Navigation for Professional Pilots

Ray Preston

2010

Navigation for Professional Pilots

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Navigation for Professional Pilots

Introduction:

This text was created for use in the course Avia 160 as part of the Selkirk College Professional Aviation Program, which leads to the Canadian Commercial Pilot License with Multi-engine and Instrument Rating. This text is intended as an adjunct to a 48 hour lecture series on the topic of navigation. Assignments, tests, and exams supplement this text and the lectures. Flight planning exercises include both VFR and IFR cross-countries. Students will become expert at preparing VNC maps and completing navlogs for VFR cross countries. They will also use LO charts and the Canada Air Pilot to plan IFR cross-countries. This book explains both theoretical and practical principles of flight navigation, including visual and radio navigation based on VOR, ADF, and DME. This course covers principles of intercepting and maintaining a radio course. It also covers flying DME arcs. An introduction to procedure turns is included. The text is supplemented by several computer simulations of the Selkirk College Aviation Intranet, which is on the web at Selair.selkirk.ca. Students in this course are expected to become expert at the use of the CR(or 6) navigation computer. This text was written based on the assumption that readers hold a private pilot license and as such have certain basic knowledge about aviation in general and navigation in particular.

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Navigation for Professional Pilots

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.............................................................................................................16 Pressure and Density Altitude .........................................................................13 Text Overview .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................13 Pilotage...........................................................38 Heading (True..................................................................................... The Fundamental Concepts of Physics .................21 Sample Questions 2 ..............................35 Definition of Velocity..35 Mass – Distance – Time...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................29 Performance Rules of Thumb ............................................................................................18 Pressure Altitude .................... and two useful deductions from the definition ....................36 Equivalent Airspeed (EAS) ........................................................................................................................................28 Electronic Charts for the C-172P...... Dead Reckoning and Radio Navigation ...............................37 Indicated and Calibrated Airspeed (IAS and CAS) ..39 Page 5 ........................................................................19 Density Altitude ..........14 Sample Questions 1 ............................37 ICE-T .............................................................23 Cold Temperature Corrections .................................. and Magnetic) ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................35 True Airspeed (TAS) ....................................................................................................................................................................................................30 Weight and Balance Shift...................................................................................................................................................................................................................23 Performance Charts ..................................................................18 The International Standard Atmosphere .........................29 Electronic Charts for the Travelair ....................................35 Velocity Expressed as Airspeed.............31 Chapter 2 ......................................Navigation for Professional Pilots Table of Contents: Chapter 1 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................28 Interpolation and Accurate Drawing Skill .........................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................Navigation for Professional Pilots Compass Deviation ................................56 Drift Estimation Challenge .......................................................................................46 Calculation of Crosswind and Tailwind ......................................................................................................................................................48 Sample Problems: ................................................................................................................................................................50 Magic Number ...........................................................................................................64 Establishing the Brackets ............................................................59 Introduction to Radio Navigation .............................................................................................49 Drift Estimation ........................63 GPS Navigation ................................................................45 Drift Angle Defined .............................72 Break-out Logic ........................................................................................................ ADF.......................................................................... and GS with a CR ......59 VOR Reception Range .......................................................................................................................61 VOR..............................................................................................59 VOR............................39 Wind and Drift ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... da...................................................................66 “Beating” the Computerized Flying Instructor ...................................... DME – Final Thoughts.............................................................................................................................. ILS......... TW.................................................49 Estimate XW and TW ..............................................................................................................................58 Drift Estimation Summary .....39 Wind Triangle: GS = TAS + Wind..........................58 Chapter 3 ..............................................................................................................................................................47 Determining XW..............................................................................................................................72 Page 6 ...............................46 Groundspeed Defined .......................................................................................................................................................................................64 Bracketing ........................................................................................................... and DME Channel Pairing ............................................................................................54 Estimation of Drift Based on Crosswind and Magic Number .............40 Definitions: Crosswind and Headwind.......................................................................................................................................................................................................55 Two-bit Math ........................................

..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................81 Outbound PDTs ........... Groundspeed Checks .... 121 Page 7 .......................................................................96 Overview of IFR System ...............................................................................................................96 Preferred IFR Routes ................................................................ 115 Standard Decent Gradient is 3° .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................74 DME Groundspeed During an ARC .....89 Random PDT practice...............................................................................Navigation for Professional Pilots Bracketing Summary ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 103 Celsius to Fahrenheit Temperature Conversion .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................92 Chapter 4 ................................ 106 Mach Number............................................................................................................................91 Tracking and Intercepting Summary .............................................97 Chapter 5 .............................95 LO Charts .......................................................................... 107 Miles per Minute ................................. 101 The CR Computer ................... 109 Time to a Station – ARC Speed ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 101 A Ratio Machine ...........78 Intercepting a Course (PDT) .........73 Flying a DME ARC.......... 106 Speed Ratios – I......................................................................................................................................... 101 Unit Conversions ......................... 109 Two IMPORTANT two-step CR Ratio Problems ......95 HI Charts...................................................................................................................................................95 IFR Charts ....................................E.............................................................................................................96 Separation of IFR Aircraft ....................................96 IFR Alternate Airport ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................. 122 Derive CAS given TAS and Forecast Temperature ....................................................................................................................... 139 Longitude....................................... 158 Page 8 .......... 124 Procedure for “Slow and Low” Airplanes........................................................................................................................................... 153 Compass Deviation ..................................................................................................... 146 Rhumb-Line .......... 131 Sample Questions 5 ....... 155 Contour Lines and Hypsometric Tints ...................................................................................................................... 157 Map Scale .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 144 Convergence .............................................................................................................. 139 Shape of the Earth. 139 Latitude ...................................................................................................... 137 The Canada Flight Supplement .................................................................................................................................................................. 148 Transverse Mercator projection ................................................................................................................................... 141 Great-circles .................................................................................................. 146 Map Theory ............................................ 139 Navigation Theory ........................................................................................................................ 147 Lambert Conformal Conic Projection..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Navigation for Professional Pilots TAS and CAS Conversions ....................................................... 127 Comparing Procedure for slow and fast Airplanes ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 137 Weather and NOTAMS.................................................................................... 151 True and Magnetic North (Variation) ......................................................................................................................... 143 Small Circles..................................................................................................................................................................................... 156 Map Legend. 133 Chapter 6 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 125 Procedure for “Fast and High” Airplanes .................................................................................................................................. 137 Chapter 7 .............................................................

.................. 188 Measuring Track and Distance ...................... 186 VFR Map Preparation Techniques.............................................................. 175 Filling in the Navlog............................................................................................ 163 Plotting Lines of Position (LOP) .................................................................................................... 169 Fly-by and Fly-over Waypoints .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 169 Flight Planning ................ 171 Navlog Leg Groups ................................................................ 169 Introduction to Nav-logs ...........................................................................Navigation for Professional Pilots Grid Navigation ................................. 185 Reserve ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 186 Drawing a Line Across a 2-Sided Chart ............................................................................................................................................................................... 163 Chapter 8 ................. 179 Selection of Cruising Altitude .................................. 185 Approach at Alternate Airport ............... 183 Approach at Destination .............................................................................................................................. 182 Top of Descent ............................................................................................................. 158 Grivation .................................................................................. 183 Contingencies ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 178 Cruise Legs – Between Enroute Checkpoints ...................................................................................... 185 Tips for the Electronic Nav-Log ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 169 Definition of a Leg ................................................................................. 176 First Enroute leg (to TOC) ......................................................................... 184 Checkpoints leading to Alternate Airport ............................................................................................ 188 Filling in a Flight Plan Form ................... 172 Ramp Fuel and Fuel Remaining ................................. 175 Choosing a Set Heading Point (SHP) .............................................. 189 Page 9 ......................................................................

............. 199 Chapter 11 .......................................................................................................................... 193 Descent Point in the Mountains ........................... 207 Hybrid Navigation Procedure – Landfall ........................................................................................................................... 203 Enroute Navigation Skills ..................................................................................................................................................... 211 Critical Point (CP) ............................................. 195 Chapter 10 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... Pilotage in Mountain Flying ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 199 Climb Penalty Planning .................... 206 Diversions .................................................................................................... 214 Page 10 ..................................................................................................................... 193 Good-weather Mountain Cross-country ........................................................................................................................................................................... 199 Block Flight Planning ...................... 211 Point of No Return (PNR) ...................................................................................................................... 193 Set Heading Point(s) in the Mountains ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 203 Map Reading .... 194 In-flight Valley Navigation Procedures ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 211 Oceanic Flight .................... 199 Time Saving Flight Planning Techniques ....... 194 Poor Weather Mountain Cross-country (Valley Crawl) .......... 203 Time Awareness .......................................... 206 Position Reports and Amending Flight Plan ................................................................................................................................................... 205 Top of Descent ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 193 Mountain Cross Country ..................... 204 Reorienting if Lost .....................................................Navigation for Professional Pilots Chapter 9 ....................................... 193 DR vs......................................................................................................................................................................... 204 Navlog keeping ................ 208 Chapter 12 ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................Outbound PDT Practice Sheet .............Navigation for Professional Pilots Appendix 1– C-172 Interpolation Tables ............................. 217 Appendix 2 ............................................... 221 Appendix 4 – Definitions ..................................................................................... 219 Appendix 3 ........Inbound PDT Practice Sheet ........................ 223 Page 11 ...................................................

Navigation for Professional Pilots Page 12 .

etc. mechanical.” In “flight planning” we develop a plan for a flight. to VOR. At an airline many people are employed to ensure that all the passenger handling aspects of flight planning are looked into. the point being made here is that flight planning is a large undertaking covering many different items of concern regarding a flight. so flights may detour around some . during. and post flight Accommodation at destination Aircraft servicing at destination Customs arrangements ETC The above list is not complete. departure and arrival fees. For example. to GPS. etc. many international airline flights don’t fly by the shortest route for two reasons: For one every nation they over fly charges a fee. Where we will park upon arrival Customs and other passenger handling arrangements Food and refreshments arrangement prior.Chapter 1 Text Overview Everyone knows what it means to “have a plan. The process can be very complex. Experts also plan routes for optimum advantage (cost) taking wind.) will be used What condition the airplane and its systems will be in What we will do if various contingencies such as weather. into account. or medical difficulties occur. For example your plan might require knowing: When we will leave When we will arrive Who will be on board What route we will take What will the weather be like What navigation equipment (from eyeballs. ATC fees.

most commercial airline flights are IFR flights. allowing for wind. and as such are governed by a set of regulations that you will learn to take into account during this course. By the end of this course you should be able determine time and fuel for a given flight within a few minutes. Dead-reckoning (DR) means to determine the one heading and time that will take the airplane directly to a point. if a strong tailwind (jet stream) can be located. But you must recognize that these things are crucial to real world commercial flight operations. By the end of this course you must be fully competent at planning VFR flights. For your commercial pilot flight test you are allowed 45 minutes. Route selection will be comparatively simple. For example.Navigation for Professional Pilots airspace spending more money on fuel. but. International flights will covered in second year. By the end of this course you will be fully competent to plan an IFR flight from any point within Canada to any other point. or GPS. In this course you will learn the basics of IFR radio Page 14 . one requirement is to have an alternate airport to divert to in the event that landing at the primary destination becomes impossible. Your skill at doing this level of basic flight planning quickly and accurately will free up the time for the logistics aspects of flight planning that your employer will expect you to master. We will consider the preferred IFR routes published in the Canada Flight Supplement. This is necessary when flying IFR. etc won’t receive a lot of attention due to our limited time. Dead Reckoning and Radio Navigation Two terms that will come up over and over are “pilotage” and “dead-reckoning. and terrain and weather. but that should be twice as much time as you actually need. For example: to fly from Castlegar to Revelstoke simply follow the Columbia River. You will learn where to find the required information. and some of these matters will be included in the exercises. We won’t usually concern ourselves with avoiding ATC fees or political boundaries because most of our flights will be domestic. Airline flight planners often adjust to avoid these. It is the way you drive your car and it is often a practical way to fly an airplane. Pilotage. the shortest route is not always the quickest. expect passenger handling and logistics aspects of flight planning to take considerably more of your time than calculating time and fuel. Most of this course is devoted to learning how to dead-reckon. ADF. where to park and service the airplane. or a strong headwind avoided. Radio navigation means that the location of the airplane is determined by referring to instruments such as VOR. In addition. but saving in the long run by avoiding high ATC fees. After graduation.” Pilotage means flying from point to point by visually following features on the ground. In this course we will concentrate on the planning time and fuel for a flight. but we will concentrate on choosing an altitude that is optimum for the wind given a specified route. Flight logistics such as arranging food for passengers. DR is by definition flight along a straight line path.

Any VFR flight over water must be a DR flight for example. Radio navigation is NOT distinct from pilotage or DR. Pilotage dominates on shorter flights. And the final circuit joining and landing is also a pilotage leg. Often some radio navigation will be used. features some pilotage is practical especially when doing things such as diverting around poor weather or special use airspace. distinctive. Even on a long flight some portions of all VFR flights require pilotage. even on a VFR flight – thus most flights require pilotage. In this course we will generally keeps these techniques separated for instructional purposes. DR is the most efficient means of navigation. in fact both can be applied to radio navigation. but if the terrain has good. and radio navigation. Page 15 . In real-world VFR navigating.Navigation for Professional Pilots navigation. DR. but in the real world they should be used together to achieve an efficient flight with the lowest possible workload for the pilot. DR dominates on long flights. pilots use a combination of pilotage and DR. especially over terrain that lacks distinctive features. Usually the leg just after takeoff until established at the set heading point requires pilotage. but it can only be used when the ground has distinctive features so that the pilot can accurately determine position visually.

b. following the VOR needle until s/he gets to the station. b. A pilot tunes a VOR and determines the track to the station is 030°. d. d. This is DR navigation This is pilotage navigation This is radio navigation This is two or more of the above 4. This is DR navigation This is pilotage navigation This is radio navigation This is two or more of the above Page 16 . S/he flies a heading of 220 until the lake comes into sight. b. c. a. then right.Navigation for Professional Pilots Sample Questions 1 1. b. A pilot is trying to find a small lake. c. d. c. A pilot is over a town s/he recognizes and turns south to join left base for the active runway a. d. then flies directly to the lake. a. c. This is DR navigation This is pilotage navigation This is radio navigation This is two or more of the above 3. This is DR navigation This is pilotage navigation This is radio navigation This is two or more of the above 2. A pilot sees a local shopping mall and flies toward it. S/he then turns to that heading without concern for the strong westerly wind. The pilot turns left. then left again. a.

Navigation for Professional Pilots 5. a. b. This is DR navigation This is pilotage navigation This is radio navigation This is two or more of the above Page 17 . A pilot follows a road to a particular intersection then flies heading 360 until the airport comes into view. c. d.

i. It is important to realize that temperature. The gas law states that pressure is proportional to density and temperature. The temperature.e.Navigation for Professional Pilots Pressure and Density Altitude The International Standard Atmosphere One of the valuable benefits of the International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) is that it makes it possible for manufacturers of aircraft to provide data for pilots to use in flight planning. The ISA is divided into temperature layers known as the troposphere. but no civilian aeroplanes fly that high so we will ignore the thermosphere. i. The chemical makeup of the atmosphere does not change with altitude. By 36. pressure. it specifies how temperature changes in the atmosphere. chemistry of the atmosphere. and thermosphere. In the Stratosphere temperature remains isothermal (constant temperature) at -56 C. ISA conditions. The standard temperature is 15 C at sea level and decreases 1. and density are inextricably connected to each other by a law of physics called the gas law.100 feet the temperature has reached -56 C. The ISA is simply a temperature model. Page 18 . You can find more details on this in your aerodynamics text. and the force of gravity collectively determine the pressure and density of the air throughout the ISA. To use the POH data pilots must determine what pressure altitude (PA) and density altitude (DA) the aeroplane will fly at. stratosphere.e. An aircraft’s Pilot Operating Handbook (POH) specifies how the aeroplane performs under standard.98 C per thousand feet in the troposphere. In the thermosphere temperature begins to rise again.

If the pressure altitude is 4.86 27.000 12.001987 0. When a pilot sets the altimeter scale to 29.84 24.000 5. Pilots do not have a barometer (an instrument for measuring air pressure) to measure pressure in units of inches of mercury.92 altimeter reads an altitude called pressure altitude. Once set to 29.78 -8.000 7.000 9.30 17.000 3.39 20.001496 ISA Altitude 0 1.001927 0.000 14.84 as shown in the table above.09 22.04 9.72 -14.84 -2.74 -12.001811 0.14 -0.000’ the air pressure is 25.58 19.58 16.002175 0.001701 0.98 23. which measures air pressure.001756 0.002377 0.90 23.000 10.000 6. but in effect it is giving the air pressure from the table above.10 3. They do however have a thermometer to measure temperature and an altimeter.89 Density 3 slugs / ft 0.001648 0.Navigation for Professional Pilots Aircraft performance depends on air density but airplanes do not come with an instrument to measure it.79 19.82 26.00 13.000 4.06 7.82 -4. In the ISA the following values apply: Pressure Inches Hg 29.12 1.70 Pressure Altitude The most convenient instrument available to pilots for measuring air pressure is the aircraft altimeter. The gas law relates air density to these two values.03 18.002111 0.000 Temp C 15.08 5.000 2.23 21.002241 0.000 8.000 15.001596 0.76 -10.92 28.001545 0.000 11.002308 0.82 25.002048 0.02 11.80 -6.92 it reads an altitude.000 13.001869 0. Fill in the values for air pressure in the table below: Page 19 .

000’ 7.000 The only way to get a precise pressure altitude is to set a calibrated altimeter to 29. This is not convenient for flight planning however.000’.000 9. In this case the air pressure is 28.06 x 1000 = +1060.Navigation for Professional Pilots Pressure Altitude Air pressure Inches Hg Sea level 3000’ 5. so we need a method to estimate pressure altitude.86 +1.92 and read the value on the instrument. Armed with this knowledge it is possible to calculate the pressure altitude without using an actual altimeter.86 and the pressure altitude is 1000’ as we can see from the table above.86. To calculate pressure altitude we need to know the current altimeter setting and the actual altitude of the altimeter setting source. First a very simple example: An airport at sea level (such as CYVR) reports an altimeter setting of 28.92 28.06 Correction equals 1. How would we calculate this mathematically? Standard setting: Altimeter setting: Difference 29. Notice that in the ISA pressure drops about one inch of mercury for every thousand feet up to 10. but it is pretty close. Therefore pressure altitude = altimeter source altitude + correction Sea level + 1060 = 1060 Page 20 . This is convenient since it means we can flight plan without needing access to an altimeter. This is an approximation.

which states that air density is proportional to air pressure and inversely proportional to air temperature.92 Altimeter setting 30. and vice versa. Density Altitude Density altitude represents the altitude in the ISA with the equivalent air density. To get a precise pressure altitude you must use a calibrated altimeter. This small error is acceptable for flight planning purposes. Below is a more complex pressure altitude calculation in which the altimeter source is not at sea level.92 it is like flying at a lower altitude. TIP: You may find it hard to remember whether to add or subtract the correction from the altimeter source altitude.Navigation for Professional Pilots Notice that the calculation gives a value of 1060’ when the correct value is 1000’. Remember that when the altimeter setting is more than 29.67 Difference -0. You should keep in mind that the calculation of pressure altitude results in estimation.75 x 1000 = -750 Pressure altitude = altimeter source altitude + correction Pressure altitude = 3456 – 750 = 2706 Rounding off. estimate pressure altitude as 2700 feet. Page 21 . density altitude can be calculated in accordance with the gas law. Once you know the pressure altitude (in effect the air pressure) and air temperature. Altimeter source altitude: 3456 feet Altimeter setting: 30.67 Standard setting: 29.75 Correction = -0.

Navigation for Professional Pilots

Many Pilot Operating Handbooks are designed so that it is not necessary to calculate density altitude since the manufacturer provides performance charts based on pressure altitude and temperature. This is wise on their part because calculating density altitude accurately requires a complex formula. The C-172 and King Air manuals you will use in this course have charts based on pressure altitude and temperature. In effect the density altitude calculation is incorporated into the charts. For these airplanes it is not necessary to calculate density altitude. Our B95 charts are based on density altitude, and therefore you must calculate its value. Because temperature is usually close to standard a reasonable estimation of density altitude can be made by adjusting pressure altitude 120 feet for every degree the temperature varies from standard. For example if the temperature is 3 C colder than ISA then density altitude will be 3 x120 = 360 lower than the pressure altitude. If air temperature is 5 C above standard then density altitude will be 600 feet higher than the pressure altitude.

DA = PA + 120ΔT

[ΔT is deviation from standard temperature]

TIP: Warm air is less dense air and thus density altitude is greater when the air is warm.

TIP: The KLN90b GPS has a built in density altitude calculator. You can use it to get a more accurate density altitude. The KLN90b in the piston simulators can be used just as well as the ones in the airplanes.

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Navigation for Professional Pilots

Sample Questions 2
1. The altimeter source altitude is 1000, altimeter setting is 28.92, temperature at 1000 feet is 15 C. Calculate the pressure altitude (PA) and the density altitude (DA)

2.

The altimeter source altitude is 7000, altimeter setting is 28.92, temperature at 7000 feet is 15 C. Calculate the pressure altitude (PA) and the density altitude (DA)

3.

The altimeter source altitude is 8500, altimeter setting is 30.86, temperature at 8500 feet is 22 C. Calculate the pressure altitude (PA) and the density altitude (DA)

4.

altimeter source altitude is 1624, altimeter setting is 30.35, temperature at 1624 feet is 18 C. Calculate the pressure altitude (PA) and the density altitude (DA)

5.

The altimeter source altitude is 1624, altimeter setting is 29.71, temperature at 1624 feet is 7 C. Calculate the pressure altitude (PA) and the density altitude (DA)

Cold Temperature Corrections
The altimeter in an airplane does not actually read altitude; it reads static air pressure and displays this as an altitude based on the following assumed pressure/altitude correspondence: Indicated Altitude 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 ISA Ps(Hg) 29.92 28.86 27.82 26.82 25.84 24.90 23.98 23.09 pressure difference 1.10 1.06 1.03 1.00 0.97 0.95 0.92 0.89 Measured Pressure 29.92 28.86 27.82 26.82 25.84 24.90 23.98 23.09

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Navigation for Professional Pilots

8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 13,000 14,000 15,000 16,000 17,000 18,000 19,000 20,000

22.23 21.39 20.58 19.79 19.03 18.30 17.58 16.89 16.22 15.57 14.95 14.34 13.76

0.86 0.84 0.81 0.79 0.76 0.74 0.71 0.69 0.67 0.65 0.63 0.61 0.59

22.23 21.39 20.58 19.79 19.03 18.30 17.58 16.89 16.22 15.57 14.95 14.34 13.76

This table is correct for an altimeter set with the Colesman scale on 29.92 The table shows that an altimeter “assumes” pressure will drop 1.10 inches of Mercury between sea level and 1000 feet and then drop 1.06 between 1000’ and 2000’ etc. Consequently an altimeter set to 29.92 will read 7000 feet when the air pressure is 23.09 regardless of how high the airplane really is. The Colesman scale on the altimeter simply “slips” the above scale to reset the zero point, as shown in the diagram below, which is for an altimeter set to 30.44

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Navigation for Professional Pilots

Indicated Altitude 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 13,000 14,000 15,000 16,000 17,000 18,000 19,000 20,000

ISA Ps(Hg) 29.92 28.86 27.82 26.82 25.84 24.90 23.98 23.09 22.23 21.39 20.58 19.79 19.03 18.30 17.58 16.89 16.22 15.57 14.95 14.34 13.76

pressure difference 1.10 1.06 1.03 1.00 0.97 0.95 0.92 0.89 0.86 0.84 0.81 0.79 0.76 0.74 0.71 0.69 0.67 0.65 0.63 0.61 0.59

Measured Pressure 30.44 29.38 28.34 27.34 26.36 25.42 24.50 23.61 22.75 21.91 21.10 20.31 19.55 18.82 18.10 17.41 16.74 16.09 15.47 14.86 14.28

This table is correct for an altimeter with the Colesman scale set to 30.44. When the actual air pressure is 30.44 the altimeter reads zero.

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because that is where the altimeter setting instrument is located. This is very dangerous for any pilot flying in instrument conditions and using the altimeter to avoid mountain tops.17] The above formula gives the required correction.04 x (ISA deviation) / 10 x (Height AGL) [RAC 9. A correction is required any time temperatures are significantly below standard. etc. but as these are minimum altitudes that you Page 26 . In the table above you can see that when the air pressure is 18. if a particular airport is at 3000 asl an altimeter adjusted to read 3000 at that airport will “report” an altimeter setting of 30. This is particularly important if you will deviate from any specified altitude such as a missed approach altitude or an altitude on a DME arc. Thus we must correct for temperature error any time the temperature is cold.44 on that day. Taking the above table as an example. Any temperature correction that an over flying airplane makes need only be applied to the atmosphere between ground level and the true altitude of the airplane. 3. Normal practice among pilots is to make a correction anytime ground temperature is 0°C or colder.44 – 27. The actual sea level pressure may not be 30.82 the altimeter reads 13. Equation from RAC 9. More likely the pressure drop will vary from that shown and thus the true altitude will not correspond to the indicated altitude.000 drops exactly as shown in the table the altitude will be correct.44.Navigation for Professional Pilots IMPORTANT: altimeter settings are determined with an instrument located at the airport.17 Table in CAP GEN CR RAC 9. 2. the corresponding formula is: Temperature Correction = . Pressure decreases more rapidly in cold dense air. which should then be added to the desired altitude to get the indicated altitude you will fly in order to be safe. If the air pressure between ground level and 13. Since this is only a hypothetical possibility it is not important.44.37) is only hypothetical. This will happen regardless of the true altitude. Memorize the rule of thumb and be able to use it. Three methods of making the correction will be presented in this course.17 recommends allowing 4% height increase for every 10°C below standard temperature.17 specifies our legal obligation to calculate a temperature correction. The thing to realize is that an altimeter setting permits the altimeter to read the correct altitude at the airport (3000 in the example). but the altimeter will read 0 feet if the actual air pressure is 30. If the air pressure declines with altitude more rapidly than the above table the true altitude will be lower than the indicated altitude. This rule of thumb should only be used down to temperatures of -15°C. RAC 9. In order of preference in use they are: 1. Remember to keep ATC informed of what altitude you are flying.17 specifies that you should also report deviations from FAF crossing altitude and MDA. The pressure difference between 3000 and sea level shown in the above table (30.000 feet. RAC 9.

For temperature colder than -15°C use the table in the CAP GEN. Many mountain approaches however have procedure turn and intermediate segment altitudes higher than 5000 AGL. Note that RAC 9. however it is based on an airport at sea level and therefore gives conservative corrections for airports that are higher than sea level. It is common practice among pilots to use the table by summing values. However.Navigation for Professional Pilots can choose to be above on any approach most pilots do not report these deviations.17 states that the table is not valid for heights more than 5000 ASL. This table can also be used for temperatures of 0°C and -10°C. for example adding 5000 and 3000 to get 8000. When doing this always round up each value obtained in order ensure safety. you must consider carefully whether any conflict with other traffic could result from your temperature correction and keep ATC informed as necessary. If you use the equation above you get a more accurate correction for airports that are above sea level. Page 27 . To use the table in the CAP GEN follow the instructions provided with the table.

A complete explanation of how to use each chart. You will be using these aids daily as you prepare for flights but it is CRITICAL that you can perform the calculations without them should the need arise. c. and tables in the C-172P POH. or some other situation requires a non-standard power setting. A special situation is one in which either an unusually long range is needed. but if these are not enough you must practice until you perfect the skill. charts. Accurately drawing lines on graphical performance charts a. Page 28 . and your Alsim (King Air) manual. Practice these skills using the computer simulations provided for that purpose. Consequently the assignments in this course – and the quizzes and exams – are to be completed without these online aids. and graph cannot be provided here. The aviation Intranet provides links to many electronic aids that ease your flight planning chores. Alternatively. C-172 manual King Air cruise tables CAP GEN temperature Correction charts Both these skills are vital. Beechcraft Travelair Pilot Information Manual. you might be asked to brake-in a new engine by operating it at 75% power for a certain number of hours. You will be given assignments to practice these skills. Supplements to the C-172P POH are found in Appendix 14 of your Program Manual. but most are self explanatory. making it possible to plan a flight in a much shorter time. table. Normal aviation industry practice is for flight departments to establish a cruise power setting and use it for all but “special” flight situations. unless the instructions indicate otherwise. In such cases you must flight plan for a power setting different from that normally used.Navigation for Professional Pilots Performance Charts You must master the use of all the performance graphs. b. or an unusually high speed. For example you might be asked to ferry an airplane over a distance that exceeds its normal range. Interpolation and Accurate Drawing Skill To use the various charts in your aircraft POHs you must learn two skills: 1. c. b. BE95 King Air Manual Other Transport category aircraft Accurately interpolate tabular data a. but that can be achieved if slower than normal speeds are used. 2. Assignments are provided for you to practice using these planning aids and to confirm that you are using them accurately.

They work essentially the same as the ones for the C-172. The ENL contains a weight and balance calculator for quick. TIP: Remember that even though you will be using the electronic navlog for your day-to-day flying. For the C-172P you will find: C-172 Electronic Takeoff Chart Electronic Navlog (ENL) –includes weight and balance The Normal Takeoff distance graph is an electronic version of the two graphs in the C-172 Flight Planning Supplement. Electronic Charts for the Travelair The aviation Intranet contains several electronic aids for B95 flight planning. CAS. IAS. Use it prior to all flights to get your normal takeoff distance. Page 29 . The weight and balance calculator eliminates the need to use the charts in section 6 of the POH. it performs the functions of a flight computer. so be sure to master them. eliminating the need to use any charts in section 5 of the POH. It is much quicker and easier to use. and accurate.e. In all your assignments in Avia 160 use the paper charts. a cruise performance calculator. and Accelerate Stop Distance. ETE and fuel required for the flight i. and always gives the correct answer. Navlogs are covered later in this course. easy. The BE95 Electronic Takeoff Chart also calculates accelerate go and accelerate stop distance. as well as single engine climb performance. groundspeed.Navigation for Professional Pilots Electronic Charts for the C-172P The paper charts described above are all that you need to plan for any flight. On all your exams you will ONLY be permitted to use these paper charts. On your exams you will have to calculate without the electronic aid. On our Intranet website several electronic aids have been provided. You will use these electronic aids for your day-to-day flight operations in the aviation program. It also calculates drift. When doing assignments you should do all the calculations by hand and then use the electronic navlog to see if you made a mistake. The navlog automatically determines TAS. you must be able to do all the calculations long-hand when needed. The ENL has a built in weight and balance sheet. They are similar to the professional flight training aids used by modern airlines. It gives Normal Takeoff Distance. which makes things very quick. and a Navlog calculator. These electronic planning aids are much quicker and easier to use than the paper products. rpm. Use the tables on pages 5-12 and 5-13 when short field operation is called for. easy and accurate weight and balance calculations.

