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Ray Preston

2010

Navigation for Professional Pilots

Page 2

Navigation for Professional Pilots

Introduction:

This text was created for use in the course Avia 160 as part of the Selkirk College Professional Aviation Program, which leads to the Canadian Commercial Pilot License with Multi-engine and Instrument Rating. This text is intended as an adjunct to a 48 hour lecture series on the topic of navigation. Assignments, tests, and exams supplement this text and the lectures. Flight planning exercises include both VFR and IFR cross-countries. Students will become expert at preparing VNC maps and completing navlogs for VFR cross countries. They will also use LO charts and the Canada Air Pilot to plan IFR cross-countries. This book explains both theoretical and practical principles of flight navigation, including visual and radio navigation based on VOR, ADF, and DME. This course covers principles of intercepting and maintaining a radio course. It also covers flying DME arcs. An introduction to procedure turns is included. The text is supplemented by several computer simulations of the Selkirk College Aviation Intranet, which is on the web at Selair.selkirk.ca. Students in this course are expected to become expert at the use of the CR(or 6) navigation computer. This text was written based on the assumption that readers hold a private pilot license and as such have certain basic knowledge about aviation in general and navigation in particular.

Page 3

Navigation for Professional Pilots

Page 4

..............................................................................................................................................................................................16 Pressure and Density Altitude ..................................................................................................................................................................................28 Interpolation and Accurate Drawing Skill ........................................................................................................................................19 Density Altitude ..............................................................................................35 Velocity Expressed as Airspeed............................................................................................23 Cold Temperature Corrections ...............................................................................................23 Performance Charts ............................................................................................................21 Sample Questions 2 ...........................35 True Airspeed (TAS) ......................................................................................................................................................................13 Text Overview .............. The Fundamental Concepts of Physics ..................................................................................................38 Heading (True.............................................37 ICE-T ............................................................................................................ and Magnetic) ............................................................................37 Indicated and Calibrated Airspeed (IAS and CAS) .............................31 Chapter 2 .........................................................................................................18 Pressure Altitude ...................35 Mass – Distance – Time..........36 Equivalent Airspeed (EAS) ........14 Sample Questions 1 ........................................................................................................................................................................................ and two useful deductions from the definition ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................29 Electronic Charts for the Travelair .28 Electronic Charts for the C-172P.........................................................................................................................30 Weight and Balance Shift..............................................................35 Definition of Velocity..........18 The International Standard Atmosphere ...............................................................13 Pilotage............................ Dead Reckoning and Radio Navigation .................................................Navigation for Professional Pilots Table of Contents: Chapter 1 ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................29 Performance Rules of Thumb .................39 Page 5 ......................................................................................................

........................................................64 Bracketing .....................................56 Drift Estimation Challenge ....................64 Establishing the Brackets ............ da........................................39 Wind and Drift .........................................................58 Chapter 3 .............................................................................................................49 Estimate XW and TW .....................................................59 VOR..................49 Drift Estimation ...........................................................59 VOR Reception Range ........................................................59 Introduction to Radio Navigation ......................................................................................45 Drift Angle Defined .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................46 Calculation of Crosswind and Tailwind .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... TW.... DME – Final Thoughts.................72 Page 6 .............................................................48 Sample Problems: ................. and DME Channel Pairing ................40 Definitions: Crosswind and Headwind...................................................................................................................................55 Two-bit Math .............................Navigation for Professional Pilots Compass Deviation ............................................................................................39 Wind Triangle: GS = TAS + Wind......................................................................................................................46 Groundspeed Defined ........................................................................................................47 Determining XW........ ADF...54 Estimation of Drift Based on Crosswind and Magic Number ...........................................63 GPS Navigation ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................61 VOR....... ILS..............................................................................................................................................................................................50 Magic Number ...................................58 Drift Estimation Summary ...................................................................................................................................72 Break-out Logic ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................66 “Beating” the Computerized Flying Instructor .................................................................................................................................................................................................. and GS with a CR ........................................................................

..............................89 Random PDT practice............................................................................................................................. 103 Celsius to Fahrenheit Temperature Conversion ........................................................................ Groundspeed Checks ...................95 LO Charts ............................................................................. 101 Unit Conversions .................... 101 The CR Computer ..........................................................................................................................................................................................74 DME Groundspeed During an ARC ....................................................................... 106 Speed Ratios – I........................................................................................................................................................................95 IFR Charts ............................................................................................................................................................. 109 Two IMPORTANT two-step CR Ratio Problems ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................96 Separation of IFR Aircraft ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Navigation for Professional Pilots Bracketing Summary ................................................................................................................................................. 121 Page 7 .....95 HI Charts.............. 107 Miles per Minute .................................................................................91 Tracking and Intercepting Summary ...........73 Flying a DME ARC..96 IFR Alternate Airport .................................................................................................92 Chapter 4 ......................................................................78 Intercepting a Course (PDT) .................................97 Chapter 5 ............................................................................................................................................E...........................................................................................................................................................................96 Overview of IFR System ....... 115 Standard Decent Gradient is 3° ................................................................................................. 109 Time to a Station – ARC Speed ...........................................................................................................................................................................................96 Preferred IFR Routes ....................................................81 Outbound PDTs .......... 106 Mach Number................................................................................... 101 A Ratio Machine ............................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................. 155 Contour Lines and Hypsometric Tints ...................................................................................................................... 156 Map Legend......................................................................................................... 139 Longitude.......................................................................................................................................................... 146 Rhumb-Line ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 137 The Canada Flight Supplement ................ 124 Procedure for “Slow and Low” Airplanes.................................................................................................................................................... 158 Page 8 ................ 127 Comparing Procedure for slow and fast Airplanes .......................................................................................... 133 Chapter 6 .............................................................................................................. 137 Chapter 7 ....................... 139 Navigation Theory ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 146 Map Theory ......................................................................................... 153 Compass Deviation ...................................................................................................................... 151 True and Magnetic North (Variation) ........................ 131 Sample Questions 5 ............................................................................................................... 141 Great-circles .................................................................................................................................Navigation for Professional Pilots TAS and CAS Conversions .......................................................................................................................... 137 Weather and NOTAMS............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 144 Convergence ................................................................................................................ 122 Derive CAS given TAS and Forecast Temperature ............................................................................................. 139 Shape of the Earth............. 125 Procedure for “Fast and High” Airplanes ... 147 Lambert Conformal Conic Projection............................. 148 Transverse Mercator projection .......................................... 143 Small Circles........................................ 139 Latitude ............................................................................................................................................................ 157 Map Scale .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

. 172 Ramp Fuel and Fuel Remaining ........................................................................................................................................ 185 Reserve .............................................................. 163 Chapter 8 ............................ 176 First Enroute leg (to TOC) .................................................................................................................................................................................... 189 Page 9 ....................................................................................................................... 185 Tips for the Electronic Nav-Log ................................................. 169 Fly-by and Fly-over Waypoints .............. 178 Cruise Legs – Between Enroute Checkpoints ........................................................................................................................ 169 Definition of a Leg ................................... 188 Measuring Track and Distance ............................. 169 Flight Planning ....................................... 175 Filling in the Navlog......................... 185 Approach at Alternate Airport .................................................. 183 Approach at Destination .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 171 Navlog Leg Groups ........................................................................................... 163 Plotting Lines of Position (LOP) ............................................... 182 Top of Descent .................. 158 Grivation .................................... 188 Filling in a Flight Plan Form ........................................................ 183 Contingencies ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 186 VFR Map Preparation Techniques.. 169 Introduction to Nav-logs ...................................... 179 Selection of Cruising Altitude .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 175 Choosing a Set Heading Point (SHP) ...............................................................................................................................................................................Navigation for Professional Pilots Grid Navigation ....................................................................................................................................... 184 Checkpoints leading to Alternate Airport .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 186 Drawing a Line Across a 2-Sided Chart ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

............. 203 Enroute Navigation Skills ....................................................... 211 Point of No Return (PNR) .... 193 Mountain Cross Country ......... 199 Block Flight Planning ............................................................. 204 Navlog keeping .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 194 Poor Weather Mountain Cross-country (Valley Crawl) ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 193 Good-weather Mountain Cross-country ............................................................................ 199 Chapter 11 ................................................................................ 214 Page 10 ................................Navigation for Professional Pilots Chapter 9 ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 211 Oceanic Flight .................... 203 Time Awareness ................................. 206 Diversions ............................................................................................................................................................................ 211 Critical Point (CP) ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 199 Climb Penalty Planning ................................................................................................ 205 Top of Descent .............................................................................................. 193 Set Heading Point(s) in the Mountains ....................................................... 199 Time Saving Flight Planning Techniques ............................. 193 DR vs.......................................................................... 194 In-flight Valley Navigation Procedures ..................................................................................... 208 Chapter 12 .......................................... 204 Reorienting if Lost ............................................................................................................................ 195 Chapter 10 ................................................................... Pilotage in Mountain Flying ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 193 Descent Point in the Mountains ....................................................................................................................... 207 Hybrid Navigation Procedure – Landfall ............................................................ 203 Map Reading .................................................................................................... 206 Position Reports and Amending Flight Plan ...............................................................................................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................Outbound PDT Practice Sheet ...................... 217 Appendix 2 . 221 Appendix 4 – Definitions ...............................................................Navigation for Professional Pilots Appendix 1– C-172 Interpolation Tables ................................................................................... 219 Appendix 3 ......................................................... 223 Page 11 .........................Inbound PDT Practice Sheet .................................................

Navigation for Professional Pilots Page 12 .

Where we will park upon arrival Customs and other passenger handling arrangements Food and refreshments arrangement prior. At an airline many people are employed to ensure that all the passenger handling aspects of flight planning are looked into. to VOR. etc. departure and arrival fees. Experts also plan routes for optimum advantage (cost) taking wind. the point being made here is that flight planning is a large undertaking covering many different items of concern regarding a flight. etc.Chapter 1 Text Overview Everyone knows what it means to “have a plan. For example. For example your plan might require knowing: When we will leave When we will arrive Who will be on board What route we will take What will the weather be like What navigation equipment (from eyeballs. so flights may detour around some . or medical difficulties occur. many international airline flights don’t fly by the shortest route for two reasons: For one every nation they over fly charges a fee. during. to GPS.) will be used What condition the airplane and its systems will be in What we will do if various contingencies such as weather. and post flight Accommodation at destination Aircraft servicing at destination Customs arrangements ETC The above list is not complete. into account. mechanical. The process can be very complex.” In “flight planning” we develop a plan for a flight. ATC fees.

where to park and service the airplane. Your skill at doing this level of basic flight planning quickly and accurately will free up the time for the logistics aspects of flight planning that your employer will expect you to master.” Pilotage means flying from point to point by visually following features on the ground. You will learn where to find the required information. For your commercial pilot flight test you are allowed 45 minutes. Dead-reckoning (DR) means to determine the one heading and time that will take the airplane directly to a point. allowing for wind. For example: to fly from Castlegar to Revelstoke simply follow the Columbia River. Flight logistics such as arranging food for passengers. but saving in the long run by avoiding high ATC fees. For example. But you must recognize that these things are crucial to real world commercial flight operations. We won’t usually concern ourselves with avoiding ATC fees or political boundaries because most of our flights will be domestic. if a strong tailwind (jet stream) can be located. By the end of this course you will be fully competent to plan an IFR flight from any point within Canada to any other point. We will consider the preferred IFR routes published in the Canada Flight Supplement. Radio navigation means that the location of the airplane is determined by referring to instruments such as VOR. but we will concentrate on choosing an altitude that is optimum for the wind given a specified route. By the end of this course you must be fully competent at planning VFR flights. Pilotage. Dead Reckoning and Radio Navigation Two terms that will come up over and over are “pilotage” and “dead-reckoning. Airline flight planners often adjust to avoid these. In this course you will learn the basics of IFR radio Page 14 . International flights will covered in second year. In this course we will concentrate on the planning time and fuel for a flight. or a strong headwind avoided. but that should be twice as much time as you actually need. After graduation. and terrain and weather. Most of this course is devoted to learning how to dead-reckon. In addition. expect passenger handling and logistics aspects of flight planning to take considerably more of your time than calculating time and fuel. and as such are governed by a set of regulations that you will learn to take into account during this course. DR is by definition flight along a straight line path. It is the way you drive your car and it is often a practical way to fly an airplane. or GPS. This is necessary when flying IFR. etc won’t receive a lot of attention due to our limited time. but. the shortest route is not always the quickest. ADF. most commercial airline flights are IFR flights. By the end of this course you should be able determine time and fuel for a given flight within a few minutes. one requirement is to have an alternate airport to divert to in the event that landing at the primary destination becomes impossible.Navigation for Professional Pilots airspace spending more money on fuel. and some of these matters will be included in the exercises. Route selection will be comparatively simple.

distinctive. even on a VFR flight – thus most flights require pilotage. especially over terrain that lacks distinctive features. but in the real world they should be used together to achieve an efficient flight with the lowest possible workload for the pilot. in fact both can be applied to radio navigation. but if the terrain has good. Usually the leg just after takeoff until established at the set heading point requires pilotage. features some pilotage is practical especially when doing things such as diverting around poor weather or special use airspace. Even on a long flight some portions of all VFR flights require pilotage. DR. Any VFR flight over water must be a DR flight for example. Radio navigation is NOT distinct from pilotage or DR. DR is the most efficient means of navigation. Page 15 .Navigation for Professional Pilots navigation. Pilotage dominates on shorter flights. and radio navigation. In real-world VFR navigating. but it can only be used when the ground has distinctive features so that the pilot can accurately determine position visually. Often some radio navigation will be used. pilots use a combination of pilotage and DR. In this course we will generally keeps these techniques separated for instructional purposes. And the final circuit joining and landing is also a pilotage leg. DR dominates on long flights.

then left again. The pilot turns left. This is DR navigation This is pilotage navigation This is radio navigation This is two or more of the above Page 16 . a. b. d. b. c. c. then right. This is DR navigation This is pilotage navigation This is radio navigation This is two or more of the above 4. A pilot is trying to find a small lake. d. S/he then turns to that heading without concern for the strong westerly wind. a. This is DR navigation This is pilotage navigation This is radio navigation This is two or more of the above 3. A pilot is over a town s/he recognizes and turns south to join left base for the active runway a. b. a. This is DR navigation This is pilotage navigation This is radio navigation This is two or more of the above 2. c. b. d. then flies directly to the lake. A pilot sees a local shopping mall and flies toward it. following the VOR needle until s/he gets to the station. c. A pilot tunes a VOR and determines the track to the station is 030°.Navigation for Professional Pilots Sample Questions 1 1. S/he flies a heading of 220 until the lake comes into sight. d.

c. A pilot follows a road to a particular intersection then flies heading 360 until the airport comes into view. This is DR navigation This is pilotage navigation This is radio navigation This is two or more of the above Page 17 . d.Navigation for Professional Pilots 5. b. a.

pressure. chemistry of the atmosphere. In the thermosphere temperature begins to rise again. stratosphere. and the force of gravity collectively determine the pressure and density of the air throughout the ISA. An aircraft’s Pilot Operating Handbook (POH) specifies how the aeroplane performs under standard.Navigation for Professional Pilots Pressure and Density Altitude The International Standard Atmosphere One of the valuable benefits of the International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) is that it makes it possible for manufacturers of aircraft to provide data for pilots to use in flight planning. The standard temperature is 15 C at sea level and decreases 1. The temperature.e. You can find more details on this in your aerodynamics text. To use the POH data pilots must determine what pressure altitude (PA) and density altitude (DA) the aeroplane will fly at. and thermosphere.100 feet the temperature has reached -56 C.98 C per thousand feet in the troposphere. Page 18 .e. The chemical makeup of the atmosphere does not change with altitude. The ISA is simply a temperature model. By 36. but no civilian aeroplanes fly that high so we will ignore the thermosphere. In the Stratosphere temperature remains isothermal (constant temperature) at -56 C. The ISA is divided into temperature layers known as the troposphere. i. and density are inextricably connected to each other by a law of physics called the gas law. It is important to realize that temperature. it specifies how temperature changes in the atmosphere. The gas law states that pressure is proportional to density and temperature. i. ISA conditions.

000 Temp C 15.Navigation for Professional Pilots Aircraft performance depends on air density but airplanes do not come with an instrument to measure it.74 -12.000 5.001596 0.001496 ISA Altitude 0 1.84 24.000 7.76 -10.58 19.90 23. When a pilot sets the altimeter scale to 29.002175 0.000 6.09 22. Pilots do not have a barometer (an instrument for measuring air pressure) to measure pressure in units of inches of mercury.82 25.000 14.002111 0.14 -0.002241 0. but in effect it is giving the air pressure from the table above.001927 0.001701 0.002308 0.02 11.03 18.82 26.23 21.92 it reads an altitude.92 altimeter reads an altitude called pressure altitude.001756 0.80 -6.86 27.001869 0.84 -2. If the pressure altitude is 4.89 Density 3 slugs / ft 0.72 -14.000 10.001648 0.98 23.000 15.78 -8.06 7.39 20.000 2.001545 0.04 9. In the ISA the following values apply: Pressure Inches Hg 29.58 16.82 -4.000 11. Once set to 29.000 9.002048 0.000 12.001987 0.30 17.002377 0.000’ the air pressure is 25.84 as shown in the table above.79 19.000 4.12 1.92 28.00 13.70 Pressure Altitude The most convenient instrument available to pilots for measuring air pressure is the aircraft altimeter. The gas law relates air density to these two values. which measures air pressure.001811 0. They do however have a thermometer to measure temperature and an altimeter.10 3. Fill in the values for air pressure in the table below: Page 19 .000 13.08 5.000 8.000 3.

so we need a method to estimate pressure altitude. Notice that in the ISA pressure drops about one inch of mercury for every thousand feet up to 10. To calculate pressure altitude we need to know the current altimeter setting and the actual altitude of the altimeter setting source. This is not convenient for flight planning however.000’ 7.06 x 1000 = +1060.Navigation for Professional Pilots Pressure Altitude Air pressure Inches Hg Sea level 3000’ 5. This is an approximation. This is convenient since it means we can flight plan without needing access to an altimeter.000 9. but it is pretty close.86 +1.000’. In this case the air pressure is 28. Armed with this knowledge it is possible to calculate the pressure altitude without using an actual altimeter.92 and read the value on the instrument. First a very simple example: An airport at sea level (such as CYVR) reports an altimeter setting of 28.86 and the pressure altitude is 1000’ as we can see from the table above. Therefore pressure altitude = altimeter source altitude + correction Sea level + 1060 = 1060 Page 20 . How would we calculate this mathematically? Standard setting: Altimeter setting: Difference 29.06 Correction equals 1.92 28.86.000 The only way to get a precise pressure altitude is to set a calibrated altimeter to 29.

which states that air density is proportional to air pressure and inversely proportional to air temperature. Density Altitude Density altitude represents the altitude in the ISA with the equivalent air density. You should keep in mind that the calculation of pressure altitude results in estimation. Remember that when the altimeter setting is more than 29. Below is a more complex pressure altitude calculation in which the altimeter source is not at sea level.75 x 1000 = -750 Pressure altitude = altimeter source altitude + correction Pressure altitude = 3456 – 750 = 2706 Rounding off. To get a precise pressure altitude you must use a calibrated altimeter. Altimeter source altitude: 3456 feet Altimeter setting: 30. Once you know the pressure altitude (in effect the air pressure) and air temperature.92 it is like flying at a lower altitude. TIP: You may find it hard to remember whether to add or subtract the correction from the altimeter source altitude. Page 21 . and vice versa. This small error is acceptable for flight planning purposes.67 Difference -0.67 Standard setting: 29. density altitude can be calculated in accordance with the gas law. estimate pressure altitude as 2700 feet.Navigation for Professional Pilots Notice that the calculation gives a value of 1060’ when the correct value is 1000’.92 Altimeter setting 30.75 Correction = -0.

Navigation for Professional Pilots

Many Pilot Operating Handbooks are designed so that it is not necessary to calculate density altitude since the manufacturer provides performance charts based on pressure altitude and temperature. This is wise on their part because calculating density altitude accurately requires a complex formula. The C-172 and King Air manuals you will use in this course have charts based on pressure altitude and temperature. In effect the density altitude calculation is incorporated into the charts. For these airplanes it is not necessary to calculate density altitude. Our B95 charts are based on density altitude, and therefore you must calculate its value. Because temperature is usually close to standard a reasonable estimation of density altitude can be made by adjusting pressure altitude 120 feet for every degree the temperature varies from standard. For example if the temperature is 3 C colder than ISA then density altitude will be 3 x120 = 360 lower than the pressure altitude. If air temperature is 5 C above standard then density altitude will be 600 feet higher than the pressure altitude.

DA = PA + 120ΔT

[ΔT is deviation from standard temperature]

TIP: Warm air is less dense air and thus density altitude is greater when the air is warm.

TIP: The KLN90b GPS has a built in density altitude calculator. You can use it to get a more accurate density altitude. The KLN90b in the piston simulators can be used just as well as the ones in the airplanes.

Page 22

Navigation for Professional Pilots

Sample Questions 2

1. The altimeter source altitude is 1000, altimeter setting is 28.92, temperature at 1000 feet is 15 C. Calculate the pressure altitude (PA) and the density altitude (DA)

2.

The altimeter source altitude is 7000, altimeter setting is 28.92, temperature at 7000 feet is 15 C. Calculate the pressure altitude (PA) and the density altitude (DA)

3.

The altimeter source altitude is 8500, altimeter setting is 30.86, temperature at 8500 feet is 22 C. Calculate the pressure altitude (PA) and the density altitude (DA)

4.

altimeter source altitude is 1624, altimeter setting is 30.35, temperature at 1624 feet is 18 C. Calculate the pressure altitude (PA) and the density altitude (DA)

5.

The altimeter source altitude is 1624, altimeter setting is 29.71, temperature at 1624 feet is 7 C. Calculate the pressure altitude (PA) and the density altitude (DA)

**Cold Temperature Corrections
**

The altimeter in an airplane does not actually read altitude; it reads static air pressure and displays this as an altitude based on the following assumed pressure/altitude correspondence: Indicated Altitude 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 ISA Ps(Hg) 29.92 28.86 27.82 26.82 25.84 24.90 23.98 23.09 pressure difference 1.10 1.06 1.03 1.00 0.97 0.95 0.92 0.89 Measured Pressure 29.92 28.86 27.82 26.82 25.84 24.90 23.98 23.09

Page 23

Navigation for Professional Pilots

8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 13,000 14,000 15,000 16,000 17,000 18,000 19,000 20,000

22.23 21.39 20.58 19.79 19.03 18.30 17.58 16.89 16.22 15.57 14.95 14.34 13.76

0.86 0.84 0.81 0.79 0.76 0.74 0.71 0.69 0.67 0.65 0.63 0.61 0.59

22.23 21.39 20.58 19.79 19.03 18.30 17.58 16.89 16.22 15.57 14.95 14.34 13.76

This table is correct for an altimeter set with the Colesman scale on 29.92 The table shows that an altimeter “assumes” pressure will drop 1.10 inches of Mercury between sea level and 1000 feet and then drop 1.06 between 1000’ and 2000’ etc. Consequently an altimeter set to 29.92 will read 7000 feet when the air pressure is 23.09 regardless of how high the airplane really is. The Colesman scale on the altimeter simply “slips” the above scale to reset the zero point, as shown in the diagram below, which is for an altimeter set to 30.44

Page 24

Navigation for Professional Pilots

Indicated Altitude 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 13,000 14,000 15,000 16,000 17,000 18,000 19,000 20,000

ISA Ps(Hg) 29.92 28.86 27.82 26.82 25.84 24.90 23.98 23.09 22.23 21.39 20.58 19.79 19.03 18.30 17.58 16.89 16.22 15.57 14.95 14.34 13.76

pressure difference 1.10 1.06 1.03 1.00 0.97 0.95 0.92 0.89 0.86 0.84 0.81 0.79 0.76 0.74 0.71 0.69 0.67 0.65 0.63 0.61 0.59

Measured Pressure 30.44 29.38 28.34 27.34 26.36 25.42 24.50 23.61 22.75 21.91 21.10 20.31 19.55 18.82 18.10 17.41 16.74 16.09 15.47 14.86 14.28

This table is correct for an altimeter with the Colesman scale set to 30.44. When the actual air pressure is 30.44 the altimeter reads zero.

Page 25

This is particularly important if you will deviate from any specified altitude such as a missed approach altitude or an altitude on a DME arc. etc.17 specifies our legal obligation to calculate a temperature correction. More likely the pressure drop will vary from that shown and thus the true altitude will not correspond to the indicated altitude. Equation from RAC 9. This is very dangerous for any pilot flying in instrument conditions and using the altimeter to avoid mountain tops. In order of preference in use they are: 1.04 x (ISA deviation) / 10 x (Height AGL) [RAC 9. If the air pressure between ground level and 13. the corresponding formula is: Temperature Correction = . Any temperature correction that an over flying airplane makes need only be applied to the atmosphere between ground level and the true altitude of the airplane. A correction is required any time temperatures are significantly below standard. Memorize the rule of thumb and be able to use it.17 specifies that you should also report deviations from FAF crossing altitude and MDA. In the table above you can see that when the air pressure is 18. Normal practice among pilots is to make a correction anytime ground temperature is 0°C or colder. Three methods of making the correction will be presented in this course. This rule of thumb should only be used down to temperatures of -15°C.Navigation for Professional Pilots IMPORTANT: altimeter settings are determined with an instrument located at the airport. Since this is only a hypothetical possibility it is not important.17 recommends allowing 4% height increase for every 10°C below standard temperature.000 drops exactly as shown in the table the altitude will be correct. but the altimeter will read 0 feet if the actual air pressure is 30.82 the altimeter reads 13.17] The above formula gives the required correction.37) is only hypothetical.44. 2. Remember to keep ATC informed of what altitude you are flying. The actual sea level pressure may not be 30. but as these are minimum altitudes that you Page 26 .44 on that day. Taking the above table as an example.44. which should then be added to the desired altitude to get the indicated altitude you will fly in order to be safe. The pressure difference between 3000 and sea level shown in the above table (30. RAC 9. 3. Thus we must correct for temperature error any time the temperature is cold. This will happen regardless of the true altitude.000 feet. Pressure decreases more rapidly in cold dense air. RAC 9. If the air pressure declines with altitude more rapidly than the above table the true altitude will be lower than the indicated altitude. because that is where the altimeter setting instrument is located.17 Table in CAP GEN CR RAC 9.44 – 27. if a particular airport is at 3000 asl an altimeter adjusted to read 3000 at that airport will “report” an altimeter setting of 30. The thing to realize is that an altimeter setting permits the altimeter to read the correct altitude at the airport (3000 in the example).

for example adding 5000 and 3000 to get 8000. Page 27 . If you use the equation above you get a more accurate correction for airports that are above sea level. you must consider carefully whether any conflict with other traffic could result from your temperature correction and keep ATC informed as necessary. When doing this always round up each value obtained in order ensure safety. Note that RAC 9.Navigation for Professional Pilots can choose to be above on any approach most pilots do not report these deviations. It is common practice among pilots to use the table by summing values. Many mountain approaches however have procedure turn and intermediate segment altitudes higher than 5000 AGL.17 states that the table is not valid for heights more than 5000 ASL. For temperature colder than -15°C use the table in the CAP GEN. This table can also be used for temperatures of 0°C and -10°C. However. however it is based on an airport at sea level and therefore gives conservative corrections for airports that are higher than sea level. To use the table in the CAP GEN follow the instructions provided with the table.

