or one side of an equilateral triangle.) Second, determine how much distance is represented by step 1

NOTE: You must already know your groundspeed.

**Gradient to Rate Conversion
**

Many IFR departure plates have notes that specify a required climb gradient, in units of ft/NM. Even when 6 none is specified all departures must achieve a climb gradient of 200 ft/NM . Pilots routinely plan arrivals at a descent gradient of 320 ft/NM (which corresponds to 3°.) Often other descent gradients are required, especially for non-precision approaches in mountainous environments. We will thoroughly examine gradients in what follows. Keep in mind that climb gradient and descent gradient theory is fully interchangeable. Anything you learn about planning descent rates can be applied to climb rates, and vice versa.

6

This relates to the “procedural” terrain separation previously mentioned in the Overview of IFR Flight

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Navigation for Professional Pilots

Unfortunately climb and descent gradients are not directly usable by pilots. Our aircraft are equipped with rate instruments, not gradient instruments. We have an airspeed indicator and often a DME or GPS all of which give our speed (a rate) and we have a vertical speed indicator (VSI) that gives our rate of climb and descent. Our challenge is to translate the published climb and descent gradients into useable verticalspeed/airspeed ratios (rates.) You will find it necessary to remember that 1.0NM = 6080 ft. We will start with a very simple problem, but one that applies to all IFR departures. As stated previously the minimum acceptable climb gradient is 200 ft/NM, as shown in the diagram below.

We can quite simply answer questions such as; what is the minimum safe altitude 5NM after takeoff? Can you setup the required ratio? Try to do so before reading the next paragraph. The ratios are 200/1 = a/5, where a is the answer. The answer is 1000 feet, i.e. you must be at least 1000’ agl 5NM after takeoff to meet the gradient. When you reach 2000’ agl the maximum distance you should be from the airport is ______ NM. The problem we most need to solve is; what vertical speed must we maintain to safely meet the gradient? This is almost trivially simple to answer if you remember that 60 knots is 1.0 NM/min (previously I said that you needed to remember that fact.) If you forget then set your CR to the ratio 1/1 to remind yourself that 1.0 NM/min means 60 miles per 60 minutes. Examine the above diagram and imagine the airplane climbing along the flight path at a groundspeed of 60 knots. After one minute it would be at the 1.0 NM point and its altitude would be 200 feet. After two minutes it would be at the 2.0NM point and its altitude would be 400 feet, etc. It must be clear to you that it requires a vertical speed of 200 fpm. To make rate conversions it is CRUCIAL to realize that an airplane with a groundspeed of 60 knots requires a climb rate equal to the gradient. In this case the relevant ratio is therefore 60/200. What climb rate do you need at 75 knots? Figure it out on your own before reading the next paragraph.

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Set the CR to the ratio 60/200 and lookup 75/a. The answer is 250 fpm. At 85 knots the minimum safe 7 vertical speed is _____ fpm. At 95 knots it is _____ fpm. At 105 knots it is _____ fpm . At 120 knots it is _____ fpm. Not all departures can be made safely at a gradient of 200 ft/NM. When a larger gradient is required the departure chart will specify the required value. The plate below is an example:

You can find the above plate in your CAP2 under Victoria International, Mill Bay SID. Depending on which transition ATC assigns, a climb gradient of 330 ft/NM or 220 ft/NM applies. Let’s work out the required vertical speed for each case – starting with 330 ft/NM. What ratio should you setup on your CR? Try to figure it out before reading the next paragraph. We must realize that at 60 knots the required vertical speed is 330 fpm. So set the ratio 60/330 and lookup your-speed/a. [Tip: it makes no difference whether you setup 330/60 or 60/330 as long as you keep track of whether groundspeed or vertical speed is on the top of the ratio.] If your groundspeed is 75 knots the required vertical speed is 415 fpm. At 85 knots it is ______ fpm. At 105 8 knots it is ______ fpm . Repeat the above calculations for a climb gradient of 220 ft/NM. Make sure that the above calculations are effortless for you. You must routinely check the minimum climb rate for IFR departures. Before we move on to the next important point it should be pointed out that you can approach the above problems from the opposite direction. If you know your groundspeed and vertical speed you can use the CR

7

350 fpm 580 fpm

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to determine your actual climb gradient. This is also helpful for flight planning purposes. We will use it quite often, so it is worth covering now. Imagine that you know your groundspeed is 115 knots and that your vertical speed is 800 fpm. What is your climb gradient? What ratio should you setup, and how do you get the answer? Figure it out before reading the next paragraph. The relevant ratio is 115/800 = 60/a. The secret is to realize that the ratio groundspeed/vertical speed, i.e. 115/800 establishes the gradient. To get the value in units of ft/NM remember that 60 knots is 1.0 NM/min, and look up the vertical speed at 60 knots. In this case the answer is 416 ft/NM. As long as this value exceeds the published climb gradient the pilot need not worry. This calculation can also easily be extended to answer questions of the form; what altitude will this airplane be at when 6.4 miles after takeoff? [Tip: this is step two of a two-step problem.] Try to figure out the answer before reading the next paragraph. We know the climb gradient is 416 ft/NM so setup the ratio 416/1 and lookup a/6.4. The answer is 2660 feet. A particular airplane climbs at 160 knots and 1000 fpm. What is the climb gradient, and what altitude will it be at 3.7NM after takeoff? The first ratio is 160/1000 = 60/a. This gives a climb gradient of 222 ft/NM. The second step is to use the climb gradient, so set the ratio 222/1 = a/3.7. The airplane will be at 830agl 3.7NM after takeoff. You can see that the above two-step calculation is quite useful for flight planning. Go over it until it makes complete sense to you. Next we examine a very important, but not significantly different, situation related to approach planning. Consider the following approach plate, which is quite typical.

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be sure you can locate it for yourself. not ILS approaches). What is the descent gradient? Try to figure it out yourself before reading the next paragraph. The XX beacon is 4. At 90 knots the vertical speed must be ______ fpm. The answer is 340 ft/NM. The airplane must descend 1526 feet (1700 – 174. The relevant ratio is 1526/4.5 = a/1. so the descent must be completed in 4. What vertical speed is needed? Try to setup the required ratio on your own before reading the next paragraph. On this approach the airplane must cross the XX NDB at 1700 (or above) and then land on runway 07. At 140 knots the vertical speed must be ______ fpm. so it is important to become comfortable with it. Page 120 . until you can do the calculation quickly and effortlessly.5NM.Navigation for Professional Pilots The approach plate above can be found in your CAP2 under Abbotsford NDB RWY 07. Examining the Abbotsford approach plate once again. All this information is presented on the above plate.e. and resulting vertical speed at your airplane’s approach groundspeed. we see that in the intermediate approach segment the airplane must descend from 2500 to 1700. You should open your CAP at random and calculate the descent gradient for the final approach segment of many non-precision IFR approaches (i. which has a touch down zone elevation (TDZE) of 174.3NM from the runway. The relevant ratio is 60/340 because at 60 knots 340 fpm would be required. How far back from the XX NDB should this descent begin if the pilot wishes to maintain a descent gradient of 340 ft/NM (the previously calculated gradient for the final segment)? Setup your CR as required before reading the next paragraph. The above calculation will be needed for every non-precision IFR approach you fly.) The pilot will of course not land exactly at the runway threshold. If you fly the approach at 105 knots the vertical speed must be 600 fpm. normal touchdown is made about 0.2NM past the threshold. The required vertical speed depends on your groundspeed such that 60/340 = groundspeed/a.

1NM. If the pilot wishes to limit the intermediate segment to a gradient of 320 ft/NM the descent should start ______ NM from the XX beacon. an ILS) a glidepath indicator directs the pilot to the runway so calculation is not as necessary. Standard Decent Gradient is 3° The gradient to rate conversion discussed above is primarily applicable to non-precision approaches. Some precision approaches use other gradients.Navigation for Professional Pilots The airplane must descend 700 feet (2500 – 1700. which corresponds to 320 ft/NM. This can be calculated using basic trigonometry. which we will do now. which is a gradient of 320 ft/NM.0NM is 6080 feet. The tower asks you to report 2NM on final. The importance of the calculations demonstrated should be obvious.0°.0NM.1NM. Legally a precision approach can have glidepaths in the range 2. The answer is 3. what altitude will you be at? Setup your CR before reading the next paragraph.5° to 4. The answer is about 2.7.g. On a precision approach (e. The above relationship is VERY IMPORTANT.) Using an electronic calculator a equals 318. which is close enough for typical purposes and allows quick and easy calculations in your mind without needing a CR. most pilots round it off to 1000 feet per 3. The required ratio is 320/1 = 1000/a. which we will round off to 320. The above diagram shows a 3° descent. if you like you can rework them based on the more accurate 320/1 to see if the difference is significant. Page 121 . Below are some typical applications. How many nautical miles are required for a descent of 1000 feet on an ILS? Setup the required ratio on your CR before reading the next paragraph. Most precision approaches are set to a descent angle of 3°. However.) The relevant ratio is 340/1 = 700/a. It is however beneficial to examine the required descent rates. Work them out based on the ratio 1000/3. Tan (3) = a/6080 (recall that 1.

but given that positive guidance is provided by the glidepath it is really only necessary to approximate this calculation.3. the required descent rate is ______ fpm. This is an important calculation. We know the correct answer is 640. You will intercept a glidepath 600 feet above the glidepath check altitude.) If you had used the more precise ratio 320/1 your answer would be 640agl. the required descent rate is ______ fpm. what vertical speed do you require? Setup your CR before reading the next paragraph. but since your primary purpose in such calculations is usually just to keep a mental image of how far you are from touchdown the difference between 9. In order to facilitate mental calculations while flying ILS approaches pilots use the ratio 1000/3 or 100/. You read the airspeed indicator and it says 170 KIAS. You will be 9. Your groundspeed is 85 knots. Using the 120 knot example we get 5 x 120 = 600 fpm. Summarizing what we have learned about flying 3° precision approaches. With your CR set to 60/320 what is the value of 1/a.Navigation for Professional Pilots The ratio is 1000/3 = a/2. You look at the thermometer and it says -21°C. The answer is 640 fpm. You will be ____ NM from the checkpoint when you make this call. This is the actual distance. If you set the more precise ratio 320/1 the answer is 9. but 600 fpm will get you started close enough.3 fpm for every knot of groundspeed.0 final when you are 666 above ground level (note that you can thus report 2. Use the approximations to answer the following questions without using your CR or any other calculator.0 and 9. you then follow the glidepath indicator.4 is probably not significant. From a practical point of view reading the difference on your altimeter and then reporting would be impossible. That will be _____ NM from the FAF. From this comes the rule of thumb that vertical speed should be 5 x groundspeed. What is your TAS? Page 122 . If you set 1000/3 = 3000/a. Note that a equals 5. Pilots also use the formula 5 x groundspeed to approximate the descent rate.0NM from touchdown. This ratio tells us that we need 5.4NM. You should report 2. Your company SOP is to call 100 above as you approach the glidepath check altitude. The required ratio is 60/320 = 120/a. TAS and CAS Conversions The situation is that you are flying along in your King-Air at FL250. Pilots routinely round this off to 5.0. “How far back” you are. which will take you directly to the runway. the calculation is so simple you hardly need a CR.0 final even if your airplane is not equipped with DME. Your answer is _____ NM. You are going to intercept the glidepath at 3000agl.3 to approximate the descent gradient. You are 400 agl when the tower asks. Your groundspeed is 100 knots. You are flying an ILS approach with a groundspeed of 120 knots. how far from touchdown will you be? Setup your CR before going on.

see photo below. Keeping the CR in that position.000’ pressure altitude.Navigation for Professional Pilots It is important to know that the actual air temperature is NOT -21°C. On the CR (CAS window) set 170 KCAS opposite 25. the friction of the air rushing past the temperature probe causes an error and the actual temperature is colder than -21°C. From the King-Air POH we look at the calibration chart to see what our CAS is. Page 123 . We will see how much colder shortly. Set the indicated temperature hairline to -21°C and read the TAS on the scale. At 170KIAS there is no error.92.000’. so your pressure altitude is 25. rotate it so you can look at the TAS window. as shown below. so our speed is 170 KCAS. FL250 means that your altimeter is set to 29.

There are lots of sample problems like the one above in the assignments. From the POH we find the true airspeed and the FD forecast gives us the temperature. i.e.2°C. Derive CAS given TAS and Forecast Temperature In this situation we are doing flight planning.Navigation for Professional Pilots TAS is 252 or 253 KTAS and the Mach number is 0.415. Remember that when doing this sort problem with your CR you would be in flight and checking that your TAS is working out as flight planned.) Page 124 . Temperature rise (see photo below) is 8. we are still on the ground.2°C. in other words the actual temperature is -29. Our job is to predict the indicated airspeed (IAS.

This can be used for all airplanes. Pressure altitude in cruise is 8070’ From the POH. A quick and simple technique that does NOT compensate for compression. both fast and slow. 2.000 feet because we can disregard compression error. for the King Air you must use procedure 2. TAS will be 111 KTAS Predict the IAS? Page 125 .) Of course you can always use it. For a C-172P the following data apply: Altimeter setting 30.Navigation for Professional Pilots It is much simpler to do this for airplanes that fly less than 200 knots and less than 20. but MUST be used for fast airplanes. The CR has two techniques: 1. The error will be 1 knot or less. for aircraft slower than 200 knots A two-step procedure that accurately allows for compression. for any airplane flying faster than 200 knots.35 Cruise altitude 8500 indicated Forecast temperature at altitude -12°C 65% power Given the above. even though it is called the old method.000 feet. use if for the C-172 and B95 because it is quick and easy.e. Obviously jet pilots always use procedure 2. but it takes longer and is not needed for slow airplanes like the C-172 or B95. or higher than 20. Procedure for “Slow and Low” Airplanes In your CR manual this is referred to as the “old method” and is described on page 21. You are expected to learn both procedures and apply the two-step procedure when needed (i. A comparison between this and the professional method below confirms this claim.