(headwind component / rotation speed)% = percent change in takeoff roll and distance to clear obstacle. snow. (e.12/94 = 77% 110% + (tailwind component / rotation speed)% = percent change in takeoff roll and distance to clear obstacle. the charts do not cover all situations. Most manuals do not provide charts for soft or rough fields and most light aircraft charts do not allow for a sloped runway for instance. A change in weight of 10% changes takeoff distance by 20% (ratio 1:2) Most “good” grass runways require 25% more distance than a paved runway Long grass (more than 4 inches) requires 30% more runway Soft surface mud.Navigation for Professional Pilots Performance Rules of Thumb In the section above you learned to precisely use the charts that come with your airplane.g. requires 75% more runway add 10% for 1 degree of up slope add 20% for 2 degree of up slope Subtract 5% for 1 degree of down slope 90% . Page 30 . Below are some rules of thumb that Transport Canada put together a number of years ago. etc. However. In Avia 100 you will learn to use the above rules of thumb to make reasonable go – no go decisions in tricky takeoff situations. 12 knot headwind and Vr = 94 therefore 90% .

but an important exercise you may not be familiar with is shifting a CG by a specified amount. which is 1000 could be created by an infinite number of possible weight shift.Navigation for Professional Pilots Weight and Balance Shift As a licensed pilot you know how to calculate a weight and balance. Step 2: Move the freight by an amount equal to moment-shift / weight-of-freight Page 31 .5 inches. how far do you need to move it? The above question is a Transport Canada favorite on the commercial pilot and ATPL exams. you shift some freight forward. etc. but the aft CG limit is 45 inches what do you do? In simple terms the answer is easy. or 500 pounds by 2 inches. For example we could shift 1000 pounds forward 1 inch. Let’s say you have 400 pounds to shift forward. A moment is: weight x arm.500 The difference in moment.500 The secret is to realize that the desired moment is: Mdesired = 5000 x 45 = 22. In this case we have been told to shift 400 pounds of freight. subtract to get the desired moment shift. An important point to notice is that it makes no difference what the current location of this freight is. if you calculate the weight and balance for an airplane and discover that it weights 5000 pounds and the CG is at 47 inches aft of the datum. For example.5 inches. so it must be moved 1000/400 = 2. only that we move it forward at least 2. At present we know the moment of the airplane is: Mcurrent = 5000 x 47 = 23. In summary: Step 1: Calculate the current moment and desired moment. The solution is quite simple if you remember the meaning of the concept known as moment.

Page 32 . The CG is 73 inches aft of the datum. Shift this weight to at least: a) 85 b) 75 c) 65 d) 55 Your calculations should reveal that: Mcurrent = 9000 x 73 = 657000 Mdesired = 9000 x 71 = 639000 M-change = 18000 CG-shift = 18000 / 600 = 30 The answer is therefore: 104 – 30 = 74. but that is WRONG.Navigation for Professional Pilots Here is a typical transport Canada exam question. choose the correct answer: An airplane weighs 9000 pounds. If you move the weight to arm 75 it is still one inch too far back. There is 600 pounds of freight at 104 inches aft of the datum. Since the next lowest option is 65 that is the correct choice on this multiple choice question. The aft CG limit is 71 inches aft of the datum. Most people will therefore choose b.

Navigation for Professional Pilots Page 33 .

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The direction is imparted to the velocity by the orientation of the distance. The Fundamental Concepts of Physics In Newtonian Physics there are three fundamental concepts upon which everything else is based: 1. Mass – Distance – Time. etc. Unfortunately there is a confusing array of speeds that we must learn to sort through: .Chapter 2 This chapter introduces you to the fundamental concepts of navigation. power. Think about what this means and we will discuss it in class. Definition of Velocity. Everything in this chapter is vital. are all composites of these three concepts. Even concepts that may not at first appear to be composites of the above three actually are. From the above definition come two crucial deductions: d = Vt T = V/d Velocity Expressed as Airspeed Velocity is THE fundamental concept in navigation. 3. Once we know our groundspeed (GS) and track-made-good over the ground (TMG) we know everything we need to know to predict the time it will take to complete a flight. If you don’t understand and retain it 100% there will be a problem. for example temperature is really just a measure of the velocity of particles. 2. t = time] Velocity is a vector quantity. To be more precise Groundspeed and direction of flight are the fundamental concepts in navigation. and two useful deductions from the definition Velocity is the simplest of the composite concepts in physics: V = d/t [d = distance. which in turn is the composite of distance and time. In other words it has both magnitude and direction. so review this material often. energy. Mass Distance Time All other concepts from simple ones live velocity and acceleration to complex concepts such as work.

3. Think of EAS as the pressure you would feel on your face if the airplane had an open cockpit. Groundspeed (GS) (which is TAS + wind) Indicated airspeed (IAS) Calibrated airspeed (CAS) Equivalent airspeed (EAS) True airspeed (TAS) Accurate flight planning requires accurate knowledge of TAS and GS. Unfortunately airspeed indicators do not show EAS either. You can also determine TAS in flight by reading your IAS and applying correction for: Position error (aka. so we must learn to convert indicated airspeed (IAS) to Calibrated Airspeed (CAS) and then to EAS and finally TAS. What a pilot actually requires to fly safely is the Equivalent Airspeed (EAS. Unfortunately we must learn to deal with the undesirable IAS and CAS True Airspeed (TAS) True airspeed tells us how fast the airplane moves through the air. and we always fly our approach at a certain EAS. In summary – life for pilots would be much better if there was only EAS and TAS. 2. calibration error) Compression error Density error See diagram below for the hierarchy of airspeed errors. 5. It is NOT desirable to have an ASI show TAS even if it could.Navigation for Professional Pilots 1. You should already know that an airspeed indicator (ASI) does not show TAS.) An airplane always stalls at a certain EAS. This value is normally forecast in the POH for the airplane. Page 36 . 4.

and also at very high speeds and high altitudes. So we must learn how to convert indicated airspeed (IAS) into EAS. The good news is that there is usually not much difference between IAS and EAS. i. Page 37 . In fact the difference between EAS and CAS is less than one knot for airplanes flying less than 200 knots and less than 20. Indicated airspeed is by definition the speed shown on the airspeed indicator. The calibration chart is found in the POH. So. therefore calibration error is frequently called position error.) Most of the calibration error is due to the position of the static vent on the fuselage.000 feet there will an error. above 200 knots and 20.Navigation for Professional Pilots Equivalent Airspeed (EAS) The equivalent airspeed compares flight at altitude to flight at sea level. TAS = EAS at sea level TAS > EAS at all altitudes above sea level. Once you apply the correction factor you will have calibrated airspeed (CAS. At very slow speeds (high angle of attack) there will be a significant error.e. density of air divided by sea level standard density] Indicated and Calibrated Airspeed (IAS and CAS) In an ideal world the airspeed indicator would show EAS.000 feet. The calibration chart compensates for the imperfect measurement of Pitot tube and static port on the airplane. for these airplanes you may feel free to say that EAS = CAS. Unfortunately airspeed indicators are not perfect. That covers both the C-172P and Travelair. Like any instrument and airspeed indicator is imperfect and as such a calibration chart must be provided. Mathematically: TAS = EAS/√σ [σ is the density ratio. Most of the time it is reasonable to assume that the indicated speed is the same as equivalent speed. Calibrated airspeed is pretty close to equivalent airspeed in most cases. When we say that an airplane is cruising at 300 KEAS we are saying that it experiences the same dynamic pressure as an airplane flying at 300 knots at sea level on a standard day.

but that is because the EAS compensation is built into the computer. Remember that with the CR you go directly from CAS to TAS. Page 38 .000 feet (which includes the King Air) it will be necessary to apply a compression correction factor. The “simple method” DOES NOT allow for compression error. Your CR flight computer automatically applies compression correction.Navigation for Professional Pilots For any airplane flying above 20. Always convert IAS to CAS. then EAS to TAS. So an airplane flying at 250 KCAS at 30. CAS is always more than EAS. Compression refers to the fact that air entering a Pitot tube is compressed and thus its pressure rises. ICE-T To convert from IAS to TAS it is necessary to apply the corrections in the proper order. use the pneumonic ICE-T.000 feet is experiencing less than 250 KEAS. if you use the “professional method” for converting CAS to TAS. We cover use of the CR later. To remember the sequence. then CAS to EAS. consequently airspeed indicators always over read.

Straight lines drawn between the poles are called meridians of longitude. If you release your balloon into this air mass it will be 15 NM south after one hour. Heading is expressed as an angle from north. i. You follow it and discover that it more-or-less drifts in a straight line.e. These lines define true north. but on most days you will see it drift sideways. Wind is described by specifying the direction the air is coming from and how fast. Page 39 . The error in the compass is called deviation. The difference is called variation. We will be covering map theory in detail later. but always in units of degrees. pilots set their heading indicators to magnetic. When we say the wind is north at 15 knots we are saying that it is coming from the north. 15 nautical miles every hour. In that case the headings displayed on the heading indicator are true headings. and you will find it marked on your maps.) In the northern domestic airspace pilots set their heading indicators to true. The magnetic North Pole is many miles from the real North Pole and thus there is a difference between magnetic headings and true headings.Navigation for Professional Pilots Heading (True. Compass Deviation Like any piece of equipment a compass is never calibrated perfectly. true. 30 NM south after two hours. The primary complication in navigation planning involves allowing for this movement of the air (wind) i. at least over a distance of a few miles. In such cases another reference system known as grid is used. Movement of the air is wind. The earth spins around an axis that passes through the north and south poles.e. Heading can be expressed in magnetic. Wind and Drift Imagine stepping outside with a helium-filled balloon and letting it float away. Imagine that your balloon rises a few hundred feet and then maintains that altitude. etc. This is important because it will be difficult to flight plan if air moves in random fashion. or grid. moving south. and Magnetic) Heading is the direction that TAS acts. Each aircraft compass comes with a deviation card that shows the extent of the error. allowing for drift. Fortunately it generally moves in a steady continuous fashion. When flying over the poles neither true nor magnetic heading reference is satisfactory. In the southern domestic airspace. If the air is perfectly calm it will float straight up. As a pilot you must consult the deviation card and take it into account when setting the heading indicator to correspond to the compass. This horizontal motion results from the air mass moving relative to the ground. Meridians appear on your map and you will learn to orient your protractor to these lines of longitude when measuring the true track (TT.

We will simply draw a picture. The main difficulty is in realizing that wind is a large scale phenomenon not a stream within the air but the whole air.e. So. The wind is from 270° at 20 knots. Draw a vertical line roughly in the center of the paper which we will use to represent a meridian of longitude (i. To explore the meaning of drift examine the simulation called Drift on the Intranet website. all we have to do is remember how to add two vectors. The distance between them is 240 NM and the true track is 050°. Your task is to determine the heading that is required to maintain that track and the resulting groundspeed (so that you can calculate time to destination. which a balloon does not. The airplane flies at a true airspeed of 100 knots. An airplane’s net motion is the sum of true airspeed and wind.) We will now learn the simplest method of solving the above problem. While it is obvious that a balloon drifts it is equally true. Do NOT think of wind as something that happens in the air but as a property of the whole air mass you fly in. Wind Triangle: GS = TAS + Wind The most fundamental concept of navigation is: Groundspeed = True Airspeed + Wind GS = TAS + wind All three of these entities are vectors. 2.) Make a small “x” in the lower left quadrant of the sheet to represent airport A. An airplane moves through the air. that an airplane does also. and in what direction. No calculators or mathematics is required.Navigation for Professional Pilots Most people find it pretty easy to visualize a balloon drifting in the wind. Page 40 . But it must be an accurate picture so get out your navigation-ruler and protractor and follow along. When dead reckoning you start with a known true airspeed and a forecast wind plus a track you wish to fly. it represents true north. if less obvious. Get a blank piece of paper and complete the following steps: 1. True airspeed is a vector quantity that expresses how quickly an airplane moves through the air. We put it in the lower left quadrant because we are going to fly north-east so we want to allow room to draw the line to airport B. but the movement of the air (wind) adds to the net movement of the airplane never-the-less. For our first sample problem we wish to fly from airport A to airport B.

Your sheet should now look like the one below: 5. Center your protractor on airport A and orient it to north using the line of longitude.) Orient your protractor using the meridian and then mark a dot at the center of your protractor and another mark at 270° (the wind direction. (When drawing TAS-Wind triangles always place the wind vector near the destination end of the TMG. Page 41 . 4. Place your protractor on the TMG somewhere in the upper right quadrant.Navigation for Professional Pilots 3. Mark 050° and then draw a line from airport A in the direction 050°. Next we will draw a vector representing the wind. At this point your paper should look like the one below: The line represents the track to airport B.) We don’t need to mark on airport B. We call this the track-made-good (TMG.) Take your ruler and laying it accurately from the wind dot to the 270° mark measure the distance 20 NM from the TMG in the direction of the wind.

Your diagram should now look like the one below: Page 42 . but it will likely be less accurate.) Put the tip of the compass at the beginning of the wind vector and draw an arc that intersects the TMG near airport A. 6. If you don’t have one it is possible to measure with a ruler.Navigation for Professional Pilots The most accurate way to perform the next step is with a measuring instrument known by geometers as a compass. Set your measuring compass (shown above) to exactly 100 NM (the TAS.

The diagram is now complete. 7. This line is exactly 100 NM long and it represents the true airspeed. If these conditions are met you will get an accurate wind triangle. Draw a line from the point where the arc cuts the TMG to the beginning of the wind vector. and it should look like the one below: Page 43 . The TMG must be exactly 050°.Navigation for Professional Pilots To work properly a TAS-Wind triangle must be drawn accurately. the wind vector must be exactly 20NM long and the arc must be exactly 100NM long.

We now have all the items we set out to determine: True heading: 042° Ground speed 115 Knots From this we can calculate the amount of time it takes to fly the 240Nm from airport A to airport B. The heading you must fly is represented by the TAS vector and you can measure it with your protractor. it is your groundspeed.Navigation for Professional Pilots The angle labeled (da) above is called the drift angle. This represents the distance flown in one hour – i. Measure the distance from the arc to the point where the wind vector intersects the TMG.e. The distance is 115 NM. and drift angle is 8°. If you drew your diagram accurately true heading is 042°. It is NOT necessary to draw the full picture but if we did it would look like the one below: Page 44 .

Definitions: Crosswind and Headwind TAS-Wind triangles are excellent for visualizing drift and determining groundspeed. This model can be applied using an electronic calculator or a CR flight computer. as you can see it is in proportional to the length of the trip. The flight from airport A to airport B takes 2:05 during which time the airplane drifts a total of 42 NM. But. which is represented by the line labeled “wind/whole trip” above.Navigation for Professional Pilots The purpose of the above diagram is to convince you that the net drift for the entire trip is proportional to drift for one hour. Thus we will introduce a mathematical model for determining drift and groundspeed. Page 45 . so da is the same in both triangles. but they are a bit unwieldy for practical flight planning.

In slang pilots refer to tailwind as “wind on the tail” which implies that it is relative to the airplane. drift angle definitions on the Intranet website. To see an active version of this definition examine the simulation called Crosswind. Tailwind. this is a common mistake. which is the course that is to be flown. headwind. tailwind. It is critical to remember that XW and TW are by definition relative to TMG not TAS.Navigation for Professional Pilots The wind vector in the above diagram has been broken into two components. Rather than memorize this you should be able to reproduce the defining diagram and extract the definition from it: da = Sin-1(XW/TAS) Groundspeed Defined The following diagram extends the one above to define groundspeed (GS) Page 46 . but this is NOT correct. tailwind. Drift Angle Defined From the diagram above the relationship between drift-angle (da) crosswind (XW) and TAS is easy to see. and crosswind are all relative to the TMG. crosswind (XW) and tailwind (TW) that are perpendicular and parallel to TMG respectively.

What is missing is a method of determining crosswind and tailwind. That is to say that cosine of a small angle is almost one.Navigation for Professional Pilots Note that TAS forms the hypotenuse of a right-triangle the base of which equals cos(da) x TAS. To do that we must know the relative wind angle (rwa) as defined in this diagram: Page 47 . but to get the precise value the cosine of drift angle must be applied. It is quite obvious that you can do this with an electronic calculator. Thus when performing a quick estimate of groundspeed it is usually acceptable to add tailwind directly to TAS. Calculation of Crosswind and Tailwind The above definitions show how we will use crosswind and tailwind to determine drift angle and groundspeed. The formula is: GS = cos(da) x TAS + TW It is very worthwhile to realize that as long as da is small there is not much difference between cos(da) x TAS and TAS. but the CR also makes this allowance as we will see. To this value the tailwind must be added to get groundspeed.

Using these values the drift angle and -1 groundspeed can be calculated. The CR has a “wind disc” that allows you to visually determine XW and TW and a logarithmic outer scale that determines da and cos(da) x TAS. The CR performs the calculations described above by taking advantage of the mathematical fact that when multiplying two numbers. Drift angle is da = sin (13/100) = 7° and groundspeed is GS = cos(7) x 100 + 15 = 115 knots. The explanation of how to use the CR wind side starts on page 30 of the Jeppesen CR manual. Determining XW. The CR flight computer performs the same calculation. In the example above the wind direction is 090° and the track made good is 050°. Note that these values match the ones previously determined using the TAS-Wind Triangle. and GS with a CR Now that we know the mathematical formulae and can apply them with any electronic calculator (or spreadsheet) we will learn to more easily evaluate them using the wind side of the CR computer. Page 48 . In the example problem the wind speed is 20 knots and the relative wind angle is 40° therefore XW = sin(40) x 20 = 13 knots and TW = cos(40) x 20 = 15 knots. Once we know the relative wind angle the crosswind and tailwind can be calculated by simple trigonometry as: XW = sin(rwa) x Windspeed TW = cos(rwa) x Windspeed The above formulae can be used to determine crosswind and tailwind with an electronic calculator. as described above. da. The relative wind angle is therefore 40°. say A x B = C then Log(A) + Log(B) = Log(C).Navigation for Professional Pilots The relative wind angle is the absolute value of the angle between the wind direction and the track made good. TW.

For example TMG is the same as what Jeppesen calls true course (TC. we will use the term drift angle for both. wind.Navigation for Professional Pilots There are a few minor terminology differences between your CR manual and those used in this text. when flying it is often necessary to change course without the opportunity to accurately recalculate the drift. and GS: TAS 100 100 100 100 155 155 350 350 80 80 460 460 True Wind 270/20 270/20 270/20 270/20 330/30 330/30 080/15 080/15 120/25 120/25 320/140 320/140 TC 050 330 130 220 300 180 100 010 090 210 270 170 XW TW Da GS Drift Estimation The accurate mathematical calculation of drift angle and groundspeed as explained above can be performed with an electronic calculator. However. a spreadsheet. Numerous IFR examples come to mind. In VFR flight you are already familiar with the need to plan a diversion should weather Page 49 . or a computer program. TW. a CR. da. Read pages 30 to 50 doing all the sample problems (the short section on addition and subtraction on page 32 can be skipped. for example when cleared to hold or to do an approach the pilot must establish a designated course (TMG) or when the assigned route is changed drift must be determined on the new route.) Once you have worked through the CR manual try the following sample problems: Sample Problems: Given TAS. and desired true course (TC) determine XW.) Jeppesen draws a distinction between drift angle and crab-angle.

so you must apply variation to get the magnetic wind. It is therefore extremely valuable to have a technique for estimating drift and groundspeed using only mental calculation (estimations. Locate the magnetic wind direction on the heading indicator and determine how many degrees from the nose or tail of the course bar the wind is. Remember that the upper wind forecast is in true. You will need to know the magnetic wind. Now you must memorize the following three proportions: Page 50 .) Estimate XW and TW The first step is to estimate crosswind and tailwind.Navigation for Professional Pilots or some other circumstance require you to change course. If your aircraft has an HSI set the desired course on the course-bar. as though it is a CR. To estimate crosswind and headwind use your heading indicator (HI) or preferably and HSI. A good pilot always knows the wind direction and speed. The is the relative wind angle.

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90° from course XW HW Note that when the wind is “on the nose” it is all headwind with zero crosswind. Use this method to estimate the XW and TW for the following sample problems: Wind speed 20 20 20 30 30 30 40 40 40 Angle from nose or tail 30 from course 45 from course 60 from course 30 from tail 45 from tail 60 from tail On the course On the tail “On the wingtip” i. Had the wind been 30° from the tail (reciprocal of course) the only difference would be that the tailwind would be 27 knots. so for estimation purposes we can say that GS = TAS + TW or GS = TAS – HW. It is crucial to realize that in this case we are using the word nose to represent the course. If the wind is 45° from the course or tail then 70% is crosswind and 70% is tailwind or headwind. if the wind is “on the wingtip” it is all crosswind with no headwind or tailwind. Once we know the headwind or tailwind we can estimate the groundspeed by subtracting or adding to the true airspeed.e. While this sounds impossible to do in your head there is a simple mathematical trick that - Page 52 . And finally. We learned previously that we should first multiply TAS by cos(da) but this typically makes only one or two knots difference. not the heading. This example corresponds to a wind 30° from the course. When “on the tail” it is all tailwind with no crosswind.) If the wind is 30° from the course or tail then 50% of it is crosswind and 90% tailwind or headwind.” (This point is covered again below in the description of the simulation called Drift Estimation Challenge. It seems like it will be much more difficult to estimate da since we need to evaluate the equation da = sin 1 (XW/TAS).Navigation for Professional Pilots In the above diagrams it is assumed that the pilot turned so that the desired course TC or TMG is “on the nose. If there is a 30 knot wind and 50% is crosswind and 90% is headwind then crosswind is 15 knots and headwind is 27 knots. These percentages must be memorized. Similarly. if the wind is 60° from the course or tail then 90% is crosswind and 50% is headwind or tailwind.

To convert ra to units of degrees multiply by 180 and divide by pi. Page 53 . i.Navigation for Professional Pilots makes it quite simple. It is important to recognize the close relationship between arc-length and the subtended angle (ra.e. in units of radians.) The angle ra can be precisely determined. This may not be sounding like something that will be easy to do in your head but stick with me. by dividing arc-length by radius. Note that so far no approximations have been made. the above definitions are precisely valid. and the formula for circumference of a circle. To explain we will review the definition of the angle unit called radians. Next we will look at how we can substitute the definition of the radian as an approximation for estimating drift angle.

Magic number is simply TAS x Π / 180 i.3. Since we want da in units of degrees the formula becomes: Da = (XW x (180/Π)) / TAS You may be thinking. It is helpful to know Page 54 . it is simply: da = XW / Magic Number Magic Number Magic number was introduced in the previous section. it is called the “Magic Number. It is important for you to memorize the magic number of the airplanes you fly. The point to notice is that the length of XW is very nearly the same as the length on an arc drawn from TAS to TMG. “This still doesn’t seem too easy to do in my head. For small values of da it is reasonable to say that acr-length = XW.” There is one final step that transforms the above equation into a simple method. That being the case da in radians equals XW/TAS. we call it the magic number.e.” Since TAS is the same from day-to-day we can calculate the value TAS time pi divided by 180 and memorize this number. Once you know the magic number for your airplane drift is easy to estimate. TAS / 57.Navigation for Professional Pilots Examine the diagram above that redefines XW as the wind component perpendicular to TMG.

then drift angle equals crosswind divided by magic number.5 2.Navigation for Professional Pilots your magic number for both cruise and hold/approach speeds so that you can estimate drift in cruise as well as holds and approaches. above 180 KTAS determine magic number to the nearest whole number. If you are flying a Piper cub with a 20 knot crosswind drift is 20°. Travelair. For true airspeeds up to 180 KTAS determine magic number to the nearest ½. Simply estimate crosswind. The answer is 5° (20/4.5° (20/8.5 4 5 8 8 Estimation of Drift Based on Crosswind and Magic Number Once you commit your magic number to memory estimating drift angle is easy. and King Air have been left blank for you to fill in. Since magic number is used for estimations there is no sense in calculating it overly accurately. other examples have been provided: Aircraft type True airspeed Magic Number 1 1. In the table below some magic numbers corresponding to the C-172.5 Piper cub Cessna 172 Cessna 172 Piper Arrow Beech 95 Beech 95 King Air King Air Dash 8 Lear Jet Airliner 60 KTAS 85 KTAS on approach 105 KTAS in cruise 140 KTAS in cruise 105 KTAS on approach 150 KTAS in cruise 120 KTAS on approach 220 KTAS in cruise 300 KTAS in cruise 440 KTAS in cruise 480 KTAS in cruise 2.) What would drift be in a jet airliner with a magic number of 8? The answer is 2.) Page 55 . what would it be in a King Air. as previously covered.

5. but you have actually just divided 1.5 in your head but there is a simple trick that makes it easy.5. How many do you give the clerk? You probably had no trouble realizing you needed seven quarters to pay for your snack. therefore drift equals XW/2. Try the following examples for yourself: Page 56 .67. but it seemed simple when you think of it as money. You reach into your pocket and discover you have a bunch of quarters. for example 20/10 is 2. Answer the following question: You go to the 7-11 store to by a snack for $1. Can you see how to use this trick to estimate drift angle? Simply take the XW and divide it by 10. Of course dividing any number by 10 is very simple since all you have to do is shift the decimal one place left.25.50.67/0.25. then think of the result as the price of your snack and pay for it in quarters. which will take six quarters. and three for items up to 75 cents.5. For example if the crosswind is 15 knots.3. etc.Navigation for Professional Pilots Complete the following drift estimations: Magic Number Crosswind (Knots) 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 6 8 25 30 20 30 45 25 30 30 30 Estimated drift angle (da) Two-bit Math The magic number of a Beech 95 in cruise is 2.25 in your head. You do this particular calculation so often that it seems trivial to you. And so on. that becomes $1. 33/10 is 3. This is the same as saying (XW/10)/0. Now compare the above calculation to the one you wish to do in your head XW/2. two are required for items up to 50 cents. You most likely just remember that each dollar is four quarters and you know that one additional quarter covers items up to 25 cents.67 by 0. You would have freaked if I had asked you to divide 1. therefore da = 6°. Anything over 75 cents would have required an eighth quarter. You may find it challenging to divide by 2.

5 2.00 $1.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 10 15 17 20 22 24 28 32 36 $1.50 $1.5 2.Navigation for Professional Pilots Magic Number Crosswind (Knots) Dollar amount Estimated drift angle (da) 2.70 4 Page 57 .

The drift estimation techniques from this simulation combined with the bracketing technique in the next simulation will give you all the skills you need to efficiently navigate IFR. Drift Estimation Summary In this simulation you developed the skill to estimate wind drift reliably to within two or three degrees.Navigation for Professional Pilots Drift Estimation Challenge From the Intranet website you should now examine the simulation called Drift Estimation Challenge. In the next simulation you will learn a technique called bracketing that will pick up from this point and allow you to determine drift to the nearest degree. Work your way through the first 7 sections and then do the challenge in section 8 until you can quickly score an at “ATPL” level of skill. Page 58 . Follow the instructions below.

From 112. approach transitions etc.Chapter 3 Introduction to Radio Navigation In this section you will learn how VOR. the desired course (TC.00 and 117. and Auto-standby. It is important to have a basic understanding of how VOR.00 and 111. or TMG. It is important to realize that there is no difference at all in the objectives or methods of flight planning for IFR flight and VFR flight. this will explain all the navigation aids. When doing radio navigation a VOR. DME. and GPS work. Read all of section 2 (Navigation Systems) in your Instrument Procedures Manual before continuing. T stands for terminal VORs.0 to 117. applies. or GPS is used to define a track over the ground. which are the ones between 108. ILS. On the Intranet.00 and 111.75.) H stands for high altitude. which are all the VORs used on high altitude airways (see HI charts below. To help you grasp what I mean look in your CAP and write down the frequencies for the following ILS transmitters: . Your task is to calculate the heading that will keep you on course and the groundspeed. under Sim-Multimedia there are several interactive tutorials covering: “How VOR Works” “How ADF Works” and “How DME Works.75 and are powerful enough for use up to 100 NM (provided the airplane is high enough – because VOR requires line of sight.75 those frequencies in which the first digit after the decimal is odd are ILS frequencies. VORs for use on airways have frequencies 112. which are all the VORs on Victor airways (see LO charts below. DME and GPS work. VOR stations with frequencies less than 112.0 are classified as terminal VORs and usually transmit on a lower power output.) On the KLN-90B GPS (in the B-95 and piston simulators) the map “super-nav 5 mode” can be set to VOR TLH. ADF. and DME Channel Pairing VOR receivers in airplanes are able to tune frequencies between 108.” You will find further clarification about how DME works by reviewing the simulations: “DME Jitter” and “Squitters. they are used for approaches. i. These radio aids are used to guide pilots during the enroute phase of flight.85. while those where the first digit is even are VORs.75 all frequencies are VOR.” AFTER you have reviewed all the simulations continue with the following. covered above.e. L stands for low altitude. ADF. VOR.) Between 108.0 to 117.) Once a course is established drift theory. They normally are not part of the airway structure. ADF.

55 111.50 IEM 109.20 111.30 109.30 IQL To confirm your understanding of the frequency allocation system complete the following table: Frequency 107.45 112.70 109. Note above 112.15 109.85 109.15 107.Navigation for Professional Pilots Airport Vancouver (CYVR) Vancouver (CYVR) Vancouver (CYVR) Vancouver (CYVR) Victoria (CYYJ) Victoria (CYYJ) Abbotsford (CYXX) Kelowna (CYLW) Calgary (CYXC) Calgary (CYXC) Calgary (CYXC) Lethbridge (CYQL) Runway 26R 26L 08R 08L 09 27 07 16 16 28 34 05 ILS Ident Frequency IFZ IVR 110.0 so not an ILS Terminal .low power Comment Not a valid freq Page 60 .60 VOR/ILS n/a ILS VOR ILS VOR VOR Terminal – low power Airway.

5 in your AIM. There is no reason to memorize the DME channel assignments although you should understand how the frequencies are assigned.70 There are a total combined 200 VOR and ILS frequencies.85 112. VOR Reception Range To receive a VOR you must be high enough to have line of sight to it. By convention. etc. but in reality if the VOR signal is blocked by building.95 109. It is important to realize that a specific DME channel always goes with a specific VOR / ILS frequency and that is how your Nav radio is able to tune the DME without you needing to input the DME channel.95. which is shown on the charts. which corresponds to DME channel 56Y. etc the reception range will be less than indicated by the formula.00.30 117.9 corresponds to DME channel 106X. This means that you must be above the horizon of the VOR.15 114. There are more TACAN channels than VOR channels so the first DME channel used in civilian flying is 17 and TACANs 57 to 66 inclusive are not used either. The complete list is found in your CFS section D2. with X channels corresponding to VOR and ILS frequencies that end in decimal 00 while the Y channels correspond to VOR and ILS frequencies that end in decimal 05.Navigation for Professional Pilots 115. But ILS 26R is frequency 111. Because of the numbering protocol there are two VOR frequencies then two ILS frequencies.) In the diagram that follows no shadow effect is considered. as shown in the diagram below. on LO charts and in the CAP the X is dropped from DME channels – only the Y is shown. (See COM 3. Operationally there is no difference between an X channel and a Y channel – both transmit squitters on the same frequency but listen for interrogation on different frequencies therefore they will interfere with each other and must not be used in the same area. but if you look on the map it just says DME Channel 106. mountains. DME channels alternate between X and Y. Page 61 . DME channels are numbered according to the military TACAN channel. up to 112. 40 ILS and 160 VOR. for example YVR frequency 115.

