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# Navigation for Professional Pilots

Ray Preston

2010

Navigation for Professional Pilots

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Navigation for Professional Pilots

Introduction:

This text was created for use in the course Avia 160 as part of the Selkirk College Professional Aviation Program, which leads to the Canadian Commercial Pilot License with Multi-engine and Instrument Rating. This text is intended as an adjunct to a 48 hour lecture series on the topic of navigation. Assignments, tests, and exams supplement this text and the lectures. Flight planning exercises include both VFR and IFR cross-countries. Students will become expert at preparing VNC maps and completing navlogs for VFR cross countries. They will also use LO charts and the Canada Air Pilot to plan IFR cross-countries. This book explains both theoretical and practical principles of flight navigation, including visual and radio navigation based on VOR, ADF, and DME. This course covers principles of intercepting and maintaining a radio course. It also covers flying DME arcs. An introduction to procedure turns is included. The text is supplemented by several computer simulations of the Selkirk College Aviation Intranet, which is on the web at Selair.selkirk.ca. Students in this course are expected to become expert at the use of the CR(or 6) navigation computer. This text was written based on the assumption that readers hold a private pilot license and as such have certain basic knowledge about aviation in general and navigation in particular.

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Navigation for Professional Pilots

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.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................13 Pilotage........................................................................35 True Airspeed (TAS) ..............................28 Electronic Charts for the C-172P....................................................................................................................................14 Sample Questions 1 ......................................13 Text Overview ...................................................................... and two useful deductions from the definition ....................35 Definition of Velocity.........................................................................................................................................................................................16 Pressure and Density Altitude ........................................................................38 Heading (True..................................................................................................................................................................................... and Magnetic) ................................................................................................................................................................................................18 Pressure Altitude ..........................................................23 Cold Temperature Corrections ................................35 Velocity Expressed as Airspeed...................................................................................................................................36 Equivalent Airspeed (EAS) ..28 Interpolation and Accurate Drawing Skill .................................................................................................19 Density Altitude ......................39 Page 5 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................37 ICE-T ...............................................................21 Sample Questions 2 . Dead Reckoning and Radio Navigation ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................29 Electronic Charts for the Travelair ........37 Indicated and Calibrated Airspeed (IAS and CAS) .........................................................................................................................29 Performance Rules of Thumb ..........18 The International Standard Atmosphere ...........................................31 Chapter 2 ..........23 Performance Charts ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................35 Mass – Distance – Time.................Navigation for Professional Pilots Table of Contents: Chapter 1 ...................30 Weight and Balance Shift............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ The Fundamental Concepts of Physics .......

.....................................................Navigation for Professional Pilots Compass Deviation ......................................................................................................56 Drift Estimation Challenge ..............................61 VOR........................46 Groundspeed Defined ......54 Estimation of Drift Based on Crosswind and Magic Number ........... ILS......... DME – Final Thoughts........................................................... and GS with a CR ...............59 VOR Reception Range ...........................................................................50 Magic Number ............................................................................................................................................................72 Page 6 ................................................63 GPS Navigation ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................39 Wind Triangle: GS = TAS + Wind......................................................................49 Drift Estimation ...................................49 Estimate XW and TW ......................................................................................... and DME Channel Pairing ........................................................................................................................................40 Definitions: Crosswind and Headwind..................................................................................................................................................59 Introduction to Radio Navigation ..................................................................... da.....................................................................................72 Break-out Logic .................................58 Drift Estimation Summary .................................45 Drift Angle Defined ............................................................................................................................................................47 Determining XW....................................................................................64 Establishing the Brackets ...................................................................................................48 Sample Problems: .........................58 Chapter 3 .........................................................................................................................39 Wind and Drift .............................................................................46 Calculation of Crosswind and Tailwind .......................55 Two-bit Math .....................................................................................................................................................59 VOR....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ADF................................................................................................................................ TW........................66 “Beating” the Computerized Flying Instructor ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................64 Bracketing ..................................................................

................................................................................................... 101 Unit Conversions ............................................................................. 109 Time to a Station – ARC Speed ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................96 Separation of IFR Aircraft .............78 Intercepting a Course (PDT) .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Navigation for Professional Pilots Bracketing Summary ........................................................73 Flying a DME ARC................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 103 Celsius to Fahrenheit Temperature Conversion .................................................................................................................................................................81 Outbound PDTs .................................74 DME Groundspeed During an ARC ............................................................ Groundspeed Checks .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................95 HI Charts........................................ 106 Mach Number.........E.....................................................................................................................92 Chapter 4 .............89 Random PDT practice..............................................................................................................................96 IFR Alternate Airport ................91 Tracking and Intercepting Summary ................................... 107 Miles per Minute .............................................. 109 Two IMPORTANT two-step CR Ratio Problems ........................................................................................................................96 Overview of IFR System .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 101 A Ratio Machine ...............................................................95 LO Charts .................................................................95 IFR Charts ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 101 The CR Computer ...............................................................................................97 Chapter 5 .... 106 Speed Ratios – I.................... 115 Standard Decent Gradient is 3° ............................... 121 Page 7 ..................................96 Preferred IFR Routes .............................................................................................................

.............. 157 Map Scale .............................................................. 131 Sample Questions 5 .......................... 156 Map Legend............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 137 The Canada Flight Supplement ........................................................ 144 Convergence ..... 124 Procedure for “Slow and Low” Airplanes............................................... 146 Map Theory .................. 143 Small Circles........................................................... 133 Chapter 6 ..................................................................................... 146 Rhumb-Line ........................................... 122 Derive CAS given TAS and Forecast Temperature ................. 127 Comparing Procedure for slow and fast Airplanes .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 158 Page 8 ......... 137 Chapter 7 ............................ 137 Weather and NOTAMS........ 125 Procedure for “Fast and High” Airplanes ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 139 Longitude......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 148 Transverse Mercator projection ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 151 True and Magnetic North (Variation) ......................................................................................... 141 Great-circles ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 139 Latitude ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 153 Compass Deviation ........................................................................... 147 Lambert Conformal Conic Projection.......... 139 Shape of the Earth.................................................................................................................. 139 Navigation Theory .......................................................................................Navigation for Professional Pilots TAS and CAS Conversions ..................................................................... 155 Contour Lines and Hypsometric Tints ......................................................

.................... 186 VFR Map Preparation Techniques...................................................................................................................................................................... 172 Ramp Fuel and Fuel Remaining ........................................................................................................................................... 183 Approach at Destination ..................................................................... 171 Navlog Leg Groups ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 169 Fly-by and Fly-over Waypoints ................................................................................. 178 Cruise Legs – Between Enroute Checkpoints ........... 179 Selection of Cruising Altitude ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 175 Choosing a Set Heading Point (SHP) ................................................................................................................ 185 Reserve ....................................................................................... 163 Plotting Lines of Position (LOP) .......................................... 184 Checkpoints leading to Alternate Airport .. 185 Tips for the Electronic Nav-Log ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 189 Page 9 ......................... 176 First Enroute leg (to TOC) .................................................................................... 183 Contingencies ........ 169 Flight Planning ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 169 Introduction to Nav-logs ............................................................................................................. 169 Definition of a Leg ....................................................................................................................................................... 158 Grivation ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 182 Top of Descent ....... 175 Filling in the Navlog.......................... 163 Chapter 8 .............................................................................. 188 Measuring Track and Distance ..............................................................................................Navigation for Professional Pilots Grid Navigation ............................................ 186 Drawing a Line Across a 2-Sided Chart .............................................................................................................. 185 Approach at Alternate Airport .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 188 Filling in a Flight Plan Form .....................................................................................

........... 193 Set Heading Point(s) in the Mountains ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 199 Chapter 11 .............................................................................. 193 Mountain Cross Country .. 207 Hybrid Navigation Procedure – Landfall ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 204 Reorienting if Lost ............................... 208 Chapter 12 .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 199 Time Saving Flight Planning Techniques .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 195 Chapter 10 .... 204 Navlog keeping ..................................................................................................... 211 Critical Point (CP) ........ 199 Block Flight Planning ................................................... 206 Diversions ................ 205 Top of Descent ..................................................................................................................... 193 DR vs.......................... 203 Enroute Navigation Skills ............ 211 Oceanic Flight ................................................................................................................................ 211 Point of No Return (PNR) ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... Pilotage in Mountain Flying ....................................................... 193 Descent Point in the Mountains .....................Navigation for Professional Pilots Chapter 9 ................ 194 Poor Weather Mountain Cross-country (Valley Crawl) ............... 193 Good-weather Mountain Cross-country ................................................................................................................................................................................ 194 In-flight Valley Navigation Procedures ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 199 Climb Penalty Planning ........................ 214 Page 10 ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 203 Time Awareness ................................................................................................ 203 Map Reading .. 206 Position Reports and Amending Flight Plan ...................................................

.............................................................................................Outbound PDT Practice Sheet .................................................................................................................................................................... 217 Appendix 2 ......................Navigation for Professional Pilots Appendix 1– C-172 Interpolation Tables .......Inbound PDT Practice Sheet ........................................................... 219 Appendix 3 ....................................... 221 Appendix 4 – Definitions ................. 223 Page 11 ...

Navigation for Professional Pilots Page 12 .

departure and arrival fees. For example your plan might require knowing: When we will leave When we will arrive Who will be on board What route we will take What will the weather be like What navigation equipment (from eyeballs. ATC fees. The process can be very complex. during.Chapter 1 Text Overview Everyone knows what it means to “have a plan. or medical difficulties occur.) will be used What condition the airplane and its systems will be in What we will do if various contingencies such as weather. to GPS. etc. Where we will park upon arrival Customs and other passenger handling arrangements Food and refreshments arrangement prior. For example. into account. to VOR. mechanical.” In “flight planning” we develop a plan for a flight. so flights may detour around some . etc. the point being made here is that flight planning is a large undertaking covering many different items of concern regarding a flight. Experts also plan routes for optimum advantage (cost) taking wind. many international airline flights don’t fly by the shortest route for two reasons: For one every nation they over fly charges a fee. and post flight Accommodation at destination Aircraft servicing at destination Customs arrangements ETC The above list is not complete. At an airline many people are employed to ensure that all the passenger handling aspects of flight planning are looked into.

and as such are governed by a set of regulations that you will learn to take into account during this course. but we will concentrate on choosing an altitude that is optimum for the wind given a specified route. By the end of this course you should be able determine time and fuel for a given flight within a few minutes. You will learn where to find the required information. Route selection will be comparatively simple. After graduation. International flights will covered in second year. For your commercial pilot flight test you are allowed 45 minutes. if a strong tailwind (jet stream) can be located. We will consider the preferred IFR routes published in the Canada Flight Supplement. expect passenger handling and logistics aspects of flight planning to take considerably more of your time than calculating time and fuel. and terrain and weather. But you must recognize that these things are crucial to real world commercial flight operations. Dead Reckoning and Radio Navigation Two terms that will come up over and over are “pilotage” and “dead-reckoning. Dead-reckoning (DR) means to determine the one heading and time that will take the airplane directly to a point. etc won’t receive a lot of attention due to our limited time. It is the way you drive your car and it is often a practical way to fly an airplane. or GPS. Your skill at doing this level of basic flight planning quickly and accurately will free up the time for the logistics aspects of flight planning that your employer will expect you to master. most commercial airline flights are IFR flights. where to park and service the airplane. but that should be twice as much time as you actually need. By the end of this course you will be fully competent to plan an IFR flight from any point within Canada to any other point. ADF. Flight logistics such as arranging food for passengers. the shortest route is not always the quickest. By the end of this course you must be fully competent at planning VFR flights.” Pilotage means flying from point to point by visually following features on the ground. and some of these matters will be included in the exercises. one requirement is to have an alternate airport to divert to in the event that landing at the primary destination becomes impossible. For example: to fly from Castlegar to Revelstoke simply follow the Columbia River. DR is by definition flight along a straight line path.Navigation for Professional Pilots airspace spending more money on fuel. In addition. Pilotage. allowing for wind. or a strong headwind avoided. In this course you will learn the basics of IFR radio Page 14 . but saving in the long run by avoiding high ATC fees. In this course we will concentrate on the planning time and fuel for a flight. For example. This is necessary when flying IFR. Radio navigation means that the location of the airplane is determined by referring to instruments such as VOR. We won’t usually concern ourselves with avoiding ATC fees or political boundaries because most of our flights will be domestic. Airline flight planners often adjust to avoid these. but. Most of this course is devoted to learning how to dead-reckon.

and radio navigation. pilots use a combination of pilotage and DR. features some pilotage is practical especially when doing things such as diverting around poor weather or special use airspace. Page 15 . Radio navigation is NOT distinct from pilotage or DR. distinctive. even on a VFR flight – thus most flights require pilotage. in fact both can be applied to radio navigation. Even on a long flight some portions of all VFR flights require pilotage. Usually the leg just after takeoff until established at the set heading point requires pilotage. And the final circuit joining and landing is also a pilotage leg. DR. In this course we will generally keeps these techniques separated for instructional purposes. Often some radio navigation will be used. DR dominates on long flights. but if the terrain has good. but in the real world they should be used together to achieve an efficient flight with the lowest possible workload for the pilot. In real-world VFR navigating. Any VFR flight over water must be a DR flight for example.Navigation for Professional Pilots navigation. DR is the most efficient means of navigation. especially over terrain that lacks distinctive features. but it can only be used when the ground has distinctive features so that the pilot can accurately determine position visually. Pilotage dominates on shorter flights.

c. b. A pilot tunes a VOR and determines the track to the station is 030°. c. c. This is DR navigation This is pilotage navigation This is radio navigation This is two or more of the above 2. b. a. The pilot turns left. A pilot sees a local shopping mall and flies toward it. S/he then turns to that heading without concern for the strong westerly wind. This is DR navigation This is pilotage navigation This is radio navigation This is two or more of the above 4. A pilot is over a town s/he recognizes and turns south to join left base for the active runway a. A pilot is trying to find a small lake. c. following the VOR needle until s/he gets to the station. S/he flies a heading of 220 until the lake comes into sight. then left again. d. then right. d. d. a. d.Navigation for Professional Pilots Sample Questions 1 1. This is DR navigation This is pilotage navigation This is radio navigation This is two or more of the above 3. b. then flies directly to the lake. a. b. This is DR navigation This is pilotage navigation This is radio navigation This is two or more of the above Page 16 .

This is DR navigation This is pilotage navigation This is radio navigation This is two or more of the above Page 17 . b. a. d. A pilot follows a road to a particular intersection then flies heading 360 until the airport comes into view. c.Navigation for Professional Pilots 5.

In the thermosphere temperature begins to rise again. By 36. and the force of gravity collectively determine the pressure and density of the air throughout the ISA. Page 18 . chemistry of the atmosphere. In the Stratosphere temperature remains isothermal (constant temperature) at -56 C. To use the POH data pilots must determine what pressure altitude (PA) and density altitude (DA) the aeroplane will fly at. stratosphere. The ISA is simply a temperature model. The standard temperature is 15 C at sea level and decreases 1. pressure.e.98 C per thousand feet in the troposphere. You can find more details on this in your aerodynamics text. and thermosphere. It is important to realize that temperature. The chemical makeup of the atmosphere does not change with altitude. i. it specifies how temperature changes in the atmosphere. i.100 feet the temperature has reached -56 C. ISA conditions. The temperature.Navigation for Professional Pilots Pressure and Density Altitude The International Standard Atmosphere One of the valuable benefits of the International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) is that it makes it possible for manufacturers of aircraft to provide data for pilots to use in flight planning. The ISA is divided into temperature layers known as the troposphere. and density are inextricably connected to each other by a law of physics called the gas law. An aircraft’s Pilot Operating Handbook (POH) specifies how the aeroplane performs under standard.e. but no civilian aeroplanes fly that high so we will ignore the thermosphere. The gas law states that pressure is proportional to density and temperature.

The gas law relates air density to these two values.39 20.70 Pressure Altitude The most convenient instrument available to pilots for measuring air pressure is the aircraft altimeter. If the pressure altitude is 4.78 -8.76 -10.002175 0. They do however have a thermometer to measure temperature and an altimeter.000 3.002377 0.58 16.79 19.001701 0. Fill in the values for air pressure in the table below: Page 19 .001927 0.001811 0.84 24. When a pilot sets the altimeter scale to 29.23 21. In the ISA the following values apply: Pressure Inches Hg 29.02 11.001987 0.000’ the air pressure is 25.74 -12.001648 0.000 9.000 14.001756 0. but in effect it is giving the air pressure from the table above.30 17.002241 0.002308 0. Once set to 29.000 5.92 altimeter reads an altitude called pressure altitude.10 3.90 23.14 -0.82 25.000 12. Pilots do not have a barometer (an instrument for measuring air pressure) to measure pressure in units of inches of mercury.001496 ISA Altitude 0 1.06 7.000 4.84 as shown in the table above.03 18.001869 0.04 9.82 26.Navigation for Professional Pilots Aircraft performance depends on air density but airplanes do not come with an instrument to measure it.58 19.000 10.000 11.92 28.002048 0.09 22.001545 0.000 8.002111 0.80 -6.86 27.12 1.82 -4.84 -2.92 it reads an altitude.72 -14.89 Density 3 slugs / ft 0.00 13.000 Temp C 15. which measures air pressure.000 7.000 6.08 5.000 15.000 2.000 13.001596 0.98 23.

First a very simple example: An airport at sea level (such as CYVR) reports an altimeter setting of 28. but it is pretty close.000’.86. Notice that in the ISA pressure drops about one inch of mercury for every thousand feet up to 10.000’ 7.92 and read the value on the instrument. How would we calculate this mathematically? Standard setting: Altimeter setting: Difference 29.86 and the pressure altitude is 1000’ as we can see from the table above. Therefore pressure altitude = altimeter source altitude + correction Sea level + 1060 = 1060 Page 20 .06 x 1000 = +1060.000 The only way to get a precise pressure altitude is to set a calibrated altimeter to 29. This is not convenient for flight planning however.86 +1. This is an approximation. In this case the air pressure is 28. Armed with this knowledge it is possible to calculate the pressure altitude without using an actual altimeter.06 Correction equals 1. To calculate pressure altitude we need to know the current altimeter setting and the actual altitude of the altimeter setting source.Navigation for Professional Pilots Pressure Altitude Air pressure Inches Hg Sea level 3000’ 5. so we need a method to estimate pressure altitude. This is convenient since it means we can flight plan without needing access to an altimeter.000 9.92 28.

This small error is acceptable for flight planning purposes. Below is a more complex pressure altitude calculation in which the altimeter source is not at sea level. and vice versa. Density Altitude Density altitude represents the altitude in the ISA with the equivalent air density. Remember that when the altimeter setting is more than 29.92 Altimeter setting 30.75 Correction = -0. estimate pressure altitude as 2700 feet. You should keep in mind that the calculation of pressure altitude results in estimation.75 x 1000 = -750 Pressure altitude = altimeter source altitude + correction Pressure altitude = 3456 – 750 = 2706 Rounding off. which states that air density is proportional to air pressure and inversely proportional to air temperature.67 Standard setting: 29. To get a precise pressure altitude you must use a calibrated altimeter. density altitude can be calculated in accordance with the gas law. TIP: You may find it hard to remember whether to add or subtract the correction from the altimeter source altitude. Altimeter source altitude: 3456 feet Altimeter setting: 30.67 Difference -0. Page 21 .92 it is like flying at a lower altitude.Navigation for Professional Pilots Notice that the calculation gives a value of 1060’ when the correct value is 1000’. Once you know the pressure altitude (in effect the air pressure) and air temperature.

Navigation for Professional Pilots

Many Pilot Operating Handbooks are designed so that it is not necessary to calculate density altitude since the manufacturer provides performance charts based on pressure altitude and temperature. This is wise on their part because calculating density altitude accurately requires a complex formula. The C-172 and King Air manuals you will use in this course have charts based on pressure altitude and temperature. In effect the density altitude calculation is incorporated into the charts. For these airplanes it is not necessary to calculate density altitude. Our B95 charts are based on density altitude, and therefore you must calculate its value. Because temperature is usually close to standard a reasonable estimation of density altitude can be made by adjusting pressure altitude 120 feet for every degree the temperature varies from standard. For example if the temperature is 3 C colder than ISA then density altitude will be 3 x120 = 360 lower than the pressure altitude. If air temperature is 5 C above standard then density altitude will be 600 feet higher than the pressure altitude.

DA = PA + 120ΔT

[ΔT is deviation from standard temperature]

TIP: Warm air is less dense air and thus density altitude is greater when the air is warm.

TIP: The KLN90b GPS has a built in density altitude calculator. You can use it to get a more accurate density altitude. The KLN90b in the piston simulators can be used just as well as the ones in the airplanes.

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Sample Questions 2

1. The altimeter source altitude is 1000, altimeter setting is 28.92, temperature at 1000 feet is 15 C. Calculate the pressure altitude (PA) and the density altitude (DA)

2.

The altimeter source altitude is 7000, altimeter setting is 28.92, temperature at 7000 feet is 15 C. Calculate the pressure altitude (PA) and the density altitude (DA)

3.

The altimeter source altitude is 8500, altimeter setting is 30.86, temperature at 8500 feet is 22 C. Calculate the pressure altitude (PA) and the density altitude (DA)

4.

altimeter source altitude is 1624, altimeter setting is 30.35, temperature at 1624 feet is 18 C. Calculate the pressure altitude (PA) and the density altitude (DA)

5.

The altimeter source altitude is 1624, altimeter setting is 29.71, temperature at 1624 feet is 7 C. Calculate the pressure altitude (PA) and the density altitude (DA)

**Cold Temperature Corrections
**

The altimeter in an airplane does not actually read altitude; it reads static air pressure and displays this as an altitude based on the following assumed pressure/altitude correspondence: Indicated Altitude 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 ISA Ps(Hg) 29.92 28.86 27.82 26.82 25.84 24.90 23.98 23.09 pressure difference 1.10 1.06 1.03 1.00 0.97 0.95 0.92 0.89 Measured Pressure 29.92 28.86 27.82 26.82 25.84 24.90 23.98 23.09

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8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 13,000 14,000 15,000 16,000 17,000 18,000 19,000 20,000

22.23 21.39 20.58 19.79 19.03 18.30 17.58 16.89 16.22 15.57 14.95 14.34 13.76

0.86 0.84 0.81 0.79 0.76 0.74 0.71 0.69 0.67 0.65 0.63 0.61 0.59

22.23 21.39 20.58 19.79 19.03 18.30 17.58 16.89 16.22 15.57 14.95 14.34 13.76

This table is correct for an altimeter set with the Colesman scale on 29.92 The table shows that an altimeter “assumes” pressure will drop 1.10 inches of Mercury between sea level and 1000 feet and then drop 1.06 between 1000’ and 2000’ etc. Consequently an altimeter set to 29.92 will read 7000 feet when the air pressure is 23.09 regardless of how high the airplane really is. The Colesman scale on the altimeter simply “slips” the above scale to reset the zero point, as shown in the diagram below, which is for an altimeter set to 30.44

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Indicated Altitude 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 13,000 14,000 15,000 16,000 17,000 18,000 19,000 20,000

ISA Ps(Hg) 29.92 28.86 27.82 26.82 25.84 24.90 23.98 23.09 22.23 21.39 20.58 19.79 19.03 18.30 17.58 16.89 16.22 15.57 14.95 14.34 13.76

pressure difference 1.10 1.06 1.03 1.00 0.97 0.95 0.92 0.89 0.86 0.84 0.81 0.79 0.76 0.74 0.71 0.69 0.67 0.65 0.63 0.61 0.59

Measured Pressure 30.44 29.38 28.34 27.34 26.36 25.42 24.50 23.61 22.75 21.91 21.10 20.31 19.55 18.82 18.10 17.41 16.74 16.09 15.47 14.86 14.28

This table is correct for an altimeter with the Colesman scale set to 30.44. When the actual air pressure is 30.44 the altimeter reads zero.

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44. 2.82 the altimeter reads 13. More likely the pressure drop will vary from that shown and thus the true altitude will not correspond to the indicated altitude. Remember to keep ATC informed of what altitude you are flying.Navigation for Professional Pilots IMPORTANT: altimeter settings are determined with an instrument located at the airport.44 – 27. RAC 9. Taking the above table as an example.17 specifies our legal obligation to calculate a temperature correction. which should then be added to the desired altitude to get the indicated altitude you will fly in order to be safe. This rule of thumb should only be used down to temperatures of -15°C.17 specifies that you should also report deviations from FAF crossing altitude and MDA. The thing to realize is that an altimeter setting permits the altimeter to read the correct altitude at the airport (3000 in the example).44 on that day. Memorize the rule of thumb and be able to use it.000 feet.17 Table in CAP GEN CR RAC 9. Equation from RAC 9.37) is only hypothetical. if a particular airport is at 3000 asl an altimeter adjusted to read 3000 at that airport will “report” an altimeter setting of 30. the corresponding formula is: Temperature Correction = . This is particularly important if you will deviate from any specified altitude such as a missed approach altitude or an altitude on a DME arc.04 x (ISA deviation) / 10 x (Height AGL) [RAC 9. In order of preference in use they are: 1. Pressure decreases more rapidly in cold dense air. etc. Thus we must correct for temperature error any time the temperature is cold. because that is where the altimeter setting instrument is located.44. but the altimeter will read 0 feet if the actual air pressure is 30. If the air pressure between ground level and 13. If the air pressure declines with altitude more rapidly than the above table the true altitude will be lower than the indicated altitude. but as these are minimum altitudes that you Page 26 . RAC 9. Normal practice among pilots is to make a correction anytime ground temperature is 0°C or colder. 3.000 drops exactly as shown in the table the altitude will be correct. The actual sea level pressure may not be 30.17] The above formula gives the required correction. A correction is required any time temperatures are significantly below standard. This will happen regardless of the true altitude. The pressure difference between 3000 and sea level shown in the above table (30.17 recommends allowing 4% height increase for every 10°C below standard temperature. Any temperature correction that an over flying airplane makes need only be applied to the atmosphere between ground level and the true altitude of the airplane. Since this is only a hypothetical possibility it is not important. Three methods of making the correction will be presented in this course. In the table above you can see that when the air pressure is 18. This is very dangerous for any pilot flying in instrument conditions and using the altimeter to avoid mountain tops.

If you use the equation above you get a more accurate correction for airports that are above sea level. you must consider carefully whether any conflict with other traffic could result from your temperature correction and keep ATC informed as necessary. for example adding 5000 and 3000 to get 8000. Many mountain approaches however have procedure turn and intermediate segment altitudes higher than 5000 AGL. For temperature colder than -15°C use the table in the CAP GEN.Navigation for Professional Pilots can choose to be above on any approach most pilots do not report these deviations. This table can also be used for temperatures of 0°C and -10°C. To use the table in the CAP GEN follow the instructions provided with the table. When doing this always round up each value obtained in order ensure safety. However. however it is based on an airport at sea level and therefore gives conservative corrections for airports that are higher than sea level. Page 27 . It is common practice among pilots to use the table by summing values. Note that RAC 9.17 states that the table is not valid for heights more than 5000 ASL.

Beechcraft Travelair Pilot Information Manual. b. Consequently the assignments in this course – and the quizzes and exams – are to be completed without these online aids. Supplements to the C-172P POH are found in Appendix 14 of your Program Manual. c. unless the instructions indicate otherwise. BE95 King Air Manual Other Transport category aircraft Accurately interpolate tabular data a. Alternatively. A complete explanation of how to use each chart. you might be asked to brake-in a new engine by operating it at 75% power for a certain number of hours. Practice these skills using the computer simulations provided for that purpose. or some other situation requires a non-standard power setting. table. In such cases you must flight plan for a power setting different from that normally used. Page 28 . Interpolation and Accurate Drawing Skill To use the various charts in your aircraft POHs you must learn two skills: 1. and graph cannot be provided here. and your Alsim (King Air) manual. c. but if these are not enough you must practice until you perfect the skill. making it possible to plan a flight in a much shorter time. 2. or an unusually high speed. charts. For example you might be asked to ferry an airplane over a distance that exceeds its normal range. You will be using these aids daily as you prepare for flights but it is CRITICAL that you can perform the calculations without them should the need arise. A special situation is one in which either an unusually long range is needed. and tables in the C-172P POH. b. Assignments are provided for you to practice using these planning aids and to confirm that you are using them accurately. Accurately drawing lines on graphical performance charts a. but that can be achieved if slower than normal speeds are used. You will be given assignments to practice these skills. but most are self explanatory. C-172 manual King Air cruise tables CAP GEN temperature Correction charts Both these skills are vital.Navigation for Professional Pilots Performance Charts You must master the use of all the performance graphs. The aviation Intranet provides links to many electronic aids that ease your flight planning chores. Normal aviation industry practice is for flight departments to establish a cruise power setting and use it for all but “special” flight situations.