In this case indicated airspeed is about 2 knots more than calibrated so the final answer is 103 KIAS.Navigation for Professional Pilots Line up the temperature of -12°C with the PRESSURE ALTITUDE of 8070’. To get the indicated airspeed look in the calibration chart on page 5-8 of the POH. Page 126 . in this case 111KTAS equals ~101 KCAS. CAS appears directly below it. as shown in the photo above. Take care to keep the above values aligned while you locate the TAS on the outer ring.

you cannot use the TAS window to predict CAS by reversing the procedure covered above. Your POH gives you TAS and the CR gives you the speed of sound. regardless of TAS. Procedure for “Fast and High” Airplanes In your CR manual this is referred to as the professional method. Once you get good at it you can do it quite quickly even though it requires two steps: 1. The proper procedure is to first determine your Mach number. 2.Navigation for Professional Pilots You will be using the above procedure over and over. on all your flight plans for the C-172P and Beech 95. For a given Mach number there is one CAS for each pressure altitude. An IMPORTANT point to note before we go further is that since the TAS window on the CR works with INDICATED temperature (see photo below) and indicated is NOT the same as actual air temperature. Determine cruise Mach number Use Mach number to determine CAS You can then also determine temperature rise if needed The procedure works because temperature affects calibrated airspeed and the speed of sound equally and therefore the effects offset. so make sure you can do it without hesitation. For a King-Air the following data apply: Altimeter setting 29.92 Page 127 . 3. To do that you need to know TAS and the speed of sound.

Using the method described earlier reveal the Mach Index by setting 600 knots over 1 on the outer scales (this is shown below. TAS 276 KTAS Forecast temperature at altitude -30°C What is the CAS and IAS? Mach number is simply the ratio TAS/speed-of-sound.0 your TAS would be 1212 KTAS.0 corresponds to 606 knots. The photo below shows the Mach index set to -30°C.4? 9 850 KTAS Page 128 . what is your TAS if you are at Mach 0. On the outer scale you should now see that Mach 1.Navigation for Professional Pilots Cruise altitude FL230.8.) Next set the actual air temperature on the Mach index to get the “real” speed of sound. If you were at Mach 2. 9 what is it a Mach 1.

455. You are now ready for the second step.Navigation for Professional Pilots Returning to our problem. we know that our TAS is 277. Page 129 . Locate the TAS on the outer scale and read the Mach number. What is the Mach number? You can read it on the scale as shown below. Go to the TAS window and set the Mach number as shown below. but altitude per se is irrelevant. Notice that when air temperature changes Mach number changes. In this example true airspeed of 276 corresponds to Mach 0.

You will be using the above procedure many times in flight planning so make sure you go over it until you can do it without hesitation.455 has a calibrated airspeed of 195 KCAS.000’ pressure altitude to get the CAS. regardless of temperature.Navigation for Professional Pilots With the Mach number set look in the calibrated airspeed window across from 23. This procedure works because ANY airplane at FL230 and Mach 0. In this example CAS is 195 KCAS. The photo below shows the result. which is roughly 197 KIAS according to the POH. Page 130 .

So both procedures clearly work for the C-172P. Now let’s find out what happens if we use the slow airplane procedure for the King Air problem. which is 8070’ and read the calibrated airspeed. Page 131 . More importantly cruising at 111 KTAS corresponds to Mach 0. Setting the Mach index to -12°C the speed of sound becomes 628 knots. use the professional method on the C-172P problem previously solved with procedure slow airplane procedure.Navigation for Professional Pilots Comparing Procedure for slow and fast Airplanes First. which is exactly what we got using the slow airplane procedure. Set this in the TAS window as shown below: In the CAS window locate the pressure altitude.1765. as shown below: The result is ~100 KCAS.

) So we have confirmed that we cannot use the slow airplane procedure for the King Air. The four knot error may not seem like a big deal. The error gets larger as you fly higher (as in jets. Page 132 . We know the correct value is 196. but it is certainly enough to get the wrong answer on your ATPL written exams.Navigation for Professional Pilots In the pressure altitude window set the temperature of -30°C over the pressure altitude of 23. This is shown below: The value of less than 192 is obviously wrong.000 as shown below: Now locate the TAS of 276 on the outer scale and read the CAS.

This time you do not need to determine Mach number: CAS 145 315 280 280 Pressure Altitude 5. Repeat the calculations using the old method.000 40.000 25.000 30.000 Indicated OAT 2°C -12°C -15°C -15°C TAS Error TAS 105 105 145 235 380 440 Actual Air Temp 12°C -20°C 5°C -12°C -56°C -56°C Mach number Fill in the right hand column: Page 133 .000 25.000 Indicated OAT 2°C -12°C -15°C -15°C TAS Mach number Read the section labeled “Old” Method on page 21 of the CR Handbook.000 30.000 40.Navigation for Professional Pilots Sample Questions 5 Use the “Professional Method” to complete the last two columns of the table below: CAS 145 315 280 280 Pressure Altitude 5.

67 0.17 0.224 0.000 38.373 0.775 Pressure Altitude 8.000 32.16 0.000 CAS Page 134 .500 8.000 21.500 6.Navigation for Professional Pilots Mach Number 0.

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You will be given a number of assignments to develop expertise in decoding the CFS. You will learn to decode weather in Avia 120 and NOTAMs in Avia 130. It contains various emergency procedures such as intercept orders and procedures in the event of an emergency landing. Flight Planning. The most used part of the CFS is section B. etc. VOR/DME frequency allocations etc. Weather and NOTAMS Checking weather and NOTAMS before flight is essential for flight safety. Become familiar with all the information in the CFS. This includes preferred IFR routes for both high and low altitude. which gives data about all the registered airports and aerodromes in Canada. Every pilot should read and understand this section. Section D contains a lot of useful information about the location of navigation radios. As mentioned previously the CFS contains many useful pieces of information in the later sections. You must become familiar with all the information it contains and be able to locate what you need quickly and efficiently. to get maximum value from this data you must use the index in the general section. Expect questions drawn from the CFS on all your exams. They will not be covered here. These can be found in section C. In the assigned cross country flights you will need to consult these. Section E is perhaps the most neglected yet vital section. part A. . However. Get to know the codes used to describe public facilities (PF) lighting.Chapter 6 The Canada Flight Supplement The Canada Flight Supplement (CFS) is one of the most important documents for flight planning.

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00002%. If the earth was shrunk down to the size of a billiard ball it would be a smoother rounder billiard ball than any you will find in a pool hall. which is also defined in accordance with the circumference of the earth. For now simply realize that the true North and South Poles are based on the spin of the earth and are NOT the same as the Magnetic Poles.000 Km measured around the poles. The distance around the equator is an extra 41 NM.e. Therefore the circumference of the earth is 40. It spins once every 24 hours. i. which defines one day.000 Km. the equator is less than . The aviation unit of distance is the nautical mile. as mentioned above.076 Km. A computer program in your GPS receiver calculates the difference so that the time displayed to you is approximately equal to earth time. Because the equator is a bit fatter. Due to the gravitational effect of the moon and sun the earth’s spin is gradually slowing down. such as those in GPS satellites. but due to its spin the equator bulges slightly.Chapter 7 Navigation Theory In this section you will learn about the compass. measured around the poles. The original definition of the metric distance unit “meter” was that the distance from the equator to the pole is 10 million meters.) Other clocks are synchronized just before midnight on December 31 each year making the last day of the year the longest by a few millionths of a second. The earth spins around an axis that astronomers can locate. the equatorial circumference is 40. but it will take billions of years before it stops spinning relative to the sun. which makes the shape an oblate spheroid. The earth spins around an axis that runs through the north and south poles. Every degree of latitude is by definition 60 NM. Shape of the Earth The earth is very close to being a perfect sphere. An interesting anomaly that results from this variant resynchronization is that earth clocks and GPS clocks move out of synchronization over the 1000 week GPS cycle. to measure so they must be resynchronized with the rotation of the earth every 1000 weeks (roughly every 20 years.” Latitude . We will learn about the magnetic North and South Pole later. From the above discussion you should memorize the definition of the nautical mile and take note that the difference in circumference of the earth around the poles vs.600 Nm. the shape of the earth. The rate of slowing is however enough for atomic clocks. so the circumference of the earth is 360 x 60 = 21. maps and globes and other theory elements that impact on navigation. This defines the north and south poles. 10. and different than “GPS time.

The subunits of latitude are called minutes. rather like the (x. and therefore the North Pole is 90°N latitude and the South Pole is 90°S latitude. Take note that the latitude/longitude system is devised on a model of the earth that assumes a perfect sphere.) The difference is Page 140 . more on that shortly. Every degree of latitude is 60 NM. Lines of latitude run around the earth east to west and exactly parallel to each other and perpendicular to the earth’s axis of rotation.37 (note the format.Navigation for Professional Pilots A grid system known as latitude and longitude has been devised so that the location of any spot on the earth can be specified.y) Cartesian coordinate system you already know. If you know the latitude of two places you can calculate the north/south distance between them. Castlegar is at N49 17. but the difference is such a tiny fraction of 1% that it can be ignored for our purposes. There are sixty minutes per degree. As mentioned above the earth is not a perfect sphere.76 while Prince George is N53 53. so each minute of latitude is one nautical mile. This is shown in the diagram below. Latitude is measured as the angle from the center of the earth with the equator defined as zero degrees.

Navigation for Professional Pilots 4 degrees 35. Longitude Because the earth has poles there was no controversy about setting up a latitude system. Meridians of longitude DO NOT run parallel to each other. Every one passes through the North and South Poles. there is also an east/west component that we turn to next.95. Every other location is therefore specified as east or west of the Prime Meridian with 180E or 180W (the same place) being the maximum longitude. What is the distance between lines of longitude in Castlegar? Page 141 . The lines of latitude run parallel to each other and are equidistant apart. Please note that this is the north/south distance only. What is the distance between them at the equator? Based on the model of the earth that says it is a perfect sphere the distance between lines of longitude at the equator is 60NM. but the one that runs through Greenwich is designated as 0° longitude. In the historical period when accurate measuring of the earth first became possible the British were the dominant world force. specifically the Greenwich observatory.61 minutes.61 NM so the total distance is 275. 180W is about the middle of the Pacific Ocean. so the distance between them is zero at the poles. 4 degrees equals 240 NM and 35. therefore the PRIME MERIDIAN runs through London England. these are different for each location. All locations on the earth are equal in the sense that the earth spins once per day so every spot on earth has a noon and a midnight.61 minutes equals 35. i.61 NM. Castlegar is W117 37. Meridians of longitude are straight-lines that run north/south through the poles.e. so it is true to say that New Zealand is on the opposite side of the earth to England. and runs very close to New Zealand. But there is no equivalent to the equator to act as a starting point for a grid system in the perpendicular orientation.95 minutes west of the Prime Meridian. Every location on the earth has one. 117 degrees and 37.

so it is a lot closer to England than Castlegar.) Gander is only 54° west of Greenwich. The cosine of 49° is about . so it might seem odd to you that N49 is closer to the equator than the North Pole.Navigation for Professional Pilots Castlegar is at N49 latitude and so is Gander Newfoundland. it varies with the cosine of the latitude. The picture above shows a view of the globe from above the North Pole. Between Castlegar and Gander the difference is 63° degrees of longitude. The distance from Castlegar to Gander is 2598 NM. but that doesn’t matter. which means it is 117° west of the prime meridian in Greenwich England (Greenwich is about N52 latitude. so both Castlegar and Gander are on the th 49 parallel of latitude. Castlegar is at W117. How many nautical miles is that? If Castlegar and Gander were on the equator each degree would be 60NM so it would be easy to figure how far apart they are. But clearly each degree of longitude is less than 60NM in Castlegar. but a sphere’s circumference does not vary linearly.66 so each degree of longitude equals ~39 NM at that latitude. Page 142 . The distance between degrees of longitude is given by: 60cosine(latitude). the outer ring represents the equator. The diagram is drawn to scale.

The diagram below shows two points marked by Xs and the east-west distance 10 (EWD) and north-south distance (NSD) between them.” Page 143 .Navigation for Professional Pilots Given the latitude and longitude of any two places on earth the distance between them can be estimated using Pythagoras theorem. but we will defer discussion of that until we examine some map theory. Distance is simply (EWD + NSD ) . Great-circles A Great-circle is a circle on the surface of the earth whose center passes through the center of the earth. It also determines true track between the points.5 cosine of the latitude. EWD is almost as easy to figure – you should use the mid-latitude between the two points when taking the 2 2 0. 10 The technical term for EWD is “departure. NSD is very easy to figure out as we have seen. The ENL has a latitude-longitude calculator that uses the above formula.

they change direction (angle) relative to true north as you fly along them. i. so all other circles are smaller than Great-circles. The equator is a Great-circle but the other lines of latitude are NOT. An important fact about Great-circles is that. Small Circles Any circle on the surface of the earth whose center does not pass through the center of the earth is a small circle. To visualize look at the diagram below and remember that true track is the angle between meridians and the desired track (DTK.Navigation for Professional Pilots A segment of a Great-circle is the shortest distance between two points. An important point to note here is that no circle can be drawn on the surface of the earth that is larger than a Great-circle.) Any eastbound flight must change heading to the right continuously to stay on the Great-circle. except for the meridians and equator. All the meridians of longitude are semi-great-circles. A westbound flight must continuously turn left.e. Page 144 . half Great-circles. hence the name.

You must enlarge the circle and rotate it so its center passes through the center of the earth (and keep Trail and Vancouver as th points on the circle.) In the process the Great-circle line would arc north of the 49 parallel. and can be visually seen in flight because the trees have been cut down along it. th Page 145 . If you fly this line. it is a small circle. Imagine what you must do to change this small circle into a Great-circle. Imagine that the 49 parallel as a ring resting on the globe (see photo above). Is a segment of a small circle the shortest th distance between two points? For example the 49 parallel runs from Trail to Vancouver. Following this Great-circle track would be the shortest route to Vancouver. on a true heading of 270°. is that the shortest distance between Trail and Vancouver? The answer is no. We turn to that matter next. but you would no longer be able to fly a constant heading.Navigation for Professional Pilots All the parallels of latitude except the equator are small circles.

We turn to that point next.) Page 146 . Convergence can be estimated as: Convergence = Δ Longitude x sine (average latitude) A flight along the equator (latitude 0.Navigation for Professional Pilots Photo shows wire stretched around globe to represent a Great-circle.) A flight from Castlegar to Gander has a convergence of _______.25°. and final heading to fly the Great-circle from Castlegar to Gander. mid. In the above diagram DTK 1 is 030° and DTK4 is 100° so convergence is 70°.) Convergence Castlegar to Vancouver = 6 x sine (49) The convergence between Castlegar and Vancouver is 4. half-way the track is 270° and as the airplane flies into Vancouver the track is 267. Try to figure it out yourself before turning the page.75°. sine (0) is 0) has no convergence. The pilot must change heading by 70° from the start of the flight to the end in order to follow the Great-circle route. The lat and long of each airport is given above. The total change in heading is 4. In other words it is a line that crosses all the meridians along the route at the same angle. Convergence Castlegar to Gander = 63 x sine (49) The convergence between Castlegar and Gander is 48° What is the convergence between Castlegar and Vancouver? Longitude in Castlegar is W117 and Vancouver is W123 (difference of 6°. Try to figure out for yourself the initial. Most pilots would say that it is much more convenient to fly on constant heading for the entire flight however. and maintaining a 11 Note that the magnetic heading will still change if variation differs along the route (as it usually does. In the Castlegar to Vancouver example above.5° To fly a Great-circle from Castlegar to Vancouver the true track start as 272. so convergence equals change in longitude at the poles. and as previously noted a westbound flight must change heading to the left.5°. following the 49 parallel. The advantage of a Rhumb-line is that you can fly one true-heading (TH) to get from departure to 11 th destination . but a flight near the poles has a great deal (sine (90) is 1. Convergence Convergence is the angle that a Great-circle track changes over its length. Rhumb-Line A Rhumb-line is a constant-track line between two points.