Navigation for Professional Pilots In the diagram it is clear that the aircraft’s altitude plus the radius of the earth forms the hypotenuse of a right triangle with r and distance from VOR (s) as the other sides.23(alt).VOR reception range (NM) 50 87 123 VOR range may be limited to 150 NM by power Page 62 . Thus the recommended formula is: S = 1. s is in NM] To receive a VOR you must be within the slant range (s) given by the equation above.500 5.000 S .5 + 9 [alt in feet.000 20. But actual reception range is not zero when at ground level. A few sample values are: Altitude (agl) 1.000 10. Using Pythagoras’ theorem and solving for s results in an equation.

The bottom line for pilots is to know and understand the differences between VOR and ADF in normal and heading-reference-failed modes of flight. Usually you use your ADF radio with non-directional beacons (NDBs) but it can also tune commercial AM radio stations. always points at the station.000 150+ NM – dependent of power VOR.000 feet you need to be 40NM away to get an accurate groundspeed. but if you are at 40. It does so even if the heading indicator is set incorrectly.) A complete list of every radio station in Canada is on page D27 of your CFS. it always does this even if the heading indicator is wrong. if working properly. An ADF. It examines the most common navigation indicators: Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) Standard VOR/ILS indicator Radio Magnetic Indicator (RMI) Fixed Card Indicator Page 63 . If a heading indicator fails or is set incorrectly an RMI will NOT point at the VOR. The ADF in Selkirk College airplanes can tune frequencies up to 1200 (higher bands are not useable. In other words. An RMI needle rotates so that the tail of the needle corresponds to the radial the airplane is on. As a result you will be flying on the WRONG course if your heading indicator is not accurate. There is a simulation on Intranet that fully explains the indications of the various navigation displays you will encounter in this program. On the other hand. Consequently an RMI needle can only point accurately at a VOR if the heading indicator is accurate. which you cannot do with a VOR. When you fly over the station a DME shows your altitude in nautical miles. ADF. you can always find your way to the station even with a failed heading indicator. DME – Final Thoughts Perhaps the most important thing to be aware of about VORs is that VOR receivers determine what radial you are on but have NO WAY of knowing the relative bearing to the VOR. Because of the slant range error groundspeeds calculated by a DME are not accurate when close to the station. discussed below. The simulations show that an RMI does not always point at the station. The rule of thumb is to consider DME based groundspeed accurate only when distance from station in nautical miles is greater than altitude in thousands of feet. if you are at 4000 agl you need to be at least 4NM away to get an accurate groundspeed. This is distinctly different than ADF. It is important to know that DME gives “slant-range” which is the actual distance from the airplane to the DME station.Navigation for Professional Pilots 30.

the accuracy of GPS is the same regardless of where you are on the airway. Take every opportunity to set your watch to the GPS in the airplane. so this is obvious when you stop to think about it. The theory of their operation is not part of this course. The link can be found under Avia 100. i.) Bracketing It might not seem so at first but radio navigation can be done in accordance with the principles of DR or pilotage. RAIM is one method of improving warning that a failure has occurred. In the following description of the Nav Displays simulation marker beacons and ILS is mentioned for completeness.e. Also read section 2. You will see for example that as wonderful as an HSI is it doesn’t work with ADF. and your GPS is a legal source of accurate time. Sadly. what it displays and what it doesn’t. (Note: the GPS in the simulators does not give accurate time. etc. Pilotage in terms of VOR or ADF navigation means “chasing the needles. When we defined these terms (review if you don’t remember the meanings) we said that DR is a more sophisticated form of navigation.” If you simply turn so as to push the needle back where it belongs (centered for a standard VOR indicator) you will stay on course. An important thing to realize is that a properly functioning GPS is a very accurate source of time.) There are pros and cons to this and you MUST learn to translate between both in your mind (more on that later. You will also see that while an RMI is a great thing to have.) GPS gives distance off track rather than angle off track (VOR and ADF give angle off track. Since GPS has no stations. it doesn’t work with ILS. Distance values displayed on a GPS are horizontal. A major problem with GPS is that it can fail in certain ways without giving a warning to the pilot. Avia 160. They will be covered in Avia 260. Read this entire slide show before continuing. GPS Navigation The basic operating principles of GPS are explained in a slide-show on our Intranet. You will learn all the legal requirements for RAIM in Avia 120 and 220. Pilots should always set their clock (watch) accurately for IFR flight.2 (Navigation systems) in the Instrument Procedures Manual. but you won’t determine the heading that keeps you on track and will thus tend to chase wildly back and forth when you get further from the station where the signal is less sensitive. they are NOT slant range. Consequently GPS is more accurate than VOR or ADF for the enroute phase of flight. You will learn what each of these indicators looks like. and you will also have a very hard time avoiding wild swings in close proximity to the station where the needle can move very quickly due to increased sensitivity.Navigation for Professional Pilots Each navigation display has its advantages. This material is also covered in the readings assigned above.) When using VOR and ADF navigation accuracy is greatest close to the stations and less accurate farther away. Thus GPS gives accurate groundspeed even when close to “the station” (of course there really is no station. many pilots use pilotage anyway. Page 64 . and Avia 260.

or wallowing. This is an invaluable technique and one you should use every day as an IFR pilot. If you can’t fly precisely you won’t be able to take full advantage of the procedures you are learning in this course. just to make things more challenging. in the real world it can be more challenging. The other thing you must do when bracketing is remember what headings you have been flying. Sadly many IFR pilots never master bracketing. Examining a written record of the headings you have flown will show whether you are “zeroing in” on the required heading. When you fly the airplane you must try to fly headings as precisely as possible. In the simulation. You will see that even in this worst-case scenario you can use bracketing to figure out drift. There are several secret codes built into this simulation. In the simulation flying accurately is easy. but it can only get you roughly to the correct heading. you are not given any wind information at all. The main ones are: A = All H = HSI S = Standard VOR Indicator R = RMI F = Fixed Card Indicator You may choose any navigation display you wish. so you can observe which way the airplane is drifting. The technique used to find the exact amount of drift is called bracketing. although it is easy if you use the autopilot. but for the first few times through this simulation you might like to have a pad of paper and write down what you have done. But. Because winds aloft forecasts are not perfect you will need to adjust your heading enroute until you find the exact amount of drift. Load the simulation called Bracketing – Tracking Technique In the previous simulation we learned to estimate wind drift based on the forecast wind. It should be pretty easy to remember them. will you? To master bracketing one thing that is needed is to fly precisely. as these are easier to see drift on. However. They just wallow around the sky chasing needles back and forth. This is covered in a simulation on the Intranet.Navigation for Professional Pilots The secret to avoiding needle chasing is to use a technique called Bracketing. Page 65 . you won’t be one of those guys. I recommend that you start with HSI or ALL.

E. Read the “instructors mind” (the green box at the lower right. Tip: as you observe the simulation you should press the 2-key to restart the sequence if it gets ahead of your reading. 12 miles west of the navaid.Navigation for Professional Pilots Establishing the Brackets The following explanation will take you through a tutorial using the Bracketing simulation – please complete this section while using the simulation. The flying instructor is flying. the instructor is waiting to see which way the airplane will drift.) Page 66 . so you can keep up with the process. Set time compression to zero (0X. Whatever heading is needed to stay on course it MUST be less than this heading. We call this the right hand bracket. Press the 2-key The secret code places the airplane on course 090. Tip: set time compression to zero to freeze the motion after each turn the instructor makes.) The “instructor’ mind” says 090 is the maximum heading he will ever fly.) Initially it says that the instructor is evaluating the heading 090. Set time compression to 1X unless you have a very slow computer.) Therefore he knows that 090 is too far right. The instructor has begun searching for a left limit (see comment in instructor’s mind. Pretty soon the instructor sees that the needle is moving left (picture above. I.

Watch the instructor complete the above-described procedure.Navigation for Professional Pilots Here is what you will see. “searching for left limit. Next he tries heading 080. When the airplane is on heading 070 set time compression to zero. or just want to see it happen again.” The needle still moves very slightly left on heading 075. So. It should now say: Minimum: 070 Evaluating: 080 Maximum: 090 Page 67 . the instructor flies heading 085 for a few seconds until he realizes that the CDI is still moving left. First the instructor turns 5 degrees left. so the instructor tries heading 070. either press the 2-key again. but the needle still moves left. The IMPORTANT point is that it only matters WHICH WAY THE NEEDLE IS MOVING. If you miss part of process. he tries 075. So. He then waits to see what the needle does. All this time the instructor’s mind says. Read the instructor’s mind. After a few seconds on heading 070 the instructor sees that the CDI has begun to move to the right. or click the “Start Over” button.

so increase time compression until he has time to think. Page 68 . This is called the left hand bracket. the instructor is programmed to just split the bracket into half. In his mind he indicates 080 as the heading he is evaluating. In this case the brackets are 070 and 090 so the instructor decides that when he gets back on course he will try heading 080. His mind now states that the minimum heading will be 070. he establishes 070 as the minimum heading (left hand bracket) Based on the above. then return time compression to zero. To recap what has happened so far: 1. This commitment prevents wild chasing of the needle back and forth (a common mistake of new IFR pilots.Navigation for Professional Pilots Comments: Left-limit established If it doesn’t say the above you need to give the instructor a few more seconds to think.) A really good pilot could tell from all that has happened so far that the correct heading is closer to 070 than 090 (see comments below about “beating” the computerized flying instructor. NOTE: The instructor will remain on heading 070 until the CDI re-centers. So. the instructor knows FOR SURE that the required heading to keep on course is between 070 and 090. Reading the instructor’s mind you now see that he realizes that heading 070 is less than the heading that WILL be required to stay on course. Note that whenever the airplane gets off course the instructor will always go to (but NEVER beyond) the brackets – and will hold that heading until the airplane gets back on course. The instructor realized the airplane was drifting right on heading 090. the instructor discovered that 070 was the first heading to the left that caused the CDI to move to the right. After searching. NOTE: Whenever the airplane is off course always fly the corresponding bracket heading until back on course. so he established 090 as the maximum heading (right hand bracket) 2.) However.

and then tries heading 080 to see what happens: Increase time compression Watch the instructor. The CDI moves left. Increase time compression from zero to see what happens. indicating there is more than 10-degrees of drift.e. Increase time compression from zero and watch what happens. indicating that 080 is the required heading. Set time compression to zero again. Set time compression to zero once the instructor gets to heading 080. as the heading he will evaluate next. that the CDI moves left on heading 080. There are only three possible outcomes to this situation: 1. The revised brackets are 070 and 080.) The instructor now realizes that 080 is not the correct heading to stay on course. The CDI moves right. even if he gets left of course at some point there is no need to fly a heading more than 080. notice that as soon as the instructor realizes he is drifting off he turns to the bracket heading (but not beyond the bracket. So. he on course and flying heading 080. See how long it takes for you to realize the CDI is moving. once he is back on course. After a few seconds the CDI moves a bit to the left. indicating there is less than 10-degrees of drift.) Read the instructors mind. In fact he now knows. for sure. he revises his maximum heading (right hand bracket) to 080 (From now on. He will fly heading 070 until he gets back on course. So. 080.” i. The CDI does not move. Now read the instructor’s mind. Page 69 . The comment in his mind says that he is “trying evaluation heading. He still states that the brackets (minimum and maximum) are 070 and 090. The instructor immediately turns to his left bracket heading of 070. As soon as he is on course he will turn to the evaluation heading. and read his mind. 2.Navigation for Professional Pilots The instructor remains on the left bracket (070) until back on course. he chooses the midpoint. 3. 075. First.

The same three possibilities exist: 1. indicating there is less than 15-degrees of drift. If the CDI moves left the brackets will again be adjusted. indicating that there is exactly 15-degrees of drift. The CDI moves right. The CDI remains centered for a long time. Eventually the CDI starts to move right. then 2½ (in theory. 2. Page 70 . The CDI does not move.5.5 degrees (heading 077. Once the airplane is within a mile of the station it is best to STOP bracketing and simply fly the evaluation heading until a mile beyond the station.Navigation for Professional Pilots After a few seconds on the left bracket (070) the CDI is again centered and the instructor turns to heading 075.) He now turns to his right bracket heading of 080 to get back on course and then tries heading 078. guessing that there is 15-degrees of drift. Increase time compression and watch the instructor fly past the station. Soon they will span only 5 degrees.) After one bracketing cycle the brackets have been reduced from a 20 degree span to 10 degrees. if it moves right the brackets will become 075 & 080.) Usually there is no practical need to get the brackets closer than 5 degrees to each other. Increase time compression again to see what happens. The CDI moves left.e. 3. See comments below about beating the computerized flying instructor. This tells the pilot that the drift MUST be very close to 15 degrees. slowly. Can you now see how things keep going? Each time we evaluate a heading we reduce the span of the brackets in half. His mind now says that he is evaluating heading 075 (i. indicating there is more than 15-degrees of drift. The computerized flying instructor is a stickler for purity so he revises the brackets to 075 and 080 and revises his drift estimate to 12. So no matter what happens we will have narrowed down the drift to a five-degree range. becoming 070 & 075. Now the instructor is flying heading 075. The brackets are at 070 and 080 respectively. A wise pilot would take the amount of time it took the CDI to move into account and revise the drift estimate to 14-degrees. although the instructor will keep going as far as he can. This tells the instructor that there is less than 15 degrees of drift.

Navigation for Professional Pilots Theoretically the process continues exactly the same on the outbound leg. You can click the “You have control” button at anytime to have the computerized flying instructor take over and demonstrate the procedure to you. and 5 for more practice. I fully expect that you will spend several hours with this simulation before you are comfortable with bracketing. Press the R-key to switch to RMI and practice bracketing. usually after each turn. All the computerized flying instructor to demonstrate if you like. you MUST master bracketing with: Standard VOR Indicator RMI Fixed Card Indicator Press the S-key to switch to standard VOR indicator and practice bracketing.. Page 71 . Outbound bracketing then continues exactly as before If you use bracketing faithfully you can establish drift within one or two degrees in short order. Try secret coed 3. Repeat secret code 2 as many times as you need to until you fully understand all the logic of bracketing. Use ALL the Navigation Displays If you followed the advice above you started by practicing bracketing with an HSI. The computerized flying instructor is programmed to open the brackets by +/. if only you will use it. However. so you can think about what the logic is. If you “blow” a particular attempt use the “Start Over” button to try again. 4. Press the F-key to switch to Fixed Card Indicator and practice bracketing.3-dgrees. because you usually are slightly off course (just a few feet. we hope) at station passage it is wise to “open up” the brackets slightly once bracketing begins again on the outbound leg. Make liberal use of setting time compression to zero. Bracketing is a foolproof system. However. but it will be time very well spent. After that all you have to do is maintain heading accurately and you have things made.

but you should still do some outbound bracketing practice. However. The point is that you don’t always have to divide each bracket exactly in half.) Break-out Logic A FUNDAMENTAL principle of bracketing is that you commit to NEVER fly outside the brackets. People are smart. click the “Hide All” button at the bottom of the simulation to make the process more challenging. Within a few seconds the CDI should start to slowly come back to center. above. If precession is not the culprit then there are only two possibilities: Page 72 .Navigation for Professional Pilots Hide the Visual Aids By default the wind is hidden but all the other visual aids are visible. and would only revise the heading to 076.) But. Include Outbound By default the computer generates inbound bracketing exercises. when the instructor tries heading 075 and the CDI doesn’t move for a long time any human would realize that the drift is close to 15.) Review secret code 2 above until what I have said here makes sense. If it doesn’t what do you do? If you have a manual HI check the compass and reset it. However. Use common sense (something the computerized flying instructor never does. so you need to be able to navigate with only “raw” navigation data. if you check the box at the lower left of the simulation the computer will randomly include some outbound bracketing exercises for you. or your heading indicator precesses. The idea of bracketing is that you always have two brackets in mind that you KNOW FOR SURE make the CDI move left and right (but only just. there is no real difference between bracketing inbound and outbound. most airplanes don’t have moving map displays. the brackets won’t work anymore. “Beating” the Computerized Flying Instructor Computers are dumb. IMMEDIATELY that you notice you are off course always turn to the relevant bracket heading. So. if the wind changes. This prevents the wild chasing of the CDI or RMI needle that commonly plagues new IFR pilots. Similarly a human would move the left bracket NOT from 070 to 075 but only to about 073 (or so. As you have seen. In secret code 2.

tweaking it one degree at a time. with a totally unknown wind. Page 73 . Then you set your initial brackets at +/. You then react to even small CDI deflections by turning to the appropriate bracket immediately. Once you determine that the off course indication is real.Navigation for Professional Pilots 1. The question is. but half as much. Therefore you start with your best estimate of the heading to stay on course.) ADF is particularly prone to giving false indications so if you have no reason to believe the wind has changed just keep flying your heading for a minute and see what happens.10-degree bracket it should only take a minute until you can tell whether you need to adjust your evaluation heading left or right. Using your judgment you revise your estimated heading. If you think the problem was a temporary navigation signal deflection then don’t change the evaluation heading. Usually the false indication will go away and you will see that you were on course the whole time.10-degrees from there. Pretty soon you will have adjusted your heading and brackets so that you have two brackets about +/-5 degrees from your best estimated heading. using the technique of drift estimation covered earlier. For a CDI turn the OBS a few degrees.25 degrees closer to course he moves the bracket out by three degrees. See if that changes the indication. VOR and ILS are much less likely to give false indications. Bracketing Summary Bracketing is a fundamental tracking procedure. In the real world you should always know roughly what the wind is. although it is amazing how many ILS approaches have bows in them caused by electronic interference on the ground. The computerized flying instructor has breakout logic. then reset the OBS. With this head start you should have a near perfect heading bracketed out within a couple of minutes. When you do. If he flies the bracket heading for 30 seconds and does not get at least 0. The navigation display is wrong The wind changed If you have no reason to believe the wind changed then test the navigation radios. if your bracket heading does not center the CDI you must CHANGE the bracket. Note: you can only tweak the evaluation heading one degree at a time if you can fly your heading accurately enough to make such judgments. move the bracket in. In this simulation the bracket always starts from the zero point. 2. If it was a wind shift then you should change the evaluation heading in the same direction you opened the bracket. when you move the bracket should you change the evaluation heading? That depends on what you think caused the problem. In computer programming this is called breakout logic. (For example the ADF radio can be switched from ADF to ANT then back to ADF. but NOT all the way to your original evaluation heading. If you start with a +/. also stand ready to close the bracket back in to where it was before. Check the Morse code identifier to make sure the station has not gone off the air. If the radio has a test button press it.

Your lead radial will be 014. Smaller arcs are never used. To fly an arc you must first fly a path that crosses the arc.0NM up. They allow airplanes to get lined up for approaches without the high workload (for controllers) of radar vectors. The easiest way to explain arcing is through an example. The navigation display also includes an HSI. DME arcs can be assigned at any distance from a DME station from 7. If an airplane has an HSI but no RMI you can still do an arc by manually turning the HSI to keep it centered. Intercept the 8 DME arc from the 120 radial and arc counter-clockwise to intercept the course 180. a standard VOR indicator and an RMI. Load the simulation called “Flying a DME ARC.” Page 74 . Please load the simulation and follow along with the example below.” This simulation is for practicing DME arcs. DME arcs are normally flown using an RMI. Flying a DME ARC So far we have been concentrating on flying in a perfectly straight line. you are cleared for a practice DME arc. Therefore the simulation includes an RMI. but it is best to master this simulation first. Another common way is to be vectored until you intercept the arc. You can also fly arcs using the Alsim simulation. that means the RMI points at the right wingtip. I have not provided the option for doing arcs without an RMI in this simulation.Navigation for Professional Pilots Because bracketing is so powerful you can easily see that when combined with the drift estimation technique covered earlier you can perform very accurate DR radio navigation even in the absence of completely precise wind forecasts. A left arc means the RMI points at the left wingtip. DME arcs are used on many IFR approaches and terminal arrival procedures. The simplest way to do this is to fly directly toward the VOR until you reach the desired distance to arc. so that it acts like an RMI. If you have neither RMI nor HSI it is not good practice to fly DME arcs. Now we will learn to fly a perfectly circular path. Press the 1-key This secret code brings up a clearance that reads: “Pilot 200. Once you intercept the arc turn so that the RMI needle points at the wingtip. If you are arcing right.

Navigation for Professional Pilots The picture below shows the computerized flying instructor about half way through complying with this clearance. Lead radial will be 014 means that when the airplane crosses the 014 radial it will be 2 NM from the assigned course. When you get to the lead radial you are almost at your assigned course. (Press the 1-key to restart if necessary. (Indicated on DME radio. Intercept course 180 means that the objective is to wind up flying inbound on the 000 radial.) Set time compression as required and watch the entire demonstration. Initially the airplane is flying outbound along the 120 radial. so you generally stop arcing and turn to intercept the assigned course (at 45°. (Later we will do an example where the airplane flies inbound on the 120 radial. which is the designated start radial. 8 DME arc means that the airplane must fly a circular orbit around the VORTAC at a distance of 8.0 Nm.) Page 75 . Let’s start by breaking down the clearance to make sure we understand it.) From the 120 radial means that the arc starts at the 120 radial Counter-clockwise is the direction or orbit.) Watch the Flying Instructor demonstrate the arc. Think of lead radials like a wakeup call.

8 Nm.0 Nm as he rolls out on that heading. In this demonstration the wind is zero. Allowing about six seconds to get up to rate one turn. Simply look at the tip of the RMI needle and turn 90° from that. Page 76 .5% of Groundspeed For example an airplane flying 156 Knots groundspeed would need to lead the turn by about .8 Nm. you should add an extra 0. Watch the flying instructor.6 Nm.2 to the calculated value.1 to 0. At 7. He states that he intends to lead the turn onto the arc. At the calculated lead distance the instructor starts his turn. Assuming that the turn will be at rate one a simple mathematical formula for radius of turn can be derived: R = Groundspeed / 200 In other words: r = . If the lead was correct the DME should read 8. so the groundspeed equals the TAS. (1% = 1.2 (the value will be different if you chose a cruise speed other than 150 KIAS. The pilot must turn so that the RMI is on the left wingtip.Navigation for Professional Pilots The instructor’s mind can be read at the lower right.2 Nm he makes a left turn to heading 030.) Keep in mind that the airplane must be in the turn at the designated distance. so ½% is about . In the example the RMI points to 300 so the first heading must be 300 + 90 = 390 degrees – but that is 030. He plans to turn when the DME reads 7.) The above diagram shows that the turn to intercept an arc should start at a distance equal to the radius of turn of the airplane.

If the DME drops to 7. If the airplane gets a bit wide (DME reads 8. He then maintains a constant heading until the RMI needle drops to five degrees behind the wingtip. in theory. Correcting this is simple. Just like a rock on the end of a string moves out instantly if you let go of the string the instructor realizes that if he simply stops turning. maintains whatever heading he is on) the airplane will move out on the arc. As this happens the RMI needle will move past the wingtip. The #2 CDI will center as the airplane crosses the lead radial. The instructor turns so that the RMI needle is five degrees ahead of the left wingtip. In this case we are flying a counter-clockwise arc so the RMI needle must point near the left wingtip. Unfortunately it is not possible to do such a perfect arc. The airplane will be slightly more than 90degrees from the final course when the lead radial is reached. The HSI and OBS are not needed to fly the arc. In zero wind all you need do.0 the instructor resumes the usual arc procedure by turning to bring RMI needle near the wingtip again. once the airplane is established on the arc the instructor will set the HSI to the assigned course (180 in this example) and set the OBS to the lead radial (014 in this example. bringing the RMI needle five degrees ahead of the wingtip again. closer to the VORTAC. Watch the flying instructor fly the demonstration and note how it is done. must always be at or near the wingtip when flying an arc. Consequently the RMI needle. As long as the RMI needle is kept in front of the wingtip the airplane will move in. is keep the RMI needle on the wingtip and the DME will not change. a line tangent to a circle is always at right angles to the radius.Navigation for Professional Pilots The only instruments needed to arc are the RMI and DME. What do we do if we drift off the designated DME distance? The instructor constantly monitors the DME. This pattern repeats over and over. Once the needle is below the wingtip DME will start to increase. (Prior to reaching the lead radial the CDI always deflects to the center of the arc.0 as the RMI needle approaches the wingtip the instructor will turn to keep the needle ahead of the wingtip. (i.1 or more) he turns so that the RMI needle is MORE than 5 degrees in front of the wingtip. Once the DME reaches 8. and that is easy to see on the HSI.) With the HSI set the pilot can visualize how the arc is going. Therefore. the instructor realizes that he is inside the designated arc.9. which shows your radial. He then turns 10 degrees left. If the DME is remains at more than 8. The airplane would fly a perfect arc.) Page 77 . To understand an arc you must remember what your high school math teacher taught you. we use a technique of making a series of short straight legs that approximate the arc. Therefore.e.

1 of the assigned value. Press the 2-key. Press the 2-key The assigned practice arc is exactly the same as the previous one. then tracks inbound using the usual bracketing technique. Tip: remember to set the HSI to 180 and the OBS to 014 once you are established on the arc. we are flying a prefect arc. Now try the intercept from outside the arc on your own. So when the DME reads a speed of zero the airplane is NOT moving in or out on the arc. He simply holds the 45-degree intercept heading until on the course. Practice the procedure until you can keep the DME within 0.1 variations.2 deviations from the assigned DME. so he starts the turn at 8. I. Common sense tells us that we are “cutting in” on the arc.e. The only difference is that this time the airplane is flying inbound to the arc along the 120 radial. You will find it impossible to prevent 0.Navigation for Professional Pilots As the airplane crosses the lead radial the instructor will STOP arcing and turn to make a 45-degree intercept of the assigned course.E. From this point on the demonstration is exactly the same as before. Whenever the RMI needle is ahead of the wingtip there is a small DME groundspeed. Every time the RMI needle passes the wingtip the groundspeed reads zero. not groundspeed. DME Groundspeed During an ARC As you watch the instructor fly the arc notice the DME groundspeed readout. Remember we learned in chapter two that DME actually shows closing speed.8 Nm lead is needed. again. Now it is your turn to fly the arc. and DME is telling you how quickly. not turning. In this case we are moving away from the DME station at the indicated rate. Page 78 . Once again the instructor calculates that 0.) Press the 1-key. If the groundspeed is increasing the airplane is getting further away from the VORTAC. An important to rule to note is that if the groundspeed is decreasing the airplane is getting closer to the VORTAC. Then press the “I Have Control” button. As before the first turn is to heading 030. Whenever the RMI needle is behind the wingtip there is a small DME groundspeed.8 Nm. again. but you should not permit 0. Then press the “I Have Control” button. These statements are only true if the airplane is flying straight (i.

Press the 3-key. If the distance does not decrease he turns to move the RMI needle further in front of the wingtip. In the previous example. the “zero point” changes as the airplane proceeds around the arc. BUT the difference is a 30-knot west wind. When it is your turn you will do better. He then keeps turning to maintain the RMI needle ahead of the wingtip until the DME returns to 8. Page 79 .e. we saw that the closing speed was zero when the RMI was exactly on the wingtip. Right? The good news is that even with his limited intelligence the instructor keeps the airplane within half a mile of the arc. Eventually he discovers an amount that causes the DME do decrease. So. when the wind was zero. but not excellent. At that point he turns to move the RMI needle 10 degrees ahead of the wingtip. until you are better than the instructor. so every time he gets back on the arc he turns to place the RMI only 5-degrees in front of the wingtip. Unfortunately the computerized flying instructor doesn’t know that. What adjustments to the previous procedure will be needed? First notice that the groundspeed as we fly along the 120 radial is almost 180 knots. He then monitors the DME.9 Nm this time (these values will be different if you chose a different cruise speed. And. he keeps being blown outside the arc. Then press the “I Have Control” button. and that is not enough. the computerized flying instructor has not been blessed with common sense. because of wind drift. See if you can do better. A wise pilot would use this information to arc better. As the airplane is blown wide on the arc the instructor sees the DME reach 8. Rather than using the wingtip as the zero reference use the point where the groundspeed reads zero.) A wise pilot would realize that the first heading should not be 030. in this case the closing speed is zero when the RMI is slightly ahead of the wingtip. But. we must lead the turn to the arc by 0. That is good.0 Watch the DME groundspeed. Now it is your turn to try arcing with a wind blowing you outside the arc. Watch and see what happens when he turns to 030. From the map you can see that the wind is going to blow the airplane wide on the arc.1. But. again. and most of the time within ¼ mile. So.2 Nm of the arc (i. because the angle the wind makes to the arc keeps changing.Navigation for Professional Pilots Press the 3-key This time the same arc clearance is issued. Repeat this exercise until you can stay within 0.

so the arc need only be lead by 0. Now it is your turn to try arcing with a wind blowing you into the arc. Then press the “I Have Control” button.6 Nm. Then press the “I Have Control” button. but now the wind is 30 knots from the east. allowing the RMI needle to drop further behind the wingtip to get back on the arc. 10. Every time he gets back on the arc he turns to put the RMI needle five degrees ahead of the wingtip (as you would in zero wind. Watch the instructor demonstrate this arc. There is a 20-knot wind from the southeast so the wind is blowing the airplane outside the arc. Having the moving map to help you judge the arc makes it easier. again. This time the groundspeed along the 120 radial is only 130 knots. So.0 DME.2 Nm of the arc. Learn from the instructor’s mistakes. This arc goes clockwise.Navigation for Professional Pilots Hide the visual aids. the instructor is a bit too dense for that. Turn the visual aids on again. You can do better than he. The wind will keep blowing the airplane inside the arc. Try keeping the RMI needle further behind the wingtip than you did with zero wind. Press the 5-key. so the first turn is to heading 270 + 90 = 360. It is also at a different distance. again. The start radial is 270. press the 4-key Once again we have the exact same arc clearance.) Predictably he is blown back inside the arc and has to correct again. Watch as the instructor flies the arc. Unfortunately most airplanes don’t have this feature. Take note of the groundspeed on the DME (too bad the instructor doesn’t do that. Press the 5-key This time there is a new arc clearance. But. Page 80 . As usual the instructor doesn’t keep the RMI needle far enough ahead of the wingtip. click the “Hide All” button at the bottom of the page and try repeating the arc with no map to help you. The instructor will therefore keep flying straight legs. Then. You should be able stay within 0. so he keeps blowing outside the arc.) A wise pilot would realize that in this situation the RMI needle should be kept behind the wingtip. Press the 4-key.