BE95 King Air Manual Other Transport category aircraft Accurately interpolate tabular data a. In such cases you must flight plan for a power setting different from that normally used. Interpolation and Accurate Drawing Skill To use the various charts in your aircraft POHs you must learn two skills: 1. but that can be achieved if slower than normal speeds are used. and graph cannot be provided here. b.Navigation for Professional Pilots Performance Charts You must master the use of all the performance graphs. Accurately drawing lines on graphical performance charts a. or some other situation requires a non-standard power setting. You will be given assignments to practice these skills. For example you might be asked to ferry an airplane over a distance that exceeds its normal range. but most are self explanatory. unless the instructions indicate otherwise. The aviation Intranet provides links to many electronic aids that ease your flight planning chores. b. Normal aviation industry practice is for flight departments to establish a cruise power setting and use it for all but “special” flight situations. you might be asked to brake-in a new engine by operating it at 75% power for a certain number of hours. and tables in the C-172P POH. You will be using these aids daily as you prepare for flights but it is CRITICAL that you can perform the calculations without them should the need arise. c. Page 28 . Supplements to the C-172P POH are found in Appendix 14 of your Program Manual. and your Alsim (King Air) manual. Consequently the assignments in this course – and the quizzes and exams – are to be completed without these online aids. Beechcraft Travelair Pilot Information Manual. making it possible to plan a flight in a much shorter time. or an unusually high speed. 2. C-172 manual King Air cruise tables CAP GEN temperature Correction charts Both these skills are vital. A complete explanation of how to use each chart. but if these are not enough you must practice until you perfect the skill. table. Assignments are provided for you to practice using these planning aids and to confirm that you are using them accurately. A special situation is one in which either an unusually long range is needed. charts. c. Alternatively. Practice these skills using the computer simulations provided for that purpose.

On our Intranet website several electronic aids have been provided. you must be able to do all the calculations long-hand when needed. It is much quicker and easier to use. They are similar to the professional flight training aids used by modern airlines. The ENL contains a weight and balance calculator for quick. These electronic planning aids are much quicker and easier to use than the paper products. IAS. Electronic Charts for the Travelair The aviation Intranet contains several electronic aids for B95 flight planning. which makes things very quick. so be sure to master them. In all your assignments in Avia 160 use the paper charts.e. Use it prior to all flights to get your normal takeoff distance. The ENL has a built in weight and balance sheet.Navigation for Professional Pilots Electronic Charts for the C-172P The paper charts described above are all that you need to plan for any flight. For the C-172P you will find: C-172 Electronic Takeoff Chart Electronic Navlog (ENL) –includes weight and balance The Normal Takeoff distance graph is an electronic version of the two graphs in the C-172 Flight Planning Supplement. it performs the functions of a flight computer. groundspeed. a cruise performance calculator. Use the tables on pages 5-12 and 5-13 when short field operation is called for. and accurate. rpm. TIP: Remember that even though you will be using the electronic navlog for your day-to-day flying. ETE and fuel required for the flight i. The BE95 Electronic Takeoff Chart also calculates accelerate go and accelerate stop distance. as well as single engine climb performance. easy and accurate weight and balance calculations. It also calculates drift. The navlog automatically determines TAS. When doing assignments you should do all the calculations by hand and then use the electronic navlog to see if you made a mistake. Navlogs are covered later in this course. Page 29 . The weight and balance calculator eliminates the need to use the charts in section 6 of the POH. You will use these electronic aids for your day-to-day flight operations in the aviation program. They work essentially the same as the ones for the C-172. and a Navlog calculator. CAS. and Accelerate Stop Distance. eliminating the need to use any charts in section 5 of the POH. On your exams you will have to calculate without the electronic aid. On all your exams you will ONLY be permitted to use these paper charts. and always gives the correct answer. It gives Normal Takeoff Distance. easy.

Navigation for Professional Pilots Performance Rules of Thumb In the section above you learned to precisely use the charts that come with your airplane. A change in weight of 10% changes takeoff distance by 20% (ratio 1:2) Most “good” grass runways require 25% more distance than a paved runway Long grass (more than 4 inches) requires 30% more runway Soft surface mud. requires 75% more runway add 10% for 1 degree of up slope add 20% for 2 degree of up slope Subtract 5% for 1 degree of down slope 90% . 12 knot headwind and Vr = 94 therefore 90% . (e.(headwind component / rotation speed)% = percent change in takeoff roll and distance to clear obstacle. etc. the charts do not cover all situations. In Avia 100 you will learn to use the above rules of thumb to make reasonable go – no go decisions in tricky takeoff situations.g. However.12/94 = 77% 110% + (tailwind component / rotation speed)% = percent change in takeoff roll and distance to clear obstacle. Page 30 . snow. Below are some rules of thumb that Transport Canada put together a number of years ago. Most manuals do not provide charts for soft or rough fields and most light aircraft charts do not allow for a sloped runway for instance.

At present we know the moment of the airplane is: Mcurrent = 5000 x 47 = 23.Navigation for Professional Pilots Weight and Balance Shift As a licensed pilot you know how to calculate a weight and balance. but the aft CG limit is 45 inches what do you do? In simple terms the answer is easy. how far do you need to move it? The above question is a Transport Canada favorite on the commercial pilot and ATPL exams. if you calculate the weight and balance for an airplane and discover that it weights 5000 pounds and the CG is at 47 inches aft of the datum. but an important exercise you may not be familiar with is shifting a CG by a specified amount. you shift some freight forward. For example we could shift 1000 pounds forward 1 inch. so it must be moved 1000/400 = 2.500 The secret is to realize that the desired moment is: Mdesired = 5000 x 45 = 22. In summary: Step 1: Calculate the current moment and desired moment.500 The difference in moment. The solution is quite simple if you remember the meaning of the concept known as moment. Step 2: Move the freight by an amount equal to moment-shift / weight-of-freight Page 31 .5 inches. subtract to get the desired moment shift. only that we move it forward at least 2. which is 1000 could be created by an infinite number of possible weight shift. or 500 pounds by 2 inches. etc. For example. In this case we have been told to shift 400 pounds of freight. Let’s say you have 400 pounds to shift forward. An important point to notice is that it makes no difference what the current location of this freight is.5 inches. A moment is: weight x arm.

There is 600 pounds of freight at 104 inches aft of the datum. Page 32 . Shift this weight to at least: a) 85 b) 75 c) 65 d) 55 Your calculations should reveal that: Mcurrent = 9000 x 73 = 657000 Mdesired = 9000 x 71 = 639000 M-change = 18000 CG-shift = 18000 / 600 = 30 The answer is therefore: 104 – 30 = 74. Since the next lowest option is 65 that is the correct choice on this multiple choice question. The aft CG limit is 71 inches aft of the datum. but that is WRONG.Navigation for Professional Pilots Here is a typical transport Canada exam question. Most people will therefore choose b. If you move the weight to arm 75 it is still one inch too far back. The CG is 73 inches aft of the datum. choose the correct answer: An airplane weighs 9000 pounds.

Navigation for Professional Pilots Page 33 .

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t = time] Velocity is a vector quantity. for example temperature is really just a measure of the velocity of particles. In other words it has both magnitude and direction. To be more precise Groundspeed and direction of flight are the fundamental concepts in navigation. are all composites of these three concepts. Even concepts that may not at first appear to be composites of the above three actually are. If you don’t understand and retain it 100% there will be a problem. Once we know our groundspeed (GS) and track-made-good over the ground (TMG) we know everything we need to know to predict the time it will take to complete a flight. Mass Distance Time All other concepts from simple ones live velocity and acceleration to complex concepts such as work. 3. Think about what this means and we will discuss it in class. The Fundamental Concepts of Physics In Newtonian Physics there are three fundamental concepts upon which everything else is based: 1.Chapter 2 This chapter introduces you to the fundamental concepts of navigation. Mass – Distance – Time. From the above definition come two crucial deductions: d = Vt T = V/d Velocity Expressed as Airspeed Velocity is THE fundamental concept in navigation. and two useful deductions from the definition Velocity is the simplest of the composite concepts in physics: V = d/t [d = distance. Unfortunately there is a confusing array of speeds that we must learn to sort through: . Everything in this chapter is vital. etc. 2. power. The direction is imparted to the velocity by the orientation of the distance. so review this material often. which in turn is the composite of distance and time. energy. Definition of Velocity.

) An airplane always stalls at a certain EAS. You can also determine TAS in flight by reading your IAS and applying correction for: Position error (aka. 3. Think of EAS as the pressure you would feel on your face if the airplane had an open cockpit. This value is normally forecast in the POH for the airplane. Unfortunately airspeed indicators do not show EAS either. Groundspeed (GS) (which is TAS + wind) Indicated airspeed (IAS) Calibrated airspeed (CAS) Equivalent airspeed (EAS) True airspeed (TAS) Accurate flight planning requires accurate knowledge of TAS and GS. calibration error) Compression error Density error See diagram below for the hierarchy of airspeed errors. You should already know that an airspeed indicator (ASI) does not show TAS. 4. 2. 5. Unfortunately we must learn to deal with the undesirable IAS and CAS True Airspeed (TAS) True airspeed tells us how fast the airplane moves through the air.Navigation for Professional Pilots 1. Page 36 . In summary – life for pilots would be much better if there was only EAS and TAS. and we always fly our approach at a certain EAS. It is NOT desirable to have an ASI show TAS even if it could. so we must learn to convert indicated airspeed (IAS) to Calibrated Airspeed (CAS) and then to EAS and finally TAS. What a pilot actually requires to fly safely is the Equivalent Airspeed (EAS.

000 feet there will an error.) Most of the calibration error is due to the position of the static vent on the fuselage. Calibrated airspeed is pretty close to equivalent airspeed in most cases. So we must learn how to convert indicated airspeed (IAS) into EAS. Page 37 . above 200 knots and 20. The calibration chart is found in the POH. for these airplanes you may feel free to say that EAS = CAS. density of air divided by sea level standard density] Indicated and Calibrated Airspeed (IAS and CAS) In an ideal world the airspeed indicator would show EAS. At very slow speeds (high angle of attack) there will be a significant error. Most of the time it is reasonable to assume that the indicated speed is the same as equivalent speed. The good news is that there is usually not much difference between IAS and EAS. Indicated airspeed is by definition the speed shown on the airspeed indicator. i. Unfortunately airspeed indicators are not perfect.Navigation for Professional Pilots Equivalent Airspeed (EAS) The equivalent airspeed compares flight at altitude to flight at sea level. The calibration chart compensates for the imperfect measurement of Pitot tube and static port on the airplane. When we say that an airplane is cruising at 300 KEAS we are saying that it experiences the same dynamic pressure as an airplane flying at 300 knots at sea level on a standard day. Once you apply the correction factor you will have calibrated airspeed (CAS. Mathematically: TAS = EAS/√σ [σ is the density ratio. So.e. TAS = EAS at sea level TAS > EAS at all altitudes above sea level. In fact the difference between EAS and CAS is less than one knot for airplanes flying less than 200 knots and less than 20.000 feet. Like any instrument and airspeed indicator is imperfect and as such a calibration chart must be provided. and also at very high speeds and high altitudes. That covers both the C-172P and Travelair. therefore calibration error is frequently called position error.

if you use the “professional method” for converting CAS to TAS. then CAS to EAS. ICE-T To convert from IAS to TAS it is necessary to apply the corrections in the proper order. Compression refers to the fact that air entering a Pitot tube is compressed and thus its pressure rises. but that is because the EAS compensation is built into the computer. Page 38 . We cover use of the CR later. The “simple method” DOES NOT allow for compression error. Remember that with the CR you go directly from CAS to TAS. CAS is always more than EAS. use the pneumonic ICE-T. To remember the sequence. So an airplane flying at 250 KCAS at 30. consequently airspeed indicators always over read. Your CR flight computer automatically applies compression correction.000 feet is experiencing less than 250 KEAS. Always convert IAS to CAS.000 feet (which includes the King Air) it will be necessary to apply a compression correction factor.Navigation for Professional Pilots For any airplane flying above 20. then EAS to TAS.

If you release your balloon into this air mass it will be 15 NM south after one hour. In the southern domestic airspace. The earth spins around an axis that passes through the north and south poles. Straight lines drawn between the poles are called meridians of longitude. and you will find it marked on your maps. and Magnetic) Heading is the direction that TAS acts. etc. If the air is perfectly calm it will float straight up.e. As a pilot you must consult the deviation card and take it into account when setting the heading indicator to correspond to the compass. i. at least over a distance of a few miles. but always in units of degrees. Imagine that your balloon rises a few hundred feet and then maintains that altitude. true. The error in the compass is called deviation. moving south. You follow it and discover that it more-or-less drifts in a straight line. Heading can be expressed in magnetic. The primary complication in navigation planning involves allowing for this movement of the air (wind) i. pilots set their heading indicators to magnetic. Compass Deviation Like any piece of equipment a compass is never calibrated perfectly. 30 NM south after two hours. Heading is expressed as an angle from north. The magnetic North Pole is many miles from the real North Pole and thus there is a difference between magnetic headings and true headings. Wind is described by specifying the direction the air is coming from and how fast. but on most days you will see it drift sideways. allowing for drift. Fortunately it generally moves in a steady continuous fashion. Each aircraft compass comes with a deviation card that shows the extent of the error. 15 nautical miles every hour. This is important because it will be difficult to flight plan if air moves in random fashion. Page 39 . This horizontal motion results from the air mass moving relative to the ground. In that case the headings displayed on the heading indicator are true headings. The difference is called variation. or grid. When we say the wind is north at 15 knots we are saying that it is coming from the north.e. Meridians appear on your map and you will learn to orient your protractor to these lines of longitude when measuring the true track (TT. Movement of the air is wind. We will be covering map theory in detail later. When flying over the poles neither true nor magnetic heading reference is satisfactory.Navigation for Professional Pilots Heading (True. These lines define true north.) In the northern domestic airspace pilots set their heading indicators to true. In such cases another reference system known as grid is used. Wind and Drift Imagine stepping outside with a helium-filled balloon and letting it float away.

but the movement of the air (wind) adds to the net movement of the airplane never-the-less. that an airplane does also.Navigation for Professional Pilots Most people find it pretty easy to visualize a balloon drifting in the wind. Wind Triangle: GS = TAS + Wind The most fundamental concept of navigation is: Groundspeed = True Airspeed + Wind GS = TAS + wind All three of these entities are vectors. Draw a vertical line roughly in the center of the paper which we will use to represent a meridian of longitude (i. Do NOT think of wind as something that happens in the air but as a property of the whole air mass you fly in. An airplane moves through the air. all we have to do is remember how to add two vectors. We will simply draw a picture. To explore the meaning of drift examine the simulation called Drift on the Intranet website. For our first sample problem we wish to fly from airport A to airport B. No calculators or mathematics is required. it represents true north. But it must be an accurate picture so get out your navigation-ruler and protractor and follow along.e. The main difficulty is in realizing that wind is a large scale phenomenon not a stream within the air but the whole air. and in what direction. The wind is from 270° at 20 knots. When dead reckoning you start with a known true airspeed and a forecast wind plus a track you wish to fly.) We will now learn the simplest method of solving the above problem. which a balloon does not. Your task is to determine the heading that is required to maintain that track and the resulting groundspeed (so that you can calculate time to destination. While it is obvious that a balloon drifts it is equally true. The airplane flies at a true airspeed of 100 knots. Page 40 . So. if less obvious. The distance between them is 240 NM and the true track is 050°. We put it in the lower left quadrant because we are going to fly north-east so we want to allow room to draw the line to airport B. An airplane’s net motion is the sum of true airspeed and wind. 2.) Make a small “x” in the lower left quadrant of the sheet to represent airport A. True airspeed is a vector quantity that expresses how quickly an airplane moves through the air. Get a blank piece of paper and complete the following steps: 1.

Your sheet should now look like the one below: 5. Center your protractor on airport A and orient it to north using the line of longitude.) Take your ruler and laying it accurately from the wind dot to the 270° mark measure the distance 20 NM from the TMG in the direction of the wind. At this point your paper should look like the one below: The line represents the track to airport B. (When drawing TAS-Wind triangles always place the wind vector near the destination end of the TMG.Navigation for Professional Pilots 3. Place your protractor on the TMG somewhere in the upper right quadrant. Mark 050° and then draw a line from airport A in the direction 050°.) Orient your protractor using the meridian and then mark a dot at the center of your protractor and another mark at 270° (the wind direction. Next we will draw a vector representing the wind. 4.) We don’t need to mark on airport B. We call this the track-made-good (TMG. Page 41 .

Set your measuring compass (shown above) to exactly 100 NM (the TAS.Navigation for Professional Pilots The most accurate way to perform the next step is with a measuring instrument known by geometers as a compass. but it will likely be less accurate. If you don’t have one it is possible to measure with a ruler. Your diagram should now look like the one below: Page 42 .) Put the tip of the compass at the beginning of the wind vector and draw an arc that intersects the TMG near airport A. 6.

and it should look like the one below: Page 43 . the wind vector must be exactly 20NM long and the arc must be exactly 100NM long. This line is exactly 100 NM long and it represents the true airspeed. If these conditions are met you will get an accurate wind triangle. 7. The diagram is now complete. Draw a line from the point where the arc cuts the TMG to the beginning of the wind vector.Navigation for Professional Pilots To work properly a TAS-Wind triangle must be drawn accurately. The TMG must be exactly 050°.

it is your groundspeed. The distance is 115 NM. This represents the distance flown in one hour – i. and drift angle is 8°. The heading you must fly is represented by the TAS vector and you can measure it with your protractor. It is NOT necessary to draw the full picture but if we did it would look like the one below: Page 44 . If you drew your diagram accurately true heading is 042°.Navigation for Professional Pilots The angle labeled (da) above is called the drift angle. We now have all the items we set out to determine: True heading: 042° Ground speed 115 Knots From this we can calculate the amount of time it takes to fly the 240Nm from airport A to airport B.e. Measure the distance from the arc to the point where the wind vector intersects the TMG.

as you can see it is in proportional to the length of the trip. This model can be applied using an electronic calculator or a CR flight computer. Definitions: Crosswind and Headwind TAS-Wind triangles are excellent for visualizing drift and determining groundspeed. Thus we will introduce a mathematical model for determining drift and groundspeed. Page 45 . The flight from airport A to airport B takes 2:05 during which time the airplane drifts a total of 42 NM. so da is the same in both triangles. But. which is represented by the line labeled “wind/whole trip” above. but they are a bit unwieldy for practical flight planning.Navigation for Professional Pilots The purpose of the above diagram is to convince you that the net drift for the entire trip is proportional to drift for one hour.

which is the course that is to be flown. Drift Angle Defined From the diagram above the relationship between drift-angle (da) crosswind (XW) and TAS is easy to see. tailwind. Tailwind. To see an active version of this definition examine the simulation called Crosswind. and crosswind are all relative to the TMG. It is critical to remember that XW and TW are by definition relative to TMG not TAS. headwind. but this is NOT correct. In slang pilots refer to tailwind as “wind on the tail” which implies that it is relative to the airplane.Navigation for Professional Pilots The wind vector in the above diagram has been broken into two components. this is a common mistake. tailwind. Rather than memorize this you should be able to reproduce the defining diagram and extract the definition from it: da = Sin-1(XW/TAS) Groundspeed Defined The following diagram extends the one above to define groundspeed (GS) Page 46 . drift angle definitions on the Intranet website. crosswind (XW) and tailwind (TW) that are perpendicular and parallel to TMG respectively.

To this value the tailwind must be added to get groundspeed. That is to say that cosine of a small angle is almost one. but to get the precise value the cosine of drift angle must be applied. Calculation of Crosswind and Tailwind The above definitions show how we will use crosswind and tailwind to determine drift angle and groundspeed. but the CR also makes this allowance as we will see. The formula is: GS = cos(da) x TAS + TW It is very worthwhile to realize that as long as da is small there is not much difference between cos(da) x TAS and TAS. To do that we must know the relative wind angle (rwa) as defined in this diagram: Page 47 . Thus when performing a quick estimate of groundspeed it is usually acceptable to add tailwind directly to TAS. What is missing is a method of determining crosswind and tailwind. It is quite obvious that you can do this with an electronic calculator.Navigation for Professional Pilots Note that TAS forms the hypotenuse of a right-triangle the base of which equals cos(da) x TAS.

Note that these values match the ones previously determined using the TAS-Wind Triangle. The CR flight computer performs the same calculation. TW. The explanation of how to use the CR wind side starts on page 30 of the Jeppesen CR manual. as described above. In the example problem the wind speed is 20 knots and the relative wind angle is 40° therefore XW = sin(40) x 20 = 13 knots and TW = cos(40) x 20 = 15 knots. The CR has a “wind disc” that allows you to visually determine XW and TW and a logarithmic outer scale that determines da and cos(da) x TAS.Navigation for Professional Pilots The relative wind angle is the absolute value of the angle between the wind direction and the track made good. say A x B = C then Log(A) + Log(B) = Log(C). The CR performs the calculations described above by taking advantage of the mathematical fact that when multiplying two numbers. da. Page 48 . and GS with a CR Now that we know the mathematical formulae and can apply them with any electronic calculator (or spreadsheet) we will learn to more easily evaluate them using the wind side of the CR computer. Determining XW. Using these values the drift angle and -1 groundspeed can be calculated. Drift angle is da = sin (13/100) = 7° and groundspeed is GS = cos(7) x 100 + 15 = 115 knots. In the example above the wind direction is 090° and the track made good is 050°. The relative wind angle is therefore 40°. Once we know the relative wind angle the crosswind and tailwind can be calculated by simple trigonometry as: XW = sin(rwa) x Windspeed TW = cos(rwa) x Windspeed The above formulae can be used to determine crosswind and tailwind with an electronic calculator.

Navigation for Professional Pilots There are a few minor terminology differences between your CR manual and those used in this text.) Once you have worked through the CR manual try the following sample problems: Sample Problems: Given TAS. TW. when flying it is often necessary to change course without the opportunity to accurately recalculate the drift. Read pages 30 to 50 doing all the sample problems (the short section on addition and subtraction on page 32 can be skipped. we will use the term drift angle for both. In VFR flight you are already familiar with the need to plan a diversion should weather Page 49 . da. and GS: TAS 100 100 100 100 155 155 350 350 80 80 460 460 True Wind 270/20 270/20 270/20 270/20 330/30 330/30 080/15 080/15 120/25 120/25 320/140 320/140 TC 050 330 130 220 300 180 100 010 090 210 270 170 XW TW Da GS Drift Estimation The accurate mathematical calculation of drift angle and groundspeed as explained above can be performed with an electronic calculator.) Jeppesen draws a distinction between drift angle and crab-angle. However. a spreadsheet. wind. Numerous IFR examples come to mind. for example when cleared to hold or to do an approach the pilot must establish a designated course (TMG) or when the assigned route is changed drift must be determined on the new route. and desired true course (TC) determine XW. For example TMG is the same as what Jeppesen calls true course (TC. a CR. or a computer program.

Locate the magnetic wind direction on the heading indicator and determine how many degrees from the nose or tail of the course bar the wind is. To estimate crosswind and headwind use your heading indicator (HI) or preferably and HSI. If your aircraft has an HSI set the desired course on the course-bar. Now you must memorize the following three proportions: Page 50 . The is the relative wind angle.Navigation for Professional Pilots or some other circumstance require you to change course. so you must apply variation to get the magnetic wind. You will need to know the magnetic wind. as though it is a CR. A good pilot always knows the wind direction and speed.) Estimate XW and TW The first step is to estimate crosswind and tailwind. Remember that the upper wind forecast is in true. It is therefore extremely valuable to have a technique for estimating drift and groundspeed using only mental calculation (estimations.

Navigation for Professional Pilots Page 51 .

Similarly. These percentages must be memorized. Had the wind been 30° from the tail (reciprocal of course) the only difference would be that the tailwind would be 27 knots.Navigation for Professional Pilots In the above diagrams it is assumed that the pilot turned so that the desired course TC or TMG is “on the nose. Use this method to estimate the XW and TW for the following sample problems: Wind speed 20 20 20 30 30 30 40 40 40 Angle from nose or tail 30 from course 45 from course 60 from course 30 from tail 45 from tail 60 from tail On the course On the tail “On the wingtip” i. And finally.” (This point is covered again below in the description of the simulation called Drift Estimation Challenge. 90° from course XW HW Note that when the wind is “on the nose” it is all headwind with zero crosswind. not the heading. It seems like it will be much more difficult to estimate da since we need to evaluate the equation da = sin 1 (XW/TAS).e. It is crucial to realize that in this case we are using the word nose to represent the course. If the wind is 45° from the course or tail then 70% is crosswind and 70% is tailwind or headwind. If there is a 30 knot wind and 50% is crosswind and 90% is headwind then crosswind is 15 knots and headwind is 27 knots. This example corresponds to a wind 30° from the course. if the wind is 60° from the course or tail then 90% is crosswind and 50% is headwind or tailwind. Once we know the headwind or tailwind we can estimate the groundspeed by subtracting or adding to the true airspeed.) If the wind is 30° from the course or tail then 50% of it is crosswind and 90% tailwind or headwind. so for estimation purposes we can say that GS = TAS + TW or GS = TAS – HW. if the wind is “on the wingtip” it is all crosswind with no headwind or tailwind. We learned previously that we should first multiply TAS by cos(da) but this typically makes only one or two knots difference. While this sounds impossible to do in your head there is a simple mathematical trick that - Page 52 . When “on the tail” it is all tailwind with no crosswind.

by dividing arc-length by radius. in units of radians.e. Next we will look at how we can substitute the definition of the radian as an approximation for estimating drift angle.Navigation for Professional Pilots makes it quite simple. the above definitions are precisely valid. To convert ra to units of degrees multiply by 180 and divide by pi.) The angle ra can be precisely determined. To explain we will review the definition of the angle unit called radians. i. and the formula for circumference of a circle. Page 53 . It is important to recognize the close relationship between arc-length and the subtended angle (ra. Note that so far no approximations have been made. This may not be sounding like something that will be easy to do in your head but stick with me.

e. The point to notice is that the length of XW is very nearly the same as the length on an arc drawn from TAS to TMG. It is important for you to memorize the magic number of the airplanes you fly. “This still doesn’t seem too easy to do in my head. Magic number is simply TAS x Π / 180 i. For small values of da it is reasonable to say that acr-length = XW. It is helpful to know Page 54 .Navigation for Professional Pilots Examine the diagram above that redefines XW as the wind component perpendicular to TMG.” There is one final step that transforms the above equation into a simple method. Since we want da in units of degrees the formula becomes: Da = (XW x (180/Π)) / TAS You may be thinking. That being the case da in radians equals XW/TAS. it is called the “Magic Number. it is simply: da = XW / Magic Number Magic Number Magic number was introduced in the previous section.” Since TAS is the same from day-to-day we can calculate the value TAS time pi divided by 180 and memorize this number. TAS / 57. Once you know the magic number for your airplane drift is easy to estimate.3. we call it the magic number.

Navigation for Professional Pilots your magic number for both cruise and hold/approach speeds so that you can estimate drift in cruise as well as holds and approaches. then drift angle equals crosswind divided by magic number. and King Air have been left blank for you to fill in. above 180 KTAS determine magic number to the nearest whole number. Since magic number is used for estimations there is no sense in calculating it overly accurately. Simply estimate crosswind. For true airspeeds up to 180 KTAS determine magic number to the nearest ½.5 Piper cub Cessna 172 Cessna 172 Piper Arrow Beech 95 Beech 95 King Air King Air Dash 8 Lear Jet Airliner 60 KTAS 85 KTAS on approach 105 KTAS in cruise 140 KTAS in cruise 105 KTAS on approach 150 KTAS in cruise 120 KTAS on approach 220 KTAS in cruise 300 KTAS in cruise 440 KTAS in cruise 480 KTAS in cruise 2. other examples have been provided: Aircraft type True airspeed Magic Number 1 1. Travelair. as previously covered. If you are flying a Piper cub with a 20 knot crosswind drift is 20°. what would it be in a King Air.) What would drift be in a jet airliner with a magic number of 8? The answer is 2.) Page 55 .5° (20/8.5 4 5 8 8 Estimation of Drift Based on Crosswind and Magic Number Once you commit your magic number to memory estimating drift angle is easy.5 2. The answer is 5° (20/4. In the table below some magic numbers corresponding to the C-172.