It is not practical to flight plan using a globe. such as international airline flights. a Rhumb-line is flown between the checkpoints. I. Imagine cutting open a tennis ball and trying to spread it out flat. The pilot has a nav-log showing checkpoints and one heading between checkpoints (just what pilots like. and we certainly can’t take one in the airplane. Obviously there is a problem because the surface of the earth is curved.E. constituted flying a Rhumb-line.Navigation for Professional Pilots true heading of 270°. so we need a map.e. or if you prefer. You Page 147 . the Rhumb-line is always closer to the equator. NOT FLAT. Notice that the Great-circle track is ALWAYS closer to the pole than the Rhumb-line. The distance penalty for flying a Rhumb-line as opposed to a Great-circle is not significant for flights up to 500 NM at moderate latitudes (i. On longer flights. a Great-circle can be approximated by plotting a series of checkpoints along the Great-circle 500NM or less apart and then flying Rhumb-lines between them. flights not near or over the poles. Pilots generally find this much more satisfactory than constantly changing heading as they must to fly a Great-circle.) Therefore on short flights pilots routinely fly Rhumb-lines.) In the days before flight management systems (FMS) this was the normal navigation method. Map Theory Now that we know all about Great-circles and Rhumb-lines it is time to talk about maps. Remembering this will help you figure out which way heading must be adjusted to fly a Great-circle. Modern FMS makes accurate navigation along Great-circles feasible. and that is now the norm. In the above diagram a long-range airline flight approximates a Great-circle by flying over a series of checkpoints (Xs) along the Great-circle but a constant heading is flown between these checkpoints. which is a flat piece of paper representing the surface of the earth.

Conic projection. Lambert Conformal Conic Projection Page 148 .Navigation for Professional Pilots could not do it. A light is placed at the center of the globe and photographic paper is then held over or wrapped around the globe. Therefore ALL MAPS ARE DISTORTED. The method of creating the map determines what type of distortion. In Canada it is used for: VFR Terminal Charts (VTA) IFR Terminal Charts (T1 T2) Polar charts We will now examine each of these projections. The surface features of the earth are therefore projected onto the photograph and a map is created. In Canada it is used for: VFR navigation Charts (VNC) World Aeronautical Charts (WAC) LO and HI IFR charts The other projection that is widely used is the Transverse Mercator. but all maps are distorted. All maps are created by “projection” which you can visualize as meaning that a glass globe is created with all the surface features on it. The dominant projection used in Aviation is the Lambert Conformal. The only difference between one map and another is the way the photographic paper is wrapped around the globe.

5%.000 inches equals 6. It is not perfect. We already said that this is impossible however. On a Lambert Conformal Conic projection a straight-line can be accepted as “close enough” to a Great-circle for navigation purposes. To be useful a map must have a scale. but near the top and bottom it is a bit less.5% and therefore you can ignore it. Let’s see why there is an error at all.000.000 is therefore the average scale of the map.” A conformal map is one that shows the earth in the same shape that it has in the real world. but good enough to be designated conformal.9 nautical miles. Circled is the note that it is a Lambert Conformal Conic Projection. We will examine what conformal and conic mean. The word “conform.) 500. but real maps are never perfectly conformal. Lambert’s conic projection comes very close to meeting this standard. A map is conformal if at every location on the map the scale distortion north and south equals the scale distortion east and west. Lambert is the name of the person who invented it. You obviously don’t want a map that is as large as the earth. The photo above shows the scale on a VNC is 1:500. Page 149 . commonly used for VFR navigation.Navigation for Professional Pilots The photo above is from a Vancouver VNC chart. which means that one inch on the map equals 500.000 cm etc. The difference is less than 0. so a more technical definition is needed. On a perfectly conformal map a straight-line is a Great-circle.9 NM so one inch on the map equals 6. The scale of 1:500. On a perfectly conformal map the scale is constant throughout the map.000 inches in the real world (1cm equals 500. The error is less than 0. In the middle of the map it is a bit more.” according to the dictionary means: “to be similar or identical.

and north and south of the standard parallels the surface of the earth is below the cone. and it would touch the earth along only one parallel of latitude.Navigation for Professional Pilots Imagine a sheet of photographic paper formed into a cone and set over the globe (like a hat) with its apex at above the North-pole. This would be a standard conic projection. Page 150 . The consequence of this to map scale is shown below. Lambert’s innovation was to sink the cone into the earth so that it touches along two parallels of latitude. Between the standard parallels the surface of the real earth is above the cone. as shown in the photo above.

It is important to consider where a given point on the actual surface of the earth appears on the map. Transverse Mercator projection Page 151 .5% so you can feel free to measure distance anywhere on the VNC for navigation planning purposes. The photograph at the beginning of this section showed that the standard parallels for the Vancouver VNC are N49 20 and N54 40. Straight lines are Great-circles (close enough) Scale is constant throughout (close enough) Rhumb-lines are NOT straight Because Rhumb-lines are not straight. As stated previously the scale error over the entire map is about 0. 3.) Between the parallels the opposite effect takes place. North and south of the standard parallels points on the map are further apart than on the earth’s surface (if you measure a distance of say 100 NM on the map the real distance on the surface of the earth is less. if you want to fly a Rhumb line you must measure the true track at mid-leg. 2. Along these lines map scale is accurate. At mid-leg a Rhumb-line track and a Great-circle track are equal. Different standard parallels are used on VNCs to suit the latitude of the area depicted.Navigation for Professional Pilots The diagram above shows projection lines emanating from the center of the earth and passing through the surface of the earth and the map. Along the standard parallels the scale of the map is precise. Summary of Lambert Conformal Conic Projection 1.

In the original Mercator (not a transverse Mercator) the photographic paper is rolled into a cylinder rather than a cone. At the equator the lines of longitude and latitude really lie perpendicular to each other so the Mercator map is relatively conformal near the equator. but is not useable in Canada. Page 152 . but the map is NOT CONFORMAL. The map scale is accurate only along the reference meridian. This has the advantage that a straight-line drawn on the map is a Rhumb-line. The cylinder can be rotated so that it touches on any of the 360 meridians. The Transverse Mercator also wraps the globe in a cylinder but it is rotated 90 degrees so that it touches the earth along a meridian of longitude rather than the equator. and a straight-line is NOT a Great-circle. This cylinder is wrapped around the earth so that it touches along the equator. On the Mercator projection the lines of latitude and longitude come out perpendicular to each other. The Lambert Conic projection does not work for areas near the equator. In other words it distorts shapes.Navigation for Professional Pilots Originally Mercator projections were developed for use near the equator.

Navigation for Professional Pilots A transverse Mercator map is NOT conformal. True and Magnetic North (Variation) So far all discussion about tracks has been in relation to true north. so a magnetic compass must be used. not all airplanes have such equipment today. But. is used the distortion is minor. Unfortunately the Magnetic North Pole is not collocated with the real North Pole. Consequently a straight-line drawn on the map is a Rhumb-line. It has the advantage of creating a grid in which lines of latitude and longitude cross perpendicular to each other. close the reference meridian. st Page 153 . In the 21 century as GPS navigation becomes dominant it is probable (or at least possible) that true tracks and true north will become the only references used for navigation. When measuring a true track on a map you must align north on the protractor with a meridian. but as long at only a small section. i. The photo below shows the location of the Magnetic North Pole. The Transverse Mercator projection is only suitable for small scale maps such as terminal charts. the North and South Poles.e. It is used for VTA and IFR terminal charts. Meridians of longitude run north/south by definition.

But a compass in British Columbia. A compass on the white line in the photograph also points at the true North Pole. points too far east. as shown in the photograph. On a line running through Manitoba there are locations where variation is zero (as shown in the photograph. Page 154 . All aeronautical maps have isogonic lines printed on them. and it is the angle between true north and magnetic north.Navigation for Professional Pilots A compass points at the Magnetic North Pole. The error is called variation.) An isogonic line joins locations with equal variation. These lines are labeled as shown in the photo below. The variation shown in the photograph is easterly. in Montreal variation is westerly.

The following rhyme may help you remember whether to add of subtract variation. These things cause an error in the compass known as deviation. That is to say that the magnetic field of the airplane changes over time. so true heading must be converted to magnetic before the flight. Deviation is an error in the compass of the airplane. but it does fit logically here because of its relationship to variation. In flight the heading indicator is normally set to magnetic north and all heading are referred to as magnetic headings. Compass Deviation The topic of deviation is out of place here since it is not related to map theory. It is caused by the magnetic fields of the metal parts of the airplane and is significantly affected by electrical equipment such as the alternator. Variation East. When variation is westerly magnetic heading is always more than true. Deviation changes from time to time.Navigation for Professional Pilots In the above case variation is 23° East. The process of measuring Page 155 . magnetic is least Variation West. Even though the above rhyme is fairly simple it is best to use your CR to convert between magnetic and true so that no mistake is made. Consequently it must be measured and recorded on a regular basis. This procedure was demonstrated previously. As such deviation is specific to an individual airplane. Flight planning is normally done in true however. magnetic is best This means that when variation is easterly the magnetic heading is always less than true heading.

Contour Lines and Hypsometric Tints Maps for aviation MUST show the height of the ground. The pilot should read the compass then the deviation card and set the heading indicator to the corrected magnetic heading. Contour lines and hypsometric tinting are used for this purpose. On VNC charts there is a 500’ contour but from 1000’ and above contours are every 1000’. To make terrain easier to visualize Hypsometric tinting is used. The contour interval is described at the bottom of the Hypsometric scale.Navigation for Professional Pilots deviation is called a compass swing. Contour lines are lines that join points of equal elevation above sea level. explained next. as most pilots do. The above photo shows contour lines on a VNC. A compass swing is required every year and also any time electrical equipment is removed or replaced in the airplane. results in only minor error. An AME performs the compass swing and provides a compass card in the cockpit which the pilot uses to correctly set the heading indicator. Deviation is seldom more than 2 or 3 degrees so ignoring it. according to scale below: Page 156 . This is one of the most important details for flight safety.

located at N60 34 W140 24. 8000’.000 and 11.524’ asl. and intermediate contours at 4000’. Map Legend Every map has a legend printed along the edge that shows all the symbols used on the map. The example above is 19. also shown just above the hypsometric tint scale. Use these to refine the information provided by the tinting. All the symbols are important but will not be covered here as you can read the legend for yourself. Page 157 . At the top of the scale you find the maximum elevation for the map. 6000’. A 500’ intermediate contour line appears within the lowest hypsometric tint.000 are also plotted.Navigation for Professional Pilots The above scale is found on the white edge of every VNC. 10. the highest point in Canada.

000.000. Always look in a current CFS for up-to-date airport data. Grid Navigation The picture below is of a globe from above the North Pole. VTA charts have a scale of 1: 250.Navigation for Professional Pilots Airport data is provided on VNC charts but this should only be used for preliminary planning. The inner scale is used on VNC and the outer scale on WAC charts. Make sure you use the correct scale. The same scale is used on all VNC charts in Canada. Always measure distance in Nautical Miles.000. Map Scale The scale of the map is always printed on the map. not statute miles. For a VTA chart use the VNC ruler scale then double the distance.000. The picture below shows the scale on the Vancouver VNC chart is 1:500. An appropriate Navigation ruler must be used to measure distances on these maps. What is the true track? Page 158 . Imagine you wish to fly from the checkpoint marked as departure to the one marked as destination. WAC charts use a scale of 1:1.

Navigation for Professional Pilots If you are willing to fly a Rhumb line.” Page 159 . The desired route is “over the pole. then heading of 090 true would take you to the destination along the line shown below: But this is clearly not the shortest route.

make a table of required true headings for the locations marked with the Xs.) I. Remember that each line of longitude represents a true track of north (0°.E.Navigation for Professional Pilots In the diagram below the desired Great-circle route is drawn in as well as some lines of longitude for reference. you must orient your Douglas protractor to north on each line of longitude. The true tracks are as follows: Location X1 X2 True Track 019 045 Page 160 . We already know that in order to fly a Great-circle we must change heading as we fly.

Every flight over the poles starts off “northbound” and finishes “southbound. the heading indicator must be adjusted so that as the airplane passes X2 it reads 045°. At X3 the HI is rotated to 082°. Page 161 . When the airplane arrives at destination it has made no turns.Navigation for Professional Pilots X3 X4 X5 082 137 160 Imagine what would be happening on the flight deck as you make this flight. The airplane departs on a heading of 019° (essentially northbound) and flies a straight-line. Examine the diagram below.” Pilots must accept that brain teaser. but the heading must be 160° true (essentially southbound. but grid navigation eliminates the need to continuously update the HI enroute. at X4 to 137°. An alternate method of navigating over the poles is to use Grid navigation. in practice it is usually updated every 6° change in longitude. But.) For ideal effectiveness HI would be continuously updated for convergence.

but the standard procedure is to use the Prime meridian as the reference. To use the grid simply put your Douglas protractor on the grid with north aligned with the Prime meridian. The 160E median has been labeled in the diagram. or minus east longitude.Navigation for Professional Pilots A rectangular grid is laid over the pole as shown in the diagram above. This grid can be oriented to by reference to any meridian.”) Examine the diagram to convince yourself that the Grid heading is simply the true heading plus west longitude. X4. You should label the other meridians corresponding to X2. Page 162 . and X5. X3. For the track in the example the track is 219G (read “219 Grid.