Electronic Charts for the Travelair The aviation Intranet contains several electronic aids for B95 flight planning. On our Intranet website several electronic aids have been provided.Navigation for Professional Pilots Electronic Charts for the C-172P The paper charts described above are all that you need to plan for any flight. Navlogs are covered later in this course. These electronic planning aids are much quicker and easier to use than the paper products. as well as single engine climb performance. They work essentially the same as the ones for the C-172. eliminating the need to use any charts in section 5 of the POH. Page 29 . In all your assignments in Avia 160 use the paper charts. which makes things very quick. It gives Normal Takeoff Distance. ETE and fuel required for the flight i. it performs the functions of a flight computer. They are similar to the professional flight training aids used by modern airlines.e. Use it prior to all flights to get your normal takeoff distance. On all your exams you will ONLY be permitted to use these paper charts. When doing assignments you should do all the calculations by hand and then use the electronic navlog to see if you made a mistake. You will use these electronic aids for your day-to-day flight operations in the aviation program. rpm. TIP: Remember that even though you will be using the electronic navlog for your day-to-day flying. The navlog automatically determines TAS. Use the tables on pages 5-12 and 5-13 when short field operation is called for. The weight and balance calculator eliminates the need to use the charts in section 6 of the POH. and a Navlog calculator. It also calculates drift. For the C-172P you will find: C-172 Electronic Takeoff Chart Electronic Navlog (ENL) –includes weight and balance The Normal Takeoff distance graph is an electronic version of the two graphs in the C-172 Flight Planning Supplement. easy. you must be able to do all the calculations long-hand when needed. and Accelerate Stop Distance. a cruise performance calculator. On your exams you will have to calculate without the electronic aid. and accurate. easy and accurate weight and balance calculations. The ENL has a built in weight and balance sheet. and always gives the correct answer. It is much quicker and easier to use. The ENL contains a weight and balance calculator for quick. groundspeed. so be sure to master them. CAS. IAS. The BE95 Electronic Takeoff Chart also calculates accelerate go and accelerate stop distance.

g.12/94 = 77% 110% + (tailwind component / rotation speed)% = percent change in takeoff roll and distance to clear obstacle. snow. A change in weight of 10% changes takeoff distance by 20% (ratio 1:2) Most “good” grass runways require 25% more distance than a paved runway Long grass (more than 4 inches) requires 30% more runway Soft surface mud. (e. Page 30 . requires 75% more runway add 10% for 1 degree of up slope add 20% for 2 degree of up slope Subtract 5% for 1 degree of down slope 90% . Most manuals do not provide charts for soft or rough fields and most light aircraft charts do not allow for a sloped runway for instance. etc.(headwind component / rotation speed)% = percent change in takeoff roll and distance to clear obstacle. Below are some rules of thumb that Transport Canada put together a number of years ago. 12 knot headwind and Vr = 94 therefore 90% . In Avia 100 you will learn to use the above rules of thumb to make reasonable go – no go decisions in tricky takeoff situations.Navigation for Professional Pilots Performance Rules of Thumb In the section above you learned to precisely use the charts that come with your airplane. the charts do not cover all situations. However.

you shift some freight forward. only that we move it forward at least 2.500 The secret is to realize that the desired moment is: Mdesired = 5000 x 45 = 22. At present we know the moment of the airplane is: Mcurrent = 5000 x 47 = 23. which is 1000 could be created by an infinite number of possible weight shift. An important point to notice is that it makes no difference what the current location of this freight is.Navigation for Professional Pilots Weight and Balance Shift As a licensed pilot you know how to calculate a weight and balance. how far do you need to move it? The above question is a Transport Canada favorite on the commercial pilot and ATPL exams. but the aft CG limit is 45 inches what do you do? In simple terms the answer is easy. The solution is quite simple if you remember the meaning of the concept known as moment. subtract to get the desired moment shift. Step 2: Move the freight by an amount equal to moment-shift / weight-of-freight Page 31 . if you calculate the weight and balance for an airplane and discover that it weights 5000 pounds and the CG is at 47 inches aft of the datum. In summary: Step 1: Calculate the current moment and desired moment.500 The difference in moment. Let’s say you have 400 pounds to shift forward. etc. A moment is: weight x arm. For example we could shift 1000 pounds forward 1 inch.5 inches. In this case we have been told to shift 400 pounds of freight. or 500 pounds by 2 inches.5 inches. so it must be moved 1000/400 = 2. but an important exercise you may not be familiar with is shifting a CG by a specified amount. For example.

There is 600 pounds of freight at 104 inches aft of the datum. Most people will therefore choose b. If you move the weight to arm 75 it is still one inch too far back. Shift this weight to at least: a) 85 b) 75 c) 65 d) 55 Your calculations should reveal that: Mcurrent = 9000 x 73 = 657000 Mdesired = 9000 x 71 = 639000 M-change = 18000 CG-shift = 18000 / 600 = 30 The answer is therefore: 104 – 30 = 74. but that is WRONG. choose the correct answer: An airplane weighs 9000 pounds.Navigation for Professional Pilots Here is a typical transport Canada exam question. Page 32 . The aft CG limit is 71 inches aft of the datum. The CG is 73 inches aft of the datum. Since the next lowest option is 65 that is the correct choice on this multiple choice question.

Navigation for Professional Pilots Page 33 .

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so review this material often. Even concepts that may not at first appear to be composites of the above three actually are. and two useful deductions from the definition Velocity is the simplest of the composite concepts in physics: V = d/t [d = distance.Chapter 2 This chapter introduces you to the fundamental concepts of navigation. If you don’t understand and retain it 100% there will be a problem. are all composites of these three concepts. Mass – Distance – Time. Mass Distance Time All other concepts from simple ones live velocity and acceleration to complex concepts such as work. In other words it has both magnitude and direction. The Fundamental Concepts of Physics In Newtonian Physics there are three fundamental concepts upon which everything else is based: 1. etc. 3. 2. power. which in turn is the composite of distance and time. From the above definition come two crucial deductions: d = Vt T = V/d Velocity Expressed as Airspeed Velocity is THE fundamental concept in navigation. for example temperature is really just a measure of the velocity of particles. energy. Unfortunately there is a confusing array of speeds that we must learn to sort through: . Definition of Velocity. Think about what this means and we will discuss it in class. Once we know our groundspeed (GS) and track-made-good over the ground (TMG) we know everything we need to know to predict the time it will take to complete a flight. The direction is imparted to the velocity by the orientation of the distance. Everything in this chapter is vital. t = time] Velocity is a vector quantity. To be more precise Groundspeed and direction of flight are the fundamental concepts in navigation.

You should already know that an airspeed indicator (ASI) does not show TAS.) An airplane always stalls at a certain EAS. You can also determine TAS in flight by reading your IAS and applying correction for: Position error (aka. In summary – life for pilots would be much better if there was only EAS and TAS. Page 36 . Think of EAS as the pressure you would feel on your face if the airplane had an open cockpit. calibration error) Compression error Density error See diagram below for the hierarchy of airspeed errors. Unfortunately we must learn to deal with the undesirable IAS and CAS True Airspeed (TAS) True airspeed tells us how fast the airplane moves through the air. 2. 5. Unfortunately airspeed indicators do not show EAS either.Navigation for Professional Pilots 1. This value is normally forecast in the POH for the airplane. It is NOT desirable to have an ASI show TAS even if it could. What a pilot actually requires to fly safely is the Equivalent Airspeed (EAS. 4. and we always fly our approach at a certain EAS. so we must learn to convert indicated airspeed (IAS) to Calibrated Airspeed (CAS) and then to EAS and finally TAS. Groundspeed (GS) (which is TAS + wind) Indicated airspeed (IAS) Calibrated airspeed (CAS) Equivalent airspeed (EAS) True airspeed (TAS) Accurate flight planning requires accurate knowledge of TAS and GS. 3.

The good news is that there is usually not much difference between IAS and EAS.000 feet.000 feet there will an error. The calibration chart compensates for the imperfect measurement of Pitot tube and static port on the airplane. i. for these airplanes you may feel free to say that EAS = CAS. At very slow speeds (high angle of attack) there will be a significant error. TAS = EAS at sea level TAS > EAS at all altitudes above sea level.e. Most of the time it is reasonable to assume that the indicated speed is the same as equivalent speed. The calibration chart is found in the POH.Navigation for Professional Pilots Equivalent Airspeed (EAS) The equivalent airspeed compares flight at altitude to flight at sea level. Indicated airspeed is by definition the speed shown on the airspeed indicator. So we must learn how to convert indicated airspeed (IAS) into EAS. That covers both the C-172P and Travelair. In fact the difference between EAS and CAS is less than one knot for airplanes flying less than 200 knots and less than 20. Mathematically: TAS = EAS/√σ [σ is the density ratio. When we say that an airplane is cruising at 300 KEAS we are saying that it experiences the same dynamic pressure as an airplane flying at 300 knots at sea level on a standard day.) Most of the calibration error is due to the position of the static vent on the fuselage. Unfortunately airspeed indicators are not perfect. therefore calibration error is frequently called position error. and also at very high speeds and high altitudes. Calibrated airspeed is pretty close to equivalent airspeed in most cases. Page 37 . Like any instrument and airspeed indicator is imperfect and as such a calibration chart must be provided. Once you apply the correction factor you will have calibrated airspeed (CAS. density of air divided by sea level standard density] Indicated and Calibrated Airspeed (IAS and CAS) In an ideal world the airspeed indicator would show EAS. above 200 knots and 20. So.

Always convert IAS to CAS.000 feet is experiencing less than 250 KEAS. ICE-T To convert from IAS to TAS it is necessary to apply the corrections in the proper order. We cover use of the CR later.Navigation for Professional Pilots For any airplane flying above 20. Your CR flight computer automatically applies compression correction. then EAS to TAS. Compression refers to the fact that air entering a Pitot tube is compressed and thus its pressure rises. then CAS to EAS. if you use the “professional method” for converting CAS to TAS. consequently airspeed indicators always over read. The “simple method” DOES NOT allow for compression error.000 feet (which includes the King Air) it will be necessary to apply a compression correction factor. use the pneumonic ICE-T. but that is because the EAS compensation is built into the computer. Page 38 . CAS is always more than EAS. So an airplane flying at 250 KCAS at 30. Remember that with the CR you go directly from CAS to TAS. To remember the sequence.

The earth spins around an axis that passes through the north and south poles. Each aircraft compass comes with a deviation card that shows the extent of the error. 30 NM south after two hours. Imagine that your balloon rises a few hundred feet and then maintains that altitude. The error in the compass is called deviation. true. In that case the headings displayed on the heading indicator are true headings. This horizontal motion results from the air mass moving relative to the ground. Heading can be expressed in magnetic. etc. Meridians appear on your map and you will learn to orient your protractor to these lines of longitude when measuring the true track (TT. The primary complication in navigation planning involves allowing for this movement of the air (wind) i. and you will find it marked on your maps.e. Heading is expressed as an angle from north.) In the northern domestic airspace pilots set their heading indicators to true. Movement of the air is wind. but always in units of degrees.e. moving south. When we say the wind is north at 15 knots we are saying that it is coming from the north. The magnetic North Pole is many miles from the real North Pole and thus there is a difference between magnetic headings and true headings. You follow it and discover that it more-or-less drifts in a straight line. 15 nautical miles every hour. If you release your balloon into this air mass it will be 15 NM south after one hour. or grid. i.Navigation for Professional Pilots Heading (True. at least over a distance of a few miles. allowing for drift. Straight lines drawn between the poles are called meridians of longitude. Wind and Drift Imagine stepping outside with a helium-filled balloon and letting it float away. In such cases another reference system known as grid is used. These lines define true north. We will be covering map theory in detail later. As a pilot you must consult the deviation card and take it into account when setting the heading indicator to correspond to the compass. Compass Deviation Like any piece of equipment a compass is never calibrated perfectly. pilots set their heading indicators to magnetic. In the southern domestic airspace. The difference is called variation. Fortunately it generally moves in a steady continuous fashion. Wind is described by specifying the direction the air is coming from and how fast. and Magnetic) Heading is the direction that TAS acts. This is important because it will be difficult to flight plan if air moves in random fashion. If the air is perfectly calm it will float straight up. but on most days you will see it drift sideways. Page 39 . When flying over the poles neither true nor magnetic heading reference is satisfactory.

Wind Triangle: GS = TAS + Wind The most fundamental concept of navigation is: Groundspeed = True Airspeed + Wind GS = TAS + wind All three of these entities are vectors. Do NOT think of wind as something that happens in the air but as a property of the whole air mass you fly in. While it is obvious that a balloon drifts it is equally true.Navigation for Professional Pilots Most people find it pretty easy to visualize a balloon drifting in the wind. Page 40 .e. True airspeed is a vector quantity that expresses how quickly an airplane moves through the air.) Make a small “x” in the lower left quadrant of the sheet to represent airport A. But it must be an accurate picture so get out your navigation-ruler and protractor and follow along. Get a blank piece of paper and complete the following steps: 1. When dead reckoning you start with a known true airspeed and a forecast wind plus a track you wish to fly. An airplane moves through the air. To explore the meaning of drift examine the simulation called Drift on the Intranet website. Draw a vertical line roughly in the center of the paper which we will use to represent a meridian of longitude (i. The distance between them is 240 NM and the true track is 050°. and in what direction. An airplane’s net motion is the sum of true airspeed and wind. all we have to do is remember how to add two vectors. The main difficulty is in realizing that wind is a large scale phenomenon not a stream within the air but the whole air. No calculators or mathematics is required. We put it in the lower left quadrant because we are going to fly north-east so we want to allow room to draw the line to airport B. if less obvious. The wind is from 270° at 20 knots.) We will now learn the simplest method of solving the above problem. For our first sample problem we wish to fly from airport A to airport B. We will simply draw a picture. it represents true north. but the movement of the air (wind) adds to the net movement of the airplane never-the-less. The airplane flies at a true airspeed of 100 knots. So. that an airplane does also. which a balloon does not. Your task is to determine the heading that is required to maintain that track and the resulting groundspeed (so that you can calculate time to destination. 2.

Center your protractor on airport A and orient it to north using the line of longitude. We call this the track-made-good (TMG. At this point your paper should look like the one below: The line represents the track to airport B.Navigation for Professional Pilots 3. Mark 050° and then draw a line from airport A in the direction 050°. Page 41 .) Orient your protractor using the meridian and then mark a dot at the center of your protractor and another mark at 270° (the wind direction. (When drawing TAS-Wind triangles always place the wind vector near the destination end of the TMG.) Take your ruler and laying it accurately from the wind dot to the 270° mark measure the distance 20 NM from the TMG in the direction of the wind. Next we will draw a vector representing the wind. Place your protractor on the TMG somewhere in the upper right quadrant.) We don’t need to mark on airport B. Your sheet should now look like the one below: 5. 4.

but it will likely be less accurate.) Put the tip of the compass at the beginning of the wind vector and draw an arc that intersects the TMG near airport A. If you don’t have one it is possible to measure with a ruler. Set your measuring compass (shown above) to exactly 100 NM (the TAS.Navigation for Professional Pilots The most accurate way to perform the next step is with a measuring instrument known by geometers as a compass. 6. Your diagram should now look like the one below: Page 42 .

The TMG must be exactly 050°. and it should look like the one below: Page 43 . The diagram is now complete. Draw a line from the point where the arc cuts the TMG to the beginning of the wind vector. 7. the wind vector must be exactly 20NM long and the arc must be exactly 100NM long. This line is exactly 100 NM long and it represents the true airspeed.Navigation for Professional Pilots To work properly a TAS-Wind triangle must be drawn accurately. If these conditions are met you will get an accurate wind triangle.

The heading you must fly is represented by the TAS vector and you can measure it with your protractor. If you drew your diagram accurately true heading is 042°. We now have all the items we set out to determine: True heading: 042° Ground speed 115 Knots From this we can calculate the amount of time it takes to fly the 240Nm from airport A to airport B. it is your groundspeed. Measure the distance from the arc to the point where the wind vector intersects the TMG. The distance is 115 NM. This represents the distance flown in one hour – i. It is NOT necessary to draw the full picture but if we did it would look like the one below: Page 44 .e.Navigation for Professional Pilots The angle labeled (da) above is called the drift angle. and drift angle is 8°.

Thus we will introduce a mathematical model for determining drift and groundspeed. which is represented by the line labeled “wind/whole trip” above. as you can see it is in proportional to the length of the trip. Page 45 . Definitions: Crosswind and Headwind TAS-Wind triangles are excellent for visualizing drift and determining groundspeed. This model can be applied using an electronic calculator or a CR flight computer. but they are a bit unwieldy for practical flight planning. The flight from airport A to airport B takes 2:05 during which time the airplane drifts a total of 42 NM.Navigation for Professional Pilots The purpose of the above diagram is to convince you that the net drift for the entire trip is proportional to drift for one hour. so da is the same in both triangles. But.

this is a common mistake. Drift Angle Defined From the diagram above the relationship between drift-angle (da) crosswind (XW) and TAS is easy to see. tailwind. but this is NOT correct. which is the course that is to be flown. headwind. To see an active version of this definition examine the simulation called Crosswind. Rather than memorize this you should be able to reproduce the defining diagram and extract the definition from it: da = Sin-1(XW/TAS) Groundspeed Defined The following diagram extends the one above to define groundspeed (GS) Page 46 . drift angle definitions on the Intranet website. It is critical to remember that XW and TW are by definition relative to TMG not TAS.Navigation for Professional Pilots The wind vector in the above diagram has been broken into two components. In slang pilots refer to tailwind as “wind on the tail” which implies that it is relative to the airplane. crosswind (XW) and tailwind (TW) that are perpendicular and parallel to TMG respectively. tailwind. Tailwind. and crosswind are all relative to the TMG.

Navigation for Professional Pilots Note that TAS forms the hypotenuse of a right-triangle the base of which equals cos(da) x TAS. It is quite obvious that you can do this with an electronic calculator. To do that we must know the relative wind angle (rwa) as defined in this diagram: Page 47 . To this value the tailwind must be added to get groundspeed. The formula is: GS = cos(da) x TAS + TW It is very worthwhile to realize that as long as da is small there is not much difference between cos(da) x TAS and TAS. What is missing is a method of determining crosswind and tailwind. That is to say that cosine of a small angle is almost one. but to get the precise value the cosine of drift angle must be applied. Thus when performing a quick estimate of groundspeed it is usually acceptable to add tailwind directly to TAS. Calculation of Crosswind and Tailwind The above definitions show how we will use crosswind and tailwind to determine drift angle and groundspeed. but the CR also makes this allowance as we will see.

as described above. Page 48 . da. and GS with a CR Now that we know the mathematical formulae and can apply them with any electronic calculator (or spreadsheet) we will learn to more easily evaluate them using the wind side of the CR computer. Note that these values match the ones previously determined using the TAS-Wind Triangle. The CR performs the calculations described above by taking advantage of the mathematical fact that when multiplying two numbers. In the example above the wind direction is 090° and the track made good is 050°. Determining XW. Using these values the drift angle and -1 groundspeed can be calculated. The explanation of how to use the CR wind side starts on page 30 of the Jeppesen CR manual.Navigation for Professional Pilots The relative wind angle is the absolute value of the angle between the wind direction and the track made good. The relative wind angle is therefore 40°. Once we know the relative wind angle the crosswind and tailwind can be calculated by simple trigonometry as: XW = sin(rwa) x Windspeed TW = cos(rwa) x Windspeed The above formulae can be used to determine crosswind and tailwind with an electronic calculator. TW. say A x B = C then Log(A) + Log(B) = Log(C). The CR flight computer performs the same calculation. Drift angle is da = sin (13/100) = 7° and groundspeed is GS = cos(7) x 100 + 15 = 115 knots. The CR has a “wind disc” that allows you to visually determine XW and TW and a logarithmic outer scale that determines da and cos(da) x TAS. In the example problem the wind speed is 20 knots and the relative wind angle is 40° therefore XW = sin(40) x 20 = 13 knots and TW = cos(40) x 20 = 15 knots.

Navigation for Professional Pilots There are a few minor terminology differences between your CR manual and those used in this text. when flying it is often necessary to change course without the opportunity to accurately recalculate the drift. da. However. or a computer program. and GS: TAS 100 100 100 100 155 155 350 350 80 80 460 460 True Wind 270/20 270/20 270/20 270/20 330/30 330/30 080/15 080/15 120/25 120/25 320/140 320/140 TC 050 330 130 220 300 180 100 010 090 210 270 170 XW TW Da GS Drift Estimation The accurate mathematical calculation of drift angle and groundspeed as explained above can be performed with an electronic calculator. we will use the term drift angle for both.) Jeppesen draws a distinction between drift angle and crab-angle. In VFR flight you are already familiar with the need to plan a diversion should weather Page 49 . a CR. Read pages 30 to 50 doing all the sample problems (the short section on addition and subtraction on page 32 can be skipped. TW. Numerous IFR examples come to mind. and desired true course (TC) determine XW. for example when cleared to hold or to do an approach the pilot must establish a designated course (TMG) or when the assigned route is changed drift must be determined on the new route. wind.) Once you have worked through the CR manual try the following sample problems: Sample Problems: Given TAS. For example TMG is the same as what Jeppesen calls true course (TC. a spreadsheet.

Locate the magnetic wind direction on the heading indicator and determine how many degrees from the nose or tail of the course bar the wind is. If your aircraft has an HSI set the desired course on the course-bar.Navigation for Professional Pilots or some other circumstance require you to change course. The is the relative wind angle. as though it is a CR. Now you must memorize the following three proportions: Page 50 . so you must apply variation to get the magnetic wind. To estimate crosswind and headwind use your heading indicator (HI) or preferably and HSI. You will need to know the magnetic wind. It is therefore extremely valuable to have a technique for estimating drift and groundspeed using only mental calculation (estimations. A good pilot always knows the wind direction and speed.) Estimate XW and TW The first step is to estimate crosswind and tailwind. Remember that the upper wind forecast is in true.

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These percentages must be memorized. 90° from course XW HW Note that when the wind is “on the nose” it is all headwind with zero crosswind.Navigation for Professional Pilots In the above diagrams it is assumed that the pilot turned so that the desired course TC or TMG is “on the nose.” (This point is covered again below in the description of the simulation called Drift Estimation Challenge. While this sounds impossible to do in your head there is a simple mathematical trick that - Page 52 . It is crucial to realize that in this case we are using the word nose to represent the course.) If the wind is 30° from the course or tail then 50% of it is crosswind and 90% tailwind or headwind. It seems like it will be much more difficult to estimate da since we need to evaluate the equation da = sin 1 (XW/TAS). And finally. if the wind is “on the wingtip” it is all crosswind with no headwind or tailwind. Similarly. We learned previously that we should first multiply TAS by cos(da) but this typically makes only one or two knots difference. not the heading. Had the wind been 30° from the tail (reciprocal of course) the only difference would be that the tailwind would be 27 knots. This example corresponds to a wind 30° from the course. When “on the tail” it is all tailwind with no crosswind. Once we know the headwind or tailwind we can estimate the groundspeed by subtracting or adding to the true airspeed. If the wind is 45° from the course or tail then 70% is crosswind and 70% is tailwind or headwind. Use this method to estimate the XW and TW for the following sample problems: Wind speed 20 20 20 30 30 30 40 40 40 Angle from nose or tail 30 from course 45 from course 60 from course 30 from tail 45 from tail 60 from tail On the course On the tail “On the wingtip” i. if the wind is 60° from the course or tail then 90% is crosswind and 50% is headwind or tailwind. so for estimation purposes we can say that GS = TAS + TW or GS = TAS – HW.e. If there is a 30 knot wind and 50% is crosswind and 90% is headwind then crosswind is 15 knots and headwind is 27 knots.

in units of radians. Next we will look at how we can substitute the definition of the radian as an approximation for estimating drift angle. To convert ra to units of degrees multiply by 180 and divide by pi.e. Page 53 . and the formula for circumference of a circle. by dividing arc-length by radius. the above definitions are precisely valid. Note that so far no approximations have been made.Navigation for Professional Pilots makes it quite simple. i.) The angle ra can be precisely determined. It is important to recognize the close relationship between arc-length and the subtended angle (ra. To explain we will review the definition of the angle unit called radians. This may not be sounding like something that will be easy to do in your head but stick with me.

It is helpful to know Page 54 . TAS / 57. Since we want da in units of degrees the formula becomes: Da = (XW x (180/Π)) / TAS You may be thinking. The point to notice is that the length of XW is very nearly the same as the length on an arc drawn from TAS to TMG.Navigation for Professional Pilots Examine the diagram above that redefines XW as the wind component perpendicular to TMG. For small values of da it is reasonable to say that acr-length = XW.3. it is simply: da = XW / Magic Number Magic Number Magic number was introduced in the previous section. “This still doesn’t seem too easy to do in my head.e. It is important for you to memorize the magic number of the airplanes you fly. it is called the “Magic Number. we call it the magic number. Once you know the magic number for your airplane drift is easy to estimate. Magic number is simply TAS x Π / 180 i. That being the case da in radians equals XW/TAS.” There is one final step that transforms the above equation into a simple method.” Since TAS is the same from day-to-day we can calculate the value TAS time pi divided by 180 and memorize this number.

5 4 5 8 8 Estimation of Drift Based on Crosswind and Magic Number Once you commit your magic number to memory estimating drift angle is easy. as previously covered. Since magic number is used for estimations there is no sense in calculating it overly accurately.5° (20/8. and King Air have been left blank for you to fill in.) Page 55 . other examples have been provided: Aircraft type True airspeed Magic Number 1 1. The answer is 5° (20/4.Navigation for Professional Pilots your magic number for both cruise and hold/approach speeds so that you can estimate drift in cruise as well as holds and approaches.) What would drift be in a jet airliner with a magic number of 8? The answer is 2. above 180 KTAS determine magic number to the nearest whole number. For true airspeeds up to 180 KTAS determine magic number to the nearest ½. Simply estimate crosswind. If you are flying a Piper cub with a 20 knot crosswind drift is 20°. In the table below some magic numbers corresponding to the C-172. what would it be in a King Air. Travelair.5 Piper cub Cessna 172 Cessna 172 Piper Arrow Beech 95 Beech 95 King Air King Air Dash 8 Lear Jet Airliner 60 KTAS 85 KTAS on approach 105 KTAS in cruise 140 KTAS in cruise 105 KTAS on approach 150 KTAS in cruise 120 KTAS on approach 220 KTAS in cruise 300 KTAS in cruise 440 KTAS in cruise 480 KTAS in cruise 2.5 2. then drift angle equals crosswind divided by magic number.

This is the same as saying (XW/10)/0. Now compare the above calculation to the one you wish to do in your head XW/2.Navigation for Professional Pilots Complete the following drift estimations: Magic Number Crosswind (Knots) 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 6 8 25 30 20 30 45 25 30 30 30 Estimated drift angle (da) Two-bit Math The magic number of a Beech 95 in cruise is 2. then think of the result as the price of your snack and pay for it in quarters.3. You most likely just remember that each dollar is four quarters and you know that one additional quarter covers items up to 25 cents. etc. that becomes $1.67 by 0. How many do you give the clerk? You probably had no trouble realizing you needed seven quarters to pay for your snack.50.25.5. For example if the crosswind is 15 knots. You do this particular calculation so often that it seems trivial to you. but you have actually just divided 1. and three for items up to 75 cents. but it seemed simple when you think of it as money.25 in your head. two are required for items up to 50 cents.5. for example 20/10 is 2. You would have freaked if I had asked you to divide 1. Try the following examples for yourself: Page 56 .5 in your head but there is a simple trick that makes it easy. You reach into your pocket and discover you have a bunch of quarters. 33/10 is 3.67/0.67. Can you see how to use this trick to estimate drift angle? Simply take the XW and divide it by 10. Answer the following question: You go to the 7-11 store to by a snack for $1. And so on. Of course dividing any number by 10 is very simple since all you have to do is shift the decimal one place left. You may find it challenging to divide by 2. Anything over 75 cents would have required an eighth quarter. therefore da = 6°.25. which will take six quarters. therefore drift equals XW/2.5.

00 $1.5 2.50 $1.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.Navigation for Professional Pilots Magic Number Crosswind (Knots) Dollar amount Estimated drift angle (da) 2.5 2.70 4 Page 57 .5 10 15 17 20 22 24 28 32 36 $1.5 2.5 2.

Drift Estimation Summary In this simulation you developed the skill to estimate wind drift reliably to within two or three degrees.Navigation for Professional Pilots Drift Estimation Challenge From the Intranet website you should now examine the simulation called Drift Estimation Challenge. The drift estimation techniques from this simulation combined with the bracketing technique in the next simulation will give you all the skills you need to efficiently navigate IFR. Follow the instructions below. Page 58 . Work your way through the first 7 sections and then do the challenge in section 8 until you can quickly score an at “ATPL” level of skill. In the next simulation you will learn a technique called bracketing that will pick up from this point and allow you to determine drift to the nearest degree.

0 to 117. ILS. i. To help you grasp what I mean look in your CAP and write down the frequencies for the following ILS transmitters: . L stands for low altitude. and GPS work.75 those frequencies in which the first digit after the decimal is odd are ILS frequencies. ADF. VOR. applies.75 and are powerful enough for use up to 100 NM (provided the airplane is high enough – because VOR requires line of sight. under Sim-Multimedia there are several interactive tutorials covering: “How VOR Works” “How ADF Works” and “How DME Works.0 are classified as terminal VORs and usually transmit on a lower power output. They normally are not part of the airway structure.” You will find further clarification about how DME works by reviewing the simulations: “DME Jitter” and “Squitters. the desired course (TC.) Between 108. DME and GPS work.75. ADF. VOR stations with frequencies less than 112. approach transitions etc. DME. When doing radio navigation a VOR. this will explain all the navigation aids. From 112. ADF.00 and 117. Read all of section 2 (Navigation Systems) in your Instrument Procedures Manual before continuing.) Once a course is established drift theory.85.75 all frequencies are VOR. or GPS is used to define a track over the ground. On the Intranet. covered above. which are all the VORs on Victor airways (see LO charts below. T stands for terminal VORs.0 to 117.” AFTER you have reviewed all the simulations continue with the following. which are the ones between 108. Your task is to calculate the heading that will keep you on course and the groundspeed. while those where the first digit is even are VORs. and DME Channel Pairing VOR receivers in airplanes are able to tune frequencies between 108.) H stands for high altitude. VORs for use on airways have frequencies 112. It is important to have a basic understanding of how VOR. which are all the VORs used on high altitude airways (see HI charts below. they are used for approaches.) On the KLN-90B GPS (in the B-95 and piston simulators) the map “super-nav 5 mode” can be set to VOR TLH.Chapter 3 Introduction to Radio Navigation In this section you will learn how VOR.00 and 111. or TMG. These radio aids are used to guide pilots during the enroute phase of flight. It is important to realize that there is no difference at all in the objectives or methods of flight planning for IFR flight and VFR flight.e.00 and 111. and Auto-standby.

Note above 112.15 107.50 IEM 109.70 109.55 111.20 111.30 IQL To confirm your understanding of the frequency allocation system complete the following table: Frequency 107.85 109.60 VOR/ILS n/a ILS VOR ILS VOR VOR Terminal – low power Airway.45 112.low power Comment Not a valid freq Page 60 .Navigation for Professional Pilots Airport Vancouver (CYVR) Vancouver (CYVR) Vancouver (CYVR) Vancouver (CYVR) Victoria (CYYJ) Victoria (CYYJ) Abbotsford (CYXX) Kelowna (CYLW) Calgary (CYXC) Calgary (CYXC) Calgary (CYXC) Lethbridge (CYQL) Runway 26R 26L 08R 08L 09 27 07 16 16 28 34 05 ILS Ident Frequency IFZ IVR 110.0 so not an ILS Terminal .30 109.15 109.

15 114.70 There are a total combined 200 VOR and ILS frequencies.95. Page 61 . (See COM 3.Navigation for Professional Pilots 115.5 in your AIM. DME channels are numbered according to the military TACAN channel. but if you look on the map it just says DME Channel 106. 40 ILS and 160 VOR. The complete list is found in your CFS section D2. but in reality if the VOR signal is blocked by building. Operationally there is no difference between an X channel and a Y channel – both transmit squitters on the same frequency but listen for interrogation on different frequencies therefore they will interfere with each other and must not be used in the same area. which is shown on the charts. up to 112. This means that you must be above the horizon of the VOR. as shown in the diagram below.9 corresponds to DME channel 106X. with X channels corresponding to VOR and ILS frequencies that end in decimal 00 while the Y channels correspond to VOR and ILS frequencies that end in decimal 05.95 109. It is important to realize that a specific DME channel always goes with a specific VOR / ILS frequency and that is how your Nav radio is able to tune the DME without you needing to input the DME channel. Because of the numbering protocol there are two VOR frequencies then two ILS frequencies.30 117. By convention. DME channels alternate between X and Y. VOR Reception Range To receive a VOR you must be high enough to have line of sight to it. mountains.) In the diagram that follows no shadow effect is considered. etc. for example YVR frequency 115.00. There is no reason to memorize the DME channel assignments although you should understand how the frequencies are assigned.85 112. which corresponds to DME channel 56Y. There are more TACAN channels than VOR channels so the first DME channel used in civilian flying is 17 and TACANs 57 to 66 inclusive are not used either. etc the reception range will be less than indicated by the formula. on LO charts and in the CAP the X is dropped from DME channels – only the Y is shown. But ILS 26R is frequency 111.