You do this particular calculation so often that it seems trivial to you. etc. For example if the crosswind is 15 knots. Of course dividing any number by 10 is very simple since all you have to do is shift the decimal one place left.Navigation for Professional Pilots Complete the following drift estimations: Magic Number Crosswind (Knots) 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 6 8 25 30 20 30 45 25 30 30 30 Estimated drift angle (da) Two-bit Math The magic number of a Beech 95 in cruise is 2.5. Answer the following question: You go to the 7-11 store to by a snack for $1. but it seemed simple when you think of it as money. 33/10 is 3.67 by 0. for example 20/10 is 2. Now compare the above calculation to the one you wish to do in your head XW/2. two are required for items up to 50 cents. And so on. which will take six quarters.5. and three for items up to 75 cents. You would have freaked if I had asked you to divide 1. You most likely just remember that each dollar is four quarters and you know that one additional quarter covers items up to 25 cents.5 in your head but there is a simple trick that makes it easy. that becomes $1. therefore drift equals XW/2.3.25. Can you see how to use this trick to estimate drift angle? Simply take the XW and divide it by 10. Try the following examples for yourself: Page 56 . How many do you give the clerk? You probably had no trouble realizing you needed seven quarters to pay for your snack.25. then think of the result as the price of your snack and pay for it in quarters.5. therefore da = 6°. Anything over 75 cents would have required an eighth quarter. This is the same as saying (XW/10)/0. You may find it challenging to divide by 2.67.67/0. but you have actually just divided 1.25 in your head. You reach into your pocket and discover you have a bunch of quarters.50.

5 10 15 17 20 22 24 28 32 36 $1.5 2.Navigation for Professional Pilots Magic Number Crosswind (Knots) Dollar amount Estimated drift angle (da) 2.5 2.50 $1.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.00 $1.70 4 Page 57 .

Navigation for Professional Pilots Drift Estimation Challenge From the Intranet website you should now examine the simulation called Drift Estimation Challenge. Drift Estimation Summary In this simulation you developed the skill to estimate wind drift reliably to within two or three degrees. The drift estimation techniques from this simulation combined with the bracketing technique in the next simulation will give you all the skills you need to efficiently navigate IFR. Work your way through the first 7 sections and then do the challenge in section 8 until you can quickly score an at “ATPL” level of skill. Follow the instructions below. Page 58 . In the next simulation you will learn a technique called bracketing that will pick up from this point and allow you to determine drift to the nearest degree.

or TMG. L stands for low altitude. and GPS work. Your task is to calculate the heading that will keep you on course and the groundspeed. DME and GPS work. T stands for terminal VORs. while those where the first digit is even are VORs.” You will find further clarification about how DME works by reviewing the simulations: “DME Jitter” and “Squitters. which are the ones between 108. ADF. DME.85. VOR.75. They normally are not part of the airway structure. the desired course (TC. Read all of section 2 (Navigation Systems) in your Instrument Procedures Manual before continuing.0 to 117. under Sim-Multimedia there are several interactive tutorials covering: “How VOR Works” “How ADF Works” and “How DME Works.75 and are powerful enough for use up to 100 NM (provided the airplane is high enough – because VOR requires line of sight. VORs for use on airways have frequencies 112.75 those frequencies in which the first digit after the decimal is odd are ILS frequencies.) On the KLN-90B GPS (in the B-95 and piston simulators) the map “super-nav 5 mode” can be set to VOR TLH. To help you grasp what I mean look in your CAP and write down the frequencies for the following ILS transmitters: .) H stands for high altitude.) Once a course is established drift theory. i.Chapter 3 Introduction to Radio Navigation In this section you will learn how VOR.e.00 and 117. and DME Channel Pairing VOR receivers in airplanes are able to tune frequencies between 108. approach transitions etc. These radio aids are used to guide pilots during the enroute phase of flight. ILS.” AFTER you have reviewed all the simulations continue with the following.00 and 111. which are all the VORs used on high altitude airways (see HI charts below. It is important to have a basic understanding of how VOR.) Between 108. and Auto-standby. It is important to realize that there is no difference at all in the objectives or methods of flight planning for IFR flight and VFR flight.0 are classified as terminal VORs and usually transmit on a lower power output. which are all the VORs on Victor airways (see LO charts below. On the Intranet.75 all frequencies are VOR. VOR stations with frequencies less than 112. ADF. applies. From 112. or GPS is used to define a track over the ground. they are used for approaches. When doing radio navigation a VOR. covered above. ADF.0 to 117.00 and 111. this will explain all the navigation aids.

15 109.15 107.55 111.30 109.20 111.85 109.30 IQL To confirm your understanding of the frequency allocation system complete the following table: Frequency 107.50 IEM 109.70 109. Note above 112.low power Comment Not a valid freq Page 60 .45 112.Navigation for Professional Pilots Airport Vancouver (CYVR) Vancouver (CYVR) Vancouver (CYVR) Vancouver (CYVR) Victoria (CYYJ) Victoria (CYYJ) Abbotsford (CYXX) Kelowna (CYLW) Calgary (CYXC) Calgary (CYXC) Calgary (CYXC) Lethbridge (CYQL) Runway 26R 26L 08R 08L 09 27 07 16 16 28 34 05 ILS Ident Frequency IFZ IVR 110.0 so not an ILS Terminal .60 VOR/ILS n/a ILS VOR ILS VOR VOR Terminal – low power Airway.

with X channels corresponding to VOR and ILS frequencies that end in decimal 00 while the Y channels correspond to VOR and ILS frequencies that end in decimal 05. By convention.95. (See COM 3.30 117. There are more TACAN channels than VOR channels so the first DME channel used in civilian flying is 17 and TACANs 57 to 66 inclusive are not used either. on LO charts and in the CAP the X is dropped from DME channels – only the Y is shown.Navigation for Professional Pilots 115. etc the reception range will be less than indicated by the formula.9 corresponds to DME channel 106X. but in reality if the VOR signal is blocked by building. which corresponds to DME channel 56Y. mountains. DME channels are numbered according to the military TACAN channel. as shown in the diagram below.00.85 112. which is shown on the charts.15 114. DME channels alternate between X and Y.95 109. 40 ILS and 160 VOR. The complete list is found in your CFS section D2. There is no reason to memorize the DME channel assignments although you should understand how the frequencies are assigned. Page 61 . It is important to realize that a specific DME channel always goes with a specific VOR / ILS frequency and that is how your Nav radio is able to tune the DME without you needing to input the DME channel. Operationally there is no difference between an X channel and a Y channel – both transmit squitters on the same frequency but listen for interrogation on different frequencies therefore they will interfere with each other and must not be used in the same area. etc.70 There are a total combined 200 VOR and ILS frequencies. Because of the numbering protocol there are two VOR frequencies then two ILS frequencies. But ILS 26R is frequency 111. VOR Reception Range To receive a VOR you must be high enough to have line of sight to it.) In the diagram that follows no shadow effect is considered. but if you look on the map it just says DME Channel 106. This means that you must be above the horizon of the VOR.5 in your AIM. for example YVR frequency 115. up to 112.

A few sample values are: Altitude (agl) 1.Navigation for Professional Pilots In the diagram it is clear that the aircraft’s altitude plus the radius of the earth forms the hypotenuse of a right triangle with r and distance from VOR (s) as the other sides.000 10. Thus the recommended formula is: S = 1.000 S .000 20.23(alt). s is in NM] To receive a VOR you must be within the slant range (s) given by the equation above. Using Pythagoras’ theorem and solving for s results in an equation.500 5.5 + 9 [alt in feet. But actual reception range is not zero when at ground level.VOR reception range (NM) 50 87 123 VOR range may be limited to 150 NM by power Page 62 .

On the other hand. An RMI needle rotates so that the tail of the needle corresponds to the radial the airplane is on. if you are at 4000 agl you need to be at least 4NM away to get an accurate groundspeed. If a heading indicator fails or is set incorrectly an RMI will NOT point at the VOR. ADF. It does so even if the heading indicator is set incorrectly. In other words.) A complete list of every radio station in Canada is on page D27 of your CFS. Because of the slant range error groundspeeds calculated by a DME are not accurate when close to the station. It is important to know that DME gives “slant-range” which is the actual distance from the airplane to the DME station. When you fly over the station a DME shows your altitude in nautical miles.000 feet you need to be 40NM away to get an accurate groundspeed. DME – Final Thoughts Perhaps the most important thing to be aware of about VORs is that VOR receivers determine what radial you are on but have NO WAY of knowing the relative bearing to the VOR. The ADF in Selkirk College airplanes can tune frequencies up to 1200 (higher bands are not useable. This is distinctly different than ADF. Consequently an RMI needle can only point accurately at a VOR if the heading indicator is accurate. always points at the station.Navigation for Professional Pilots 30. As a result you will be flying on the WRONG course if your heading indicator is not accurate. An ADF. The bottom line for pilots is to know and understand the differences between VOR and ADF in normal and heading-reference-failed modes of flight.000 150+ NM – dependent of power VOR. The rule of thumb is to consider DME based groundspeed accurate only when distance from station in nautical miles is greater than altitude in thousands of feet. The simulations show that an RMI does not always point at the station. if working properly. it always does this even if the heading indicator is wrong. There is a simulation on Intranet that fully explains the indications of the various navigation displays you will encounter in this program. which you cannot do with a VOR. but if you are at 40. you can always find your way to the station even with a failed heading indicator. It examines the most common navigation indicators: Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) Standard VOR/ILS indicator Radio Magnetic Indicator (RMI) Fixed Card Indicator Page 63 . Usually you use your ADF radio with non-directional beacons (NDBs) but it can also tune commercial AM radio stations. discussed below.

Pilots should always set their clock (watch) accurately for IFR flight. Consequently GPS is more accurate than VOR or ADF for the enroute phase of flight.) There are pros and cons to this and you MUST learn to translate between both in your mind (more on that later. The theory of their operation is not part of this course.) Bracketing It might not seem so at first but radio navigation can be done in accordance with the principles of DR or pilotage. but you won’t determine the heading that keeps you on track and will thus tend to chase wildly back and forth when you get further from the station where the signal is less sensitive.e. RAIM is one method of improving warning that a failure has occurred. and you will also have a very hard time avoiding wild swings in close proximity to the station where the needle can move very quickly due to increased sensitivity. In the following description of the Nav Displays simulation marker beacons and ILS is mentioned for completeness. Thus GPS gives accurate groundspeed even when close to “the station” (of course there really is no station.) When using VOR and ADF navigation accuracy is greatest close to the stations and less accurate farther away. Avia 160. You will learn all the legal requirements for RAIM in Avia 120 and 220. i. it doesn’t work with ILS. They will be covered in Avia 260. Since GPS has no stations. GPS Navigation The basic operating principles of GPS are explained in a slide-show on our Intranet. many pilots use pilotage anyway. This material is also covered in the readings assigned above.) GPS gives distance off track rather than angle off track (VOR and ADF give angle off track. The link can be found under Avia 100. Pilotage in terms of VOR or ADF navigation means “chasing the needles.2 (Navigation systems) in the Instrument Procedures Manual. A major problem with GPS is that it can fail in certain ways without giving a warning to the pilot. When we defined these terms (review if you don’t remember the meanings) we said that DR is a more sophisticated form of navigation. Take every opportunity to set your watch to the GPS in the airplane. Read this entire slide show before continuing. Also read section 2. An important thing to realize is that a properly functioning GPS is a very accurate source of time. You will see for example that as wonderful as an HSI is it doesn’t work with ADF. Distance values displayed on a GPS are horizontal. so this is obvious when you stop to think about it. You will also see that while an RMI is a great thing to have. and Avia 260. etc. and your GPS is a legal source of accurate time. the accuracy of GPS is the same regardless of where you are on the airway. You will learn what each of these indicators looks like. (Note: the GPS in the simulators does not give accurate time.Navigation for Professional Pilots Each navigation display has its advantages.” If you simply turn so as to push the needle back where it belongs (centered for a standard VOR indicator) you will stay on course. what it displays and what it doesn’t. they are NOT slant range. Page 64 . Sadly.

This is covered in a simulation on the Intranet. as these are easier to see drift on. in the real world it can be more challenging. You will see that even in this worst-case scenario you can use bracketing to figure out drift. The technique used to find the exact amount of drift is called bracketing. In the simulation. They just wallow around the sky chasing needles back and forth. just to make things more challenging. The main ones are: A = All H = HSI S = Standard VOR Indicator R = RMI F = Fixed Card Indicator You may choose any navigation display you wish. This is an invaluable technique and one you should use every day as an IFR pilot. If you can’t fly precisely you won’t be able to take full advantage of the procedures you are learning in this course. Because winds aloft forecasts are not perfect you will need to adjust your heading enroute until you find the exact amount of drift. but it can only get you roughly to the correct heading. Load the simulation called Bracketing – Tracking Technique In the previous simulation we learned to estimate wind drift based on the forecast wind. you are not given any wind information at all. but for the first few times through this simulation you might like to have a pad of paper and write down what you have done. you won’t be one of those guys. or wallowing. The other thing you must do when bracketing is remember what headings you have been flying. I recommend that you start with HSI or ALL. There are several secret codes built into this simulation. But. Examining a written record of the headings you have flown will show whether you are “zeroing in” on the required heading. Page 65 .Navigation for Professional Pilots The secret to avoiding needle chasing is to use a technique called Bracketing. will you? To master bracketing one thing that is needed is to fly precisely. When you fly the airplane you must try to fly headings as precisely as possible. However. so you can observe which way the airplane is drifting. It should be pretty easy to remember them. Sadly many IFR pilots never master bracketing. although it is easy if you use the autopilot. In the simulation flying accurately is easy.

Read the “instructors mind” (the green box at the lower right. so you can keep up with the process.Navigation for Professional Pilots Establishing the Brackets The following explanation will take you through a tutorial using the Bracketing simulation – please complete this section while using the simulation.) Initially it says that the instructor is evaluating the heading 090.) Page 66 . Whatever heading is needed to stay on course it MUST be less than this heading. Press the 2-key The secret code places the airplane on course 090. Pretty soon the instructor sees that the needle is moving left (picture above. Set time compression to zero (0X.) Therefore he knows that 090 is too far right.) The “instructor’ mind” says 090 is the maximum heading he will ever fly. 12 miles west of the navaid. The instructor has begun searching for a left limit (see comment in instructor’s mind. the instructor is waiting to see which way the airplane will drift. Set time compression to 1X unless you have a very slow computer. Tip: set time compression to zero to freeze the motion after each turn the instructor makes.E. We call this the right hand bracket. The flying instructor is flying. Tip: as you observe the simulation you should press the 2-key to restart the sequence if it gets ahead of your reading. I.

Watch the instructor complete the above-described procedure. When the airplane is on heading 070 set time compression to zero. the instructor flies heading 085 for a few seconds until he realizes that the CDI is still moving left. After a few seconds on heading 070 the instructor sees that the CDI has begun to move to the right. so the instructor tries heading 070. The IMPORTANT point is that it only matters WHICH WAY THE NEEDLE IS MOVING. Read the instructor’s mind.” The needle still moves very slightly left on heading 075. So. All this time the instructor’s mind says. “searching for left limit. he tries 075. but the needle still moves left. If you miss part of process. So.Navigation for Professional Pilots Here is what you will see. First the instructor turns 5 degrees left. either press the 2-key again. or just want to see it happen again. Next he tries heading 080. It should now say: Minimum: 070 Evaluating: 080 Maximum: 090 Page 67 . He then waits to see what the needle does. or click the “Start Over” button.

so he established 090 as the maximum heading (right hand bracket) 2. Page 68 . After searching. The instructor realized the airplane was drifting right on heading 090. so increase time compression until he has time to think. Reading the instructor’s mind you now see that he realizes that heading 070 is less than the heading that WILL be required to stay on course.Navigation for Professional Pilots Comments: Left-limit established If it doesn’t say the above you need to give the instructor a few more seconds to think. Note that whenever the airplane gets off course the instructor will always go to (but NEVER beyond) the brackets – and will hold that heading until the airplane gets back on course. the instructor is programmed to just split the bracket into half. he establishes 070 as the minimum heading (left hand bracket) Based on the above. NOTE: The instructor will remain on heading 070 until the CDI re-centers. This commitment prevents wild chasing of the needle back and forth (a common mistake of new IFR pilots. His mind now states that the minimum heading will be 070. the instructor knows FOR SURE that the required heading to keep on course is between 070 and 090.) However. the instructor discovered that 070 was the first heading to the left that caused the CDI to move to the right.) A really good pilot could tell from all that has happened so far that the correct heading is closer to 070 than 090 (see comments below about “beating” the computerized flying instructor. In this case the brackets are 070 and 090 so the instructor decides that when he gets back on course he will try heading 080. In his mind he indicates 080 as the heading he is evaluating. This is called the left hand bracket. So. then return time compression to zero. NOTE: Whenever the airplane is off course always fly the corresponding bracket heading until back on course. To recap what has happened so far: 1.

indicating there is less than 10-degrees of drift. Set time compression to zero again. First. The CDI does not move.) Read the instructors mind. In fact he now knows. He still states that the brackets (minimum and maximum) are 070 and 090. 2. After a few seconds the CDI moves a bit to the left. The comment in his mind says that he is “trying evaluation heading. 075. he on course and flying heading 080. for sure. and then tries heading 080 to see what happens: Increase time compression Watch the instructor. He will fly heading 070 until he gets back on course. Increase time compression from zero to see what happens. There are only three possible outcomes to this situation: 1. Page 69 . and read his mind. 3. as the heading he will evaluate next. 080.e. even if he gets left of course at some point there is no need to fly a heading more than 080. he revises his maximum heading (right hand bracket) to 080 (From now on. notice that as soon as the instructor realizes he is drifting off he turns to the bracket heading (but not beyond the bracket. The CDI moves right. Increase time compression from zero and watch what happens. The revised brackets are 070 and 080. As soon as he is on course he will turn to the evaluation heading. that the CDI moves left on heading 080. indicating that 080 is the required heading. See how long it takes for you to realize the CDI is moving.) The instructor now realizes that 080 is not the correct heading to stay on course. The instructor immediately turns to his left bracket heading of 070. Set time compression to zero once the instructor gets to heading 080. So. The CDI moves left. once he is back on course.” i. indicating there is more than 10-degrees of drift. So.Navigation for Professional Pilots The instructor remains on the left bracket (070) until back on course. Now read the instructor’s mind. he chooses the midpoint.

2. Once the airplane is within a mile of the station it is best to STOP bracketing and simply fly the evaluation heading until a mile beyond the station. If the CDI moves left the brackets will again be adjusted. This tells the instructor that there is less than 15 degrees of drift. The CDI remains centered for a long time.) Usually there is no practical need to get the brackets closer than 5 degrees to each other. The computerized flying instructor is a stickler for purity so he revises the brackets to 075 and 080 and revises his drift estimate to 12. indicating there is more than 15-degrees of drift.) After one bracketing cycle the brackets have been reduced from a 20 degree span to 10 degrees.Navigation for Professional Pilots After a few seconds on the left bracket (070) the CDI is again centered and the instructor turns to heading 075.5 degrees (heading 077. The CDI does not move. Eventually the CDI starts to move right. although the instructor will keep going as far as he can. Soon they will span only 5 degrees. indicating there is less than 15-degrees of drift. So no matter what happens we will have narrowed down the drift to a five-degree range. See comments below about beating the computerized flying instructor. Can you now see how things keep going? Each time we evaluate a heading we reduce the span of the brackets in half. This tells the pilot that the drift MUST be very close to 15 degrees. His mind now says that he is evaluating heading 075 (i. Page 70 . if it moves right the brackets will become 075 & 080.) He now turns to his right bracket heading of 080 to get back on course and then tries heading 078. indicating that there is exactly 15-degrees of drift.5. becoming 070 & 075. then 2½ (in theory. The same three possibilities exist: 1. Increase time compression and watch the instructor fly past the station. The brackets are at 070 and 080 respectively. guessing that there is 15-degrees of drift. The CDI moves right. A wise pilot would take the amount of time it took the CDI to move into account and revise the drift estimate to 14-degrees. Increase time compression again to see what happens. Now the instructor is flying heading 075. slowly. The CDI moves left. 3.e.

Try secret coed 3. However. and 5 for more practice. If you “blow” a particular attempt use the “Start Over” button to try again. we hope) at station passage it is wise to “open up” the brackets slightly once bracketing begins again on the outbound leg. However. Make liberal use of setting time compression to zero. All the computerized flying instructor to demonstrate if you like.Navigation for Professional Pilots Theoretically the process continues exactly the same on the outbound leg. Press the R-key to switch to RMI and practice bracketing. 4. You can click the “You have control” button at anytime to have the computerized flying instructor take over and demonstrate the procedure to you. I fully expect that you will spend several hours with this simulation before you are comfortable with bracketing.3-dgrees. usually after each turn. Press the F-key to switch to Fixed Card Indicator and practice bracketing. The computerized flying instructor is programmed to open the brackets by +/. you MUST master bracketing with: Standard VOR Indicator RMI Fixed Card Indicator Press the S-key to switch to standard VOR indicator and practice bracketing. but it will be time very well spent. Outbound bracketing then continues exactly as before If you use bracketing faithfully you can establish drift within one or two degrees in short order. so you can think about what the logic is. Bracketing is a foolproof system. because you usually are slightly off course (just a few feet. Page 71 . Use ALL the Navigation Displays If you followed the advice above you started by practicing bracketing with an HSI. if only you will use it. After that all you have to do is maintain heading accurately and you have things made. Repeat secret code 2 as many times as you need to until you fully understand all the logic of bracketing..

the brackets won’t work anymore. when the instructor tries heading 075 and the CDI doesn’t move for a long time any human would realize that the drift is close to 15.) Break-out Logic A FUNDAMENTAL principle of bracketing is that you commit to NEVER fly outside the brackets. IMMEDIATELY that you notice you are off course always turn to the relevant bracket heading. People are smart. If precession is not the culprit then there are only two possibilities: Page 72 . Use common sense (something the computerized flying instructor never does. However.) But. In secret code 2. above. The idea of bracketing is that you always have two brackets in mind that you KNOW FOR SURE make the CDI move left and right (but only just. As you have seen. so you need to be able to navigate with only “raw” navigation data. The point is that you don’t always have to divide each bracket exactly in half. click the “Hide All” button at the bottom of the simulation to make the process more challenging. This prevents the wild chasing of the CDI or RMI needle that commonly plagues new IFR pilots. there is no real difference between bracketing inbound and outbound. So. Within a few seconds the CDI should start to slowly come back to center. Include Outbound By default the computer generates inbound bracketing exercises. and would only revise the heading to 076.Navigation for Professional Pilots Hide the Visual Aids By default the wind is hidden but all the other visual aids are visible. but you should still do some outbound bracketing practice. or your heading indicator precesses. “Beating” the Computerized Flying Instructor Computers are dumb. However. Similarly a human would move the left bracket NOT from 070 to 075 but only to about 073 (or so.) Review secret code 2 above until what I have said here makes sense. if you check the box at the lower left of the simulation the computer will randomly include some outbound bracketing exercises for you. most airplanes don’t have moving map displays. If it doesn’t what do you do? If you have a manual HI check the compass and reset it. if the wind changes.

Bracketing Summary Bracketing is a fundamental tracking procedure. Usually the false indication will go away and you will see that you were on course the whole time. The computerized flying instructor has breakout logic. When you do. See if that changes the indication.) ADF is particularly prone to giving false indications so if you have no reason to believe the wind has changed just keep flying your heading for a minute and see what happens. (For example the ADF radio can be switched from ADF to ANT then back to ADF. If the radio has a test button press it. move the bracket in. 2.Navigation for Professional Pilots 1. In the real world you should always know roughly what the wind is. tweaking it one degree at a time. then reset the OBS. Page 73 . Pretty soon you will have adjusted your heading and brackets so that you have two brackets about +/-5 degrees from your best estimated heading. In this simulation the bracket always starts from the zero point. VOR and ILS are much less likely to give false indications. Therefore you start with your best estimate of the heading to stay on course. if your bracket heading does not center the CDI you must CHANGE the bracket. also stand ready to close the bracket back in to where it was before. with a totally unknown wind. If you think the problem was a temporary navigation signal deflection then don’t change the evaluation heading. but half as much. Using your judgment you revise your estimated heading. If he flies the bracket heading for 30 seconds and does not get at least 0. Check the Morse code identifier to make sure the station has not gone off the air.10-degrees from there. For a CDI turn the OBS a few degrees. Then you set your initial brackets at +/. If it was a wind shift then you should change the evaluation heading in the same direction you opened the bracket. You then react to even small CDI deflections by turning to the appropriate bracket immediately. In computer programming this is called breakout logic. With this head start you should have a near perfect heading bracketed out within a couple of minutes. Note: you can only tweak the evaluation heading one degree at a time if you can fly your heading accurately enough to make such judgments. Once you determine that the off course indication is real. If you start with a +/. The question is.10-degree bracket it should only take a minute until you can tell whether you need to adjust your evaluation heading left or right. when you move the bracket should you change the evaluation heading? That depends on what you think caused the problem. The navigation display is wrong The wind changed If you have no reason to believe the wind changed then test the navigation radios. although it is amazing how many ILS approaches have bows in them caused by electronic interference on the ground. but NOT all the way to your original evaluation heading.25 degrees closer to course he moves the bracket out by three degrees. using the technique of drift estimation covered earlier.

” This simulation is for practicing DME arcs.” Page 74 . I have not provided the option for doing arcs without an RMI in this simulation. Intercept the 8 DME arc from the 120 radial and arc counter-clockwise to intercept the course 180. Now we will learn to fly a perfectly circular path. Smaller arcs are never used. The navigation display also includes an HSI. The simplest way to do this is to fly directly toward the VOR until you reach the desired distance to arc. If you have neither RMI nor HSI it is not good practice to fly DME arcs. They allow airplanes to get lined up for approaches without the high workload (for controllers) of radar vectors. Once you intercept the arc turn so that the RMI needle points at the wingtip. Flying a DME ARC So far we have been concentrating on flying in a perfectly straight line. Press the 1-key This secret code brings up a clearance that reads: “Pilot 200. a standard VOR indicator and an RMI. that means the RMI points at the right wingtip. you are cleared for a practice DME arc. To fly an arc you must first fly a path that crosses the arc. DME arcs are used on many IFR approaches and terminal arrival procedures. If you are arcing right. but it is best to master this simulation first. Your lead radial will be 014. Load the simulation called “Flying a DME ARC. Therefore the simulation includes an RMI. DME arcs can be assigned at any distance from a DME station from 7. Another common way is to be vectored until you intercept the arc. You can also fly arcs using the Alsim simulation. A left arc means the RMI points at the left wingtip. If an airplane has an HSI but no RMI you can still do an arc by manually turning the HSI to keep it centered.Navigation for Professional Pilots Because bracketing is so powerful you can easily see that when combined with the drift estimation technique covered earlier you can perform very accurate DR radio navigation even in the absence of completely precise wind forecasts. Please load the simulation and follow along with the example below. DME arcs are normally flown using an RMI.0NM up. The easiest way to explain arcing is through an example. so that it acts like an RMI.

) From the 120 radial means that the arc starts at the 120 radial Counter-clockwise is the direction or orbit. (Later we will do an example where the airplane flies inbound on the 120 radial. 8 DME arc means that the airplane must fly a circular orbit around the VORTAC at a distance of 8.) Page 75 . Let’s start by breaking down the clearance to make sure we understand it.Navigation for Professional Pilots The picture below shows the computerized flying instructor about half way through complying with this clearance. Initially the airplane is flying outbound along the 120 radial. Lead radial will be 014 means that when the airplane crosses the 014 radial it will be 2 NM from the assigned course. which is the designated start radial. Think of lead radials like a wakeup call. Intercept course 180 means that the objective is to wind up flying inbound on the 000 radial.) Set time compression as required and watch the entire demonstration.) Watch the Flying Instructor demonstrate the arc. When you get to the lead radial you are almost at your assigned course.0 Nm. (Press the 1-key to restart if necessary. so you generally stop arcing and turn to intercept the assigned course (at 45°. (Indicated on DME radio.