This amounts to rotating the HI an amount equal to the longitude of the airplane.) We will consider LOP from both VOR and NDB. Lines on a map joining points of equal grivation are called isogrivs. Note that despite all these adjustments the airplane actually flies a straight line the whole time. You should see that grid navigation is necessary because of the extreme amount of convergence in polar crossings. Such a bearing is referred to as a line of position (LOP. However. But things will work out in the end. As previously noted the difference between true and grid tracks equals the longitude (from the reference meridian.) Therefore mathematically grivation equals longitude plus variation. Grivation Grivation is by definition the difference between magnetic track and grid track. The pilot holds this grid heading for a few hours until arriving at the destination (point where the transition back to magnetic headings will be made) at which point the heading is reset to magnetic by changing it from 219 to about 160° plus variation. Pilots can use these to set the HI to Grid the same way they use variation to set the compass to true. For some purposes it could be preferable to establish a grid based on a different meridian. Can you see the benefit of this? If they used the Prime meridian instead what direction would it be to fly from the Yukon to Greenland (east or west)? When they are done exploring the polar region do they fly north or south to return to Vancouver? Plotting Lines of Position (LOP) A common task in navigation is to locate your position on a map based on a bearing from a VOR or NDB. the magnetic compass is quite unreliable in the extreme Polar Regions so it is much more common to use INS as the reference (the INS “knows” the airplanes true track) eliminating the need to use grivation. Two LOP are needed to define a position fix. For now this simple introduction to the concept is all that you need. Page 163 . In practice grivation is applied to the magnetic compass. Once the HI is adjusted to Grid the pilot can maintain a constant heading for several hours (in the example s/he maintains 219°. For a Canadian arctic survey expedition might find it desirable to have a grid oriented to a meridian within Canada. Keep in mind that basing the grid to the Prime meridian is arbitrary.) Even though this is usually considered a southbound heading the airplane is obviously still heading north.Navigation for Professional Pilots To use Grid navigation. The two relevant equations are: Grid track = Magnetic Track plus E grivation or minus W grivation Grid track = True Track plus W longitude or minus E longitude You will examine grid navigation a bit more in Avia 240. as the airplane approaches the departure point (it probably took off somewhere much further south) the pilot switches the HI to grid.

most VORs are oriented to magnetic north. Let’s say in the above example that radial 1 is 010R and radial 2 is 290R. The process is quite straight forward. But. Each radial must be converted to a true bearing by applying variation. which to radial 2? Choose your answer before reading the next paragraph. but there are a few important details. Page 164 . which means the nav radio tells you the magnetic radial you are on.Navigation for Professional Pilots In the above diagram radial 1 represents one LOP and radial 2 is the second. What variation should be applied to radial 1. Pilots frequently refer to the procedure as taking a fix. Most importantly fixes should be plotted using true bearings. or fix for short. Therefore radial 1 must be adjusted by 12° and radial 2 by 10°. The important thing to realize is that you must apply the variation at the VOR. Use the wind side of your CR to make sure you don’t make any mistakes. Where they cross is the “fixed” position. You CANNOT put a protractor on each VOR and draw two lines based directly on these bearings. NOT at the airplane. not magnetic.

Repeat the same process for 290R with variation 10E to confirm the true course is 300°. It is could be the case that you must plot a fix based on one VOR in magnetic and another in true.) In the arctic VORs are oriented to true north. Expect to see questions of the above type on Transport Canada’s Commercial Pilot Written exam. To obtain an LOP from a VOR it is essential to center the CDI needle with a FROM indication. Do not attempt to plot a fix by extending the markings on the compass roses on the VNC. The legend of your VNC and LO chart warns you that in some cases VOR symbols are offset from their actual position.Navigation for Professional Pilots In the above photograph the 010R is set across from 12E variation. The true course is clearly 022°. just be careful to convert the magnetic radial to true while making no adjustment to the true radial. Page 165 . Draw the lines carefully to find the fix. IMIPORTANT. but the overall process is the same.) Now we will consider the process of establishing a fix based on bearings from two NDBs. There are two or three differences to note. These are not accurate enough. Plot the two tracks 022 and 300 by putting a Douglas protractor over each VOR in turn and aligning it with meridian 1 and 3 respectively. Watch for tricks such as offset VOR locations (previous paragraph) and mixed magnetic and true VORs (also mentioned above. but the compass rose is centered on the actual location of the station. This is not difficult. If you center the needle with a TO indication you need to take the reciprocal (but it is safer to simply rotate the OBS knob until a FROM flag shows. which eliminates the need to make the conversion demonstrated above. Check this carefully to ensure you are plotting the fix from the actual location of the VOR. This gives a direct reading of the radial.

Usually the HI is set to magnetic so the bearing is a magnetic bearing. and the airplane is in the same location. The basic process of obtaining a bearing from an NDB is the same regardless of the equipment the airplane has. If you have a fixed card ADF you must follow the usual procedure to convert relative bearing to magnetic bearing.Navigation for Professional Pilots The diagram below is deliberately identical to the one above expect that the VORs have been replaced with NDBs. Good airmanship demands that you confirm the HI is set accurately before accepting this bearing. Page 166 . Since the diagram above is identical to the previous VOR based one. which you can plot to fix your position without the need to do any of this process. MB = RB + Heading. They will NOT be. The first difference to think about is the process by which the pilot determines what bearing 1 and 2 are. Think why before reading the next paragraph. but it is much easier with an RMI than with a fixed card ADF (Note that if you have a GPS this whole process is redundant since it will provide your current latitude and longitude. We therefore assume you have no such equipment available. If you happen to be flying in the arctic with your heading indicator set to true then the bearing is true.) With an RMI read the bearing from the tail of the RMI needle. And if your HI is set to grid you have a grid bearing. you may expect that the magnetic bearings will be 010 and 290. How is this done? Formulate your answer before reading the next paragraph.

Summary: When plotting a fix convert all bearings to true. Plot these exactly as before to get the fix. The variation correction for the VOR is applied at the station. and grid navaids. which correspond to radio waves so this procedure works. Go back and examine the VOR example above if you have forgotten which variation was applied in that case. but not the magnetic bearings. magnetic. What values to you get? Once again the true bearings are 022° and 300°. On a Mercator chart straight-lines are Rhumb lines so an error equal to convergence is introduced. Correct each of these magnetic bearings by variation of 11E exactly as described above for the VOR case. Fortunately Mercator charts are only used for VTA and T charts in Canada. but the radio wave from the ground stations come to the airplane along straight-lines corresponding to Great-circles (both VOR and NDB. giving you a fix. Therefore both NDB bearings must be corrected by 11E. Just remember where to apply the variation. Extend the lines until they cross. Apply variation at the station for VOR and at the airplane for ADF.Navigation for Professional Pilots In reality an ADF may not be accurate enough to detect the theoretical difference here. Make sure the protractor really is centered on the station by checking the compass rose. It is quite possible to obtain a fix from one VOR and one ADF bearing. while that for the NDB is applied in the airplane. Use the CR for converting between true and magnetic to avoid mistakes. Use a Douglas protractor centered on the station to plot the true bearing. especially on exams. Watch out for combinations of true. where position fixing is an unlikely procedure. which you must correct for. Therefore magnetic bearing 1 is 013 and bearing 2 is 289 magnetic. The process is identical to that described above. Page 167 .) This amounts to saying that the true bearings will be the same. On a Lambert Conic chart the straight-lines are Great-circles.

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Chapter 8 Flight Planning In this section we will take all the knowledge we have developed and use it to plan flights. Most legs are either straightlines or arcs. . The FMS computer recognizes a variety of leg types. Modern flight management systems (FMS) are programmed by entering a series of legs beginning at the airport of departure and ending at the destination. It must be stated that we presume that dead reckoning (DR) will be the dominant form of navigation. Fly-by and Fly-over Waypoints Waypoints are designated as either Fly-by or Fly-over. The entire route must be input as a series of continuous legs with no breaks at any point. Definition of a Leg All flights are broken into legs. The difference is sometimes quite important. The diagram below explains the difference more clearly than words can. which the pilot selects from a menu. When a flight is fully defined by a series of legs with no breaks we say the flight plan is closed. but that is beyond the scope of this text. with pilotage used only for brief periods usually on departure and arrival. Future navigation systems may define paths that have more complex shapes. A leg is a defined path the airplane follows. In the section on mountain flying toward the end of the text some comments about planning for a flight when pilotage is dominant are included.

you must fly directly over it before turning to the next leg. In recent years it has become very common for aircraft to be equipped with GPS and or other types of precision navigation equipment that provide extremely accurate range information.0053 is fully explained in the aerodynamics text Aerodynamics for Professional Pilots. The equation r=. It is far too easy to be misled about station passage with an NDB so it is preferable to treat all NDBs as Fly-over waypoints.Navigation for Professional Pilots If a waypoint is designated Fly-over. without GPS for assistance. At a Fly-by waypoint you start to turn prior to the waypoint so that you intercept the next leg without overshooting it. Page 170 . These systems provide horizontal distance rather than the slant range the older DME systems provide. You should normally treat waypoints as Fly-by unless they are specified as Fly-over. When the pilot has this type of instrumentation available it is possible to precisely determine when to turn for a Fly-by waypoint. An exception is when using NDBs as waypoints. The diagram below shows the required formula.

It should chronicle your entire flight from takeoff to destination and then to the alternate airport if IFR. and of course exams.Navigation for Professional Pilots The formula might not seem user friendly but all you have to do is calculate . When approaching a 90° turn lead by 0. You already have memorized values for the sine of several angles for the purpose of estimating drift (see page 50. about 0. For a 45° turn lead by 70% of 0.) To calculate . etc. A nav-log should also include time and fuel allocations for contingencies (unavoidable delays due to weather.0053TAS once and memorize it. Introduction to Nav-logs A nav-log is a document that helps you organize your flight planning so that you don’t forget any important details.6NM. easier. For example if your airplane cruises at 120 knots divide by 100 to get 1. On your commercial pilot flight test you are required to prepare the nav-log manually. etc.4NM.0053 TAS take TAS and divide by 100 then divide by two. and ALL quizzes and tests in this course require manually generated nav-logs. approaches. and reserve (reserve is a legal as well as practical requirement.) In this course you will prepare nav-logs both electronically and manually. traffic. most assignments. On your actual cross-country flights and simulator exercises you are encouraged to use the ENL because it is quicker. neater.6.6. and less Page 171 . Remember this number.).e.2 then divide by 2 to get 0. i.

although we only scratched the surface on using it. There is a variable point at which the airplane reaches top of climb which is conveniently labeled as top of climb (TOC. Page 172 . Advice on choosing a SHP is given below.) Departure legs can also be called “climb legs. In this case label the point as SHP or SHP/TOC (preferred. For VFR flight plans arrival legs end when the aircraft joins the circuit at the destination airport. 4. On occasion TOC and SHP are the same point.” . If after then it is technically part of the enroute group. Groups 5 to 8 are not needed for VFR navlogs. Navlog Leg Groups The legs on your navlog can be divided into groups: 1. We normally group the arrival legs with either the enroute or approach. 7.” The departure legs end at the Set Heading Point (SHP. a new leg should start at every point where the track changes. 8. The approach group is normally reduced to a single leg (for both IFR and VFR navlogs. Sometimes it is expedient to just treat these legs as cruise legs rather going to the trouble of estimating the reduced fuel flow used during the descent. Further details are provided later.) The SHP is usually specified in an IFR departure procedure. You were introduced to the ENL when we examined cruising altitudes. i. On Selkirk College navlogs the departure. Departure legs Enroute legs Arrival legs Approach Missed approach (IFR only) Enroute to alternate Arrival at alternate Approach at alternate All these groups are needed for every IFR navlog.) These legs run from turning point to turning point. and approach leg groups are usually simplified so that one line on the navlog represents the entire group. but must be chosen by the flight planner for VFR flight. arrival. 6.) The largest part of most navlogs consists of several enroute-legs (also called cruise-legs.Navigation for Professional Pilots likely to contain math errors. 5. 3. Nav-logs are usually laid out in a grid with columns representing the parameters to be evaluated (planned) and with rows representing “legs. The arrival legs end at an initial approach fix (IAF) for IFR flight plans. Some VFR pilots find it convenient to “rig” the situation so that this happens.) TOC may come before or after SHP.e. 2.

4.) Notice that you can answer these questions quite easily because of the logic by which the nav-log is laid out.2 Page 173 . or you have used a couple of gallons more than expected. 1.8.Navigation for Professional Pilots Selkirk College nav-logs also contain rows allocating time for contingencies. which is for a flight in a Beech 95. As you reach BOOTH your fuel reads 35 gallons – is fuel remaining as expected? 12 Upon arrival at BASRA. 3. if ATC requires you to hold (perhaps because a runway is closed) your contingency fuel is used up when your fuel gauges read _______ gal (assume you wish to retain 13 50 minutes reserve. 13 27. You are supposed to have 37. Consider the nav-log below. As you pass YNY your fuel quantity should read ________ gal. 2. Even though you have never flown one before answer the following questions by referring to the nav-log.) There is logic to the order that navlog rows are laid out that results in the pilot having the required information at hand in flight to make decisions about fuel status. You should assume the later. 12 No. and reserve (both explained below. so either the gauges are not accurate. As you taxi out in Calgary your fuel quantity should read _________ gal.