Thus the recommended formula is: S = 1.500 5.23(alt). Using Pythagoras’ theorem and solving for s results in an equation.000 20.000 S . s is in NM] To receive a VOR you must be within the slant range (s) given by the equation above.VOR reception range (NM) 50 87 123 VOR range may be limited to 150 NM by power Page 62 .5 + 9 [alt in feet. A few sample values are: Altitude (agl) 1.000 10. But actual reception range is not zero when at ground level.Navigation for Professional Pilots In the diagram it is clear that the aircraft’s altitude plus the radius of the earth forms the hypotenuse of a right triangle with r and distance from VOR (s) as the other sides.

if working properly. The simulations show that an RMI does not always point at the station. discussed below. DME – Final Thoughts Perhaps the most important thing to be aware of about VORs is that VOR receivers determine what radial you are on but have NO WAY of knowing the relative bearing to the VOR. if you are at 4000 agl you need to be at least 4NM away to get an accurate groundspeed. Consequently an RMI needle can only point accurately at a VOR if the heading indicator is accurate. ADF. Because of the slant range error groundspeeds calculated by a DME are not accurate when close to the station. you can always find your way to the station even with a failed heading indicator. When you fly over the station a DME shows your altitude in nautical miles.000 150+ NM – dependent of power VOR. If a heading indicator fails or is set incorrectly an RMI will NOT point at the VOR.000 feet you need to be 40NM away to get an accurate groundspeed.Navigation for Professional Pilots 30. An ADF. As a result you will be flying on the WRONG course if your heading indicator is not accurate. An RMI needle rotates so that the tail of the needle corresponds to the radial the airplane is on. The ADF in Selkirk College airplanes can tune frequencies up to 1200 (higher bands are not useable. It does so even if the heading indicator is set incorrectly. It is important to know that DME gives “slant-range” which is the actual distance from the airplane to the DME station. The bottom line for pilots is to know and understand the differences between VOR and ADF in normal and heading-reference-failed modes of flight. which you cannot do with a VOR. always points at the station.) A complete list of every radio station in Canada is on page D27 of your CFS. Usually you use your ADF radio with non-directional beacons (NDBs) but it can also tune commercial AM radio stations. it always does this even if the heading indicator is wrong. In other words. The rule of thumb is to consider DME based groundspeed accurate only when distance from station in nautical miles is greater than altitude in thousands of feet. There is a simulation on Intranet that fully explains the indications of the various navigation displays you will encounter in this program. This is distinctly different than ADF. but if you are at 40. It examines the most common navigation indicators: Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) Standard VOR/ILS indicator Radio Magnetic Indicator (RMI) Fixed Card Indicator Page 63 . On the other hand.

Also read section 2. You will also see that while an RMI is a great thing to have. Consequently GPS is more accurate than VOR or ADF for the enroute phase of flight. (Note: the GPS in the simulators does not give accurate time. and your GPS is a legal source of accurate time. GPS Navigation The basic operating principles of GPS are explained in a slide-show on our Intranet. so this is obvious when you stop to think about it. They will be covered in Avia 260. and Avia 260. You will learn all the legal requirements for RAIM in Avia 120 and 220. RAIM is one method of improving warning that a failure has occurred. You will see for example that as wonderful as an HSI is it doesn’t work with ADF.) Bracketing It might not seem so at first but radio navigation can be done in accordance with the principles of DR or pilotage. it doesn’t work with ILS. Avia 160. The link can be found under Avia 100. Distance values displayed on a GPS are horizontal. You will learn what each of these indicators looks like. the accuracy of GPS is the same regardless of where you are on the airway. and you will also have a very hard time avoiding wild swings in close proximity to the station where the needle can move very quickly due to increased sensitivity. but you won’t determine the heading that keeps you on track and will thus tend to chase wildly back and forth when you get further from the station where the signal is less sensitive.) When using VOR and ADF navigation accuracy is greatest close to the stations and less accurate farther away. When we defined these terms (review if you don’t remember the meanings) we said that DR is a more sophisticated form of navigation. The theory of their operation is not part of this course.) GPS gives distance off track rather than angle off track (VOR and ADF give angle off track.e. Pilots should always set their clock (watch) accurately for IFR flight. In the following description of the Nav Displays simulation marker beacons and ILS is mentioned for completeness.) There are pros and cons to this and you MUST learn to translate between both in your mind (more on that later.2 (Navigation systems) in the Instrument Procedures Manual.Navigation for Professional Pilots Each navigation display has its advantages. many pilots use pilotage anyway. This material is also covered in the readings assigned above. what it displays and what it doesn’t. Pilotage in terms of VOR or ADF navigation means “chasing the needles. i. Page 64 .” If you simply turn so as to push the needle back where it belongs (centered for a standard VOR indicator) you will stay on course. Since GPS has no stations. Take every opportunity to set your watch to the GPS in the airplane. Sadly. A major problem with GPS is that it can fail in certain ways without giving a warning to the pilot. Thus GPS gives accurate groundspeed even when close to “the station” (of course there really is no station. Read this entire slide show before continuing. they are NOT slant range. etc. An important thing to realize is that a properly functioning GPS is a very accurate source of time.

This is covered in a simulation on the Intranet. If you can’t fly precisely you won’t be able to take full advantage of the procedures you are learning in this course. just to make things more challenging. It should be pretty easy to remember them. The main ones are: A = All H = HSI S = Standard VOR Indicator R = RMI F = Fixed Card Indicator You may choose any navigation display you wish. The technique used to find the exact amount of drift is called bracketing. The other thing you must do when bracketing is remember what headings you have been flying. so you can observe which way the airplane is drifting. Examining a written record of the headings you have flown will show whether you are “zeroing in” on the required heading. In the simulation. I recommend that you start with HSI or ALL. but for the first few times through this simulation you might like to have a pad of paper and write down what you have done. although it is easy if you use the autopilot. There are several secret codes built into this simulation. will you? To master bracketing one thing that is needed is to fly precisely.Navigation for Professional Pilots The secret to avoiding needle chasing is to use a technique called Bracketing. They just wallow around the sky chasing needles back and forth. You will see that even in this worst-case scenario you can use bracketing to figure out drift. as these are easier to see drift on. However. Because winds aloft forecasts are not perfect you will need to adjust your heading enroute until you find the exact amount of drift. you won’t be one of those guys. but it can only get you roughly to the correct heading. When you fly the airplane you must try to fly headings as precisely as possible. Page 65 . you are not given any wind information at all. But. Sadly many IFR pilots never master bracketing. This is an invaluable technique and one you should use every day as an IFR pilot. in the real world it can be more challenging. In the simulation flying accurately is easy. Load the simulation called Bracketing – Tracking Technique In the previous simulation we learned to estimate wind drift based on the forecast wind. or wallowing.

the instructor is waiting to see which way the airplane will drift. Read the “instructors mind” (the green box at the lower right. Press the 2-key The secret code places the airplane on course 090.) Initially it says that the instructor is evaluating the heading 090. Tip: set time compression to zero to freeze the motion after each turn the instructor makes. Tip: as you observe the simulation you should press the 2-key to restart the sequence if it gets ahead of your reading. I. Pretty soon the instructor sees that the needle is moving left (picture above. The instructor has begun searching for a left limit (see comment in instructor’s mind.Navigation for Professional Pilots Establishing the Brackets The following explanation will take you through a tutorial using the Bracketing simulation – please complete this section while using the simulation. 12 miles west of the navaid. We call this the right hand bracket. so you can keep up with the process. Set time compression to 1X unless you have a very slow computer. Whatever heading is needed to stay on course it MUST be less than this heading. Set time compression to zero (0X. The flying instructor is flying.) The “instructor’ mind” says 090 is the maximum heading he will ever fly.E.) Page 66 .) Therefore he knows that 090 is too far right.

It should now say: Minimum: 070 Evaluating: 080 Maximum: 090 Page 67 . He then waits to see what the needle does. Watch the instructor complete the above-described procedure. or click the “Start Over” button. “searching for left limit. The IMPORTANT point is that it only matters WHICH WAY THE NEEDLE IS MOVING. Next he tries heading 080. Read the instructor’s mind. the instructor flies heading 085 for a few seconds until he realizes that the CDI is still moving left.” The needle still moves very slightly left on heading 075. he tries 075. but the needle still moves left.Navigation for Professional Pilots Here is what you will see. After a few seconds on heading 070 the instructor sees that the CDI has begun to move to the right. All this time the instructor’s mind says. When the airplane is on heading 070 set time compression to zero. So. so the instructor tries heading 070. So. or just want to see it happen again. If you miss part of process. either press the 2-key again. First the instructor turns 5 degrees left.

the instructor is programmed to just split the bracket into half. This is called the left hand bracket. NOTE: Whenever the airplane is off course always fly the corresponding bracket heading until back on course. In this case the brackets are 070 and 090 so the instructor decides that when he gets back on course he will try heading 080. Reading the instructor’s mind you now see that he realizes that heading 070 is less than the heading that WILL be required to stay on course. To recap what has happened so far: 1. he establishes 070 as the minimum heading (left hand bracket) Based on the above. the instructor knows FOR SURE that the required heading to keep on course is between 070 and 090. So. so increase time compression until he has time to think. the instructor discovered that 070 was the first heading to the left that caused the CDI to move to the right. so he established 090 as the maximum heading (right hand bracket) 2. This commitment prevents wild chasing of the needle back and forth (a common mistake of new IFR pilots. His mind now states that the minimum heading will be 070. then return time compression to zero. In his mind he indicates 080 as the heading he is evaluating. Note that whenever the airplane gets off course the instructor will always go to (but NEVER beyond) the brackets – and will hold that heading until the airplane gets back on course. The instructor realized the airplane was drifting right on heading 090.Navigation for Professional Pilots Comments: Left-limit established If it doesn’t say the above you need to give the instructor a few more seconds to think.) However. NOTE: The instructor will remain on heading 070 until the CDI re-centers.) A really good pilot could tell from all that has happened so far that the correct heading is closer to 070 than 090 (see comments below about “beating” the computerized flying instructor. After searching. Page 68 .

Increase time compression from zero to see what happens.e. The CDI moves left. indicating that 080 is the required heading. Now read the instructor’s mind. once he is back on course. 075. indicating there is less than 10-degrees of drift. See how long it takes for you to realize the CDI is moving. he chooses the midpoint.) The instructor now realizes that 080 is not the correct heading to stay on course. The CDI does not move. that the CDI moves left on heading 080. he revises his maximum heading (right hand bracket) to 080 (From now on. He will fly heading 070 until he gets back on course. and then tries heading 080 to see what happens: Increase time compression Watch the instructor. 2.) Read the instructors mind. As soon as he is on course he will turn to the evaluation heading. The comment in his mind says that he is “trying evaluation heading. and read his mind. Set time compression to zero again. There are only three possible outcomes to this situation: 1. In fact he now knows. as the heading he will evaluate next. Page 69 .” i. The revised brackets are 070 and 080. The instructor immediately turns to his left bracket heading of 070. He still states that the brackets (minimum and maximum) are 070 and 090. even if he gets left of course at some point there is no need to fly a heading more than 080. After a few seconds the CDI moves a bit to the left.Navigation for Professional Pilots The instructor remains on the left bracket (070) until back on course. The CDI moves right. indicating there is more than 10-degrees of drift. Increase time compression from zero and watch what happens. 080. he on course and flying heading 080. for sure. So. notice that as soon as the instructor realizes he is drifting off he turns to the bracket heading (but not beyond the bracket. First. 3. So. Set time compression to zero once the instructor gets to heading 080.

The computerized flying instructor is a stickler for purity so he revises the brackets to 075 and 080 and revises his drift estimate to 12. The CDI moves right.e. This tells the pilot that the drift MUST be very close to 15 degrees. His mind now says that he is evaluating heading 075 (i. 2. indicating there is less than 15-degrees of drift.) He now turns to his right bracket heading of 080 to get back on course and then tries heading 078. See comments below about beating the computerized flying instructor. slowly. This tells the instructor that there is less than 15 degrees of drift. if it moves right the brackets will become 075 & 080. The CDI does not move. guessing that there is 15-degrees of drift. Page 70 . Increase time compression again to see what happens. indicating there is more than 15-degrees of drift. So no matter what happens we will have narrowed down the drift to a five-degree range. The same three possibilities exist: 1. then 2½ (in theory. If the CDI moves left the brackets will again be adjusted. Can you now see how things keep going? Each time we evaluate a heading we reduce the span of the brackets in half. The CDI remains centered for a long time. The CDI moves left. 3. Soon they will span only 5 degrees.) After one bracketing cycle the brackets have been reduced from a 20 degree span to 10 degrees. indicating that there is exactly 15-degrees of drift. becoming 070 & 075. Increase time compression and watch the instructor fly past the station. Eventually the CDI starts to move right.5. The brackets are at 070 and 080 respectively.Navigation for Professional Pilots After a few seconds on the left bracket (070) the CDI is again centered and the instructor turns to heading 075. A wise pilot would take the amount of time it took the CDI to move into account and revise the drift estimate to 14-degrees. Now the instructor is flying heading 075.5 degrees (heading 077. although the instructor will keep going as far as he can.) Usually there is no practical need to get the brackets closer than 5 degrees to each other. Once the airplane is within a mile of the station it is best to STOP bracketing and simply fly the evaluation heading until a mile beyond the station.

Try secret coed 3. The computerized flying instructor is programmed to open the brackets by +/.Navigation for Professional Pilots Theoretically the process continues exactly the same on the outbound leg. After that all you have to do is maintain heading accurately and you have things made. if only you will use it. However. However. All the computerized flying instructor to demonstrate if you like. If you “blow” a particular attempt use the “Start Over” button to try again. Press the F-key to switch to Fixed Card Indicator and practice bracketing. we hope) at station passage it is wise to “open up” the brackets slightly once bracketing begins again on the outbound leg. because you usually are slightly off course (just a few feet. 4. Bracketing is a foolproof system. Outbound bracketing then continues exactly as before If you use bracketing faithfully you can establish drift within one or two degrees in short order. Page 71 . Use ALL the Navigation Displays If you followed the advice above you started by practicing bracketing with an HSI.. Make liberal use of setting time compression to zero. I fully expect that you will spend several hours with this simulation before you are comfortable with bracketing. so you can think about what the logic is. You can click the “You have control” button at anytime to have the computerized flying instructor take over and demonstrate the procedure to you. usually after each turn. you MUST master bracketing with: Standard VOR Indicator RMI Fixed Card Indicator Press the S-key to switch to standard VOR indicator and practice bracketing.3-dgrees. and 5 for more practice. Press the R-key to switch to RMI and practice bracketing. Repeat secret code 2 as many times as you need to until you fully understand all the logic of bracketing. but it will be time very well spent.

and would only revise the heading to 076.) But. The point is that you don’t always have to divide each bracket exactly in half.) Break-out Logic A FUNDAMENTAL principle of bracketing is that you commit to NEVER fly outside the brackets. If it doesn’t what do you do? If you have a manual HI check the compass and reset it. most airplanes don’t have moving map displays.Navigation for Professional Pilots Hide the Visual Aids By default the wind is hidden but all the other visual aids are visible. click the “Hide All” button at the bottom of the simulation to make the process more challenging. However. when the instructor tries heading 075 and the CDI doesn’t move for a long time any human would realize that the drift is close to 15. Use common sense (something the computerized flying instructor never does. If precession is not the culprit then there are only two possibilities: Page 72 . People are smart.) Review secret code 2 above until what I have said here makes sense. Include Outbound By default the computer generates inbound bracketing exercises. So. the brackets won’t work anymore. IMMEDIATELY that you notice you are off course always turn to the relevant bracket heading. Similarly a human would move the left bracket NOT from 070 to 075 but only to about 073 (or so. but you should still do some outbound bracketing practice. However. above. if the wind changes. In secret code 2. there is no real difference between bracketing inbound and outbound. This prevents the wild chasing of the CDI or RMI needle that commonly plagues new IFR pilots. if you check the box at the lower left of the simulation the computer will randomly include some outbound bracketing exercises for you. or your heading indicator precesses. The idea of bracketing is that you always have two brackets in mind that you KNOW FOR SURE make the CDI move left and right (but only just. so you need to be able to navigate with only “raw” navigation data. “Beating” the Computerized Flying Instructor Computers are dumb. Within a few seconds the CDI should start to slowly come back to center. As you have seen.

25 degrees closer to course he moves the bracket out by three degrees. If it was a wind shift then you should change the evaluation heading in the same direction you opened the bracket. The navigation display is wrong The wind changed If you have no reason to believe the wind changed then test the navigation radios. if your bracket heading does not center the CDI you must CHANGE the bracket. tweaking it one degree at a time. If he flies the bracket heading for 30 seconds and does not get at least 0. Pretty soon you will have adjusted your heading and brackets so that you have two brackets about +/-5 degrees from your best estimated heading. Using your judgment you revise your estimated heading.10-degrees from there. Page 73 . The question is. Note: you can only tweak the evaluation heading one degree at a time if you can fly your heading accurately enough to make such judgments.Navigation for Professional Pilots 1. move the bracket in. In the real world you should always know roughly what the wind is. although it is amazing how many ILS approaches have bows in them caused by electronic interference on the ground. When you do. VOR and ILS are much less likely to give false indications. 2. With this head start you should have a near perfect heading bracketed out within a couple of minutes.) ADF is particularly prone to giving false indications so if you have no reason to believe the wind has changed just keep flying your heading for a minute and see what happens. Check the Morse code identifier to make sure the station has not gone off the air. Once you determine that the off course indication is real. The computerized flying instructor has breakout logic. then reset the OBS. In this simulation the bracket always starts from the zero point. In computer programming this is called breakout logic. but NOT all the way to your original evaluation heading. Bracketing Summary Bracketing is a fundamental tracking procedure. For a CDI turn the OBS a few degrees. If you think the problem was a temporary navigation signal deflection then don’t change the evaluation heading. Then you set your initial brackets at +/. Usually the false indication will go away and you will see that you were on course the whole time. If you start with a +/. but half as much. when you move the bracket should you change the evaluation heading? That depends on what you think caused the problem. also stand ready to close the bracket back in to where it was before.10-degree bracket it should only take a minute until you can tell whether you need to adjust your evaluation heading left or right. using the technique of drift estimation covered earlier. If the radio has a test button press it. (For example the ADF radio can be switched from ADF to ANT then back to ADF. You then react to even small CDI deflections by turning to the appropriate bracket immediately. with a totally unknown wind. See if that changes the indication. Therefore you start with your best estimate of the heading to stay on course.

0NM up. that means the RMI points at the right wingtip.” This simulation is for practicing DME arcs. To fly an arc you must first fly a path that crosses the arc. DME arcs can be assigned at any distance from a DME station from 7. You can also fly arcs using the Alsim simulation. Load the simulation called “Flying a DME ARC. The navigation display also includes an HSI. you are cleared for a practice DME arc. so that it acts like an RMI. Please load the simulation and follow along with the example below. DME arcs are used on many IFR approaches and terminal arrival procedures. DME arcs are normally flown using an RMI. If you have neither RMI nor HSI it is not good practice to fly DME arcs. If an airplane has an HSI but no RMI you can still do an arc by manually turning the HSI to keep it centered. A left arc means the RMI points at the left wingtip. Another common way is to be vectored until you intercept the arc. Once you intercept the arc turn so that the RMI needle points at the wingtip. The simplest way to do this is to fly directly toward the VOR until you reach the desired distance to arc. Intercept the 8 DME arc from the 120 radial and arc counter-clockwise to intercept the course 180. a standard VOR indicator and an RMI. Your lead radial will be 014. The easiest way to explain arcing is through an example. I have not provided the option for doing arcs without an RMI in this simulation. but it is best to master this simulation first. Now we will learn to fly a perfectly circular path.” Page 74 .Navigation for Professional Pilots Because bracketing is so powerful you can easily see that when combined with the drift estimation technique covered earlier you can perform very accurate DR radio navigation even in the absence of completely precise wind forecasts. They allow airplanes to get lined up for approaches without the high workload (for controllers) of radar vectors. Therefore the simulation includes an RMI. Flying a DME ARC So far we have been concentrating on flying in a perfectly straight line. Smaller arcs are never used. Press the 1-key This secret code brings up a clearance that reads: “Pilot 200. If you are arcing right.

) Set time compression as required and watch the entire demonstration. Intercept course 180 means that the objective is to wind up flying inbound on the 000 radial.Navigation for Professional Pilots The picture below shows the computerized flying instructor about half way through complying with this clearance. which is the designated start radial. 8 DME arc means that the airplane must fly a circular orbit around the VORTAC at a distance of 8.0 Nm. (Later we will do an example where the airplane flies inbound on the 120 radial. When you get to the lead radial you are almost at your assigned course. (Press the 1-key to restart if necessary. so you generally stop arcing and turn to intercept the assigned course (at 45°.) Page 75 . Let’s start by breaking down the clearance to make sure we understand it. Initially the airplane is flying outbound along the 120 radial.) Watch the Flying Instructor demonstrate the arc. (Indicated on DME radio. Think of lead radials like a wakeup call. Lead radial will be 014 means that when the airplane crosses the 014 radial it will be 2 NM from the assigned course.) From the 120 radial means that the arc starts at the 120 radial Counter-clockwise is the direction or orbit.

Navigation for Professional Pilots The instructor’s mind can be read at the lower right.2 (the value will be different if you chose a cruise speed other than 150 KIAS. At the calculated lead distance the instructor starts his turn. He plans to turn when the DME reads 7. Watch the flying instructor. (1% = 1.2 to the calculated value. so the groundspeed equals the TAS. so ½% is about .0 Nm as he rolls out on that heading. At 7.8 Nm.2 Nm he makes a left turn to heading 030. Allowing about six seconds to get up to rate one turn. He states that he intends to lead the turn onto the arc. In this demonstration the wind is zero. you should add an extra 0.5% of Groundspeed For example an airplane flying 156 Knots groundspeed would need to lead the turn by about . Simply look at the tip of the RMI needle and turn 90° from that.) Keep in mind that the airplane must be in the turn at the designated distance.8 Nm.1 to 0.6 Nm. In the example the RMI points to 300 so the first heading must be 300 + 90 = 390 degrees – but that is 030. Page 76 . If the lead was correct the DME should read 8. The pilot must turn so that the RMI is on the left wingtip. Assuming that the turn will be at rate one a simple mathematical formula for radius of turn can be derived: R = Groundspeed / 200 In other words: r = .) The above diagram shows that the turn to intercept an arc should start at a distance equal to the radius of turn of the airplane.

1 or more) he turns so that the RMI needle is MORE than 5 degrees in front of the wingtip. In this case we are flying a counter-clockwise arc so the RMI needle must point near the left wingtip.Navigation for Professional Pilots The only instruments needed to arc are the RMI and DME. He then turns 10 degrees left. To understand an arc you must remember what your high school math teacher taught you. which shows your radial. As this happens the RMI needle will move past the wingtip. is keep the RMI needle on the wingtip and the DME will not change. What do we do if we drift off the designated DME distance? The instructor constantly monitors the DME.e. This pattern repeats over and over. The HSI and OBS are not needed to fly the arc. The airplane will be slightly more than 90degrees from the final course when the lead radial is reached. As long as the RMI needle is kept in front of the wingtip the airplane will move in. (Prior to reaching the lead radial the CDI always deflects to the center of the arc. a line tangent to a circle is always at right angles to the radius.9. Consequently the RMI needle. If the airplane gets a bit wide (DME reads 8. Correcting this is simple. Therefore. The airplane would fly a perfect arc. Just like a rock on the end of a string moves out instantly if you let go of the string the instructor realizes that if he simply stops turning. Once the DME reaches 8. maintains whatever heading he is on) the airplane will move out on the arc. He then maintains a constant heading until the RMI needle drops to five degrees behind the wingtip. we use a technique of making a series of short straight legs that approximate the arc. closer to the VORTAC. Unfortunately it is not possible to do such a perfect arc. the instructor realizes that he is inside the designated arc. Therefore. Once the needle is below the wingtip DME will start to increase. In zero wind all you need do. If the DME drops to 7. The #2 CDI will center as the airplane crosses the lead radial. once the airplane is established on the arc the instructor will set the HSI to the assigned course (180 in this example) and set the OBS to the lead radial (014 in this example. in theory. bringing the RMI needle five degrees ahead of the wingtip again. and that is easy to see on the HSI. (i. Watch the flying instructor fly the demonstration and note how it is done.) Page 77 . If the DME is remains at more than 8. The instructor turns so that the RMI needle is five degrees ahead of the left wingtip.0 the instructor resumes the usual arc procedure by turning to bring RMI needle near the wingtip again. must always be at or near the wingtip when flying an arc.0 as the RMI needle approaches the wingtip the instructor will turn to keep the needle ahead of the wingtip.) With the HSI set the pilot can visualize how the arc is going.

From this point on the demonstration is exactly the same as before.8 Nm. Whenever the RMI needle is ahead of the wingtip there is a small DME groundspeed. DME Groundspeed During an ARC As you watch the instructor fly the arc notice the DME groundspeed readout.Navigation for Professional Pilots As the airplane crosses the lead radial the instructor will STOP arcing and turn to make a 45-degree intercept of the assigned course.2 deviations from the assigned DME. Now it is your turn to fly the arc. but you should not permit 0.e. Every time the RMI needle passes the wingtip the groundspeed reads zero. not turning. again. and DME is telling you how quickly. You will find it impossible to prevent 0.1 of the assigned value. If the groundspeed is increasing the airplane is getting further away from the VORTAC. An important to rule to note is that if the groundspeed is decreasing the airplane is getting closer to the VORTAC.) Press the 1-key. not groundspeed. Tip: remember to set the HSI to 180 and the OBS to 014 once you are established on the arc. then tracks inbound using the usual bracketing technique. Practice the procedure until you can keep the DME within 0.1 variations. again. He simply holds the 45-degree intercept heading until on the course. Whenever the RMI needle is behind the wingtip there is a small DME groundspeed. As before the first turn is to heading 030.E. Then press the “I Have Control” button. Once again the instructor calculates that 0. so he starts the turn at 8. These statements are only true if the airplane is flying straight (i. Press the 2-key The assigned practice arc is exactly the same as the previous one. Remember we learned in chapter two that DME actually shows closing speed. The only difference is that this time the airplane is flying inbound to the arc along the 120 radial. Common sense tells us that we are “cutting in” on the arc.8 Nm lead is needed. I. In this case we are moving away from the DME station at the indicated rate. Now try the intercept from outside the arc on your own. Then press the “I Have Control” button. we are flying a prefect arc. Press the 2-key. So when the DME reads a speed of zero the airplane is NOT moving in or out on the arc. Page 78 .

we saw that the closing speed was zero when the RMI was exactly on the wingtip. When it is your turn you will do better. Unfortunately the computerized flying instructor doesn’t know that. BUT the difference is a 30-knot west wind. From the map you can see that the wind is going to blow the airplane wide on the arc. But. Then press the “I Have Control” button. As the airplane is blown wide on the arc the instructor sees the DME reach 8. the “zero point” changes as the airplane proceeds around the arc. He then keeps turning to maintain the RMI needle ahead of the wingtip until the DME returns to 8.1. so every time he gets back on the arc he turns to place the RMI only 5-degrees in front of the wingtip. But. That is good. in this case the closing speed is zero when the RMI is slightly ahead of the wingtip. until you are better than the instructor. Press the 3-key.9 Nm this time (these values will be different if you chose a different cruise speed. Repeat this exercise until you can stay within 0. At that point he turns to move the RMI needle 10 degrees ahead of the wingtip. Watch and see what happens when he turns to 030. What adjustments to the previous procedure will be needed? First notice that the groundspeed as we fly along the 120 radial is almost 180 knots. the computerized flying instructor has not been blessed with common sense. and that is not enough. He then monitors the DME. Page 79 . Right? The good news is that even with his limited intelligence the instructor keeps the airplane within half a mile of the arc. we must lead the turn to the arc by 0.Navigation for Professional Pilots Press the 3-key This time the same arc clearance is issued. In the previous example. If the distance does not decrease he turns to move the RMI needle further in front of the wingtip. See if you can do better. A wise pilot would use this information to arc better. Eventually he discovers an amount that causes the DME do decrease. again. when the wind was zero. because the angle the wind makes to the arc keeps changing.0 Watch the DME groundspeed.2 Nm of the arc (i. but not excellent. Now it is your turn to try arcing with a wind blowing you outside the arc. And. because of wind drift. So. Rather than using the wingtip as the zero reference use the point where the groundspeed reads zero. So. and most of the time within ¼ mile.e.) A wise pilot would realize that the first heading should not be 030. he keeps being blown outside the arc.

Learn from the instructor’s mistakes. Press the 5-key This time there is a new arc clearance. so the arc need only be lead by 0. click the “Hide All” button at the bottom of the page and try repeating the arc with no map to help you.2 Nm of the arc. Then press the “I Have Control” button. Try keeping the RMI needle further behind the wingtip than you did with zero wind. Take note of the groundspeed on the DME (too bad the instructor doesn’t do that. As usual the instructor doesn’t keep the RMI needle far enough ahead of the wingtip. It is also at a different distance. You should be able stay within 0.Navigation for Professional Pilots Hide the visual aids.) Predictably he is blown back inside the arc and has to correct again. Press the 5-key. This time the groundspeed along the 120 radial is only 130 knots. so the first turn is to heading 270 + 90 = 360. but now the wind is 30 knots from the east. Then. Having the moving map to help you judge the arc makes it easier. Watch as the instructor flies the arc. so he keeps blowing outside the arc.) A wise pilot would realize that in this situation the RMI needle should be kept behind the wingtip. Now it is your turn to try arcing with a wind blowing you into the arc. press the 4-key Once again we have the exact same arc clearance. again. You can do better than he. Unfortunately most airplanes don’t have this feature. So.0 DME. again. There is a 20-knot wind from the southeast so the wind is blowing the airplane outside the arc. This arc goes clockwise. Press the 4-key. Then press the “I Have Control” button. Every time he gets back on the arc he turns to put the RMI needle five degrees ahead of the wingtip (as you would in zero wind. Page 80 . But. The instructor will therefore keep flying straight legs. Watch the instructor demonstrate this arc. The wind will keep blowing the airplane inside the arc. The start radial is 270. 10. the instructor is a bit too dense for that. allowing the RMI needle to drop further behind the wingtip to get back on the arc.6 Nm. Turn the visual aids on again.