Intercepting a Course (PDT) Every IFR fling involves establishing yourself on an airway and an approach. Thus you will get both intercepts from inside and outside the arc. plus 30. Click the “Do Another” button. If you are off course more than that go directly to the station and perform a procedure turn to establish yourself on the assigned course. Choose a Navigation Display Before we begin you must choose a navigation display. Every time you click the “Do Another” button the computer generates a random arc clearance with a random wind. Load the simulation called “Intercepting a Course – Procedure Turn” As usual choose your cruise speed before clicking the “begin” button to start the simulation. The process of intercepting a particular course is called a PDT (Pre-determined Intercept. Intercepts Inbound Intercepts Outbound To intercept a course inbound we use a simple little saying. Remember that with the wind blowing you out of the arc you need to keep the RMI needle slightly in front of the wingtip. You will be mastering two separate skills: 1.” You will soon see what that means. Make sure you are practicing successfully with all the visual aids hidden before moving on. 2. If you wish to limit your practice to only one of these situations adjust the checkboxes. The two checkboxes at the bottom of the simulation labeled “Inside Intercept” and “Outside Intercept” are both checked by default. What you need now is lots of practice. The arcs are at distances from 6 miles to 12 miles. To intercept a course outbound we use another simple little saying. If you are able to arc successfully with this simulation you should be ready to try it in the real airplane. “Desired to the head.) It is one of your most fundamental skills. You can make your choice from: Page 81 .Navigation for Professional Pilots Now it is your turn to try the clockwise arc. plus 30.” Outbound intercepts can be completed regardless of how many degrees you are currently off course. “Tail to desired. At this point we have covered all the techniques of arcing. All the procedures you have learned so far still apply. You can only complete an inbound intercept if you are currently within 60 degrees of the course you wish to intercept.

” Alternatively. you are cleared to intercept the course 360 inbound to the CM beacon.” Note the difference in terminology. At the right side of the screen the red box contains the clearance. When dealing with VOR or VORTAC navaids the controller (red box) uses the terminology radial to refer to the course. Page 82 . But when dealing with NDBs the controller uses the term course. Therefore I recommend you start with the option “A” for all. Leave the checkbox at the bottom of the simulation set to “Within 60 PDTs” for now. By default the simulation generates a random inbound intercept. Indeed the very reason people spend so much money to have HSI in airplanes is to make intercepts easier to visualize. However it is MUCH easier with an HSI and RMI than without. you are cleared to intercept the 180 degree radial inbound to the YPB VOR. Press the 1-key The clearance reads: “Pilot 200. if you have chosen either the “R” for RMI or “F” for fixed card navigation displays the clearance reads: “Pilot 200.Navigation for Professional Pilots A = All H = HSI S = Standard VOR Indicator R = RMI F = Fixed Card Indicator The procedure for conducting predetermined intercepts (PDT) and flying procedure turns is exactly the same regardless of what navigation display you have. or “H” for HSI.

how does he know that he should fly heading 070? We must define: 1. 6. 2. or RMI indicators. The question is. As you are reading this. From the picture it is pretty easy to see that we need to fly eastward. 5. 7. 4. the instructor is flying. 3. Assigned Course Desired Course Present Bearing (head) Present Radial (tail) Head Tail Track Error “Within 60” Page 83 .Navigation for Professional Pilots The clearance requests the pilot to intercept the 180 radial inbound. Once on heading 070 everything falls into place. as depicted in the picture above. He figures out that he needs to fly a heading of 070 to intercept the course. standard VOR. in a real airplane there won’t be a map (in most cases) so we must learn to figure out which direction to fly by looking at the HSI. But. 8.

If track error is more than 60 you must fly directly to the station and do a procedure turn. would take you to the station.Navigation for Professional Pilots For an inbound intercept the assigned course is always the direction TO the station. The PDT procedure we are about to learn only works if you are within 60 degrees. Therefore if the controller has assigned the intercept in terms of radial you must take the reciprocal to get the assigned course. There is no need to take a reciprocal when dealing with outbound courses. Your first task is to set the HSI to the assigned course (if you have an HSI. For an outbound intercept the assigned course is always the direction FROM the station. Page 84 . as the angle between the RMI needle and the Course bar. The arrowhead of the RMI is called the Head. If you have an RMI it is found by reading the tail of the RMI needle. The opposite end of the RMI needle is called the Tail. at present. you are FROM the station. at present. Desired course is a synonym for assigned course. If you have only a standard VOR indicator you must center the CDI with a TO flag to get the present bearing. The present radial is the direction that.) For a radial put the tail of the course bar on the assigned radial to set the inbound course. (It is easy to visualize on an RMI/HSI combination instrument (see picture below). If you have only a standard VOR indicator it is the bearing you get when you center the CDI with a FROM flag. If you have an RMI the present bearing is the direction the RMI needle is pointing. The difference between the assigned course and the present bearing is called the track error.) If track error is less than 60-degrees we say we are within 60. The present bearing is the direction that.

then move your eyes a farther 30 degrees. Press the 1-key again. or observe where he is pointing.Navigation for Professional Pilots Next.) Then he returns his finger to the desired course (head of course bar. so I recommend starting with that navigation display. As the instructor does the PDT he points at the HSI (if available) or the RMI if there is no HSI.) Page 85 . Once you know you are within 60 you simply following the little rhyme “Desired to head plus 30. See picture above. Notice that the instructor sets the HSI to the assigned course right away. Usually in a real world context you will know how far the airway you are trying to intercept is away from you. or the heading indicator if there is neither. That is the heading you need to turn to. Now that you know the procedure watch the computerized flying instructor execute it. Next he locates the present bearing on the RMI and compares that to the course bar. so this will be an obvious step. setting it to zero. It is much easier to follow his explanations if there is an HSI. But. when you need time to read the instructor’s mind. make sure you are within 60.” This simply means that you locate your desired course on the HSI then move your eyes to the head of the RMI needle. Later you can have him demonstrate the procedure with other navigation displays. in the context of this simulation you must find your present bearing (head) and compare that to the desired course (arrow on HSI) confirming the difference is less than or equal to 60. Make use of the time compression. Look at where his finger is pointing (between the course bar and RMI head.

the head is at 040.” When that makes sense to you move on. After confirming you are within 60 say to yourself “desired. to head. The other thing that probably surprised you is that he decided to turn left. Set time compression to a value greater than zero. Repeat the rhyme to yourself and try it. plus 30. Therefore the heading he decides to turn to is more than 070. (See picture above. again. Now repeat the PDT yourself. we mean 30 beyond the desired course. Make sure you go through the procedure methodically. The desired bearing is 360. Because you set time compression to zero the instructor is on hold.) Finally he turns to the heading of 070 and flies that heading until he is on the assigned course. and the exact same clearance is given. That is all there is to it. but NOT on your start heading. Because the airplane is moving the present bearing is more than 040 by the time the instructor gets around to checking it.Navigation for Professional Pilots Then he moves his finger to the head of the RMI needle. so once again the required heading is 070. Set Time Compression = 0. NOTE: When we say plus 30. Then press the “I Have Control” button. In this example that is a heading of 070.) Then he moves his finger another 30-degrees. rather than right. (Labeled in picture above. then press the 2-key The airplane is back at the exact same starting point. It is important to realize that the heading you must turn to depends on where you are. Watch the computerized flying instructor do the PDT. Press the 1-key. Why does he do that? Page 86 .

Page 87 . if he turned right he would fly right through heading 050. if you and your instructor are practicing PDTs and remaining within 10 miles or so of the station you will find it prudent to take care which way you turn. So. But. The rule programmed into the computerized flying instructor is that if the RMI needle is ahead of the wingtip he simply turns to the chosen heading. That could be a good thing in many cases. Since he is programmed not to do that he turns the other way. But. Just turn the most direct way to the chosen heading. The picture below shows what you might have expected him to do. I find that in real world IFR flying you never really need to worry about this sort of thing. But. In the example given he is turning to heading 080 but the RMI needle points to about 050. You can see that if he had turned right he would have intercepted the course much closer to the station.Navigation for Professional Pilots The picture above shows what the instructor does. if the airplane is already close to the station it can create difficulties. if the RMI needle is behind the wingtip he will never turn through the RMI needle.

Watch the instructor do the PDT. The procedure however is exactly the same. again. Set time compression to zero when you need time to analyze what he is doing. once you are getting the PDTs correctly you need to be able to do them in real time. and do lots of PDTs. Note that the procedure is always the same. However. TIP: When you first start doing PDTs you should set time compression = 0 BEFORE clicking the “Do Another” button. That way you have all the time you need to figure out what heading you want to turn to. allow the computerized flight instructor to demonstrate the differences in where you must look to get the required information. Click the “Hide All” button at the bottom of the simulation. standard VOR indicator or Fixed Card indicator you may do so now. Press the 4-key Once again we are assigned to intercept the same course. As in secret code 2 the instructor will turn the long way around. If you do. But. and in how easy it is to visualize. Then press the “I Have Control” button. again. Pay attention to his finger. Do so at your own discretion. this time we are on the other side of the course. When you are feeling confident with the procedure: Hide all the visual aids. if you wish to do some PDTs with the RMI. Press the 4-key.Navigation for Professional Pilots Press the 3-key Once again the clearance is to intercept the same course. Keep the checkbox at the bottom of the simulation set to “Within 60 PDTs” only. However. Now repeat the PDT yourself. But the airplane is flying northeast bound. Page 88 . so things are changing. Then press the “I Have Control” button. The difference is only in where you get the required information. Use the “Do Another” button Before moving on to do outbound PDTs you will need lots (and lots and lots) of practice doing inbound PDTs. I recommend mastering PDTs fully with HSI before using the other navigation displays. You can even challenge yourself by setting the time compression to more than real time. And we are at the same starting point as the previous secret code. It’s a lot harder with the map hidden. Here is your chance to see what happens if you turn left rather than right. Press the 3-key.

NOTE: there is NO within 60 limit for outbound intercepts.” If you have the visual aids turned off click the button at the bottom of the simulation labeled “Show All. “Tail to Desired plus 30. Press the 5-key The clearance reads: “Pilot 200. Turn the Visual Aids On. you are cleared to intercept the 000 degree radial outbound from the YPB VOR. To perform an outbound intercept we have a different rhyme.” The picture below shows the objective pictorially.” Page 89 . Reset navigation display to “All” or “HSI. When intercepting the course outbound I will teach you to use an intercept of 30-degrees.Navigation for Professional Pilots Outbound PDTs Now we will learn to intercept a course outbound from the station.” I also recommend returning to the “A” for all or “H” for HSI navigation display. The good news is that this is even easier than inbound intercepts.

The second reason is that only the procedure described here will work with an RMI or Fixed Card indicator. I recommend checking the RMI for two reasons. You may be thinking to yourself that all these steps are not really needed. If the CDI were deflected left you fly a heading 30 left of the desired course. But. then we move our eyes to the desired outbound course (set on the HSI) then move our eyes a further 30degrees to find the required heading. In this one we start at the tail of the RMI. Then he looks at the HSI course. Now. The required heading in this example is 330.Navigation for Professional Pilots Notice that this is a different rhyme than for inbound intercepts. The first is that without doing this you don’t know if you are off track 11 degrees. The picture above shows the instructor demonstrating the same PDT but with an RMI indicator. First he sets the assigned course (000) on the HSI. if the CDI were deflected right you would fly a heading 30 right of the desired course. Then he looks a further 30 degrees.) Press the 5-key again. or 111 degrees. Then he looks at the tail of the RMI. (If you wish to do a 45-degree intercept just move your eyes 45 past the desired instead. This is true. All you actually have to do is look at the HSI. Page 90 . To see this press the R-key then click the “Start Over” button. you will see that you MUST do the procedure as described above. Watch the flying instructor perform the PDT.

Fly the PDT yourself. RMI and Fixed Card indicator. But. 330. Change the checkbox at the bottom of the simulation to “Include Outbound. Then Press the 6-key With the airplane frozen you now have all the time you need to go through the procedure. our start heading is different. Keep saying to yourself “tail to desired plus 30. Hide the Visual Aids Practice outbound PDTs with no visual aids. then: Press the 6-key This time we are assigned the same course to intercept and we are at the same starting point. Do several PDTs until you are getting comfortable with the procedure.” When you are ready: Click the “I have control” button. If you desire.Navigation for Professional Pilots Return to the HSI display by pressing the A-key or H-key. Random PDT practice Now it is time for you to practice all the skills you have learned in this chapter.” If you wish to do only outbound PDTs turn off the “Within 60 PDTs” checkbox. Then set time compression to more than zero when you know what heading you want to turn to. At the bottom of the simulation there are three checkboxes labeled: Page 91 . Set Time Compression = 0. Make sure the “Over 60 PDTs” checkbox is NOT selected. practice outbound PDTs with standard VOR indicator. Despite this the instructor comes up with the same intercept heading. then set time compression to more than zero. Use the “Do Another” button. Initially set the time compression to zero before clicking the “Do Anther” button so you will have time to think the procedure through.

Using the map makes it far too easy to do PDTs. Some will be inbound and some outbound. Every time you click the “Do Another” button the computer will generate a random PDT. If you decide not to use a particular display. 2. such as the Fixed Card indicator you must be certain you won’t encounter one in your real world IFR flying. Most airplanes don’t have a moving map. If you know for certain that the airplane you are doing your IFR rating in has an RMI you may consider skipping Fixed Card indicator – perhaps returning to learn how to use it later. If you need a demonstration you can give the instructor control at any time. You know what a lead radial is and how to set up the HSI and OBS when flying an arc. Include Outbound Within 60 PDTs Over 60 PDTs Check all three of these check boxes then: Click the “Do Another” button at the top of the simulation. Read the clearance carefully then try to comply. Tracking and Intercepting Summary You now know how to track accurately along any assigned course.Navigation for Professional Pilots 1. Page 92 . some won’t. But. You can estimate the drift and then use bracketing to zero in on the exact amount of drift. If the instructor is flying click the “I have control” button. 3. Some will be over 60. you must work your way up to doing the exercise in real time. Hide the visual aids. You also know how to fly a circular arc around a VORTAC using a DME and RMI. Use Time Compression as needed Initially feel free to set time compression to zero to give yourself time to think what you should do. So. Be sure to practice PDTs with all the navigation displays. once you understand the procedure hide the visual aids and practice with only the navigation instruments. Use all the navigation displays.

from a VOR or an NDB. Keep your bracketing skills at the ready. When an inbound course is within 60 degrees you can go right to it. With the above skills you have all the knowledge you need to master holds and approaches. inbound or outbound. In the next chapter we will learn to perform holds. Page 93 .Navigation for Professional Pilots You know how to intercept any course. When the course is more than 60-degrees from your present bearing you know how to fly to the station and perform a procedure turn. including arcs and procedure turns. In chapter 6 we will learn to do approaches where you will be able to use al l the skills you have just learned.

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Airways are based on either VOR or ADF. for example V100. which are similar to airways but uncontrolled.Chapter 4 IFR Charts Read section Map 3. LO Charts LO charts are used for enroute navigation within the low level airspace. or V302.B. If not then review that material before proceeding. High level airways are shown on the HI charts discussed below. or R. The charts also show distances so no ruler or protractor is necessary when flight planning with LO charts.G. The VOR airways are called “Victor airways.000’.2 in your AIM. The charts you will use regularly in this course are: LO HI Terminal These are explained in your AIM. To fly IFR on an airway you need an IFR clearance. for example airway B22 is referred to as “Bravo two two.” Review the legend on your LO1 chart and then do the assignment to confirm you know all the symbols on the charts.0. In an IFR clearance these would be referred to as Victor one zero zero and Victor three zero two. You will learn the regulations governing these in Avia 130.” they are always designated with the letter A. The standard phonetic terminology is used. . which are for airplanes flying less than 18. LO charts also show air routes. ADF airways are commonly called “Low frequency airways. Even if you are navigating with GPS or Loran-C the airways you fly on are based on the positions of VORs and NDBs. section MAP 3. If you have worked through the designated simulations you know how to tune and interpret VOR and ADF radios with either HSI or standard VOR indicators and fixed card or RMI. The LO charts give the magnetic tracks for these airways.” All Victor airways have a number which is preceded by the letter V. which is explained below. In Canada all airways are based on either VOR or ADF. They show the “low altitude” airways and air routes.

in this course you need to know that IFR procedures are for the purpose of keeping airplanes from colliding with one another. Airways are like highways and like highways they must sometimes cross each other. VFR airplanes are “separated” from IFR by 500 feet (you already know the cruise altitudes for VFR.) Airplanes are separated by having opposite direction airplanes at least 1000 feet apart vertically. 5000. Separation of IFR Aircraft IFR airplanes are allowed to fly in clouds. every time.) while westbound flights are at “even thousand” altitudes. etc. and 8000 creating a risk of colliding head-on with westbound traffic in each case. Cars pass each other at combined speeds of 200+ KPH missing head-on collisions by four or five feet (pretty terrifying when you stop to think about it. for example J585. Separation must be lateral (side to side) or vertical. Note that HI charts do not symbolically indicate which direction corresponds to even and odd cruise altitudes because these altitudes change according to the cruising altitude orders. at and above 18. In Avia 260 you will learn all about IFR separation. Obviously an airplane climbing to 9000 feet (eastbound flight) must climb through 2000. To do that you need to understand the basics of how the “IFR system” operates. These are not unlike one-way streets you find in big cities.e. 6000. You will learn about this in Avia 130 and Avia 260.) This system works well for airplanes in cruise but is problematic when many airplanes need to climb or descend.” Examine the legend of your HI altitude chart and then do the assignment to confirm you understand it. In a clearance this is referred to as “Jet five eight five. Preferred IFR routes. but you will learn how to prepare an IFR nav-log and flight plan. Indeed airways are generally laid out like spokes on a wheel radiating out from VORs and NDBs. On highways traffic lights and stop signs prevent collisions at intersection. 3000.) Cruising altitude rules for separating opposite direction flights is not satisfactory in the vicinity of busy airports because large numbers departing and arriving airplanes are climbing and descending creating a night-mare scenario for the controller. 4000. and SIDs are the answer. i.) Most high altitude airways are based on VORs but some are based on NDBs.000 feet in the southern domestic airspace (all flight in high level airspace is IFR. Air traffic controllers are charged with making sure no collision takes place (and your life depends on them doing it. Eastbound airplanes fly at “odd thousand” altitude (1000. STARs. all are named with a letter “J” followed by a number. Preferred IFR Routes Page 96 . Imagine trying to do it blindfolded. unlike VFR airplanes. When in cloud pilots cannot see other aircraft. In IFR flight the ATC system takes on that task Airplanes flying along airways in opposite direction cannot pass the way cars on a highway do. Overview of IFR System This course is NOT designed to teach you IFR procedures.Navigation for Professional Pilots HI Charts HI Charts are used for enroute navigation in the high altitude airspace.

IFR Alternate Airport In Avia 130 you will learn all the regulations about IFR alternate airports. Some aspects of this task have been indicated above. Pilots follow prescribed procedures and climb at specified climb gradients to avoid terrain during departure and when enroute they fly above minimum enroute altitudes (MEA. but at least one problem is eliminated. The key word in the previous sentence is procedure and we say that terrain avoidance in IFR flight Page 97 .) MEAs are shown on LO charts. Before doing that however you should look to see if there is a published “preferred route. Preferred IFR routes are published starting on page C98 of your CFS. A few problems arise when flying in cloud however: 1. thus largely removing weather as an impediment to flight. It might seem obvious that you would simply look at the LO or HI chart (LO for airplanes that cruise below 18. ATC finds it easier to control the flow of climbing and descending traffic (departures and arrivals) when outbound airplanes take one route (or set of routes) and inbound airplanes another. Airplanes cannot see each other in flight. which is still a substantial task for ATC.” This is the aeronautical equivalent of one-way streets that you have probably driven on in large cities. Departing airplanes can be cleared to climb without fear of opposite direction traffic. In all your flight planning in Avia 260 you will have to allow for an alternate airport. and similarly arrivals can be permitted to descend. The full set of considerations will become clear during the Professional Pilot Program. so some method of avoiding it must exist Airplanes cannot see the runway. In short the ATC system solves only problem 1 above. etc. Any other services that controllers provide are secondary to the primary function. so some method of separating them must exist Airplanes cannot see the ground. In this course you are also expected to designate an alternate on IFR flight plans.) The bottom line is to use preferred routes. If a preferred route exists you should use it. When departing from a small airport there is often no listed preferred route but if you are headed for a major airport you should use common sense and pickup a preferred route. 2.Navigation for Professional Pilots When planning an IFR flight one task you must obviously do is choose a route. so some method of descending and establishing visual contact with the runway is needed in order to land The ATC system exists PRIMARILY to keep airplanes from colliding during flight. 3. The controller only needs to ensure that faster and slower airplanes don’t “overrun” each other. While the CFS indicates that the system is not mandatory you will find it impossible to get a clearance that does not comply unless you indicate a safety concern (bad weather) or a special operational need (lack of pressurization. To clarify why. the following highly simplified explanation of IFR flight is provided to get you started. IFR flight makes it possible for airplanes to fly in cloud from departure to destination. for example departing Castlegar for Vancouver intercept the preferred route for Calgary to Vancouver. special ferry flight.000 and HI for airplanes that cruise at and above) and choose the airway(s) that most directly take you from your departure airport to the destination.

but it should be obvious that the alternate airport must have good weather so that there is NO CHANCE of being unable to land there.” Note that it is NOT the responsibility of ATC to prevent terrain collision. IFR approach procedures are published in the Canada Air Pilot (CAP) which you have purchased. You will learn to assess the FORECAST to determine that an airport is a “legal alternate. You will learn all the regulations for this elsewhere. Pilots are responsible for that through the correct application of IFR procedures. These are for the purpose of making a safe descent (taking terrain into account) to a point where the pilot MUST see the runway in order to land on it. On all IFR nav-logs you will include time and fuel to get to an alternate airport.Navigation for Professional Pilots is “procedural. In this case an alternate airport. where the weather is good. is needed. So problem 2 and 3 above are both solved procedurally. It is always possible that the weather will be so bad that the pilot does not see the runway at the end of an IFR approach procedure.14. Page 98 .” The required weather is specified in the CAP GEN and in RAC 3.

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now it is time to master the front-side. 18/36 also represents 180/360 and 1. In the photo below you can see that all the ratios are given. On a CR 10 can represent 1. etc. Work through your CR manual from page 1 to 29 (you should already have done the rest of the book. Thus 10/20 in the photo above represents ½ as well as 10/20. These are simple examples of ratios and fractions. 10. The CRUCIAL thing to realize is that you can set any ONE of these ratios on your CR and it will give you ALL the others.8/3.” You will learn to do many useful ratios all of which have practical application in your flying. One half equals two quarters. 100/200 and so on.6 and so on.Chapter 5 The CR Computer You have already learned to use the wind side of the CR. for our purposes. etc. and an infinite number of other ratios.100. and eighteen thirty-sixths.) A Ratio Machine The outer two rings on the front-side of the CR are a “ratio-machine. three sixths. Get out your CR and set one of the above ratios and see that you have them all. 1000. It is your job to keep track of the decimal . Before we go further it is important to note how numbers are displayed on the CR. ratios should be thought of as fractions. First a quick review of what a ratio is: ½ = 2/4 = 3/6 = 18/36.

which we will deal with under the topic of speed ratios below. you can see that ½ equals 17/34 and 17. This depends on what question you are trying to answer.5/35 and an infinite number of other ratios not previously listed. The photo below shows that you earn $560 dollars in (per) 40 hours. when you know that something happens “per” something else it is probably a ratio that you can solve with a CR. or your own CR. A common problem is time and distance. etc. From the photo above. etc. For example climb gradients. But in a given situation only a few of these ratios are of practical interest – even so it is important to understand that there are an infinite number of equivalent ratios The secret to making good use of a CR is in knowing which ratios are interesting.Navigation for Professional Pilots points when using your CR. distance to a radio navaid. But there are many other ratios of importance in aviation. unit conversions. For example if you are paid $14 per hour and want to know how much you earn in 40 hours the CR can tell you. It is important to know that not only does ½ = 2/4 also equals 20/40 and 2000/4000. Solving problems with a CR requires you to ask. what relationships are relevant? For example IFR departures require a minimum climb gradient of 200 feet per nautical mile (ft/NM.) To use a CR effectively you must realize that this is a ratio (200/1.) A good clue is the word “per”. How many dollars do you earn in 8 hours? Page 102 .

For example you may have noticed on the speedometer of your car that 80kph equals 50 mph – set this ratio up on your CR and fill in the table below: 40kph 90kph 800kph _______ mph _______ mph _______ mph Page 103 . If you establish ANY relevant ratio relating these values you can use it to determine ALL others. using your CR.Navigation for Professional Pilots Unit Conversions Most unit conversions are simple ratios. liters/gallons. Examples include pounds/kilograms. statutemiles/kilometers and nautical-miles/kilometers.

Once this ratio is set all others can be read. The KM and Statute markings are found on both the outer and inner ring so you can set the CR up either way. so Jeppesen simply marks the ratios wherever they fit without cluttering the face of the computer too much.Navigation for Professional Pilots 100kph 120kph _______ mph _______ mph To solve the above problem we started with the ratio 80/50 which we remembered from the speedometer of a car – but the CR has most of the common ratios marked on its face. Page 104 . The photo above shows a ratio for km/sm. Remember that any ratio will do.

First determine how many KM = 1NM and then convert from meters to feet.0NM = 6080 feet.2/1 is an equivalent ratio. Try it yourself to confirm you get the expected value. The same process can be used to discover there are _______ feet in a statute mile. Page 105 .Navigation for Professional Pilots Ratios can also be found for: Liters to gallons (both imperial and US) Feet to meters Pounds to Kilograms Remember that if you know a conversion ratio from memory you can save the need to locate one on the CR. If you forget you can figure it out with a CR through a two-step process. For example if you know that 2. You will often need to know that 1.2 pounds equals one kilogram simply set that ratio on the CR to save the trouble of locating the marked ratio shown below: Set the above ratio and confirm that 2. How many pounds in five kilograms? How many pounds in 16 kilograms? The CR does not have a conversion from Nautical miles to feet.

0 Page 106 . The CR has a temperature conversion scale on the front face (see photo below. It is a ratio. The reason ratios don’t work is that 0°C does not equal 0°F. That is a requirement for using ratios as a conversion method. Mach = TAS / speed of sound.Navigation for Professional Pilots Celsius to Fahrenheit Temperature Conversion You may need to convert from Celsius to Fahrenheit – this is NOT a ratio. -40°C = -40°F but 1°C does not equal 1°F.) You can see that -40°C = -40°F but that 0°C = 32°F. For all the other conversions we looked at so far the zero points match. 20°C = ____? Mach Number You will use Mach number extensively in flight planning. With your CR set as above 1200 knots is what Mach number? The answer is 2.) Assume the speed of sound is 600 knots and set the ratio 600/1 on your CR. by definition (this is a ratio. as shown below.

You can see the index in the photo below. An airliner cruising at Mach 0. what is your groundspeed? Setup your CR with the ratio 17/11. You will notice that once you set 600/1 on the CR a Mach index is visible that allows you to “fine tune” the ratio for the actual air temperature. An airplane cruising at Mach 2. 1 610 KTAS 490 KTAS 2 Page 107 .8 has a TAS of _____ knots.Navigation for Professional Pilots A C-172 cruising at 105 knots has what Mach number? What is the Mach number of a King Air cruising at 240 knots? The above conversions from TAS to Mach number are simple but only accurate if the ratio 600/1 is correct.0 .” You have just flown 17NM in 11 minutes.000’. It is CRUCIAL to realize that “speed” is simply a ratio of distance over time. In fact this ratio is only approximately correct.E. What would the TAS of the airliner be if the air 2 temperature was -56°C? Speed Ratios – I. Set the Mach index to -25°C (the ISA temperature at 20. Groundspeed Checks We will now explore a series of time and distance ratios.0 has a TAS of _____ knots. the real speed of sound varies with air temperature.) What is the speed of sound? This amounts to 1 saying what TAS corresponds to Mach 1. Let’s start with what pilots commonly call a “ground speed check. as shown below.

54/1. but it is indeed your groundspeed. It is VITAL to realize that the symbol. It is however traditional to specify speed in units of Knots. The photo that shows the 17/11 ratio also shows the ratio 1. How far do we go in 30 minutes. Knot is defined as NM per hour. which means 93/60.54 NM every minute.” For example how many miles do we go in one minute.” That is a pretty weird unit. There are however other ratios that are important beyond the simple 93/60 ratio that is “our groundspeed. This is an important value to know.Navigation for Professional Pilots To be cheeky you could say. how far in 12 minutes? You can determine these and an infinite number of other ratios once17/11 has been set – it’s just that you don’t usually think to ask such questions. but in reality it is NM per 60 minutes. sometimes. “My speed is 17 miles per 11 minutes. actually represents six (6) or 60 on the CR. Common sense says that it will Page 108 . even though it has 1:00 written on it. as you can see in the photo below: Thus we would say that our groundspeed is 93 knots. The airplane is covering 1. how long will it take to get there? Note that since we are responsible for the decimal points the same ratio 17/11 gives the answer. If the total length of the trip is 170 NM.

set 90/60 and then look up x/1. If you are flying 2 miles per minute your groundspeed is _____ Knots.5 NM/min 4 Page 109 . How long would it take to fly 88NM? How long would it take to fly 214NM? Make up your own distances and confirm that you can find the time for any distance you choose. Consider the diagram below: 3 57 minutes 1. if you are flying 1 nautical mile per minute what is your groundspeed? In this case set 1/1 and look up x/60.0 NM/min is an IMPRORTANT speed that we will use extensively so you must remember it. If your speed is 90 knots how many miles 4 per minute are you covering? To find out. 60 knots – i. Miles per Minute Nautical Miles per minute is a value that you will use in many situations so you need to become familiar with it. 1. In the previous example the airplane flew 1. 150 knots is _____ miles per minute. What is x? To approach this problem from the other direction. Arcs are common in IFR arrival procedures.Navigation for Professional Pilots 3 take 110 minutes to fly 170 NM. At 60 knots how long does it take to fly 18NM? How long for 78NM? How long for 156NM? The answer to all these is trivial and you should not require your computer. and the theory behind them applies in other situations that we will discuss shortly. Time to a Station – ARC Speed The procedure for flying a DME arc was covered previously on page 74. If you are flying 3 miles per minute your groundspeed is _____ Knots.e. Note that the answer is 60 KTAS.54 NM/min.