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On IFR flights the SHP is usually a navaid such as a VOR or NDB so finding your way there is straight forward. Exactly how close depends on several factors: 1. is your reserve. begin by filling out the ramp fuel in the upper right corner of your nav-log. The fuel for the trip is specified in advance and you determine consequent reserve You plan for a desired amount of contingency and reserve fuel and determine how much ramp fuel you need for the flight If situation 1 applies. Most checkpoints will be pretty obvious. Choosing a Set Heading Point (SHP) A crucial task when preparing a nav-log is determining the checkpoints. especially for VFR flights (Note that IFR flights require an SHP also. 2. river. but usually it is obvious where it should be. Assess reserve fuel value to confirm that it is adequate before committing to the flight. but choosing a suitable SHP is sometimes a problem. 2. 3. leave ramp-fuel and fuel-remaining blank until all legs have been planned. Fill out the reserve fuel and work backwards until you determine the required ramp fuel. Availability of distinctive ground features for pilotage to the SHP Traffic congestion at the airport How well you know the area and the SHP checkpoint On a VFR flight you normally use pilotage to find your way to the SHP. When completing a nav-log you have two situations: 1. It is frequently safer to choose a visual point rather than a radio navigation point when VFR. which is always the last row. whatever you have when you get to reserve. or other similar feature that you can follow to locate it.) The first fixed checkpoint is called the set heading point (SHP) on a DR cross-country and choosing it requires considerable thought. If situation 2 applies. Because pilotage is used to locate the SHP be sure to pick one that has distinctive ground features leading to it. A Page 175 . VFR pilots can also use beacons and VORs for navigation but before doing so consider whether you will conflict with IFR traffic. in other words establishing what the legs will be. For VFR flight you should select a SHP that is easy to locate and relatively close to the departure airport. An ideal SHP is on a road.Navigation for Professional Pilots Ramp Fuel and Fuel Remaining As you saw above the fuel remaining column is one of the most important for in-flight decision making. As you complete each leg subtract the fuel used to get fuel remaining. railway.

a park on a particular road. in daylight. Most pilots vastly underestimate this. Weather permitting you should be 2000agl or higher when you reach the center of the airport in order to avoid conflict with any circuit traffic. Filling in the Navlog Now that we have a SHP it is time to fill out the nav-log. If the ground around the departure airport lacks distinctive navigation features. Normally we will have only one or two departure legs. at a busy airport it may not be possible to do an overhead departure or use a nearby point as SHP. For example locating a radio transmission tower. use the airport as the SHP. i. In the case of an airport with very little traffic it is quite feasible to make an overhead departure or use a SHP very close by. departure on runway 15. At an airport you know well you can locate SHPs that would be too obscure if you didn’t know the area well. i. Instead pick a particular point such as the intersection of two major roads. Consider the example of taking off from CYCG and using the town of Robson as your SHP. Traffic congestion is a factor in choosing a SHP for two reasons. If you were making a closed navlog the first and third checkpoints would both be the airport and the second checkpoint would be 1000 feet. unless you know for sure that runway 33 will be used. because you must allow for maneuvering to depart the circuit. Of course a radio navigation beacon could also be a practical choice if the airplane is suitably equipped. How well you know the area is a factor in choosing a SHP. But. It must also be small enough to constitute a point – for example using “the city of Vancouver” as a SHP is not acceptable. for example the intersection of two minor roads. It is best to plan the longer route. Keep in mind that some objects that look prominent on a map are in fact quite difficult to see on the ground. A crucial thing to realize is that the distance you fly is more than the straight-line distance from the airport to the SHP. Robson is only fly 3 miles from the center of the airport but the route and distance to get there is quite different depending on whether you takeoff on runway 33 or 15. is quite difficult and thus does not make a good SHP. In reality you will probably open the navlog and only have one leg. if you know the tower well and can identify it relative to other local landmarks it may be an acceptable SHP. more than 5 miles from the airport. as is often the case with small airports in northern Canada.” You simply takeoff and climb over the airport to set course. A point on a major road.Navigation for Professional Pilots SHP must also be distinct so that you can visually identify it. Page 176 . In this case make sure to choose a SHP on a very prominent pilotage feature that you will have no trouble seeing and flying to. It is very important however not to underestimate how much distance is flown when departing. i.e.e. This is called an “overhead departure. or shoreline would be a good choice. traffic congestion could force you to choose a SHP clear of the airport zone.e. river. etc. the first and second checkpoints will be the airport of departure but the distance flown must represent that to fly out to 1000 and then return while climbing to 2000. The lack of traffic means that no conflict will result. But.

When opening the departure on a nav-log: 1. An ENL navlog showing an overhead departure is shown below to demonstrate this.Navigation for Professional Pilots Normally the above closed departure would be opened up by collapsing it into two legs. An interesting special case involves setting up the navlog for an overhead departure (remember this means using the departure airport as SHP) If you are doing an overhead departure the distance flown is certainly not zero (the straight-line distance) it is likely 5NM or more. Estimate the distance to the SHP Page 177 . as shown below.

Therefore the first enroute leg will also be a climb leg (leading to TOC) as described below. and fuel. When using the ENL. The only exception would be on a flight where you reach TOC at or before SHP. First Enroute leg (to TOC) The first enroute leg is frequently a straight-line from SHP to TOC. estimate how high you will be when you reach the SHP. Time to climb Fuel to climb Distance to climb Page 178 . the distance required to climb to altitude will exceed the distance to the SHP.Navigation for Professional Pilots 2. Estimate the average wind in this calculation. 3.) Once you have the distance use the time fuel and distance to climb chart to figure out what your altitude will be at the end of leg 1. 3. Lookup altitude. In most cases you do not reach your final cruise altitude before SHP and therefore will be climbing enroute. For example if you estimated you would be at 5000 over Robson and you are climbing to 8500 then this leg is for a climb from 5000 to 8500. If the resulting distance does not match your estimated distance to the SHP revise the altitude estimate. time. The trick is figuring out how far after. 2. and fuel corresponding to that distance Collapse the departure into one or two legs (more if needed for clarity. Enter the fuel used and the time in the appropriate columns of. In 99% of cases. for departure legs. If you did a reasonable job of estimating your distance and altitude to the SHP then the remainder of the climb must be allocated to this leg. time. The ENL determines distance. Use the charts in your POH to determine: 1. especially in the mountains.

In turbo-charged and turbo-prop airplanes climb rate does not drop off as quickly so determine GS halfway up to cruise altitude and calculate distance covered based on that (in the example.) Once you know how many miles past SHP it is to TOC use your ruler and mark TOC on the map and then measure the distance from TOC to the next waypoint (mystery lake in the navlog shown above. Initially enter the distance from your time to climb chart. In addition true and indicated airspeeds change as you climb in accordance with the climb charts (previously covered. You should therefore determine your groundspeed at 2/3 of the way up to your cruise altitude and calculate distance covered using that value (remember you know the climb time. In the example navlog the total distance from Robson to mystery lake is 50NM. Subsequent legs run in straight lines from checkpoint to checkpoint until the last checkpoint. but once the ENL calculates groundspeed and time you will have to increase or decrease the distance until the time and fuel match what you determined from the climb chart. Don’t move on until you have reasoned that claim out and are convinced that it is true.Navigation for Professional Pilots The only complication is allowing for wind.) We need a rule of thumb to determine distance covered in a climb. It is critical for you to realize that wind will NOT AFFECT time or fuel to climb. When using the ENL enter the altitude that is 2/3 or ½ your cruise altitude with wind and temperature for that altitude.) Once you know this GS. it only affects distance. Wind changes as you climb so it can be quite different at 5000 than at 8500. so the distance from TOC to mystery lake is 37NM. Cruise Legs – Between Enroute Checkpoints The first cruise leg starts at TOC and goes to the next checkpoint.) Using the example of climbing from 4500 to 8500 the difference is 4000 feet and 2/3 of that is 2700. For normally aspirated piston airplanes such as the C-172P and Travelair rate of climb drops off quickly with altitude so that mid-time in a climb happens at higher than mid-altitude. It is necessary to allow for wind in the climb or your flight planning will not be accurate. and given the time to climb. so determine GS at 7200 (4500 + 2700. use your CR to calculate distance.) This distance is used on the next leg. The last checkpoint could be the destination airport Page 179 . calculate GS at 6500.

Navigation for Professional Pilots

(circuit joining point) or in the case of an IFR navlog it is usually the location where the IFR approach will begin. Flights should be broken into manageable legs. A 1000 mile VFR leg is hard to fly and is subject to problems covered previously in map theory. Even transoceanic airliners fly from checkpoint to checkpoint over the ocean so don’t be afraid to break your trip into manageable legs. On the other hand don’t make the legs too short or your nav-log will be so extensive it will over-load the airplane. Use your ruler to measure the length of each leg in nautical miles. Use a protractor to measure the true track (covered below.) When planning with an LO or HI chart read the distance and magnetic track directly from the chart and use the CR to determine the true track. For example the LO1 chart below shows the track from CG to WHATS on R119 is 301°M and the distance is 41 NM. Variation is 18°E (the dashed line just south of WHATS.)

To get the true track use the back-side of your CR. Set the magnetic track (301M) opposite variation (18E) as shown below. The true track (TC) is 319.

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IFR checkpoints are VORs, NDBs, or intersections; every location where your track changes is a checkpoint (WHATS is an intersection.) VFR checkpoints should be distinct geographical features you can positively identify yourself over and thereby confirm you are on course (and start the next leg accurately.) Towns, airport, small lakes, etc make good checkpoints. Normally true-track changes (at least slightly) over a checkpoint. Draw a straight line with a pencil between each checkpoint. Measure the length of the line with a ruler of the appropriate scale. Measure the true track by aligning your protractor to north with a line of longitude near the midpoint of the leg. In cruise TAS speed and fuel flow are in accordance with the cruise performance charts. Be sure to write the power setting and fuel-flow in the proper column for reference. Fill in the actual wind and temperature at your cruising altitude and use your CR to determine GS and true heading based on the TAS. Remember that you will need to determine pressure altitude and or density altitude to determine TAS. Fill in the variation and then calculate the magnetic heading. Remember the old saying: Variation east, magnetic is least. Variation west, magnetic is best. This means that with easterly variation (such as in British Columbia) magnetic heading is always less than true heading. In eastern Canada, where variation is west, magnetic heading is always more than true heading. To avoid any chance of a mistake it is safer to use the back-side of your CR when converting between true and magnetic, as shown in the photo above.

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Use your CR to determine CAS, and then use the calibration chart in the POH to determine IAS. You need this so that you can check in flight that the airplane is performing as planned. Of course you also use the CR to determine time and fuel for the leg.

**Selection of Cruising Altitude
**

Many pilots pick their cruising altitude without much rational consideration. Many choose cruise altitudes that are too low, perhaps because the short cross-countries typical of private pilot training are best done at low altitude. In this section we will investigate which altitude is optimum for cruise. To conduct this investigation we will use the Selkirk College electronic-nav-log (ENL). By the end of this section you will understand that there is an optimum cruise altitude and be familiar with the ENL. All airplanes fly faster, for a given amount of fuel flow, at a higher altitude. However, fuel is used climbing to altitude, so there is an altitude above which further climb increases the total time for the flight. The criteria for saying on altitude is “optimum” could be saving time or fuel. Most commercial air operations place a premium on time rather than fuel. The optimum altitude is therefore either: 1. 2. The altitude that results in the least time for the flight The altitude that results in the least fuel used for the flight

The factors that determine which altitude is optimum are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Aircraft type Power setting Air temperature and pressure Weight (aircraft load) Distance to be flown (length of the flight) Wind

For piston engine airplanes the benefits of flying at a higher altitude are very minimal in terms of saving fuel. Only on very long flights is any fuel saved at all – so in most cases you can fly at any altitude you wish as far as fuel consumption is concerned. Therefore it is best to decide your cruising altitude based on other factors such as the improved safety of flying higher in a single-engine airplane. Of course it is important to avoid headwinds, so try to avoid climbing into a strong headwind aloft unless safety demands you do so (as it often does in British Columbia.) Climbing to high altitude to pick up a strong tailwind is however always a good idea. In a turbine engine airplane flying at a higher altitude is much more advantageous. The resons will be covered in your aerodynamics course. It is very worthwhile for you to examine the cruise performance

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charts for the King Air, which you have an FIM for, and calculate the specific range foe the airplane at various altitude. You will quickly see that it is much better at high altitude

Top of Descent

What goes up must come down, so the saying goes. But with an airplane the pilot has control of when to come down and this is a matter that deserves more thought than it is sometimes given. If descent is started too late then the airplane arrives at the airport too high to land and must circle down, wasting time, or requiring a high descent rate that is uncomfortable for passengers and may cause damage to the engine in some cases. The turbocharged engines typical of working airplanes are quite sensitive to large power reductions. The shock-cooling will damage the engine. Thus professional pilots learn to start descent early enough that a gentle descent with gradual reductions in power can be made. Conversely, pilots of turboprop and jet airplanes can close the throttle without fear of damage to the engine. For these airplanes descent is delayed as long as reasonable in order to take advantage of the better fuel economy at altitude. In single-engine mountain-flying it is particularly unwise to descend early. The terrain is rugged, with few places to land in the event of an engine failure. The ideal descent is usually one that reaches circuit altitude just slightly before joining the circuit. At times it may even be necessary to plan to circle down over the airport, although this should be avoided if possible. The most commonly used descent gradient is 1000 feet every 3 nautical miles. This is used by most jet and turboprop pilots and also works reasonably well in the C-172 and B95. For high performance turbocharged airplanes a gentler gradient such as 1000 feet every 4 nautical miles may be more appropriate. It is important for you to get to know what is best for your airplane. Once you have established the ideal descent gradient designating a top of descent (TOD) is straight forward. To designate a TOD calculate the altitude to be lost in thousands of feet then multiply by 3 (or 4 as the case may be.) Assuming you are planning to join the circuit the altitude to be lost is obtained by subtracting circuit altitude from cruise altitude. If you are planning a straight-in landing then subtract field elevation from cruise altitude. The value should be rounded to the nearest thousand feet. For example if descending from 8500 to join the circuit in Castlegar at 2600 you get 6 thousand feet. Multiply 6 x 3 to get 18 Nautical miles. Your TOD is 18 miles form where? The answer is; from the place you wish to reach circuit altitude. This is likely 3 miles from the airport, so start descent 21 miles out. TOD should be calculated in flight, but need not appear on your navlog.

Contingencies

RAC 3.13 requires pilots to allow for contingencies when flight planning. Even if no such regulation existed it would only be prudent to do so. We have already seen that flying at a different altitude than planned affects required fuel. Obviously the wind can be different than forecast. There are a great many factors that can affect your flight. The longer the flight the more likely it is that errors in planning will arise, yet it is the long flights that have the least margin for error.

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Note that contingency time should not be included in time enroute you file on your flight plan. etc. as for example in Kelowna or Victoria For IFR flights the last enroute checkpoint is usually the IAF (initial approach fix) which is where you start your instrument approach (explained previously. Filing flight plans is covered later. A flight in a C-172 from Castlegar to Boundary Bay can equally well land in Langley. Contingency time should be allocated for this purpose. and possible missed approach. i. A single VFR Page 184 . For example if you are holding (VFR you might be circling while the runway is plowed) you should fly at less than 65% power and thus you would have more contingency time than you indicated on your nav-log. On the ENL set an amount of contingency time and the ENL allocates the required fuel at the normal cruise power setting. Delta.) Therefore time and fuel must be allocated for the approach. Simply ask yourself how much extra time you might need for contingencies. It is pretty much a guarantee that these things will happen to you a few times in your life.Navigation for Professional Pilots If you are headed for a small airport with only one runway is there any chance the runway could be unusable when you arrive there? Of course there is. Approach at Destination For VFR flights your last enroute checkpoint is normally the destination airport. You must learn to estimate this time reasonably accurately. An airplane could land gear-up while you are enroute. Transport Canada has a poster that says in big letters: That’s Time in Your Tank The point being made is that allocating contingency time means allocating fuel. as we say. SOL. you may well have to divert due to weather enroute and wind up flying farther than planned in the process. then calculate the fuel for that time based on cruise power. but most small piston airplanes do not. So a gear-up on a runway in Boundary Bay is not a circumstance that requires contingency planning. or any number of other things could happen. If you don’t leave yourself with some options (exactly what contingencies means) then you will be. Most turbo-prop and jet airplanes have reliable fuel gauges. Abbotsford. If your last checkpoint is the beginning of the arrival procedure then you must also allocate time for the arrival as well as the approach (circuit if VFR). Often our flights have lots of options built into them. But. Note that contingency time is NOT included in time enroute. the point where you join the circuit (if the airport has a published VFR arrival procedure it should be the point where that procedure begins. It is important to realize that if you actually need to use your contingency fuel you DO NOT have to burn it at the “normal” cruise rate.e. This is where it is nice to have accurate fuel gauges so you can tell when you are reaching the end of your contingency fuel.