Intercepting a Course (PDT) Every IFR fling involves establishing yourself on an airway and an approach.) It is one of your most fundamental skills. “Desired to the head. plus 30. You can make your choice from: Page 81 .” Outbound intercepts can be completed regardless of how many degrees you are currently off course. Choose a Navigation Display Before we begin you must choose a navigation display. To intercept a course outbound we use another simple little saying. Make sure you are practicing successfully with all the visual aids hidden before moving on. Every time you click the “Do Another” button the computer generates a random arc clearance with a random wind. The arcs are at distances from 6 miles to 12 miles. You will be mastering two separate skills: 1. If you are able to arc successfully with this simulation you should be ready to try it in the real airplane.” You will soon see what that means. What you need now is lots of practice. If you wish to limit your practice to only one of these situations adjust the checkboxes. Remember that with the wind blowing you out of the arc you need to keep the RMI needle slightly in front of the wingtip. Thus you will get both intercepts from inside and outside the arc. Load the simulation called “Intercepting a Course – Procedure Turn” As usual choose your cruise speed before clicking the “begin” button to start the simulation. All the procedures you have learned so far still apply. plus 30. The two checkboxes at the bottom of the simulation labeled “Inside Intercept” and “Outside Intercept” are both checked by default. Click the “Do Another” button. “Tail to desired.Navigation for Professional Pilots Now it is your turn to try the clockwise arc. Intercepts Inbound Intercepts Outbound To intercept a course inbound we use a simple little saying. The process of intercepting a particular course is called a PDT (Pre-determined Intercept. If you are off course more than that go directly to the station and perform a procedure turn to establish yourself on the assigned course. At this point we have covered all the techniques of arcing. 2. You can only complete an inbound intercept if you are currently within 60 degrees of the course you wish to intercept.

When dealing with VOR or VORTAC navaids the controller (red box) uses the terminology radial to refer to the course. However it is MUCH easier with an HSI and RMI than without. But when dealing with NDBs the controller uses the term course.” Alternatively. Leave the checkbox at the bottom of the simulation set to “Within 60 PDTs” for now. you are cleared to intercept the 180 degree radial inbound to the YPB VOR. you are cleared to intercept the course 360 inbound to the CM beacon. Press the 1-key The clearance reads: “Pilot 200. At the right side of the screen the red box contains the clearance. or “H” for HSI. Therefore I recommend you start with the option “A” for all.Navigation for Professional Pilots A = All H = HSI S = Standard VOR Indicator R = RMI F = Fixed Card Indicator The procedure for conducting predetermined intercepts (PDT) and flying procedure turns is exactly the same regardless of what navigation display you have.” Note the difference in terminology. Page 82 . By default the simulation generates a random inbound intercept. Indeed the very reason people spend so much money to have HSI in airplanes is to make intercepts easier to visualize. if you have chosen either the “R” for RMI or “F” for fixed card navigation displays the clearance reads: “Pilot 200.

He figures out that he needs to fly a heading of 070 to intercept the course. From the picture it is pretty easy to see that we need to fly eastward. But. 4. The question is.Navigation for Professional Pilots The clearance requests the pilot to intercept the 180 radial inbound. Once on heading 070 everything falls into place. in a real airplane there won’t be a map (in most cases) so we must learn to figure out which direction to fly by looking at the HSI. 6. 8. standard VOR. the instructor is flying. 5. 2. how does he know that he should fly heading 070? We must define: 1. or RMI indicators. 7. As you are reading this. as depicted in the picture above. Assigned Course Desired Course Present Bearing (head) Present Radial (tail) Head Tail Track Error “Within 60” Page 83 . 3.

The arrowhead of the RMI is called the Head. There is no need to take a reciprocal when dealing with outbound courses. If you have an RMI the present bearing is the direction the RMI needle is pointing. The difference between the assigned course and the present bearing is called the track error. at present. (It is easy to visualize on an RMI/HSI combination instrument (see picture below).Navigation for Professional Pilots For an inbound intercept the assigned course is always the direction TO the station. The present radial is the direction that. The PDT procedure we are about to learn only works if you are within 60 degrees. For an outbound intercept the assigned course is always the direction FROM the station. at present. Desired course is a synonym for assigned course. Therefore if the controller has assigned the intercept in terms of radial you must take the reciprocal to get the assigned course.) If track error is less than 60-degrees we say we are within 60. If track error is more than 60 you must fly directly to the station and do a procedure turn. The present bearing is the direction that. Your first task is to set the HSI to the assigned course (if you have an HSI. would take you to the station. If you have only a standard VOR indicator you must center the CDI with a TO flag to get the present bearing. Page 84 . as the angle between the RMI needle and the Course bar. If you have only a standard VOR indicator it is the bearing you get when you center the CDI with a FROM flag.) For a radial put the tail of the course bar on the assigned radial to set the inbound course. The opposite end of the RMI needle is called the Tail. you are FROM the station. If you have an RMI it is found by reading the tail of the RMI needle.

Once you know you are within 60 you simply following the little rhyme “Desired to head plus 30. or the heading indicator if there is neither.) Page 85 . when you need time to read the instructor’s mind. But. Press the 1-key again. Usually in a real world context you will know how far the airway you are trying to intercept is away from you. or observe where he is pointing. then move your eyes a farther 30 degrees. in the context of this simulation you must find your present bearing (head) and compare that to the desired course (arrow on HSI) confirming the difference is less than or equal to 60. See picture above. Notice that the instructor sets the HSI to the assigned course right away. make sure you are within 60.” This simply means that you locate your desired course on the HSI then move your eyes to the head of the RMI needle. That is the heading you need to turn to. so this will be an obvious step. Now that you know the procedure watch the computerized flying instructor execute it. As the instructor does the PDT he points at the HSI (if available) or the RMI if there is no HSI. It is much easier to follow his explanations if there is an HSI. setting it to zero. Later you can have him demonstrate the procedure with other navigation displays. Look at where his finger is pointing (between the course bar and RMI head. Make use of the time compression.Navigation for Professional Pilots Next.) Then he returns his finger to the desired course (head of course bar. Next he locates the present bearing on the RMI and compares that to the course bar. so I recommend starting with that navigation display.

It is important to realize that the heading you must turn to depends on where you are. NOTE: When we say plus 30. plus 30. Set time compression to a value greater than zero.) Then he moves his finger another 30-degrees. Then press the “I Have Control” button. That is all there is to it.” When that makes sense to you move on. so once again the required heading is 070. Watch the computerized flying instructor do the PDT. Therefore the heading he decides to turn to is more than 070. to head. again. The desired bearing is 360. In this example that is a heading of 070.Navigation for Professional Pilots Then he moves his finger to the head of the RMI needle. and the exact same clearance is given. Set Time Compression = 0. Because the airplane is moving the present bearing is more than 040 by the time the instructor gets around to checking it. After confirming you are within 60 say to yourself “desired. Now repeat the PDT yourself. Because you set time compression to zero the instructor is on hold. then press the 2-key The airplane is back at the exact same starting point. (See picture above. we mean 30 beyond the desired course. Make sure you go through the procedure methodically.) Finally he turns to the heading of 070 and flies that heading until he is on the assigned course. the head is at 040. Repeat the rhyme to yourself and try it. (Labeled in picture above. rather than right. Why does he do that? Page 86 . The other thing that probably surprised you is that he decided to turn left. but NOT on your start heading. Press the 1-key.

That could be a good thing in many cases. I find that in real world IFR flying you never really need to worry about this sort of thing. In the example given he is turning to heading 080 but the RMI needle points to about 050. if he turned right he would fly right through heading 050. But. Page 87 . Just turn the most direct way to the chosen heading. The rule programmed into the computerized flying instructor is that if the RMI needle is ahead of the wingtip he simply turns to the chosen heading. So.Navigation for Professional Pilots The picture above shows what the instructor does. The picture below shows what you might have expected him to do. Since he is programmed not to do that he turns the other way. if the airplane is already close to the station it can create difficulties. if the RMI needle is behind the wingtip he will never turn through the RMI needle. But. But. if you and your instructor are practicing PDTs and remaining within 10 miles or so of the station you will find it prudent to take care which way you turn. You can see that if he had turned right he would have intercepted the course much closer to the station.

Set time compression to zero when you need time to analyze what he is doing. But. this time we are on the other side of the course. and do lots of PDTs. Now repeat the PDT yourself. standard VOR indicator or Fixed Card indicator you may do so now. Here is your chance to see what happens if you turn left rather than right. Click the “Hide All” button at the bottom of the simulation. However. And we are at the same starting point as the previous secret code. The difference is only in where you get the required information. Then press the “I Have Control” button. and in how easy it is to visualize. If you do. again. That way you have all the time you need to figure out what heading you want to turn to. Pay attention to his finger. Press the 4-key. TIP: When you first start doing PDTs you should set time compression = 0 BEFORE clicking the “Do Another” button. I recommend mastering PDTs fully with HSI before using the other navigation displays. if you wish to do some PDTs with the RMI. Press the 3-key. Note that the procedure is always the same. so things are changing. Do so at your own discretion. Watch the instructor do the PDT. The procedure however is exactly the same. But the airplane is flying northeast bound. When you are feeling confident with the procedure: Hide all the visual aids. Then press the “I Have Control” button. However. allow the computerized flight instructor to demonstrate the differences in where you must look to get the required information.Navigation for Professional Pilots Press the 3-key Once again the clearance is to intercept the same course. It’s a lot harder with the map hidden. As in secret code 2 the instructor will turn the long way around. You can even challenge yourself by setting the time compression to more than real time. again. Use the “Do Another” button Before moving on to do outbound PDTs you will need lots (and lots and lots) of practice doing inbound PDTs. once you are getting the PDTs correctly you need to be able to do them in real time. Keep the checkbox at the bottom of the simulation set to “Within 60 PDTs” only. Page 88 . Press the 4-key Once again we are assigned to intercept the same course.

“Tail to Desired plus 30. The good news is that this is even easier than inbound intercepts. NOTE: there is NO within 60 limit for outbound intercepts.” Page 89 .” I also recommend returning to the “A” for all or “H” for HSI navigation display. Turn the Visual Aids On.” The picture below shows the objective pictorially. When intercepting the course outbound I will teach you to use an intercept of 30-degrees.” If you have the visual aids turned off click the button at the bottom of the simulation labeled “Show All.Navigation for Professional Pilots Outbound PDTs Now we will learn to intercept a course outbound from the station. you are cleared to intercept the 000 degree radial outbound from the YPB VOR. Press the 5-key The clearance reads: “Pilot 200. Reset navigation display to “All” or “HSI. To perform an outbound intercept we have a different rhyme.

Now. To see this press the R-key then click the “Start Over” button. But. Then he looks at the tail of the RMI. (If you wish to do a 45-degree intercept just move your eyes 45 past the desired instead. if the CDI were deflected right you would fly a heading 30 right of the desired course.) Press the 5-key again. Watch the flying instructor perform the PDT. This is true. or 111 degrees. The second reason is that only the procedure described here will work with an RMI or Fixed Card indicator. Then he looks a further 30 degrees. Then he looks at the HSI course. The required heading in this example is 330. The picture above shows the instructor demonstrating the same PDT but with an RMI indicator. then we move our eyes to the desired outbound course (set on the HSI) then move our eyes a further 30degrees to find the required heading. All you actually have to do is look at the HSI. You may be thinking to yourself that all these steps are not really needed. If the CDI were deflected left you fly a heading 30 left of the desired course. The first is that without doing this you don’t know if you are off track 11 degrees.Navigation for Professional Pilots Notice that this is a different rhyme than for inbound intercepts. I recommend checking the RMI for two reasons. Page 90 . you will see that you MUST do the procedure as described above. In this one we start at the tail of the RMI. First he sets the assigned course (000) on the HSI.

Make sure the “Over 60 PDTs” checkbox is NOT selected. Set Time Compression = 0.” When you are ready: Click the “I have control” button.” If you wish to do only outbound PDTs turn off the “Within 60 PDTs” checkbox. then: Press the 6-key This time we are assigned the same course to intercept and we are at the same starting point. Fly the PDT yourself. then set time compression to more than zero. Keep saying to yourself “tail to desired plus 30. Hide the Visual Aids Practice outbound PDTs with no visual aids. Initially set the time compression to zero before clicking the “Do Anther” button so you will have time to think the procedure through. RMI and Fixed Card indicator. Do several PDTs until you are getting comfortable with the procedure. practice outbound PDTs with standard VOR indicator. At the bottom of the simulation there are three checkboxes labeled: Page 91 . Then Press the 6-key With the airplane frozen you now have all the time you need to go through the procedure. Despite this the instructor comes up with the same intercept heading. Use the “Do Another” button.Navigation for Professional Pilots Return to the HSI display by pressing the A-key or H-key. our start heading is different. Then set time compression to more than zero when you know what heading you want to turn to. 330. If you desire. Random PDT practice Now it is time for you to practice all the skills you have learned in this chapter. But. Change the checkbox at the bottom of the simulation to “Include Outbound.

3. Most airplanes don’t have a moving map. Hide the visual aids. Every time you click the “Do Another” button the computer will generate a random PDT. such as the Fixed Card indicator you must be certain you won’t encounter one in your real world IFR flying. Page 92 . you must work your way up to doing the exercise in real time. Use all the navigation displays. some won’t. once you understand the procedure hide the visual aids and practice with only the navigation instruments. So. Tracking and Intercepting Summary You now know how to track accurately along any assigned course. If the instructor is flying click the “I have control” button. You can estimate the drift and then use bracketing to zero in on the exact amount of drift. If you decide not to use a particular display. Use Time Compression as needed Initially feel free to set time compression to zero to give yourself time to think what you should do. Be sure to practice PDTs with all the navigation displays. You also know how to fly a circular arc around a VORTAC using a DME and RMI. 2. Some will be over 60. You know what a lead radial is and how to set up the HSI and OBS when flying an arc. Using the map makes it far too easy to do PDTs. Read the clearance carefully then try to comply. If you know for certain that the airplane you are doing your IFR rating in has an RMI you may consider skipping Fixed Card indicator – perhaps returning to learn how to use it later. But. Include Outbound Within 60 PDTs Over 60 PDTs Check all three of these check boxes then: Click the “Do Another” button at the top of the simulation.Navigation for Professional Pilots 1. Some will be inbound and some outbound. If you need a demonstration you can give the instructor control at any time.

With the above skills you have all the knowledge you need to master holds and approaches. Keep your bracketing skills at the ready. When the course is more than 60-degrees from your present bearing you know how to fly to the station and perform a procedure turn. including arcs and procedure turns. When an inbound course is within 60 degrees you can go right to it. In chapter 6 we will learn to do approaches where you will be able to use al l the skills you have just learned.Navigation for Professional Pilots You know how to intercept any course. Page 93 . In the next chapter we will learn to perform holds. from a VOR or an NDB. inbound or outbound.

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or V302. The LO charts give the magnetic tracks for these airways. Even if you are navigating with GPS or Loran-C the airways you fly on are based on the positions of VORs and NDBs.Chapter 4 IFR Charts Read section Map 3. for example airway B22 is referred to as “Bravo two two. They show the “low altitude” airways and air routes.000’. section MAP 3.B. The standard phonetic terminology is used.” they are always designated with the letter A. ADF airways are commonly called “Low frequency airways. which is explained below. Airways are based on either VOR or ADF. LO charts also show air routes. . If you have worked through the designated simulations you know how to tune and interpret VOR and ADF radios with either HSI or standard VOR indicators and fixed card or RMI.0. for example V100. The VOR airways are called “Victor airways. which are for airplanes flying less than 18. which are similar to airways but uncontrolled.” All Victor airways have a number which is preceded by the letter V. If not then review that material before proceeding. In an IFR clearance these would be referred to as Victor one zero zero and Victor three zero two. You will learn the regulations governing these in Avia 130. LO Charts LO charts are used for enroute navigation within the low level airspace. In Canada all airways are based on either VOR or ADF. To fly IFR on an airway you need an IFR clearance. or R.G.” Review the legend on your LO1 chart and then do the assignment to confirm you know all the symbols on the charts. High level airways are shown on the HI charts discussed below.2 in your AIM. The charts also show distances so no ruler or protractor is necessary when flight planning with LO charts. The charts you will use regularly in this course are: LO HI Terminal These are explained in your AIM.

) This system works well for airplanes in cruise but is problematic when many airplanes need to climb or descend. When in cloud pilots cannot see other aircraft. Preferred IFR Routes Page 96 . Air traffic controllers are charged with making sure no collision takes place (and your life depends on them doing it.) Airplanes are separated by having opposite direction airplanes at least 1000 feet apart vertically. These are not unlike one-way streets you find in big cities. VFR airplanes are “separated” from IFR by 500 feet (you already know the cruise altitudes for VFR. but you will learn how to prepare an IFR nav-log and flight plan.” Examine the legend of your HI altitude chart and then do the assignment to confirm you understand it. Airways are like highways and like highways they must sometimes cross each other. unlike VFR airplanes. On highways traffic lights and stop signs prevent collisions at intersection. 3000. Imagine trying to do it blindfolded. Indeed airways are generally laid out like spokes on a wheel radiating out from VORs and NDBs.000 feet in the southern domestic airspace (all flight in high level airspace is IFR. You will learn about this in Avia 130 and Avia 260.Navigation for Professional Pilots HI Charts HI Charts are used for enroute navigation in the high altitude airspace. Eastbound airplanes fly at “odd thousand” altitude (1000. and SIDs are the answer.) Most high altitude airways are based on VORs but some are based on NDBs. for example J585. 4000. Overview of IFR System This course is NOT designed to teach you IFR procedures. Note that HI charts do not symbolically indicate which direction corresponds to even and odd cruise altitudes because these altitudes change according to the cruising altitude orders. 5000.) Cruising altitude rules for separating opposite direction flights is not satisfactory in the vicinity of busy airports because large numbers departing and arriving airplanes are climbing and descending creating a night-mare scenario for the controller. and 8000 creating a risk of colliding head-on with westbound traffic in each case. i.) while westbound flights are at “even thousand” altitudes.e. every time. Preferred IFR routes. 6000. Separation of IFR Aircraft IFR airplanes are allowed to fly in clouds. To do that you need to understand the basics of how the “IFR system” operates. In Avia 260 you will learn all about IFR separation. Cars pass each other at combined speeds of 200+ KPH missing head-on collisions by four or five feet (pretty terrifying when you stop to think about it. all are named with a letter “J” followed by a number. in this course you need to know that IFR procedures are for the purpose of keeping airplanes from colliding with one another. Obviously an airplane climbing to 9000 feet (eastbound flight) must climb through 2000. STARs. Separation must be lateral (side to side) or vertical. In a clearance this is referred to as “Jet five eight five. In IFR flight the ATC system takes on that task Airplanes flying along airways in opposite direction cannot pass the way cars on a highway do. at and above 18. etc.

When departing from a small airport there is often no listed preferred route but if you are headed for a major airport you should use common sense and pickup a preferred route. Pilots follow prescribed procedures and climb at specified climb gradients to avoid terrain during departure and when enroute they fly above minimum enroute altitudes (MEA. Airplanes cannot see each other in flight. Some aspects of this task have been indicated above. for example departing Castlegar for Vancouver intercept the preferred route for Calgary to Vancouver. If a preferred route exists you should use it. thus largely removing weather as an impediment to flight. IFR flight makes it possible for airplanes to fly in cloud from departure to destination. It might seem obvious that you would simply look at the LO or HI chart (LO for airplanes that cruise below 18. so some method of descending and establishing visual contact with the runway is needed in order to land The ATC system exists PRIMARILY to keep airplanes from colliding during flight. Before doing that however you should look to see if there is a published “preferred route. ATC finds it easier to control the flow of climbing and descending traffic (departures and arrivals) when outbound airplanes take one route (or set of routes) and inbound airplanes another. A few problems arise when flying in cloud however: 1. but at least one problem is eliminated. In this course you are also expected to designate an alternate on IFR flight plans. etc.) The bottom line is to use preferred routes. Departing airplanes can be cleared to climb without fear of opposite direction traffic. 2.000 and HI for airplanes that cruise at and above) and choose the airway(s) that most directly take you from your departure airport to the destination. The controller only needs to ensure that faster and slower airplanes don’t “overrun” each other. 3. Any other services that controllers provide are secondary to the primary function. so some method of avoiding it must exist Airplanes cannot see the runway. The full set of considerations will become clear during the Professional Pilot Program. and similarly arrivals can be permitted to descend. To clarify why. In short the ATC system solves only problem 1 above. The key word in the previous sentence is procedure and we say that terrain avoidance in IFR flight Page 97 .” This is the aeronautical equivalent of one-way streets that you have probably driven on in large cities. Preferred IFR routes are published starting on page C98 of your CFS. the following highly simplified explanation of IFR flight is provided to get you started. so some method of separating them must exist Airplanes cannot see the ground.Navigation for Professional Pilots When planning an IFR flight one task you must obviously do is choose a route. IFR Alternate Airport In Avia 130 you will learn all the regulations about IFR alternate airports. which is still a substantial task for ATC. In all your flight planning in Avia 260 you will have to allow for an alternate airport. special ferry flight. While the CFS indicates that the system is not mandatory you will find it impossible to get a clearance that does not comply unless you indicate a safety concern (bad weather) or a special operational need (lack of pressurization.) MEAs are shown on LO charts.

In this case an alternate airport. is needed. Pilots are responsible for that through the correct application of IFR procedures. It is always possible that the weather will be so bad that the pilot does not see the runway at the end of an IFR approach procedure. Page 98 . IFR approach procedures are published in the Canada Air Pilot (CAP) which you have purchased.14. where the weather is good. but it should be obvious that the alternate airport must have good weather so that there is NO CHANCE of being unable to land there. On all IFR nav-logs you will include time and fuel to get to an alternate airport. So problem 2 and 3 above are both solved procedurally.” The required weather is specified in the CAP GEN and in RAC 3. These are for the purpose of making a safe descent (taking terrain into account) to a point where the pilot MUST see the runway in order to land on it.Navigation for Professional Pilots is “procedural.” Note that it is NOT the responsibility of ATC to prevent terrain collision. You will learn to assess the FORECAST to determine that an airport is a “legal alternate. You will learn all the regulations for this elsewhere.

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It is your job to keep track of the decimal . These are simple examples of ratios and fractions. 100/200 and so on.6 and so on.8/3. First a quick review of what a ratio is: ½ = 2/4 = 3/6 = 18/36. Thus 10/20 in the photo above represents ½ as well as 10/20. 18/36 also represents 180/360 and 1. etc. The CRUCIAL thing to realize is that you can set any ONE of these ratios on your CR and it will give you ALL the others. 1000. etc. One half equals two quarters. ratios should be thought of as fractions. 10.) A Ratio Machine The outer two rings on the front-side of the CR are a “ratio-machine. In the photo below you can see that all the ratios are given. and eighteen thirty-sixths. On a CR 10 can represent 1.” You will learn to do many useful ratios all of which have practical application in your flying. for our purposes. Get out your CR and set one of the above ratios and see that you have them all. and an infinite number of other ratios. three sixths.100. Work through your CR manual from page 1 to 29 (you should already have done the rest of the book.Chapter 5 The CR Computer You have already learned to use the wind side of the CR. Before we go further it is important to note how numbers are displayed on the CR. now it is time to master the front-side.

This depends on what question you are trying to answer. But in a given situation only a few of these ratios are of practical interest – even so it is important to understand that there are an infinite number of equivalent ratios The secret to making good use of a CR is in knowing which ratios are interesting. A common problem is time and distance. etc.Navigation for Professional Pilots points when using your CR. How many dollars do you earn in 8 hours? Page 102 .) A good clue is the word “per”. which we will deal with under the topic of speed ratios below. Solving problems with a CR requires you to ask. or your own CR. distance to a radio navaid. when you know that something happens “per” something else it is probably a ratio that you can solve with a CR. you can see that ½ equals 17/34 and 17. From the photo above.5/35 and an infinite number of other ratios not previously listed. etc. But there are many other ratios of importance in aviation. unit conversions. For example if you are paid $14 per hour and want to know how much you earn in 40 hours the CR can tell you. It is important to know that not only does ½ = 2/4 also equals 20/40 and 2000/4000. The photo below shows that you earn $560 dollars in (per) 40 hours. For example climb gradients. what relationships are relevant? For example IFR departures require a minimum climb gradient of 200 feet per nautical mile (ft/NM.) To use a CR effectively you must realize that this is a ratio (200/1.

liters/gallons. Examples include pounds/kilograms. statutemiles/kilometers and nautical-miles/kilometers. If you establish ANY relevant ratio relating these values you can use it to determine ALL others. using your CR.Navigation for Professional Pilots Unit Conversions Most unit conversions are simple ratios. For example you may have noticed on the speedometer of your car that 80kph equals 50 mph – set this ratio up on your CR and fill in the table below: 40kph 90kph 800kph _______ mph _______ mph _______ mph Page 103 .

Once this ratio is set all others can be read. Remember that any ratio will do. The KM and Statute markings are found on both the outer and inner ring so you can set the CR up either way. Page 104 . The photo above shows a ratio for km/sm.Navigation for Professional Pilots 100kph 120kph _______ mph _______ mph To solve the above problem we started with the ratio 80/50 which we remembered from the speedometer of a car – but the CR has most of the common ratios marked on its face. so Jeppesen simply marks the ratios wherever they fit without cluttering the face of the computer too much.

2/1 is an equivalent ratio. The same process can be used to discover there are _______ feet in a statute mile.2 pounds equals one kilogram simply set that ratio on the CR to save the trouble of locating the marked ratio shown below: Set the above ratio and confirm that 2.0NM = 6080 feet.Navigation for Professional Pilots Ratios can also be found for: Liters to gallons (both imperial and US) Feet to meters Pounds to Kilograms Remember that if you know a conversion ratio from memory you can save the need to locate one on the CR. First determine how many KM = 1NM and then convert from meters to feet. If you forget you can figure it out with a CR through a two-step process. For example if you know that 2. You will often need to know that 1. Try it yourself to confirm you get the expected value. How many pounds in five kilograms? How many pounds in 16 kilograms? The CR does not have a conversion from Nautical miles to feet. Page 105 .

It is a ratio. The CR has a temperature conversion scale on the front face (see photo below.) You can see that -40°C = -40°F but that 0°C = 32°F. Mach = TAS / speed of sound. For all the other conversions we looked at so far the zero points match. That is a requirement for using ratios as a conversion method.0 Page 106 . The reason ratios don’t work is that 0°C does not equal 0°F.Navigation for Professional Pilots Celsius to Fahrenheit Temperature Conversion You may need to convert from Celsius to Fahrenheit – this is NOT a ratio. -40°C = -40°F but 1°C does not equal 1°F. as shown below. With your CR set as above 1200 knots is what Mach number? The answer is 2. by definition (this is a ratio.) Assume the speed of sound is 600 knots and set the ratio 600/1 on your CR. 20°C = ____? Mach Number You will use Mach number extensively in flight planning.

Navigation for Professional Pilots A C-172 cruising at 105 knots has what Mach number? What is the Mach number of a King Air cruising at 240 knots? The above conversions from TAS to Mach number are simple but only accurate if the ratio 600/1 is correct. Set the Mach index to -25°C (the ISA temperature at 20. 1 610 KTAS 490 KTAS 2 Page 107 . Let’s start with what pilots commonly call a “ground speed check. as shown below. You can see the index in the photo below.E.0 .” You have just flown 17NM in 11 minutes. In fact this ratio is only approximately correct.000’. An airplane cruising at Mach 2. It is CRUCIAL to realize that “speed” is simply a ratio of distance over time. An airliner cruising at Mach 0.0 has a TAS of _____ knots.8 has a TAS of _____ knots.) What is the speed of sound? This amounts to 1 saying what TAS corresponds to Mach 1. You will notice that once you set 600/1 on the CR a Mach index is visible that allows you to “fine tune” the ratio for the actual air temperature. Groundspeed Checks We will now explore a series of time and distance ratios. What would the TAS of the airliner be if the air 2 temperature was -56°C? Speed Ratios – I. the real speed of sound varies with air temperature. what is your groundspeed? Setup your CR with the ratio 17/11.

54/1. how far in 12 minutes? You can determine these and an infinite number of other ratios once17/11 has been set – it’s just that you don’t usually think to ask such questions. “My speed is 17 miles per 11 minutes. If the total length of the trip is 170 NM. how long will it take to get there? Note that since we are responsible for the decimal points the same ratio 17/11 gives the answer. Knot is defined as NM per hour. sometimes. which means 93/60.” That is a pretty weird unit. It is however traditional to specify speed in units of Knots. There are however other ratios that are important beyond the simple 93/60 ratio that is “our groundspeed. How far do we go in 30 minutes. It is VITAL to realize that the symbol. actually represents six (6) or 60 on the CR. but it is indeed your groundspeed.” For example how many miles do we go in one minute. Common sense says that it will Page 108 . as you can see in the photo below: Thus we would say that our groundspeed is 93 knots.Navigation for Professional Pilots To be cheeky you could say. even though it has 1:00 written on it. The photo that shows the 17/11 ratio also shows the ratio 1.54 NM every minute. The airplane is covering 1. but in reality it is NM per 60 minutes. This is an important value to know.

0 NM/min is an IMPRORTANT speed that we will use extensively so you must remember it.5 NM/min 4 Page 109 .e. Consider the diagram below: 3 57 minutes 1.54 NM/min. In the previous example the airplane flew 1. set 90/60 and then look up x/1. and the theory behind them applies in other situations that we will discuss shortly. if you are flying 1 nautical mile per minute what is your groundspeed? In this case set 1/1 and look up x/60. 60 knots – i. Arcs are common in IFR arrival procedures. If your speed is 90 knots how many miles 4 per minute are you covering? To find out. At 60 knots how long does it take to fly 18NM? How long for 78NM? How long for 156NM? The answer to all these is trivial and you should not require your computer. How long would it take to fly 88NM? How long would it take to fly 214NM? Make up your own distances and confirm that you can find the time for any distance you choose. 150 knots is _____ miles per minute.Navigation for Professional Pilots 3 take 110 minutes to fly 170 NM. Time to a Station – ARC Speed The procedure for flying a DME arc was covered previously on page 74. Note that the answer is 60 KTAS. What is x? To approach this problem from the other direction. If you are flying 2 miles per minute your groundspeed is _____ Knots. Miles per Minute Nautical Miles per minute is a value that you will use in many situations so you need to become familiar with it. If you are flying 3 miles per minute your groundspeed is _____ Knots. 1.