Simply set your CR for the ratio 17/11 and lookup the answer.3 degrees.) Be sure to examine the above until you fully understand it. Here are a few sample problems for you to work through just to be sure: You fly 14 degrees in 7 minutes.Navigation for Professional Pilots The airplane in the diagram is flying around a circle. your arc-speed is ______ degrees/hour. How long will it take to fly 20 degrees? How long will it take to fly 60 degrees? Hopefully your reaction to the above is that it is trivially obvious (but you may be thinking it is unimportant – trust me it is VERY IMPORTANT. it will take ______ minutes to fly 57. which of course really means degrees per 60 minutes. Page 110 . but this time the arc-speed is 93 degrees/hour. At the moment shown it has flown 17° of arc in 11 minutes. The result is exactly the same as the groundspeed example above in which the airplane flew 17NM in 11 minutes. It will take _____ minutes to fly 60 degrees. What is the arc-speed? Arc-speed has units of degrees per hour.

It is now time to review some high school trigonometry. Your arc-speed is _____ degrees/hour.Navigation for Professional Pilots You fly 37 degrees of arc in 3 minutes. It will take ______ minutes to fly 60 degrees. In the diagram above distances AB = AC = BC. First recall what an equilateral triangle is: An equilateral triangle is one that has all three sides the same length and all three angles equal. Now examine the following diagram: Page 111 .3 degrees. The three angles must all be 60 degrees (the sum of the three angles in every triangle is 180°) The three sides of an equilateral triangle are equal to each other. it will take ______ minutes to fly 57.

Page 112 . Consider the diagram below. but how much . The center point of the arc is B. but it will be close.1%. consequently the triangle will not be exactly equilateral any more. It should be obvious that there is some angle. just a bit less than 60°. Obviously AC will have to be shortened. Obviously the arc is longer. such that the length of the arc is the same as the length of the sides AB and BC. 10%. what do you think? The difference is less than 5%.Navigation for Professional Pilots The diagram above is the same as the previous one with an arc added. Look at the diagram and estimate the length of the arc compared to AC.

The sample problems above asked you to determine the time to fly 60 and 57. 7°. 11°. But. To be effective AB must approximate flying an arc.”) Angle X is arbitrary.3° is known as one radian. The pilot wishes to know how long it would take to get to the VOR if s/he turned southbound directly to it.E.3° of arc is 37 minutes. simply time whatever is convenient. etc.3 = 180/Π.) Time to the station is a common problem in aviation. since the length of the arc equals the radius it obviously also takes 37 minutes to fly directly to the center of the arc (point B. so it doesn’t matter if it is 4°. AB = AC’ = arc. without the need to actually do it. In the above diagram the airplane is flying an eastbound track that passes north of a VOR. AB and AC’ have been labeled r in the diagram to remind us that they are the radius of the arc. Once you have a “time / x-degrees” ratio setup on your CR all you do is lookup time for 57. The above use of “arc-speed” to determine time to a station when flying abeam is one of the most common uses of arc-speed theory. but that is a two-step process which we will cover in just a moment. I. record the time from A to B and the angle X.) The time to fly 57. Returning to a previous example in which the airplane few 17° of arc in 11 minutes (setup your CR for the ratio 17/11. Most pilots use this as the answer because it is a lot easier to remember 60 rather than 57. 57.3 degrees of arc.3°or 60°. This is the “special” angle for which the length of the arc is exactly equal to the radius.Navigation for Professional Pilots In the diagram above the angle through which the arc sweeps is reduced to 57.3 (57. typically less than 15° (but not too small or there will be “round off error. so the station must be essentially abeam the airplane (as in the diagram. As you can see. we will now examine why. 15°. it is an approximation since the airplane actually flies a Page 113 .) The time to fly 60° is 39 minutes.3 degrees. Neither will be precisely accurate. You will even more commonly need to know distance to the station. but either will give an answer that is within 5% of the correct value. First let us consider the most common situation in which the above theoretical facts comes into actual practice.) The angle X is usually fairly small. To find out.

To answer the question we need to realize that 57. Consider the modified approach plate 5 below : To fly this arc you start at the point marked and maintain a constant 9 DME arc to intercept the 087 radial (which lines you up for landing on runway 09. Note that if you had used 9/60 as your ratio you would get 13.) On the right side of the plate a Lead Radial (LR) is published.e. The answer is 12. since it is a 9 DME arc.3°.Navigation for Professional Pilots straight line forming a triangle with the station. Either way you will round off to 13° and predict the 074 radial as your answer. 5 The original is in the CAP3 under Brandon Page 114 . It is recommended that in these calculations you use 60° as the reference angle rather than 57. but the previous analysis that showed an equilateral triangle is very similar to a one-radian arc. but its value has been erased on the above photo.3° of arc will be 9NM. So set the ratio 9/57.) Next we will consider a more precise use of arc-speed theory.7°. The LR is always 2NM prior to intercept of the final approach course (087 radial in this case. think of the equilateral triangle analogy to help you remember how to do it.3 (i.3 on your CR and look up 2/a.) What should the LR be? See if you can figure it out based on arc-theory before reading the next paragraph.

3 the answer is right in front of you. The above uses of arc-speed are very typical of ones you will experience everyday as a commercial pilot. so that this method is the only method of fixing position. It is much more likely that the pilot wishes to know the distance to the VOR rather than time to the VOR.”  Page 115 . so be sure you fully understand the above before moving on. What would the lead radial have been? Two IMPORTANT two-step CR Ratio Problems There are two very important two-step CR calculations that we will cover next. Learn them well and get comfortable with them. but this particular airplane does not have a DME so we will have to do it the “hard way. Look it up before reading the next paragraph. The second is gradient to rate which is very important for IFR departure and arrival planning.Navigation for Professional Pilots Imagine you are flying the above arc arrival and wish to slow down and start your pre-landing checklist 5NM prior to intercepting the final approach track. Imagine the situation in which the flight plan route passes a certain number of miles north of the VOR. The pilot wishes to determine if s/he is on track (the airplane could be in IFR weather conditions. Distance to Station Below the same diagram previously examined has been repeated. the pilot would simply note the distance as s/he passed abeam the VOR. The answer is 32°. or featureless terrain. which extends the time to station calculation previously covered. So you will need to slow down at the 055 radial. Imagine the above DME arc had been 14NM instead of 9. With your CR set to the ratio 9/57. over water. Both demand full mastery of the ratio concepts covered so far. If the airplane is equipped with DME the position check would be easy. what radial should you start to slow down at? If you kept your CR set to 9/57.3 lookup 5/a. One is distance to a station.

Navigation for Professional Pilots

First, it is important to note that we cannot solve this problem unless we already know the groundspeed of the airplane. We will assume that the pilot has been doing his/her job well and knows the groundspeed. Assume the following data and follow along with your CR. The airplane crossed the 355 radial at time 0:00 and crossed the 005 radial 7:00 minutes later. The groundspeed is known to be 144 knots. How far north of the VOR are we? This is going to be a two-step process. What is the first relevant ratio? Think it through on your own before reading the next paragraph. (Tip: what is the angle X?) The airplane has flown through an angle of 10° in 7 minutes. Setup the ratio 10/7 on the CR. Now determine how long it would take to fly 60°. The answer is 42 minutes (10/7 = 60/42.) So time to the station is 42 minutes. In the second step we will determine distance to the station. We know it would take 42 minutes to get there, but how far is it? We know that groundspeed is 144 knots. What ratio do we need to setup? Reason it out before reading the next paragraph. We setup the ratio 144/60 which represents distance in 60 minutes. The relevant ratios are 144/60 = a/42, where a represents the answer. The answer is 101 nautical miles. In summary: When flying abeam a station, calculate distance to the station by: 1. 2. Determining how long it would take to fly a 60° arc (or one side of an equilateral triangle.) Second, determine how much distance is represented by step 1

NOTE: You must already know your groundspeed.

Gradient to Rate Conversion
Many IFR departure plates have notes that specify a required climb gradient, in units of ft/NM. Even when 6 none is specified all departures must achieve a climb gradient of 200 ft/NM . Pilots routinely plan arrivals at a descent gradient of 320 ft/NM (which corresponds to 3°.) Often other descent gradients are required, especially for non-precision approaches in mountainous environments. We will thoroughly examine gradients in what follows. Keep in mind that climb gradient and descent gradient theory is fully interchangeable. Anything you learn about planning descent rates can be applied to climb rates, and vice versa.

6

This relates to the “procedural” terrain separation previously mentioned in the Overview of IFR Flight

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Navigation for Professional Pilots

Unfortunately climb and descent gradients are not directly usable by pilots. Our aircraft are equipped with rate instruments, not gradient instruments. We have an airspeed indicator and often a DME or GPS all of which give our speed (a rate) and we have a vertical speed indicator (VSI) that gives our rate of climb and descent. Our challenge is to translate the published climb and descent gradients into useable verticalspeed/airspeed ratios (rates.) You will find it necessary to remember that 1.0NM = 6080 ft. We will start with a very simple problem, but one that applies to all IFR departures. As stated previously the minimum acceptable climb gradient is 200 ft/NM, as shown in the diagram below.

We can quite simply answer questions such as; what is the minimum safe altitude 5NM after takeoff? Can you setup the required ratio? Try to do so before reading the next paragraph. The ratios are 200/1 = a/5, where a is the answer. The answer is 1000 feet, i.e. you must be at least 1000’ agl 5NM after takeoff to meet the gradient. When you reach 2000’ agl the maximum distance you should be from the airport is ______ NM. The problem we most need to solve is; what vertical speed must we maintain to safely meet the gradient? This is almost trivially simple to answer if you remember that 60 knots is 1.0 NM/min (previously I said that you needed to remember that fact.) If you forget then set your CR to the ratio 1/1 to remind yourself that 1.0 NM/min means 60 miles per 60 minutes. Examine the above diagram and imagine the airplane climbing along the flight path at a groundspeed of 60 knots. After one minute it would be at the 1.0 NM point and its altitude would be 200 feet. After two minutes it would be at the 2.0NM point and its altitude would be 400 feet, etc. It must be clear to you that it requires a vertical speed of 200 fpm. To make rate conversions it is CRUCIAL to realize that an airplane with a groundspeed of 60 knots requires a climb rate equal to the gradient. In this case the relevant ratio is therefore 60/200. What climb rate do you need at 75 knots? Figure it out on your own before reading the next paragraph.

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Set the CR to the ratio 60/200 and lookup 75/a. The answer is 250 fpm. At 85 knots the minimum safe 7 vertical speed is _____ fpm. At 95 knots it is _____ fpm. At 105 knots it is _____ fpm . At 120 knots it is _____ fpm. Not all departures can be made safely at a gradient of 200 ft/NM. When a larger gradient is required the departure chart will specify the required value. The plate below is an example:

You can find the above plate in your CAP2 under Victoria International, Mill Bay SID. Depending on which transition ATC assigns, a climb gradient of 330 ft/NM or 220 ft/NM applies. Let’s work out the required vertical speed for each case – starting with 330 ft/NM. What ratio should you setup on your CR? Try to figure it out before reading the next paragraph. We must realize that at 60 knots the required vertical speed is 330 fpm. So set the ratio 60/330 and lookup your-speed/a. [Tip: it makes no difference whether you setup 330/60 or 60/330 as long as you keep track of whether groundspeed or vertical speed is on the top of the ratio.] If your groundspeed is 75 knots the required vertical speed is 415 fpm. At 85 knots it is ______ fpm. At 105 8 knots it is ______ fpm . Repeat the above calculations for a climb gradient of 220 ft/NM. Make sure that the above calculations are effortless for you. You must routinely check the minimum climb rate for IFR departures. Before we move on to the next important point it should be pointed out that you can approach the above problems from the opposite direction. If you know your groundspeed and vertical speed you can use the CR

7

350 fpm 580 fpm

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to determine your actual climb gradient. This is also helpful for flight planning purposes. We will use it quite often, so it is worth covering now. Imagine that you know your groundspeed is 115 knots and that your vertical speed is 800 fpm. What is your climb gradient? What ratio should you setup, and how do you get the answer? Figure it out before reading the next paragraph. The relevant ratio is 115/800 = 60/a. The secret is to realize that the ratio groundspeed/vertical speed, i.e. 115/800 establishes the gradient. To get the value in units of ft/NM remember that 60 knots is 1.0 NM/min, and look up the vertical speed at 60 knots. In this case the answer is 416 ft/NM. As long as this value exceeds the published climb gradient the pilot need not worry. This calculation can also easily be extended to answer questions of the form; what altitude will this airplane be at when 6.4 miles after takeoff? [Tip: this is step two of a two-step problem.] Try to figure out the answer before reading the next paragraph. We know the climb gradient is 416 ft/NM so setup the ratio 416/1 and lookup a/6.4. The answer is 2660 feet. A particular airplane climbs at 160 knots and 1000 fpm. What is the climb gradient, and what altitude will it be at 3.7NM after takeoff? The first ratio is 160/1000 = 60/a. This gives a climb gradient of 222 ft/NM. The second step is to use the climb gradient, so set the ratio 222/1 = a/3.7. The airplane will be at 830agl 3.7NM after takeoff. You can see that the above two-step calculation is quite useful for flight planning. Go over it until it makes complete sense to you. Next we examine a very important, but not significantly different, situation related to approach planning. Consider the following approach plate, which is quite typical.

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5 = a/1. until you can do the calculation quickly and effortlessly. normal touchdown is made about 0. What vertical speed is needed? Try to setup the required ratio on your own before reading the next paragraph. If you fly the approach at 105 knots the vertical speed must be 600 fpm. On this approach the airplane must cross the XX NDB at 1700 (or above) and then land on runway 07. At 90 knots the vertical speed must be ______ fpm. The relevant ratio is 60/340 because at 60 knots 340 fpm would be required. The required vertical speed depends on your groundspeed such that 60/340 = groundspeed/a. Page 120 . be sure you can locate it for yourself.2NM past the threshold.3NM from the runway. The XX beacon is 4. we see that in the intermediate approach segment the airplane must descend from 2500 to 1700. The relevant ratio is 1526/4. You should open your CAP at random and calculate the descent gradient for the final approach segment of many non-precision IFR approaches (i. so it is important to become comfortable with it. The above calculation will be needed for every non-precision IFR approach you fly. The airplane must descend 1526 feet (1700 – 174.) The pilot will of course not land exactly at the runway threshold. What is the descent gradient? Try to figure it out yourself before reading the next paragraph. At 140 knots the vertical speed must be ______ fpm. and resulting vertical speed at your airplane’s approach groundspeed.5NM. Examining the Abbotsford approach plate once again. All this information is presented on the above plate.e.Navigation for Professional Pilots The approach plate above can be found in your CAP2 under Abbotsford NDB RWY 07. The answer is 340 ft/NM. which has a touch down zone elevation (TDZE) of 174. not ILS approaches). so the descent must be completed in 4. How far back from the XX NDB should this descent begin if the pilot wishes to maintain a descent gradient of 340 ft/NM (the previously calculated gradient for the final segment)? Setup your CR as required before reading the next paragraph.

The importance of the calculations demonstrated should be obvious.1NM. which we will do now.g. most pilots round it off to 1000 feet per 3. Page 121 . The tower asks you to report 2NM on final. Some precision approaches use other gradients. However.0NM is 6080 feet. Tan (3) = a/6080 (recall that 1. The above diagram shows a 3° descent. The answer is about 2. How many nautical miles are required for a descent of 1000 feet on an ILS? Setup the required ratio on your CR before reading the next paragraph. On a precision approach (e. an ILS) a glidepath indicator directs the pilot to the runway so calculation is not as necessary. If the pilot wishes to limit the intermediate segment to a gradient of 320 ft/NM the descent should start ______ NM from the XX beacon. Below are some typical applications.1NM.0°. Standard Decent Gradient is 3° The gradient to rate conversion discussed above is primarily applicable to non-precision approaches.7. what altitude will you be at? Setup your CR before reading the next paragraph.0NM. if you like you can rework them based on the more accurate 320/1 to see if the difference is significant.) The relevant ratio is 340/1 = 700/a. which corresponds to 320 ft/NM. which is a gradient of 320 ft/NM. Legally a precision approach can have glidepaths in the range 2.) Using an electronic calculator a equals 318. The required ratio is 320/1 = 1000/a. which we will round off to 320.Navigation for Professional Pilots The airplane must descend 700 feet (2500 – 1700. which is close enough for typical purposes and allows quick and easy calculations in your mind without needing a CR. Most precision approaches are set to a descent angle of 3°. The above relationship is VERY IMPORTANT.5° to 4. The answer is 3. This can be calculated using basic trigonometry. Work them out based on the ratio 1000/3. It is however beneficial to examine the required descent rates.

“How far back” you are. Your company SOP is to call 100 above as you approach the glidepath check altitude. In order to facilitate mental calculations while flying ILS approaches pilots use the ratio 1000/3 or 100/. Your groundspeed is 100 knots. With your CR set to 60/320 what is the value of 1/a.0 final when you are 666 above ground level (note that you can thus report 2. This is an important calculation. but since your primary purpose in such calculations is usually just to keep a mental image of how far you are from touchdown the difference between 9. That will be _____ NM from the FAF. how far from touchdown will you be? Setup your CR before going on. Pilots also use the formula 5 x groundspeed to approximate the descent rate. Your groundspeed is 85 knots. You will be 9. Your answer is _____ NM. what vertical speed do you require? Setup your CR before reading the next paragraph.0NM from touchdown.Navigation for Professional Pilots The ratio is 1000/3 = a/2. Using the 120 knot example we get 5 x 120 = 600 fpm.3. the calculation is so simple you hardly need a CR.3 to approximate the descent gradient. You look at the thermometer and it says -21°C. From a practical point of view reading the difference on your altimeter and then reporting would be impossible. You are 400 agl when the tower asks. the required descent rate is ______ fpm. If you set 1000/3 = 3000/a. You will be ____ NM from the checkpoint when you make this call. The answer is 640 fpm. The required ratio is 60/320 = 120/a. Use the approximations to answer the following questions without using your CR or any other calculator.4NM.3 fpm for every knot of groundspeed. Summarizing what we have learned about flying 3° precision approaches. but 600 fpm will get you started close enough. you then follow the glidepath indicator. which will take you directly to the runway. What is your TAS? Page 122 .) If you had used the more precise ratio 320/1 your answer would be 640agl. Pilots routinely round this off to 5. You are going to intercept the glidepath at 3000agl. If you set the more precise ratio 320/1 the answer is 9. You are flying an ILS approach with a groundspeed of 120 knots. TAS and CAS Conversions The situation is that you are flying along in your King-Air at FL250. You read the airspeed indicator and it says 170 KIAS.0. We know the correct answer is 640. You should report 2. This is the actual distance. the required descent rate is ______ fpm.0 final even if your airplane is not equipped with DME. You will intercept a glidepath 600 feet above the glidepath check altitude.0 and 9. but given that positive guidance is provided by the glidepath it is really only necessary to approximate this calculation. From this comes the rule of thumb that vertical speed should be 5 x groundspeed. Note that a equals 5. This ratio tells us that we need 5.4 is probably not significant.

so your pressure altitude is 25. rotate it so you can look at the TAS window. the friction of the air rushing past the temperature probe causes an error and the actual temperature is colder than -21°C. On the CR (CAS window) set 170 KCAS opposite 25. see photo below. FL250 means that your altimeter is set to 29. as shown below. Page 123 .92.000’. so our speed is 170 KCAS. At 170KIAS there is no error. Set the indicated temperature hairline to -21°C and read the TAS on the scale. From the King-Air POH we look at the calibration chart to see what our CAS is. We will see how much colder shortly.Navigation for Professional Pilots It is important to know that the actual air temperature is NOT -21°C.000’ pressure altitude. Keeping the CR in that position.

Navigation for Professional Pilots TAS is 252 or 253 KTAS and the Mach number is 0. From the POH we find the true airspeed and the FD forecast gives us the temperature.) Page 124 . we are still on the ground.e. Our job is to predict the indicated airspeed (IAS. in other words the actual temperature is -29. Derive CAS given TAS and Forecast Temperature In this situation we are doing flight planning.415. Temperature rise (see photo below) is 8. Remember that when doing this sort problem with your CR you would be in flight and checking that your TAS is working out as flight planned. There are lots of sample problems like the one above in the assignments.2°C.2°C. i.

A comparison between this and the professional method below confirms this claim. This can be used for all airplanes. Obviously jet pilots always use procedure 2. For a C-172P the following data apply: Altimeter setting 30.Navigation for Professional Pilots It is much simpler to do this for airplanes that fly less than 200 knots and less than 20. both fast and slow. use if for the C-172 and B95 because it is quick and easy. A quick and simple technique that does NOT compensate for compression. Procedure for “Slow and Low” Airplanes In your CR manual this is referred to as the “old method” and is described on page 21. TAS will be 111 KTAS Predict the IAS? Page 125 . You are expected to learn both procedures and apply the two-step procedure when needed (i.35 Cruise altitude 8500 indicated Forecast temperature at altitude -12°C 65% power Given the above. for the King Air you must use procedure 2. The CR has two techniques: 1. but it takes longer and is not needed for slow airplanes like the C-172 or B95. for any airplane flying faster than 200 knots. 2.) Of course you can always use it. even though it is called the old method. or higher than 20.000 feet.000 feet because we can disregard compression error. The error will be 1 knot or less. Pressure altitude in cruise is 8070’ From the POH. for aircraft slower than 200 knots A two-step procedure that accurately allows for compression. but MUST be used for fast airplanes.e.

In this case indicated airspeed is about 2 knots more than calibrated so the final answer is 103 KIAS. Page 126 . CAS appears directly below it. as shown in the photo above. in this case 111KTAS equals ~101 KCAS.Navigation for Professional Pilots Line up the temperature of -12°C with the PRESSURE ALTITUDE of 8070’. To get the indicated airspeed look in the calibration chart on page 5-8 of the POH. Take care to keep the above values aligned while you locate the TAS on the outer ring.

Your POH gives you TAS and the CR gives you the speed of sound. An IMPORTANT point to note before we go further is that since the TAS window on the CR works with INDICATED temperature (see photo below) and indicated is NOT the same as actual air temperature. The proper procedure is to first determine your Mach number. regardless of TAS. For a King-Air the following data apply: Altimeter setting 29. you cannot use the TAS window to predict CAS by reversing the procedure covered above.Navigation for Professional Pilots You will be using the above procedure over and over.92 Page 127 . 2. For a given Mach number there is one CAS for each pressure altitude. so make sure you can do it without hesitation. Determine cruise Mach number Use Mach number to determine CAS You can then also determine temperature rise if needed The procedure works because temperature affects calibrated airspeed and the speed of sound equally and therefore the effects offset. 3. To do that you need to know TAS and the speed of sound. on all your flight plans for the C-172P and Beech 95. Procedure for “Fast and High” Airplanes In your CR manual this is referred to as the professional method. Once you get good at it you can do it quite quickly even though it requires two steps: 1.

Using the method described earlier reveal the Mach Index by setting 600 knots over 1 on the outer scales (this is shown below.8. If you were at Mach 2.Navigation for Professional Pilots Cruise altitude FL230. what is your TAS if you are at Mach 0.0 your TAS would be 1212 KTAS.0 corresponds to 606 knots. TAS 276 KTAS Forecast temperature at altitude -30°C What is the CAS and IAS? Mach number is simply the ratio TAS/speed-of-sound. The photo below shows the Mach index set to -30°C. 9 what is it a Mach 1.) Next set the actual air temperature on the Mach index to get the “real” speed of sound.4? 9 850 KTAS Page 128 . On the outer scale you should now see that Mach 1.

455. In this example true airspeed of 276 corresponds to Mach 0. Page 129 . Go to the TAS window and set the Mach number as shown below. but altitude per se is irrelevant.Navigation for Professional Pilots Returning to our problem. Notice that when air temperature changes Mach number changes. we know that our TAS is 277. You are now ready for the second step. What is the Mach number? You can read it on the scale as shown below. Locate the TAS on the outer scale and read the Mach number.

Page 130 .000’ pressure altitude to get the CAS. In this example CAS is 195 KCAS.Navigation for Professional Pilots With the Mach number set look in the calibrated airspeed window across from 23. The photo below shows the result. regardless of temperature.455 has a calibrated airspeed of 195 KCAS. which is roughly 197 KIAS according to the POH. You will be using the above procedure many times in flight planning so make sure you go over it until you can do it without hesitation. This procedure works because ANY airplane at FL230 and Mach 0.

So both procedures clearly work for the C-172P. which is 8070’ and read the calibrated airspeed.1765. Now let’s find out what happens if we use the slow airplane procedure for the King Air problem. Page 131 . as shown below: The result is ~100 KCAS. which is exactly what we got using the slow airplane procedure. Setting the Mach index to -12°C the speed of sound becomes 628 knots. More importantly cruising at 111 KTAS corresponds to Mach 0. use the professional method on the C-172P problem previously solved with procedure slow airplane procedure.Navigation for Professional Pilots Comparing Procedure for slow and fast Airplanes First. Set this in the TAS window as shown below: In the CAS window locate the pressure altitude.

000 as shown below: Now locate the TAS of 276 on the outer scale and read the CAS. The four knot error may not seem like a big deal.Navigation for Professional Pilots In the pressure altitude window set the temperature of -30°C over the pressure altitude of 23.) So we have confirmed that we cannot use the slow airplane procedure for the King Air. We know the correct value is 196. but it is certainly enough to get the wrong answer on your ATPL written exams. The error gets larger as you fly higher (as in jets. This is shown below: The value of less than 192 is obviously wrong. Page 132 .

000 40.000 30. Repeat the calculations using the old method.000 25.000 30.Navigation for Professional Pilots Sample Questions 5 Use the “Professional Method” to complete the last two columns of the table below: CAS 145 315 280 280 Pressure Altitude 5.000 25.000 Indicated OAT 2°C -12°C -15°C -15°C TAS Error TAS 105 105 145 235 380 440 Actual Air Temp 12°C -20°C 5°C -12°C -56°C -56°C Mach number Fill in the right hand column: Page 133 . This time you do not need to determine Mach number: CAS 145 315 280 280 Pressure Altitude 5.000 Indicated OAT 2°C -12°C -15°C -15°C TAS Mach number Read the section labeled “Old” Method on page 21 of the CR Handbook.000 40.

000 32.500 6.000 CAS Page 134 .224 0.Navigation for Professional Pilots Mach Number 0.17 0.373 0.775 Pressure Altitude 8.16 0.000 21.67 0.500 8.000 38.

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Section E is perhaps the most neglected yet vital section. . VOR/DME frequency allocations etc.Chapter 6 The Canada Flight Supplement The Canada Flight Supplement (CFS) is one of the most important documents for flight planning. Every pilot should read and understand this section. Get to know the codes used to describe public facilities (PF) lighting. which gives data about all the registered airports and aerodromes in Canada. It contains various emergency procedures such as intercept orders and procedures in the event of an emergency landing. In the assigned cross country flights you will need to consult these. The most used part of the CFS is section B. You will be given a number of assignments to develop expertise in decoding the CFS. to get maximum value from this data you must use the index in the general section. Expect questions drawn from the CFS on all your exams. Flight Planning. You will learn to decode weather in Avia 120 and NOTAMs in Avia 130. As mentioned previously the CFS contains many useful pieces of information in the later sections. This includes preferred IFR routes for both high and low altitude. You must become familiar with all the information it contains and be able to locate what you need quickly and efficiently. Become familiar with all the information in the CFS. part A. These can be found in section C. However. Weather and NOTAMS Checking weather and NOTAMS before flight is essential for flight safety. They will not be covered here. etc. Section D contains a lot of useful information about the location of navigation radios.

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Therefore the circumference of the earth is 40.00002%. which defines one day. the equatorial circumference is 40. From the above discussion you should memorize the definition of the nautical mile and take note that the difference in circumference of the earth around the poles vs.076 Km. It spins once every 24 hours.600 Nm. to measure so they must be resynchronized with the rotation of the earth every 1000 weeks (roughly every 20 years.000 Km. such as those in GPS satellites. The aviation unit of distance is the nautical mile. 10. A computer program in your GPS receiver calculates the difference so that the time displayed to you is approximately equal to earth time. This defines the north and south poles. which makes the shape an oblate spheroid. If the earth was shrunk down to the size of a billiard ball it would be a smoother rounder billiard ball than any you will find in a pool hall. The original definition of the metric distance unit “meter” was that the distance from the equator to the pole is 10 million meters.000 Km measured around the poles. Because the equator is a bit fatter. which is also defined in accordance with the circumference of the earth. We will learn about the magnetic North and South Pole later.e. Every degree of latitude is by definition 60 NM. maps and globes and other theory elements that impact on navigation. The rate of slowing is however enough for atomic clocks. The distance around the equator is an extra 41 NM.) Other clocks are synchronized just before midnight on December 31 each year making the last day of the year the longest by a few millionths of a second. Shape of the Earth The earth is very close to being a perfect sphere.” Latitude . but it will take billions of years before it stops spinning relative to the sun. but due to its spin the equator bulges slightly. The earth spins around an axis that astronomers can locate. The earth spins around an axis that runs through the north and south poles. the shape of the earth. Due to the gravitational effect of the moon and sun the earth’s spin is gradually slowing down. the equator is less than . so the circumference of the earth is 360 x 60 = 21. as mentioned above. An interesting anomaly that results from this variant resynchronization is that earth clocks and GPS clocks move out of synchronization over the 1000 week GPS cycle. measured around the poles. i. For now simply realize that the true North and South Poles are based on the spin of the earth and are NOT the same as the Magnetic Poles.Chapter 7 Navigation Theory In this section you will learn about the compass. and different than “GPS time.

rather like the (x.76 while Prince George is N53 53. Lines of latitude run around the earth east to west and exactly parallel to each other and perpendicular to the earth’s axis of rotation. more on that shortly. but the difference is such a tiny fraction of 1% that it can be ignored for our purposes. Latitude is measured as the angle from the center of the earth with the equator defined as zero degrees. The subunits of latitude are called minutes. If you know the latitude of two places you can calculate the north/south distance between them. There are sixty minutes per degree.y) Cartesian coordinate system you already know.) The difference is Page 140 . Castlegar is at N49 17. Take note that the latitude/longitude system is devised on a model of the earth that assumes a perfect sphere.37 (note the format. so each minute of latitude is one nautical mile.Navigation for Professional Pilots A grid system known as latitude and longitude has been devised so that the location of any spot on the earth can be specified. This is shown in the diagram below. Every degree of latitude is 60 NM. and therefore the North Pole is 90°N latitude and the South Pole is 90°S latitude. As mentioned above the earth is not a perfect sphere.

e. 117 degrees and 37. but the one that runs through Greenwich is designated as 0° longitude. But there is no equivalent to the equator to act as a starting point for a grid system in the perpendicular orientation. 4 degrees equals 240 NM and 35. Meridians of longitude are straight-lines that run north/south through the poles. so the distance between them is zero at the poles.61 minutes. What is the distance between them at the equator? Based on the model of the earth that says it is a perfect sphere the distance between lines of longitude at the equator is 60NM. What is the distance between lines of longitude in Castlegar? Page 141 . Every other location is therefore specified as east or west of the Prime Meridian with 180E or 180W (the same place) being the maximum longitude. i.95. 180W is about the middle of the Pacific Ocean. In the historical period when accurate measuring of the earth first became possible the British were the dominant world force. so it is true to say that New Zealand is on the opposite side of the earth to England. therefore the PRIME MERIDIAN runs through London England.61 NM so the total distance is 275.95 minutes west of the Prime Meridian.61 NM. Castlegar is W117 37.Navigation for Professional Pilots 4 degrees 35. Please note that this is the north/south distance only. and runs very close to New Zealand. specifically the Greenwich observatory. Longitude Because the earth has poles there was no controversy about setting up a latitude system. there is also an east/west component that we turn to next. Every location on the earth has one. these are different for each location. Meridians of longitude DO NOT run parallel to each other. All locations on the earth are equal in the sense that the earth spins once per day so every spot on earth has a noon and a midnight.61 minutes equals 35. The lines of latitude run parallel to each other and are equidistant apart. Every one passes through the North and South Poles.

but a sphere’s circumference does not vary linearly. so both Castlegar and Gander are on the th 49 parallel of latitude. Page 142 . which means it is 117° west of the prime meridian in Greenwich England (Greenwich is about N52 latitude. How many nautical miles is that? If Castlegar and Gander were on the equator each degree would be 60NM so it would be easy to figure how far apart they are. The distance between degrees of longitude is given by: 60cosine(latitude). so it might seem odd to you that N49 is closer to the equator than the North Pole. The diagram is drawn to scale. The picture above shows a view of the globe from above the North Pole. But clearly each degree of longitude is less than 60NM in Castlegar.) Gander is only 54° west of Greenwich. The distance from Castlegar to Gander is 2598 NM.66 so each degree of longitude equals ~39 NM at that latitude. it varies with the cosine of the latitude.Navigation for Professional Pilots Castlegar is at N49 latitude and so is Gander Newfoundland. The cosine of 49° is about . but that doesn’t matter. Between Castlegar and Gander the difference is 63° degrees of longitude. so it is a lot closer to England than Castlegar. the outer ring represents the equator. Castlegar is at W117.