Most pilots try to fill the tanks to “at least” the intended amount. but how do you get exactly that amount in the tanks. Approach at Alternate Airport This has the same considerations as approach at destination. The process of laying this out is just like the primary flight plan already covered. Consequently the reserve you enter on your navlog has considerable error in it. Reserve The last row of every nav-log is “Reserve.” There are legal requirements for reserve fuel. Take note on page 4-17 of the C-172P POH that you can get 4% greater range than the cruise performance charts predict if you lean the mixture to peak EGT. On a C-172P with standard tanks it would be just a bit more than ½ tanks. Its purpose is NOT for contingencies – those must be planned and allowed for separately. It is almost impossible to set the power to exactly the planned value. If you require a low pass and a second circuit before landing the time will double. Extra reserves that you wish to carry should be entered under contingencies on the navlog. or more. We will discuss this further later.Navigation for Professional Pilots circuit takes about 6 minutes. Reserve is really just for calculation and operational errors. so you do your best to dip the tanks but there is bound to be some error. but realistically reserve should be more on a long flight. and don’t generally need one. Reserve simply gives you a margin for error. For example if you are going to a remote strip where you intend to make a precautionary approach and land (time for the precautionary would be in contingencies) then you will need an alternate in case you determine that you cannot land. Normally this is the value that should go on this line. You might calculate that you should depart with 23 gallons of fuel. At Selkirk College we don’t normally do that. but it is worth knowing in case an emergency should arise. The ENL does not include approach time in the IFR enroute time but it does in the VFR time enroute. But. especially in a light airplane with inaccurate fuel gauges. but it can be quite difficult. and no one ever gets the mixture set 100% perfect. On VFR flights approach and landing time should be included in the time you file on your flight plan. Reserve is the amount of fuel that you plan to have left in your tanks when you land. The law requires 30 minutes for day VFR and 45 minutes for night VFR and IFR flights. An important point to think about for light aircraft operation is in initial loading of the airplane. therefore your nav-log should include a route to it. etc. but just how much? You can’t really trust the fuel gauges. Here is something to think about: if an adjustment of 50°F in EGT makes a 4% difference in range and this corresponds to about 25rpm change how accurately would you say you normally lean the mixture and what is your percent error? Page 185 . So apply a suitable estimate for approach and landing time. in some cases it might be wise. Checkpoints leading to Alternate Airport All IFR flights require an alternate airport. You are stuck with these values. On IFR flight plans you DO NOT include approach time in the filed time. VFR flights don’t legally require an alternate.

The only difference between these navlogs is that on the TT-Navlog you enter the true track and the navlog calculates magnetic track. as well as which LO chart if you are IFR. you will need a large scale planning chart if you wish to establish a Great-circle route. Once you have chosen your route draw straight track lines. these tell you how to fill it in. In both cases wind should be entered in true. say 1000NM or more. If the flight is in the mountains. and vice versa on the MT-Navlog. The map preparation technique describe here is for DR cross countries. and variation are automatically copied from one row to the next to save the time required for entering these values on each row. When the ENL is completely filled out hide all unused rows in order to avoid clutter – but be sure they contain no data before hiding them. starting at the SHP between each pair of checkpoints with the last track line ending at the destination airport (or DP if applicable. taking into account the factors discussed above. Later we will discuss mountain cross countries. specifically “valley crawling” which is a pilotage type of navigation. After filling in reserve time the next TAB-STOP is for airport data at the lower left of the nav-log. Wind. For pilotage navigation there is no need to draw drift lines as described here. Various lines and markings are required on the map. Use the TAB-KEY to advance through the nav-log. should a value change you can enter a new value any time and it will propagate throughout the remainder of the navlog. that way you won’t miss anything. This reduces convergence to an insignificant factor and allows us to plan each leg as a Rhumb line. However.) Descent points are discussed in detail later under the topic of mountain cross countries. Read the “balloons” that pop-up as you tab through the nav-log. Note that if you are planning a very long flight. If you aren’t sure which VNC you need lookup the airport in the CFS where the REF section tells you which VNC and WAC chart the airport is on. etc. You may also find it practical to choose intermediate checkpoints in order to avoid directly over flying restricted airspace. temperature. Locate the departure and destination airports on your VNC. or there is restricted airspace near the destination locate a descent point (DP.Navigation for Professional Pilots Tips for the Electronic Nav-Log Use the TT-Navlog for VFR flights and the MT-Navlog for IFR flights. high terrain. Locate a suitable SHP. See mountain Page 186 . Typing in this data is much neater than filling it in by hand. VFR Map Preparation Techniques We will now go over how to prepare your VNC map for a VFR cross country flight. If the trip is more than 300 NM choose some intermediate checkpoints so that no leg is longer than 300NM.

Next.) When a track-line must cross from one side of a VNC or WAC to the other use the procedure described in the next section to draw the line. Note that if you have two SHP. the drift lines should start at the second SHP. Once the track lines are drawn make 10NM reference marks along each line. make 10° drift lines at each checkpoint. starting with the SHP. Page 187 . Make drift lines for each leg with the last set of closing drift lines at the destination airport or DP as the case may be. as shown below.Navigation for Professional Pilots flying below for more information about DP. as is sometimes the case in mountain flying.

Navigation for Professional Pilots Drawing a Line Across a 2-Sided Chart VNC charts are printed on two sides. In the figure below imagine that you want to fly directly from point A. these are points D and E. as shown above. The procedure. 3. to point B on the south side. It is therefore often necessary to draw a straight line between two points that are on opposite sides of the chart. In addition mark TWO points that are common to both the north and south side of the chart. Measuring Track and Distance Page 188 . Draw the line from point C to point A on the north chart (not shown in the diagram. Draw the straight line from point B to point A on the separate paper. Position the paper on the common points on the south side of the chart. 5. on the north side of the chart. Mark a point C on the straight line on the south chart that is common to the north chart.) 2. 4. Layout a separate piece of paper over the north chart and mark point A. step by step is: 1.

This is NOT acceptable. Also.14 for an overview of the purpose and procedures relating to the use of flight plans in Canada. It is assumed that you understand the basics as described in RAC 3. So. It is as simple as that. Two points that seem to be missed by many pilots are that the intermediate stop is indicated in the route section of the flight plan in the form shown below. Then measure the true track by placing your protractor at the midpoint of each leg. The rules regarding this are in RAC 3.10. Measure the length of each leg.16 It is quite common when filling a VFR flight plan to include an intermediate stop. Read RAC 3. see the examples provided at the end of the section. A more typical fuel stop takes 45 minutes to an hour. You are expected to know how to record this properly on the flight plan form. I have noticed that many pilots who lack experience in long trips vastly underestimate the time required for an intermediate stop. A common mistake is to put arrows or similar symbols in the route section. If the route in an airway you should name the airway.) You navlog should now have all the required information. allow sufficient time. And the total duration of the flight must include the intermediate stop. A fuel stop can only be completed in ½ an hour if everything is precisely arranged and organized. Simply proceed as already covered to fill in the rest of the data and you will be ready to go. You will of course need to measure the true track and length of each leg. covered previously.16. so don’t make it complicated by adding anything else. You should also read RAC 3. and enter it on your navlog.6 carefully and follow the prescribed format.16. Pay particular attention to the rules for filing changes to altitude and true airspeed. On many of the flight plans assigned in this course you will change cruise altitude and consequently cruise speed. This is covered in RAC 3.6 to 3. In this section I will comment on a few common errors or oversights in filling out flight plans. Filling in a Flight Plan Form Instructions for filling in the Transport Canada flight plan form are in the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) section RAC 3.16. where you learned that at the midpoint of each leg a Great-circle track and Rhumb line are equal.15 and 3. (Remember the theory of convergence.15 and 3. Normally this is not permitted IFR. Once the map is prepared you are ready to start filling in the navlog.6. although it can be done if the IFR flight is in uncontrolled airspace. using an ICAO ruler. In the Canadian format no symbols or words are required between checkpoints when the route is direct. Page 189 .Navigation for Professional Pilots As you can see it only takes a few minutes to prepare the map for a VFR cross country.

Please take note. Page 190 . Note the format.Navigation for Professional Pilots The sample flight plan shown to the left shows an intermediate stop of one hour and thirty minutes in CZGF. The time enroute is 3 hours and 40 minutes which is from the time the flight plan is opened until it is to be closed. In this case just before takeoff until just after landing. The flight plan also shows the proper format for filling speed and altitude.

Page 191 . The time enroute in this case is from takeoff at CYXX to the YCD beacon. At BUICK the airplane will speed up to 160 KTAS and climb to 6000 feet.Navigation for Professional Pilots The sample to the left shows how to format a speed and altitude change. which is the IAF for the approach.

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which is almost always at the bottom of a valley. Pilotage takes a lot of effort and frequently results in a somewhat winding route. But by far the greatest limitation of pilotage is that it simply cannot be done without numerous easy to identify geographic features. In this situation you should prepare your navlog pretty much as I have described previously. In the mountains distinctive. Any experienced mountain pilot soon becomes a master of pilotage. Even when ceilings are high and DR is used it is very easy to slip back and forth between DR and pilotage due to the numerous easy to identify geographic features. The primary complication you will face is planning a departure and an arrival route that allows you to leave and arrive at the airport. Set Heading Point(s) in the Mountains SHP is defined as the first fixed point on a DR cross-country. By far the most important aspect of mountain flying is selecting an appropriate route and determining that the weather is adequate for the flight. rivers. In this text I will only make some remarks about the considerations for laying out a navlog and filing a flight plan for a VFR mountain cross-country. DR vs. The ideal form of mountain navigation weaves pilotage and DR into a seamless. But it is important not to turn your back totally on DR. By definition the enroute legs commence after the SHP and the implication is that pilotage is used prior to the SHP and DR is used after it. Good-weather Mountain Cross-country As mentioned in the FTM/IPM. when the weather is good enough to climb above the mountain tops and fly in a straight-line there is really no significant difference between mountain flying and any other type of flying. and valleys. provide the ideal circumstance for pilotage navigation. and in such cases pilotage becomes the only viable form of navigation. This is discussed in the FTM/IPM and not repeated here. almost effortless. peaks.Chapter 9 Mountain Cross Country There is an entire section in your FTM/IPM on mountain flying that you must read. Pilotage in Mountain Flying Near the beginning of this text I stated that DR is a more sophisticated type of navigation than pilotage. When the ceilings are low VFR pilots must fly in the valleys. roads. without conflicting with any mountains. What should we do? . procedure. etc. In the mountains you will often be below the tops of the mountains when you pass the SHP and as such you may be unable to fly the calculated heading. railways. if they are to fly at all.

) In this case Pilotage. Take the example of an airplane arriving in Castlegar from Vancouver. is based on the presumption of DR. When we open the flight plan. circling down over the airport is seldom the most efficient way to handle the situation. as we have recommended for departure and arrival. Occasionally in non-mountainous areas the same problem may arise due to restricted airspace.” The creation of a navlog. In all mountain cross-countries be sure to examine the route and determine if you need a DP. This is discussed below under Enroute Navigation Skills. but this is usually because they are overcommitted to pilotage. But.) Heading obviously changes every few minutes as the pilot follows a valley. But. It is always much more accurate to begin DR from a specific SHP. Sometimes pilots skip the procedure of selecting the second SHP.Navigation for Professional Pilots The first tip is pretty obvious. and time for this should be allocated. not DR. When the route directly to an airport crosses high terrain you should always check that a descent to the airport will be possible. Having a leg for every change in heading is totally unrealistic. Try to pick an SHP such that the subsequent track follows a valley so that you can climb on the pp-leg as planned. we are really saying that pilotage will be used in these phases of flight. normally under approach and landing on the navlog. Instead Page 194 . The pilot must determine a top of descent point (TOD) at which to begin down for landing. On a valley crawl legs should be grouped (that’s what open means. if the route is less familiar and you want to achieve efficient navigation always have a specific SHP and use DR. I recommend this only for relatively short trips on familiar routes. What if you can’t do that though? Again the answer is pretty obvious. If it is not possible then on alternative is simply to circle down over the airport. Pilots almost naturally divert slightly off this straight-line route and descend along the Arrow Lake. In this case we recommend that you plan a second SHP from which you can begin DR. Poor Weather Mountain Cross-country (Valley Crawl) Let us now assume that ceilings are below the mountain tops (or within 1000’ of the mountain tops. is the dominant navigation technique. DP is primarily of concern in the mountains where it is quite common that terrain prevents descent to circuit altitude when desired. Descent Point in the Mountains Normal procedure is to plan the enroute legs so that the last leg ends at the destination airport. These valley cross-countries are sometimes called “valley crawls. so the navlog must be very open. You will have to use pilotage until you clear the top of the mountains. they are not going to do DR at all. TOD is a completely different concept than descent point (DP) which we are discussing here. But. In other words. Now we are saying that pilotage is to be used throughout the flight. This frequently means having two SHPs. as described so far. The straight-line route runs over the ridge just west of the airport and would leave the airplane at 7000’ or so within a mile of two of the airport. In short they plan the flight NOT to CYCG but to a DP at Deer Park.

Navigation for Professional Pilots

the legs are chosen based only on major changes of direction and or between major checkpoints such as large towns, lakes, etc. This is a very open format. The track in this case requires a bit more consideration than usual. A single track from departure direct to destination usually doesn’t provide enough reference, while a separate leg for each little twist and turn is too cumbersome to plan and to execute. We need something in between. As a practical example, a valley crawl from Castlegar to Grand Forks could be planned as three legs: One from the Keenleyside dam to Renata, one south to Christina and one east to Grand Forks. The usual method of measuring the length of a leg, by using a ruler, will not give an accurate distance. You must learn to estimate the actual distance flown due to weaving around the snaking turns of the valley. You should certainly start by measuring the straight-line distance from the beginning of the leg to the end, with a ruler, but then you must add an estimated amount to allow for the turns of the valley. There is NO SENSE calculating wind drift, drift angle, and heading for the leg. Indeed you can only estimate the average track (because it changes continually as you fly.) Don’t worry about drift, your eyes will keep you on track using pilotage. There is no need to put drift lines on the map. Groundspeed must be estimated in order to calculate time and fuel for the flight. Based on your average track and the wind you can estimate the average groundspeed. The hard part is often determining what the wind will actually be. FD forecasts are of limited applicability. Reported ground winds and winds aloft are obviously used to estimate wind at your chosen cruise altitude. Keep in mind that under the circumstances of a valley crawl you often have to change cruise altitude frequently enroute. Wind normally is funneled to follow the valley, so your main task is to guess whether there will be a headwind or tailwind and how strong it will be; if in doubt always estimate low for tailwinds and high for headwinds. In the wind column of the navlog write only the headwind or tailwind estimate – e.g. +10 or -5. You will be given several assignments to plan valley cross-countries to develop the skills described above. It is crucial that you learn to efficiently open your flight planning so that you can prepare the navlog in only a few minutes, because by far the most important part of valley crawl planning has nothing to do with making a navlog. The most important aspect of valley crawl planning is route analysis. You must examine the route looking for difficult points, such as passes, and most important of all, looking for alternate routes. In the discussion about diversions later in this text it is pointed out that a safe diversion in the mountains is only possible if you have planned for it in advance. Given that diversions are very common you must have every safe route option in your mind before you go on a flight. It is very common that the shortest route for a mountain flight is not the one with the lowest terrain. There is nothing wrong with planning the shorter route, but if you run into low ceilings and decide to divert to the longer lower route you want to have figured out ahead of time that you have enough fuel for that. You must know that if you don’t have enough fuel for a particular diversion option, where you will make fuel stops, etc. Don’t set out on a mountain cross country in marginal weather without all the above thoughts and options sorted out in your mind.