Simply set your CR for the ratio 17/11 and lookup the answer.3 degrees. which of course really means degrees per 60 minutes. it will take ______ minutes to fly 57. Here are a few sample problems for you to work through just to be sure: You fly 14 degrees in 7 minutes. How long will it take to fly 20 degrees? How long will it take to fly 60 degrees? Hopefully your reaction to the above is that it is trivially obvious (but you may be thinking it is unimportant – trust me it is VERY IMPORTANT. but this time the arc-speed is 93 degrees/hour. The result is exactly the same as the groundspeed example above in which the airplane flew 17NM in 11 minutes. What is the arc-speed? Arc-speed has units of degrees per hour. It will take _____ minutes to fly 60 degrees. your arc-speed is ______ degrees/hour. Page 110 .Navigation for Professional Pilots The airplane in the diagram is flying around a circle. At the moment shown it has flown 17° of arc in 11 minutes.) Be sure to examine the above until you fully understand it.

Your arc-speed is _____ degrees/hour. The three angles must all be 60 degrees (the sum of the three angles in every triangle is 180°) The three sides of an equilateral triangle are equal to each other.Navigation for Professional Pilots You fly 37 degrees of arc in 3 minutes. In the diagram above distances AB = AC = BC. Now examine the following diagram: Page 111 . it will take ______ minutes to fly 57.3 degrees. It is now time to review some high school trigonometry. First recall what an equilateral triangle is: An equilateral triangle is one that has all three sides the same length and all three angles equal. It will take ______ minutes to fly 60 degrees.

Look at the diagram and estimate the length of the arc compared to AC. Obviously AC will have to be shortened. 10%. consequently the triangle will not be exactly equilateral any more. but how much . but it will be close. Obviously the arc is longer. Consider the diagram below. what do you think? The difference is less than 5%. The center point of the arc is B. such that the length of the arc is the same as the length of the sides AB and BC.1%. Page 112 .Navigation for Professional Pilots The diagram above is the same as the previous one with an arc added. It should be obvious that there is some angle. just a bit less than 60°.

Navigation for Professional Pilots In the diagram above the angle through which the arc sweeps is reduced to 57. AB = AC’ = arc.) The angle X is usually fairly small.3 degrees of arc. Most pilots use this as the answer because it is a lot easier to remember 60 rather than 57.3°or 60°. without the need to actually do it.3 (57. This is the “special” angle for which the length of the arc is exactly equal to the radius. First let us consider the most common situation in which the above theoretical facts comes into actual practice. As you can see. typically less than 15° (but not too small or there will be “round off error. You will even more commonly need to know distance to the station. To be effective AB must approximate flying an arc. so it doesn’t matter if it is 4°. record the time from A to B and the angle X. but that is a two-step process which we will cover in just a moment.3 degrees. 7°. etc.) Time to the station is a common problem in aviation. so the station must be essentially abeam the airplane (as in the diagram. we will now examine why. AB and AC’ have been labeled r in the diagram to remind us that they are the radius of the arc. 11°.”) Angle X is arbitrary. I. Neither will be precisely accurate. The sample problems above asked you to determine the time to fly 60 and 57. simply time whatever is convenient.3 = 180/Π.3° of arc is 37 minutes. Returning to a previous example in which the airplane few 17° of arc in 11 minutes (setup your CR for the ratio 17/11. In the above diagram the airplane is flying an eastbound track that passes north of a VOR. but either will give an answer that is within 5% of the correct value. The above use of “arc-speed” to determine time to a station when flying abeam is one of the most common uses of arc-speed theory.) The time to fly 60° is 39 minutes. 15°. To find out. But. 57. Once you have a “time / x-degrees” ratio setup on your CR all you do is lookup time for 57.) The time to fly 57. since the length of the arc equals the radius it obviously also takes 37 minutes to fly directly to the center of the arc (point B. The pilot wishes to know how long it would take to get to the VOR if s/he turned southbound directly to it.3° is known as one radian. it is an approximation since the airplane actually flies a Page 113 .E.

7°. Note that if you had used 9/60 as your ratio you would get 13.3 (i.3° of arc will be 9NM.) Next we will consider a more precise use of arc-speed theory. but the previous analysis that showed an equilateral triangle is very similar to a one-radian arc. think of the equilateral triangle analogy to help you remember how to do it. To answer the question we need to realize that 57. The LR is always 2NM prior to intercept of the final approach course (087 radial in this case. The answer is 12. 5 The original is in the CAP3 under Brandon Page 114 . It is recommended that in these calculations you use 60° as the reference angle rather than 57.3 on your CR and look up 2/a. but its value has been erased on the above photo.Navigation for Professional Pilots straight line forming a triangle with the station. So set the ratio 9/57.) On the right side of the plate a Lead Radial (LR) is published. Consider the modified approach plate 5 below : To fly this arc you start at the point marked and maintain a constant 9 DME arc to intercept the 087 radial (which lines you up for landing on runway 09.3°. Either way you will round off to 13° and predict the 074 radial as your answer. since it is a 9 DME arc.e.) What should the LR be? See if you can figure it out based on arc-theory before reading the next paragraph.

Imagine the situation in which the flight plan route passes a certain number of miles north of the VOR. but this particular airplane does not have a DME so we will have to do it the “hard way. Learn them well and get comfortable with them. The pilot wishes to determine if s/he is on track (the airplane could be in IFR weather conditions. which extends the time to station calculation previously covered.” Page 115 . so that this method is the only method of fixing position.3 the answer is right in front of you. The second is gradient to rate which is very important for IFR departure and arrival planning. What would the lead radial have been? Two IMPORTANT two-step CR Ratio Problems There are two very important two-step CR calculations that we will cover next. With your CR set to the ratio 9/57. It is much more likely that the pilot wishes to know the distance to the VOR rather than time to the VOR. so be sure you fully understand the above before moving on. Imagine the above DME arc had been 14NM instead of 9. over water. Both demand full mastery of the ratio concepts covered so far. If the airplane is equipped with DME the position check would be easy.Navigation for Professional Pilots Imagine you are flying the above arc arrival and wish to slow down and start your pre-landing checklist 5NM prior to intercepting the final approach track. Look it up before reading the next paragraph. One is distance to a station. what radial should you start to slow down at? If you kept your CR set to 9/57. The above uses of arc-speed are very typical of ones you will experience everyday as a commercial pilot. the pilot would simply note the distance as s/he passed abeam the VOR. Distance to Station Below the same diagram previously examined has been repeated. So you will need to slow down at the 055 radial. or featureless terrain.3 lookup 5/a. The answer is 32°.

Navigation for Professional Pilots

First, it is important to note that we cannot solve this problem unless we already know the groundspeed of the airplane. We will assume that the pilot has been doing his/her job well and knows the groundspeed. Assume the following data and follow along with your CR. The airplane crossed the 355 radial at time 0:00 and crossed the 005 radial 7:00 minutes later. The groundspeed is known to be 144 knots. How far north of the VOR are we? This is going to be a two-step process. What is the first relevant ratio? Think it through on your own before reading the next paragraph. (Tip: what is the angle X?) The airplane has flown through an angle of 10° in 7 minutes. Setup the ratio 10/7 on the CR. Now determine how long it would take to fly 60°. The answer is 42 minutes (10/7 = 60/42.) So time to the station is 42 minutes. In the second step we will determine distance to the station. We know it would take 42 minutes to get there, but how far is it? We know that groundspeed is 144 knots. What ratio do we need to setup? Reason it out before reading the next paragraph. We setup the ratio 144/60 which represents distance in 60 minutes. The relevant ratios are 144/60 = a/42, where a represents the answer. The answer is 101 nautical miles. In summary: When flying abeam a station, calculate distance to the station by: 1. 2. Determining how long it would take to fly a 60° arc (or one side of an equilateral triangle.) Second, determine how much distance is represented by step 1

NOTE: You must already know your groundspeed.

**Gradient to Rate Conversion
**

Many IFR departure plates have notes that specify a required climb gradient, in units of ft/NM. Even when 6 none is specified all departures must achieve a climb gradient of 200 ft/NM . Pilots routinely plan arrivals at a descent gradient of 320 ft/NM (which corresponds to 3°.) Often other descent gradients are required, especially for non-precision approaches in mountainous environments. We will thoroughly examine gradients in what follows. Keep in mind that climb gradient and descent gradient theory is fully interchangeable. Anything you learn about planning descent rates can be applied to climb rates, and vice versa.

6

This relates to the “procedural” terrain separation previously mentioned in the Overview of IFR Flight

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Navigation for Professional Pilots

Unfortunately climb and descent gradients are not directly usable by pilots. Our aircraft are equipped with rate instruments, not gradient instruments. We have an airspeed indicator and often a DME or GPS all of which give our speed (a rate) and we have a vertical speed indicator (VSI) that gives our rate of climb and descent. Our challenge is to translate the published climb and descent gradients into useable verticalspeed/airspeed ratios (rates.) You will find it necessary to remember that 1.0NM = 6080 ft. We will start with a very simple problem, but one that applies to all IFR departures. As stated previously the minimum acceptable climb gradient is 200 ft/NM, as shown in the diagram below.

We can quite simply answer questions such as; what is the minimum safe altitude 5NM after takeoff? Can you setup the required ratio? Try to do so before reading the next paragraph. The ratios are 200/1 = a/5, where a is the answer. The answer is 1000 feet, i.e. you must be at least 1000’ agl 5NM after takeoff to meet the gradient. When you reach 2000’ agl the maximum distance you should be from the airport is ______ NM. The problem we most need to solve is; what vertical speed must we maintain to safely meet the gradient? This is almost trivially simple to answer if you remember that 60 knots is 1.0 NM/min (previously I said that you needed to remember that fact.) If you forget then set your CR to the ratio 1/1 to remind yourself that 1.0 NM/min means 60 miles per 60 minutes. Examine the above diagram and imagine the airplane climbing along the flight path at a groundspeed of 60 knots. After one minute it would be at the 1.0 NM point and its altitude would be 200 feet. After two minutes it would be at the 2.0NM point and its altitude would be 400 feet, etc. It must be clear to you that it requires a vertical speed of 200 fpm. To make rate conversions it is CRUCIAL to realize that an airplane with a groundspeed of 60 knots requires a climb rate equal to the gradient. In this case the relevant ratio is therefore 60/200. What climb rate do you need at 75 knots? Figure it out on your own before reading the next paragraph.

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Set the CR to the ratio 60/200 and lookup 75/a. The answer is 250 fpm. At 85 knots the minimum safe 7 vertical speed is _____ fpm. At 95 knots it is _____ fpm. At 105 knots it is _____ fpm . At 120 knots it is _____ fpm. Not all departures can be made safely at a gradient of 200 ft/NM. When a larger gradient is required the departure chart will specify the required value. The plate below is an example:

You can find the above plate in your CAP2 under Victoria International, Mill Bay SID. Depending on which transition ATC assigns, a climb gradient of 330 ft/NM or 220 ft/NM applies. Let’s work out the required vertical speed for each case – starting with 330 ft/NM. What ratio should you setup on your CR? Try to figure it out before reading the next paragraph. We must realize that at 60 knots the required vertical speed is 330 fpm. So set the ratio 60/330 and lookup your-speed/a. [Tip: it makes no difference whether you setup 330/60 or 60/330 as long as you keep track of whether groundspeed or vertical speed is on the top of the ratio.] If your groundspeed is 75 knots the required vertical speed is 415 fpm. At 85 knots it is ______ fpm. At 105 8 knots it is ______ fpm . Repeat the above calculations for a climb gradient of 220 ft/NM. Make sure that the above calculations are effortless for you. You must routinely check the minimum climb rate for IFR departures. Before we move on to the next important point it should be pointed out that you can approach the above problems from the opposite direction. If you know your groundspeed and vertical speed you can use the CR

7

350 fpm 580 fpm

8

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to determine your actual climb gradient. This is also helpful for flight planning purposes. We will use it quite often, so it is worth covering now. Imagine that you know your groundspeed is 115 knots and that your vertical speed is 800 fpm. What is your climb gradient? What ratio should you setup, and how do you get the answer? Figure it out before reading the next paragraph. The relevant ratio is 115/800 = 60/a. The secret is to realize that the ratio groundspeed/vertical speed, i.e. 115/800 establishes the gradient. To get the value in units of ft/NM remember that 60 knots is 1.0 NM/min, and look up the vertical speed at 60 knots. In this case the answer is 416 ft/NM. As long as this value exceeds the published climb gradient the pilot need not worry. This calculation can also easily be extended to answer questions of the form; what altitude will this airplane be at when 6.4 miles after takeoff? [Tip: this is step two of a two-step problem.] Try to figure out the answer before reading the next paragraph. We know the climb gradient is 416 ft/NM so setup the ratio 416/1 and lookup a/6.4. The answer is 2660 feet. A particular airplane climbs at 160 knots and 1000 fpm. What is the climb gradient, and what altitude will it be at 3.7NM after takeoff? The first ratio is 160/1000 = 60/a. This gives a climb gradient of 222 ft/NM. The second step is to use the climb gradient, so set the ratio 222/1 = a/3.7. The airplane will be at 830agl 3.7NM after takeoff. You can see that the above two-step calculation is quite useful for flight planning. Go over it until it makes complete sense to you. Next we examine a very important, but not significantly different, situation related to approach planning. Consider the following approach plate, which is quite typical.

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The airplane must descend 1526 feet (1700 – 174. which has a touch down zone elevation (TDZE) of 174. so the descent must be completed in 4. What is the descent gradient? Try to figure it out yourself before reading the next paragraph. The above calculation will be needed for every non-precision IFR approach you fly. Examining the Abbotsford approach plate once again.3NM from the runway. At 140 knots the vertical speed must be ______ fpm. The required vertical speed depends on your groundspeed such that 60/340 = groundspeed/a. normal touchdown is made about 0.5 = a/1. not ILS approaches). until you can do the calculation quickly and effortlessly. On this approach the airplane must cross the XX NDB at 1700 (or above) and then land on runway 07. You should open your CAP at random and calculate the descent gradient for the final approach segment of many non-precision IFR approaches (i. Page 120 .5NM. so it is important to become comfortable with it.2NM past the threshold.Navigation for Professional Pilots The approach plate above can be found in your CAP2 under Abbotsford NDB RWY 07. At 90 knots the vertical speed must be ______ fpm. The relevant ratio is 1526/4. The relevant ratio is 60/340 because at 60 knots 340 fpm would be required. All this information is presented on the above plate. If you fly the approach at 105 knots the vertical speed must be 600 fpm. we see that in the intermediate approach segment the airplane must descend from 2500 to 1700. What vertical speed is needed? Try to setup the required ratio on your own before reading the next paragraph. The answer is 340 ft/NM. be sure you can locate it for yourself. The XX beacon is 4.) The pilot will of course not land exactly at the runway threshold. and resulting vertical speed at your airplane’s approach groundspeed.e. How far back from the XX NDB should this descent begin if the pilot wishes to maintain a descent gradient of 340 ft/NM (the previously calculated gradient for the final segment)? Setup your CR as required before reading the next paragraph.

If the pilot wishes to limit the intermediate segment to a gradient of 320 ft/NM the descent should start ______ NM from the XX beacon. Tan (3) = a/6080 (recall that 1. However.5° to 4.0NM. The above diagram shows a 3° descent. if you like you can rework them based on the more accurate 320/1 to see if the difference is significant. It is however beneficial to examine the required descent rates.7. Legally a precision approach can have glidepaths in the range 2. Some precision approaches use other gradients. which corresponds to 320 ft/NM. The above relationship is VERY IMPORTANT. Most precision approaches are set to a descent angle of 3°. Below are some typical applications. Work them out based on the ratio 1000/3. which we will do now. an ILS) a glidepath indicator directs the pilot to the runway so calculation is not as necessary. Standard Decent Gradient is 3° The gradient to rate conversion discussed above is primarily applicable to non-precision approaches. This can be calculated using basic trigonometry. How many nautical miles are required for a descent of 1000 feet on an ILS? Setup the required ratio on your CR before reading the next paragraph.0NM is 6080 feet. Page 121 .) Using an electronic calculator a equals 318. On a precision approach (e. most pilots round it off to 1000 feet per 3. The importance of the calculations demonstrated should be obvious.) The relevant ratio is 340/1 = 700/a. The answer is 3. what altitude will you be at? Setup your CR before reading the next paragraph. which we will round off to 320. The tower asks you to report 2NM on final.1NM. which is close enough for typical purposes and allows quick and easy calculations in your mind without needing a CR. which is a gradient of 320 ft/NM.1NM.Navigation for Professional Pilots The airplane must descend 700 feet (2500 – 1700.g. The required ratio is 320/1 = 1000/a.0°. The answer is about 2.

which will take you directly to the runway.3 to approximate the descent gradient. what vertical speed do you require? Setup your CR before reading the next paragraph. This is an important calculation. how far from touchdown will you be? Setup your CR before going on. You should report 2. Summarizing what we have learned about flying 3° precision approaches. The required ratio is 60/320 = 120/a. If you set the more precise ratio 320/1 the answer is 9. TAS and CAS Conversions The situation is that you are flying along in your King-Air at FL250. What is your TAS? Page 122 . the required descent rate is ______ fpm.4 is probably not significant. but since your primary purpose in such calculations is usually just to keep a mental image of how far you are from touchdown the difference between 9. You are 400 agl when the tower asks. This ratio tells us that we need 5. Use the approximations to answer the following questions without using your CR or any other calculator. The answer is 640 fpm. You will intercept a glidepath 600 feet above the glidepath check altitude. Pilots routinely round this off to 5.0 and 9.0.0NM from touchdown. you then follow the glidepath indicator. Note that a equals 5. We know the correct answer is 640. This is the actual distance. the required descent rate is ______ fpm.3. You are flying an ILS approach with a groundspeed of 120 knots. With your CR set to 60/320 what is the value of 1/a. That will be _____ NM from the FAF. “How far back” you are. Your groundspeed is 85 knots. Using the 120 knot example we get 5 x 120 = 600 fpm. From this comes the rule of thumb that vertical speed should be 5 x groundspeed.3 fpm for every knot of groundspeed. You read the airspeed indicator and it says 170 KIAS. If you set 1000/3 = 3000/a. From a practical point of view reading the difference on your altimeter and then reporting would be impossible. Pilots also use the formula 5 x groundspeed to approximate the descent rate.) If you had used the more precise ratio 320/1 your answer would be 640agl. Your company SOP is to call 100 above as you approach the glidepath check altitude.Navigation for Professional Pilots The ratio is 1000/3 = a/2. but given that positive guidance is provided by the glidepath it is really only necessary to approximate this calculation. the calculation is so simple you hardly need a CR. You will be 9. You are going to intercept the glidepath at 3000agl. Your groundspeed is 100 knots. but 600 fpm will get you started close enough. You will be ____ NM from the checkpoint when you make this call.0 final even if your airplane is not equipped with DME. You look at the thermometer and it says -21°C.4NM. Your answer is _____ NM.0 final when you are 666 above ground level (note that you can thus report 2. In order to facilitate mental calculations while flying ILS approaches pilots use the ratio 1000/3 or 100/.

see photo below.Navigation for Professional Pilots It is important to know that the actual air temperature is NOT -21°C. Page 123 .000’ pressure altitude. We will see how much colder shortly. From the King-Air POH we look at the calibration chart to see what our CAS is. At 170KIAS there is no error. so our speed is 170 KCAS. Set the indicated temperature hairline to -21°C and read the TAS on the scale. FL250 means that your altimeter is set to 29.92. On the CR (CAS window) set 170 KCAS opposite 25. so your pressure altitude is 25. as shown below.000’. rotate it so you can look at the TAS window. the friction of the air rushing past the temperature probe causes an error and the actual temperature is colder than -21°C. Keeping the CR in that position.

There are lots of sample problems like the one above in the assignments.2°C. Temperature rise (see photo below) is 8. i.Navigation for Professional Pilots TAS is 252 or 253 KTAS and the Mach number is 0.e. From the POH we find the true airspeed and the FD forecast gives us the temperature.2°C. in other words the actual temperature is -29. Our job is to predict the indicated airspeed (IAS.415.) Page 124 . we are still on the ground. Derive CAS given TAS and Forecast Temperature In this situation we are doing flight planning. Remember that when doing this sort problem with your CR you would be in flight and checking that your TAS is working out as flight planned.

or higher than 20. but MUST be used for fast airplanes. TAS will be 111 KTAS Predict the IAS? Page 125 .e.Navigation for Professional Pilots It is much simpler to do this for airplanes that fly less than 200 knots and less than 20. Procedure for “Slow and Low” Airplanes In your CR manual this is referred to as the “old method” and is described on page 21. For a C-172P the following data apply: Altimeter setting 30. for any airplane flying faster than 200 knots. Pressure altitude in cruise is 8070’ From the POH. use if for the C-172 and B95 because it is quick and easy. A comparison between this and the professional method below confirms this claim.000 feet because we can disregard compression error. both fast and slow. You are expected to learn both procedures and apply the two-step procedure when needed (i.35 Cruise altitude 8500 indicated Forecast temperature at altitude -12°C 65% power Given the above. This can be used for all airplanes. for aircraft slower than 200 knots A two-step procedure that accurately allows for compression. Obviously jet pilots always use procedure 2. even though it is called the old method. A quick and simple technique that does NOT compensate for compression. 2. The CR has two techniques: 1.000 feet. for the King Air you must use procedure 2. but it takes longer and is not needed for slow airplanes like the C-172 or B95. The error will be 1 knot or less.) Of course you can always use it.

CAS appears directly below it. In this case indicated airspeed is about 2 knots more than calibrated so the final answer is 103 KIAS. in this case 111KTAS equals ~101 KCAS. Page 126 . To get the indicated airspeed look in the calibration chart on page 5-8 of the POH. as shown in the photo above.Navigation for Professional Pilots Line up the temperature of -12°C with the PRESSURE ALTITUDE of 8070’. Take care to keep the above values aligned while you locate the TAS on the outer ring.

92 Page 127 . An IMPORTANT point to note before we go further is that since the TAS window on the CR works with INDICATED temperature (see photo below) and indicated is NOT the same as actual air temperature. To do that you need to know TAS and the speed of sound. on all your flight plans for the C-172P and Beech 95. For a King-Air the following data apply: Altimeter setting 29. so make sure you can do it without hesitation. Once you get good at it you can do it quite quickly even though it requires two steps: 1. For a given Mach number there is one CAS for each pressure altitude. Determine cruise Mach number Use Mach number to determine CAS You can then also determine temperature rise if needed The procedure works because temperature affects calibrated airspeed and the speed of sound equally and therefore the effects offset. 3. The proper procedure is to first determine your Mach number. Your POH gives you TAS and the CR gives you the speed of sound.Navigation for Professional Pilots You will be using the above procedure over and over. regardless of TAS. 2. Procedure for “Fast and High” Airplanes In your CR manual this is referred to as the professional method. you cannot use the TAS window to predict CAS by reversing the procedure covered above.

8.0 corresponds to 606 knots. On the outer scale you should now see that Mach 1.4? 9 850 KTAS Page 128 . what is your TAS if you are at Mach 0.Navigation for Professional Pilots Cruise altitude FL230. If you were at Mach 2. TAS 276 KTAS Forecast temperature at altitude -30°C What is the CAS and IAS? Mach number is simply the ratio TAS/speed-of-sound. 9 what is it a Mach 1. Using the method described earlier reveal the Mach Index by setting 600 knots over 1 on the outer scales (this is shown below. The photo below shows the Mach index set to -30°C.0 your TAS would be 1212 KTAS.) Next set the actual air temperature on the Mach index to get the “real” speed of sound.

What is the Mach number? You can read it on the scale as shown below.455. In this example true airspeed of 276 corresponds to Mach 0. Go to the TAS window and set the Mach number as shown below. Page 129 . we know that our TAS is 277.Navigation for Professional Pilots Returning to our problem. Locate the TAS on the outer scale and read the Mach number. You are now ready for the second step. Notice that when air temperature changes Mach number changes. but altitude per se is irrelevant.

This procedure works because ANY airplane at FL230 and Mach 0.Navigation for Professional Pilots With the Mach number set look in the calibrated airspeed window across from 23. In this example CAS is 195 KCAS. The photo below shows the result. You will be using the above procedure many times in flight planning so make sure you go over it until you can do it without hesitation. Page 130 .000’ pressure altitude to get the CAS. which is roughly 197 KIAS according to the POH. regardless of temperature.455 has a calibrated airspeed of 195 KCAS.

So both procedures clearly work for the C-172P. More importantly cruising at 111 KTAS corresponds to Mach 0. which is exactly what we got using the slow airplane procedure. Now let’s find out what happens if we use the slow airplane procedure for the King Air problem. Page 131 . Setting the Mach index to -12°C the speed of sound becomes 628 knots. which is 8070’ and read the calibrated airspeed. as shown below: The result is ~100 KCAS.1765. use the professional method on the C-172P problem previously solved with procedure slow airplane procedure. Set this in the TAS window as shown below: In the CAS window locate the pressure altitude.Navigation for Professional Pilots Comparing Procedure for slow and fast Airplanes First.

but it is certainly enough to get the wrong answer on your ATPL written exams.) So we have confirmed that we cannot use the slow airplane procedure for the King Air. Page 132 . The error gets larger as you fly higher (as in jets.Navigation for Professional Pilots In the pressure altitude window set the temperature of -30°C over the pressure altitude of 23. This is shown below: The value of less than 192 is obviously wrong. The four knot error may not seem like a big deal. We know the correct value is 196.000 as shown below: Now locate the TAS of 276 on the outer scale and read the CAS.

000 30. This time you do not need to determine Mach number: CAS 145 315 280 280 Pressure Altitude 5.000 25.000 25.000 Indicated OAT 2°C -12°C -15°C -15°C TAS Error TAS 105 105 145 235 380 440 Actual Air Temp 12°C -20°C 5°C -12°C -56°C -56°C Mach number Fill in the right hand column: Page 133 .000 40.Navigation for Professional Pilots Sample Questions 5 Use the “Professional Method” to complete the last two columns of the table below: CAS 145 315 280 280 Pressure Altitude 5.000 40.000 Indicated OAT 2°C -12°C -15°C -15°C TAS Mach number Read the section labeled “Old” Method on page 21 of the CR Handbook. Repeat the calculations using the old method.000 30.

500 8.000 38.000 32.000 21.500 6.373 0.17 0.775 Pressure Altitude 8.224 0.Navigation for Professional Pilots Mach Number 0.000 CAS Page 134 .67 0.16 0.

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Section D contains a lot of useful information about the location of navigation radios. to get maximum value from this data you must use the index in the general section. Flight Planning. Get to know the codes used to describe public facilities (PF) lighting. which gives data about all the registered airports and aerodromes in Canada. However. The most used part of the CFS is section B. Weather and NOTAMS Checking weather and NOTAMS before flight is essential for flight safety. Every pilot should read and understand this section. . Expect questions drawn from the CFS on all your exams. part A. You will be given a number of assignments to develop expertise in decoding the CFS. Section E is perhaps the most neglected yet vital section. VOR/DME frequency allocations etc. These can be found in section C. You will learn to decode weather in Avia 120 and NOTAMs in Avia 130. As mentioned previously the CFS contains many useful pieces of information in the later sections. This includes preferred IFR routes for both high and low altitude. etc. You must become familiar with all the information it contains and be able to locate what you need quickly and efficiently. In the assigned cross country flights you will need to consult these.Chapter 6 The Canada Flight Supplement The Canada Flight Supplement (CFS) is one of the most important documents for flight planning. They will not be covered here. It contains various emergency procedures such as intercept orders and procedures in the event of an emergency landing. Become familiar with all the information in the CFS.

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i. which makes the shape an oblate spheroid.) Other clocks are synchronized just before midnight on December 31 each year making the last day of the year the longest by a few millionths of a second. The aviation unit of distance is the nautical mile. The original definition of the metric distance unit “meter” was that the distance from the equator to the pole is 10 million meters. Therefore the circumference of the earth is 40. maps and globes and other theory elements that impact on navigation. This defines the north and south poles. the equator is less than . as mentioned above. Shape of the Earth The earth is very close to being a perfect sphere. such as those in GPS satellites. Every degree of latitude is by definition 60 NM. An interesting anomaly that results from this variant resynchronization is that earth clocks and GPS clocks move out of synchronization over the 1000 week GPS cycle.000 Km measured around the poles. but due to its spin the equator bulges slightly.600 Nm. which is also defined in accordance with the circumference of the earth. It spins once every 24 hours. The earth spins around an axis that astronomers can locate. A computer program in your GPS receiver calculates the difference so that the time displayed to you is approximately equal to earth time. and different than “GPS time.” Latitude .00002%. Because the equator is a bit fatter. The rate of slowing is however enough for atomic clocks. the equatorial circumference is 40. We will learn about the magnetic North and South Pole later. 10. but it will take billions of years before it stops spinning relative to the sun. Due to the gravitational effect of the moon and sun the earth’s spin is gradually slowing down.076 Km. the shape of the earth. The earth spins around an axis that runs through the north and south poles. to measure so they must be resynchronized with the rotation of the earth every 1000 weeks (roughly every 20 years. which defines one day. From the above discussion you should memorize the definition of the nautical mile and take note that the difference in circumference of the earth around the poles vs. If the earth was shrunk down to the size of a billiard ball it would be a smoother rounder billiard ball than any you will find in a pool hall. For now simply realize that the true North and South Poles are based on the spin of the earth and are NOT the same as the Magnetic Poles. so the circumference of the earth is 360 x 60 = 21. measured around the poles.e.000 Km.Chapter 7 Navigation Theory In this section you will learn about the compass. The distance around the equator is an extra 41 NM.

) The difference is Page 140 .37 (note the format. If you know the latitude of two places you can calculate the north/south distance between them. so each minute of latitude is one nautical mile. Lines of latitude run around the earth east to west and exactly parallel to each other and perpendicular to the earth’s axis of rotation. Castlegar is at N49 17. Latitude is measured as the angle from the center of the earth with the equator defined as zero degrees.76 while Prince George is N53 53. This is shown in the diagram below.Navigation for Professional Pilots A grid system known as latitude and longitude has been devised so that the location of any spot on the earth can be specified. and therefore the North Pole is 90°N latitude and the South Pole is 90°S latitude. more on that shortly.y) Cartesian coordinate system you already know. There are sixty minutes per degree. rather like the (x. but the difference is such a tiny fraction of 1% that it can be ignored for our purposes. Take note that the latitude/longitude system is devised on a model of the earth that assumes a perfect sphere. As mentioned above the earth is not a perfect sphere. The subunits of latitude are called minutes. Every degree of latitude is 60 NM.