The diagram below shows two points marked by Xs and the east-west distance 10 (EWD) and north-south distance (NSD) between them. but we will defer discussion of that until we examine some map theory. 10 The technical term for EWD is “departure. EWD is almost as easy to figure – you should use the mid-latitude between the two points when taking the 2 2 0.5 cosine of the latitude. The ENL has a latitude-longitude calculator that uses the above formula. Distance is simply (EWD + NSD ) . Great-circles A Great-circle is a circle on the surface of the earth whose center passes through the center of the earth. It also determines true track between the points.Navigation for Professional Pilots Given the latitude and longitude of any two places on earth the distance between them can be estimated using Pythagoras theorem. NSD is very easy to figure out as we have seen.” Page 143 .

) Any eastbound flight must change heading to the right continuously to stay on the Great-circle. The equator is a Great-circle but the other lines of latitude are NOT. half Great-circles. All the meridians of longitude are semi-great-circles. they change direction (angle) relative to true north as you fly along them. hence the name.Navigation for Professional Pilots A segment of a Great-circle is the shortest distance between two points. except for the meridians and equator. An important point to note here is that no circle can be drawn on the surface of the earth that is larger than a Great-circle. i. Small Circles Any circle on the surface of the earth whose center does not pass through the center of the earth is a small circle. so all other circles are smaller than Great-circles.e. An important fact about Great-circles is that. To visualize look at the diagram below and remember that true track is the angle between meridians and the desired track (DTK. A westbound flight must continuously turn left. Page 144 .

th Page 145 .) In the process the Great-circle line would arc north of the 49 parallel. and can be visually seen in flight because the trees have been cut down along it. Following this Great-circle track would be the shortest route to Vancouver. Is a segment of a small circle the shortest th distance between two points? For example the 49 parallel runs from Trail to Vancouver. but you would no longer be able to fly a constant heading. Imagine what you must do to change this small circle into a Great-circle. Imagine that the 49 parallel as a ring resting on the globe (see photo above). You must enlarge the circle and rotate it so its center passes through the center of the earth (and keep Trail and Vancouver as th points on the circle. If you fly this line. We turn to that matter next. is that the shortest distance between Trail and Vancouver? The answer is no. it is a small circle. on a true heading of 270°.Navigation for Professional Pilots All the parallels of latitude except the equator are small circles.

5°. In the above diagram DTK 1 is 030° and DTK4 is 100° so convergence is 70°. The pilot must change heading by 70° from the start of the flight to the end in order to follow the Great-circle route. and final heading to fly the Great-circle from Castlegar to Gander.5° To fly a Great-circle from Castlegar to Vancouver the true track start as 272. Convergence Castlegar to Gander = 63 x sine (49) The convergence between Castlegar and Gander is 48° What is the convergence between Castlegar and Vancouver? Longitude in Castlegar is W117 and Vancouver is W123 (difference of 6°. Convergence Convergence is the angle that a Great-circle track changes over its length.75°. half-way the track is 270° and as the airplane flies into Vancouver the track is 267. We turn to that point next. Rhumb-Line A Rhumb-line is a constant-track line between two points. and maintaining a 11 Note that the magnetic heading will still change if variation differs along the route (as it usually does.) Convergence Castlegar to Vancouver = 6 x sine (49) The convergence between Castlegar and Vancouver is 4. and as previously noted a westbound flight must change heading to the left.Navigation for Professional Pilots Photo shows wire stretched around globe to represent a Great-circle. The lat and long of each airport is given above. Convergence can be estimated as: Convergence = Δ Longitude x sine (average latitude) A flight along the equator (latitude 0. sine (0) is 0) has no convergence. following the 49 parallel. The advantage of a Rhumb-line is that you can fly one true-heading (TH) to get from departure to 11 th destination . but a flight near the poles has a great deal (sine (90) is 1. In other words it is a line that crosses all the meridians along the route at the same angle. The total change in heading is 4.) A flight from Castlegar to Gander has a convergence of _______.25°. Try to figure it out yourself before turning the page.) Page 146 . Try to figure out for yourself the initial. Most pilots would say that it is much more convenient to fly on constant heading for the entire flight however. In the Castlegar to Vancouver example above. mid. so convergence equals change in longitude at the poles.

and that is now the norm. Remembering this will help you figure out which way heading must be adjusted to fly a Great-circle. and we certainly can’t take one in the airplane. the Rhumb-line is always closer to the equator. such as international airline flights.) In the days before flight management systems (FMS) this was the normal navigation method.e. Modern FMS makes accurate navigation along Great-circles feasible. so we need a map.) Therefore on short flights pilots routinely fly Rhumb-lines. Map Theory Now that we know all about Great-circles and Rhumb-lines it is time to talk about maps. Obviously there is a problem because the surface of the earth is curved. flights not near or over the poles. In the above diagram a long-range airline flight approximates a Great-circle by flying over a series of checkpoints (Xs) along the Great-circle but a constant heading is flown between these checkpoints. The pilot has a nav-log showing checkpoints and one heading between checkpoints (just what pilots like. You Page 147 . or if you prefer. Pilots generally find this much more satisfactory than constantly changing heading as they must to fly a Great-circle. which is a flat piece of paper representing the surface of the earth.Navigation for Professional Pilots true heading of 270°. On longer flights. Notice that the Great-circle track is ALWAYS closer to the pole than the Rhumb-line. constituted flying a Rhumb-line. a Great-circle can be approximated by plotting a series of checkpoints along the Great-circle 500NM or less apart and then flying Rhumb-lines between them. I. The distance penalty for flying a Rhumb-line as opposed to a Great-circle is not significant for flights up to 500 NM at moderate latitudes (i. a Rhumb-line is flown between the checkpoints.E. It is not practical to flight plan using a globe. Imagine cutting open a tennis ball and trying to spread it out flat. NOT FLAT.

but all maps are distorted. The surface features of the earth are therefore projected onto the photograph and a map is created. The method of creating the map determines what type of distortion. All maps are created by “projection” which you can visualize as meaning that a glass globe is created with all the surface features on it.Navigation for Professional Pilots could not do it. Therefore ALL MAPS ARE DISTORTED. The dominant projection used in Aviation is the Lambert Conformal. Lambert Conformal Conic Projection Page 148 . In Canada it is used for: VFR Terminal Charts (VTA) IFR Terminal Charts (T1 T2) Polar charts We will now examine each of these projections. Conic projection. The only difference between one map and another is the way the photographic paper is wrapped around the globe. A light is placed at the center of the globe and photographic paper is then held over or wrapped around the globe. In Canada it is used for: VFR navigation Charts (VNC) World Aeronautical Charts (WAC) LO and HI IFR charts The other projection that is widely used is the Transverse Mercator.

but near the top and bottom it is a bit less. On a Lambert Conformal Conic projection a straight-line can be accepted as “close enough” to a Great-circle for navigation purposes. but real maps are never perfectly conformal. Let’s see why there is an error at all.” according to the dictionary means: “to be similar or identical. To be useful a map must have a scale. which means that one inch on the map equals 500. We already said that this is impossible however.000 inches equals 6.) 500. We will examine what conformal and conic mean. A map is conformal if at every location on the map the scale distortion north and south equals the scale distortion east and west. In the middle of the map it is a bit more.9 nautical miles. On a perfectly conformal map a straight-line is a Great-circle. so a more technical definition is needed.000. The word “conform.000 is therefore the average scale of the map. The photo above shows the scale on a VNC is 1:500. commonly used for VFR navigation.000 inches in the real world (1cm equals 500.5%. The scale of 1:500. Circled is the note that it is a Lambert Conformal Conic Projection.9 NM so one inch on the map equals 6.5% and therefore you can ignore it.000 cm etc. It is not perfect. The error is less than 0. Page 149 . Lambert’s conic projection comes very close to meeting this standard. but good enough to be designated conformal. On a perfectly conformal map the scale is constant throughout the map. The difference is less than 0. You obviously don’t want a map that is as large as the earth.Navigation for Professional Pilots The photo above is from a Vancouver VNC chart.” A conformal map is one that shows the earth in the same shape that it has in the real world. Lambert is the name of the person who invented it.

and north and south of the standard parallels the surface of the earth is below the cone. and it would touch the earth along only one parallel of latitude. Between the standard parallels the surface of the real earth is above the cone. Lambert’s innovation was to sink the cone into the earth so that it touches along two parallels of latitude. as shown in the photo above. This would be a standard conic projection. The consequence of this to map scale is shown below. Page 150 .Navigation for Professional Pilots Imagine a sheet of photographic paper formed into a cone and set over the globe (like a hat) with its apex at above the North-pole.

Along these lines map scale is accurate. The photograph at the beginning of this section showed that the standard parallels for the Vancouver VNC are N49 20 and N54 40. Summary of Lambert Conformal Conic Projection 1.5% so you can feel free to measure distance anywhere on the VNC for navigation planning purposes.) Between the parallels the opposite effect takes place. Transverse Mercator projection Page 151 . As stated previously the scale error over the entire map is about 0. Different standard parallels are used on VNCs to suit the latitude of the area depicted. if you want to fly a Rhumb line you must measure the true track at mid-leg. It is important to consider where a given point on the actual surface of the earth appears on the map. 2. Along the standard parallels the scale of the map is precise. At mid-leg a Rhumb-line track and a Great-circle track are equal.Navigation for Professional Pilots The diagram above shows projection lines emanating from the center of the earth and passing through the surface of the earth and the map. 3. Straight lines are Great-circles (close enough) Scale is constant throughout (close enough) Rhumb-lines are NOT straight Because Rhumb-lines are not straight. North and south of the standard parallels points on the map are further apart than on the earth’s surface (if you measure a distance of say 100 NM on the map the real distance on the surface of the earth is less.

but is not useable in Canada. In other words it distorts shapes. Page 152 .Navigation for Professional Pilots Originally Mercator projections were developed for use near the equator. At the equator the lines of longitude and latitude really lie perpendicular to each other so the Mercator map is relatively conformal near the equator. but the map is NOT CONFORMAL. and a straight-line is NOT a Great-circle. The map scale is accurate only along the reference meridian. The Lambert Conic projection does not work for areas near the equator. This has the advantage that a straight-line drawn on the map is a Rhumb-line. The cylinder can be rotated so that it touches on any of the 360 meridians. On the Mercator projection the lines of latitude and longitude come out perpendicular to each other. The Transverse Mercator also wraps the globe in a cylinder but it is rotated 90 degrees so that it touches the earth along a meridian of longitude rather than the equator. In the original Mercator (not a transverse Mercator) the photographic paper is rolled into a cylinder rather than a cone. This cylinder is wrapped around the earth so that it touches along the equator.

close the reference meridian. Meridians of longitude run north/south by definition. In the 21 century as GPS navigation becomes dominant it is probable (or at least possible) that true tracks and true north will become the only references used for navigation. It has the advantage of creating a grid in which lines of latitude and longitude cross perpendicular to each other. The photo below shows the location of the Magnetic North Pole. Consequently a straight-line drawn on the map is a Rhumb-line.Navigation for Professional Pilots A transverse Mercator map is NOT conformal. not all airplanes have such equipment today. It is used for VTA and IFR terminal charts. i. True and Magnetic North (Variation) So far all discussion about tracks has been in relation to true north. is used the distortion is minor. so a magnetic compass must be used. but as long at only a small section. The Transverse Mercator projection is only suitable for small scale maps such as terminal charts. the North and South Poles. When measuring a true track on a map you must align north on the protractor with a meridian. st Page 153 . But. Unfortunately the Magnetic North Pole is not collocated with the real North Pole.e.

and it is the angle between true north and magnetic north. On a line running through Manitoba there are locations where variation is zero (as shown in the photograph.) An isogonic line joins locations with equal variation.Navigation for Professional Pilots A compass points at the Magnetic North Pole. The variation shown in the photograph is easterly. A compass on the white line in the photograph also points at the true North Pole. points too far east. But a compass in British Columbia. in Montreal variation is westerly. All aeronautical maps have isogonic lines printed on them. These lines are labeled as shown in the photo below. The error is called variation. as shown in the photograph. Page 154 .

Consequently it must be measured and recorded on a regular basis. That is to say that the magnetic field of the airplane changes over time. It is caused by the magnetic fields of the metal parts of the airplane and is significantly affected by electrical equipment such as the alternator.Navigation for Professional Pilots In the above case variation is 23° East. but it does fit logically here because of its relationship to variation. Deviation is an error in the compass of the airplane. magnetic is least Variation West. These things cause an error in the compass known as deviation. so true heading must be converted to magnetic before the flight. The process of measuring Page 155 . Deviation changes from time to time. When variation is westerly magnetic heading is always more than true. Even though the above rhyme is fairly simple it is best to use your CR to convert between magnetic and true so that no mistake is made. Flight planning is normally done in true however. Variation East. Compass Deviation The topic of deviation is out of place here since it is not related to map theory. As such deviation is specific to an individual airplane. In flight the heading indicator is normally set to magnetic north and all heading are referred to as magnetic headings. The following rhyme may help you remember whether to add of subtract variation. This procedure was demonstrated previously. magnetic is best This means that when variation is easterly the magnetic heading is always less than true heading.

The contour interval is described at the bottom of the Hypsometric scale.Navigation for Professional Pilots deviation is called a compass swing. Contour lines and hypsometric tinting are used for this purpose. according to scale below: Page 156 . Contour lines are lines that join points of equal elevation above sea level. A compass swing is required every year and also any time electrical equipment is removed or replaced in the airplane. An AME performs the compass swing and provides a compass card in the cockpit which the pilot uses to correctly set the heading indicator. explained next. On VNC charts there is a 500’ contour but from 1000’ and above contours are every 1000’. results in only minor error. The pilot should read the compass then the deviation card and set the heading indicator to the corrected magnetic heading. To make terrain easier to visualize Hypsometric tinting is used. Contour Lines and Hypsometric Tints Maps for aviation MUST show the height of the ground. The above photo shows contour lines on a VNC. as most pilots do. Deviation is seldom more than 2 or 3 degrees so ignoring it. This is one of the most important details for flight safety.

located at N60 34 W140 24.524’ asl.000 are also plotted.000 and 11. The example above is 19. the highest point in Canada. also shown just above the hypsometric tint scale. Use these to refine the information provided by the tinting. 6000’. All the symbols are important but will not be covered here as you can read the legend for yourself. Page 157 . A 500’ intermediate contour line appears within the lowest hypsometric tint. 10. Map Legend Every map has a legend printed along the edge that shows all the symbols used on the map.Navigation for Professional Pilots The above scale is found on the white edge of every VNC. At the top of the scale you find the maximum elevation for the map. and intermediate contours at 4000’. 8000’.

Navigation for Professional Pilots Airport data is provided on VNC charts but this should only be used for preliminary planning.000. The same scale is used on all VNC charts in Canada.000. WAC charts use a scale of 1:1. Map Scale The scale of the map is always printed on the map. The inner scale is used on VNC and the outer scale on WAC charts. VTA charts have a scale of 1: 250. What is the true track? Page 158 .000. Imagine you wish to fly from the checkpoint marked as departure to the one marked as destination. Always measure distance in Nautical Miles. Make sure you use the correct scale. Grid Navigation The picture below is of a globe from above the North Pole. For a VTA chart use the VNC ruler scale then double the distance. Always look in a current CFS for up-to-date airport data.000. The picture below shows the scale on the Vancouver VNC chart is 1:500. An appropriate Navigation ruler must be used to measure distances on these maps. not statute miles.

Navigation for Professional Pilots If you are willing to fly a Rhumb line. then heading of 090 true would take you to the destination along the line shown below: But this is clearly not the shortest route. The desired route is “over the pole.” Page 159 .

The true tracks are as follows: Location X1 X2 True Track 019 045 Page 160 .) I. you must orient your Douglas protractor to north on each line of longitude. make a table of required true headings for the locations marked with the Xs. Remember that each line of longitude represents a true track of north (0°.E.Navigation for Professional Pilots In the diagram below the desired Great-circle route is drawn in as well as some lines of longitude for reference. We already know that in order to fly a Great-circle we must change heading as we fly.

Every flight over the poles starts off “northbound” and finishes “southbound. at X4 to 137°. Examine the diagram below. but the heading must be 160° true (essentially southbound. Page 161 . but grid navigation eliminates the need to continuously update the HI enroute. the heading indicator must be adjusted so that as the airplane passes X2 it reads 045°.” Pilots must accept that brain teaser. At X3 the HI is rotated to 082°. An alternate method of navigating over the poles is to use Grid navigation. The airplane departs on a heading of 019° (essentially northbound) and flies a straight-line. in practice it is usually updated every 6° change in longitude.) For ideal effectiveness HI would be continuously updated for convergence.Navigation for Professional Pilots X3 X4 X5 082 137 160 Imagine what would be happening on the flight deck as you make this flight. When the airplane arrives at destination it has made no turns. But.

For the track in the example the track is 219G (read “219 Grid. The 160E median has been labeled in the diagram. You should label the other meridians corresponding to X2. and X5. X4. but the standard procedure is to use the Prime meridian as the reference.Navigation for Professional Pilots A rectangular grid is laid over the pole as shown in the diagram above. To use the grid simply put your Douglas protractor on the grid with north aligned with the Prime meridian. This grid can be oriented to by reference to any meridian.”) Examine the diagram to convince yourself that the Grid heading is simply the true heading plus west longitude. Page 162 . or minus east longitude. X3.

Pilots can use these to set the HI to Grid the same way they use variation to set the compass to true. The two relevant equations are: Grid track = Magnetic Track plus E grivation or minus W grivation Grid track = True Track plus W longitude or minus E longitude You will examine grid navigation a bit more in Avia 240.Navigation for Professional Pilots To use Grid navigation. Grivation Grivation is by definition the difference between magnetic track and grid track. as the airplane approaches the departure point (it probably took off somewhere much further south) the pilot switches the HI to grid. For a Canadian arctic survey expedition might find it desirable to have a grid oriented to a meridian within Canada. Note that despite all these adjustments the airplane actually flies a straight line the whole time. This amounts to rotating the HI an amount equal to the longitude of the airplane. As previously noted the difference between true and grid tracks equals the longitude (from the reference meridian.) Therefore mathematically grivation equals longitude plus variation. the magnetic compass is quite unreliable in the extreme Polar Regions so it is much more common to use INS as the reference (the INS “knows” the airplanes true track) eliminating the need to use grivation. For now this simple introduction to the concept is all that you need.) Even though this is usually considered a southbound heading the airplane is obviously still heading north. The pilot holds this grid heading for a few hours until arriving at the destination (point where the transition back to magnetic headings will be made) at which point the heading is reset to magnetic by changing it from 219 to about 160° plus variation. Page 163 .) We will consider LOP from both VOR and NDB. Such a bearing is referred to as a line of position (LOP. Can you see the benefit of this? If they used the Prime meridian instead what direction would it be to fly from the Yukon to Greenland (east or west)? When they are done exploring the polar region do they fly north or south to return to Vancouver? Plotting Lines of Position (LOP) A common task in navigation is to locate your position on a map based on a bearing from a VOR or NDB. Lines on a map joining points of equal grivation are called isogrivs. Keep in mind that basing the grid to the Prime meridian is arbitrary. Once the HI is adjusted to Grid the pilot can maintain a constant heading for several hours (in the example s/he maintains 219°. Two LOP are needed to define a position fix. You should see that grid navigation is necessary because of the extreme amount of convergence in polar crossings. In practice grivation is applied to the magnetic compass. However. For some purposes it could be preferable to establish a grid based on a different meridian. But things will work out in the end.

But. Most importantly fixes should be plotted using true bearings. or fix for short. not magnetic. Page 164 . Where they cross is the “fixed” position. Pilots frequently refer to the procedure as taking a fix.Navigation for Professional Pilots In the above diagram radial 1 represents one LOP and radial 2 is the second. but there are a few important details. NOT at the airplane. Therefore radial 1 must be adjusted by 12° and radial 2 by 10°. most VORs are oriented to magnetic north. You CANNOT put a protractor on each VOR and draw two lines based directly on these bearings. The important thing to realize is that you must apply the variation at the VOR. What variation should be applied to radial 1. which means the nav radio tells you the magnetic radial you are on. Each radial must be converted to a true bearing by applying variation. Use the wind side of your CR to make sure you don’t make any mistakes. The process is quite straight forward. Let’s say in the above example that radial 1 is 010R and radial 2 is 290R. which to radial 2? Choose your answer before reading the next paragraph.

Watch for tricks such as offset VOR locations (previous paragraph) and mixed magnetic and true VORs (also mentioned above. This is not difficult. Draw the lines carefully to find the fix. There are two or three differences to note. To obtain an LOP from a VOR it is essential to center the CDI needle with a FROM indication. The true course is clearly 022°. but the compass rose is centered on the actual location of the station. IMIPORTANT. It is could be the case that you must plot a fix based on one VOR in magnetic and another in true. This gives a direct reading of the radial. which eliminates the need to make the conversion demonstrated above.Navigation for Professional Pilots In the above photograph the 010R is set across from 12E variation. Expect to see questions of the above type on Transport Canada’s Commercial Pilot Written exam. The legend of your VNC and LO chart warns you that in some cases VOR symbols are offset from their actual position. but the overall process is the same.) In the arctic VORs are oriented to true north.) Now we will consider the process of establishing a fix based on bearings from two NDBs. These are not accurate enough. just be careful to convert the magnetic radial to true while making no adjustment to the true radial. Page 165 . Plot the two tracks 022 and 300 by putting a Douglas protractor over each VOR in turn and aligning it with meridian 1 and 3 respectively. Check this carefully to ensure you are plotting the fix from the actual location of the VOR. Repeat the same process for 290R with variation 10E to confirm the true course is 300°. Do not attempt to plot a fix by extending the markings on the compass roses on the VNC. If you center the needle with a TO indication you need to take the reciprocal (but it is safer to simply rotate the OBS knob until a FROM flag shows.

The first difference to think about is the process by which the pilot determines what bearing 1 and 2 are.Navigation for Professional Pilots The diagram below is deliberately identical to the one above expect that the VORs have been replaced with NDBs. MB = RB + Heading. Page 166 . How is this done? Formulate your answer before reading the next paragraph. Good airmanship demands that you confirm the HI is set accurately before accepting this bearing. Since the diagram above is identical to the previous VOR based one. We therefore assume you have no such equipment available. Usually the HI is set to magnetic so the bearing is a magnetic bearing. If you happen to be flying in the arctic with your heading indicator set to true then the bearing is true.) With an RMI read the bearing from the tail of the RMI needle. And if your HI is set to grid you have a grid bearing. which you can plot to fix your position without the need to do any of this process. Think why before reading the next paragraph. If you have a fixed card ADF you must follow the usual procedure to convert relative bearing to magnetic bearing. The basic process of obtaining a bearing from an NDB is the same regardless of the equipment the airplane has. They will NOT be. and the airplane is in the same location. you may expect that the magnetic bearings will be 010 and 290. but it is much easier with an RMI than with a fixed card ADF (Note that if you have a GPS this whole process is redundant since it will provide your current latitude and longitude.

It is quite possible to obtain a fix from one VOR and one ADF bearing.Navigation for Professional Pilots In reality an ADF may not be accurate enough to detect the theoretical difference here. which correspond to radio waves so this procedure works. Therefore magnetic bearing 1 is 013 and bearing 2 is 289 magnetic. Plot these exactly as before to get the fix. where position fixing is an unlikely procedure. Extend the lines until they cross. Therefore both NDB bearings must be corrected by 11E. and grid navaids. Correct each of these magnetic bearings by variation of 11E exactly as described above for the VOR case. which you must correct for. Use a Douglas protractor centered on the station to plot the true bearing. Make sure the protractor really is centered on the station by checking the compass rose. but the radio wave from the ground stations come to the airplane along straight-lines corresponding to Great-circles (both VOR and NDB. On a Lambert Conic chart the straight-lines are Great-circles. The variation correction for the VOR is applied at the station. Fortunately Mercator charts are only used for VTA and T charts in Canada. Page 167 . Go back and examine the VOR example above if you have forgotten which variation was applied in that case. especially on exams. Summary: When plotting a fix convert all bearings to true. giving you a fix. On a Mercator chart straight-lines are Rhumb lines so an error equal to convergence is introduced. Apply variation at the station for VOR and at the airplane for ADF. but not the magnetic bearings. while that for the NDB is applied in the airplane. magnetic. Use the CR for converting between true and magnetic to avoid mistakes. What values to you get? Once again the true bearings are 022° and 300°. The process is identical to that described above. Just remember where to apply the variation.) This amounts to saying that the true bearings will be the same. Watch out for combinations of true.

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In the section on mountain flying toward the end of the text some comments about planning for a flight when pilotage is dominant are included. A leg is a defined path the airplane follows. The entire route must be input as a series of continuous legs with no breaks at any point. Fly-by and Fly-over Waypoints Waypoints are designated as either Fly-by or Fly-over. . Modern flight management systems (FMS) are programmed by entering a series of legs beginning at the airport of departure and ending at the destination. which the pilot selects from a menu. Definition of a Leg All flights are broken into legs. The diagram below explains the difference more clearly than words can. The difference is sometimes quite important. It must be stated that we presume that dead reckoning (DR) will be the dominant form of navigation. with pilotage used only for brief periods usually on departure and arrival.Chapter 8 Flight Planning In this section we will take all the knowledge we have developed and use it to plan flights. The FMS computer recognizes a variety of leg types. Most legs are either straightlines or arcs. Future navigation systems may define paths that have more complex shapes. When a flight is fully defined by a series of legs with no breaks we say the flight plan is closed. but that is beyond the scope of this text.

In recent years it has become very common for aircraft to be equipped with GPS and or other types of precision navigation equipment that provide extremely accurate range information. you must fly directly over it before turning to the next leg.0053 is fully explained in the aerodynamics text Aerodynamics for Professional Pilots. You should normally treat waypoints as Fly-by unless they are specified as Fly-over. without GPS for assistance. An exception is when using NDBs as waypoints. At a Fly-by waypoint you start to turn prior to the waypoint so that you intercept the next leg without overshooting it.Navigation for Professional Pilots If a waypoint is designated Fly-over. The equation r=. These systems provide horizontal distance rather than the slant range the older DME systems provide. It is far too easy to be misled about station passage with an NDB so it is preferable to treat all NDBs as Fly-over waypoints. When the pilot has this type of instrumentation available it is possible to precisely determine when to turn for a Fly-by waypoint. Page 170 . The diagram below shows the required formula.

6. On your commercial pilot flight test you are required to prepare the nav-log manually. easier. and less Page 171 .6. and reserve (reserve is a legal as well as practical requirement. When approaching a 90° turn lead by 0. Remember this number.2 then divide by 2 to get 0. approaches.) To calculate . i.Navigation for Professional Pilots The formula might not seem user friendly but all you have to do is calculate . A nav-log should also include time and fuel allocations for contingencies (unavoidable delays due to weather. most assignments. For a 45° turn lead by 70% of 0. neater. It should chronicle your entire flight from takeoff to destination and then to the alternate airport if IFR. On your actual cross-country flights and simulator exercises you are encouraged to use the ENL because it is quicker. and ALL quizzes and tests in this course require manually generated nav-logs.4NM.).) In this course you will prepare nav-logs both electronically and manually. etc. You already have memorized values for the sine of several angles for the purpose of estimating drift (see page 50. about 0.0053TAS once and memorize it.0053 TAS take TAS and divide by 100 then divide by two. and of course exams. etc. For example if your airplane cruises at 120 knots divide by 100 to get 1. Introduction to Nav-logs A nav-log is a document that helps you organize your flight planning so that you don’t forget any important details.6NM. traffic.e.

8. You were introduced to the ENL when we examined cruising altitudes. If after then it is technically part of the enroute group. Nav-logs are usually laid out in a grid with columns representing the parameters to be evaluated (planned) and with rows representing “legs.” . 6. although we only scratched the surface on using it. Sometimes it is expedient to just treat these legs as cruise legs rather going to the trouble of estimating the reduced fuel flow used during the descent.e. 3. Some VFR pilots find it convenient to “rig” the situation so that this happens. The arrival legs end at an initial approach fix (IAF) for IFR flight plans. On occasion TOC and SHP are the same point.) The SHP is usually specified in an IFR departure procedure. 5. There is a variable point at which the airplane reaches top of climb which is conveniently labeled as top of climb (TOC.) TOC may come before or after SHP. but must be chosen by the flight planner for VFR flight. Navlog Leg Groups The legs on your navlog can be divided into groups: 1. 2. On Selkirk College navlogs the departure. and approach leg groups are usually simplified so that one line on the navlog represents the entire group. 7. Page 172 . In this case label the point as SHP or SHP/TOC (preferred.Navigation for Professional Pilots likely to contain math errors. The approach group is normally reduced to a single leg (for both IFR and VFR navlogs. Groups 5 to 8 are not needed for VFR navlogs. a new leg should start at every point where the track changes. i. 4. arrival.) The largest part of most navlogs consists of several enroute-legs (also called cruise-legs.) These legs run from turning point to turning point. For VFR flight plans arrival legs end when the aircraft joins the circuit at the destination airport.) Departure legs can also be called “climb legs. Departure legs Enroute legs Arrival legs Approach Missed approach (IFR only) Enroute to alternate Arrival at alternate Approach at alternate All these groups are needed for every IFR navlog.” The departure legs end at the Set Heading Point (SHP. Advice on choosing a SHP is given below. Further details are provided later. We normally group the arrival legs with either the enroute or approach.