**In-flight Valley Navigation Procedures
**

Once airborne, housekeeping becomes very important. Since the heading information is only approximate, considerable attention must be paid to map reading as the pilot follows – although rarely Page 195

Navigation for Professional Pilots

accurately maintains – the intended track. This makes it all too easy to lose track of time and over fly a turning point. While it might be difficult to imagine a pilot missing the turn at Christina (for Grand Forks) and picking up the road to Republic, some 20 miles south, it is not impossible and it is really easy, when following Highway 3 west from Cranbrook, to miss the turn at Yahk and continue on Highway 95, going south-east down to Copeland. This is not a complete disaster but in marginal VFR conditions it is very disconcerting and re-orientation can take several minutes. There is little need to recalculate headings, since that information is only approximate to start with. It is important, however, to update the ground speed information – again, in order to monitor the progress along the track. If the leg is long enough to warrant a couple of 10-mile marks then these can be used just as they are on a regular navigation leg. More often however, the legs are barely long enough to justify one 10-mile mark so it is more appropriate to wait until reaching the next turning point, where the pilot can either compare the ETE to the actual time enroute (ATE) in order to derive a time differential or simply divide the distance by the ATE for a ground speed. In either case, it is important to remember that a headwind component on one leg can easily become a tailwind component on the next leg: With winds aloft out of the north, a tailwind on a leg headed south east could well become a head wind if the valley makes a turn around to the north east. Situational awareness is always critical while valley crawling. There is a full section giving advice on valley flying in the FTM/IPM.

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Subsequent 420NM require 1.9 hours and have 1070 lb of fuel. what would you quote? The calculation is straight forward: Hour one covers 180NM. For example an airplane may use 500lb of fuel and cover 180 NM in the first hour and burn 300lb while covering 220NM in subsequent hours. we will conclude that penalties work in the right circumstance. it is so commonly used that you need to know the concept if for no other reason than so you can see its limitations.) Total trip time is therefore 2. An important point I must make before explaining how this is done is that it doesn’t work. Block flight planning is only safe when the airplane always flies at essentially the same cruise altitude and wind is not a factor. Often the accuracy is improved by establishing a distance and fuel for the first hour and then a different figure for subsequent hours. (Actually. Still. This is clearly a dangerous assumption. climb penalty planning is a myth. There are some other commonly used “short cuts” to flight planning that I would like you to be aware of. Climb Penalty Planning Pilots. find it onerous to lookup the time fuel and distance to climb to cruise altitude. We have simplified our task by opening the flight plans. The company determines an average distance and fuel used for the airplane each hour. In other words. usually for the purpose of quoting a charter. so block planning must be used with great consideration. Assume a client calls for a 600NM charter.Chapter 10 Time Saving Flight Planning Techniques In all that we have done so far we have planned flights by breaking flights into climb. which will cost $5800. Some people try to avoid this task by developing rules of thumb. “wouldn’t it be easy to flight plan if the departure airport was on a mountain exactly at the cruise altitude for the trip. being rather lazy. plus contingencies and reserve loaded.) Climb penalty planning starts by saying. cruise and descent legs. The fuel is calculated as 500 + 1.9 x 300. This imaginary situation is shown in the picture below: . Block Flight Planning Block flight planning is commonly used to get a quick estimate.9 hours. The airplane charters for $2000 per hour. and this is an important time saving procedure.9 hours (420/220. “yes” to your quote you quickly file the flight plan for 3. If the customer says.

it will climb at 85KIAS (TAS is higher) and then cruise at about 105KTAS (the exact value depends on the cruise altitude. and the slightly longer flight time. Similarly it will use more fuel. The airplane would already be at cruise at the moment of liftoff. Taking a C-172P as an example.Navigation for Professional Pilots If the above situation actually existed there would be no need to plan a climb leg.) This airplane will “fall behind” the other airplane at about 15 knots. Obviously the trip will take longer this way. Page 200 . due to the higher rate of fuel flow in the climb. The next step in climb penalty planning is to ask what the difference in time and fuel for the trip would be in the following situation: Obviously the airplane in this situation must climb from the departure runway to the cruise altitude.

Climb penalties are only applicable to flights at relatively low altitudes and over relatively short distances. This takes 58 minutes and 7. a pilot planning this flight for cruise at 9500’ and then adding a penalty would be completely mislead. To use the penalties for a C-172P simply plan the trip as though the entire flight was in cruise. The fuel penalty is 1.e. 30 seconds per thousand feet. as though the part I diagram applies.. It shows a cruise leg of 100NM.6 gallons. Repeat the above ENL analysis for the B95 and determine the climb penalties for that airplane. Can you spot the flaw in the logic behind this procedure? Think about it before reading the next paragraph. i. Once you have done this add a penalty of 30 seconds and . The time penalty is obviously 3 minutes per 6000 feet.25 gallons for each thousand feet the cruise altitude is above the takeoff altitude. In this case they do reflect the penalty due to climbing that we already discovered on page Error! Bookmark not defined. i.e.Navigation for Professional Pilots The idea behind climb penalty planning is simply to determine the difference between the above cases and then add that onto case I as a penalty.3 gallons per 6000 feet. Next examine the first two legs of the above navlog. At the beginning of this section I said that the real problem with climb penalties is that they don’t work. but the airplane climbs from sea level to the cruise altitude of 6000 feet. Together they also cover a distance of 100 NM. Take the airplane on the 500NM cross country on page Error! Bookmark not defined. there is a penalty for not climbing. so it corresponds to the part I diagram above. First examine the third leg of the above navlog. which is a bit less than ¼ gallon per thousand feet. The airplane is level for this entire leg. Page 201 . We can do this quite easily using the ENL.9 gallons are consumed. This corresponds to the part II diagram above. The leg requires 55 minutes and consumes 6. In our earlier cruise altitude analysis we learned that depending on the length of a trip there not only is no penalty for climbing.

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In other words you locate a geographic feature on the map and then look out the window until you spot the same feature on the ground. NOT the other way around. such as distinctive mountains.) You can often see large geographic features. etc. a river. and a mountain or valley. Doing so reduces a lot of navigation effort. The latter procedure results in too much time with eyes in the cockpit. roads and mountains in the world so how do you tell one from another? The key here is to analyze the map and develop a mental image of the distinctive characteristics of the ones you are looking for. Map Reading Its pretty obvious that a fundamental skill in navigating VFR is the ability to interpret a VNC chart and locate the corresponding geographic features on the ground.Chapter 11 Enroute Navigation Skills This section covers several navigation skills that you will need to develop and apply in flight. on the map certain things such as VORs. The specifics of night cross countries are discussed in your FTM/IPM and are covered in Avia 201. such as a small lake or road that you have spotted out the window. In flight you can see a long way and you should take advantage of that. It is much easier to locate a geographic point that is 5 or 10 miles ahead rather than one directly below you (the airplane doesn’t have a glass floor. rivers. runways. towers. For example does the town have a river running though it? How many roads run in and out? And is there a nearby mountain? Try to have at least three distinctive features that will distinguish the location you are looking for from others. And radio towers are very easy to see at night. You do NOT spend time with your eyes down on the map trying to find some feature. The best procedure is to choose four or five geographic points on your map and then look out the window until you spot them. most of the in-flight skills are developed in Avia 100 and 200. as described above. You must learn which features will be distinctive “out the window” and which won’t. a road. Once you have this “list” of items gleaned from the map you scan the ground until you locate the corresponding locations. 30 or more miles away. NDBs. but out the window they are nearly impossible to see. small town. lakes and rivers. A common mistake is to choose geographic points that are too close to the airplane. These features can be anything. size. There are of course lots of towns. . The first principle of map reading is work from map to ground. and power lines are quite distinctive. but there are some things you should keep in mind. so it is highly recommended. as well as relative position. These could be a town. Good airmanship is to have your eyes out the window 99% of the time. There are exceptions of course. they will not be covered further here. For example power lines over mountain ridges can be quite easy to see because a wide swath of trees is cut down along the line. The primary emphasis in this course is on preflight planning.

Failure to follow this advice is what will get you lost. and many go much faster than that. Reorienting if Lost The first question you must ask is.Navigation for Professional Pilots Another frequent mistake is becoming too obsessive about spotting a particular geographic point. Usually three is a good number. Some pilots will keep looking and looking and looking for this town until they are completely lost. discussed next. we will assume you don’t have such equipment. choose another one and look for that. Also. It isn’t critical to identify every point. “I am somewhere in here.) When you think about it you really aren’t “totally lost. Radar is available in most of southern Canada. east of Vancouver. Most importantly.C. If logic says you are past a checkpoint then forget it. it is important to always be looking for more than one geographic point. So. Of course if you have a working GPS you can read the latitude and longitude and immediately locate yourself on the VNC. Therefore a geographic point 6 miles ahead will be beneath you in 3 minutes.” From this known area of probability there are several things you can do: If you have been flying a steady heading you can simply reverse it and go back to where you came from. You probably know where you are within a few miles tolerance. If you can climb high enough to get ATC on the radio you will be able to get radar or DF assistance from them. Don’t panic.C. B. If you haven’t spotted it by then you’ve missed it. Remember to write down the time you turn around so you can estimate how long it will take to get back to the starting point.” But it is important that you fly the specific heading on your navlog. be aware of time passing. As long as you are flying one heading (as opposed to wandering) you can do a 180 and go back. To do this simply be aware of how many miles per minute (roughly) you are covering. Most airplanes cover at least 2 miles per minute. The procedure for using this in the event of an emergency is covered in section F of your CFS. but you really aren’t. The best way to get lost is to wander around on random headings that are not recorded. climb to a higher altitude so you can see farther. Southern B.” You can state your location in a hierarchy such as that you are in Canada. In light of the above. If you are truly “lost” stay calm and keep your wits about you (which means you mustn’t panic. This is due to a lack of time awareness. so don’t worry about it. finding one often makes it easier to spot the others. This was mentioned above.. Page 204 . Time Awareness When you choose a geographic point on your map that you will be looking for a critical thing to do is estimate roughly how long it will take until you reach the point. Lucky you always record these things. am I really lost? As a new pilot you may feel lost if you miss one checkpoint. and so on. For example you may be looking for a small town but not seeing it. Your previously recorded departure time will give you all the information you need. If you miss one it won’t really matter. As long as you fly a straight-line you can always find your way back by simply “doing a 180. right? If the weather is suitable. but if you happen to be lost in the far north there is also the defense radar system. You could draw a circle on the map and say.

TIP: it is really quite rare for the winds aloft forecast to be wrong by more than 5 knots. We then fill out the ETA column so that we have the ETA for each checkpoint. In the prairies most small towns have the town name written on their grain elevator. which is described below. which got you lost. which you must locate and correct. Follow it to a town and as you fly by you can read the name on the elevator to identify your location. Selkirk College navlog keeping involves writing down the time we pass each checkpoint enroute in the ATA column. If you brought lots of reserve you will be fine. If you fly any direction you will come across a road within a short time. you measure a distance of 11NM and then measure a time of 4 minutes. When the wind is substantially different than the forecast there is usually evidence such as turbulence or un-forecast storm activity. Keep track of your fuel. You should also record ETA revised ETA for each checkpoint. This amounts to saying that you normally will have a groundspeed within 5 knots of the planned value. For example. consider using the navigation technique called landfall. But be sure to recalculate your reserves. TIP: when doing a groundspeed check your calculations are subject to round-off error. In addition your company may require many other pieces of information be recorded. Much more likely however is that you will reorient yourself and be able to continue your flight. If the groundspeed is revised pencil the corrected value over the value on the navlog. On the Selkirk College navlog we write the takeoff time in the designated location just before takeoff. Based on this your CR tells you that the groundspeed is ____ Kts. Consider this before reading the next paragraph. It is almost always possible to use a landfall to reorient yourself. The groundspeed according to your CR is 165 kts. The final checkpoint ETA should match the previously calculated destination ETA. This amounts to saying that the actual distance is Page 205 . If it does not then an adding mistake has been made. If your calculated groundspeed is substantially different than the flight planned value you should recheck your calculations before jumping to any conclusions. But the distance is rounded off to the nearest nautical mile and the time is rounded off to the nearest minute. These are standard procedures applicable to any log keeping exercise. Ask yourself what tolerance you would apply to this value. If your desired destination is not on an extended geographic feature suitable for landfall then pick an interim destination from which you will be able to continue on. The ATA should be quite close to the ETA previously filled in. but if fuel gets low and you are still lost you may have to do a precautionary approach. Navlog keeping On your navlog you must record the takeoff time and time past each checkpoint enroute. then enter a revised ETA in the designated column. At a glance you will be able to see that you are ahead of or behind schedule.Navigation for Professional Pilots If you have been wandering around. Most fuel starvation incidents follow getting lost. If they have shrunk too low divert to another location and refuel. Once clear of the departure airport we then write down the ETA and Fuel Expiry time in the designated locations.