The lines of latitude run parallel to each other and are equidistant apart. But there is no equivalent to the equator to act as a starting point for a grid system in the perpendicular orientation.95 minutes west of the Prime Meridian. What is the distance between them at the equator? Based on the model of the earth that says it is a perfect sphere the distance between lines of longitude at the equator is 60NM. so the distance between them is zero at the poles. specifically the Greenwich observatory. Every location on the earth has one. Every one passes through the North and South Poles.61 minutes equals 35.95. 4 degrees equals 240 NM and 35. Castlegar is W117 37. but the one that runs through Greenwich is designated as 0° longitude. there is also an east/west component that we turn to next.Navigation for Professional Pilots 4 degrees 35. Longitude Because the earth has poles there was no controversy about setting up a latitude system. these are different for each location.e. What is the distance between lines of longitude in Castlegar? Page 141 . Meridians of longitude are straight-lines that run north/south through the poles. 180W is about the middle of the Pacific Ocean. so it is true to say that New Zealand is on the opposite side of the earth to England. therefore the PRIME MERIDIAN runs through London England. Meridians of longitude DO NOT run parallel to each other. 117 degrees and 37. i.61 NM. Every other location is therefore specified as east or west of the Prime Meridian with 180E or 180W (the same place) being the maximum longitude. All locations on the earth are equal in the sense that the earth spins once per day so every spot on earth has a noon and a midnight.61 NM so the total distance is 275. and runs very close to New Zealand. In the historical period when accurate measuring of the earth first became possible the British were the dominant world force. Please note that this is the north/south distance only.61 minutes.

so it is a lot closer to England than Castlegar. The cosine of 49° is about . the outer ring represents the equator. The distance between degrees of longitude is given by: 60cosine(latitude). but that doesn’t matter. but a sphere’s circumference does not vary linearly.Navigation for Professional Pilots Castlegar is at N49 latitude and so is Gander Newfoundland. The diagram is drawn to scale. Between Castlegar and Gander the difference is 63° degrees of longitude.66 so each degree of longitude equals ~39 NM at that latitude. so it might seem odd to you that N49 is closer to the equator than the North Pole. The distance from Castlegar to Gander is 2598 NM. so both Castlegar and Gander are on the th 49 parallel of latitude. Castlegar is at W117. The picture above shows a view of the globe from above the North Pole. Page 142 . How many nautical miles is that? If Castlegar and Gander were on the equator each degree would be 60NM so it would be easy to figure how far apart they are. But clearly each degree of longitude is less than 60NM in Castlegar.) Gander is only 54° west of Greenwich. which means it is 117° west of the prime meridian in Greenwich England (Greenwich is about N52 latitude. it varies with the cosine of the latitude.

” Page 143 . EWD is almost as easy to figure – you should use the mid-latitude between the two points when taking the 2 2 0. NSD is very easy to figure out as we have seen.Navigation for Professional Pilots Given the latitude and longitude of any two places on earth the distance between them can be estimated using Pythagoras theorem. Great-circles A Great-circle is a circle on the surface of the earth whose center passes through the center of the earth.5 cosine of the latitude. but we will defer discussion of that until we examine some map theory. 10 The technical term for EWD is “departure. The ENL has a latitude-longitude calculator that uses the above formula. The diagram below shows two points marked by Xs and the east-west distance 10 (EWD) and north-south distance (NSD) between them. Distance is simply (EWD + NSD ) . It also determines true track between the points.

they change direction (angle) relative to true north as you fly along them. i.) Any eastbound flight must change heading to the right continuously to stay on the Great-circle.Navigation for Professional Pilots A segment of a Great-circle is the shortest distance between two points. half Great-circles. Page 144 . except for the meridians and equator. To visualize look at the diagram below and remember that true track is the angle between meridians and the desired track (DTK.e. All the meridians of longitude are semi-great-circles. An important fact about Great-circles is that. so all other circles are smaller than Great-circles. An important point to note here is that no circle can be drawn on the surface of the earth that is larger than a Great-circle. A westbound flight must continuously turn left. Small Circles Any circle on the surface of the earth whose center does not pass through the center of the earth is a small circle. hence the name. The equator is a Great-circle but the other lines of latitude are NOT.

it is a small circle. and can be visually seen in flight because the trees have been cut down along it. th Page 145 .) In the process the Great-circle line would arc north of the 49 parallel. Imagine what you must do to change this small circle into a Great-circle. If you fly this line. You must enlarge the circle and rotate it so its center passes through the center of the earth (and keep Trail and Vancouver as th points on the circle. is that the shortest distance between Trail and Vancouver? The answer is no.Navigation for Professional Pilots All the parallels of latitude except the equator are small circles. Imagine that the 49 parallel as a ring resting on the globe (see photo above). but you would no longer be able to fly a constant heading. Following this Great-circle track would be the shortest route to Vancouver. Is a segment of a small circle the shortest th distance between two points? For example the 49 parallel runs from Trail to Vancouver. We turn to that matter next. on a true heading of 270°.

5° To fly a Great-circle from Castlegar to Vancouver the true track start as 272.5°. Convergence can be estimated as: Convergence = Δ Longitude x sine (average latitude) A flight along the equator (latitude 0. and as previously noted a westbound flight must change heading to the left. sine (0) is 0) has no convergence. The pilot must change heading by 70° from the start of the flight to the end in order to follow the Great-circle route. The advantage of a Rhumb-line is that you can fly one true-heading (TH) to get from departure to 11 th destination . In other words it is a line that crosses all the meridians along the route at the same angle.) A flight from Castlegar to Gander has a convergence of _______. Rhumb-Line A Rhumb-line is a constant-track line between two points.) Page 146 . so convergence equals change in longitude at the poles. In the above diagram DTK 1 is 030° and DTK4 is 100° so convergence is 70°. We turn to that point next. but a flight near the poles has a great deal (sine (90) is 1. half-way the track is 270° and as the airplane flies into Vancouver the track is 267.75°.Navigation for Professional Pilots Photo shows wire stretched around globe to represent a Great-circle. Most pilots would say that it is much more convenient to fly on constant heading for the entire flight however. mid. Convergence Convergence is the angle that a Great-circle track changes over its length. Convergence Castlegar to Gander = 63 x sine (49) The convergence between Castlegar and Gander is 48° What is the convergence between Castlegar and Vancouver? Longitude in Castlegar is W117 and Vancouver is W123 (difference of 6°. and final heading to fly the Great-circle from Castlegar to Gander. following the 49 parallel.) Convergence Castlegar to Vancouver = 6 x sine (49) The convergence between Castlegar and Vancouver is 4. Try to figure it out yourself before turning the page.25°. Try to figure out for yourself the initial. In the Castlegar to Vancouver example above. and maintaining a 11 Note that the magnetic heading will still change if variation differs along the route (as it usually does. The lat and long of each airport is given above. The total change in heading is 4.

a Rhumb-line is flown between the checkpoints. NOT FLAT. Pilots generally find this much more satisfactory than constantly changing heading as they must to fly a Great-circle. You Page 147 . The distance penalty for flying a Rhumb-line as opposed to a Great-circle is not significant for flights up to 500 NM at moderate latitudes (i. Map Theory Now that we know all about Great-circles and Rhumb-lines it is time to talk about maps. such as international airline flights. The pilot has a nav-log showing checkpoints and one heading between checkpoints (just what pilots like.Navigation for Professional Pilots true heading of 270°. constituted flying a Rhumb-line. Modern FMS makes accurate navigation along Great-circles feasible.e. so we need a map. or if you prefer.E. and that is now the norm. It is not practical to flight plan using a globe. which is a flat piece of paper representing the surface of the earth. flights not near or over the poles. Obviously there is a problem because the surface of the earth is curved. and we certainly can’t take one in the airplane. I. On longer flights. Imagine cutting open a tennis ball and trying to spread it out flat. a Great-circle can be approximated by plotting a series of checkpoints along the Great-circle 500NM or less apart and then flying Rhumb-lines between them.) Therefore on short flights pilots routinely fly Rhumb-lines. the Rhumb-line is always closer to the equator.) In the days before flight management systems (FMS) this was the normal navigation method. Notice that the Great-circle track is ALWAYS closer to the pole than the Rhumb-line. In the above diagram a long-range airline flight approximates a Great-circle by flying over a series of checkpoints (Xs) along the Great-circle but a constant heading is flown between these checkpoints. Remembering this will help you figure out which way heading must be adjusted to fly a Great-circle.

but all maps are distorted. All maps are created by “projection” which you can visualize as meaning that a glass globe is created with all the surface features on it. The method of creating the map determines what type of distortion. Lambert Conformal Conic Projection Page 148 .Navigation for Professional Pilots could not do it. Therefore ALL MAPS ARE DISTORTED. In Canada it is used for: VFR Terminal Charts (VTA) IFR Terminal Charts (T1 T2) Polar charts We will now examine each of these projections. In Canada it is used for: VFR navigation Charts (VNC) World Aeronautical Charts (WAC) LO and HI IFR charts The other projection that is widely used is the Transverse Mercator. The surface features of the earth are therefore projected onto the photograph and a map is created. A light is placed at the center of the globe and photographic paper is then held over or wrapped around the globe. The only difference between one map and another is the way the photographic paper is wrapped around the globe. Conic projection. The dominant projection used in Aviation is the Lambert Conformal.

The error is less than 0. To be useful a map must have a scale. Let’s see why there is an error at all.000 inches in the real world (1cm equals 500.5% and therefore you can ignore it.) 500. You obviously don’t want a map that is as large as the earth. Lambert is the name of the person who invented it. but near the top and bottom it is a bit less. but real maps are never perfectly conformal. so a more technical definition is needed. The photo above shows the scale on a VNC is 1:500. which means that one inch on the map equals 500. Page 149 . but good enough to be designated conformal.” according to the dictionary means: “to be similar or identical. It is not perfect. In the middle of the map it is a bit more. commonly used for VFR navigation. On a perfectly conformal map the scale is constant throughout the map. Lambert’s conic projection comes very close to meeting this standard. We already said that this is impossible however.5%. On a perfectly conformal map a straight-line is a Great-circle.Navigation for Professional Pilots The photo above is from a Vancouver VNC chart. The scale of 1:500. The word “conform.” A conformal map is one that shows the earth in the same shape that it has in the real world. A map is conformal if at every location on the map the scale distortion north and south equals the scale distortion east and west.000 is therefore the average scale of the map. The difference is less than 0. On a Lambert Conformal Conic projection a straight-line can be accepted as “close enough” to a Great-circle for navigation purposes.9 nautical miles.9 NM so one inch on the map equals 6.000 cm etc.000.000 inches equals 6. Circled is the note that it is a Lambert Conformal Conic Projection. We will examine what conformal and conic mean.

and it would touch the earth along only one parallel of latitude. Page 150 . Lambert’s innovation was to sink the cone into the earth so that it touches along two parallels of latitude. and north and south of the standard parallels the surface of the earth is below the cone. Between the standard parallels the surface of the real earth is above the cone. as shown in the photo above. The consequence of this to map scale is shown below.Navigation for Professional Pilots Imagine a sheet of photographic paper formed into a cone and set over the globe (like a hat) with its apex at above the North-pole. This would be a standard conic projection.

The photograph at the beginning of this section showed that the standard parallels for the Vancouver VNC are N49 20 and N54 40. At mid-leg a Rhumb-line track and a Great-circle track are equal. As stated previously the scale error over the entire map is about 0.Navigation for Professional Pilots The diagram above shows projection lines emanating from the center of the earth and passing through the surface of the earth and the map. Straight lines are Great-circles (close enough) Scale is constant throughout (close enough) Rhumb-lines are NOT straight Because Rhumb-lines are not straight. Along these lines map scale is accurate. Transverse Mercator projection Page 151 .) Between the parallels the opposite effect takes place. North and south of the standard parallels points on the map are further apart than on the earth’s surface (if you measure a distance of say 100 NM on the map the real distance on the surface of the earth is less. Summary of Lambert Conformal Conic Projection 1. if you want to fly a Rhumb line you must measure the true track at mid-leg. 3. 2.5% so you can feel free to measure distance anywhere on the VNC for navigation planning purposes. Different standard parallels are used on VNCs to suit the latitude of the area depicted. Along the standard parallels the scale of the map is precise. It is important to consider where a given point on the actual surface of the earth appears on the map.

but the map is NOT CONFORMAL. but is not useable in Canada. In the original Mercator (not a transverse Mercator) the photographic paper is rolled into a cylinder rather than a cone. In other words it distorts shapes. On the Mercator projection the lines of latitude and longitude come out perpendicular to each other. The cylinder can be rotated so that it touches on any of the 360 meridians. This has the advantage that a straight-line drawn on the map is a Rhumb-line. At the equator the lines of longitude and latitude really lie perpendicular to each other so the Mercator map is relatively conformal near the equator.Navigation for Professional Pilots Originally Mercator projections were developed for use near the equator. The Lambert Conic projection does not work for areas near the equator. The Transverse Mercator also wraps the globe in a cylinder but it is rotated 90 degrees so that it touches the earth along a meridian of longitude rather than the equator. and a straight-line is NOT a Great-circle. This cylinder is wrapped around the earth so that it touches along the equator. Page 152 . The map scale is accurate only along the reference meridian.

In the 21 century as GPS navigation becomes dominant it is probable (or at least possible) that true tracks and true north will become the only references used for navigation.Navigation for Professional Pilots A transverse Mercator map is NOT conformal. When measuring a true track on a map you must align north on the protractor with a meridian. but as long at only a small section. The Transverse Mercator projection is only suitable for small scale maps such as terminal charts. the North and South Poles. Consequently a straight-line drawn on the map is a Rhumb-line. True and Magnetic North (Variation) So far all discussion about tracks has been in relation to true north. so a magnetic compass must be used. i. Meridians of longitude run north/south by definition.e. It has the advantage of creating a grid in which lines of latitude and longitude cross perpendicular to each other. It is used for VTA and IFR terminal charts. The photo below shows the location of the Magnetic North Pole. not all airplanes have such equipment today. is used the distortion is minor. st Page 153 . But. Unfortunately the Magnetic North Pole is not collocated with the real North Pole. close the reference meridian.

The variation shown in the photograph is easterly. These lines are labeled as shown in the photo below. The error is called variation. A compass on the white line in the photograph also points at the true North Pole. points too far east.Navigation for Professional Pilots A compass points at the Magnetic North Pole. On a line running through Manitoba there are locations where variation is zero (as shown in the photograph. But a compass in British Columbia. All aeronautical maps have isogonic lines printed on them. in Montreal variation is westerly.) An isogonic line joins locations with equal variation. and it is the angle between true north and magnetic north. Page 154 . as shown in the photograph.

When variation is westerly magnetic heading is always more than true. but it does fit logically here because of its relationship to variation.Navigation for Professional Pilots In the above case variation is 23° East. The process of measuring Page 155 . In flight the heading indicator is normally set to magnetic north and all heading are referred to as magnetic headings. so true heading must be converted to magnetic before the flight. Consequently it must be measured and recorded on a regular basis. magnetic is least Variation West. Variation East. That is to say that the magnetic field of the airplane changes over time. It is caused by the magnetic fields of the metal parts of the airplane and is significantly affected by electrical equipment such as the alternator. Deviation is an error in the compass of the airplane. Even though the above rhyme is fairly simple it is best to use your CR to convert between magnetic and true so that no mistake is made. The following rhyme may help you remember whether to add of subtract variation. This procedure was demonstrated previously. magnetic is best This means that when variation is easterly the magnetic heading is always less than true heading. Flight planning is normally done in true however. Deviation changes from time to time. As such deviation is specific to an individual airplane. Compass Deviation The topic of deviation is out of place here since it is not related to map theory. These things cause an error in the compass known as deviation.

Deviation is seldom more than 2 or 3 degrees so ignoring it. The contour interval is described at the bottom of the Hypsometric scale. Contour Lines and Hypsometric Tints Maps for aviation MUST show the height of the ground.Navigation for Professional Pilots deviation is called a compass swing. Contour lines and hypsometric tinting are used for this purpose. This is one of the most important details for flight safety. according to scale below: Page 156 . results in only minor error. as most pilots do. The pilot should read the compass then the deviation card and set the heading indicator to the corrected magnetic heading. The above photo shows contour lines on a VNC. To make terrain easier to visualize Hypsometric tinting is used. A compass swing is required every year and also any time electrical equipment is removed or replaced in the airplane. explained next. On VNC charts there is a 500’ contour but from 1000’ and above contours are every 1000’. An AME performs the compass swing and provides a compass card in the cockpit which the pilot uses to correctly set the heading indicator. Contour lines are lines that join points of equal elevation above sea level.

524’ asl. and intermediate contours at 4000’. All the symbols are important but will not be covered here as you can read the legend for yourself.000 are also plotted. Map Legend Every map has a legend printed along the edge that shows all the symbols used on the map. 10. Page 157 . Use these to refine the information provided by the tinting. the highest point in Canada.000 and 11. The example above is 19. A 500’ intermediate contour line appears within the lowest hypsometric tint. At the top of the scale you find the maximum elevation for the map. 8000’. also shown just above the hypsometric tint scale. 6000’.Navigation for Professional Pilots The above scale is found on the white edge of every VNC. located at N60 34 W140 24.

VTA charts have a scale of 1: 250. Map Scale The scale of the map is always printed on the map.000. The picture below shows the scale on the Vancouver VNC chart is 1:500. WAC charts use a scale of 1:1. For a VTA chart use the VNC ruler scale then double the distance. The same scale is used on all VNC charts in Canada.Navigation for Professional Pilots Airport data is provided on VNC charts but this should only be used for preliminary planning. Make sure you use the correct scale. Always measure distance in Nautical Miles.000. What is the true track? Page 158 . The inner scale is used on VNC and the outer scale on WAC charts. not statute miles. Always look in a current CFS for up-to-date airport data. Grid Navigation The picture below is of a globe from above the North Pole.000. An appropriate Navigation ruler must be used to measure distances on these maps.000. Imagine you wish to fly from the checkpoint marked as departure to the one marked as destination.

” Page 159 .Navigation for Professional Pilots If you are willing to fly a Rhumb line. then heading of 090 true would take you to the destination along the line shown below: But this is clearly not the shortest route. The desired route is “over the pole.

) I.Navigation for Professional Pilots In the diagram below the desired Great-circle route is drawn in as well as some lines of longitude for reference. The true tracks are as follows: Location X1 X2 True Track 019 045 Page 160 . We already know that in order to fly a Great-circle we must change heading as we fly. you must orient your Douglas protractor to north on each line of longitude. Remember that each line of longitude represents a true track of north (0°.E. make a table of required true headings for the locations marked with the Xs.

At X3 the HI is rotated to 082°. at X4 to 137°.Navigation for Professional Pilots X3 X4 X5 082 137 160 Imagine what would be happening on the flight deck as you make this flight. but grid navigation eliminates the need to continuously update the HI enroute. in practice it is usually updated every 6° change in longitude. but the heading must be 160° true (essentially southbound. Examine the diagram below. When the airplane arrives at destination it has made no turns. Every flight over the poles starts off “northbound” and finishes “southbound. An alternate method of navigating over the poles is to use Grid navigation. the heading indicator must be adjusted so that as the airplane passes X2 it reads 045°. Page 161 . But.” Pilots must accept that brain teaser. The airplane departs on a heading of 019° (essentially northbound) and flies a straight-line.) For ideal effectiveness HI would be continuously updated for convergence.

and X5. To use the grid simply put your Douglas protractor on the grid with north aligned with the Prime meridian.”) Examine the diagram to convince yourself that the Grid heading is simply the true heading plus west longitude. The 160E median has been labeled in the diagram. X3. X4. or minus east longitude.Navigation for Professional Pilots A rectangular grid is laid over the pole as shown in the diagram above. For the track in the example the track is 219G (read “219 Grid. Page 162 . This grid can be oriented to by reference to any meridian. but the standard procedure is to use the Prime meridian as the reference. You should label the other meridians corresponding to X2.

You should see that grid navigation is necessary because of the extreme amount of convergence in polar crossings. This amounts to rotating the HI an amount equal to the longitude of the airplane.) Even though this is usually considered a southbound heading the airplane is obviously still heading north.Navigation for Professional Pilots To use Grid navigation. Page 163 . Lines on a map joining points of equal grivation are called isogrivs. The pilot holds this grid heading for a few hours until arriving at the destination (point where the transition back to magnetic headings will be made) at which point the heading is reset to magnetic by changing it from 219 to about 160° plus variation. Pilots can use these to set the HI to Grid the same way they use variation to set the compass to true. Keep in mind that basing the grid to the Prime meridian is arbitrary. as the airplane approaches the departure point (it probably took off somewhere much further south) the pilot switches the HI to grid. Two LOP are needed to define a position fix. As previously noted the difference between true and grid tracks equals the longitude (from the reference meridian. Grivation Grivation is by definition the difference between magnetic track and grid track.) We will consider LOP from both VOR and NDB. Can you see the benefit of this? If they used the Prime meridian instead what direction would it be to fly from the Yukon to Greenland (east or west)? When they are done exploring the polar region do they fly north or south to return to Vancouver? Plotting Lines of Position (LOP) A common task in navigation is to locate your position on a map based on a bearing from a VOR or NDB. For some purposes it could be preferable to establish a grid based on a different meridian. Such a bearing is referred to as a line of position (LOP. the magnetic compass is quite unreliable in the extreme Polar Regions so it is much more common to use INS as the reference (the INS “knows” the airplanes true track) eliminating the need to use grivation. But things will work out in the end.) Therefore mathematically grivation equals longitude plus variation. The two relevant equations are: Grid track = Magnetic Track plus E grivation or minus W grivation Grid track = True Track plus W longitude or minus E longitude You will examine grid navigation a bit more in Avia 240. However. Once the HI is adjusted to Grid the pilot can maintain a constant heading for several hours (in the example s/he maintains 219°. For a Canadian arctic survey expedition might find it desirable to have a grid oriented to a meridian within Canada. For now this simple introduction to the concept is all that you need. In practice grivation is applied to the magnetic compass. Note that despite all these adjustments the airplane actually flies a straight line the whole time.

not magnetic. But. You CANNOT put a protractor on each VOR and draw two lines based directly on these bearings. What variation should be applied to radial 1.Navigation for Professional Pilots In the above diagram radial 1 represents one LOP and radial 2 is the second. Use the wind side of your CR to make sure you don’t make any mistakes. or fix for short. most VORs are oriented to magnetic north. The process is quite straight forward. but there are a few important details. Each radial must be converted to a true bearing by applying variation. Pilots frequently refer to the procedure as taking a fix. NOT at the airplane. Therefore radial 1 must be adjusted by 12° and radial 2 by 10°. Page 164 . which to radial 2? Choose your answer before reading the next paragraph. Most importantly fixes should be plotted using true bearings. The important thing to realize is that you must apply the variation at the VOR. Where they cross is the “fixed” position. which means the nav radio tells you the magnetic radial you are on. Let’s say in the above example that radial 1 is 010R and radial 2 is 290R.

If you center the needle with a TO indication you need to take the reciprocal (but it is safer to simply rotate the OBS knob until a FROM flag shows.) Now we will consider the process of establishing a fix based on bearings from two NDBs. Watch for tricks such as offset VOR locations (previous paragraph) and mixed magnetic and true VORs (also mentioned above. Check this carefully to ensure you are plotting the fix from the actual location of the VOR. just be careful to convert the magnetic radial to true while making no adjustment to the true radial. The true course is clearly 022°. This is not difficult. To obtain an LOP from a VOR it is essential to center the CDI needle with a FROM indication. Page 165 .) In the arctic VORs are oriented to true north. but the overall process is the same. Plot the two tracks 022 and 300 by putting a Douglas protractor over each VOR in turn and aligning it with meridian 1 and 3 respectively. Repeat the same process for 290R with variation 10E to confirm the true course is 300°. but the compass rose is centered on the actual location of the station. It is could be the case that you must plot a fix based on one VOR in magnetic and another in true. Do not attempt to plot a fix by extending the markings on the compass roses on the VNC. Draw the lines carefully to find the fix. which eliminates the need to make the conversion demonstrated above.Navigation for Professional Pilots In the above photograph the 010R is set across from 12E variation. This gives a direct reading of the radial. The legend of your VNC and LO chart warns you that in some cases VOR symbols are offset from their actual position. There are two or three differences to note. These are not accurate enough. Expect to see questions of the above type on Transport Canada’s Commercial Pilot Written exam. IMIPORTANT.

) With an RMI read the bearing from the tail of the RMI needle. Since the diagram above is identical to the previous VOR based one. MB = RB + Heading. The first difference to think about is the process by which the pilot determines what bearing 1 and 2 are. And if your HI is set to grid you have a grid bearing. Page 166 . If you have a fixed card ADF you must follow the usual procedure to convert relative bearing to magnetic bearing. Good airmanship demands that you confirm the HI is set accurately before accepting this bearing. Usually the HI is set to magnetic so the bearing is a magnetic bearing. Think why before reading the next paragraph. The basic process of obtaining a bearing from an NDB is the same regardless of the equipment the airplane has.Navigation for Professional Pilots The diagram below is deliberately identical to the one above expect that the VORs have been replaced with NDBs. which you can plot to fix your position without the need to do any of this process. How is this done? Formulate your answer before reading the next paragraph. but it is much easier with an RMI than with a fixed card ADF (Note that if you have a GPS this whole process is redundant since it will provide your current latitude and longitude. you may expect that the magnetic bearings will be 010 and 290. and the airplane is in the same location. They will NOT be. We therefore assume you have no such equipment available. If you happen to be flying in the arctic with your heading indicator set to true then the bearing is true.

Just remember where to apply the variation. Watch out for combinations of true. but not the magnetic bearings. and grid navaids.Navigation for Professional Pilots In reality an ADF may not be accurate enough to detect the theoretical difference here. while that for the NDB is applied in the airplane. On a Mercator chart straight-lines are Rhumb lines so an error equal to convergence is introduced. where position fixing is an unlikely procedure. Make sure the protractor really is centered on the station by checking the compass rose. It is quite possible to obtain a fix from one VOR and one ADF bearing. The process is identical to that described above. Fortunately Mercator charts are only used for VTA and T charts in Canada. Summary: When plotting a fix convert all bearings to true. which you must correct for. Extend the lines until they cross. Page 167 . Plot these exactly as before to get the fix. The variation correction for the VOR is applied at the station. Apply variation at the station for VOR and at the airplane for ADF. Use a Douglas protractor centered on the station to plot the true bearing. giving you a fix. Therefore magnetic bearing 1 is 013 and bearing 2 is 289 magnetic. Correct each of these magnetic bearings by variation of 11E exactly as described above for the VOR case. Therefore both NDB bearings must be corrected by 11E.) This amounts to saying that the true bearings will be the same. especially on exams. What values to you get? Once again the true bearings are 022° and 300°. Use the CR for converting between true and magnetic to avoid mistakes. Go back and examine the VOR example above if you have forgotten which variation was applied in that case. but the radio wave from the ground stations come to the airplane along straight-lines corresponding to Great-circles (both VOR and NDB. On a Lambert Conic chart the straight-lines are Great-circles. which correspond to radio waves so this procedure works. magnetic.

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Future navigation systems may define paths that have more complex shapes. Modern flight management systems (FMS) are programmed by entering a series of legs beginning at the airport of departure and ending at the destination. It must be stated that we presume that dead reckoning (DR) will be the dominant form of navigation. A leg is a defined path the airplane follows. Definition of a Leg All flights are broken into legs. In the section on mountain flying toward the end of the text some comments about planning for a flight when pilotage is dominant are included. with pilotage used only for brief periods usually on departure and arrival. The FMS computer recognizes a variety of leg types. but that is beyond the scope of this text. The difference is sometimes quite important. Most legs are either straightlines or arcs. The diagram below explains the difference more clearly than words can. The entire route must be input as a series of continuous legs with no breaks at any point. .Chapter 8 Flight Planning In this section we will take all the knowledge we have developed and use it to plan flights. which the pilot selects from a menu. Fly-by and Fly-over Waypoints Waypoints are designated as either Fly-by or Fly-over. When a flight is fully defined by a series of legs with no breaks we say the flight plan is closed.

without GPS for assistance.0053 is fully explained in the aerodynamics text Aerodynamics for Professional Pilots. It is far too easy to be misled about station passage with an NDB so it is preferable to treat all NDBs as Fly-over waypoints. When the pilot has this type of instrumentation available it is possible to precisely determine when to turn for a Fly-by waypoint. You should normally treat waypoints as Fly-by unless they are specified as Fly-over. At a Fly-by waypoint you start to turn prior to the waypoint so that you intercept the next leg without overshooting it. These systems provide horizontal distance rather than the slant range the older DME systems provide. The equation r=.Navigation for Professional Pilots If a waypoint is designated Fly-over. Page 170 . In recent years it has become very common for aircraft to be equipped with GPS and or other types of precision navigation equipment that provide extremely accurate range information. you must fly directly over it before turning to the next leg. The diagram below shows the required formula. An exception is when using NDBs as waypoints.

e. Remember this number. Introduction to Nav-logs A nav-log is a document that helps you organize your flight planning so that you don’t forget any important details. On your commercial pilot flight test you are required to prepare the nav-log manually.Navigation for Professional Pilots The formula might not seem user friendly but all you have to do is calculate . It should chronicle your entire flight from takeoff to destination and then to the alternate airport if IFR. For a 45° turn lead by 70% of 0.) To calculate .) In this course you will prepare nav-logs both electronically and manually. neater. For example if your airplane cruises at 120 knots divide by 100 to get 1.0053 TAS take TAS and divide by 100 then divide by two. and less Page 171 . about 0. When approaching a 90° turn lead by 0.4NM. A nav-log should also include time and fuel allocations for contingencies (unavoidable delays due to weather. On your actual cross-country flights and simulator exercises you are encouraged to use the ENL because it is quicker. approaches. and ALL quizzes and tests in this course require manually generated nav-logs. and of course exams. easier.2 then divide by 2 to get 0. and reserve (reserve is a legal as well as practical requirement. etc.0053TAS once and memorize it.6. traffic. You already have memorized values for the sine of several angles for the purpose of estimating drift (see page 50.6NM. i. etc. most assignments.).6.

On Selkirk College navlogs the departure.) TOC may come before or after SHP.” . Nav-logs are usually laid out in a grid with columns representing the parameters to be evaluated (planned) and with rows representing “legs.” The departure legs end at the Set Heading Point (SHP. Some VFR pilots find it convenient to “rig” the situation so that this happens. Advice on choosing a SHP is given below. If after then it is technically part of the enroute group. On occasion TOC and SHP are the same point. Further details are provided later. You were introduced to the ENL when we examined cruising altitudes. 3. Page 172 .e. Departure legs Enroute legs Arrival legs Approach Missed approach (IFR only) Enroute to alternate Arrival at alternate Approach at alternate All these groups are needed for every IFR navlog. and approach leg groups are usually simplified so that one line on the navlog represents the entire group. 4. i. 7. but must be chosen by the flight planner for VFR flight.Navigation for Professional Pilots likely to contain math errors. For VFR flight plans arrival legs end when the aircraft joins the circuit at the destination airport. although we only scratched the surface on using it. Sometimes it is expedient to just treat these legs as cruise legs rather going to the trouble of estimating the reduced fuel flow used during the descent. 5. 2.) The largest part of most navlogs consists of several enroute-legs (also called cruise-legs.) The SHP is usually specified in an IFR departure procedure. arrival. There is a variable point at which the airplane reaches top of climb which is conveniently labeled as top of climb (TOC. The approach group is normally reduced to a single leg (for both IFR and VFR navlogs.) Departure legs can also be called “climb legs. We normally group the arrival legs with either the enroute or approach. Navlog Leg Groups The legs on your navlog can be divided into groups: 1. 6. The arrival legs end at an initial approach fix (IAF) for IFR flight plans. Groups 5 to 8 are not needed for VFR navlogs. In this case label the point as SHP or SHP/TOC (preferred.) These legs run from turning point to turning point. a new leg should start at every point where the track changes. 8.