13 27.2 Page 173 . 2. if ATC requires you to hold (perhaps because a runway is closed) your contingency fuel is used up when your fuel gauges read _______ gal (assume you wish to retain 13 50 minutes reserve. 1. As you pass YNY your fuel quantity should read ________ gal. so either the gauges are not accurate. 4.) There is logic to the order that navlog rows are laid out that results in the pilot having the required information at hand in flight to make decisions about fuel status.) Notice that you can answer these questions quite easily because of the logic by which the nav-log is laid out.Navigation for Professional Pilots Selkirk College nav-logs also contain rows allocating time for contingencies. 12 No. As you reach BOOTH your fuel reads 35 gallons – is fuel remaining as expected? 12 Upon arrival at BASRA. Consider the nav-log below.8. Even though you have never flown one before answer the following questions by referring to the nav-log. and reserve (both explained below. or you have used a couple of gallons more than expected. 3. You are supposed to have 37. As you taxi out in Calgary your fuel quantity should read _________ gal. which is for a flight in a Beech 95. You should assume the later.

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but choosing a suitable SHP is sometimes a problem. leave ramp-fuel and fuel-remaining blank until all legs have been planned. Choosing a Set Heading Point (SHP) A crucial task when preparing a nav-log is determining the checkpoints. On IFR flights the SHP is usually a navaid such as a VOR or NDB so finding your way there is straight forward. which is always the last row. If situation 2 applies. in other words establishing what the legs will be. 2.) The first fixed checkpoint is called the set heading point (SHP) on a DR cross-country and choosing it requires considerable thought. Most checkpoints will be pretty obvious. For VFR flight you should select a SHP that is easy to locate and relatively close to the departure airport. Assess reserve fuel value to confirm that it is adequate before committing to the flight. 2.Navigation for Professional Pilots Ramp Fuel and Fuel Remaining As you saw above the fuel remaining column is one of the most important for in-flight decision making. It is frequently safer to choose a visual point rather than a radio navigation point when VFR. is your reserve. Availability of distinctive ground features for pilotage to the SHP Traffic congestion at the airport How well you know the area and the SHP checkpoint On a VFR flight you normally use pilotage to find your way to the SHP. river. or other similar feature that you can follow to locate it. but usually it is obvious where it should be. Fill out the reserve fuel and work backwards until you determine the required ramp fuel. Exactly how close depends on several factors: 1. Because pilotage is used to locate the SHP be sure to pick one that has distinctive ground features leading to it. An ideal SHP is on a road. 3. railway. As you complete each leg subtract the fuel used to get fuel remaining. begin by filling out the ramp fuel in the upper right corner of your nav-log. especially for VFR flights (Note that IFR flights require an SHP also. VFR pilots can also use beacons and VORs for navigation but before doing so consider whether you will conflict with IFR traffic. A Page 175 . When completing a nav-log you have two situations: 1. whatever you have when you get to reserve. The fuel for the trip is specified in advance and you determine consequent reserve You plan for a desired amount of contingency and reserve fuel and determine how much ramp fuel you need for the flight If situation 1 applies.

Keep in mind that some objects that look prominent on a map are in fact quite difficult to see on the ground. i. If you were making a closed navlog the first and third checkpoints would both be the airport and the second checkpoint would be 1000 feet. In the case of an airport with very little traffic it is quite feasible to make an overhead departure or use a SHP very close by. a park on a particular road. i. is quite difficult and thus does not make a good SHP. Filling in the Navlog Now that we have a SHP it is time to fill out the nav-log. for example the intersection of two minor roads. A crucial thing to realize is that the distance you fly is more than the straight-line distance from the airport to the SHP. departure on runway 15. traffic congestion could force you to choose a SHP clear of the airport zone.e. Page 176 . as is often the case with small airports in northern Canada. Most pilots vastly underestimate this. It must also be small enough to constitute a point – for example using “the city of Vancouver” as a SHP is not acceptable. It is best to plan the longer route. more than 5 miles from the airport. If the ground around the departure airport lacks distinctive navigation features. Normally we will have only one or two departure legs. Weather permitting you should be 2000agl or higher when you reach the center of the airport in order to avoid conflict with any circuit traffic. Traffic congestion is a factor in choosing a SHP for two reasons. the first and second checkpoints will be the airport of departure but the distance flown must represent that to fly out to 1000 and then return while climbing to 2000.e. It is very important however not to underestimate how much distance is flown when departing. At an airport you know well you can locate SHPs that would be too obscure if you didn’t know the area well. use the airport as the SHP. But. But. unless you know for sure that runway 33 will be used. etc. In this case make sure to choose a SHP on a very prominent pilotage feature that you will have no trouble seeing and flying to. Instead pick a particular point such as the intersection of two major roads.Navigation for Professional Pilots SHP must also be distinct so that you can visually identify it. because you must allow for maneuvering to depart the circuit. river. Robson is only fly 3 miles from the center of the airport but the route and distance to get there is quite different depending on whether you takeoff on runway 33 or 15. Of course a radio navigation beacon could also be a practical choice if the airplane is suitably equipped. at a busy airport it may not be possible to do an overhead departure or use a nearby point as SHP. in daylight. A point on a major road. This is called an “overhead departure. i. How well you know the area is a factor in choosing a SHP.” You simply takeoff and climb over the airport to set course. For example locating a radio transmission tower. The lack of traffic means that no conflict will result. In reality you will probably open the navlog and only have one leg. or shoreline would be a good choice. if you know the tower well and can identify it relative to other local landmarks it may be an acceptable SHP.e. Consider the example of taking off from CYCG and using the town of Robson as your SHP.

as shown below. Estimate the distance to the SHP Page 177 . An interesting special case involves setting up the navlog for an overhead departure (remember this means using the departure airport as SHP) If you are doing an overhead departure the distance flown is certainly not zero (the straight-line distance) it is likely 5NM or more.Navigation for Professional Pilots Normally the above closed departure would be opened up by collapsing it into two legs. An ENL navlog showing an overhead departure is shown below to demonstrate this. When opening the departure on a nav-log: 1.

3. Use the charts in your POH to determine: 1. time. The trick is figuring out how far after. 2. When using the ENL. estimate how high you will be when you reach the SHP. the distance required to climb to altitude will exceed the distance to the SHP. First Enroute leg (to TOC) The first enroute leg is frequently a straight-line from SHP to TOC. time. If you did a reasonable job of estimating your distance and altitude to the SHP then the remainder of the climb must be allocated to this leg.Navigation for Professional Pilots 2. and fuel. for departure legs. In most cases you do not reach your final cruise altitude before SHP and therefore will be climbing enroute. Lookup altitude. If the resulting distance does not match your estimated distance to the SHP revise the altitude estimate. In 99% of cases. Enter the fuel used and the time in the appropriate columns of.) Once you have the distance use the time fuel and distance to climb chart to figure out what your altitude will be at the end of leg 1. and fuel corresponding to that distance Collapse the departure into one or two legs (more if needed for clarity. The only exception would be on a flight where you reach TOC at or before SHP. especially in the mountains. The ENL determines distance. Time to climb Fuel to climb Distance to climb Page 178 . Estimate the average wind in this calculation. 3. Therefore the first enroute leg will also be a climb leg (leading to TOC) as described below. For example if you estimated you would be at 5000 over Robson and you are climbing to 8500 then this leg is for a climb from 5000 to 8500.

Navigation for Professional Pilots The only complication is allowing for wind. In the example navlog the total distance from Robson to mystery lake is 50NM.) Once you know this GS. use your CR to calculate distance. and given the time to climb. but once the ENL calculates groundspeed and time you will have to increase or decrease the distance until the time and fuel match what you determined from the climb chart. so the distance from TOC to mystery lake is 37NM. Subsequent legs run in straight lines from checkpoint to checkpoint until the last checkpoint. For normally aspirated piston airplanes such as the C-172P and Travelair rate of climb drops off quickly with altitude so that mid-time in a climb happens at higher than mid-altitude. It is necessary to allow for wind in the climb or your flight planning will not be accurate.) Once you know how many miles past SHP it is to TOC use your ruler and mark TOC on the map and then measure the distance from TOC to the next waypoint (mystery lake in the navlog shown above. it only affects distance.) We need a rule of thumb to determine distance covered in a climb. The last checkpoint could be the destination airport Page 179 . calculate GS at 6500. In addition true and indicated airspeeds change as you climb in accordance with the climb charts (previously covered. You should therefore determine your groundspeed at 2/3 of the way up to your cruise altitude and calculate distance covered using that value (remember you know the climb time. When using the ENL enter the altitude that is 2/3 or ½ your cruise altitude with wind and temperature for that altitude. Wind changes as you climb so it can be quite different at 5000 than at 8500.) Using the example of climbing from 4500 to 8500 the difference is 4000 feet and 2/3 of that is 2700. Don’t move on until you have reasoned that claim out and are convinced that it is true. so determine GS at 7200 (4500 + 2700.) This distance is used on the next leg. Initially enter the distance from your time to climb chart. In turbo-charged and turbo-prop airplanes climb rate does not drop off as quickly so determine GS halfway up to cruise altitude and calculate distance covered based on that (in the example. Cruise Legs – Between Enroute Checkpoints The first cruise leg starts at TOC and goes to the next checkpoint. It is critical for you to realize that wind will NOT AFFECT time or fuel to climb.

Navigation for Professional Pilots

(circuit joining point) or in the case of an IFR navlog it is usually the location where the IFR approach will begin. Flights should be broken into manageable legs. A 1000 mile VFR leg is hard to fly and is subject to problems covered previously in map theory. Even transoceanic airliners fly from checkpoint to checkpoint over the ocean so don’t be afraid to break your trip into manageable legs. On the other hand don’t make the legs too short or your nav-log will be so extensive it will over-load the airplane. Use your ruler to measure the length of each leg in nautical miles. Use a protractor to measure the true track (covered below.) When planning with an LO or HI chart read the distance and magnetic track directly from the chart and use the CR to determine the true track. For example the LO1 chart below shows the track from CG to WHATS on R119 is 301°M and the distance is 41 NM. Variation is 18°E (the dashed line just south of WHATS.)

To get the true track use the back-side of your CR. Set the magnetic track (301M) opposite variation (18E) as shown below. The true track (TC) is 319.

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IFR checkpoints are VORs, NDBs, or intersections; every location where your track changes is a checkpoint (WHATS is an intersection.) VFR checkpoints should be distinct geographical features you can positively identify yourself over and thereby confirm you are on course (and start the next leg accurately.) Towns, airport, small lakes, etc make good checkpoints. Normally true-track changes (at least slightly) over a checkpoint. Draw a straight line with a pencil between each checkpoint. Measure the length of the line with a ruler of the appropriate scale. Measure the true track by aligning your protractor to north with a line of longitude near the midpoint of the leg. In cruise TAS speed and fuel flow are in accordance with the cruise performance charts. Be sure to write the power setting and fuel-flow in the proper column for reference. Fill in the actual wind and temperature at your cruising altitude and use your CR to determine GS and true heading based on the TAS. Remember that you will need to determine pressure altitude and or density altitude to determine TAS. Fill in the variation and then calculate the magnetic heading. Remember the old saying: Variation east, magnetic is least. Variation west, magnetic is best. This means that with easterly variation (such as in British Columbia) magnetic heading is always less than true heading. In eastern Canada, where variation is west, magnetic heading is always more than true heading. To avoid any chance of a mistake it is safer to use the back-side of your CR when converting between true and magnetic, as shown in the photo above.

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Use your CR to determine CAS, and then use the calibration chart in the POH to determine IAS. You need this so that you can check in flight that the airplane is performing as planned. Of course you also use the CR to determine time and fuel for the leg.

Selection of Cruising Altitude
Many pilots pick their cruising altitude without much rational consideration. Many choose cruise altitudes that are too low, perhaps because the short cross-countries typical of private pilot training are best done at low altitude. In this section we will investigate which altitude is optimum for cruise. To conduct this investigation we will use the Selkirk College electronic-nav-log (ENL). By the end of this section you will understand that there is an optimum cruise altitude and be familiar with the ENL. All airplanes fly faster, for a given amount of fuel flow, at a higher altitude. However, fuel is used climbing to altitude, so there is an altitude above which further climb increases the total time for the flight. The criteria for saying on altitude is “optimum” could be saving time or fuel. Most commercial air operations place a premium on time rather than fuel. The optimum altitude is therefore either: 1. 2. The altitude that results in the least time for the flight The altitude that results in the least fuel used for the flight

The factors that determine which altitude is optimum are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Aircraft type Power setting Air temperature and pressure Weight (aircraft load) Distance to be flown (length of the flight) Wind

For piston engine airplanes the benefits of flying at a higher altitude are very minimal in terms of saving fuel. Only on very long flights is any fuel saved at all – so in most cases you can fly at any altitude you wish as far as fuel consumption is concerned. Therefore it is best to decide your cruising altitude based on other factors such as the improved safety of flying higher in a single-engine airplane. Of course it is important to avoid headwinds, so try to avoid climbing into a strong headwind aloft unless safety demands you do so (as it often does in British Columbia.) Climbing to high altitude to pick up a strong tailwind is however always a good idea. In a turbine engine airplane flying at a higher altitude is much more advantageous. The resons will be covered in your aerodynamics course. It is very worthwhile for you to examine the cruise performance

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charts for the King Air, which you have an FIM for, and calculate the specific range foe the airplane at various altitude. You will quickly see that it is much better at high altitude

Top of Descent
What goes up must come down, so the saying goes. But with an airplane the pilot has control of when to come down and this is a matter that deserves more thought than it is sometimes given. If descent is started too late then the airplane arrives at the airport too high to land and must circle down, wasting time, or requiring a high descent rate that is uncomfortable for passengers and may cause damage to the engine in some cases. The turbocharged engines typical of working airplanes are quite sensitive to large power reductions. The shock-cooling will damage the engine. Thus professional pilots learn to start descent early enough that a gentle descent with gradual reductions in power can be made. Conversely, pilots of turboprop and jet airplanes can close the throttle without fear of damage to the engine. For these airplanes descent is delayed as long as reasonable in order to take advantage of the better fuel economy at altitude. In single-engine mountain-flying it is particularly unwise to descend early. The terrain is rugged, with few places to land in the event of an engine failure. The ideal descent is usually one that reaches circuit altitude just slightly before joining the circuit. At times it may even be necessary to plan to circle down over the airport, although this should be avoided if possible. The most commonly used descent gradient is 1000 feet every 3 nautical miles. This is used by most jet and turboprop pilots and also works reasonably well in the C-172 and B95. For high performance turbocharged airplanes a gentler gradient such as 1000 feet every 4 nautical miles may be more appropriate. It is important for you to get to know what is best for your airplane. Once you have established the ideal descent gradient designating a top of descent (TOD) is straight forward. To designate a TOD calculate the altitude to be lost in thousands of feet then multiply by 3 (or 4 as the case may be.) Assuming you are planning to join the circuit the altitude to be lost is obtained by subtracting circuit altitude from cruise altitude. If you are planning a straight-in landing then subtract field elevation from cruise altitude. The value should be rounded to the nearest thousand feet. For example if descending from 8500 to join the circuit in Castlegar at 2600 you get 6 thousand feet. Multiply 6 x 3 to get 18 Nautical miles. Your TOD is 18 miles form where? The answer is; from the place you wish to reach circuit altitude. This is likely 3 miles from the airport, so start descent 21 miles out. TOD should be calculated in flight, but need not appear on your navlog.

Contingencies
RAC 3.13 requires pilots to allow for contingencies when flight planning. Even if no such regulation existed it would only be prudent to do so. We have already seen that flying at a different altitude than planned affects required fuel. Obviously the wind can be different than forecast. There are a great many factors that can affect your flight. The longer the flight the more likely it is that errors in planning will arise, yet it is the long flights that have the least margin for error.

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the point where you join the circuit (if the airport has a published VFR arrival procedure it should be the point where that procedure begins. you may well have to divert due to weather enroute and wind up flying farther than planned in the process. An airplane could land gear-up while you are enroute.Navigation for Professional Pilots If you are headed for a small airport with only one runway is there any chance the runway could be unusable when you arrive there? Of course there is. It is pretty much a guarantee that these things will happen to you a few times in your life. So a gear-up on a runway in Boundary Bay is not a circumstance that requires contingency planning. Delta. A single VFR Page 184 . A flight in a C-172 from Castlegar to Boundary Bay can equally well land in Langley. This is where it is nice to have accurate fuel gauges so you can tell when you are reaching the end of your contingency fuel. as we say. It is important to realize that if you actually need to use your contingency fuel you DO NOT have to burn it at the “normal” cruise rate. Abbotsford. If you don’t leave yourself with some options (exactly what contingencies means) then you will be. as for example in Kelowna or Victoria For IFR flights the last enroute checkpoint is usually the IAF (initial approach fix) which is where you start your instrument approach (explained previously. or any number of other things could happen. SOL.e. but most small piston airplanes do not. On the ENL set an amount of contingency time and the ENL allocates the required fuel at the normal cruise power setting. and possible missed approach. For example if you are holding (VFR you might be circling while the runway is plowed) you should fly at less than 65% power and thus you would have more contingency time than you indicated on your nav-log. Approach at Destination For VFR flights your last enroute checkpoint is normally the destination airport. Most turbo-prop and jet airplanes have reliable fuel gauges. You must learn to estimate this time reasonably accurately. Transport Canada has a poster that says in big letters: That’s Time in Your Tank The point being made is that allocating contingency time means allocating fuel. then calculate the fuel for that time based on cruise power. Simply ask yourself how much extra time you might need for contingencies. Note that contingency time should not be included in time enroute you file on your flight plan.) Therefore time and fuel must be allocated for the approach. Contingency time should be allocated for this purpose. Note that contingency time is NOT included in time enroute. etc. i. Filing flight plans is covered later. If your last checkpoint is the beginning of the arrival procedure then you must also allocate time for the arrival as well as the approach (circuit if VFR). But. Often our flights have lots of options built into them.

” There are legal requirements for reserve fuel. Extra reserves that you wish to carry should be entered under contingencies on the navlog. So apply a suitable estimate for approach and landing time. You might calculate that you should depart with 23 gallons of fuel. Reserve is really just for calculation and operational errors. Here is something to think about: if an adjustment of 50°F in EGT makes a 4% difference in range and this corresponds to about 25rpm change how accurately would you say you normally lean the mixture and what is your percent error? Page 185 . Reserve simply gives you a margin for error. On a C-172P with standard tanks it would be just a bit more than ½ tanks. so you do your best to dip the tanks but there is bound to be some error. Normally this is the value that should go on this line. At Selkirk College we don’t normally do that. On VFR flights approach and landing time should be included in the time you file on your flight plan. The ENL does not include approach time in the IFR enroute time but it does in the VFR time enroute. therefore your nav-log should include a route to it. and no one ever gets the mixture set 100% perfect. Take note on page 4-17 of the C-172P POH that you can get 4% greater range than the cruise performance charts predict if you lean the mixture to peak EGT. If you require a low pass and a second circuit before landing the time will double. VFR flights don’t legally require an alternate. but how do you get exactly that amount in the tanks. especially in a light airplane with inaccurate fuel gauges. Reserve is the amount of fuel that you plan to have left in your tanks when you land. and don’t generally need one. You are stuck with these values. Its purpose is NOT for contingencies – those must be planned and allowed for separately. But.Navigation for Professional Pilots circuit takes about 6 minutes. On IFR flight plans you DO NOT include approach time in the filed time. Checkpoints leading to Alternate Airport All IFR flights require an alternate airport. Approach at Alternate Airport This has the same considerations as approach at destination. The law requires 30 minutes for day VFR and 45 minutes for night VFR and IFR flights. but realistically reserve should be more on a long flight. Reserve The last row of every nav-log is “Reserve. Most pilots try to fill the tanks to “at least” the intended amount. It is almost impossible to set the power to exactly the planned value. or more. but just how much? You can’t really trust the fuel gauges. in some cases it might be wise. but it is worth knowing in case an emergency should arise. etc. The process of laying this out is just like the primary flight plan already covered. Consequently the reserve you enter on your navlog has considerable error in it. An important point to think about for light aircraft operation is in initial loading of the airplane. For example if you are going to a remote strip where you intend to make a precautionary approach and land (time for the precautionary would be in contingencies) then you will need an alternate in case you determine that you cannot land. but it can be quite difficult. We will discuss this further later.

If you aren’t sure which VNC you need lookup the airport in the CFS where the REF section tells you which VNC and WAC chart the airport is on. Read the “balloons” that pop-up as you tab through the nav-log. starting at the SHP between each pair of checkpoints with the last track line ending at the destination airport (or DP if applicable. temperature. that way you won’t miss anything. Wind.Navigation for Professional Pilots Tips for the Electronic Nav-Log Use the TT-Navlog for VFR flights and the MT-Navlog for IFR flights. Typing in this data is much neater than filling it in by hand. If the flight is in the mountains. After filling in reserve time the next TAB-STOP is for airport data at the lower left of the nav-log. For pilotage navigation there is no need to draw drift lines as described here. and vice versa on the MT-Navlog. Locate a suitable SHP. You may also find it practical to choose intermediate checkpoints in order to avoid directly over flying restricted airspace. The map preparation technique describe here is for DR cross countries. high terrain. Use the TAB-KEY to advance through the nav-log. VFR Map Preparation Techniques We will now go over how to prepare your VNC map for a VFR cross country flight. When the ENL is completely filled out hide all unused rows in order to avoid clutter – but be sure they contain no data before hiding them. specifically “valley crawling” which is a pilotage type of navigation. as well as which LO chart if you are IFR. However. or there is restricted airspace near the destination locate a descent point (DP. etc. If the trip is more than 300 NM choose some intermediate checkpoints so that no leg is longer than 300NM. Later we will discuss mountain cross countries. you will need a large scale planning chart if you wish to establish a Great-circle route. and variation are automatically copied from one row to the next to save the time required for entering these values on each row.) Descent points are discussed in detail later under the topic of mountain cross countries. Various lines and markings are required on the map. The only difference between these navlogs is that on the TT-Navlog you enter the true track and the navlog calculates magnetic track. See mountain Page 186 . say 1000NM or more. Locate the departure and destination airports on your VNC. should a value change you can enter a new value any time and it will propagate throughout the remainder of the navlog. taking into account the factors discussed above. Note that if you are planning a very long flight. This reduces convergence to an insignificant factor and allows us to plan each leg as a Rhumb line. these tell you how to fill it in. In both cases wind should be entered in true. Once you have chosen your route draw straight track lines.

Page 187 .) When a track-line must cross from one side of a VNC or WAC to the other use the procedure described in the next section to draw the line. as is sometimes the case in mountain flying. make 10° drift lines at each checkpoint. Note that if you have two SHP.Navigation for Professional Pilots flying below for more information about DP. Make drift lines for each leg with the last set of closing drift lines at the destination airport or DP as the case may be. as shown below. starting with the SHP. Once the track lines are drawn make 10NM reference marks along each line. Next. the drift lines should start at the second SHP.

these are points D and E. The procedure. 5. as shown above. Measuring Track and Distance Page 188 . on the north side of the chart. 4. Mark a point C on the straight line on the south chart that is common to the north chart. to point B on the south side. 3. It is therefore often necessary to draw a straight line between two points that are on opposite sides of the chart. step by step is: 1.Navigation for Professional Pilots Drawing a Line Across a 2-Sided Chart VNC charts are printed on two sides.) 2. Position the paper on the common points on the south side of the chart. Draw the line from point C to point A on the north chart (not shown in the diagram. In addition mark TWO points that are common to both the north and south side of the chart. In the figure below imagine that you want to fly directly from point A. Layout a separate piece of paper over the north chart and mark point A. Draw the straight line from point B to point A on the separate paper.

using an ICAO ruler. A fuel stop can only be completed in ½ an hour if everything is precisely arranged and organized. You will of course need to measure the true track and length of each leg. Pay particular attention to the rules for filing changes to altitude and true airspeed. This is covered in RAC 3.15 and 3. allow sufficient time. A more typical fuel stop takes 45 minutes to an hour. Filling in a Flight Plan Form Instructions for filling in the Transport Canada flight plan form are in the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) section RAC 3. Also. Two points that seem to be missed by many pilots are that the intermediate stop is indicated in the route section of the flight plan in the form shown below.16 It is quite common when filling a VFR flight plan to include an intermediate stop. And the total duration of the flight must include the intermediate stop. You should also read RAC 3.6. (Remember the theory of convergence. Normally this is not permitted IFR.14 for an overview of the purpose and procedures relating to the use of flight plans in Canada. Page 189 . So.16.16. It is as simple as that.15 and 3. You are expected to know how to record this properly on the flight plan form. Read RAC 3. see the examples provided at the end of the section. The rules regarding this are in RAC 3. and enter it on your navlog. In the Canadian format no symbols or words are required between checkpoints when the route is direct. where you learned that at the midpoint of each leg a Great-circle track and Rhumb line are equal.16. A common mistake is to put arrows or similar symbols in the route section.10. In this section I will comment on a few common errors or oversights in filling out flight plans. I have noticed that many pilots who lack experience in long trips vastly underestimate the time required for an intermediate stop. covered previously.Navigation for Professional Pilots As you can see it only takes a few minutes to prepare the map for a VFR cross country. This is NOT acceptable. although it can be done if the IFR flight is in uncontrolled airspace. Simply proceed as already covered to fill in the rest of the data and you will be ready to go. Then measure the true track by placing your protractor at the midpoint of each leg. It is assumed that you understand the basics as described in RAC 3. Once the map is prepared you are ready to start filling in the navlog. Measure the length of each leg.) You navlog should now have all the required information.6 to 3. so don’t make it complicated by adding anything else. On many of the flight plans assigned in this course you will change cruise altitude and consequently cruise speed.6 carefully and follow the prescribed format. If the route in an airway you should name the airway.

Page 190 . The time enroute is 3 hours and 40 minutes which is from the time the flight plan is opened until it is to be closed. In this case just before takeoff until just after landing. Note the format. Please take note.Navigation for Professional Pilots The sample flight plan shown to the left shows an intermediate stop of one hour and thirty minutes in CZGF. The flight plan also shows the proper format for filling speed and altitude.

which is the IAF for the approach. The time enroute in this case is from takeoff at CYXX to the YCD beacon. Page 191 .Navigation for Professional Pilots The sample to the left shows how to format a speed and altitude change. At BUICK the airplane will speed up to 160 KTAS and climb to 6000 feet.

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In this situation you should prepare your navlog pretty much as I have described previously. almost effortless. etc. Pilotage takes a lot of effort and frequently results in a somewhat winding route. This is discussed in the FTM/IPM and not repeated here. and in such cases pilotage becomes the only viable form of navigation. and valleys. But by far the greatest limitation of pilotage is that it simply cannot be done without numerous easy to identify geographic features. without conflicting with any mountains. Pilotage in Mountain Flying Near the beginning of this text I stated that DR is a more sophisticated type of navigation than pilotage. peaks. when the weather is good enough to climb above the mountain tops and fly in a straight-line there is really no significant difference between mountain flying and any other type of flying. What should we do? . if they are to fly at all. provide the ideal circumstance for pilotage navigation. railways. procedure. The ideal form of mountain navigation weaves pilotage and DR into a seamless. Any experienced mountain pilot soon becomes a master of pilotage. Even when ceilings are high and DR is used it is very easy to slip back and forth between DR and pilotage due to the numerous easy to identify geographic features. Good-weather Mountain Cross-country As mentioned in the FTM/IPM. In this text I will only make some remarks about the considerations for laying out a navlog and filing a flight plan for a VFR mountain cross-country. When the ceilings are low VFR pilots must fly in the valleys. In the mountains you will often be below the tops of the mountains when you pass the SHP and as such you may be unable to fly the calculated heading. But it is important not to turn your back totally on DR.Chapter 9 Mountain Cross Country There is an entire section in your FTM/IPM on mountain flying that you must read. DR vs. Set Heading Point(s) in the Mountains SHP is defined as the first fixed point on a DR cross-country. The primary complication you will face is planning a departure and an arrival route that allows you to leave and arrive at the airport. By definition the enroute legs commence after the SHP and the implication is that pilotage is used prior to the SHP and DR is used after it. In the mountains distinctive. which is almost always at the bottom of a valley. By far the most important aspect of mountain flying is selecting an appropriate route and determining that the weather is adequate for the flight. rivers. roads.

In all mountain cross-countries be sure to examine the route and determine if you need a DP. is based on the presumption of DR.” The creation of a navlog. In other words. Now we are saying that pilotage is to be used throughout the flight. When we open the flight plan. they are not going to do DR at all. we are really saying that pilotage will be used in these phases of flight. On a valley crawl legs should be grouped (that’s what open means. but this is usually because they are overcommitted to pilotage. But. This frequently means having two SHPs. Occasionally in non-mountainous areas the same problem may arise due to restricted airspace. so the navlog must be very open. is the dominant navigation technique. Poor Weather Mountain Cross-country (Valley Crawl) Let us now assume that ceilings are below the mountain tops (or within 1000’ of the mountain tops. If it is not possible then on alternative is simply to circle down over the airport. You will have to use pilotage until you clear the top of the mountains.Navigation for Professional Pilots The first tip is pretty obvious. normally under approach and landing on the navlog. But. What if you can’t do that though? Again the answer is pretty obvious. and time for this should be allocated. It is always much more accurate to begin DR from a specific SHP. Descent Point in the Mountains Normal procedure is to plan the enroute legs so that the last leg ends at the destination airport. Sometimes pilots skip the procedure of selecting the second SHP. I recommend this only for relatively short trips on familiar routes. Instead Page 194 .) Heading obviously changes every few minutes as the pilot follows a valley. Take the example of an airplane arriving in Castlegar from Vancouver. DP is primarily of concern in the mountains where it is quite common that terrain prevents descent to circuit altitude when desired. When the route directly to an airport crosses high terrain you should always check that a descent to the airport will be possible. This is discussed below under Enroute Navigation Skills. as we have recommended for departure and arrival. not DR. In short they plan the flight NOT to CYCG but to a DP at Deer Park. Pilots almost naturally divert slightly off this straight-line route and descend along the Arrow Lake. Having a leg for every change in heading is totally unrealistic. if the route is less familiar and you want to achieve efficient navigation always have a specific SHP and use DR. These valley cross-countries are sometimes called “valley crawls. The pilot must determine a top of descent point (TOD) at which to begin down for landing. circling down over the airport is seldom the most efficient way to handle the situation. In this case we recommend that you plan a second SHP from which you can begin DR. Try to pick an SHP such that the subsequent track follows a valley so that you can climb on the pp-leg as planned. as described so far. The straight-line route runs over the ridge just west of the airport and would leave the airplane at 7000’ or so within a mile of two of the airport. But.) In this case Pilotage. TOD is a completely different concept than descent point (DP) which we are discussing here.