If you are flying a turbo-charged piston airplane it might be better to use four miles per thousand feet. You can use a stopwatch to get a more accurate time value. make sure you use fairly long groundspeed checks (10 to 15 minutes minimum). Diversions A diversion means changing your route and or destination while in flight. and know the tolerance of their accuracy (4 or 5 knots at best. And a 3 minute groundspeed check is accurate plus or minus 20 knots. To make an accurate groundspeed check you need more accurate data. if you want a groundspeed check accurate to the nearest knot you would have to fly a groundspeed check of at least one hour (60 minutes. but it is still difficult to achieve an accuracy right down to the second (see previous point. it might be wise to descend to circuit altitude 10 miles before the airport (I am thinking about single engine airplanes here.4 and the time is between 3:31 and 4:29.) If the obtained value lies within the tolerance of your flight planned speed it is usually wise to take this as confirmation of the navlog and make no revision to your ETA. which adds another error bringing distance tolerance to at least 1 NM. If your navlog predicted a groundspeed of 150 knots should you revise your ETA or not? The answer is that you don’t have an accurate enough groundspeed to decide.) Most pilots plan descents based on a certain gradient. On the other hand.4 and 11.Navigation for Professional Pilots between 10. A lot of VFR pilots are in the habit of descending quite early. Using these values your groundspeed could be anywhere between 149 and 196 kts! (Check these values for yourself with a CR.) But in more rugged terrain you want to reach circuit altitude only one or two miles prior to joining the circuit. Simply calculate how may thousand feet you need to descend and multiply by three (or four) then start your descent that number of miles from the location you which to reach circuit altitude.) That is a very large spread of “correct” values. Three miles per thousand feet is the most common.) Put another way. If you are approaching a major airport with a lot of traffic. if you reach the airport well above circuit altitude you will have to circle down (which wastes time and fuel) or will dive (which is uncomfortable for passengers and you. The best you can usually do is measure distance plus or minus ½ nautical mile Even after you do this you will find it difficult specify the precise moment you pass the checkpoint. a six minute groundspeed check is at best accurate to plus or minus 10 knots. which is to say just about useless. So. and in an area with lots of good forced approach sites. in order to keep as many safety options open as possible. Diversions are very very common occurrences in both IFR and VFR flight. The specific techniques for this however will be deferred to Avia 260 Page 206 .) Consequently. Top of Descent At some point you must start a descent from your cruise altitude so that when you reach the destination airport you are at the desired altitude. you don’t want to descend too late.) Choosing it wisely is important. This is the top of descent point (TOD. IFR flights routinely divert around areas of bad weather.

You must then calculate (estimate) the time enroute in your head without a flight computer. This is a great exercise in mental approximation but it is important for you to realize that if you are actually doing a diversion there is nothing wrong with using a ruler. You either divert to an alternate route that you have previously analyzed and planned.ca website in the miscellaneous section. so as long as your navlog shows that you have lots of contingency fuel you are fine. An even better idea is to avail yourself of radar surveillance enroute. It actually bears almost no resemblance to 99% of real life diversion scenarios. If you run into bad weather in the mountains and have to divert then there should only be two possibilities. but this is a possibility. You will be surprised how closely you can eye-ball-it with a bit of practice. It is important to realize that this is only an exercise. The best thing to do is estimate all tracks before putting a protractor on them. When diverting in the mountains. especially on valley crawl trips. and it is well worth the effort. These are laid out on the ProfessionalPilot. Radar surveillance is covered in the AIM RAC 5. This is however a skill that requires practice. It is not always necessary to change destination when bad weather is encountered. usually means taking a totally different route. Ideally position reports should be made about every half hour on a cross country. On the flight test exercise you are required to draw a free-hand line to a designated destination then estimate the heading and distance without using a protractor or a ruler. To meet the Transport Canada diversion challenge most pilots estimate the distance by using the minute marks on the VNC’s lines of longitude as a scale. NEVER plan a substantial diversion in-flight in the mountains.Navigation for Professional Pilots VFR flights also often divert around areas of bad weather. Your instructor will show you how to do this if you haven’t done it before. To estimate the time enroute if you don’t have a CR computer there are numerous mathematical tricks. on a valley crawl. But if you have not allowed contingency fuel then you will have to change your destination in order to refuel. In such cases the Page 207 . To estimate the track to the destination you can just “eye-ball-it” or use a VOR rose to help you be a bit more accurate. Position Reports and Amending Flight Plan No one likes to think about having an accident enroute and not making it to destination.7. To facilitate quickly locating you in the event you do not arrive at destination you should file position reports frequently during your flight. it just takes a bit of practice. In the mountains there are often limited opportunities to make position reports. Transport Canada has established a specific diversion exercise that you must demonstrate on the commercial pilot flight test. just use a ruler if you have one. or a calculator. In the real world. Anyone can do it. Scanning the map looking for an alternate route once you have run into poor weather is a recipe for disaster. frequently you can skirt the area of poor weather and re-intercept the route beyond the area affected. or you do a 180 back to the last suitable airport and land there until you get organized to go on. The contents of a VFR position report are listed on the back cover of your CFS. I am sure than many of the pilots who have killed themselves in the mountains (and there are a lot of them) did so when they had to divert but were unprepared to do so. The secret to success is in knowing all the routing options before you takeoff. When diverting around weather you are by definition using your contingency fuel. But you must keep track of time so that you don’t run low on fuel.

It is vital to realize that when you make a position report the information is recorded. but it DOES NOT update your flight plan.” This is a technique that goes back centuries to the days of sailing ships. Despite its age it is quite useful at times in modern aviation. For example if you are in Kelowna and fly east you really cannot miss the Arrow Lake. Once you make landfall use pilotage to find the destination. Hybrid Navigation Procedure – Landfall There is a navigation procedure that falls between pilotage and true DR called “laying a landfall. When you do sailors say they have “made landfall. But imagine it is the 16 century and no such system exists. To prevent this you must specifically request that your flight plan be amended to your revised ETA. This technique is often practical on a diversion around poor weather or for reorienting yourself if you get “slightly” lost. The first step is a rough DR (just accurate enough to guarantee you don’t miss the target (Arrow Lake)) the second leg is pilotage (follow Arrow Lake to Castlegar. Many airports in the Prairies are along major highways. for use if you don’t arrive at your destination. Many pilots misunderstand this fact.” But you are probably going to drift so if you aimed directly at the Saint Lawrence there is no way to know if you are north or south of it. which can be used the same way. If you are going to lay landfall simply estimate a heading that will put you one-way-orthe-other from your intended destination. The ocean currents present the same problem for ship navigation that wind does for pilots. This sometimes means making two reports only 10 minutes apart and then other times an hour or more might pass due to lack of ground stations. For example. The same technique can be used by pilots. and so on. The Arrow Lake meets that criterion. Page 208 . other towns are on railway tracks. In modern times you would use GPS or Loran-C th to navigate accurately in a straight-line between the ports. The strategy used is to deliberately aim to one side or the other of the intended destination so that when you do make landfall you know for sure which side of the desired point you are on and can follow the coast to your destination.) Laying a landfall only works if the destination is on an extended geographically distinct feature that you can lay landfall for and be certain you won’t miss.Navigation for Professional Pilots best advice is to make every position report that you can. Once you find the lake you can follow it to Castlegar. Imagine you wish to sail a ship across the ocean from France to Montreal. If you sail west from France you are most definitely going to hit North America. if you are falling behind schedule and will arrive 45 minutes late. if you file a position report in which you give an ETA for your destination that correctly predicts your new arrival time FSS will still initiate a search for you at the original ETA based on your flight plan.

Navigation for Professional Pilots Page 209 .

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We will define GS out as the groundspeed when the airplane is outbound from departure. or in other word PNR would equal total range divided by two. However. the mechanics of doing the calculation is the same no matter what type of airplane you fly. PNR depends on the airplane’s Endurance. Et is the total endurance to dry tanks. do you have enough fuel to return to New York? Obviously you do. Point of No Return (PNR) Imagine you lift off from New York headed for Paris France. Endurance Eu We will represent endurance with a capital E. These are the point of no return (PNR) and critical point (CP. . For the C-172 with standard tanks we could set the value of Eu at 4:40 for example.e. two points of navigation. and possibly some contingency fuel. but they really don’t make a lot of sense in that context. what if the illness arises four hours into the flight. which are usually considered important for oceanic flight. It would be very unwise to calculate PNR based on this number however because that would imply proposing to return and land just as fuel runs out – a very scary idea. In such a case you never reached a point of no return (PNR.) Each of these concepts can be applied to any flight. Groundspeed GSout and GShome The groundspeed of the airplane is an important factor in determining PNR. and the wind.) PNR is simply what the name says. But. E is the amount of time in hours that the airplane can fly. will be covered here. You will learn more about them in second year. If there was no wind the airplane would reach PNR by flying out to half its endurance. which must include at least reserve fuel. can you still return to New York? On many of the short flights you have made in C-172 and similar airplanes in your flying career you probably carried enough fuel to fly all the way to destination and then return to departure point. to come back to the departure point. Still. GShome will be the groundspeed after a 180° turn. Speed.Chapter 12 Oceanic Flight The full details of oceanic flight are beyond the scope of this course. even a short over land flight in a C-172. enroute to destination. For example a C-172 with standard tanks has 38.9 gallons at takeoff and an endurance of 5:18. the point beyond which you do not have enough fuel to return to the departure aerodrome. i. Eu will represent the useable endurance. A passenger becomes ill 30 minutes into the flight.

The result is always a distance LESS than the zero wind distance above. then use the formula below to account for wind. For example an airplane with a zero wind GS of 100 Kts and an endurance of 4 hours has a PNR of 4 x 100 / 2 = 200.E.E. GS home-SE will be based on the engine out performance. I. but GS out is always based on all engines operating normally. wind always reduced PNR. Now let us consider the formula that accounts for wind: Page 212 .Navigation for Professional Pilots We also define engine-out-PNR in which we assume all engines operating prior to the 180° turn and one engine out after the turnaround. I. PNR Formula In zero wind PNR is determined very easily by calculating total range (E x GS) and dividing by two: PNRzero wind = (Eu x GS) / 2 It is always a good idea to do the above calculation as a first estimate.

E. this is slightly less than the zero wind DPNR. the airplane can turn around at any point on the flight and return to departure point. Important: PNR with wind is always less than PNR with no wind. As expected. Note that PNR questions will be on the ATPL and IATRA written exams IMPORTANT: if a question asks for engine-out-PNR calculate GSout with all engines operating normally and GShome with one engine inoperative. Here is the “proof” of the formula. the definition. therefore PNR should be routinely calculated and if it is beyond destination – great. By using only the first line you can find the correct answer from among a selection on a multiple choice exam. and the last line. This is good to know. Page 213 . It is not necessary for you to memorize the proof but you should know the first line.Navigation for Professional Pilots If the airplane in the previous example experiences a 20Kt tailwind outbound the PNR will be 4.5 x 120 x 80 / (120+80) = 216Nm. Note that you can always apply the DPNR formula to any flight but in many cases the PNR is beyond the destination.e. I. i.

Thus. if you are asked for the single-engine CP use single engine speeds. CP can be calculated for all engines operating normally and also for engine-inoperative.E. But CP will move into the wind. if there is a tailwind you will reach CP before the mid-point or if there is a headwind you will reach CP after the midpoint – see if you can visualize why this is so. In other words on a 1000 NM flight CP is 500 NM.Navigation for Professional Pilots Critical Point (CP) There is some point on every trip you make where it would take the same amount of time to turn around and return to the departure point or to continue on to destination. I. This is known as the critical point (CP. to return to base or continue to destination IMPORTANT: when calculating CP always use the speed as it will be after the CP. on one engine.) It should be obvious that in zero wind the CP is exactly at the mid-point of the flight. if asked for all engines CP use all engine speeds – NEVER mix speeds in a CP calculation (this is different than a PNR calculation. In the later case the CP represents the.) The formula for CP is given in the diagram below: Page 214 .

Page 215 . Let’s calculate where CP is with a 20 Knot tailwind outbound. SUMMARY: CP always moves into the wind. GS on is 80 KT and GSreturn is 120KT.Navigation for Professional Pilots Effect of Tailwind and Headwind on CP In a previous example we flew an airplane with GS of 100 knots in zero wind. with a tailwind CP comes before the halfway point. On a 400Nm flight zero-windCP is 200 Nm. Therefore CP = 400 x 120 / (120 + 80) = 240. So. So. Therefore CP = 400 x 80 / (120 + 80) = 160. Let’s calculate where CP is with a 20 Knot headwind outbound. with a headwind CP move to beyond halfway point. GSon is 120 KT and GSreturn 80KT.

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Appendix 1– C-172 Interpolation Tables Power setting ___________ feet ___________ temp RPM TAS _______% 65% ______% Power setting ___________ feet ___________ temp RPM TAS _______% 65% ______% Power setting ___________ feet ___________ temp RPM TAS _______% 65% ______% Power setting ___________ feet ___________ temp RPM TAS _______% 65% ______% ________ feet Page 217 .

________ feet ________ feet Page 218 .

or if it is an over-60 write down PT (for procedure turn.Appendix 2 .) Bearing to beacon 150 Desired inbound bearing 100 Heading to steer 300 280 240 290 040 120 135 165 In the table below fill in a random selection of bearings to beacon in the first column: Bearing to beacon Desired bearing Heading to steer Page 219 .Inbound PDT Practice Sheet In the sheet below fill in the heading you must turn to.

fill in the third column Repeat above MANY times.Next fill in desired bearings considering the first column and making the bearing within 60 most of the time. Page 220 . Finally.

Bearing from beacon 210 Desired outbound bearing 250 Heading to steer 340 240 005 320 140 180 280 270 In the table below fill in a random selection of bearings from beacon in the first column: Bearing to beacon Desired bearing Heading to steer Page 221 . There is no “over 60” limit for outbound PDTs.Appendix 3 .Outbound PDT Practice Sheet In the sheet below fill in the heading you must turn to.

) Finally. fill in the third column Repeat above MANY times.Next fill in desired bearings in the second column. There is no 60 degree limit. Page 222 . but normally the desired should be within 180 (to make sense.

Variation is shown on both IFR and VFR charts as lines of equal variation. Great Circle: A line on the surface of the earth that when extended completely encircles the earth and has its center coincident with the earths center. All other Rhumb lines vary from the Great Circle (see above definition.Appendix 4 – Definitions Deviation: The difference between actual magnetic heading and the compass indications. known as isogonic lines. A Rhumb Line is only coincident with a great circle if it is also a Meridian. The angle at which they converge is known as convergence. Such a line is the shortest distance along the surface of the earth between any two points on the line. Variation: The difference between magnetic track and true track. Page 223 . This due to the magnetic north pole NOT being at the actual north pole. or the equator. Convergence: Meridians of longitude converge at the north and south poles. This error is shown on a compass correction card.) Rhumb Lines are popular with pilots because you can fly a constant heading rather than changing headins as you would on a Great Circle. An aircraft flying along a Great Circle route much change heading to compensate for convergence. Rhumb Line: A line on the surface of the earth between two points such that the true track along the line is constant. Convergence is zero at the equator and increases the closer to the pole you fly. as such they are not quite parallel to each other.