3.2 Page 173 . 12 No. 13 27. so either the gauges are not accurate.) There is logic to the order that navlog rows are laid out that results in the pilot having the required information at hand in flight to make decisions about fuel status. or you have used a couple of gallons more than expected.Navigation for Professional Pilots Selkirk College nav-logs also contain rows allocating time for contingencies. As you taxi out in Calgary your fuel quantity should read _________ gal. You should assume the later. 4. Even though you have never flown one before answer the following questions by referring to the nav-log. As you pass YNY your fuel quantity should read ________ gal. You are supposed to have 37. and reserve (both explained below. if ATC requires you to hold (perhaps because a runway is closed) your contingency fuel is used up when your fuel gauges read _______ gal (assume you wish to retain 13 50 minutes reserve. 1.8. Consider the nav-log below.) Notice that you can answer these questions quite easily because of the logic by which the nav-log is laid out. which is for a flight in a Beech 95. 2. As you reach BOOTH your fuel reads 35 gallons – is fuel remaining as expected? 12 Upon arrival at BASRA.

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whatever you have when you get to reserve. especially for VFR flights (Note that IFR flights require an SHP also. Most checkpoints will be pretty obvious. but usually it is obvious where it should be. railway. If situation 2 applies. Exactly how close depends on several factors: 1. Choosing a Set Heading Point (SHP) A crucial task when preparing a nav-log is determining the checkpoints. As you complete each leg subtract the fuel used to get fuel remaining.) The first fixed checkpoint is called the set heading point (SHP) on a DR cross-country and choosing it requires considerable thought.Navigation for Professional Pilots Ramp Fuel and Fuel Remaining As you saw above the fuel remaining column is one of the most important for in-flight decision making. VFR pilots can also use beacons and VORs for navigation but before doing so consider whether you will conflict with IFR traffic. begin by filling out the ramp fuel in the upper right corner of your nav-log. river. An ideal SHP is on a road. Availability of distinctive ground features for pilotage to the SHP Traffic congestion at the airport How well you know the area and the SHP checkpoint On a VFR flight you normally use pilotage to find your way to the SHP. Because pilotage is used to locate the SHP be sure to pick one that has distinctive ground features leading to it. Assess reserve fuel value to confirm that it is adequate before committing to the flight. The fuel for the trip is specified in advance and you determine consequent reserve You plan for a desired amount of contingency and reserve fuel and determine how much ramp fuel you need for the flight If situation 1 applies. which is always the last row. 3. or other similar feature that you can follow to locate it. A Page 175 . in other words establishing what the legs will be. For VFR flight you should select a SHP that is easy to locate and relatively close to the departure airport. Fill out the reserve fuel and work backwards until you determine the required ramp fuel. is your reserve. leave ramp-fuel and fuel-remaining blank until all legs have been planned. but choosing a suitable SHP is sometimes a problem. 2. On IFR flights the SHP is usually a navaid such as a VOR or NDB so finding your way there is straight forward. 2. When completing a nav-log you have two situations: 1. It is frequently safer to choose a visual point rather than a radio navigation point when VFR.

in daylight. In this case make sure to choose a SHP on a very prominent pilotage feature that you will have no trouble seeing and flying to. if you know the tower well and can identify it relative to other local landmarks it may be an acceptable SHP. Instead pick a particular point such as the intersection of two major roads. How well you know the area is a factor in choosing a SHP. i. A crucial thing to realize is that the distance you fly is more than the straight-line distance from the airport to the SHP. It must also be small enough to constitute a point – for example using “the city of Vancouver” as a SHP is not acceptable. But. at a busy airport it may not be possible to do an overhead departure or use a nearby point as SHP. Of course a radio navigation beacon could also be a practical choice if the airplane is suitably equipped. use the airport as the SHP. i. For example locating a radio transmission tower. Weather permitting you should be 2000agl or higher when you reach the center of the airport in order to avoid conflict with any circuit traffic. If the ground around the departure airport lacks distinctive navigation features. Consider the example of taking off from CYCG and using the town of Robson as your SHP. Normally we will have only one or two departure legs. It is best to plan the longer route. more than 5 miles from the airport. for example the intersection of two minor roads. Keep in mind that some objects that look prominent on a map are in fact quite difficult to see on the ground. as is often the case with small airports in northern Canada. The lack of traffic means that no conflict will result. Traffic congestion is a factor in choosing a SHP for two reasons.e. In the case of an airport with very little traffic it is quite feasible to make an overhead departure or use a SHP very close by. Robson is only fly 3 miles from the center of the airport but the route and distance to get there is quite different depending on whether you takeoff on runway 33 or 15. or shoreline would be a good choice. departure on runway 15. If you were making a closed navlog the first and third checkpoints would both be the airport and the second checkpoint would be 1000 feet.Navigation for Professional Pilots SHP must also be distinct so that you can visually identify it. Most pilots vastly underestimate this. But. river. unless you know for sure that runway 33 will be used. In reality you will probably open the navlog and only have one leg. i. Page 176 . At an airport you know well you can locate SHPs that would be too obscure if you didn’t know the area well. etc. traffic congestion could force you to choose a SHP clear of the airport zone. is quite difficult and thus does not make a good SHP. the first and second checkpoints will be the airport of departure but the distance flown must represent that to fly out to 1000 and then return while climbing to 2000.e. A point on a major road.” You simply takeoff and climb over the airport to set course. a park on a particular road. This is called an “overhead departure. It is very important however not to underestimate how much distance is flown when departing.e. because you must allow for maneuvering to depart the circuit. Filling in the Navlog Now that we have a SHP it is time to fill out the nav-log.

Navigation for Professional Pilots Normally the above closed departure would be opened up by collapsing it into two legs. An ENL navlog showing an overhead departure is shown below to demonstrate this. as shown below. When opening the departure on a nav-log: 1. Estimate the distance to the SHP Page 177 . An interesting special case involves setting up the navlog for an overhead departure (remember this means using the departure airport as SHP) If you are doing an overhead departure the distance flown is certainly not zero (the straight-line distance) it is likely 5NM or more.

The trick is figuring out how far after. for departure legs. 2. The ENL determines distance. In most cases you do not reach your final cruise altitude before SHP and therefore will be climbing enroute. 3. Lookup altitude. estimate how high you will be when you reach the SHP. In 99% of cases. If you did a reasonable job of estimating your distance and altitude to the SHP then the remainder of the climb must be allocated to this leg. If the resulting distance does not match your estimated distance to the SHP revise the altitude estimate. The only exception would be on a flight where you reach TOC at or before SHP. Therefore the first enroute leg will also be a climb leg (leading to TOC) as described below. time. 3. and fuel. the distance required to climb to altitude will exceed the distance to the SHP. Estimate the average wind in this calculation. When using the ENL. Enter the fuel used and the time in the appropriate columns of. especially in the mountains. time.) Once you have the distance use the time fuel and distance to climb chart to figure out what your altitude will be at the end of leg 1. Use the charts in your POH to determine: 1. For example if you estimated you would be at 5000 over Robson and you are climbing to 8500 then this leg is for a climb from 5000 to 8500. Time to climb Fuel to climb Distance to climb Page 178 .Navigation for Professional Pilots 2. and fuel corresponding to that distance Collapse the departure into one or two legs (more if needed for clarity. First Enroute leg (to TOC) The first enroute leg is frequently a straight-line from SHP to TOC.

Don’t move on until you have reasoned that claim out and are convinced that it is true. In addition true and indicated airspeeds change as you climb in accordance with the climb charts (previously covered. The last checkpoint could be the destination airport Page 179 . it only affects distance. but once the ENL calculates groundspeed and time you will have to increase or decrease the distance until the time and fuel match what you determined from the climb chart.Navigation for Professional Pilots The only complication is allowing for wind.) Once you know how many miles past SHP it is to TOC use your ruler and mark TOC on the map and then measure the distance from TOC to the next waypoint (mystery lake in the navlog shown above.) We need a rule of thumb to determine distance covered in a climb. It is necessary to allow for wind in the climb or your flight planning will not be accurate. Cruise Legs – Between Enroute Checkpoints The first cruise leg starts at TOC and goes to the next checkpoint. When using the ENL enter the altitude that is 2/3 or ½ your cruise altitude with wind and temperature for that altitude. It is critical for you to realize that wind will NOT AFFECT time or fuel to climb.) Once you know this GS. and given the time to climb.) This distance is used on the next leg. In turbo-charged and turbo-prop airplanes climb rate does not drop off as quickly so determine GS halfway up to cruise altitude and calculate distance covered based on that (in the example. calculate GS at 6500. For normally aspirated piston airplanes such as the C-172P and Travelair rate of climb drops off quickly with altitude so that mid-time in a climb happens at higher than mid-altitude.) Using the example of climbing from 4500 to 8500 the difference is 4000 feet and 2/3 of that is 2700. so the distance from TOC to mystery lake is 37NM. You should therefore determine your groundspeed at 2/3 of the way up to your cruise altitude and calculate distance covered using that value (remember you know the climb time. use your CR to calculate distance. Initially enter the distance from your time to climb chart. In the example navlog the total distance from Robson to mystery lake is 50NM. Subsequent legs run in straight lines from checkpoint to checkpoint until the last checkpoint. Wind changes as you climb so it can be quite different at 5000 than at 8500. so determine GS at 7200 (4500 + 2700.

Navigation for Professional Pilots

(circuit joining point) or in the case of an IFR navlog it is usually the location where the IFR approach will begin. Flights should be broken into manageable legs. A 1000 mile VFR leg is hard to fly and is subject to problems covered previously in map theory. Even transoceanic airliners fly from checkpoint to checkpoint over the ocean so don’t be afraid to break your trip into manageable legs. On the other hand don’t make the legs too short or your nav-log will be so extensive it will over-load the airplane. Use your ruler to measure the length of each leg in nautical miles. Use a protractor to measure the true track (covered below.) When planning with an LO or HI chart read the distance and magnetic track directly from the chart and use the CR to determine the true track. For example the LO1 chart below shows the track from CG to WHATS on R119 is 301°M and the distance is 41 NM. Variation is 18°E (the dashed line just south of WHATS.)

To get the true track use the back-side of your CR. Set the magnetic track (301M) opposite variation (18E) as shown below. The true track (TC) is 319.

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IFR checkpoints are VORs, NDBs, or intersections; every location where your track changes is a checkpoint (WHATS is an intersection.) VFR checkpoints should be distinct geographical features you can positively identify yourself over and thereby confirm you are on course (and start the next leg accurately.) Towns, airport, small lakes, etc make good checkpoints. Normally true-track changes (at least slightly) over a checkpoint. Draw a straight line with a pencil between each checkpoint. Measure the length of the line with a ruler of the appropriate scale. Measure the true track by aligning your protractor to north with a line of longitude near the midpoint of the leg. In cruise TAS speed and fuel flow are in accordance with the cruise performance charts. Be sure to write the power setting and fuel-flow in the proper column for reference. Fill in the actual wind and temperature at your cruising altitude and use your CR to determine GS and true heading based on the TAS. Remember that you will need to determine pressure altitude and or density altitude to determine TAS. Fill in the variation and then calculate the magnetic heading. Remember the old saying: Variation east, magnetic is least. Variation west, magnetic is best. This means that with easterly variation (such as in British Columbia) magnetic heading is always less than true heading. In eastern Canada, where variation is west, magnetic heading is always more than true heading. To avoid any chance of a mistake it is safer to use the back-side of your CR when converting between true and magnetic, as shown in the photo above.

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Use your CR to determine CAS, and then use the calibration chart in the POH to determine IAS. You need this so that you can check in flight that the airplane is performing as planned. Of course you also use the CR to determine time and fuel for the leg.

**Selection of Cruising Altitude
**

Many pilots pick their cruising altitude without much rational consideration. Many choose cruise altitudes that are too low, perhaps because the short cross-countries typical of private pilot training are best done at low altitude. In this section we will investigate which altitude is optimum for cruise. To conduct this investigation we will use the Selkirk College electronic-nav-log (ENL). By the end of this section you will understand that there is an optimum cruise altitude and be familiar with the ENL. All airplanes fly faster, for a given amount of fuel flow, at a higher altitude. However, fuel is used climbing to altitude, so there is an altitude above which further climb increases the total time for the flight. The criteria for saying on altitude is “optimum” could be saving time or fuel. Most commercial air operations place a premium on time rather than fuel. The optimum altitude is therefore either: 1. 2. The altitude that results in the least time for the flight The altitude that results in the least fuel used for the flight

The factors that determine which altitude is optimum are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Aircraft type Power setting Air temperature and pressure Weight (aircraft load) Distance to be flown (length of the flight) Wind

For piston engine airplanes the benefits of flying at a higher altitude are very minimal in terms of saving fuel. Only on very long flights is any fuel saved at all – so in most cases you can fly at any altitude you wish as far as fuel consumption is concerned. Therefore it is best to decide your cruising altitude based on other factors such as the improved safety of flying higher in a single-engine airplane. Of course it is important to avoid headwinds, so try to avoid climbing into a strong headwind aloft unless safety demands you do so (as it often does in British Columbia.) Climbing to high altitude to pick up a strong tailwind is however always a good idea. In a turbine engine airplane flying at a higher altitude is much more advantageous. The resons will be covered in your aerodynamics course. It is very worthwhile for you to examine the cruise performance

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charts for the King Air, which you have an FIM for, and calculate the specific range foe the airplane at various altitude. You will quickly see that it is much better at high altitude

Top of Descent

What goes up must come down, so the saying goes. But with an airplane the pilot has control of when to come down and this is a matter that deserves more thought than it is sometimes given. If descent is started too late then the airplane arrives at the airport too high to land and must circle down, wasting time, or requiring a high descent rate that is uncomfortable for passengers and may cause damage to the engine in some cases. The turbocharged engines typical of working airplanes are quite sensitive to large power reductions. The shock-cooling will damage the engine. Thus professional pilots learn to start descent early enough that a gentle descent with gradual reductions in power can be made. Conversely, pilots of turboprop and jet airplanes can close the throttle without fear of damage to the engine. For these airplanes descent is delayed as long as reasonable in order to take advantage of the better fuel economy at altitude. In single-engine mountain-flying it is particularly unwise to descend early. The terrain is rugged, with few places to land in the event of an engine failure. The ideal descent is usually one that reaches circuit altitude just slightly before joining the circuit. At times it may even be necessary to plan to circle down over the airport, although this should be avoided if possible. The most commonly used descent gradient is 1000 feet every 3 nautical miles. This is used by most jet and turboprop pilots and also works reasonably well in the C-172 and B95. For high performance turbocharged airplanes a gentler gradient such as 1000 feet every 4 nautical miles may be more appropriate. It is important for you to get to know what is best for your airplane. Once you have established the ideal descent gradient designating a top of descent (TOD) is straight forward. To designate a TOD calculate the altitude to be lost in thousands of feet then multiply by 3 (or 4 as the case may be.) Assuming you are planning to join the circuit the altitude to be lost is obtained by subtracting circuit altitude from cruise altitude. If you are planning a straight-in landing then subtract field elevation from cruise altitude. The value should be rounded to the nearest thousand feet. For example if descending from 8500 to join the circuit in Castlegar at 2600 you get 6 thousand feet. Multiply 6 x 3 to get 18 Nautical miles. Your TOD is 18 miles form where? The answer is; from the place you wish to reach circuit altitude. This is likely 3 miles from the airport, so start descent 21 miles out. TOD should be calculated in flight, but need not appear on your navlog.

Contingencies

RAC 3.13 requires pilots to allow for contingencies when flight planning. Even if no such regulation existed it would only be prudent to do so. We have already seen that flying at a different altitude than planned affects required fuel. Obviously the wind can be different than forecast. There are a great many factors that can affect your flight. The longer the flight the more likely it is that errors in planning will arise, yet it is the long flights that have the least margin for error.

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A single VFR Page 184 . If you don’t leave yourself with some options (exactly what contingencies means) then you will be. Abbotsford. Contingency time should be allocated for this purpose. Filing flight plans is covered later. Note that contingency time is NOT included in time enroute. So a gear-up on a runway in Boundary Bay is not a circumstance that requires contingency planning. For example if you are holding (VFR you might be circling while the runway is plowed) you should fly at less than 65% power and thus you would have more contingency time than you indicated on your nav-log. as we say. But. etc. A flight in a C-172 from Castlegar to Boundary Bay can equally well land in Langley. then calculate the fuel for that time based on cruise power. the point where you join the circuit (if the airport has a published VFR arrival procedure it should be the point where that procedure begins. i. It is important to realize that if you actually need to use your contingency fuel you DO NOT have to burn it at the “normal” cruise rate. On the ENL set an amount of contingency time and the ENL allocates the required fuel at the normal cruise power setting. It is pretty much a guarantee that these things will happen to you a few times in your life. Approach at Destination For VFR flights your last enroute checkpoint is normally the destination airport. Transport Canada has a poster that says in big letters: That’s Time in Your Tank The point being made is that allocating contingency time means allocating fuel. Delta. SOL. Note that contingency time should not be included in time enroute you file on your flight plan. and possible missed approach. you may well have to divert due to weather enroute and wind up flying farther than planned in the process. Simply ask yourself how much extra time you might need for contingencies. as for example in Kelowna or Victoria For IFR flights the last enroute checkpoint is usually the IAF (initial approach fix) which is where you start your instrument approach (explained previously.) Therefore time and fuel must be allocated for the approach. An airplane could land gear-up while you are enroute. or any number of other things could happen.Navigation for Professional Pilots If you are headed for a small airport with only one runway is there any chance the runway could be unusable when you arrive there? Of course there is. If your last checkpoint is the beginning of the arrival procedure then you must also allocate time for the arrival as well as the approach (circuit if VFR).e. This is where it is nice to have accurate fuel gauges so you can tell when you are reaching the end of your contingency fuel. Often our flights have lots of options built into them. Most turbo-prop and jet airplanes have reliable fuel gauges. You must learn to estimate this time reasonably accurately. but most small piston airplanes do not.

At Selkirk College we don’t normally do that. If you require a low pass and a second circuit before landing the time will double. An important point to think about for light aircraft operation is in initial loading of the airplane. Reserve simply gives you a margin for error. Reserve is really just for calculation and operational errors. Extra reserves that you wish to carry should be entered under contingencies on the navlog. and don’t generally need one. in some cases it might be wise.Navigation for Professional Pilots circuit takes about 6 minutes. On a C-172P with standard tanks it would be just a bit more than ½ tanks. The ENL does not include approach time in the IFR enroute time but it does in the VFR time enroute. etc. The process of laying this out is just like the primary flight plan already covered. especially in a light airplane with inaccurate fuel gauges. but it is worth knowing in case an emergency should arise. Its purpose is NOT for contingencies – those must be planned and allowed for separately. Consequently the reserve you enter on your navlog has considerable error in it. so you do your best to dip the tanks but there is bound to be some error. but how do you get exactly that amount in the tanks. You might calculate that you should depart with 23 gallons of fuel. VFR flights don’t legally require an alternate. We will discuss this further later. The law requires 30 minutes for day VFR and 45 minutes for night VFR and IFR flights. or more. Normally this is the value that should go on this line. It is almost impossible to set the power to exactly the planned value. Reserve is the amount of fuel that you plan to have left in your tanks when you land. therefore your nav-log should include a route to it. Take note on page 4-17 of the C-172P POH that you can get 4% greater range than the cruise performance charts predict if you lean the mixture to peak EGT. On IFR flight plans you DO NOT include approach time in the filed time. You are stuck with these values. But. Approach at Alternate Airport This has the same considerations as approach at destination. but it can be quite difficult. Checkpoints leading to Alternate Airport All IFR flights require an alternate airport. Most pilots try to fill the tanks to “at least” the intended amount. but just how much? You can’t really trust the fuel gauges.” There are legal requirements for reserve fuel. So apply a suitable estimate for approach and landing time. Reserve The last row of every nav-log is “Reserve. Here is something to think about: if an adjustment of 50°F in EGT makes a 4% difference in range and this corresponds to about 25rpm change how accurately would you say you normally lean the mixture and what is your percent error? Page 185 . but realistically reserve should be more on a long flight. On VFR flights approach and landing time should be included in the time you file on your flight plan. For example if you are going to a remote strip where you intend to make a precautionary approach and land (time for the precautionary would be in contingencies) then you will need an alternate in case you determine that you cannot land. and no one ever gets the mixture set 100% perfect.

After filling in reserve time the next TAB-STOP is for airport data at the lower left of the nav-log. In both cases wind should be entered in true. Wind. temperature. etc. and vice versa on the MT-Navlog. Once you have chosen your route draw straight track lines. you will need a large scale planning chart if you wish to establish a Great-circle route. VFR Map Preparation Techniques We will now go over how to prepare your VNC map for a VFR cross country flight. When the ENL is completely filled out hide all unused rows in order to avoid clutter – but be sure they contain no data before hiding them. specifically “valley crawling” which is a pilotage type of navigation. Note that if you are planning a very long flight. Locate a suitable SHP. The map preparation technique describe here is for DR cross countries. starting at the SHP between each pair of checkpoints with the last track line ending at the destination airport (or DP if applicable. Later we will discuss mountain cross countries. that way you won’t miss anything. should a value change you can enter a new value any time and it will propagate throughout the remainder of the navlog. You may also find it practical to choose intermediate checkpoints in order to avoid directly over flying restricted airspace. For pilotage navigation there is no need to draw drift lines as described here. as well as which LO chart if you are IFR. Read the “balloons” that pop-up as you tab through the nav-log. high terrain.Navigation for Professional Pilots Tips for the Electronic Nav-Log Use the TT-Navlog for VFR flights and the MT-Navlog for IFR flights. say 1000NM or more. However. or there is restricted airspace near the destination locate a descent point (DP. Typing in this data is much neater than filling it in by hand. If the trip is more than 300 NM choose some intermediate checkpoints so that no leg is longer than 300NM. these tell you how to fill it in. If the flight is in the mountains. This reduces convergence to an insignificant factor and allows us to plan each leg as a Rhumb line. See mountain Page 186 . Locate the departure and destination airports on your VNC.) Descent points are discussed in detail later under the topic of mountain cross countries. taking into account the factors discussed above. If you aren’t sure which VNC you need lookup the airport in the CFS where the REF section tells you which VNC and WAC chart the airport is on. and variation are automatically copied from one row to the next to save the time required for entering these values on each row. Use the TAB-KEY to advance through the nav-log. Various lines and markings are required on the map. The only difference between these navlogs is that on the TT-Navlog you enter the true track and the navlog calculates magnetic track.

Note that if you have two SHP. as shown below. the drift lines should start at the second SHP.) When a track-line must cross from one side of a VNC or WAC to the other use the procedure described in the next section to draw the line. Next.Navigation for Professional Pilots flying below for more information about DP. make 10° drift lines at each checkpoint. as is sometimes the case in mountain flying. Once the track lines are drawn make 10NM reference marks along each line. Page 187 . Make drift lines for each leg with the last set of closing drift lines at the destination airport or DP as the case may be. starting with the SHP.

It is therefore often necessary to draw a straight line between two points that are on opposite sides of the chart. 3. Layout a separate piece of paper over the north chart and mark point A. 5. In the figure below imagine that you want to fly directly from point A. these are points D and E. In addition mark TWO points that are common to both the north and south side of the chart. step by step is: 1. Draw the straight line from point B to point A on the separate paper. to point B on the south side. Draw the line from point C to point A on the north chart (not shown in the diagram. 4. Measuring Track and Distance Page 188 .Navigation for Professional Pilots Drawing a Line Across a 2-Sided Chart VNC charts are printed on two sides. as shown above. on the north side of the chart. Position the paper on the common points on the south side of the chart. The procedure. Mark a point C on the straight line on the south chart that is common to the north chart.) 2.

This is NOT acceptable. allow sufficient time. On many of the flight plans assigned in this course you will change cruise altitude and consequently cruise speed. If the route in an airway you should name the airway. And the total duration of the flight must include the intermediate stop. It is as simple as that. The rules regarding this are in RAC 3. using an ICAO ruler.14 for an overview of the purpose and procedures relating to the use of flight plans in Canada. Normally this is not permitted IFR. Then measure the true track by placing your protractor at the midpoint of each leg. although it can be done if the IFR flight is in uncontrolled airspace.6 to 3. In the Canadian format no symbols or words are required between checkpoints when the route is direct. A common mistake is to put arrows or similar symbols in the route section.16. It is assumed that you understand the basics as described in RAC 3. so don’t make it complicated by adding anything else. I have noticed that many pilots who lack experience in long trips vastly underestimate the time required for an intermediate stop.15 and 3. A more typical fuel stop takes 45 minutes to an hour. where you learned that at the midpoint of each leg a Great-circle track and Rhumb line are equal.15 and 3.Navigation for Professional Pilots As you can see it only takes a few minutes to prepare the map for a VFR cross country. So.) You navlog should now have all the required information.6. A fuel stop can only be completed in ½ an hour if everything is precisely arranged and organized. Also.16. and enter it on your navlog.16 It is quite common when filling a VFR flight plan to include an intermediate stop. see the examples provided at the end of the section. Simply proceed as already covered to fill in the rest of the data and you will be ready to go. covered previously. Pay particular attention to the rules for filing changes to altitude and true airspeed. (Remember the theory of convergence. Once the map is prepared you are ready to start filling in the navlog. You should also read RAC 3. Two points that seem to be missed by many pilots are that the intermediate stop is indicated in the route section of the flight plan in the form shown below. This is covered in RAC 3. In this section I will comment on a few common errors or oversights in filling out flight plans. You are expected to know how to record this properly on the flight plan form. You will of course need to measure the true track and length of each leg. Read RAC 3. Page 189 . Measure the length of each leg. Filling in a Flight Plan Form Instructions for filling in the Transport Canada flight plan form are in the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) section RAC 3.10.6 carefully and follow the prescribed format.16.

The flight plan also shows the proper format for filling speed and altitude.Navigation for Professional Pilots The sample flight plan shown to the left shows an intermediate stop of one hour and thirty minutes in CZGF. Page 190 . In this case just before takeoff until just after landing. The time enroute is 3 hours and 40 minutes which is from the time the flight plan is opened until it is to be closed. Please take note. Note the format.

At BUICK the airplane will speed up to 160 KTAS and climb to 6000 feet.Navigation for Professional Pilots The sample to the left shows how to format a speed and altitude change. The time enroute in this case is from takeoff at CYXX to the YCD beacon. Page 191 . which is the IAF for the approach.

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roads. Pilotage in Mountain Flying Near the beginning of this text I stated that DR is a more sophisticated type of navigation than pilotage. But it is important not to turn your back totally on DR. rivers.Chapter 9 Mountain Cross Country There is an entire section in your FTM/IPM on mountain flying that you must read. and valleys. In this text I will only make some remarks about the considerations for laying out a navlog and filing a flight plan for a VFR mountain cross-country. By definition the enroute legs commence after the SHP and the implication is that pilotage is used prior to the SHP and DR is used after it. without conflicting with any mountains. which is almost always at the bottom of a valley. and in such cases pilotage becomes the only viable form of navigation. procedure. This is discussed in the FTM/IPM and not repeated here. The ideal form of mountain navigation weaves pilotage and DR into a seamless. railways. if they are to fly at all. What should we do? . Pilotage takes a lot of effort and frequently results in a somewhat winding route. In the mountains you will often be below the tops of the mountains when you pass the SHP and as such you may be unable to fly the calculated heading. peaks. In the mountains distinctive. By far the most important aspect of mountain flying is selecting an appropriate route and determining that the weather is adequate for the flight. when the weather is good enough to climb above the mountain tops and fly in a straight-line there is really no significant difference between mountain flying and any other type of flying. provide the ideal circumstance for pilotage navigation. Good-weather Mountain Cross-country As mentioned in the FTM/IPM. Set Heading Point(s) in the Mountains SHP is defined as the first fixed point on a DR cross-country. Even when ceilings are high and DR is used it is very easy to slip back and forth between DR and pilotage due to the numerous easy to identify geographic features. When the ceilings are low VFR pilots must fly in the valleys. But by far the greatest limitation of pilotage is that it simply cannot be done without numerous easy to identify geographic features. DR vs. Any experienced mountain pilot soon becomes a master of pilotage. almost effortless. The primary complication you will face is planning a departure and an arrival route that allows you to leave and arrive at the airport. etc. In this situation you should prepare your navlog pretty much as I have described previously.

but this is usually because they are overcommitted to pilotage. they are not going to do DR at all. This is discussed below under Enroute Navigation Skills. In other words. Instead Page 194 .” The creation of a navlog. You will have to use pilotage until you clear the top of the mountains. is based on the presumption of DR. circling down over the airport is seldom the most efficient way to handle the situation. These valley cross-countries are sometimes called “valley crawls. TOD is a completely different concept than descent point (DP) which we are discussing here. If it is not possible then on alternative is simply to circle down over the airport. The pilot must determine a top of descent point (TOD) at which to begin down for landing. Occasionally in non-mountainous areas the same problem may arise due to restricted airspace. The straight-line route runs over the ridge just west of the airport and would leave the airplane at 7000’ or so within a mile of two of the airport. and time for this should be allocated. When the route directly to an airport crosses high terrain you should always check that a descent to the airport will be possible.) Heading obviously changes every few minutes as the pilot follows a valley.Navigation for Professional Pilots The first tip is pretty obvious. In all mountain cross-countries be sure to examine the route and determine if you need a DP. is the dominant navigation technique. Take the example of an airplane arriving in Castlegar from Vancouver. On a valley crawl legs should be grouped (that’s what open means. not DR.) In this case Pilotage. It is always much more accurate to begin DR from a specific SHP. In this case we recommend that you plan a second SHP from which you can begin DR. if the route is less familiar and you want to achieve efficient navigation always have a specific SHP and use DR. we are really saying that pilotage will be used in these phases of flight. In short they plan the flight NOT to CYCG but to a DP at Deer Park. What if you can’t do that though? Again the answer is pretty obvious. But. When we open the flight plan. as we have recommended for departure and arrival. so the navlog must be very open. as described so far. But. DP is primarily of concern in the mountains where it is quite common that terrain prevents descent to circuit altitude when desired. Poor Weather Mountain Cross-country (Valley Crawl) Let us now assume that ceilings are below the mountain tops (or within 1000’ of the mountain tops. But. Descent Point in the Mountains Normal procedure is to plan the enroute legs so that the last leg ends at the destination airport. I recommend this only for relatively short trips on familiar routes. Now we are saying that pilotage is to be used throughout the flight. normally under approach and landing on the navlog. Having a leg for every change in heading is totally unrealistic. Pilots almost naturally divert slightly off this straight-line route and descend along the Arrow Lake. Sometimes pilots skip the procedure of selecting the second SHP. This frequently means having two SHPs. Try to pick an SHP such that the subsequent track follows a valley so that you can climb on the pp-leg as planned.