) The above diagram shows that the turn to intercept an arc should start at a distance equal to the radius of turn of the airplane. If the lead was correct the DME should read 8.8 Nm. so the groundspeed equals the TAS.0 Nm as he rolls out on that heading. Simply look at the tip of the RMI needle and turn 90° from that. Assuming that the turn will be at rate one a simple mathematical formula for radius of turn can be derived: R = Groundspeed / 200 In other words: r = . you should add an extra 0. At the calculated lead distance the instructor starts his turn. In this demonstration the wind is zero. The pilot must turn so that the RMI is on the left wingtip. He states that he intends to lead the turn onto the arc. Page 76 . Watch the flying instructor.Navigation for Professional Pilots The instructor’s mind can be read at the lower right.6 Nm. (1% = 1.1 to 0. At 7. Allowing about six seconds to get up to rate one turn.2 Nm he makes a left turn to heading 030.) Keep in mind that the airplane must be in the turn at the designated distance.2 to the calculated value. so ½% is about .2 (the value will be different if you chose a cruise speed other than 150 KIAS. In the example the RMI points to 300 so the first heading must be 300 + 90 = 390 degrees – but that is 030.5% of Groundspeed For example an airplane flying 156 Knots groundspeed would need to lead the turn by about . He plans to turn when the DME reads 7.8 Nm.

closer to the VORTAC. Watch the flying instructor fly the demonstration and note how it is done. Unfortunately it is not possible to do such a perfect arc. Therefore. the instructor realizes that he is inside the designated arc. In zero wind all you need do. Therefore. Just like a rock on the end of a string moves out instantly if you let go of the string the instructor realizes that if he simply stops turning. As long as the RMI needle is kept in front of the wingtip the airplane will move in. Consequently the RMI needle.) Page 77 . which shows your radial. He then turns 10 degrees left. once the airplane is established on the arc the instructor will set the HSI to the assigned course (180 in this example) and set the OBS to the lead radial (014 in this example.) With the HSI set the pilot can visualize how the arc is going. The airplane will be slightly more than 90degrees from the final course when the lead radial is reached. To understand an arc you must remember what your high school math teacher taught you. a line tangent to a circle is always at right angles to the radius. is keep the RMI needle on the wingtip and the DME will not change. in theory. must always be at or near the wingtip when flying an arc. we use a technique of making a series of short straight legs that approximate the arc. What do we do if we drift off the designated DME distance? The instructor constantly monitors the DME. As this happens the RMI needle will move past the wingtip. If the airplane gets a bit wide (DME reads 8.Navigation for Professional Pilots The only instruments needed to arc are the RMI and DME. (Prior to reaching the lead radial the CDI always deflects to the center of the arc. The #2 CDI will center as the airplane crosses the lead radial. (i. maintains whatever heading he is on) the airplane will move out on the arc.0 as the RMI needle approaches the wingtip the instructor will turn to keep the needle ahead of the wingtip. Once the needle is below the wingtip DME will start to increase. The HSI and OBS are not needed to fly the arc. The airplane would fly a perfect arc. Correcting this is simple.0 the instructor resumes the usual arc procedure by turning to bring RMI needle near the wingtip again. bringing the RMI needle five degrees ahead of the wingtip again. Once the DME reaches 8. and that is easy to see on the HSI.1 or more) he turns so that the RMI needle is MORE than 5 degrees in front of the wingtip.e. The instructor turns so that the RMI needle is five degrees ahead of the left wingtip. If the DME drops to 7. If the DME is remains at more than 8. This pattern repeats over and over. In this case we are flying a counter-clockwise arc so the RMI needle must point near the left wingtip.9. He then maintains a constant heading until the RMI needle drops to five degrees behind the wingtip.

Remember we learned in chapter two that DME actually shows closing speed. Then press the “I Have Control” button.8 Nm. Press the 2-key. Whenever the RMI needle is ahead of the wingtip there is a small DME groundspeed. Now it is your turn to fly the arc. not groundspeed. In this case we are moving away from the DME station at the indicated rate.Navigation for Professional Pilots As the airplane crosses the lead radial the instructor will STOP arcing and turn to make a 45-degree intercept of the assigned course. An important to rule to note is that if the groundspeed is decreasing the airplane is getting closer to the VORTAC. and DME is telling you how quickly. These statements are only true if the airplane is flying straight (i. not turning. The only difference is that this time the airplane is flying inbound to the arc along the 120 radial. He simply holds the 45-degree intercept heading until on the course. DME Groundspeed During an ARC As you watch the instructor fly the arc notice the DME groundspeed readout. Page 78 . so he starts the turn at 8. Every time the RMI needle passes the wingtip the groundspeed reads zero. As before the first turn is to heading 030.) Press the 1-key. Whenever the RMI needle is behind the wingtip there is a small DME groundspeed. If the groundspeed is increasing the airplane is getting further away from the VORTAC. Now try the intercept from outside the arc on your own. I. again. we are flying a prefect arc. but you should not permit 0.1 variations. Once again the instructor calculates that 0. From this point on the demonstration is exactly the same as before.2 deviations from the assigned DME. Practice the procedure until you can keep the DME within 0. Common sense tells us that we are “cutting in” on the arc.e. So when the DME reads a speed of zero the airplane is NOT moving in or out on the arc. again. You will find it impossible to prevent 0. Tip: remember to set the HSI to 180 and the OBS to 014 once you are established on the arc. Then press the “I Have Control” button.E. Press the 2-key The assigned practice arc is exactly the same as the previous one.1 of the assigned value.8 Nm lead is needed. then tracks inbound using the usual bracketing technique.

BUT the difference is a 30-knot west wind. Repeat this exercise until you can stay within 0. Press the 3-key. In the previous example.2 Nm of the arc (i. because the angle the wind makes to the arc keeps changing. So. Page 79 .9 Nm this time (these values will be different if you chose a different cruise speed. we must lead the turn to the arc by 0. until you are better than the instructor. in this case the closing speed is zero when the RMI is slightly ahead of the wingtip.) A wise pilot would realize that the first heading should not be 030.e. the computerized flying instructor has not been blessed with common sense. Eventually he discovers an amount that causes the DME do decrease. Unfortunately the computerized flying instructor doesn’t know that. and most of the time within ¼ mile. When it is your turn you will do better. So.0 Watch the DME groundspeed. What adjustments to the previous procedure will be needed? First notice that the groundspeed as we fly along the 120 radial is almost 180 knots.Navigation for Professional Pilots Press the 3-key This time the same arc clearance is issued. he keeps being blown outside the arc. If the distance does not decrease he turns to move the RMI needle further in front of the wingtip. But. the “zero point” changes as the airplane proceeds around the arc. Right? The good news is that even with his limited intelligence the instructor keeps the airplane within half a mile of the arc. Now it is your turn to try arcing with a wind blowing you outside the arc.1. we saw that the closing speed was zero when the RMI was exactly on the wingtip. so every time he gets back on the arc he turns to place the RMI only 5-degrees in front of the wingtip. That is good. Rather than using the wingtip as the zero reference use the point where the groundspeed reads zero. but not excellent. Watch and see what happens when he turns to 030. As the airplane is blown wide on the arc the instructor sees the DME reach 8. But. He then keeps turning to maintain the RMI needle ahead of the wingtip until the DME returns to 8. At that point he turns to move the RMI needle 10 degrees ahead of the wingtip. From the map you can see that the wind is going to blow the airplane wide on the arc. Then press the “I Have Control” button. because of wind drift. when the wind was zero. and that is not enough. He then monitors the DME. See if you can do better. And. again. A wise pilot would use this information to arc better.

Unfortunately most airplanes don’t have this feature. so the arc need only be lead by 0.) A wise pilot would realize that in this situation the RMI needle should be kept behind the wingtip. so the first turn is to heading 270 + 90 = 360. Then press the “I Have Control” button. press the 4-key Once again we have the exact same arc clearance. but now the wind is 30 knots from the east. Having the moving map to help you judge the arc makes it easier.2 Nm of the arc. Press the 5-key This time there is a new arc clearance. Page 80 . Press the 4-key. again. 10. This time the groundspeed along the 120 radial is only 130 knots. Now it is your turn to try arcing with a wind blowing you into the arc. the instructor is a bit too dense for that.6 Nm. Then. Learn from the instructor’s mistakes. Watch the instructor demonstrate this arc. This arc goes clockwise.Navigation for Professional Pilots Hide the visual aids. Every time he gets back on the arc he turns to put the RMI needle five degrees ahead of the wingtip (as you would in zero wind. You should be able stay within 0. Watch as the instructor flies the arc. So. The instructor will therefore keep flying straight legs. again. Take note of the groundspeed on the DME (too bad the instructor doesn’t do that. You can do better than he. Press the 5-key. But. The start radial is 270. The wind will keep blowing the airplane inside the arc. There is a 20-knot wind from the southeast so the wind is blowing the airplane outside the arc. Try keeping the RMI needle further behind the wingtip than you did with zero wind. Turn the visual aids on again. click the “Hide All” button at the bottom of the page and try repeating the arc with no map to help you.0 DME. so he keeps blowing outside the arc. allowing the RMI needle to drop further behind the wingtip to get back on the arc.) Predictably he is blown back inside the arc and has to correct again. Then press the “I Have Control” button. It is also at a different distance. As usual the instructor doesn’t keep the RMI needle far enough ahead of the wingtip.

Every time you click the “Do Another” button the computer generates a random arc clearance with a random wind. Choose a Navigation Display Before we begin you must choose a navigation display. Make sure you are practicing successfully with all the visual aids hidden before moving on. The process of intercepting a particular course is called a PDT (Pre-determined Intercept. Remember that with the wind blowing you out of the arc you need to keep the RMI needle slightly in front of the wingtip. Thus you will get both intercepts from inside and outside the arc.) It is one of your most fundamental skills. If you wish to limit your practice to only one of these situations adjust the checkboxes. plus 30. You will be mastering two separate skills: 1. You can make your choice from: Page 81 . Intercepts Inbound Intercepts Outbound To intercept a course inbound we use a simple little saying. If you are able to arc successfully with this simulation you should be ready to try it in the real airplane.” Outbound intercepts can be completed regardless of how many degrees you are currently off course. “Tail to desired. What you need now is lots of practice.Navigation for Professional Pilots Now it is your turn to try the clockwise arc. You can only complete an inbound intercept if you are currently within 60 degrees of the course you wish to intercept. The two checkboxes at the bottom of the simulation labeled “Inside Intercept” and “Outside Intercept” are both checked by default. To intercept a course outbound we use another simple little saying.” You will soon see what that means. Load the simulation called “Intercepting a Course – Procedure Turn” As usual choose your cruise speed before clicking the “begin” button to start the simulation. The arcs are at distances from 6 miles to 12 miles. plus 30. “Desired to the head. Click the “Do Another” button. 2. All the procedures you have learned so far still apply. Intercepting a Course (PDT) Every IFR fling involves establishing yourself on an airway and an approach. If you are off course more than that go directly to the station and perform a procedure turn to establish yourself on the assigned course. At this point we have covered all the techniques of arcing.

At the right side of the screen the red box contains the clearance. But when dealing with NDBs the controller uses the term course.Navigation for Professional Pilots A = All H = HSI S = Standard VOR Indicator R = RMI F = Fixed Card Indicator The procedure for conducting predetermined intercepts (PDT) and flying procedure turns is exactly the same regardless of what navigation display you have. if you have chosen either the “R” for RMI or “F” for fixed card navigation displays the clearance reads: “Pilot 200. However it is MUCH easier with an HSI and RMI than without. Page 82 .” Note the difference in terminology. or “H” for HSI. you are cleared to intercept the 180 degree radial inbound to the YPB VOR. Leave the checkbox at the bottom of the simulation set to “Within 60 PDTs” for now. By default the simulation generates a random inbound intercept.” Alternatively. Press the 1-key The clearance reads: “Pilot 200. When dealing with VOR or VORTAC navaids the controller (red box) uses the terminology radial to refer to the course. Therefore I recommend you start with the option “A” for all. you are cleared to intercept the course 360 inbound to the CM beacon. Indeed the very reason people spend so much money to have HSI in airplanes is to make intercepts easier to visualize.

Navigation for Professional Pilots The clearance requests the pilot to intercept the 180 radial inbound. 3. The question is. the instructor is flying. From the picture it is pretty easy to see that we need to fly eastward. 6. Once on heading 070 everything falls into place. standard VOR. how does he know that he should fly heading 070? We must define: 1. or RMI indicators. 5. as depicted in the picture above. But. 8. 7. Assigned Course Desired Course Present Bearing (head) Present Radial (tail) Head Tail Track Error “Within 60” Page 83 . As you are reading this. in a real airplane there won’t be a map (in most cases) so we must learn to figure out which direction to fly by looking at the HSI. He figures out that he needs to fly a heading of 070 to intercept the course. 4. 2.

The present radial is the direction that. If track error is more than 60 you must fly directly to the station and do a procedure turn. The present bearing is the direction that. For an outbound intercept the assigned course is always the direction FROM the station. you are FROM the station. If you have an RMI it is found by reading the tail of the RMI needle.) For a radial put the tail of the course bar on the assigned radial to set the inbound course. If you have an RMI the present bearing is the direction the RMI needle is pointing. as the angle between the RMI needle and the Course bar. at present. (It is easy to visualize on an RMI/HSI combination instrument (see picture below). The arrowhead of the RMI is called the Head.) If track error is less than 60-degrees we say we are within 60. Desired course is a synonym for assigned course. If you have only a standard VOR indicator you must center the CDI with a TO flag to get the present bearing. at present. would take you to the station. Page 84 .Navigation for Professional Pilots For an inbound intercept the assigned course is always the direction TO the station. If you have only a standard VOR indicator it is the bearing you get when you center the CDI with a FROM flag. Therefore if the controller has assigned the intercept in terms of radial you must take the reciprocal to get the assigned course. There is no need to take a reciprocal when dealing with outbound courses. The PDT procedure we are about to learn only works if you are within 60 degrees. Your first task is to set the HSI to the assigned course (if you have an HSI. The opposite end of the RMI needle is called the Tail. The difference between the assigned course and the present bearing is called the track error.

As the instructor does the PDT he points at the HSI (if available) or the RMI if there is no HSI. Notice that the instructor sets the HSI to the assigned course right away. when you need time to read the instructor’s mind. Make use of the time compression. or the heading indicator if there is neither.Navigation for Professional Pilots Next. then move your eyes a farther 30 degrees. Look at where his finger is pointing (between the course bar and RMI head. setting it to zero. make sure you are within 60. Next he locates the present bearing on the RMI and compares that to the course bar.) Then he returns his finger to the desired course (head of course bar. Usually in a real world context you will know how far the airway you are trying to intercept is away from you. in the context of this simulation you must find your present bearing (head) and compare that to the desired course (arrow on HSI) confirming the difference is less than or equal to 60. Press the 1-key again. Now that you know the procedure watch the computerized flying instructor execute it. or observe where he is pointing. so I recommend starting with that navigation display. It is much easier to follow his explanations if there is an HSI. That is the heading you need to turn to. Once you know you are within 60 you simply following the little rhyme “Desired to head plus 30. Later you can have him demonstrate the procedure with other navigation displays. See picture above.) Page 85 . But. so this will be an obvious step.” This simply means that you locate your desired course on the HSI then move your eyes to the head of the RMI needle.

(Labeled in picture above. but NOT on your start heading. After confirming you are within 60 say to yourself “desired. Press the 1-key. The desired bearing is 360. so once again the required heading is 070.Navigation for Professional Pilots Then he moves his finger to the head of the RMI needle. Now repeat the PDT yourself. Set time compression to a value greater than zero.) Finally he turns to the heading of 070 and flies that heading until he is on the assigned course. Set Time Compression = 0. That is all there is to it. the head is at 040. and the exact same clearance is given. NOTE: When we say plus 30. Because you set time compression to zero the instructor is on hold. It is important to realize that the heading you must turn to depends on where you are.” When that makes sense to you move on. rather than right. again. then press the 2-key The airplane is back at the exact same starting point. Then press the “I Have Control” button.) Then he moves his finger another 30-degrees. Because the airplane is moving the present bearing is more than 040 by the time the instructor gets around to checking it. to head. plus 30. Therefore the heading he decides to turn to is more than 070. Watch the computerized flying instructor do the PDT. In this example that is a heading of 070. (See picture above. Why does he do that? Page 86 . Repeat the rhyme to yourself and try it. we mean 30 beyond the desired course. The other thing that probably surprised you is that he decided to turn left. Make sure you go through the procedure methodically.

You can see that if he had turned right he would have intercepted the course much closer to the station. if the airplane is already close to the station it can create difficulties. The rule programmed into the computerized flying instructor is that if the RMI needle is ahead of the wingtip he simply turns to the chosen heading. In the example given he is turning to heading 080 but the RMI needle points to about 050. if you and your instructor are practicing PDTs and remaining within 10 miles or so of the station you will find it prudent to take care which way you turn.Navigation for Professional Pilots The picture above shows what the instructor does. But. if the RMI needle is behind the wingtip he will never turn through the RMI needle. The picture below shows what you might have expected him to do. Since he is programmed not to do that he turns the other way. But. if he turned right he would fly right through heading 050. But. I find that in real world IFR flying you never really need to worry about this sort of thing. So. That could be a good thing in many cases. Page 87 . Just turn the most direct way to the chosen heading.

If you do. Then press the “I Have Control” button. Press the 4-key Once again we are assigned to intercept the same course. Pay attention to his finger. again. Page 88 . Watch the instructor do the PDT. As in secret code 2 the instructor will turn the long way around. It’s a lot harder with the map hidden. When you are feeling confident with the procedure: Hide all the visual aids. Note that the procedure is always the same. this time we are on the other side of the course. I recommend mastering PDTs fully with HSI before using the other navigation displays. Press the 3-key.Navigation for Professional Pilots Press the 3-key Once again the clearance is to intercept the same course. Click the “Hide All” button at the bottom of the simulation. so things are changing. And we are at the same starting point as the previous secret code. Now repeat the PDT yourself. That way you have all the time you need to figure out what heading you want to turn to. once you are getting the PDTs correctly you need to be able to do them in real time. if you wish to do some PDTs with the RMI. Do so at your own discretion. TIP: When you first start doing PDTs you should set time compression = 0 BEFORE clicking the “Do Another” button. Set time compression to zero when you need time to analyze what he is doing. again. and do lots of PDTs. The procedure however is exactly the same. and in how easy it is to visualize. standard VOR indicator or Fixed Card indicator you may do so now. However. Here is your chance to see what happens if you turn left rather than right. But the airplane is flying northeast bound. You can even challenge yourself by setting the time compression to more than real time. But. Then press the “I Have Control” button. Press the 4-key. Use the “Do Another” button Before moving on to do outbound PDTs you will need lots (and lots and lots) of practice doing inbound PDTs. allow the computerized flight instructor to demonstrate the differences in where you must look to get the required information. Keep the checkbox at the bottom of the simulation set to “Within 60 PDTs” only. The difference is only in where you get the required information. However.

” I also recommend returning to the “A” for all or “H” for HSI navigation display.” The picture below shows the objective pictorially. Turn the Visual Aids On. “Tail to Desired plus 30. Press the 5-key The clearance reads: “Pilot 200. Reset navigation display to “All” or “HSI.Navigation for Professional Pilots Outbound PDTs Now we will learn to intercept a course outbound from the station. To perform an outbound intercept we have a different rhyme.” Page 89 . When intercepting the course outbound I will teach you to use an intercept of 30-degrees. you are cleared to intercept the 000 degree radial outbound from the YPB VOR.” If you have the visual aids turned off click the button at the bottom of the simulation labeled “Show All. NOTE: there is NO within 60 limit for outbound intercepts. The good news is that this is even easier than inbound intercepts.

This is true. Then he looks at the HSI course. I recommend checking the RMI for two reasons. But. To see this press the R-key then click the “Start Over” button. Now. Then he looks a further 30 degrees. The required heading in this example is 330. You may be thinking to yourself that all these steps are not really needed. you will see that you MUST do the procedure as described above.) Press the 5-key again. if the CDI were deflected right you would fly a heading 30 right of the desired course. In this one we start at the tail of the RMI. (If you wish to do a 45-degree intercept just move your eyes 45 past the desired instead. Then he looks at the tail of the RMI.Navigation for Professional Pilots Notice that this is a different rhyme than for inbound intercepts. All you actually have to do is look at the HSI. Watch the flying instructor perform the PDT. or 111 degrees. The first is that without doing this you don’t know if you are off track 11 degrees. First he sets the assigned course (000) on the HSI. The picture above shows the instructor demonstrating the same PDT but with an RMI indicator. If the CDI were deflected left you fly a heading 30 left of the desired course. Page 90 . then we move our eyes to the desired outbound course (set on the HSI) then move our eyes a further 30degrees to find the required heading. The second reason is that only the procedure described here will work with an RMI or Fixed Card indicator.

Fly the PDT yourself.” If you wish to do only outbound PDTs turn off the “Within 60 PDTs” checkbox. Then set time compression to more than zero when you know what heading you want to turn to. Hide the Visual Aids Practice outbound PDTs with no visual aids. Make sure the “Over 60 PDTs” checkbox is NOT selected. then set time compression to more than zero. Then Press the 6-key With the airplane frozen you now have all the time you need to go through the procedure.” When you are ready: Click the “I have control” button. RMI and Fixed Card indicator. Despite this the instructor comes up with the same intercept heading. Random PDT practice Now it is time for you to practice all the skills you have learned in this chapter. Set Time Compression = 0. 330.Navigation for Professional Pilots Return to the HSI display by pressing the A-key or H-key. But. Do several PDTs until you are getting comfortable with the procedure. then: Press the 6-key This time we are assigned the same course to intercept and we are at the same starting point. At the bottom of the simulation there are three checkboxes labeled: Page 91 . Change the checkbox at the bottom of the simulation to “Include Outbound. practice outbound PDTs with standard VOR indicator. Use the “Do Another” button. our start heading is different. If you desire. Initially set the time compression to zero before clicking the “Do Anther” button so you will have time to think the procedure through. Keep saying to yourself “tail to desired plus 30.

once you understand the procedure hide the visual aids and practice with only the navigation instruments. Every time you click the “Do Another” button the computer will generate a random PDT. Be sure to practice PDTs with all the navigation displays. Tracking and Intercepting Summary You now know how to track accurately along any assigned course. You know what a lead radial is and how to set up the HSI and OBS when flying an arc. such as the Fixed Card indicator you must be certain you won’t encounter one in your real world IFR flying. You also know how to fly a circular arc around a VORTAC using a DME and RMI. But. Using the map makes it far too easy to do PDTs. If the instructor is flying click the “I have control” button. So. Some will be over 60. If you decide not to use a particular display. If you know for certain that the airplane you are doing your IFR rating in has an RMI you may consider skipping Fixed Card indicator – perhaps returning to learn how to use it later. If you need a demonstration you can give the instructor control at any time.Navigation for Professional Pilots 1. Hide the visual aids. Page 92 . Read the clearance carefully then try to comply. Use Time Compression as needed Initially feel free to set time compression to zero to give yourself time to think what you should do. Most airplanes don’t have a moving map. you must work your way up to doing the exercise in real time. Some will be inbound and some outbound. 2. 3. You can estimate the drift and then use bracketing to zero in on the exact amount of drift. Include Outbound Within 60 PDTs Over 60 PDTs Check all three of these check boxes then: Click the “Do Another” button at the top of the simulation. some won’t. Use all the navigation displays.

With the above skills you have all the knowledge you need to master holds and approaches. from a VOR or an NDB. When an inbound course is within 60 degrees you can go right to it. In the next chapter we will learn to perform holds. In chapter 6 we will learn to do approaches where you will be able to use al l the skills you have just learned. Keep your bracketing skills at the ready. When the course is more than 60-degrees from your present bearing you know how to fly to the station and perform a procedure turn.Navigation for Professional Pilots You know how to intercept any course. including arcs and procedure turns. Page 93 . inbound or outbound.

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which is explained below. High level airways are shown on the HI charts discussed below. which are for airplanes flying less than 18. section MAP 3. The LO charts give the magnetic tracks for these airways. The VOR airways are called “Victor airways.” Review the legend on your LO1 chart and then do the assignment to confirm you know all the symbols on the charts.” they are always designated with the letter A. Even if you are navigating with GPS or Loran-C the airways you fly on are based on the positions of VORs and NDBs. The charts you will use regularly in this course are: LO HI Terminal These are explained in your AIM.000’. for example V100. or V302. You will learn the regulations governing these in Avia 130.” All Victor airways have a number which is preceded by the letter V. .0. The charts also show distances so no ruler or protractor is necessary when flight planning with LO charts. If not then review that material before proceeding. In an IFR clearance these would be referred to as Victor one zero zero and Victor three zero two. In Canada all airways are based on either VOR or ADF. or R. If you have worked through the designated simulations you know how to tune and interpret VOR and ADF radios with either HSI or standard VOR indicators and fixed card or RMI. for example airway B22 is referred to as “Bravo two two. The standard phonetic terminology is used.G. ADF airways are commonly called “Low frequency airways.Chapter 4 IFR Charts Read section Map 3. which are similar to airways but uncontrolled. LO Charts LO charts are used for enroute navigation within the low level airspace. Airways are based on either VOR or ADF.2 in your AIM. LO charts also show air routes.B. To fly IFR on an airway you need an IFR clearance. They show the “low altitude” airways and air routes.

unlike VFR airplanes.Navigation for Professional Pilots HI Charts HI Charts are used for enroute navigation in the high altitude airspace.e. VFR airplanes are “separated” from IFR by 500 feet (you already know the cruise altitudes for VFR. On highways traffic lights and stop signs prevent collisions at intersection. Separation must be lateral (side to side) or vertical. and SIDs are the answer.000 feet in the southern domestic airspace (all flight in high level airspace is IFR. Imagine trying to do it blindfolded. These are not unlike one-way streets you find in big cities. Airways are like highways and like highways they must sometimes cross each other. Preferred IFR routes. In Avia 260 you will learn all about IFR separation. Air traffic controllers are charged with making sure no collision takes place (and your life depends on them doing it. in this course you need to know that IFR procedures are for the purpose of keeping airplanes from colliding with one another. To do that you need to understand the basics of how the “IFR system” operates. 3000. Obviously an airplane climbing to 9000 feet (eastbound flight) must climb through 2000. Separation of IFR Aircraft IFR airplanes are allowed to fly in clouds. Note that HI charts do not symbolically indicate which direction corresponds to even and odd cruise altitudes because these altitudes change according to the cruising altitude orders. You will learn about this in Avia 130 and Avia 260. etc.) Most high altitude airways are based on VORs but some are based on NDBs.) Airplanes are separated by having opposite direction airplanes at least 1000 feet apart vertically.) while westbound flights are at “even thousand” altitudes. but you will learn how to prepare an IFR nav-log and flight plan. and 8000 creating a risk of colliding head-on with westbound traffic in each case. STARs.) Cruising altitude rules for separating opposite direction flights is not satisfactory in the vicinity of busy airports because large numbers departing and arriving airplanes are climbing and descending creating a night-mare scenario for the controller. all are named with a letter “J” followed by a number. 5000.” Examine the legend of your HI altitude chart and then do the assignment to confirm you understand it. Indeed airways are generally laid out like spokes on a wheel radiating out from VORs and NDBs. at and above 18. In a clearance this is referred to as “Jet five eight five. 6000. Eastbound airplanes fly at “odd thousand” altitude (1000. Overview of IFR System This course is NOT designed to teach you IFR procedures. When in cloud pilots cannot see other aircraft. i. Cars pass each other at combined speeds of 200+ KPH missing head-on collisions by four or five feet (pretty terrifying when you stop to think about it.) This system works well for airplanes in cruise but is problematic when many airplanes need to climb or descend. 4000. Preferred IFR Routes Page 96 . every time. In IFR flight the ATC system takes on that task Airplanes flying along airways in opposite direction cannot pass the way cars on a highway do. for example J585.