Navigation for Professional Pilots

the legs are chosen based only on major changes of direction and or between major checkpoints such as large towns, lakes, etc. This is a very open format. The track in this case requires a bit more consideration than usual. A single track from departure direct to destination usually doesn’t provide enough reference, while a separate leg for each little twist and turn is too cumbersome to plan and to execute. We need something in between. As a practical example, a valley crawl from Castlegar to Grand Forks could be planned as three legs: One from the Keenleyside dam to Renata, one south to Christina and one east to Grand Forks. The usual method of measuring the length of a leg, by using a ruler, will not give an accurate distance. You must learn to estimate the actual distance flown due to weaving around the snaking turns of the valley. You should certainly start by measuring the straight-line distance from the beginning of the leg to the end, with a ruler, but then you must add an estimated amount to allow for the turns of the valley. There is NO SENSE calculating wind drift, drift angle, and heading for the leg. Indeed you can only estimate the average track (because it changes continually as you fly.) Don’t worry about drift, your eyes will keep you on track using pilotage. There is no need to put drift lines on the map. Groundspeed must be estimated in order to calculate time and fuel for the flight. Based on your average track and the wind you can estimate the average groundspeed. The hard part is often determining what the wind will actually be. FD forecasts are of limited applicability. Reported ground winds and winds aloft are obviously used to estimate wind at your chosen cruise altitude. Keep in mind that under the circumstances of a valley crawl you often have to change cruise altitude frequently enroute. Wind normally is funneled to follow the valley, so your main task is to guess whether there will be a headwind or tailwind and how strong it will be; if in doubt always estimate low for tailwinds and high for headwinds. In the wind column of the navlog write only the headwind or tailwind estimate – e.g. +10 or -5. You will be given several assignments to plan valley cross-countries to develop the skills described above. It is crucial that you learn to efficiently open your flight planning so that you can prepare the navlog in only a few minutes, because by far the most important part of valley crawl planning has nothing to do with making a navlog. The most important aspect of valley crawl planning is route analysis. You must examine the route looking for difficult points, such as passes, and most important of all, looking for alternate routes. In the discussion about diversions later in this text it is pointed out that a safe diversion in the mountains is only possible if you have planned for it in advance. Given that diversions are very common you must have every safe route option in your mind before you go on a flight. It is very common that the shortest route for a mountain flight is not the one with the lowest terrain. There is nothing wrong with planning the shorter route, but if you run into low ceilings and decide to divert to the longer lower route you want to have figured out ahead of time that you have enough fuel for that. You must know that if you don’t have enough fuel for a particular diversion option, where you will make fuel stops, etc. Don’t set out on a mountain cross country in marginal weather without all the above thoughts and options sorted out in your mind.

In-flight Valley Navigation Procedures
Once airborne, housekeeping becomes very important. Since the heading information is only approximate, considerable attention must be paid to map reading as the pilot follows – although rarely Page 195

Navigation for Professional Pilots

accurately maintains – the intended track. This makes it all too easy to lose track of time and over fly a turning point. While it might be difficult to imagine a pilot missing the turn at Christina (for Grand Forks) and picking up the road to Republic, some 20 miles south, it is not impossible and it is really easy, when following Highway 3 west from Cranbrook, to miss the turn at Yahk and continue on Highway 95, going south-east down to Copeland. This is not a complete disaster but in marginal VFR conditions it is very disconcerting and re-orientation can take several minutes. There is little need to recalculate headings, since that information is only approximate to start with. It is important, however, to update the ground speed information – again, in order to monitor the progress along the track. If the leg is long enough to warrant a couple of 10-mile marks then these can be used just as they are on a regular navigation leg. More often however, the legs are barely long enough to justify one 10-mile mark so it is more appropriate to wait until reaching the next turning point, where the pilot can either compare the ETE to the actual time enroute (ATE) in order to derive a time differential or simply divide the distance by the ATE for a ground speed. In either case, it is important to remember that a headwind component on one leg can easily become a tailwind component on the next leg: With winds aloft out of the north, a tailwind on a leg headed south east could well become a head wind if the valley makes a turn around to the north east. Situational awareness is always critical while valley crawling. There is a full section giving advice on valley flying in the FTM/IPM.

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Often the accuracy is improved by establishing a distance and fuel for the first hour and then a different figure for subsequent hours. what would you quote? The calculation is straight forward: Hour one covers 180NM. we will conclude that penalties work in the right circumstance.Chapter 10 Time Saving Flight Planning Techniques In all that we have done so far we have planned flights by breaking flights into climb. which will cost $5800. There are some other commonly used “short cuts” to flight planning that I would like you to be aware of. and this is an important time saving procedure. Still. Block flight planning is only safe when the airplane always flies at essentially the same cruise altitude and wind is not a factor. cruise and descent legs. The fuel is calculated as 500 + 1. so block planning must be used with great consideration. Block Flight Planning Block flight planning is commonly used to get a quick estimate. This is clearly a dangerous assumption.9 hours and have 1070 lb of fuel. (Actually. climb penalty planning is a myth.) Climb penalty planning starts by saying. Climb Penalty Planning Pilots.9 hours (420/220. We have simplified our task by opening the flight plans. Assume a client calls for a 600NM charter. Subsequent 420NM require 1. plus contingencies and reserve loaded. find it onerous to lookup the time fuel and distance to climb to cruise altitude.9 x 300. For example an airplane may use 500lb of fuel and cover 180 NM in the first hour and burn 300lb while covering 220NM in subsequent hours. This imaginary situation is shown in the picture below: . Some people try to avoid this task by developing rules of thumb. “wouldn’t it be easy to flight plan if the departure airport was on a mountain exactly at the cruise altitude for the trip. In other words.) Total trip time is therefore 2. The company determines an average distance and fuel used for the airplane each hour. being rather lazy. “yes” to your quote you quickly file the flight plan for 3. The airplane charters for $2000 per hour. it is so commonly used that you need to know the concept if for no other reason than so you can see its limitations.9 hours. An important point I must make before explaining how this is done is that it doesn’t work. usually for the purpose of quoting a charter. If the customer says.

) This airplane will “fall behind” the other airplane at about 15 knots. The airplane would already be at cruise at the moment of liftoff. and the slightly longer flight time. Taking a C-172P as an example. Similarly it will use more fuel. Page 200 . it will climb at 85KIAS (TAS is higher) and then cruise at about 105KTAS (the exact value depends on the cruise altitude. due to the higher rate of fuel flow in the climb.Navigation for Professional Pilots If the above situation actually existed there would be no need to plan a climb leg. The next step in climb penalty planning is to ask what the difference in time and fuel for the trip would be in the following situation: Obviously the airplane in this situation must climb from the departure runway to the cruise altitude. Obviously the trip will take longer this way.

9 gallons are consumed. 30 seconds per thousand feet.Navigation for Professional Pilots The idea behind climb penalty planning is simply to determine the difference between the above cases and then add that onto case I as a penalty. Together they also cover a distance of 100 NM. The leg requires 55 minutes and consumes 6. We can do this quite easily using the ENL.. there is a penalty for not climbing. First examine the third leg of the above navlog.3 gallons per 6000 feet. but the airplane climbs from sea level to the cruise altitude of 6000 feet. Climb penalties are only applicable to flights at relatively low altitudes and over relatively short distances. Page 201 . a pilot planning this flight for cruise at 9500’ and then adding a penalty would be completely mislead. Take the airplane on the 500NM cross country on page Error! Bookmark not defined. so it corresponds to the part I diagram above. Repeat the above ENL analysis for the B95 and determine the climb penalties for that airplane. which is a bit less than ¼ gallon per thousand feet. Once you have done this add a penalty of 30 seconds and .25 gallons for each thousand feet the cruise altitude is above the takeoff altitude.e. i. Can you spot the flaw in the logic behind this procedure? Think about it before reading the next paragraph. At the beginning of this section I said that the real problem with climb penalties is that they don’t work.6 gallons.e. This corresponds to the part II diagram above. The fuel penalty is 1. i. This takes 58 minutes and 7. In this case they do reflect the penalty due to climbing that we already discovered on page Error! Bookmark not defined. It shows a cruise leg of 100NM. In our earlier cruise altitude analysis we learned that depending on the length of a trip there not only is no penalty for climbing. Next examine the first two legs of the above navlog. as though the part I diagram applies. The time penalty is obviously 3 minutes per 6000 feet. The airplane is level for this entire leg. To use the penalties for a C-172P simply plan the trip as though the entire flight was in cruise.

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The best procedure is to choose four or five geographic points on your map and then look out the window until you spot them. There are exceptions of course. they will not be covered further here. so it is highly recommended. In flight you can see a long way and you should take advantage of that. as well as relative position. a road. The first principle of map reading is work from map to ground. 30 or more miles away. such as distinctive mountains. These features can be anything. runways. NDBs. etc. NOT the other way around. You do NOT spend time with your eyes down on the map trying to find some feature. You must learn which features will be distinctive “out the window” and which won’t. The specifics of night cross countries are discussed in your FTM/IPM and are covered in Avia 201.) You can often see large geographic features. size. and power lines are quite distinctive. . but there are some things you should keep in mind. roads and mountains in the world so how do you tell one from another? The key here is to analyze the map and develop a mental image of the distinctive characteristics of the ones you are looking for. The primary emphasis in this course is on preflight planning. For example power lines over mountain ridges can be quite easy to see because a wide swath of trees is cut down along the line. These could be a town. as described above. For example does the town have a river running though it? How many roads run in and out? And is there a nearby mountain? Try to have at least three distinctive features that will distinguish the location you are looking for from others. lakes and rivers. Map Reading Its pretty obvious that a fundamental skill in navigating VFR is the ability to interpret a VNC chart and locate the corresponding geographic features on the ground. Once you have this “list” of items gleaned from the map you scan the ground until you locate the corresponding locations. There are of course lots of towns. rivers. and a mountain or valley. A common mistake is to choose geographic points that are too close to the airplane. but out the window they are nearly impossible to see. It is much easier to locate a geographic point that is 5 or 10 miles ahead rather than one directly below you (the airplane doesn’t have a glass floor. The latter procedure results in too much time with eyes in the cockpit. Good airmanship is to have your eyes out the window 99% of the time. And radio towers are very easy to see at night. on the map certain things such as VORs. a river. most of the in-flight skills are developed in Avia 100 and 200. such as a small lake or road that you have spotted out the window.Chapter 11 Enroute Navigation Skills This section covers several navigation skills that you will need to develop and apply in flight. small town. towers. In other words you locate a geographic feature on the map and then look out the window until you spot the same feature on the ground. Doing so reduces a lot of navigation effort.

” But it is important that you fly the specific heading on your navlog. If you can climb high enough to get ATC on the radio you will be able to get radar or DF assistance from them. so don’t worry about it.” From this known area of probability there are several things you can do: If you have been flying a steady heading you can simply reverse it and go back to where you came from. discussed next. If you are truly “lost” stay calm and keep your wits about you (which means you mustn’t panic.Navigation for Professional Pilots Another frequent mistake is becoming too obsessive about spotting a particular geographic point. Radar is available in most of southern Canada. So. This is due to a lack of time awareness. Your previously recorded departure time will give you all the information you need. Most importantly.. east of Vancouver. As long as you fly a straight-line you can always find your way back by simply “doing a 180. and many go much faster than that. am I really lost? As a new pilot you may feel lost if you miss one checkpoint. Some pilots will keep looking and looking and looking for this town until they are completely lost. choose another one and look for that. Therefore a geographic point 6 miles ahead will be beneath you in 3 minutes. In light of the above. Reorienting if Lost The first question you must ask is. The best way to get lost is to wander around on random headings that are not recorded. it is important to always be looking for more than one geographic point. Most airplanes cover at least 2 miles per minute. and so on. To do this simply be aware of how many miles per minute (roughly) you are covering. You probably know where you are within a few miles tolerance. If logic says you are past a checkpoint then forget it.C. If you haven’t spotted it by then you’ve missed it. “I am somewhere in here. Failure to follow this advice is what will get you lost. Time Awareness When you choose a geographic point on your map that you will be looking for a critical thing to do is estimate roughly how long it will take until you reach the point.C. Southern B.” You can state your location in a hierarchy such as that you are in Canada. You could draw a circle on the map and say.) When you think about it you really aren’t “totally lost. The procedure for using this in the event of an emergency is covered in section F of your CFS. Also. finding one often makes it easier to spot the others. Don’t panic. If you miss one it won’t really matter. right? If the weather is suitable. climb to a higher altitude so you can see farther. be aware of time passing. we will assume you don’t have such equipment. As long as you are flying one heading (as opposed to wandering) you can do a 180 and go back. but if you happen to be lost in the far north there is also the defense radar system. Lucky you always record these things. Usually three is a good number. but you really aren’t. For example you may be looking for a small town but not seeing it. B. This was mentioned above. Of course if you have a working GPS you can read the latitude and longitude and immediately locate yourself on the VNC. Page 204 . Remember to write down the time you turn around so you can estimate how long it will take to get back to the starting point. It isn’t critical to identify every point.

TIP: it is really quite rare for the winds aloft forecast to be wrong by more than 5 knots. which got you lost. When the wind is substantially different than the forecast there is usually evidence such as turbulence or un-forecast storm activity. But the distance is rounded off to the nearest nautical mile and the time is rounded off to the nearest minute. Based on this your CR tells you that the groundspeed is ____ Kts. If the groundspeed is revised pencil the corrected value over the value on the navlog. Follow it to a town and as you fly by you can read the name on the elevator to identify your location. The final checkpoint ETA should match the previously calculated destination ETA. If they have shrunk too low divert to another location and refuel. Navlog keeping On your navlog you must record the takeoff time and time past each checkpoint enroute. Much more likely however is that you will reorient yourself and be able to continue your flight.Navigation for Professional Pilots If you have been wandering around. On the Selkirk College navlog we write the takeoff time in the designated location just before takeoff. which is described below. It is almost always possible to use a landfall to reorient yourself. If your desired destination is not on an extended geographic feature suitable for landfall then pick an interim destination from which you will be able to continue on. TIP: when doing a groundspeed check your calculations are subject to round-off error. which you must locate and correct. Ask yourself what tolerance you would apply to this value. The groundspeed according to your CR is 165 kts. then enter a revised ETA in the designated column. This amounts to saying that the actual distance is Page 205 . The ATA should be quite close to the ETA previously filled in. You should also record ETA revised ETA for each checkpoint. but if fuel gets low and you are still lost you may have to do a precautionary approach. Keep track of your fuel. In the prairies most small towns have the town name written on their grain elevator. Consider this before reading the next paragraph. At a glance you will be able to see that you are ahead of or behind schedule. Most fuel starvation incidents follow getting lost. you measure a distance of 11NM and then measure a time of 4 minutes. But be sure to recalculate your reserves. Selkirk College navlog keeping involves writing down the time we pass each checkpoint enroute in the ATA column. consider using the navigation technique called landfall. If your calculated groundspeed is substantially different than the flight planned value you should recheck your calculations before jumping to any conclusions. If you fly any direction you will come across a road within a short time. This amounts to saying that you normally will have a groundspeed within 5 knots of the planned value. For example. Once clear of the departure airport we then write down the ETA and Fuel Expiry time in the designated locations. If it does not then an adding mistake has been made. If you brought lots of reserve you will be fine. In addition your company may require many other pieces of information be recorded. We then fill out the ETA column so that we have the ETA for each checkpoint. These are standard procedures applicable to any log keeping exercise.

If your navlog predicted a groundspeed of 150 knots should you revise your ETA or not? The answer is that you don’t have an accurate enough groundspeed to decide.) Consequently. you don’t want to descend too late. Diversions A diversion means changing your route and or destination while in flight.) If the obtained value lies within the tolerance of your flight planned speed it is usually wise to take this as confirmation of the navlog and make no revision to your ETA.Navigation for Professional Pilots between 10. which adds another error bringing distance tolerance to at least 1 NM. but it is still difficult to achieve an accuracy right down to the second (see previous point.) Most pilots plan descents based on a certain gradient.4 and the time is between 3:31 and 4:29. Using these values your groundspeed could be anywhere between 149 and 196 kts! (Check these values for yourself with a CR.) That is a very large spread of “correct” values. which is to say just about useless. You can use a stopwatch to get a more accurate time value. This is the top of descent point (TOD. if you reach the airport well above circuit altitude you will have to circle down (which wastes time and fuel) or will dive (which is uncomfortable for passengers and you. If you are approaching a major airport with a lot of traffic. A lot of VFR pilots are in the habit of descending quite early. make sure you use fairly long groundspeed checks (10 to 15 minutes minimum). and know the tolerance of their accuracy (4 or 5 knots at best. IFR flights routinely divert around areas of bad weather. Simply calculate how may thousand feet you need to descend and multiply by three (or four) then start your descent that number of miles from the location you which to reach circuit altitude. a six minute groundspeed check is at best accurate to plus or minus 10 knots. The specific techniques for this however will be deferred to Avia 260 Page 206 . So.4 and 11. Top of Descent At some point you must start a descent from your cruise altitude so that when you reach the destination airport you are at the desired altitude. if you want a groundspeed check accurate to the nearest knot you would have to fly a groundspeed check of at least one hour (60 minutes.) But in more rugged terrain you want to reach circuit altitude only one or two miles prior to joining the circuit. in order to keep as many safety options open as possible.) Choosing it wisely is important. And a 3 minute groundspeed check is accurate plus or minus 20 knots. and in an area with lots of good forced approach sites. it might be wise to descend to circuit altitude 10 miles before the airport (I am thinking about single engine airplanes here. On the other hand. If you are flying a turbo-charged piston airplane it might be better to use four miles per thousand feet. To make an accurate groundspeed check you need more accurate data.) Put another way. Three miles per thousand feet is the most common. Diversions are very very common occurrences in both IFR and VFR flight. The best you can usually do is measure distance plus or minus ½ nautical mile Even after you do this you will find it difficult specify the precise moment you pass the checkpoint.

It is important to realize that this is only an exercise. Position Reports and Amending Flight Plan No one likes to think about having an accident enroute and not making it to destination. Your instructor will show you how to do this if you haven’t done it before. To meet the Transport Canada diversion challenge most pilots estimate the distance by using the minute marks on the VNC’s lines of longitude as a scale. Ideally position reports should be made about every half hour on a cross country. An even better idea is to avail yourself of radar surveillance enroute.7. it just takes a bit of practice. Anyone can do it.ca website in the miscellaneous section. But you must keep track of time so that you don’t run low on fuel. but this is a possibility. To facilitate quickly locating you in the event you do not arrive at destination you should file position reports frequently during your flight. Transport Canada has established a specific diversion exercise that you must demonstrate on the commercial pilot flight test. When diverting around weather you are by definition using your contingency fuel. usually means taking a totally different route. You will be surprised how closely you can eye-ball-it with a bit of practice. This is a great exercise in mental approximation but it is important for you to realize that if you are actually doing a diversion there is nothing wrong with using a ruler.Navigation for Professional Pilots VFR flights also often divert around areas of bad weather. or a calculator. Radar surveillance is covered in the AIM RAC 5. The best thing to do is estimate all tracks before putting a protractor on them. You must then calculate (estimate) the time enroute in your head without a flight computer. You either divert to an alternate route that you have previously analyzed and planned. just use a ruler if you have one. frequently you can skirt the area of poor weather and re-intercept the route beyond the area affected. on a valley crawl. It is not always necessary to change destination when bad weather is encountered. These are laid out on the ProfessionalPilot. especially on valley crawl trips. NEVER plan a substantial diversion in-flight in the mountains. On the flight test exercise you are required to draw a free-hand line to a designated destination then estimate the heading and distance without using a protractor or a ruler. or you do a 180 back to the last suitable airport and land there until you get organized to go on. When diverting in the mountains. In the mountains there are often limited opportunities to make position reports. The secret to success is in knowing all the routing options before you takeoff. This is however a skill that requires practice. The contents of a VFR position report are listed on the back cover of your CFS. In the real world. so as long as your navlog shows that you have lots of contingency fuel you are fine. To estimate the track to the destination you can just “eye-ball-it” or use a VOR rose to help you be a bit more accurate. If you run into bad weather in the mountains and have to divert then there should only be two possibilities. and it is well worth the effort. To estimate the time enroute if you don’t have a CR computer there are numerous mathematical tricks. I am sure than many of the pilots who have killed themselves in the mountains (and there are a lot of them) did so when they had to divert but were unprepared to do so. Scanning the map looking for an alternate route once you have run into poor weather is a recipe for disaster. In such cases the Page 207 . But if you have not allowed contingency fuel then you will have to change your destination in order to refuel. It actually bears almost no resemblance to 99% of real life diversion scenarios.

and so on. This technique is often practical on a diversion around poor weather or for reorienting yourself if you get “slightly” lost. This sometimes means making two reports only 10 minutes apart and then other times an hour or more might pass due to lack of ground stations. if you file a position report in which you give an ETA for your destination that correctly predicts your new arrival time FSS will still initiate a search for you at the original ETA based on your flight plan. for use if you don’t arrive at your destination. Despite its age it is quite useful at times in modern aviation. For example. Hybrid Navigation Procedure – Landfall There is a navigation procedure that falls between pilotage and true DR called “laying a landfall.) Laying a landfall only works if the destination is on an extended geographically distinct feature that you can lay landfall for and be certain you won’t miss. When you do sailors say they have “made landfall. Many pilots misunderstand this fact. The strategy used is to deliberately aim to one side or the other of the intended destination so that when you do make landfall you know for sure which side of the desired point you are on and can follow the coast to your destination. Once you find the lake you can follow it to Castlegar. To prevent this you must specifically request that your flight plan be amended to your revised ETA. For example if you are in Kelowna and fly east you really cannot miss the Arrow Lake. But imagine it is the 16 century and no such system exists. If you sail west from France you are most definitely going to hit North America. Imagine you wish to sail a ship across the ocean from France to Montreal.Navigation for Professional Pilots best advice is to make every position report that you can. if you are falling behind schedule and will arrive 45 minutes late.” This is a technique that goes back centuries to the days of sailing ships. other towns are on railway tracks. Many airports in the Prairies are along major highways. Page 208 . The ocean currents present the same problem for ship navigation that wind does for pilots. Once you make landfall use pilotage to find the destination. If you are going to lay landfall simply estimate a heading that will put you one-way-orthe-other from your intended destination. The Arrow Lake meets that criterion.” But you are probably going to drift so if you aimed directly at the Saint Lawrence there is no way to know if you are north or south of it. The first step is a rough DR (just accurate enough to guarantee you don’t miss the target (Arrow Lake)) the second leg is pilotage (follow Arrow Lake to Castlegar. It is vital to realize that when you make a position report the information is recorded. The same technique can be used by pilots. which can be used the same way. In modern times you would use GPS or Loran-C th to navigate accurately in a straight-line between the ports. but it DOES NOT update your flight plan.

Navigation for Professional Pilots Page 209 .

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and the wind.) PNR is simply what the name says. PNR depends on the airplane’s Endurance. which must include at least reserve fuel. For the C-172 with standard tanks we could set the value of Eu at 4:40 for example.9 gallons at takeoff and an endurance of 5:18. You will learn more about them in second year. For example a C-172 with standard tanks has 38. and possibly some contingency fuel. the mechanics of doing the calculation is the same no matter what type of airplane you fly. can you still return to New York? On many of the short flights you have made in C-172 and similar airplanes in your flying career you probably carried enough fuel to fly all the way to destination and then return to departure point. which are usually considered important for oceanic flight. to come back to the departure point. will be covered here. Speed. i. enroute to destination. but they really don’t make a lot of sense in that context.Chapter 12 Oceanic Flight The full details of oceanic flight are beyond the scope of this course. even a short over land flight in a C-172. These are the point of no return (PNR) and critical point (CP. If there was no wind the airplane would reach PNR by flying out to half its endurance. or in other word PNR would equal total range divided by two. E is the amount of time in hours that the airplane can fly. what if the illness arises four hours into the flight. Et is the total endurance to dry tanks. the point beyond which you do not have enough fuel to return to the departure aerodrome. Groundspeed GSout and GShome The groundspeed of the airplane is an important factor in determining PNR.e. It would be very unwise to calculate PNR based on this number however because that would imply proposing to return and land just as fuel runs out – a very scary idea. Eu will represent the useable endurance. two points of navigation. But. Endurance Eu We will represent endurance with a capital E. Still. do you have enough fuel to return to New York? Obviously you do. Point of No Return (PNR) Imagine you lift off from New York headed for Paris France. We will define GS out as the groundspeed when the airplane is outbound from departure. GShome will be the groundspeed after a 180° turn. However. . In such a case you never reached a point of no return (PNR.) Each of these concepts can be applied to any flight. A passenger becomes ill 30 minutes into the flight.

GS home-SE will be based on the engine out performance. then use the formula below to account for wind. PNR Formula In zero wind PNR is determined very easily by calculating total range (E x GS) and dividing by two: PNRzero wind = (Eu x GS) / 2 It is always a good idea to do the above calculation as a first estimate. I. wind always reduced PNR. but GS out is always based on all engines operating normally. The result is always a distance LESS than the zero wind distance above. For example an airplane with a zero wind GS of 100 Kts and an endurance of 4 hours has a PNR of 4 x 100 / 2 = 200.E.Navigation for Professional Pilots We also define engine-out-PNR in which we assume all engines operating prior to the 180° turn and one engine out after the turnaround.E. Now let us consider the formula that accounts for wind: Page 212 . I.

the definition. This is good to know.e.Navigation for Professional Pilots If the airplane in the previous example experiences a 20Kt tailwind outbound the PNR will be 4. As expected. i. this is slightly less than the zero wind DPNR. Here is the “proof” of the formula. Page 213 .5 x 120 x 80 / (120+80) = 216Nm. Important: PNR with wind is always less than PNR with no wind. By using only the first line you can find the correct answer from among a selection on a multiple choice exam. Note that PNR questions will be on the ATPL and IATRA written exams IMPORTANT: if a question asks for engine-out-PNR calculate GSout with all engines operating normally and GShome with one engine inoperative. It is not necessary for you to memorize the proof but you should know the first line. therefore PNR should be routinely calculated and if it is beyond destination – great. the airplane can turn around at any point on the flight and return to departure point. Note that you can always apply the DPNR formula to any flight but in many cases the PNR is beyond the destination. and the last line. I.E.

I. In other words on a 1000 NM flight CP is 500 NM.Navigation for Professional Pilots Critical Point (CP) There is some point on every trip you make where it would take the same amount of time to turn around and return to the departure point or to continue on to destination. Thus. if you are asked for the single-engine CP use single engine speeds. CP can be calculated for all engines operating normally and also for engine-inoperative. to return to base or continue to destination IMPORTANT: when calculating CP always use the speed as it will be after the CP. In the later case the CP represents the.E. if asked for all engines CP use all engine speeds – NEVER mix speeds in a CP calculation (this is different than a PNR calculation.) It should be obvious that in zero wind the CP is exactly at the mid-point of the flight. This is known as the critical point (CP.) The formula for CP is given in the diagram below: Page 214 . if there is a tailwind you will reach CP before the mid-point or if there is a headwind you will reach CP after the midpoint – see if you can visualize why this is so. But CP will move into the wind. on one engine.

with a headwind CP move to beyond halfway point. So.Navigation for Professional Pilots Effect of Tailwind and Headwind on CP In a previous example we flew an airplane with GS of 100 knots in zero wind. Let’s calculate where CP is with a 20 Knot headwind outbound. So. GSon is 120 KT and GSreturn 80KT. Therefore CP = 400 x 80 / (120 + 80) = 160. GS on is 80 KT and GSreturn is 120KT. Let’s calculate where CP is with a 20 Knot tailwind outbound. with a tailwind CP comes before the halfway point. SUMMARY: CP always moves into the wind. Therefore CP = 400 x 120 / (120 + 80) = 240. Page 215 . On a 400Nm flight zero-windCP is 200 Nm.

Page 216 .

Appendix 1– C-172 Interpolation Tables Power setting ___________ feet ___________ temp RPM TAS _______% 65% ______% Power setting ___________ feet ___________ temp RPM TAS _______% 65% ______% Power setting ___________ feet ___________ temp RPM TAS _______% 65% ______% Power setting ___________ feet ___________ temp RPM TAS _______% 65% ______% ________ feet Page 217 .

________ feet ________ feet Page 218 .

Inbound PDT Practice Sheet In the sheet below fill in the heading you must turn to. or if it is an over-60 write down PT (for procedure turn.Appendix 2 .) Bearing to beacon 150 Desired inbound bearing 100 Heading to steer 300 280 240 290 040 120 135 165 In the table below fill in a random selection of bearings to beacon in the first column: Bearing to beacon Desired bearing Heading to steer Page 219 .

Page 220 .Next fill in desired bearings considering the first column and making the bearing within 60 most of the time. Finally. fill in the third column Repeat above MANY times.

Outbound PDT Practice Sheet In the sheet below fill in the heading you must turn to.Appendix 3 . There is no “over 60” limit for outbound PDTs. Bearing from beacon 210 Desired outbound bearing 250 Heading to steer 340 240 005 320 140 180 280 270 In the table below fill in a random selection of bearings from beacon in the first column: Bearing to beacon Desired bearing Heading to steer Page 221 .

) Finally.Next fill in desired bearings in the second column. fill in the third column Repeat above MANY times. There is no 60 degree limit. Page 222 . but normally the desired should be within 180 (to make sense.

Page 223 . Convergence is zero at the equator and increases the closer to the pole you fly.Appendix 4 – Definitions Deviation: The difference between actual magnetic heading and the compass indications. Variation: The difference between magnetic track and true track. An aircraft flying along a Great Circle route much change heading to compensate for convergence. This error is shown on a compass correction card. Great Circle: A line on the surface of the earth that when extended completely encircles the earth and has its center coincident with the earths center. Rhumb Line: A line on the surface of the earth between two points such that the true track along the line is constant. Convergence: Meridians of longitude converge at the north and south poles.) Rhumb Lines are popular with pilots because you can fly a constant heading rather than changing headins as you would on a Great Circle. A Rhumb Line is only coincident with a great circle if it is also a Meridian. All other Rhumb lines vary from the Great Circle (see above definition. Variation is shown on both IFR and VFR charts as lines of equal variation. known as isogonic lines. as such they are not quite parallel to each other. Such a line is the shortest distance along the surface of the earth between any two points on the line. or the equator. This due to the magnetic north pole NOT being at the actual north pole. The angle at which they converge is known as convergence.

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