Navigation for Professional Pilots

the legs are chosen based only on major changes of direction and or between major checkpoints such as large towns, lakes, etc. This is a very open format. The track in this case requires a bit more consideration than usual. A single track from departure direct to destination usually doesn’t provide enough reference, while a separate leg for each little twist and turn is too cumbersome to plan and to execute. We need something in between. As a practical example, a valley crawl from Castlegar to Grand Forks could be planned as three legs: One from the Keenleyside dam to Renata, one south to Christina and one east to Grand Forks. The usual method of measuring the length of a leg, by using a ruler, will not give an accurate distance. You must learn to estimate the actual distance flown due to weaving around the snaking turns of the valley. You should certainly start by measuring the straight-line distance from the beginning of the leg to the end, with a ruler, but then you must add an estimated amount to allow for the turns of the valley. There is NO SENSE calculating wind drift, drift angle, and heading for the leg. Indeed you can only estimate the average track (because it changes continually as you fly.) Don’t worry about drift, your eyes will keep you on track using pilotage. There is no need to put drift lines on the map. Groundspeed must be estimated in order to calculate time and fuel for the flight. Based on your average track and the wind you can estimate the average groundspeed. The hard part is often determining what the wind will actually be. FD forecasts are of limited applicability. Reported ground winds and winds aloft are obviously used to estimate wind at your chosen cruise altitude. Keep in mind that under the circumstances of a valley crawl you often have to change cruise altitude frequently enroute. Wind normally is funneled to follow the valley, so your main task is to guess whether there will be a headwind or tailwind and how strong it will be; if in doubt always estimate low for tailwinds and high for headwinds. In the wind column of the navlog write only the headwind or tailwind estimate – e.g. +10 or -5. You will be given several assignments to plan valley cross-countries to develop the skills described above. It is crucial that you learn to efficiently open your flight planning so that you can prepare the navlog in only a few minutes, because by far the most important part of valley crawl planning has nothing to do with making a navlog. The most important aspect of valley crawl planning is route analysis. You must examine the route looking for difficult points, such as passes, and most important of all, looking for alternate routes. In the discussion about diversions later in this text it is pointed out that a safe diversion in the mountains is only possible if you have planned for it in advance. Given that diversions are very common you must have every safe route option in your mind before you go on a flight. It is very common that the shortest route for a mountain flight is not the one with the lowest terrain. There is nothing wrong with planning the shorter route, but if you run into low ceilings and decide to divert to the longer lower route you want to have figured out ahead of time that you have enough fuel for that. You must know that if you don’t have enough fuel for a particular diversion option, where you will make fuel stops, etc. Don’t set out on a mountain cross country in marginal weather without all the above thoughts and options sorted out in your mind.

**In-flight Valley Navigation Procedures
**

Once airborne, housekeeping becomes very important. Since the heading information is only approximate, considerable attention must be paid to map reading as the pilot follows – although rarely Page 195

Navigation for Professional Pilots

accurately maintains – the intended track. This makes it all too easy to lose track of time and over fly a turning point. While it might be difficult to imagine a pilot missing the turn at Christina (for Grand Forks) and picking up the road to Republic, some 20 miles south, it is not impossible and it is really easy, when following Highway 3 west from Cranbrook, to miss the turn at Yahk and continue on Highway 95, going south-east down to Copeland. This is not a complete disaster but in marginal VFR conditions it is very disconcerting and re-orientation can take several minutes. There is little need to recalculate headings, since that information is only approximate to start with. It is important, however, to update the ground speed information – again, in order to monitor the progress along the track. If the leg is long enough to warrant a couple of 10-mile marks then these can be used just as they are on a regular navigation leg. More often however, the legs are barely long enough to justify one 10-mile mark so it is more appropriate to wait until reaching the next turning point, where the pilot can either compare the ETE to the actual time enroute (ATE) in order to derive a time differential or simply divide the distance by the ATE for a ground speed. In either case, it is important to remember that a headwind component on one leg can easily become a tailwind component on the next leg: With winds aloft out of the north, a tailwind on a leg headed south east could well become a head wind if the valley makes a turn around to the north east. Situational awareness is always critical while valley crawling. There is a full section giving advice on valley flying in the FTM/IPM.

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plus contingencies and reserve loaded. The airplane charters for $2000 per hour. usually for the purpose of quoting a charter. it is so commonly used that you need to know the concept if for no other reason than so you can see its limitations. An important point I must make before explaining how this is done is that it doesn’t work. “yes” to your quote you quickly file the flight plan for 3.9 hours (420/220.9 hours and have 1070 lb of fuel. Some people try to avoid this task by developing rules of thumb. “wouldn’t it be easy to flight plan if the departure airport was on a mountain exactly at the cruise altitude for the trip. This is clearly a dangerous assumption. climb penalty planning is a myth. so block planning must be used with great consideration.Chapter 10 Time Saving Flight Planning Techniques In all that we have done so far we have planned flights by breaking flights into climb.9 hours. Assume a client calls for a 600NM charter. Climb Penalty Planning Pilots. and this is an important time saving procedure. There are some other commonly used “short cuts” to flight planning that I would like you to be aware of.) Total trip time is therefore 2. what would you quote? The calculation is straight forward: Hour one covers 180NM. Subsequent 420NM require 1. The company determines an average distance and fuel used for the airplane each hour. For example an airplane may use 500lb of fuel and cover 180 NM in the first hour and burn 300lb while covering 220NM in subsequent hours. In other words. we will conclude that penalties work in the right circumstance. (Actually. Block Flight Planning Block flight planning is commonly used to get a quick estimate. Still.9 x 300.) Climb penalty planning starts by saying. Often the accuracy is improved by establishing a distance and fuel for the first hour and then a different figure for subsequent hours. which will cost $5800. We have simplified our task by opening the flight plans. If the customer says. cruise and descent legs. The fuel is calculated as 500 + 1. Block flight planning is only safe when the airplane always flies at essentially the same cruise altitude and wind is not a factor. This imaginary situation is shown in the picture below: . find it onerous to lookup the time fuel and distance to climb to cruise altitude. being rather lazy.

and the slightly longer flight time. Page 200 .Navigation for Professional Pilots If the above situation actually existed there would be no need to plan a climb leg. Obviously the trip will take longer this way. it will climb at 85KIAS (TAS is higher) and then cruise at about 105KTAS (the exact value depends on the cruise altitude. The next step in climb penalty planning is to ask what the difference in time and fuel for the trip would be in the following situation: Obviously the airplane in this situation must climb from the departure runway to the cruise altitude. The airplane would already be at cruise at the moment of liftoff. due to the higher rate of fuel flow in the climb.) This airplane will “fall behind” the other airplane at about 15 knots. Similarly it will use more fuel. Taking a C-172P as an example.

The leg requires 55 minutes and consumes 6. It shows a cruise leg of 100NM.e. Climb penalties are only applicable to flights at relatively low altitudes and over relatively short distances. Next examine the first two legs of the above navlog. First examine the third leg of the above navlog.e. The airplane is level for this entire leg. so it corresponds to the part I diagram above. i. This corresponds to the part II diagram above. Once you have done this add a penalty of 30 seconds and . In this case they do reflect the penalty due to climbing that we already discovered on page Error! Bookmark not defined. At the beginning of this section I said that the real problem with climb penalties is that they don’t work. Repeat the above ENL analysis for the B95 and determine the climb penalties for that airplane.6 gallons.9 gallons are consumed.Navigation for Professional Pilots The idea behind climb penalty planning is simply to determine the difference between the above cases and then add that onto case I as a penalty. Page 201 . a pilot planning this flight for cruise at 9500’ and then adding a penalty would be completely mislead. The fuel penalty is 1. Take the airplane on the 500NM cross country on page Error! Bookmark not defined. We can do this quite easily using the ENL. Together they also cover a distance of 100 NM.25 gallons for each thousand feet the cruise altitude is above the takeoff altitude. The time penalty is obviously 3 minutes per 6000 feet. i. 30 seconds per thousand feet. as though the part I diagram applies. there is a penalty for not climbing. To use the penalties for a C-172P simply plan the trip as though the entire flight was in cruise.3 gallons per 6000 feet. which is a bit less than ¼ gallon per thousand feet. Can you spot the flaw in the logic behind this procedure? Think about it before reading the next paragraph. In our earlier cruise altitude analysis we learned that depending on the length of a trip there not only is no penalty for climbing. This takes 58 minutes and 7.. but the airplane climbs from sea level to the cruise altitude of 6000 feet.

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In flight you can see a long way and you should take advantage of that. The latter procedure results in too much time with eyes in the cockpit. These features can be anything. The best procedure is to choose four or five geographic points on your map and then look out the window until you spot them. and a mountain or valley. and power lines are quite distinctive. a river. There are of course lots of towns. Map Reading Its pretty obvious that a fundamental skill in navigating VFR is the ability to interpret a VNC chart and locate the corresponding geographic features on the ground. etc. NOT the other way around. In other words you locate a geographic feature on the map and then look out the window until you spot the same feature on the ground. towers. You must learn which features will be distinctive “out the window” and which won’t. The first principle of map reading is work from map to ground. such as distinctive mountains. runways. as well as relative position. but there are some things you should keep in mind. so it is highly recommended. rivers. NDBs. Good airmanship is to have your eyes out the window 99% of the time. such as a small lake or road that you have spotted out the window. most of the in-flight skills are developed in Avia 100 and 200. These could be a town. It is much easier to locate a geographic point that is 5 or 10 miles ahead rather than one directly below you (the airplane doesn’t have a glass floor. For example does the town have a river running though it? How many roads run in and out? And is there a nearby mountain? Try to have at least three distinctive features that will distinguish the location you are looking for from others. roads and mountains in the world so how do you tell one from another? The key here is to analyze the map and develop a mental image of the distinctive characteristics of the ones you are looking for. There are exceptions of course. A common mistake is to choose geographic points that are too close to the airplane. size. You do NOT spend time with your eyes down on the map trying to find some feature. a road. as described above.) You can often see large geographic features. they will not be covered further here. The specifics of night cross countries are discussed in your FTM/IPM and are covered in Avia 201. but out the window they are nearly impossible to see. Once you have this “list” of items gleaned from the map you scan the ground until you locate the corresponding locations. . The primary emphasis in this course is on preflight planning. small town. And radio towers are very easy to see at night. on the map certain things such as VORs. For example power lines over mountain ridges can be quite easy to see because a wide swath of trees is cut down along the line. Doing so reduces a lot of navigation effort. lakes and rivers.Chapter 11 Enroute Navigation Skills This section covers several navigation skills that you will need to develop and apply in flight. 30 or more miles away.

east of Vancouver.) When you think about it you really aren’t “totally lost. Remember to write down the time you turn around so you can estimate how long it will take to get back to the starting point. The best way to get lost is to wander around on random headings that are not recorded. To do this simply be aware of how many miles per minute (roughly) you are covering. choose another one and look for that. In light of the above. If you miss one it won’t really matter.C. B. Usually three is a good number.Navigation for Professional Pilots Another frequent mistake is becoming too obsessive about spotting a particular geographic point. As long as you fly a straight-line you can always find your way back by simply “doing a 180. we will assume you don’t have such equipment. Southern B. If logic says you are past a checkpoint then forget it.. Reorienting if Lost The first question you must ask is. Most importantly. If you are truly “lost” stay calm and keep your wits about you (which means you mustn’t panic. Radar is available in most of southern Canada. Most airplanes cover at least 2 miles per minute. and many go much faster than that. climb to a higher altitude so you can see farther. so don’t worry about it. Therefore a geographic point 6 miles ahead will be beneath you in 3 minutes. Some pilots will keep looking and looking and looking for this town until they are completely lost. it is important to always be looking for more than one geographic point. For example you may be looking for a small town but not seeing it. Also. Don’t panic. Page 204 . Lucky you always record these things. but you really aren’t. You could draw a circle on the map and say. You probably know where you are within a few miles tolerance.” But it is important that you fly the specific heading on your navlog. This is due to a lack of time awareness. As long as you are flying one heading (as opposed to wandering) you can do a 180 and go back. If you haven’t spotted it by then you’ve missed it. If you can climb high enough to get ATC on the radio you will be able to get radar or DF assistance from them. Failure to follow this advice is what will get you lost. be aware of time passing.C. It isn’t critical to identify every point. The procedure for using this in the event of an emergency is covered in section F of your CFS. am I really lost? As a new pilot you may feel lost if you miss one checkpoint. “I am somewhere in here.” From this known area of probability there are several things you can do: If you have been flying a steady heading you can simply reverse it and go back to where you came from. Your previously recorded departure time will give you all the information you need. discussed next. right? If the weather is suitable.” You can state your location in a hierarchy such as that you are in Canada. This was mentioned above. Time Awareness When you choose a geographic point on your map that you will be looking for a critical thing to do is estimate roughly how long it will take until you reach the point. and so on. but if you happen to be lost in the far north there is also the defense radar system. finding one often makes it easier to spot the others. Of course if you have a working GPS you can read the latitude and longitude and immediately locate yourself on the VNC. So.

which you must locate and correct. which got you lost. TIP: it is really quite rare for the winds aloft forecast to be wrong by more than 5 knots. These are standard procedures applicable to any log keeping exercise. Based on this your CR tells you that the groundspeed is ____ Kts. If you brought lots of reserve you will be fine. If it does not then an adding mistake has been made. Much more likely however is that you will reorient yourself and be able to continue your flight. In the prairies most small towns have the town name written on their grain elevator. But the distance is rounded off to the nearest nautical mile and the time is rounded off to the nearest minute. If you fly any direction you will come across a road within a short time. We then fill out the ETA column so that we have the ETA for each checkpoint. Follow it to a town and as you fly by you can read the name on the elevator to identify your location. If your desired destination is not on an extended geographic feature suitable for landfall then pick an interim destination from which you will be able to continue on. This amounts to saying that the actual distance is Page 205 . For example. At a glance you will be able to see that you are ahead of or behind schedule. then enter a revised ETA in the designated column. Selkirk College navlog keeping involves writing down the time we pass each checkpoint enroute in the ATA column. Keep track of your fuel. Consider this before reading the next paragraph. If they have shrunk too low divert to another location and refuel. consider using the navigation technique called landfall. If the groundspeed is revised pencil the corrected value over the value on the navlog. Most fuel starvation incidents follow getting lost. The final checkpoint ETA should match the previously calculated destination ETA. Navlog keeping On your navlog you must record the takeoff time and time past each checkpoint enroute.Navigation for Professional Pilots If you have been wandering around. Once clear of the departure airport we then write down the ETA and Fuel Expiry time in the designated locations. When the wind is substantially different than the forecast there is usually evidence such as turbulence or un-forecast storm activity. You should also record ETA revised ETA for each checkpoint. It is almost always possible to use a landfall to reorient yourself. which is described below. This amounts to saying that you normally will have a groundspeed within 5 knots of the planned value. The ATA should be quite close to the ETA previously filled in. but if fuel gets low and you are still lost you may have to do a precautionary approach. On the Selkirk College navlog we write the takeoff time in the designated location just before takeoff. you measure a distance of 11NM and then measure a time of 4 minutes. The groundspeed according to your CR is 165 kts. Ask yourself what tolerance you would apply to this value. But be sure to recalculate your reserves. If your calculated groundspeed is substantially different than the flight planned value you should recheck your calculations before jumping to any conclusions. In addition your company may require many other pieces of information be recorded. TIP: when doing a groundspeed check your calculations are subject to round-off error.

Diversions A diversion means changing your route and or destination while in flight. if you want a groundspeed check accurate to the nearest knot you would have to fly a groundspeed check of at least one hour (60 minutes. So. and in an area with lots of good forced approach sites. Simply calculate how may thousand feet you need to descend and multiply by three (or four) then start your descent that number of miles from the location you which to reach circuit altitude. Using these values your groundspeed could be anywhere between 149 and 196 kts! (Check these values for yourself with a CR. which adds another error bringing distance tolerance to at least 1 NM. Three miles per thousand feet is the most common. make sure you use fairly long groundspeed checks (10 to 15 minutes minimum).4 and 11. If your navlog predicted a groundspeed of 150 knots should you revise your ETA or not? The answer is that you don’t have an accurate enough groundspeed to decide.) Consequently. To make an accurate groundspeed check you need more accurate data. You can use a stopwatch to get a more accurate time value. This is the top of descent point (TOD. Diversions are very very common occurrences in both IFR and VFR flight. a six minute groundspeed check is at best accurate to plus or minus 10 knots.) That is a very large spread of “correct” values. And a 3 minute groundspeed check is accurate plus or minus 20 knots. but it is still difficult to achieve an accuracy right down to the second (see previous point. and know the tolerance of their accuracy (4 or 5 knots at best.) If the obtained value lies within the tolerance of your flight planned speed it is usually wise to take this as confirmation of the navlog and make no revision to your ETA. it might be wise to descend to circuit altitude 10 miles before the airport (I am thinking about single engine airplanes here. On the other hand.) Put another way. Top of Descent At some point you must start a descent from your cruise altitude so that when you reach the destination airport you are at the desired altitude.) But in more rugged terrain you want to reach circuit altitude only one or two miles prior to joining the circuit. you don’t want to descend too late.) Most pilots plan descents based on a certain gradient. If you are approaching a major airport with a lot of traffic. if you reach the airport well above circuit altitude you will have to circle down (which wastes time and fuel) or will dive (which is uncomfortable for passengers and you. The specific techniques for this however will be deferred to Avia 260 Page 206 . IFR flights routinely divert around areas of bad weather. which is to say just about useless. in order to keep as many safety options open as possible. If you are flying a turbo-charged piston airplane it might be better to use four miles per thousand feet.) Choosing it wisely is important.Navigation for Professional Pilots between 10.4 and the time is between 3:31 and 4:29. A lot of VFR pilots are in the habit of descending quite early. The best you can usually do is measure distance plus or minus ½ nautical mile Even after you do this you will find it difficult specify the precise moment you pass the checkpoint.

But if you have not allowed contingency fuel then you will have to change your destination in order to refuel. Radar surveillance is covered in the AIM RAC 5. When diverting in the mountains. it just takes a bit of practice. It actually bears almost no resemblance to 99% of real life diversion scenarios. You either divert to an alternate route that you have previously analyzed and planned. It is important to realize that this is only an exercise. I am sure than many of the pilots who have killed themselves in the mountains (and there are a lot of them) did so when they had to divert but were unprepared to do so. Anyone can do it. An even better idea is to avail yourself of radar surveillance enroute. To facilitate quickly locating you in the event you do not arrive at destination you should file position reports frequently during your flight. But you must keep track of time so that you don’t run low on fuel. frequently you can skirt the area of poor weather and re-intercept the route beyond the area affected. NEVER plan a substantial diversion in-flight in the mountains. The contents of a VFR position report are listed on the back cover of your CFS. To meet the Transport Canada diversion challenge most pilots estimate the distance by using the minute marks on the VNC’s lines of longitude as a scale. or a calculator. In such cases the Page 207 . You will be surprised how closely you can eye-ball-it with a bit of practice. On the flight test exercise you are required to draw a free-hand line to a designated destination then estimate the heading and distance without using a protractor or a ruler. The best thing to do is estimate all tracks before putting a protractor on them. In the mountains there are often limited opportunities to make position reports. or you do a 180 back to the last suitable airport and land there until you get organized to go on. If you run into bad weather in the mountains and have to divert then there should only be two possibilities. usually means taking a totally different route.Navigation for Professional Pilots VFR flights also often divert around areas of bad weather. It is not always necessary to change destination when bad weather is encountered. To estimate the time enroute if you don’t have a CR computer there are numerous mathematical tricks. Transport Canada has established a specific diversion exercise that you must demonstrate on the commercial pilot flight test. especially on valley crawl trips. When diverting around weather you are by definition using your contingency fuel. The secret to success is in knowing all the routing options before you takeoff. This is however a skill that requires practice.ca website in the miscellaneous section. but this is a possibility. on a valley crawl. just use a ruler if you have one. so as long as your navlog shows that you have lots of contingency fuel you are fine.7. Your instructor will show you how to do this if you haven’t done it before. Ideally position reports should be made about every half hour on a cross country. These are laid out on the ProfessionalPilot. and it is well worth the effort. Position Reports and Amending Flight Plan No one likes to think about having an accident enroute and not making it to destination. To estimate the track to the destination you can just “eye-ball-it” or use a VOR rose to help you be a bit more accurate. You must then calculate (estimate) the time enroute in your head without a flight computer. This is a great exercise in mental approximation but it is important for you to realize that if you are actually doing a diversion there is nothing wrong with using a ruler. Scanning the map looking for an alternate route once you have run into poor weather is a recipe for disaster. In the real world.

) Laying a landfall only works if the destination is on an extended geographically distinct feature that you can lay landfall for and be certain you won’t miss. It is vital to realize that when you make a position report the information is recorded. This technique is often practical on a diversion around poor weather or for reorienting yourself if you get “slightly” lost. The strategy used is to deliberately aim to one side or the other of the intended destination so that when you do make landfall you know for sure which side of the desired point you are on and can follow the coast to your destination. Imagine you wish to sail a ship across the ocean from France to Montreal. Many airports in the Prairies are along major highways.Navigation for Professional Pilots best advice is to make every position report that you can. which can be used the same way. To prevent this you must specifically request that your flight plan be amended to your revised ETA. If you are going to lay landfall simply estimate a heading that will put you one-way-orthe-other from your intended destination. Hybrid Navigation Procedure – Landfall There is a navigation procedure that falls between pilotage and true DR called “laying a landfall. and so on. if you file a position report in which you give an ETA for your destination that correctly predicts your new arrival time FSS will still initiate a search for you at the original ETA based on your flight plan.” This is a technique that goes back centuries to the days of sailing ships. Despite its age it is quite useful at times in modern aviation. for use if you don’t arrive at your destination. For example. The ocean currents present the same problem for ship navigation that wind does for pilots. The same technique can be used by pilots. Once you make landfall use pilotage to find the destination. other towns are on railway tracks. In modern times you would use GPS or Loran-C th to navigate accurately in a straight-line between the ports. Once you find the lake you can follow it to Castlegar. When you do sailors say they have “made landfall. The first step is a rough DR (just accurate enough to guarantee you don’t miss the target (Arrow Lake)) the second leg is pilotage (follow Arrow Lake to Castlegar. Page 208 . But imagine it is the 16 century and no such system exists. The Arrow Lake meets that criterion. If you sail west from France you are most definitely going to hit North America. This sometimes means making two reports only 10 minutes apart and then other times an hour or more might pass due to lack of ground stations.” But you are probably going to drift so if you aimed directly at the Saint Lawrence there is no way to know if you are north or south of it. if you are falling behind schedule and will arrive 45 minutes late. For example if you are in Kelowna and fly east you really cannot miss the Arrow Lake. Many pilots misunderstand this fact. but it DOES NOT update your flight plan.

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but they really don’t make a lot of sense in that context. enroute to destination. which must include at least reserve fuel. Et is the total endurance to dry tanks. These are the point of no return (PNR) and critical point (CP.) PNR is simply what the name says.e. Speed. In such a case you never reached a point of no return (PNR. i. GShome will be the groundspeed after a 180° turn. do you have enough fuel to return to New York? Obviously you do.9 gallons at takeoff and an endurance of 5:18. will be covered here. or in other word PNR would equal total range divided by two. two points of navigation. E is the amount of time in hours that the airplane can fly. For the C-172 with standard tanks we could set the value of Eu at 4:40 for example. Eu will represent the useable endurance. It would be very unwise to calculate PNR based on this number however because that would imply proposing to return and land just as fuel runs out – a very scary idea. what if the illness arises four hours into the flight. For example a C-172 with standard tanks has 38. We will define GS out as the groundspeed when the airplane is outbound from departure. and possibly some contingency fuel. even a short over land flight in a C-172. can you still return to New York? On many of the short flights you have made in C-172 and similar airplanes in your flying career you probably carried enough fuel to fly all the way to destination and then return to departure point. Point of No Return (PNR) Imagine you lift off from New York headed for Paris France.) Each of these concepts can be applied to any flight. the mechanics of doing the calculation is the same no matter what type of airplane you fly. However. to come back to the departure point. You will learn more about them in second year. PNR depends on the airplane’s Endurance. Endurance Eu We will represent endurance with a capital E. But. A passenger becomes ill 30 minutes into the flight. Still. If there was no wind the airplane would reach PNR by flying out to half its endurance. which are usually considered important for oceanic flight. Groundspeed GSout and GShome The groundspeed of the airplane is an important factor in determining PNR. the point beyond which you do not have enough fuel to return to the departure aerodrome.Chapter 12 Oceanic Flight The full details of oceanic flight are beyond the scope of this course. and the wind. .

Navigation for Professional Pilots We also define engine-out-PNR in which we assume all engines operating prior to the 180° turn and one engine out after the turnaround.E. For example an airplane with a zero wind GS of 100 Kts and an endurance of 4 hours has a PNR of 4 x 100 / 2 = 200. The result is always a distance LESS than the zero wind distance above. but GS out is always based on all engines operating normally. Now let us consider the formula that accounts for wind: Page 212 .E. then use the formula below to account for wind. wind always reduced PNR. PNR Formula In zero wind PNR is determined very easily by calculating total range (E x GS) and dividing by two: PNRzero wind = (Eu x GS) / 2 It is always a good idea to do the above calculation as a first estimate. GS home-SE will be based on the engine out performance. I. I.

this is slightly less than the zero wind DPNR.E.e. and the last line. This is good to know. Note that PNR questions will be on the ATPL and IATRA written exams IMPORTANT: if a question asks for engine-out-PNR calculate GSout with all engines operating normally and GShome with one engine inoperative. By using only the first line you can find the correct answer from among a selection on a multiple choice exam. therefore PNR should be routinely calculated and if it is beyond destination – great. i. Here is the “proof” of the formula. It is not necessary for you to memorize the proof but you should know the first line. the airplane can turn around at any point on the flight and return to departure point. I. Important: PNR with wind is always less than PNR with no wind.Navigation for Professional Pilots If the airplane in the previous example experiences a 20Kt tailwind outbound the PNR will be 4. Page 213 .5 x 120 x 80 / (120+80) = 216Nm. Note that you can always apply the DPNR formula to any flight but in many cases the PNR is beyond the destination. As expected. the definition.

Navigation for Professional Pilots Critical Point (CP) There is some point on every trip you make where it would take the same amount of time to turn around and return to the departure point or to continue on to destination.) The formula for CP is given in the diagram below: Page 214 . if you are asked for the single-engine CP use single engine speeds. But CP will move into the wind. I. CP can be calculated for all engines operating normally and also for engine-inoperative. to return to base or continue to destination IMPORTANT: when calculating CP always use the speed as it will be after the CP.) It should be obvious that in zero wind the CP is exactly at the mid-point of the flight.E. In the later case the CP represents the. Thus. on one engine. if asked for all engines CP use all engine speeds – NEVER mix speeds in a CP calculation (this is different than a PNR calculation. This is known as the critical point (CP. if there is a tailwind you will reach CP before the mid-point or if there is a headwind you will reach CP after the midpoint – see if you can visualize why this is so. In other words on a 1000 NM flight CP is 500 NM.

GSon is 120 KT and GSreturn 80KT. Therefore CP = 400 x 80 / (120 + 80) = 160. Therefore CP = 400 x 120 / (120 + 80) = 240. So. GS on is 80 KT and GSreturn is 120KT. Page 215 . SUMMARY: CP always moves into the wind. On a 400Nm flight zero-windCP is 200 Nm. Let’s calculate where CP is with a 20 Knot headwind outbound. So. Let’s calculate where CP is with a 20 Knot tailwind outbound. with a tailwind CP comes before the halfway point.Navigation for Professional Pilots Effect of Tailwind and Headwind on CP In a previous example we flew an airplane with GS of 100 knots in zero wind. with a headwind CP move to beyond halfway point.

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Appendix 1– C-172 Interpolation Tables Power setting ___________ feet ___________ temp RPM TAS _______% 65% ______% Power setting ___________ feet ___________ temp RPM TAS _______% 65% ______% Power setting ___________ feet ___________ temp RPM TAS _______% 65% ______% Power setting ___________ feet ___________ temp RPM TAS _______% 65% ______% ________ feet Page 217 .

________ feet ________ feet Page 218 .

Appendix 2 .Inbound PDT Practice Sheet In the sheet below fill in the heading you must turn to.) Bearing to beacon 150 Desired inbound bearing 100 Heading to steer 300 280 240 290 040 120 135 165 In the table below fill in a random selection of bearings to beacon in the first column: Bearing to beacon Desired bearing Heading to steer Page 219 . or if it is an over-60 write down PT (for procedure turn.

Page 220 . fill in the third column Repeat above MANY times.Next fill in desired bearings considering the first column and making the bearing within 60 most of the time. Finally.

There is no “over 60” limit for outbound PDTs.Outbound PDT Practice Sheet In the sheet below fill in the heading you must turn to.Appendix 3 . Bearing from beacon 210 Desired outbound bearing 250 Heading to steer 340 240 005 320 140 180 280 270 In the table below fill in a random selection of bearings from beacon in the first column: Bearing to beacon Desired bearing Heading to steer Page 221 .

Page 222 .) Finally. There is no 60 degree limit. fill in the third column Repeat above MANY times. but normally the desired should be within 180 (to make sense.Next fill in desired bearings in the second column.

) Rhumb Lines are popular with pilots because you can fly a constant heading rather than changing headins as you would on a Great Circle. A Rhumb Line is only coincident with a great circle if it is also a Meridian. Such a line is the shortest distance along the surface of the earth between any two points on the line. This due to the magnetic north pole NOT being at the actual north pole. Great Circle: A line on the surface of the earth that when extended completely encircles the earth and has its center coincident with the earths center. The angle at which they converge is known as convergence. or the equator. All other Rhumb lines vary from the Great Circle (see above definition. known as isogonic lines. An aircraft flying along a Great Circle route much change heading to compensate for convergence. This error is shown on a compass correction card. as such they are not quite parallel to each other. Convergence: Meridians of longitude converge at the north and south poles. Variation is shown on both IFR and VFR charts as lines of equal variation. Page 223 . Variation: The difference between magnetic track and true track. Rhumb Line: A line on the surface of the earth between two points such that the true track along the line is constant.Appendix 4 – Definitions Deviation: The difference between actual magnetic heading and the compass indications. Convergence is zero at the equator and increases the closer to the pole you fly.