000 and HI for airplanes that cruise at and above) and choose the airway(s) that most directly take you from your departure airport to the destination.” This is the aeronautical equivalent of one-way streets that you have probably driven on in large cities. Airplanes cannot see each other in flight. The key word in the previous sentence is procedure and we say that terrain avoidance in IFR flight Page 97 . In all your flight planning in Avia 260 you will have to allow for an alternate airport. The full set of considerations will become clear during the Professional Pilot Program. thus largely removing weather as an impediment to flight. IFR Alternate Airport In Avia 130 you will learn all the regulations about IFR alternate airports. If a preferred route exists you should use it. which is still a substantial task for ATC. etc.) The bottom line is to use preferred routes. Preferred IFR routes are published starting on page C98 of your CFS. In short the ATC system solves only problem 1 above. Some aspects of this task have been indicated above. Departing airplanes can be cleared to climb without fear of opposite direction traffic. 3. To clarify why. A few problems arise when flying in cloud however: 1. so some method of separating them must exist Airplanes cannot see the ground. 2. so some method of avoiding it must exist Airplanes cannot see the runway. special ferry flight. In this course you are also expected to designate an alternate on IFR flight plans. IFR flight makes it possible for airplanes to fly in cloud from departure to destination. but at least one problem is eliminated. When departing from a small airport there is often no listed preferred route but if you are headed for a major airport you should use common sense and pickup a preferred route. Pilots follow prescribed procedures and climb at specified climb gradients to avoid terrain during departure and when enroute they fly above minimum enroute altitudes (MEA. ATC finds it easier to control the flow of climbing and descending traffic (departures and arrivals) when outbound airplanes take one route (or set of routes) and inbound airplanes another. While the CFS indicates that the system is not mandatory you will find it impossible to get a clearance that does not comply unless you indicate a safety concern (bad weather) or a special operational need (lack of pressurization. the following highly simplified explanation of IFR flight is provided to get you started. It might seem obvious that you would simply look at the LO or HI chart (LO for airplanes that cruise below 18. Before doing that however you should look to see if there is a published “preferred route. Any other services that controllers provide are secondary to the primary function. The controller only needs to ensure that faster and slower airplanes don’t “overrun” each other. for example departing Castlegar for Vancouver intercept the preferred route for Calgary to Vancouver.Navigation for Professional Pilots When planning an IFR flight one task you must obviously do is choose a route. and similarly arrivals can be permitted to descend. so some method of descending and establishing visual contact with the runway is needed in order to land The ATC system exists PRIMARILY to keep airplanes from colliding during flight.) MEAs are shown on LO charts.

So problem 2 and 3 above are both solved procedurally. where the weather is good. is needed.Navigation for Professional Pilots is “procedural. IFR approach procedures are published in the Canada Air Pilot (CAP) which you have purchased. You will learn to assess the FORECAST to determine that an airport is a “legal alternate. but it should be obvious that the alternate airport must have good weather so that there is NO CHANCE of being unable to land there.” Note that it is NOT the responsibility of ATC to prevent terrain collision. Page 98 .” The required weather is specified in the CAP GEN and in RAC 3. It is always possible that the weather will be so bad that the pilot does not see the runway at the end of an IFR approach procedure. These are for the purpose of making a safe descent (taking terrain into account) to a point where the pilot MUST see the runway in order to land on it. Pilots are responsible for that through the correct application of IFR procedures.14. On all IFR nav-logs you will include time and fuel to get to an alternate airport. You will learn all the regulations for this elsewhere. In this case an alternate airport.

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etc. Get out your CR and set one of the above ratios and see that you have them all. now it is time to master the front-side. etc.8/3. for our purposes. On a CR 10 can represent 1. In the photo below you can see that all the ratios are given. 100/200 and so on. 10. and an infinite number of other ratios. The CRUCIAL thing to realize is that you can set any ONE of these ratios on your CR and it will give you ALL the others. Work through your CR manual from page 1 to 29 (you should already have done the rest of the book. three sixths.Chapter 5 The CR Computer You have already learned to use the wind side of the CR. 1000.) A Ratio Machine The outer two rings on the front-side of the CR are a “ratio-machine. One half equals two quarters. 18/36 also represents 180/360 and 1. and eighteen thirty-sixths. Before we go further it is important to note how numbers are displayed on the CR.6 and so on. It is your job to keep track of the decimal . These are simple examples of ratios and fractions. Thus 10/20 in the photo above represents ½ as well as 10/20.” You will learn to do many useful ratios all of which have practical application in your flying.100. ratios should be thought of as fractions. First a quick review of what a ratio is: ½ = 2/4 = 3/6 = 18/36.

) To use a CR effectively you must realize that this is a ratio (200/1. For example climb gradients. But in a given situation only a few of these ratios are of practical interest – even so it is important to understand that there are an infinite number of equivalent ratios The secret to making good use of a CR is in knowing which ratios are interesting. Solving problems with a CR requires you to ask. etc. or your own CR. A common problem is time and distance. unit conversions. which we will deal with under the topic of speed ratios below.) A good clue is the word “per”. This depends on what question you are trying to answer. when you know that something happens “per” something else it is probably a ratio that you can solve with a CR. It is important to know that not only does ½ = 2/4 also equals 20/40 and 2000/4000. But there are many other ratios of importance in aviation.Navigation for Professional Pilots points when using your CR. From the photo above. The photo below shows that you earn $560 dollars in (per) 40 hours. For example if you are paid $14 per hour and want to know how much you earn in 40 hours the CR can tell you.5/35 and an infinite number of other ratios not previously listed. what relationships are relevant? For example IFR departures require a minimum climb gradient of 200 feet per nautical mile (ft/NM. etc. How many dollars do you earn in 8 hours? Page 102 . you can see that ½ equals 17/34 and 17. distance to a radio navaid.

liters/gallons. For example you may have noticed on the speedometer of your car that 80kph equals 50 mph – set this ratio up on your CR and fill in the table below: 40kph 90kph 800kph _______ mph _______ mph _______ mph Page 103 . If you establish ANY relevant ratio relating these values you can use it to determine ALL others.Navigation for Professional Pilots Unit Conversions Most unit conversions are simple ratios. using your CR. Examples include pounds/kilograms. statutemiles/kilometers and nautical-miles/kilometers.

The KM and Statute markings are found on both the outer and inner ring so you can set the CR up either way.Navigation for Professional Pilots 100kph 120kph _______ mph _______ mph To solve the above problem we started with the ratio 80/50 which we remembered from the speedometer of a car – but the CR has most of the common ratios marked on its face. Once this ratio is set all others can be read. so Jeppesen simply marks the ratios wherever they fit without cluttering the face of the computer too much. Page 104 . Remember that any ratio will do. The photo above shows a ratio for km/sm.

For example if you know that 2.2 pounds equals one kilogram simply set that ratio on the CR to save the trouble of locating the marked ratio shown below: Set the above ratio and confirm that 2.2/1 is an equivalent ratio. Try it yourself to confirm you get the expected value.Navigation for Professional Pilots Ratios can also be found for: Liters to gallons (both imperial and US) Feet to meters Pounds to Kilograms Remember that if you know a conversion ratio from memory you can save the need to locate one on the CR. You will often need to know that 1.0NM = 6080 feet. First determine how many KM = 1NM and then convert from meters to feet. The same process can be used to discover there are _______ feet in a statute mile. Page 105 . How many pounds in five kilograms? How many pounds in 16 kilograms? The CR does not have a conversion from Nautical miles to feet. If you forget you can figure it out with a CR through a two-step process.

It is a ratio. by definition (this is a ratio.) Assume the speed of sound is 600 knots and set the ratio 600/1 on your CR. That is a requirement for using ratios as a conversion method.Navigation for Professional Pilots Celsius to Fahrenheit Temperature Conversion You may need to convert from Celsius to Fahrenheit – this is NOT a ratio. The reason ratios don’t work is that 0°C does not equal 0°F.0 Page 106 . For all the other conversions we looked at so far the zero points match. Mach = TAS / speed of sound. -40°C = -40°F but 1°C does not equal 1°F. With your CR set as above 1200 knots is what Mach number? The answer is 2. as shown below. The CR has a temperature conversion scale on the front face (see photo below. 20°C = ____? Mach Number You will use Mach number extensively in flight planning.) You can see that -40°C = -40°F but that 0°C = 32°F.

An airplane cruising at Mach 2.0 .) What is the speed of sound? This amounts to 1 saying what TAS corresponds to Mach 1. the real speed of sound varies with air temperature. You will notice that once you set 600/1 on the CR a Mach index is visible that allows you to “fine tune” the ratio for the actual air temperature.0 has a TAS of _____ knots. Set the Mach index to -25°C (the ISA temperature at 20. Let’s start with what pilots commonly call a “ground speed check. Groundspeed Checks We will now explore a series of time and distance ratios. as shown below. What would the TAS of the airliner be if the air 2 temperature was -56°C? Speed Ratios – I. You can see the index in the photo below.000’. 1 610 KTAS 490 KTAS 2 Page 107 . In fact this ratio is only approximately correct.8 has a TAS of _____ knots. It is CRUCIAL to realize that “speed” is simply a ratio of distance over time.Navigation for Professional Pilots A C-172 cruising at 105 knots has what Mach number? What is the Mach number of a King Air cruising at 240 knots? The above conversions from TAS to Mach number are simple but only accurate if the ratio 600/1 is correct.” You have just flown 17NM in 11 minutes. An airliner cruising at Mach 0.E. what is your groundspeed? Setup your CR with the ratio 17/11.

but it is indeed your groundspeed. sometimes. “My speed is 17 miles per 11 minutes. Knot is defined as NM per hour. as you can see in the photo below: Thus we would say that our groundspeed is 93 knots. The photo that shows the 17/11 ratio also shows the ratio 1. How far do we go in 30 minutes. which means 93/60. This is an important value to know. It is VITAL to realize that the symbol.” For example how many miles do we go in one minute. It is however traditional to specify speed in units of Knots. even though it has 1:00 written on it. If the total length of the trip is 170 NM. Common sense says that it will Page 108 . but in reality it is NM per 60 minutes.” That is a pretty weird unit.54 NM every minute.Navigation for Professional Pilots To be cheeky you could say. how long will it take to get there? Note that since we are responsible for the decimal points the same ratio 17/11 gives the answer. how far in 12 minutes? You can determine these and an infinite number of other ratios once17/11 has been set – it’s just that you don’t usually think to ask such questions. The airplane is covering 1. actually represents six (6) or 60 on the CR. There are however other ratios that are important beyond the simple 93/60 ratio that is “our groundspeed.54/1.

set 90/60 and then look up x/1. Time to a Station – ARC Speed The procedure for flying a DME arc was covered previously on page 74.e. In the previous example the airplane flew 1. 1. Miles per Minute Nautical Miles per minute is a value that you will use in many situations so you need to become familiar with it.0 NM/min is an IMPRORTANT speed that we will use extensively so you must remember it.54 NM/min. Consider the diagram below: 3 57 minutes 1. Arcs are common in IFR arrival procedures. At 60 knots how long does it take to fly 18NM? How long for 78NM? How long for 156NM? The answer to all these is trivial and you should not require your computer. and the theory behind them applies in other situations that we will discuss shortly.Navigation for Professional Pilots 3 take 110 minutes to fly 170 NM. How long would it take to fly 88NM? How long would it take to fly 214NM? Make up your own distances and confirm that you can find the time for any distance you choose. if you are flying 1 nautical mile per minute what is your groundspeed? In this case set 1/1 and look up x/60. If you are flying 3 miles per minute your groundspeed is _____ Knots. If your speed is 90 knots how many miles 4 per minute are you covering? To find out. If you are flying 2 miles per minute your groundspeed is _____ Knots. 150 knots is _____ miles per minute. What is x? To approach this problem from the other direction. Note that the answer is 60 KTAS.5 NM/min 4 Page 109 . 60 knots – i.

but this time the arc-speed is 93 degrees/hour. Here are a few sample problems for you to work through just to be sure: You fly 14 degrees in 7 minutes.Navigation for Professional Pilots The airplane in the diagram is flying around a circle. it will take ______ minutes to fly 57. Page 110 . How long will it take to fly 20 degrees? How long will it take to fly 60 degrees? Hopefully your reaction to the above is that it is trivially obvious (but you may be thinking it is unimportant – trust me it is VERY IMPORTANT. which of course really means degrees per 60 minutes.) Be sure to examine the above until you fully understand it. What is the arc-speed? Arc-speed has units of degrees per hour. Simply set your CR for the ratio 17/11 and lookup the answer.3 degrees. The result is exactly the same as the groundspeed example above in which the airplane flew 17NM in 11 minutes. At the moment shown it has flown 17° of arc in 11 minutes. your arc-speed is ______ degrees/hour. It will take _____ minutes to fly 60 degrees.

In the diagram above distances AB = AC = BC. Now examine the following diagram: Page 111 .Navigation for Professional Pilots You fly 37 degrees of arc in 3 minutes. it will take ______ minutes to fly 57. First recall what an equilateral triangle is: An equilateral triangle is one that has all three sides the same length and all three angles equal. The three angles must all be 60 degrees (the sum of the three angles in every triangle is 180°) The three sides of an equilateral triangle are equal to each other. Your arc-speed is _____ degrees/hour. It is now time to review some high school trigonometry. It will take ______ minutes to fly 60 degrees.3 degrees.

but how much . Page 112 .1%. Look at the diagram and estimate the length of the arc compared to AC. but it will be close. Obviously AC will have to be shortened. just a bit less than 60°.Navigation for Professional Pilots The diagram above is the same as the previous one with an arc added. such that the length of the arc is the same as the length of the sides AB and BC. 10%. Obviously the arc is longer. what do you think? The difference is less than 5%. Consider the diagram below. It should be obvious that there is some angle. The center point of the arc is B. consequently the triangle will not be exactly equilateral any more.

You will even more commonly need to know distance to the station. AB and AC’ have been labeled r in the diagram to remind us that they are the radius of the arc. etc.3° of arc is 37 minutes.3 degrees of arc. Neither will be precisely accurate.) The time to fly 60° is 39 minutes. Once you have a “time / x-degrees” ratio setup on your CR all you do is lookup time for 57. but either will give an answer that is within 5% of the correct value. In the above diagram the airplane is flying an eastbound track that passes north of a VOR. The above use of “arc-speed” to determine time to a station when flying abeam is one of the most common uses of arc-speed theory. 7°. First let us consider the most common situation in which the above theoretical facts comes into actual practice. but that is a two-step process which we will cover in just a moment.) The time to fly 57. The sample problems above asked you to determine the time to fly 60 and 57.3 (57. Most pilots use this as the answer because it is a lot easier to remember 60 rather than 57. 11°.3 degrees. 15°. But. so the station must be essentially abeam the airplane (as in the diagram. so it doesn’t matter if it is 4°.3 = 180/Π.) The angle X is usually fairly small. we will now examine why. 57. The pilot wishes to know how long it would take to get to the VOR if s/he turned southbound directly to it.) Time to the station is a common problem in aviation. To find out.3° is known as one radian.3°or 60°. it is an approximation since the airplane actually flies a Page 113 . Returning to a previous example in which the airplane few 17° of arc in 11 minutes (setup your CR for the ratio 17/11. AB = AC’ = arc. This is the “special” angle for which the length of the arc is exactly equal to the radius. typically less than 15° (but not too small or there will be “round off error. I. To be effective AB must approximate flying an arc. As you can see.Navigation for Professional Pilots In the diagram above the angle through which the arc sweeps is reduced to 57. without the need to actually do it.E. since the length of the arc equals the radius it obviously also takes 37 minutes to fly directly to the center of the arc (point B. simply time whatever is convenient. record the time from A to B and the angle X.”) Angle X is arbitrary.

The answer is 12.3 (i. Note that if you had used 9/60 as your ratio you would get 13. It is recommended that in these calculations you use 60° as the reference angle rather than 57.e.3° of arc will be 9NM. but its value has been erased on the above photo.) On the right side of the plate a Lead Radial (LR) is published.) Next we will consider a more precise use of arc-speed theory.) What should the LR be? See if you can figure it out based on arc-theory before reading the next paragraph. To answer the question we need to realize that 57. 5 The original is in the CAP3 under Brandon Page 114 .Navigation for Professional Pilots straight line forming a triangle with the station. The LR is always 2NM prior to intercept of the final approach course (087 radial in this case.7°. but the previous analysis that showed an equilateral triangle is very similar to a one-radian arc. Either way you will round off to 13° and predict the 074 radial as your answer. Consider the modified approach plate 5 below : To fly this arc you start at the point marked and maintain a constant 9 DME arc to intercept the 087 radial (which lines you up for landing on runway 09. since it is a 9 DME arc. think of the equilateral triangle analogy to help you remember how to do it.3°.3 on your CR and look up 2/a. So set the ratio 9/57.

Learn them well and get comfortable with them.Navigation for Professional Pilots Imagine you are flying the above arc arrival and wish to slow down and start your pre-landing checklist 5NM prior to intercepting the final approach track. Imagine the above DME arc had been 14NM instead of 9. The answer is 32°. So you will need to slow down at the 055 radial. What would the lead radial have been? Two IMPORTANT two-step CR Ratio Problems There are two very important two-step CR calculations that we will cover next.3 lookup 5/a.” Page 115 . It is much more likely that the pilot wishes to know the distance to the VOR rather than time to the VOR. what radial should you start to slow down at? If you kept your CR set to 9/57. so be sure you fully understand the above before moving on. over water. which extends the time to station calculation previously covered. so that this method is the only method of fixing position. the pilot would simply note the distance as s/he passed abeam the VOR. If the airplane is equipped with DME the position check would be easy. With your CR set to the ratio 9/57. Look it up before reading the next paragraph. Distance to Station Below the same diagram previously examined has been repeated. The above uses of arc-speed are very typical of ones you will experience everyday as a commercial pilot.3 the answer is right in front of you. The second is gradient to rate which is very important for IFR departure and arrival planning. Both demand full mastery of the ratio concepts covered so far. The pilot wishes to determine if s/he is on track (the airplane could be in IFR weather conditions. but this particular airplane does not have a DME so we will have to do it the “hard way. One is distance to a station. or featureless terrain. Imagine the situation in which the flight plan route passes a certain number of miles north of the VOR.

Navigation for Professional Pilots

First, it is important to note that we cannot solve this problem unless we already know the groundspeed of the airplane. We will assume that the pilot has been doing his/her job well and knows the groundspeed. Assume the following data and follow along with your CR. The airplane crossed the 355 radial at time 0:00 and crossed the 005 radial 7:00 minutes later. The groundspeed is known to be 144 knots. How far north of the VOR are we? This is going to be a two-step process. What is the first relevant ratio? Think it through on your own before reading the next paragraph. (Tip: what is the angle X?) The airplane has flown through an angle of 10° in 7 minutes. Setup the ratio 10/7 on the CR. Now determine how long it would take to fly 60°. The answer is 42 minutes (10/7 = 60/42.) So time to the station is 42 minutes. In the second step we will determine distance to the station. We know it would take 42 minutes to get there, but how far is it? We know that groundspeed is 144 knots. What ratio do we need to setup? Reason it out before reading the next paragraph. We setup the ratio 144/60 which represents distance in 60 minutes. The relevant ratios are 144/60 = a/42, where a represents the answer. The answer is 101 nautical miles. In summary: When flying abeam a station, calculate distance to the station by: 1. 2. Determining how long it would take to fly a 60° arc (or one side of an equilateral triangle.) Second, determine how much distance is represented by step 1

NOTE: You must already know your groundspeed.

**Gradient to Rate Conversion
**

Many IFR departure plates have notes that specify a required climb gradient, in units of ft/NM. Even when 6 none is specified all departures must achieve a climb gradient of 200 ft/NM . Pilots routinely plan arrivals at a descent gradient of 320 ft/NM (which corresponds to 3°.) Often other descent gradients are required, especially for non-precision approaches in mountainous environments. We will thoroughly examine gradients in what follows. Keep in mind that climb gradient and descent gradient theory is fully interchangeable. Anything you learn about planning descent rates can be applied to climb rates, and vice versa.

6

This relates to the “procedural” terrain separation previously mentioned in the Overview of IFR Flight

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Unfortunately climb and descent gradients are not directly usable by pilots. Our aircraft are equipped with rate instruments, not gradient instruments. We have an airspeed indicator and often a DME or GPS all of which give our speed (a rate) and we have a vertical speed indicator (VSI) that gives our rate of climb and descent. Our challenge is to translate the published climb and descent gradients into useable verticalspeed/airspeed ratios (rates.) You will find it necessary to remember that 1.0NM = 6080 ft. We will start with a very simple problem, but one that applies to all IFR departures. As stated previously the minimum acceptable climb gradient is 200 ft/NM, as shown in the diagram below.

We can quite simply answer questions such as; what is the minimum safe altitude 5NM after takeoff? Can you setup the required ratio? Try to do so before reading the next paragraph. The ratios are 200/1 = a/5, where a is the answer. The answer is 1000 feet, i.e. you must be at least 1000’ agl 5NM after takeoff to meet the gradient. When you reach 2000’ agl the maximum distance you should be from the airport is ______ NM. The problem we most need to solve is; what vertical speed must we maintain to safely meet the gradient? This is almost trivially simple to answer if you remember that 60 knots is 1.0 NM/min (previously I said that you needed to remember that fact.) If you forget then set your CR to the ratio 1/1 to remind yourself that 1.0 NM/min means 60 miles per 60 minutes. Examine the above diagram and imagine the airplane climbing along the flight path at a groundspeed of 60 knots. After one minute it would be at the 1.0 NM point and its altitude would be 200 feet. After two minutes it would be at the 2.0NM point and its altitude would be 400 feet, etc. It must be clear to you that it requires a vertical speed of 200 fpm. To make rate conversions it is CRUCIAL to realize that an airplane with a groundspeed of 60 knots requires a climb rate equal to the gradient. In this case the relevant ratio is therefore 60/200. What climb rate do you need at 75 knots? Figure it out on your own before reading the next paragraph.

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Set the CR to the ratio 60/200 and lookup 75/a. The answer is 250 fpm. At 85 knots the minimum safe 7 vertical speed is _____ fpm. At 95 knots it is _____ fpm. At 105 knots it is _____ fpm . At 120 knots it is _____ fpm. Not all departures can be made safely at a gradient of 200 ft/NM. When a larger gradient is required the departure chart will specify the required value. The plate below is an example:

You can find the above plate in your CAP2 under Victoria International, Mill Bay SID. Depending on which transition ATC assigns, a climb gradient of 330 ft/NM or 220 ft/NM applies. Let’s work out the required vertical speed for each case – starting with 330 ft/NM. What ratio should you setup on your CR? Try to figure it out before reading the next paragraph. We must realize that at 60 knots the required vertical speed is 330 fpm. So set the ratio 60/330 and lookup your-speed/a. [Tip: it makes no difference whether you setup 330/60 or 60/330 as long as you keep track of whether groundspeed or vertical speed is on the top of the ratio.] If your groundspeed is 75 knots the required vertical speed is 415 fpm. At 85 knots it is ______ fpm. At 105 8 knots it is ______ fpm . Repeat the above calculations for a climb gradient of 220 ft/NM. Make sure that the above calculations are effortless for you. You must routinely check the minimum climb rate for IFR departures. Before we move on to the next important point it should be pointed out that you can approach the above problems from the opposite direction. If you know your groundspeed and vertical speed you can use the CR

7

350 fpm 580 fpm

8

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to determine your actual climb gradient. This is also helpful for flight planning purposes. We will use it quite often, so it is worth covering now. Imagine that you know your groundspeed is 115 knots and that your vertical speed is 800 fpm. What is your climb gradient? What ratio should you setup, and how do you get the answer? Figure it out before reading the next paragraph. The relevant ratio is 115/800 = 60/a. The secret is to realize that the ratio groundspeed/vertical speed, i.e. 115/800 establishes the gradient. To get the value in units of ft/NM remember that 60 knots is 1.0 NM/min, and look up the vertical speed at 60 knots. In this case the answer is 416 ft/NM. As long as this value exceeds the published climb gradient the pilot need not worry. This calculation can also easily be extended to answer questions of the form; what altitude will this airplane be at when 6.4 miles after takeoff? [Tip: this is step two of a two-step problem.] Try to figure out the answer before reading the next paragraph. We know the climb gradient is 416 ft/NM so setup the ratio 416/1 and lookup a/6.4. The answer is 2660 feet. A particular airplane climbs at 160 knots and 1000 fpm. What is the climb gradient, and what altitude will it be at 3.7NM after takeoff? The first ratio is 160/1000 = 60/a. This gives a climb gradient of 222 ft/NM. The second step is to use the climb gradient, so set the ratio 222/1 = a/3.7. The airplane will be at 830agl 3.7NM after takeoff. You can see that the above two-step calculation is quite useful for flight planning. Go over it until it makes complete sense to you. Next we examine a very important, but not significantly different, situation related to approach planning. Consider the following approach plate, which is quite typical.

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Page 120 . The required vertical speed depends on your groundspeed such that 60/340 = groundspeed/a.3NM from the runway.e. What vertical speed is needed? Try to setup the required ratio on your own before reading the next paragraph. until you can do the calculation quickly and effortlessly.Navigation for Professional Pilots The approach plate above can be found in your CAP2 under Abbotsford NDB RWY 07. normal touchdown is made about 0.5NM. The airplane must descend 1526 feet (1700 – 174. The XX beacon is 4. be sure you can locate it for yourself. On this approach the airplane must cross the XX NDB at 1700 (or above) and then land on runway 07. so it is important to become comfortable with it. The answer is 340 ft/NM.) The pilot will of course not land exactly at the runway threshold. You should open your CAP at random and calculate the descent gradient for the final approach segment of many non-precision IFR approaches (i. The relevant ratio is 60/340 because at 60 knots 340 fpm would be required. Examining the Abbotsford approach plate once again.2NM past the threshold. At 90 knots the vertical speed must be ______ fpm. All this information is presented on the above plate. not ILS approaches). and resulting vertical speed at your airplane’s approach groundspeed. If you fly the approach at 105 knots the vertical speed must be 600 fpm. so the descent must be completed in 4.5 = a/1. The above calculation will be needed for every non-precision IFR approach you fly. The relevant ratio is 1526/4. we see that in the intermediate approach segment the airplane must descend from 2500 to 1700. At 140 knots the vertical speed must be ______ fpm. which has a touch down zone elevation (TDZE) of 174. What is the descent gradient? Try to figure it out yourself before reading the next paragraph. How far back from the XX NDB should this descent begin if the pilot wishes to maintain a descent gradient of 340 ft/NM (the previously calculated gradient for the final segment)? Setup your CR as required before reading the next paragraph.

1NM. an ILS) a glidepath indicator directs the pilot to the runway so calculation is not as necessary.0NM is 6080 feet. Tan (3) = a/6080 (recall that 1.0NM. Most precision approaches are set to a descent angle of 3°. The tower asks you to report 2NM on final. The required ratio is 320/1 = 1000/a. Legally a precision approach can have glidepaths in the range 2. The above relationship is VERY IMPORTANT. The answer is about 2. Below are some typical applications. Standard Decent Gradient is 3° The gradient to rate conversion discussed above is primarily applicable to non-precision approaches.) The relevant ratio is 340/1 = 700/a.Navigation for Professional Pilots The airplane must descend 700 feet (2500 – 1700. which is a gradient of 320 ft/NM. It is however beneficial to examine the required descent rates. most pilots round it off to 1000 feet per 3. The answer is 3. However. Work them out based on the ratio 1000/3.7. Some precision approaches use other gradients. if you like you can rework them based on the more accurate 320/1 to see if the difference is significant. which is close enough for typical purposes and allows quick and easy calculations in your mind without needing a CR. which corresponds to 320 ft/NM. The importance of the calculations demonstrated should be obvious. what altitude will you be at? Setup your CR before reading the next paragraph. which we will do now. which we will round off to 320. Page 121 .g. On a precision approach (e. How many nautical miles are required for a descent of 1000 feet on an ILS? Setup the required ratio on your CR before reading the next paragraph.0°. If the pilot wishes to limit the intermediate segment to a gradient of 320 ft/NM the descent should start ______ NM from the XX beacon.) Using an electronic calculator a equals 318. The above diagram shows a 3° descent. This can be calculated using basic trigonometry.1NM.5° to 4.

TAS and CAS Conversions The situation is that you are flying along in your King-Air at FL250.3. If you set the more precise ratio 320/1 the answer is 9. You will be ____ NM from the checkpoint when you make this call. Note that a equals 5. With your CR set to 60/320 what is the value of 1/a. You read the airspeed indicator and it says 170 KIAS.0 and 9. This is the actual distance. You will intercept a glidepath 600 feet above the glidepath check altitude. Summarizing what we have learned about flying 3° precision approaches. From a practical point of view reading the difference on your altimeter and then reporting would be impossible. the required descent rate is ______ fpm. Use the approximations to answer the following questions without using your CR or any other calculator. the calculation is so simple you hardly need a CR.0. You look at the thermometer and it says -21°C.0NM from touchdown. You should report 2.Navigation for Professional Pilots The ratio is 1000/3 = a/2.) If you had used the more precise ratio 320/1 your answer would be 640agl. That will be _____ NM from the FAF. The answer is 640 fpm. Your groundspeed is 85 knots. You are going to intercept the glidepath at 3000agl. You are flying an ILS approach with a groundspeed of 120 knots. Your groundspeed is 100 knots. the required descent rate is ______ fpm.4 is probably not significant. We know the correct answer is 640. “How far back” you are. From this comes the rule of thumb that vertical speed should be 5 x groundspeed. Your answer is _____ NM. What is your TAS? Page 122 . This is an important calculation. but 600 fpm will get you started close enough.0 final when you are 666 above ground level (note that you can thus report 2. The required ratio is 60/320 = 120/a.3 fpm for every knot of groundspeed. In order to facilitate mental calculations while flying ILS approaches pilots use the ratio 1000/3 or 100/. This ratio tells us that we need 5. how far from touchdown will you be? Setup your CR before going on. Pilots also use the formula 5 x groundspeed to approximate the descent rate.0 final even if your airplane is not equipped with DME. what vertical speed do you require? Setup your CR before reading the next paragraph. which will take you directly to the runway. Using the 120 knot example we get 5 x 120 = 600 fpm. You will be 9. Your company SOP is to call 100 above as you approach the glidepath check altitude. but since your primary purpose in such calculations is usually just to keep a mental image of how far you are from touchdown the difference between 9. you then follow the glidepath indicator. Pilots routinely round this off to 5.3 to approximate the descent gradient.4NM. You are 400 agl when the tower asks. If you set 1000/3 = 3000/a. but given that positive guidance is provided by the glidepath it is really only necessary to approximate this calculation.

FL250 means that your altimeter is set to 29. the friction of the air rushing past the temperature probe causes an error and the actual temperature is colder than -21°C. so your pressure altitude is 25. so our speed is 170 KCAS. as shown below. On the CR (CAS window) set 170 KCAS opposite 25. At 170KIAS there is no error. see photo below.92. From the King-Air POH we look at the calibration chart to see what our CAS is. We will see how much colder shortly.000’.Navigation for Professional Pilots It is important to know that the actual air temperature is NOT -21°C. rotate it so you can look at the TAS window. Page 123 . Set the indicated temperature hairline to -21°C and read the TAS on the scale. Keeping the CR in that position.000’ pressure altitude.

Remember that when doing this sort problem with your CR you would be in flight and checking that your TAS is working out as flight planned. Our job is to predict the indicated airspeed (IAS. Temperature rise (see photo below) is 8.Navigation for Professional Pilots TAS is 252 or 253 KTAS and the Mach number is 0. Derive CAS given TAS and Forecast Temperature In this situation we are doing flight planning. we are still on the ground. in other words the actual temperature is -29. i.2°C.e. From the POH we find the true airspeed and the FD forecast gives us the temperature.) Page 124 . There are lots of sample problems like the one above in the assignments.415.2°C.

or higher than 20. The error will be 1 knot or less. for any airplane flying faster than 200 knots. but MUST be used for fast airplanes. for the King Air you must use procedure 2.) Of course you can always use it. This can be used for all airplanes. The CR has two techniques: 1.000 feet. both fast and slow. Pressure altitude in cruise is 8070’ From the POH. TAS will be 111 KTAS Predict the IAS? Page 125 .000 feet because we can disregard compression error.35 Cruise altitude 8500 indicated Forecast temperature at altitude -12°C 65% power Given the above. 2.Navigation for Professional Pilots It is much simpler to do this for airplanes that fly less than 200 knots and less than 20. Procedure for “Slow and Low” Airplanes In your CR manual this is referred to as the “old method” and is described on page 21. but it takes longer and is not needed for slow airplanes like the C-172 or B95. even though it is called the old method. A comparison between this and the professional method below confirms this claim. A quick and simple technique that does NOT compensate for compression. For a C-172P the following data apply: Altimeter setting 30. use if for the C-172 and B95 because it is quick and easy. Obviously jet pilots always use procedure 2. You are expected to learn both procedures and apply the two-step procedure when needed (i.e. for aircraft slower than 200 knots A two-step procedure that accurately allows for compression.

as shown in the photo above. in this case 111KTAS equals ~101 KCAS. CAS appears directly below it. Take care to keep the above values aligned while you locate the TAS on the outer ring. To get the indicated airspeed look in the calibration chart on page 5-8 of the POH.Navigation for Professional Pilots Line up the temperature of -12°C with the PRESSURE ALTITUDE of 8070’. Page 126 . In this case indicated airspeed is about 2 knots more than calibrated so the final answer is 103 KIAS.

Your POH gives you TAS and the CR gives you the speed of sound. regardless of TAS. An IMPORTANT point to note before we go further is that since the TAS window on the CR works with INDICATED temperature (see photo below) and indicated is NOT the same as actual air temperature. on all your flight plans for the C-172P and Beech 95. Determine cruise Mach number Use Mach number to determine CAS You can then also determine temperature rise if needed The procedure works because temperature affects calibrated airspeed and the speed of sound equally and therefore the effects offset. Once you get good at it you can do it quite quickly even though it requires two steps: 1. so make sure you can do it without hesitation. The proper procedure is to first determine your Mach number. you cannot use the TAS window to predict CAS by reversing the procedure covered above. For a given Mach number there is one CAS for each pressure altitude. For a King-Air the following data apply: Altimeter setting 29. 2. 3.92 Page 127 .Navigation for Professional Pilots You will be using the above procedure over and over. To do that you need to know TAS and the speed of sound. Procedure for “Fast and High” Airplanes In your CR manual this is referred to as the professional method.

0 your TAS would be 1212 KTAS.0 corresponds to 606 knots. The photo below shows the Mach index set to -30°C. Using the method described earlier reveal the Mach Index by setting 600 knots over 1 on the outer scales (this is shown below.4? 9 850 KTAS Page 128 .) Next set the actual air temperature on the Mach index to get the “real” speed of sound. 9 what is it a Mach 1. TAS 276 KTAS Forecast temperature at altitude -30°C What is the CAS and IAS? Mach number is simply the ratio TAS/speed-of-sound. If you were at Mach 2. what is your TAS if you are at Mach 0. On the outer scale you should now see that Mach 1.8.Navigation for Professional Pilots Cruise altitude FL230.

455. Page 129 .Navigation for Professional Pilots Returning to our problem. You are now ready for the second step. Locate the TAS on the outer scale and read the Mach number. In this example true airspeed of 276 corresponds to Mach 0. Notice that when air temperature changes Mach number changes. but altitude per se is irrelevant. What is the Mach number? You can read it on the scale as shown below. Go to the TAS window and set the Mach number as shown below. we know that our TAS is 277.

Page 130 . regardless of temperature. This procedure works because ANY airplane at FL230 and Mach 0. The photo below shows the result. In this example CAS is 195 KCAS.000’ pressure altitude to get the CAS. which is roughly 197 KIAS according to the POH.Navigation for Professional Pilots With the Mach number set look in the calibrated airspeed window across from 23.455 has a calibrated airspeed of 195 KCAS. You will be using the above procedure many times in flight planning so make sure you go over it until you can do it without hesitation.

use the professional method on the C-172P problem previously solved with procedure slow airplane procedure.1765. Page 131 .Navigation for Professional Pilots Comparing Procedure for slow and fast Airplanes First. which is exactly what we got using the slow airplane procedure. as shown below: The result is ~100 KCAS. Set this in the TAS window as shown below: In the CAS window locate the pressure altitude. More importantly cruising at 111 KTAS corresponds to Mach 0. Now let’s find out what happens if we use the slow airplane procedure for the King Air problem. So both procedures clearly work for the C-172P. Setting the Mach index to -12°C the speed of sound becomes 628 knots. which is 8070’ and read the calibrated airspeed.

but it is certainly enough to get the wrong answer on your ATPL written exams. We know the correct value is 196. Page 132 . The four knot error may not seem like a big deal. This is shown below: The value of less than 192 is obviously wrong.Navigation for Professional Pilots In the pressure altitude window set the temperature of -30°C over the pressure altitude of 23.) So we have confirmed that we cannot use the slow airplane procedure for the King Air. The error gets larger as you fly higher (as in jets.000 as shown below: Now locate the TAS of 276 on the outer scale and read the CAS.

000 Indicated OAT 2°C -12°C -15°C -15°C TAS Error TAS 105 105 145 235 380 440 Actual Air Temp 12°C -20°C 5°C -12°C -56°C -56°C Mach number Fill in the right hand column: Page 133 .000 40.000 40.000 30. This time you do not need to determine Mach number: CAS 145 315 280 280 Pressure Altitude 5.000 Indicated OAT 2°C -12°C -15°C -15°C TAS Mach number Read the section labeled “Old” Method on page 21 of the CR Handbook.Navigation for Professional Pilots Sample Questions 5 Use the “Professional Method” to complete the last two columns of the table below: CAS 145 315 280 280 Pressure Altitude 5.000 25.000 25. Repeat the calculations using the old method.000 30.

17 0.67 0.500 8.775 Pressure Altitude 8.373 0.500 6.16 0.000 CAS Page 134 .Navigation for Professional Pilots Mach Number 0.000 38.224 0.000 32.000 21.

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In the assigned cross country flights you will need to consult these. which gives data about all the registered airports and aerodromes in Canada. Weather and NOTAMS Checking weather and NOTAMS before flight is essential for flight safety. to get maximum value from this data you must use the index in the general section. part A. VOR/DME frequency allocations etc. As mentioned previously the CFS contains many useful pieces of information in the later sections.Chapter 6 The Canada Flight Supplement The Canada Flight Supplement (CFS) is one of the most important documents for flight planning. It contains various emergency procedures such as intercept orders and procedures in the event of an emergency landing. Section D contains a lot of useful information about the location of navigation radios. These can be found in section C. This includes preferred IFR routes for both high and low altitude. Get to know the codes used to describe public facilities (PF) lighting. They will not be covered here. You will learn to decode weather in Avia 120 and NOTAMs in Avia 130. You must become familiar with all the information it contains and be able to locate what you need quickly and efficiently. You will be given a number of assignments to develop expertise in decoding the CFS. Expect questions drawn from the CFS on all your exams. Flight Planning. Every pilot should read and understand this section. etc. Section E is perhaps the most neglected yet vital section. . The most used part of the CFS is section B. Become familiar with all the information in the CFS. However.

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the shape of the earth. This defines the north and south poles. 10. The earth spins around an axis that astronomers can locate. measured around the poles. Due to the gravitational effect of the moon and sun the earth’s spin is gradually slowing down. such as those in GPS satellites. and different than “GPS time. A computer program in your GPS receiver calculates the difference so that the time displayed to you is approximately equal to earth time. the equatorial circumference is 40. The original definition of the metric distance unit “meter” was that the distance from the equator to the pole is 10 million meters. We will learn about the magnetic North and South Pole later.Chapter 7 Navigation Theory In this section you will learn about the compass. as mentioned above. An interesting anomaly that results from this variant resynchronization is that earth clocks and GPS clocks move out of synchronization over the 1000 week GPS cycle. i. which makes the shape an oblate spheroid. Every degree of latitude is by definition 60 NM. but it will take billions of years before it stops spinning relative to the sun. Therefore the circumference of the earth is 40. It spins once every 24 hours.e. but due to its spin the equator bulges slightly. Shape of the Earth The earth is very close to being a perfect sphere.076 Km.000 Km. which defines one day. The aviation unit of distance is the nautical mile. The rate of slowing is however enough for atomic clocks.) Other clocks are synchronized just before midnight on December 31 each year making the last day of the year the longest by a few millionths of a second. maps and globes and other theory elements that impact on navigation. The earth spins around an axis that runs through the north and south poles. From the above discussion you should memorize the definition of the nautical mile and take note that the difference in circumference of the earth around the poles vs. the equator is less than . If the earth was shrunk down to the size of a billiard ball it would be a smoother rounder billiard ball than any you will find in a pool hall. For now simply realize that the true North and South Poles are based on the spin of the earth and are NOT the same as the Magnetic Poles. which is also defined in accordance with the circumference of the earth. Because the equator is a bit fatter.00002%. so the circumference of the earth is 360 x 60 = 21.000 Km measured around the poles.600 Nm. The distance around the equator is an extra 41 NM.” Latitude . to measure so they must be resynchronized with the rotation of the earth every 1000 weeks (roughly every 20 years.

and therefore the North Pole is 90°N latitude and the South Pole is 90°S latitude. If you know the latitude of two places you can calculate the north/south distance between them.) The difference is Page 140 . Take note that the latitude/longitude system is devised on a model of the earth that assumes a perfect sphere.y) Cartesian coordinate system you already know. Castlegar is at N49 17. but the difference is such a tiny fraction of 1% that it can be ignored for our purposes. Lines of latitude run around the earth east to west and exactly parallel to each other and perpendicular to the earth’s axis of rotation. There are sixty minutes per degree. so each minute of latitude is one nautical mile. Latitude is measured as the angle from the center of the earth with the equator defined as zero degrees. Every degree of latitude is 60 NM. rather like the (x.37 (note the format. As mentioned above the earth is not a perfect sphere. This is shown in the diagram below. more on that shortly. The subunits of latitude are called minutes.76 while Prince George is N53 53.Navigation for Professional Pilots A grid system known as latitude and longitude has been devised so that the location of any spot on the earth can be specified.

Every other location is therefore specified as east or west of the Prime Meridian with 180E or 180W (the same place) being the maximum longitude. Meridians of longitude are straight-lines that run north/south through the poles. 117 degrees and 37.95. i. But there is no equivalent to the equator to act as a starting point for a grid system in the perpendicular orientation. so the distance between them is zero at the poles. these are different for each location. Longitude Because the earth has poles there was no controversy about setting up a latitude system. and runs very close to New Zealand.95 minutes west of the Prime Meridian. therefore the PRIME MERIDIAN runs through London England. Every one passes through the North and South Poles. What is the distance between them at the equator? Based on the model of the earth that says it is a perfect sphere the distance between lines of longitude at the equator is 60NM. but the one that runs through Greenwich is designated as 0° longitude. All locations on the earth are equal in the sense that the earth spins once per day so every spot on earth has a noon and a midnight.61 minutes. Meridians of longitude DO NOT run parallel to each other.61 NM so the total distance is 275.e.61 NM. Please note that this is the north/south distance only.61 minutes equals 35. The lines of latitude run parallel to each other and are equidistant apart. there is also an east/west component that we turn to next. In the historical period when accurate measuring of the earth first became possible the British were the dominant world force.Navigation for Professional Pilots 4 degrees 35. Castlegar is W117 37. so it is true to say that New Zealand is on the opposite side of the earth to England. Every location on the earth has one. specifically the Greenwich observatory. 180W is about the middle of the Pacific Ocean. 4 degrees equals 240 NM and 35. What is the distance between lines of longitude in Castlegar? Page 141 .

The cosine of 49° is about .) Gander is only 54° west of Greenwich. But clearly each degree of longitude is less than 60NM in Castlegar.Navigation for Professional Pilots Castlegar is at N49 latitude and so is Gander Newfoundland. the outer ring represents the equator. Castlegar is at W117. The diagram is drawn to scale. How many nautical miles is that? If Castlegar and Gander were on the equator each degree would be 60NM so it would be easy to figure how far apart they are. Page 142 . Between Castlegar and Gander the difference is 63° degrees of longitude. so it might seem odd to you that N49 is closer to the equator than the North Pole. but a sphere’s circumference does not vary linearly. so it is a lot closer to England than Castlegar. The distance between degrees of longitude is given by: 60cosine(latitude).66 so each degree of longitude equals ~39 NM at that latitude. The distance from Castlegar to Gander is 2598 NM. but that doesn’t matter. so both Castlegar and Gander are on the th 49 parallel of latitude. The picture above shows a view of the globe from above the North Pole. it varies with the cosine of the latitude. which means it is 117° west of the prime meridian in Greenwich England (Greenwich is about N52 latitude.

Great-circles A Great-circle is a circle on the surface of the earth whose center passes through the center of the earth. NSD is very easy to figure out as we have seen.5 cosine of the latitude. It also determines true track between the points. but we will defer discussion of that until we examine some map theory. The diagram below shows two points marked by Xs and the east-west distance 10 (EWD) and north-south distance (NSD) between them. The ENL has a latitude-longitude calculator that uses the above formula. 10 The technical term for EWD is “departure.” Page 143 . EWD is almost as easy to figure – you should use the mid-latitude between the two points when taking the 2 2 0. Distance is simply (EWD + NSD ) .Navigation for Professional Pilots Given the latitude and longitude of any two places on earth the distance between them can be estimated using Pythagoras theorem.

they change direction (angle) relative to true north as you fly along them. An important point to note here is that no circle can be drawn on the surface of the earth that is larger than a Great-circle.) Any eastbound flight must change heading to the right continuously to stay on the Great-circle. Small Circles Any circle on the surface of the earth whose center does not pass through the center of the earth is a small circle. To visualize look at the diagram below and remember that true track is the angle between meridians and the desired track (DTK. The equator is a Great-circle but the other lines of latitude are NOT. except for the meridians and equator.e. Page 144 . i. A westbound flight must continuously turn left. hence the name. so all other circles are smaller than Great-circles. An important fact about Great-circles is that. half Great-circles. All the meridians of longitude are semi-great-circles.Navigation for Professional Pilots A segment of a Great-circle is the shortest distance between two points.

Navigation for Professional Pilots All the parallels of latitude except the equator are small circles. it is a small circle. If you fly this line. and can be visually seen in flight because the trees have been cut down along it. Following this Great-circle track would be the shortest route to Vancouver. Imagine that the 49 parallel as a ring resting on the globe (see photo above). Is a segment of a small circle the shortest th distance between two points? For example the 49 parallel runs from Trail to Vancouver. You must enlarge the circle and rotate it so its center passes through the center of the earth (and keep Trail and Vancouver as th points on the circle. Imagine what you must do to change this small circle into a Great-circle.) In the process the Great-circle line would arc north of the 49 parallel. on a true heading of 270°. but you would no longer be able to fly a constant heading. th Page 145 . We turn to that matter next. is that the shortest distance between Trail and Vancouver? The answer is no.

75°. Convergence can be estimated as: Convergence = Δ Longitude x sine (average latitude) A flight along the equator (latitude 0. Convergence Convergence is the angle that a Great-circle track changes over its length.5° To fly a Great-circle from Castlegar to Vancouver the true track start as 272. Rhumb-Line A Rhumb-line is a constant-track line between two points. Try to figure it out yourself before turning the page. and final heading to fly the Great-circle from Castlegar to Gander.) Convergence Castlegar to Vancouver = 6 x sine (49) The convergence between Castlegar and Vancouver is 4.) Page 146 . The lat and long of each airport is given above. In the Castlegar to Vancouver example above. In other words it is a line that crosses all the meridians along the route at the same angle.) A flight from Castlegar to Gander has a convergence of _______.5°. but a flight near the poles has a great deal (sine (90) is 1. and as previously noted a westbound flight must change heading to the left. We turn to that point next. following the 49 parallel. Most pilots would say that it is much more convenient to fly on constant heading for the entire flight however. mid.Navigation for Professional Pilots Photo shows wire stretched around globe to represent a Great-circle. The total change in heading is 4.25°. Convergence Castlegar to Gander = 63 x sine (49) The convergence between Castlegar and Gander is 48° What is the convergence between Castlegar and Vancouver? Longitude in Castlegar is W117 and Vancouver is W123 (difference of 6°. sine (0) is 0) has no convergence. and maintaining a 11 Note that the magnetic heading will still change if variation differs along the route (as it usually does. so convergence equals change in longitude at the poles. The pilot must change heading by 70° from the start of the flight to the end in order to follow the Great-circle route. The advantage of a Rhumb-line is that you can fly one true-heading (TH) to get from departure to 11 th destination . Try to figure out for yourself the initial. half-way the track is 270° and as the airplane flies into Vancouver the track is 267. In the above diagram DTK 1 is 030° and DTK4 is 100° so convergence is 70°.

) In the days before flight management systems (FMS) this was the normal navigation method. Pilots generally find this much more satisfactory than constantly changing heading as they must to fly a Great-circle.e. Map Theory Now that we know all about Great-circles and Rhumb-lines it is time to talk about maps.) Therefore on short flights pilots routinely fly Rhumb-lines. and we certainly can’t take one in the airplane. which is a flat piece of paper representing the surface of the earth. NOT FLAT. Modern FMS makes accurate navigation along Great-circles feasible. It is not practical to flight plan using a globe. Imagine cutting open a tennis ball and trying to spread it out flat. the Rhumb-line is always closer to the equator. such as international airline flights. constituted flying a Rhumb-line. a Rhumb-line is flown between the checkpoints. Obviously there is a problem because the surface of the earth is curved. Notice that the Great-circle track is ALWAYS closer to the pole than the Rhumb-line. a Great-circle can be approximated by plotting a series of checkpoints along the Great-circle 500NM or less apart and then flying Rhumb-lines between them. The pilot has a nav-log showing checkpoints and one heading between checkpoints (just what pilots like. Remembering this will help you figure out which way heading must be adjusted to fly a Great-circle. On longer flights. You Page 147 . The distance penalty for flying a Rhumb-line as opposed to a Great-circle is not significant for flights up to 500 NM at moderate latitudes (i. and that is now the norm.E. flights not near or over the poles.Navigation for Professional Pilots true heading of 270°. I. so we need a map. In the above diagram a long-range airline flight approximates a Great-circle by flying over a series of checkpoints (Xs) along the Great-circle but a constant heading is flown between these checkpoints. or if you prefer.

but all maps are distorted. The only difference between one map and another is the way the photographic paper is wrapped around the globe. In Canada it is used for: VFR navigation Charts (VNC) World Aeronautical Charts (WAC) LO and HI IFR charts The other projection that is widely used is the Transverse Mercator. A light is placed at the center of the globe and photographic paper is then held over or wrapped around the globe. The method of creating the map determines what type of distortion. The surface features of the earth are therefore projected onto the photograph and a map is created. In Canada it is used for: VFR Terminal Charts (VTA) IFR Terminal Charts (T1 T2) Polar charts We will now examine each of these projections.Navigation for Professional Pilots could not do it. Therefore ALL MAPS ARE DISTORTED. Lambert Conformal Conic Projection Page 148 . The dominant projection used in Aviation is the Lambert Conformal. Conic projection. All maps are created by “projection” which you can visualize as meaning that a glass globe is created with all the surface features on it.

We will examine what conformal and conic mean. but near the top and bottom it is a bit less. Page 149 .5% and therefore you can ignore it. which means that one inch on the map equals 500. On a perfectly conformal map a straight-line is a Great-circle. You obviously don’t want a map that is as large as the earth.000 inches in the real world (1cm equals 500. Circled is the note that it is a Lambert Conformal Conic Projection. On a perfectly conformal map the scale is constant throughout the map.000 is therefore the average scale of the map. so a more technical definition is needed. It is not perfect.5%.000.” according to the dictionary means: “to be similar or identical. The scale of 1:500. The difference is less than 0. The error is less than 0.9 NM so one inch on the map equals 6. We already said that this is impossible however. The photo above shows the scale on a VNC is 1:500.9 nautical miles. Lambert is the name of the person who invented it. Let’s see why there is an error at all. but real maps are never perfectly conformal. In the middle of the map it is a bit more.” A conformal map is one that shows the earth in the same shape that it has in the real world. Lambert’s conic projection comes very close to meeting this standard. The word “conform. A map is conformal if at every location on the map the scale distortion north and south equals the scale distortion east and west.000 cm etc.Navigation for Professional Pilots The photo above is from a Vancouver VNC chart. On a Lambert Conformal Conic projection a straight-line can be accepted as “close enough” to a Great-circle for navigation purposes. To be useful a map must have a scale.000 inches equals 6. commonly used for VFR navigation. but good enough to be designated conformal.) 500.

and north and south of the standard parallels the surface of the earth is below the cone. Between the standard parallels the surface of the real earth is above the cone. Lambert’s innovation was to sink the cone into the earth so that it touches along two parallels of latitude. The consequence of this to map scale is shown below. This would be a standard conic projection. as shown in the photo above.Navigation for Professional Pilots Imagine a sheet of photographic paper formed into a cone and set over the globe (like a hat) with its apex at above the North-pole. Page 150 . and it would touch the earth along only one parallel of latitude.

Transverse Mercator projection Page 151 .Navigation for Professional Pilots The diagram above shows projection lines emanating from the center of the earth and passing through the surface of the earth and the map. As stated previously the scale error over the entire map is about 0.) Between the parallels the opposite effect takes place. At mid-leg a Rhumb-line track and a Great-circle track are equal. Along the standard parallels the scale of the map is precise. The photograph at the beginning of this section showed that the standard parallels for the Vancouver VNC are N49 20 and N54 40. if you want to fly a Rhumb line you must measure the true track at mid-leg.5% so you can feel free to measure distance anywhere on the VNC for navigation planning purposes. Summary of Lambert Conformal Conic Projection 1. Straight lines are Great-circles (close enough) Scale is constant throughout (close enough) Rhumb-lines are NOT straight Because Rhumb-lines are not straight. 3. Along these lines map scale is accurate. It is important to consider where a given point on the actual surface of the earth appears on the map. 2. Different standard parallels are used on VNCs to suit the latitude of the area depicted. North and south of the standard parallels points on the map are further apart than on the earth’s surface (if you measure a distance of say 100 NM on the map the real distance on the surface of the earth is less.

The cylinder can be rotated so that it touches on any of the 360 meridians. In the original Mercator (not a transverse Mercator) the photographic paper is rolled into a cylinder rather than a cone. At the equator the lines of longitude and latitude really lie perpendicular to each other so the Mercator map is relatively conformal near the equator. and a straight-line is NOT a Great-circle. The map scale is accurate only along the reference meridian. The Transverse Mercator also wraps the globe in a cylinder but it is rotated 90 degrees so that it touches the earth along a meridian of longitude rather than the equator. but the map is NOT CONFORMAL. The Lambert Conic projection does not work for areas near the equator. This cylinder is wrapped around the earth so that it touches along the equator. In other words it distorts shapes. On the Mercator projection the lines of latitude and longitude come out perpendicular to each other.Navigation for Professional Pilots Originally Mercator projections were developed for use near the equator. but is not useable in Canada. Page 152 . This has the advantage that a straight-line drawn on the map is a Rhumb-line.

not all airplanes have such equipment today. is used the distortion is minor. close the reference meridian. In the 21 century as GPS navigation becomes dominant it is probable (or at least possible) that true tracks and true north will become the only references used for navigation. The photo below shows the location of the Magnetic North Pole. Consequently a straight-line drawn on the map is a Rhumb-line.e. Unfortunately the Magnetic North Pole is not collocated with the real North Pole.Navigation for Professional Pilots A transverse Mercator map is NOT conformal. It is used for VTA and IFR terminal charts. but as long at only a small section. When measuring a true track on a map you must align north on the protractor with a meridian. so a magnetic compass must be used. True and Magnetic North (Variation) So far all discussion about tracks has been in relation to true north. the North and South Poles. The Transverse Mercator projection is only suitable for small scale maps such as terminal charts. st Page 153 . i. It has the advantage of creating a grid in which lines of latitude and longitude cross perpendicular to each other. Meridians of longitude run north/south by definition. But.

as shown in the photograph. The variation shown in the photograph is easterly.) An isogonic line joins locations with equal variation. and it is the angle between true north and magnetic north. in Montreal variation is westerly. The error is called variation.Navigation for Professional Pilots A compass points at the Magnetic North Pole. On a line running through Manitoba there are locations where variation is zero (as shown in the photograph. These lines are labeled as shown in the photo below. points too far east. A compass on the white line in the photograph also points at the true North Pole. But a compass in British Columbia. Page 154 . All aeronautical maps have isogonic lines printed on them.

magnetic is best This means that when variation is easterly the magnetic heading is always less than true heading. Compass Deviation The topic of deviation is out of place here since it is not related to map theory. This procedure was demonstrated previously. so true heading must be converted to magnetic before the flight. but it does fit logically here because of its relationship to variation. In flight the heading indicator is normally set to magnetic north and all heading are referred to as magnetic headings. Variation East. magnetic is least Variation West. It is caused by the magnetic fields of the metal parts of the airplane and is significantly affected by electrical equipment such as the alternator. Deviation is an error in the compass of the airplane. As such deviation is specific to an individual airplane. Consequently it must be measured and recorded on a regular basis. Deviation changes from time to time. Even though the above rhyme is fairly simple it is best to use your CR to convert between magnetic and true so that no mistake is made. The following rhyme may help you remember whether to add of subtract variation. That is to say that the magnetic field of the airplane changes over time. Flight planning is normally done in true however. When variation is westerly magnetic heading is always more than true.Navigation for Professional Pilots In the above case variation is 23° East. These things cause an error in the compass known as deviation. The process of measuring Page 155 .

The contour interval is described at the bottom of the Hypsometric scale. Contour lines and hypsometric tinting are used for this purpose. according to scale below: Page 156 . Contour Lines and Hypsometric Tints Maps for aviation MUST show the height of the ground. explained next.Navigation for Professional Pilots deviation is called a compass swing. The above photo shows contour lines on a VNC. Contour lines are lines that join points of equal elevation above sea level. as most pilots do. On VNC charts there is a 500’ contour but from 1000’ and above contours are every 1000’. To make terrain easier to visualize Hypsometric tinting is used. A compass swing is required every year and also any time electrical equipment is removed or replaced in the airplane. The pilot should read the compass then the deviation card and set the heading indicator to the corrected magnetic heading. Deviation is seldom more than 2 or 3 degrees so ignoring it. An AME performs the compass swing and provides a compass card in the cockpit which the pilot uses to correctly set the heading indicator. results in only minor error. This is one of the most important details for flight safety.

10.000 and 11. Map Legend Every map has a legend printed along the edge that shows all the symbols used on the map. At the top of the scale you find the maximum elevation for the map.000 are also plotted. located at N60 34 W140 24. the highest point in Canada. and intermediate contours at 4000’. Use these to refine the information provided by the tinting. 8000’. also shown just above the hypsometric tint scale. 6000’.524’ asl. All the symbols are important but will not be covered here as you can read the legend for yourself. A 500’ intermediate contour line appears within the lowest hypsometric tint.Navigation for Professional Pilots The above scale is found on the white edge of every VNC. Page 157 . The example above is 19.

WAC charts use a scale of 1:1. What is the true track? Page 158 .Navigation for Professional Pilots Airport data is provided on VNC charts but this should only be used for preliminary planning. VTA charts have a scale of 1: 250. The same scale is used on all VNC charts in Canada. For a VTA chart use the VNC ruler scale then double the distance. The inner scale is used on VNC and the outer scale on WAC charts. An appropriate Navigation ruler must be used to measure distances on these maps. Imagine you wish to fly from the checkpoint marked as departure to the one marked as destination.000. Always look in a current CFS for up-to-date airport data. The picture below shows the scale on the Vancouver VNC chart is 1:500.000.000. not statute miles. Make sure you use the correct scale. Always measure distance in Nautical Miles.000. Grid Navigation The picture below is of a globe from above the North Pole. Map Scale The scale of the map is always printed on the map.

then heading of 090 true would take you to the destination along the line shown below: But this is clearly not the shortest route.” Page 159 . The desired route is “over the pole.Navigation for Professional Pilots If you are willing to fly a Rhumb line.

The true tracks are as follows: Location X1 X2 True Track 019 045 Page 160 . make a table of required true headings for the locations marked with the Xs. We already know that in order to fly a Great-circle we must change heading as we fly.E. Remember that each line of longitude represents a true track of north (0°. you must orient your Douglas protractor to north on each line of longitude.Navigation for Professional Pilots In the diagram below the desired Great-circle route is drawn in as well as some lines of longitude for reference.) I.

When the airplane arrives at destination it has made no turns. but grid navigation eliminates the need to continuously update the HI enroute. But. but the heading must be 160° true (essentially southbound.) For ideal effectiveness HI would be continuously updated for convergence. Every flight over the poles starts off “northbound” and finishes “southbound. Page 161 . the heading indicator must be adjusted so that as the airplane passes X2 it reads 045°. at X4 to 137°. At X3 the HI is rotated to 082°. in practice it is usually updated every 6° change in longitude. Examine the diagram below.Navigation for Professional Pilots X3 X4 X5 082 137 160 Imagine what would be happening on the flight deck as you make this flight. An alternate method of navigating over the poles is to use Grid navigation.” Pilots must accept that brain teaser. The airplane departs on a heading of 019° (essentially northbound) and flies a straight-line.

X3. and X5. Page 162 . X4. To use the grid simply put your Douglas protractor on the grid with north aligned with the Prime meridian. or minus east longitude. but the standard procedure is to use the Prime meridian as the reference.Navigation for Professional Pilots A rectangular grid is laid over the pole as shown in the diagram above. This grid can be oriented to by reference to any meridian. The 160E median has been labeled in the diagram.”) Examine the diagram to convince yourself that the Grid heading is simply the true heading plus west longitude. For the track in the example the track is 219G (read “219 Grid. You should label the other meridians corresponding to X2.

For now this simple introduction to the concept is all that you need. For a Canadian arctic survey expedition might find it desirable to have a grid oriented to a meridian within Canada. The pilot holds this grid heading for a few hours until arriving at the destination (point where the transition back to magnetic headings will be made) at which point the heading is reset to magnetic by changing it from 219 to about 160° plus variation. The two relevant equations are: Grid track = Magnetic Track plus E grivation or minus W grivation Grid track = True Track plus W longitude or minus E longitude You will examine grid navigation a bit more in Avia 240. As previously noted the difference between true and grid tracks equals the longitude (from the reference meridian.Navigation for Professional Pilots To use Grid navigation.) We will consider LOP from both VOR and NDB.) Even though this is usually considered a southbound heading the airplane is obviously still heading north. In practice grivation is applied to the magnetic compass. Page 163 . Once the HI is adjusted to Grid the pilot can maintain a constant heading for several hours (in the example s/he maintains 219°. But things will work out in the end. Note that despite all these adjustments the airplane actually flies a straight line the whole time. You should see that grid navigation is necessary because of the extreme amount of convergence in polar crossings. Lines on a map joining points of equal grivation are called isogrivs. the magnetic compass is quite unreliable in the extreme Polar Regions so it is much more common to use INS as the reference (the INS “knows” the airplanes true track) eliminating the need to use grivation. For some purposes it could be preferable to establish a grid based on a different meridian. This amounts to rotating the HI an amount equal to the longitude of the airplane. Pilots can use these to set the HI to Grid the same way they use variation to set the compass to true. as the airplane approaches the departure point (it probably took off somewhere much further south) the pilot switches the HI to grid. Two LOP are needed to define a position fix. Can you see the benefit of this? If they used the Prime meridian instead what direction would it be to fly from the Yukon to Greenland (east or west)? When they are done exploring the polar region do they fly north or south to return to Vancouver? Plotting Lines of Position (LOP) A common task in navigation is to locate your position on a map based on a bearing from a VOR or NDB. Keep in mind that basing the grid to the Prime meridian is arbitrary.) Therefore mathematically grivation equals longitude plus variation. However. Such a bearing is referred to as a line of position (LOP. Grivation Grivation is by definition the difference between magnetic track and grid track.

which to radial 2? Choose your answer before reading the next paragraph. Page 164 . but there are a few important details. Where they cross is the “fixed” position. Each radial must be converted to a true bearing by applying variation. most VORs are oriented to magnetic north. Let’s say in the above example that radial 1 is 010R and radial 2 is 290R. You CANNOT put a protractor on each VOR and draw two lines based directly on these bearings. which means the nav radio tells you the magnetic radial you are on. The process is quite straight forward. Therefore radial 1 must be adjusted by 12° and radial 2 by 10°. The important thing to realize is that you must apply the variation at the VOR. Most importantly fixes should be plotted using true bearings. Pilots frequently refer to the procedure as taking a fix. What variation should be applied to radial 1. But. or fix for short. Use the wind side of your CR to make sure you don’t make any mistakes. NOT at the airplane. not magnetic.Navigation for Professional Pilots In the above diagram radial 1 represents one LOP and radial 2 is the second.

just be careful to convert the magnetic radial to true while making no adjustment to the true radial. The true course is clearly 022°. The legend of your VNC and LO chart warns you that in some cases VOR symbols are offset from their actual position. This gives a direct reading of the radial. To obtain an LOP from a VOR it is essential to center the CDI needle with a FROM indication. These are not accurate enough. Draw the lines carefully to find the fix.Navigation for Professional Pilots In the above photograph the 010R is set across from 12E variation. If you center the needle with a TO indication you need to take the reciprocal (but it is safer to simply rotate the OBS knob until a FROM flag shows. Check this carefully to ensure you are plotting the fix from the actual location of the VOR. Plot the two tracks 022 and 300 by putting a Douglas protractor over each VOR in turn and aligning it with meridian 1 and 3 respectively. which eliminates the need to make the conversion demonstrated above. Repeat the same process for 290R with variation 10E to confirm the true course is 300°. There are two or three differences to note. Page 165 . but the overall process is the same. Watch for tricks such as offset VOR locations (previous paragraph) and mixed magnetic and true VORs (also mentioned above. Do not attempt to plot a fix by extending the markings on the compass roses on the VNC.) In the arctic VORs are oriented to true north. IMIPORTANT. This is not difficult.) Now we will consider the process of establishing a fix based on bearings from two NDBs. It is could be the case that you must plot a fix based on one VOR in magnetic and another in true. but the compass rose is centered on the actual location of the station. Expect to see questions of the above type on Transport Canada’s Commercial Pilot Written exam.

but it is much easier with an RMI than with a fixed card ADF (Note that if you have a GPS this whole process is redundant since it will provide your current latitude and longitude. If you happen to be flying in the arctic with your heading indicator set to true then the bearing is true. and the airplane is in the same location. The first difference to think about is the process by which the pilot determines what bearing 1 and 2 are. MB = RB + Heading. Usually the HI is set to magnetic so the bearing is a magnetic bearing. which you can plot to fix your position without the need to do any of this process. Since the diagram above is identical to the previous VOR based one.) With an RMI read the bearing from the tail of the RMI needle. you may expect that the magnetic bearings will be 010 and 290. Good airmanship demands that you confirm the HI is set accurately before accepting this bearing.Navigation for Professional Pilots The diagram below is deliberately identical to the one above expect that the VORs have been replaced with NDBs. Think why before reading the next paragraph. And if your HI is set to grid you have a grid bearing. How is this done? Formulate your answer before reading the next paragraph. They will NOT be. The basic process of obtaining a bearing from an NDB is the same regardless of the equipment the airplane has. Page 166 . If you have a fixed card ADF you must follow the usual procedure to convert relative bearing to magnetic bearing. We therefore assume you have no such equipment available.

especially on exams. Page 167 . Summary: When plotting a fix convert all bearings to true. What values to you get? Once again the true bearings are 022° and 300°. On a Lambert Conic chart the straight-lines are Great-circles. Watch out for combinations of true. Just remember where to apply the variation. Make sure the protractor really is centered on the station by checking the compass rose. and grid navaids. Extend the lines until they cross. Therefore magnetic bearing 1 is 013 and bearing 2 is 289 magnetic. but not the magnetic bearings. Plot these exactly as before to get the fix. Use a Douglas protractor centered on the station to plot the true bearing. which correspond to radio waves so this procedure works. Apply variation at the station for VOR and at the airplane for ADF. giving you a fix. but the radio wave from the ground stations come to the airplane along straight-lines corresponding to Great-circles (both VOR and NDB. Fortunately Mercator charts are only used for VTA and T charts in Canada. Therefore both NDB bearings must be corrected by 11E. The process is identical to that described above. Use the CR for converting between true and magnetic to avoid mistakes. where position fixing is an unlikely procedure. Correct each of these magnetic bearings by variation of 11E exactly as described above for the VOR case. On a Mercator chart straight-lines are Rhumb lines so an error equal to convergence is introduced. It is quite possible to obtain a fix from one VOR and one ADF bearing.Navigation for Professional Pilots In reality an ADF may not be accurate enough to detect the theoretical difference here. which you must correct for. Go back and examine the VOR example above if you have forgotten which variation was applied in that case. while that for the NDB is applied in the airplane. The variation correction for the VOR is applied at the station. magnetic.) This amounts to saying that the true bearings will be the same.

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The FMS computer recognizes a variety of leg types.Chapter 8 Flight Planning In this section we will take all the knowledge we have developed and use it to plan flights. Definition of a Leg All flights are broken into legs. It must be stated that we presume that dead reckoning (DR) will be the dominant form of navigation. Future navigation systems may define paths that have more complex shapes. Most legs are either straightlines or arcs. The difference is sometimes quite important. with pilotage used only for brief periods usually on departure and arrival. which the pilot selects from a menu. Modern flight management systems (FMS) are programmed by entering a series of legs beginning at the airport of departure and ending at the destination. but that is beyond the scope of this text. The entire route must be input as a series of continuous legs with no breaks at any point. Fly-by and Fly-over Waypoints Waypoints are designated as either Fly-by or Fly-over. When a flight is fully defined by a series of legs with no breaks we say the flight plan is closed. . The diagram below explains the difference more clearly than words can. A leg is a defined path the airplane follows. In the section on mountain flying toward the end of the text some comments about planning for a flight when pilotage is dominant are included.

The diagram below shows the required formula. In recent years it has become very common for aircraft to be equipped with GPS and or other types of precision navigation equipment that provide extremely accurate range information.0053 is fully explained in the aerodynamics text Aerodynamics for Professional Pilots. Page 170 . At a Fly-by waypoint you start to turn prior to the waypoint so that you intercept the next leg without overshooting it. It is far too easy to be misled about station passage with an NDB so it is preferable to treat all NDBs as Fly-over waypoints.Navigation for Professional Pilots If a waypoint is designated Fly-over. These systems provide horizontal distance rather than the slant range the older DME systems provide. When the pilot has this type of instrumentation available it is possible to precisely determine when to turn for a Fly-by waypoint. An exception is when using NDBs as waypoints. You should normally treat waypoints as Fly-by unless they are specified as Fly-over. The equation r=. without GPS for assistance. you must fly directly over it before turning to the next leg.

Introduction to Nav-logs A nav-log is a document that helps you organize your flight planning so that you don’t forget any important details.Navigation for Professional Pilots The formula might not seem user friendly but all you have to do is calculate . and ALL quizzes and tests in this course require manually generated nav-logs. and less Page 171 . i. It should chronicle your entire flight from takeoff to destination and then to the alternate airport if IFR.6. For example if your airplane cruises at 120 knots divide by 100 to get 1. approaches.) To calculate .) In this course you will prepare nav-logs both electronically and manually. When approaching a 90° turn lead by 0. etc.2 then divide by 2 to get 0. For a 45° turn lead by 70% of 0.6NM.e. A nav-log should also include time and fuel allocations for contingencies (unavoidable delays due to weather. etc. neater. and reserve (reserve is a legal as well as practical requirement.6. On your commercial pilot flight test you are required to prepare the nav-log manually. You already have memorized values for the sine of several angles for the purpose of estimating drift (see page 50. traffic. easier.0053TAS once and memorize it.).0053 TAS take TAS and divide by 100 then divide by two. Remember this number. most assignments. and of course exams.4NM. about 0. On your actual cross-country flights and simulator exercises you are encouraged to use the ENL because it is quicker.

4. Groups 5 to 8 are not needed for VFR navlogs. For VFR flight plans arrival legs end when the aircraft joins the circuit at the destination airport. On occasion TOC and SHP are the same point. 2. You were introduced to the ENL when we examined cruising altitudes.” The departure legs end at the Set Heading Point (SHP.e. There is a variable point at which the airplane reaches top of climb which is conveniently labeled as top of climb (TOC.) TOC may come before or after SHP.) Departure legs can also be called “climb legs. arrival. and approach leg groups are usually simplified so that one line on the navlog represents the entire group. The arrival legs end at an initial approach fix (IAF) for IFR flight plans. Some VFR pilots find it convenient to “rig” the situation so that this happens. although we only scratched the surface on using it. but must be chosen by the flight planner for VFR flight. Further details are provided later. Advice on choosing a SHP is given below. 5. Page 172 . a new leg should start at every point where the track changes. Departure legs Enroute legs Arrival legs Approach Missed approach (IFR only) Enroute to alternate Arrival at alternate Approach at alternate All these groups are needed for every IFR navlog. Nav-logs are usually laid out in a grid with columns representing the parameters to be evaluated (planned) and with rows representing “legs. Navlog Leg Groups The legs on your navlog can be divided into groups: 1. In this case label the point as SHP or SHP/TOC (preferred. Sometimes it is expedient to just treat these legs as cruise legs rather going to the trouble of estimating the reduced fuel flow used during the descent.” .Navigation for Professional Pilots likely to contain math errors. 6.) The SHP is usually specified in an IFR departure procedure.) The largest part of most navlogs consists of several enroute-legs (also called cruise-legs. 8. On Selkirk College navlogs the departure. The approach group is normally reduced to a single leg (for both IFR and VFR navlogs. 7.) These legs run from turning point to turning point. 3. i. We normally group the arrival legs with either the enroute or approach. If after then it is technically part of the enroute group.

Navigation for Professional Pilots Selkirk College nav-logs also contain rows allocating time for contingencies. Even though you have never flown one before answer the following questions by referring to the nav-log. so either the gauges are not accurate. 4. As you reach BOOTH your fuel reads 35 gallons – is fuel remaining as expected? 12 Upon arrival at BASRA. and reserve (both explained below. 12 No. Consider the nav-log below.) Notice that you can answer these questions quite easily because of the logic by which the nav-log is laid out. 13 27. 3. if ATC requires you to hold (perhaps because a runway is closed) your contingency fuel is used up when your fuel gauges read _______ gal (assume you wish to retain 13 50 minutes reserve.2 Page 173 . 1.8. You are supposed to have 37. You should assume the later.) There is logic to the order that navlog rows are laid out that results in the pilot having the required information at hand in flight to make decisions about fuel status. As you taxi out in Calgary your fuel quantity should read _________ gal. which is for a flight in a Beech 95. 2. or you have used a couple of gallons more than expected. As you pass YNY your fuel quantity should read ________ gal.

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especially for VFR flights (Note that IFR flights require an SHP also. but usually it is obvious where it should be. Most checkpoints will be pretty obvious. whatever you have when you get to reserve. The fuel for the trip is specified in advance and you determine consequent reserve You plan for a desired amount of contingency and reserve fuel and determine how much ramp fuel you need for the flight If situation 1 applies. Choosing a Set Heading Point (SHP) A crucial task when preparing a nav-log is determining the checkpoints. which is always the last row. 2. Assess reserve fuel value to confirm that it is adequate before committing to the flight. Because pilotage is used to locate the SHP be sure to pick one that has distinctive ground features leading to it. leave ramp-fuel and fuel-remaining blank until all legs have been planned. but choosing a suitable SHP is sometimes a problem. river. railway. 2. An ideal SHP is on a road. If situation 2 applies. 3. VFR pilots can also use beacons and VORs for navigation but before doing so consider whether you will conflict with IFR traffic. On IFR flights the SHP is usually a navaid such as a VOR or NDB so finding your way there is straight forward. is your reserve.) The first fixed checkpoint is called the set heading point (SHP) on a DR cross-country and choosing it requires considerable thought. in other words establishing what the legs will be. Exactly how close depends on several factors: 1.Navigation for Professional Pilots Ramp Fuel and Fuel Remaining As you saw above the fuel remaining column is one of the most important for in-flight decision making. As you complete each leg subtract the fuel used to get fuel remaining. For VFR flight you should select a SHP that is easy to locate and relatively close to the departure airport. It is frequently safer to choose a visual point rather than a radio navigation point when VFR. or other similar feature that you can follow to locate it. A Page 175 . When completing a nav-log you have two situations: 1. begin by filling out the ramp fuel in the upper right corner of your nav-log. Availability of distinctive ground features for pilotage to the SHP Traffic congestion at the airport How well you know the area and the SHP checkpoint On a VFR flight you normally use pilotage to find your way to the SHP. Fill out the reserve fuel and work backwards until you determine the required ramp fuel.

It is best to plan the longer route. In the case of an airport with very little traffic it is quite feasible to make an overhead departure or use a SHP very close by. i. For example locating a radio transmission tower. A crucial thing to realize is that the distance you fly is more than the straight-line distance from the airport to the SHP. etc. because you must allow for maneuvering to depart the circuit. At an airport you know well you can locate SHPs that would be too obscure if you didn’t know the area well. the first and second checkpoints will be the airport of departure but the distance flown must represent that to fly out to 1000 and then return while climbing to 2000. If you were making a closed navlog the first and third checkpoints would both be the airport and the second checkpoint would be 1000 feet. for example the intersection of two minor roads. i. a park on a particular road. Robson is only fly 3 miles from the center of the airport but the route and distance to get there is quite different depending on whether you takeoff on runway 33 or 15. Keep in mind that some objects that look prominent on a map are in fact quite difficult to see on the ground.Navigation for Professional Pilots SHP must also be distinct so that you can visually identify it. use the airport as the SHP. at a busy airport it may not be possible to do an overhead departure or use a nearby point as SHP. In reality you will probably open the navlog and only have one leg. as is often the case with small airports in northern Canada. more than 5 miles from the airport.e.e. In this case make sure to choose a SHP on a very prominent pilotage feature that you will have no trouble seeing and flying to. If the ground around the departure airport lacks distinctive navigation features. Page 176 . This is called an “overhead departure. river. The lack of traffic means that no conflict will result. Normally we will have only one or two departure legs. or shoreline would be a good choice. in daylight. A point on a major road. is quite difficult and thus does not make a good SHP. How well you know the area is a factor in choosing a SHP. It must also be small enough to constitute a point – for example using “the city of Vancouver” as a SHP is not acceptable. if you know the tower well and can identify it relative to other local landmarks it may be an acceptable SHP. Of course a radio navigation beacon could also be a practical choice if the airplane is suitably equipped.” You simply takeoff and climb over the airport to set course. Most pilots vastly underestimate this. But. departure on runway 15. Traffic congestion is a factor in choosing a SHP for two reasons. Instead pick a particular point such as the intersection of two major roads. unless you know for sure that runway 33 will be used. Filling in the Navlog Now that we have a SHP it is time to fill out the nav-log. i.e. Weather permitting you should be 2000agl or higher when you reach the center of the airport in order to avoid conflict with any circuit traffic. But. It is very important however not to underestimate how much distance is flown when departing. traffic congestion could force you to choose a SHP clear of the airport zone. Consider the example of taking off from CYCG and using the town of Robson as your SHP.

Estimate the distance to the SHP Page 177 . An interesting special case involves setting up the navlog for an overhead departure (remember this means using the departure airport as SHP) If you are doing an overhead departure the distance flown is certainly not zero (the straight-line distance) it is likely 5NM or more. An ENL navlog showing an overhead departure is shown below to demonstrate this. as shown below. When opening the departure on a nav-log: 1.Navigation for Professional Pilots Normally the above closed departure would be opened up by collapsing it into two legs.

The trick is figuring out how far after. Estimate the average wind in this calculation. Use the charts in your POH to determine: 1. First Enroute leg (to TOC) The first enroute leg is frequently a straight-line from SHP to TOC. for departure legs. If you did a reasonable job of estimating your distance and altitude to the SHP then the remainder of the climb must be allocated to this leg.Navigation for Professional Pilots 2. The ENL determines distance. 3. When using the ENL. time. Time to climb Fuel to climb Distance to climb Page 178 . Enter the fuel used and the time in the appropriate columns of. If the resulting distance does not match your estimated distance to the SHP revise the altitude estimate. time. In most cases you do not reach your final cruise altitude before SHP and therefore will be climbing enroute. In 99% of cases. the distance required to climb to altitude will exceed the distance to the SHP. 2. The only exception would be on a flight where you reach TOC at or before SHP. Therefore the first enroute leg will also be a climb leg (leading to TOC) as described below. and fuel. For example if you estimated you would be at 5000 over Robson and you are climbing to 8500 then this leg is for a climb from 5000 to 8500. especially in the mountains.) Once you have the distance use the time fuel and distance to climb chart to figure out what your altitude will be at the end of leg 1. and fuel corresponding to that distance Collapse the departure into one or two legs (more if needed for clarity. estimate how high you will be when you reach the SHP. 3. Lookup altitude.

Wind changes as you climb so it can be quite different at 5000 than at 8500. It is necessary to allow for wind in the climb or your flight planning will not be accurate. so the distance from TOC to mystery lake is 37NM. In addition true and indicated airspeeds change as you climb in accordance with the climb charts (previously covered. calculate GS at 6500. and given the time to climb. use your CR to calculate distance. but once the ENL calculates groundspeed and time you will have to increase or decrease the distance until the time and fuel match what you determined from the climb chart.) Once you know how many miles past SHP it is to TOC use your ruler and mark TOC on the map and then measure the distance from TOC to the next waypoint (mystery lake in the navlog shown above. it only affects distance.) We need a rule of thumb to determine distance covered in a climb. It is critical for you to realize that wind will NOT AFFECT time or fuel to climb. In turbo-charged and turbo-prop airplanes climb rate does not drop off as quickly so determine GS halfway up to cruise altitude and calculate distance covered based on that (in the example.) Once you know this GS. Don’t move on until you have reasoned that claim out and are convinced that it is true. The last checkpoint could be the destination airport Page 179 . so determine GS at 7200 (4500 + 2700. You should therefore determine your groundspeed at 2/3 of the way up to your cruise altitude and calculate distance covered using that value (remember you know the climb time.Navigation for Professional Pilots The only complication is allowing for wind. Cruise Legs – Between Enroute Checkpoints The first cruise leg starts at TOC and goes to the next checkpoint. Subsequent legs run in straight lines from checkpoint to checkpoint until the last checkpoint. Initially enter the distance from your time to climb chart. For normally aspirated piston airplanes such as the C-172P and Travelair rate of climb drops off quickly with altitude so that mid-time in a climb happens at higher than mid-altitude. In the example navlog the total distance from Robson to mystery lake is 50NM. When using the ENL enter the altitude that is 2/3 or ½ your cruise altitude with wind and temperature for that altitude.) This distance is used on the next leg.) Using the example of climbing from 4500 to 8500 the difference is 4000 feet and 2/3 of that is 2700.

Navigation for Professional Pilots

(circuit joining point) or in the case of an IFR navlog it is usually the location where the IFR approach will begin. Flights should be broken into manageable legs. A 1000 mile VFR leg is hard to fly and is subject to problems covered previously in map theory. Even transoceanic airliners fly from checkpoint to checkpoint over the ocean so don’t be afraid to break your trip into manageable legs. On the other hand don’t make the legs too short or your nav-log will be so extensive it will over-load the airplane. Use your ruler to measure the length of each leg in nautical miles. Use a protractor to measure the true track (covered below.) When planning with an LO or HI chart read the distance and magnetic track directly from the chart and use the CR to determine the true track. For example the LO1 chart below shows the track from CG to WHATS on R119 is 301°M and the distance is 41 NM. Variation is 18°E (the dashed line just south of WHATS.)

To get the true track use the back-side of your CR. Set the magnetic track (301M) opposite variation (18E) as shown below. The true track (TC) is 319.

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IFR checkpoints are VORs, NDBs, or intersections; every location where your track changes is a checkpoint (WHATS is an intersection.) VFR checkpoints should be distinct geographical features you can positively identify yourself over and thereby confirm you are on course (and start the next leg accurately.) Towns, airport, small lakes, etc make good checkpoints. Normally true-track changes (at least slightly) over a checkpoint. Draw a straight line with a pencil between each checkpoint. Measure the length of the line with a ruler of the appropriate scale. Measure the true track by aligning your protractor to north with a line of longitude near the midpoint of the leg. In cruise TAS speed and fuel flow are in accordance with the cruise performance charts. Be sure to write the power setting and fuel-flow in the proper column for reference. Fill in the actual wind and temperature at your cruising altitude and use your CR to determine GS and true heading based on the TAS. Remember that you will need to determine pressure altitude and or density altitude to determine TAS. Fill in the variation and then calculate the magnetic heading. Remember the old saying: Variation east, magnetic is least. Variation west, magnetic is best. This means that with easterly variation (such as in British Columbia) magnetic heading is always less than true heading. In eastern Canada, where variation is west, magnetic heading is always more than true heading. To avoid any chance of a mistake it is safer to use the back-side of your CR when converting between true and magnetic, as shown in the photo above.

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Use your CR to determine CAS, and then use the calibration chart in the POH to determine IAS. You need this so that you can check in flight that the airplane is performing as planned. Of course you also use the CR to determine time and fuel for the leg.

**Selection of Cruising Altitude
**

Many pilots pick their cruising altitude without much rational consideration. Many choose cruise altitudes that are too low, perhaps because the short cross-countries typical of private pilot training are best done at low altitude. In this section we will investigate which altitude is optimum for cruise. To conduct this investigation we will use the Selkirk College electronic-nav-log (ENL). By the end of this section you will understand that there is an optimum cruise altitude and be familiar with the ENL. All airplanes fly faster, for a given amount of fuel flow, at a higher altitude. However, fuel is used climbing to altitude, so there is an altitude above which further climb increases the total time for the flight. The criteria for saying on altitude is “optimum” could be saving time or fuel. Most commercial air operations place a premium on time rather than fuel. The optimum altitude is therefore either: 1. 2. The altitude that results in the least time for the flight The altitude that results in the least fuel used for the flight

The factors that determine which altitude is optimum are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Aircraft type Power setting Air temperature and pressure Weight (aircraft load) Distance to be flown (length of the flight) Wind

For piston engine airplanes the benefits of flying at a higher altitude are very minimal in terms of saving fuel. Only on very long flights is any fuel saved at all – so in most cases you can fly at any altitude you wish as far as fuel consumption is concerned. Therefore it is best to decide your cruising altitude based on other factors such as the improved safety of flying higher in a single-engine airplane. Of course it is important to avoid headwinds, so try to avoid climbing into a strong headwind aloft unless safety demands you do so (as it often does in British Columbia.) Climbing to high altitude to pick up a strong tailwind is however always a good idea. In a turbine engine airplane flying at a higher altitude is much more advantageous. The resons will be covered in your aerodynamics course. It is very worthwhile for you to examine the cruise performance

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charts for the King Air, which you have an FIM for, and calculate the specific range foe the airplane at various altitude. You will quickly see that it is much better at high altitude

Top of Descent

What goes up must come down, so the saying goes. But with an airplane the pilot has control of when to come down and this is a matter that deserves more thought than it is sometimes given. If descent is started too late then the airplane arrives at the airport too high to land and must circle down, wasting time, or requiring a high descent rate that is uncomfortable for passengers and may cause damage to the engine in some cases. The turbocharged engines typical of working airplanes are quite sensitive to large power reductions. The shock-cooling will damage the engine. Thus professional pilots learn to start descent early enough that a gentle descent with gradual reductions in power can be made. Conversely, pilots of turboprop and jet airplanes can close the throttle without fear of damage to the engine. For these airplanes descent is delayed as long as reasonable in order to take advantage of the better fuel economy at altitude. In single-engine mountain-flying it is particularly unwise to descend early. The terrain is rugged, with few places to land in the event of an engine failure. The ideal descent is usually one that reaches circuit altitude just slightly before joining the circuit. At times it may even be necessary to plan to circle down over the airport, although this should be avoided if possible. The most commonly used descent gradient is 1000 feet every 3 nautical miles. This is used by most jet and turboprop pilots and also works reasonably well in the C-172 and B95. For high performance turbocharged airplanes a gentler gradient such as 1000 feet every 4 nautical miles may be more appropriate. It is important for you to get to know what is best for your airplane. Once you have established the ideal descent gradient designating a top of descent (TOD) is straight forward. To designate a TOD calculate the altitude to be lost in thousands of feet then multiply by 3 (or 4 as the case may be.) Assuming you are planning to join the circuit the altitude to be lost is obtained by subtracting circuit altitude from cruise altitude. If you are planning a straight-in landing then subtract field elevation from cruise altitude. The value should be rounded to the nearest thousand feet. For example if descending from 8500 to join the circuit in Castlegar at 2600 you get 6 thousand feet. Multiply 6 x 3 to get 18 Nautical miles. Your TOD is 18 miles form where? The answer is; from the place you wish to reach circuit altitude. This is likely 3 miles from the airport, so start descent 21 miles out. TOD should be calculated in flight, but need not appear on your navlog.

Contingencies

RAC 3.13 requires pilots to allow for contingencies when flight planning. Even if no such regulation existed it would only be prudent to do so. We have already seen that flying at a different altitude than planned affects required fuel. Obviously the wind can be different than forecast. There are a great many factors that can affect your flight. The longer the flight the more likely it is that errors in planning will arise, yet it is the long flights that have the least margin for error.

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Most turbo-prop and jet airplanes have reliable fuel gauges. A flight in a C-172 from Castlegar to Boundary Bay can equally well land in Langley.e. Contingency time should be allocated for this purpose.Navigation for Professional Pilots If you are headed for a small airport with only one runway is there any chance the runway could be unusable when you arrive there? Of course there is. i. On the ENL set an amount of contingency time and the ENL allocates the required fuel at the normal cruise power setting. as we say. then calculate the fuel for that time based on cruise power. as for example in Kelowna or Victoria For IFR flights the last enroute checkpoint is usually the IAF (initial approach fix) which is where you start your instrument approach (explained previously. Note that contingency time is NOT included in time enroute. For example if you are holding (VFR you might be circling while the runway is plowed) you should fly at less than 65% power and thus you would have more contingency time than you indicated on your nav-log.) Therefore time and fuel must be allocated for the approach. Delta. It is pretty much a guarantee that these things will happen to you a few times in your life. This is where it is nice to have accurate fuel gauges so you can tell when you are reaching the end of your contingency fuel. So a gear-up on a runway in Boundary Bay is not a circumstance that requires contingency planning. If you don’t leave yourself with some options (exactly what contingencies means) then you will be. A single VFR Page 184 . etc. or any number of other things could happen. Filing flight plans is covered later. but most small piston airplanes do not. You must learn to estimate this time reasonably accurately. An airplane could land gear-up while you are enroute. Often our flights have lots of options built into them. the point where you join the circuit (if the airport has a published VFR arrival procedure it should be the point where that procedure begins. It is important to realize that if you actually need to use your contingency fuel you DO NOT have to burn it at the “normal” cruise rate. Note that contingency time should not be included in time enroute you file on your flight plan. you may well have to divert due to weather enroute and wind up flying farther than planned in the process. But. SOL. and possible missed approach. Simply ask yourself how much extra time you might need for contingencies. Abbotsford. Transport Canada has a poster that says in big letters: That’s Time in Your Tank The point being made is that allocating contingency time means allocating fuel. If your last checkpoint is the beginning of the arrival procedure then you must also allocate time for the arrival as well as the approach (circuit if VFR). Approach at Destination For VFR flights your last enroute checkpoint is normally the destination airport.

The law requires 30 minutes for day VFR and 45 minutes for night VFR and IFR flights. On a C-172P with standard tanks it would be just a bit more than ½ tanks. Reserve The last row of every nav-log is “Reserve. So apply a suitable estimate for approach and landing time. Reserve simply gives you a margin for error. and don’t generally need one. The process of laying this out is just like the primary flight plan already covered. VFR flights don’t legally require an alternate. At Selkirk College we don’t normally do that. We will discuss this further later. If you require a low pass and a second circuit before landing the time will double. On VFR flights approach and landing time should be included in the time you file on your flight plan. Approach at Alternate Airport This has the same considerations as approach at destination. An important point to think about for light aircraft operation is in initial loading of the airplane. Checkpoints leading to Alternate Airport All IFR flights require an alternate airport. so you do your best to dip the tanks but there is bound to be some error. therefore your nav-log should include a route to it. Here is something to think about: if an adjustment of 50°F in EGT makes a 4% difference in range and this corresponds to about 25rpm change how accurately would you say you normally lean the mixture and what is your percent error? Page 185 . For example if you are going to a remote strip where you intend to make a precautionary approach and land (time for the precautionary would be in contingencies) then you will need an alternate in case you determine that you cannot land. but it is worth knowing in case an emergency should arise. etc. Reserve is the amount of fuel that you plan to have left in your tanks when you land. Take note on page 4-17 of the C-172P POH that you can get 4% greater range than the cruise performance charts predict if you lean the mixture to peak EGT. But. On IFR flight plans you DO NOT include approach time in the filed time. Extra reserves that you wish to carry should be entered under contingencies on the navlog. but how do you get exactly that amount in the tanks.Navigation for Professional Pilots circuit takes about 6 minutes. but just how much? You can’t really trust the fuel gauges. and no one ever gets the mixture set 100% perfect. Normally this is the value that should go on this line. or more. in some cases it might be wise. but realistically reserve should be more on a long flight. Its purpose is NOT for contingencies – those must be planned and allowed for separately. Most pilots try to fill the tanks to “at least” the intended amount.” There are legal requirements for reserve fuel. It is almost impossible to set the power to exactly the planned value. especially in a light airplane with inaccurate fuel gauges. You might calculate that you should depart with 23 gallons of fuel. Reserve is really just for calculation and operational errors. The ENL does not include approach time in the IFR enroute time but it does in the VFR time enroute. but it can be quite difficult. Consequently the reserve you enter on your navlog has considerable error in it. You are stuck with these values.

For pilotage navigation there is no need to draw drift lines as described here. temperature. VFR Map Preparation Techniques We will now go over how to prepare your VNC map for a VFR cross country flight. Typing in this data is much neater than filling it in by hand. After filling in reserve time the next TAB-STOP is for airport data at the lower left of the nav-log. However. When the ENL is completely filled out hide all unused rows in order to avoid clutter – but be sure they contain no data before hiding them. you will need a large scale planning chart if you wish to establish a Great-circle route. etc. these tell you how to fill it in. This reduces convergence to an insignificant factor and allows us to plan each leg as a Rhumb line. If the flight is in the mountains. starting at the SHP between each pair of checkpoints with the last track line ending at the destination airport (or DP if applicable. If you aren’t sure which VNC you need lookup the airport in the CFS where the REF section tells you which VNC and WAC chart the airport is on. Once you have chosen your route draw straight track lines. Various lines and markings are required on the map. Read the “balloons” that pop-up as you tab through the nav-log. or there is restricted airspace near the destination locate a descent point (DP. should a value change you can enter a new value any time and it will propagate throughout the remainder of the navlog. Locate a suitable SHP. that way you won’t miss anything. as well as which LO chart if you are IFR. You may also find it practical to choose intermediate checkpoints in order to avoid directly over flying restricted airspace. The only difference between these navlogs is that on the TT-Navlog you enter the true track and the navlog calculates magnetic track. The map preparation technique describe here is for DR cross countries. Wind. See mountain Page 186 .Navigation for Professional Pilots Tips for the Electronic Nav-Log Use the TT-Navlog for VFR flights and the MT-Navlog for IFR flights. say 1000NM or more. and vice versa on the MT-Navlog. high terrain. Use the TAB-KEY to advance through the nav-log.) Descent points are discussed in detail later under the topic of mountain cross countries. In both cases wind should be entered in true. Locate the departure and destination airports on your VNC. specifically “valley crawling” which is a pilotage type of navigation. If the trip is more than 300 NM choose some intermediate checkpoints so that no leg is longer than 300NM. taking into account the factors discussed above. Note that if you are planning a very long flight. and variation are automatically copied from one row to the next to save the time required for entering these values on each row. Later we will discuss mountain cross countries.

Navigation for Professional Pilots flying below for more information about DP. Page 187 . Make drift lines for each leg with the last set of closing drift lines at the destination airport or DP as the case may be. Next.) When a track-line must cross from one side of a VNC or WAC to the other use the procedure described in the next section to draw the line. make 10° drift lines at each checkpoint. Once the track lines are drawn make 10NM reference marks along each line. starting with the SHP. as shown below. the drift lines should start at the second SHP. as is sometimes the case in mountain flying. Note that if you have two SHP.

Position the paper on the common points on the south side of the chart. Draw the line from point C to point A on the north chart (not shown in the diagram. Draw the straight line from point B to point A on the separate paper. The procedure. to point B on the south side. as shown above. 3.) 2.Navigation for Professional Pilots Drawing a Line Across a 2-Sided Chart VNC charts are printed on two sides. these are points D and E. step by step is: 1. 5. In the figure below imagine that you want to fly directly from point A. In addition mark TWO points that are common to both the north and south side of the chart. 4. Layout a separate piece of paper over the north chart and mark point A. It is therefore often necessary to draw a straight line between two points that are on opposite sides of the chart. Mark a point C on the straight line on the south chart that is common to the north chart. Measuring Track and Distance Page 188 . on the north side of the chart.

It is as simple as that. (Remember the theory of convergence. Then measure the true track by placing your protractor at the midpoint of each leg. And the total duration of the flight must include the intermediate stop. covered previously. so don’t make it complicated by adding anything else. This is covered in RAC 3. A common mistake is to put arrows or similar symbols in the route section. This is NOT acceptable. If the route in an airway you should name the airway. A more typical fuel stop takes 45 minutes to an hour. Page 189 . allow sufficient time. So.14 for an overview of the purpose and procedures relating to the use of flight plans in Canada. In the Canadian format no symbols or words are required between checkpoints when the route is direct. A fuel stop can only be completed in ½ an hour if everything is precisely arranged and organized. Measure the length of each leg.10. and enter it on your navlog. Filling in a Flight Plan Form Instructions for filling in the Transport Canada flight plan form are in the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) section RAC 3. Two points that seem to be missed by many pilots are that the intermediate stop is indicated in the route section of the flight plan in the form shown below. although it can be done if the IFR flight is in uncontrolled airspace. using an ICAO ruler.6 carefully and follow the prescribed format. Also. Simply proceed as already covered to fill in the rest of the data and you will be ready to go.Navigation for Professional Pilots As you can see it only takes a few minutes to prepare the map for a VFR cross country.6. In this section I will comment on a few common errors or oversights in filling out flight plans. You will of course need to measure the true track and length of each leg.6 to 3.16. where you learned that at the midpoint of each leg a Great-circle track and Rhumb line are equal. see the examples provided at the end of the section. On many of the flight plans assigned in this course you will change cruise altitude and consequently cruise speed. It is assumed that you understand the basics as described in RAC 3. The rules regarding this are in RAC 3. I have noticed that many pilots who lack experience in long trips vastly underestimate the time required for an intermediate stop. Once the map is prepared you are ready to start filling in the navlog.15 and 3.15 and 3.16. Read RAC 3. Normally this is not permitted IFR. You are expected to know how to record this properly on the flight plan form. You should also read RAC 3.16 It is quite common when filling a VFR flight plan to include an intermediate stop.) You navlog should now have all the required information.16. Pay particular attention to the rules for filing changes to altitude and true airspeed.

Navigation for Professional Pilots The sample flight plan shown to the left shows an intermediate stop of one hour and thirty minutes in CZGF. In this case just before takeoff until just after landing. Note the format. Please take note. The time enroute is 3 hours and 40 minutes which is from the time the flight plan is opened until it is to be closed. Page 190 . The flight plan also shows the proper format for filling speed and altitude.

Navigation for Professional Pilots The sample to the left shows how to format a speed and altitude change. The time enroute in this case is from takeoff at CYXX to the YCD beacon. Page 191 . which is the IAF for the approach. At BUICK the airplane will speed up to 160 KTAS and climb to 6000 feet.

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if they are to fly at all. In this situation you should prepare your navlog pretty much as I have described previously. rivers. provide the ideal circumstance for pilotage navigation. Pilotage takes a lot of effort and frequently results in a somewhat winding route. Any experienced mountain pilot soon becomes a master of pilotage. DR vs. But it is important not to turn your back totally on DR. Even when ceilings are high and DR is used it is very easy to slip back and forth between DR and pilotage due to the numerous easy to identify geographic features. By definition the enroute legs commence after the SHP and the implication is that pilotage is used prior to the SHP and DR is used after it. and in such cases pilotage becomes the only viable form of navigation. Good-weather Mountain Cross-country As mentioned in the FTM/IPM. without conflicting with any mountains. which is almost always at the bottom of a valley. But by far the greatest limitation of pilotage is that it simply cannot be done without numerous easy to identify geographic features. etc. when the weather is good enough to climb above the mountain tops and fly in a straight-line there is really no significant difference between mountain flying and any other type of flying. In this text I will only make some remarks about the considerations for laying out a navlog and filing a flight plan for a VFR mountain cross-country. When the ceilings are low VFR pilots must fly in the valleys. This is discussed in the FTM/IPM and not repeated here. procedure. In the mountains you will often be below the tops of the mountains when you pass the SHP and as such you may be unable to fly the calculated heading. almost effortless. In the mountains distinctive. roads. peaks. Pilotage in Mountain Flying Near the beginning of this text I stated that DR is a more sophisticated type of navigation than pilotage. The primary complication you will face is planning a departure and an arrival route that allows you to leave and arrive at the airport. and valleys. Set Heading Point(s) in the Mountains SHP is defined as the first fixed point on a DR cross-country. What should we do? . The ideal form of mountain navigation weaves pilotage and DR into a seamless.Chapter 9 Mountain Cross Country There is an entire section in your FTM/IPM on mountain flying that you must read. By far the most important aspect of mountain flying is selecting an appropriate route and determining that the weather is adequate for the flight. railways.

) Heading obviously changes every few minutes as the pilot follows a valley. On a valley crawl legs should be grouped (that’s what open means. I recommend this only for relatively short trips on familiar routes. Poor Weather Mountain Cross-country (Valley Crawl) Let us now assume that ceilings are below the mountain tops (or within 1000’ of the mountain tops. as described so far. In all mountain cross-countries be sure to examine the route and determine if you need a DP. If it is not possible then on alternative is simply to circle down over the airport. we are really saying that pilotage will be used in these phases of flight. is the dominant navigation technique. and time for this should be allocated. if the route is less familiar and you want to achieve efficient navigation always have a specific SHP and use DR. Take the example of an airplane arriving in Castlegar from Vancouver. circling down over the airport is seldom the most efficient way to handle the situation. But. as we have recommended for departure and arrival. Instead Page 194 . Sometimes pilots skip the procedure of selecting the second SHP. normally under approach and landing on the navlog. Occasionally in non-mountainous areas the same problem may arise due to restricted airspace. What if you can’t do that though? Again the answer is pretty obvious. When the route directly to an airport crosses high terrain you should always check that a descent to the airport will be possible.” The creation of a navlog. not DR. is based on the presumption of DR. Descent Point in the Mountains Normal procedure is to plan the enroute legs so that the last leg ends at the destination airport. TOD is a completely different concept than descent point (DP) which we are discussing here. In other words. In this case we recommend that you plan a second SHP from which you can begin DR.Navigation for Professional Pilots The first tip is pretty obvious. In short they plan the flight NOT to CYCG but to a DP at Deer Park. DP is primarily of concern in the mountains where it is quite common that terrain prevents descent to circuit altitude when desired. but this is usually because they are overcommitted to pilotage. Pilots almost naturally divert slightly off this straight-line route and descend along the Arrow Lake. You will have to use pilotage until you clear the top of the mountains. they are not going to do DR at all. so the navlog must be very open. Having a leg for every change in heading is totally unrealistic. When we open the flight plan. The straight-line route runs over the ridge just west of the airport and would leave the airplane at 7000’ or so within a mile of two of the airport. But. But. This frequently means having two SHPs. The pilot must determine a top of descent point (TOD) at which to begin down for landing. It is always much more accurate to begin DR from a specific SHP. This is discussed below under Enroute Navigation Skills. These valley cross-countries are sometimes called “valley crawls. Now we are saying that pilotage is to be used throughout the flight. Try to pick an SHP such that the subsequent track follows a valley so that you can climb on the pp-leg as planned.) In this case Pilotage.

Navigation for Professional Pilots

the legs are chosen based only on major changes of direction and or between major checkpoints such as large towns, lakes, etc. This is a very open format. The track in this case requires a bit more consideration than usual. A single track from departure direct to destination usually doesn’t provide enough reference, while a separate leg for each little twist and turn is too cumbersome to plan and to execute. We need something in between. As a practical example, a valley crawl from Castlegar to Grand Forks could be planned as three legs: One from the Keenleyside dam to Renata, one south to Christina and one east to Grand Forks. The usual method of measuring the length of a leg, by using a ruler, will not give an accurate distance. You must learn to estimate the actual distance flown due to weaving around the snaking turns of the valley. You should certainly start by measuring the straight-line distance from the beginning of the leg to the end, with a ruler, but then you must add an estimated amount to allow for the turns of the valley. There is NO SENSE calculating wind drift, drift angle, and heading for the leg. Indeed you can only estimate the average track (because it changes continually as you fly.) Don’t worry about drift, your eyes will keep you on track using pilotage. There is no need to put drift lines on the map. Groundspeed must be estimated in order to calculate time and fuel for the flight. Based on your average track and the wind you can estimate the average groundspeed. The hard part is often determining what the wind will actually be. FD forecasts are of limited applicability. Reported ground winds and winds aloft are obviously used to estimate wind at your chosen cruise altitude. Keep in mind that under the circumstances of a valley crawl you often have to change cruise altitude frequently enroute. Wind normally is funneled to follow the valley, so your main task is to guess whether there will be a headwind or tailwind and how strong it will be; if in doubt always estimate low for tailwinds and high for headwinds. In the wind column of the navlog write only the headwind or tailwind estimate – e.g. +10 or -5. You will be given several assignments to plan valley cross-countries to develop the skills described above. It is crucial that you learn to efficiently open your flight planning so that you can prepare the navlog in only a few minutes, because by far the most important part of valley crawl planning has nothing to do with making a navlog. The most important aspect of valley crawl planning is route analysis. You must examine the route looking for difficult points, such as passes, and most important of all, looking for alternate routes. In the discussion about diversions later in this text it is pointed out that a safe diversion in the mountains is only possible if you have planned for it in advance. Given that diversions are very common you must have every safe route option in your mind before you go on a flight. It is very common that the shortest route for a mountain flight is not the one with the lowest terrain. There is nothing wrong with planning the shorter route, but if you run into low ceilings and decide to divert to the longer lower route you want to have figured out ahead of time that you have enough fuel for that. You must know that if you don’t have enough fuel for a particular diversion option, where you will make fuel stops, etc. Don’t set out on a mountain cross country in marginal weather without all the above thoughts and options sorted out in your mind.

**In-flight Valley Navigation Procedures
**

Once airborne, housekeeping becomes very important. Since the heading information is only approximate, considerable attention must be paid to map reading as the pilot follows – although rarely Page 195

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accurately maintains – the intended track. This makes it all too easy to lose track of time and over fly a turning point. While it might be difficult to imagine a pilot missing the turn at Christina (for Grand Forks) and picking up the road to Republic, some 20 miles south, it is not impossible and it is really easy, when following Highway 3 west from Cranbrook, to miss the turn at Yahk and continue on Highway 95, going south-east down to Copeland. This is not a complete disaster but in marginal VFR conditions it is very disconcerting and re-orientation can take several minutes. There is little need to recalculate headings, since that information is only approximate to start with. It is important, however, to update the ground speed information – again, in order to monitor the progress along the track. If the leg is long enough to warrant a couple of 10-mile marks then these can be used just as they are on a regular navigation leg. More often however, the legs are barely long enough to justify one 10-mile mark so it is more appropriate to wait until reaching the next turning point, where the pilot can either compare the ETE to the actual time enroute (ATE) in order to derive a time differential or simply divide the distance by the ATE for a ground speed. In either case, it is important to remember that a headwind component on one leg can easily become a tailwind component on the next leg: With winds aloft out of the north, a tailwind on a leg headed south east could well become a head wind if the valley makes a turn around to the north east. Situational awareness is always critical while valley crawling. There is a full section giving advice on valley flying in the FTM/IPM.

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Chapter 10 Time Saving Flight Planning Techniques In all that we have done so far we have planned flights by breaking flights into climb. This is clearly a dangerous assumption. The airplane charters for $2000 per hour.9 hours (420/220. and this is an important time saving procedure. In other words. Climb Penalty Planning Pilots. (Actually. so block planning must be used with great consideration. which will cost $5800.9 hours. Assume a client calls for a 600NM charter.9 hours and have 1070 lb of fuel. We have simplified our task by opening the flight plans. “yes” to your quote you quickly file the flight plan for 3. cruise and descent legs. “wouldn’t it be easy to flight plan if the departure airport was on a mountain exactly at the cruise altitude for the trip. find it onerous to lookup the time fuel and distance to climb to cruise altitude. plus contingencies and reserve loaded. being rather lazy. If the customer says. Block Flight Planning Block flight planning is commonly used to get a quick estimate.) Climb penalty planning starts by saying.) Total trip time is therefore 2. Block flight planning is only safe when the airplane always flies at essentially the same cruise altitude and wind is not a factor. The company determines an average distance and fuel used for the airplane each hour. Some people try to avoid this task by developing rules of thumb. climb penalty planning is a myth. we will conclude that penalties work in the right circumstance. An important point I must make before explaining how this is done is that it doesn’t work. what would you quote? The calculation is straight forward: Hour one covers 180NM. The fuel is calculated as 500 + 1. Still.9 x 300. usually for the purpose of quoting a charter. Often the accuracy is improved by establishing a distance and fuel for the first hour and then a different figure for subsequent hours. it is so commonly used that you need to know the concept if for no other reason than so you can see its limitations. There are some other commonly used “short cuts” to flight planning that I would like you to be aware of. This imaginary situation is shown in the picture below: . Subsequent 420NM require 1. For example an airplane may use 500lb of fuel and cover 180 NM in the first hour and burn 300lb while covering 220NM in subsequent hours.

Similarly it will use more fuel. Page 200 .Navigation for Professional Pilots If the above situation actually existed there would be no need to plan a climb leg. Taking a C-172P as an example. due to the higher rate of fuel flow in the climb. it will climb at 85KIAS (TAS is higher) and then cruise at about 105KTAS (the exact value depends on the cruise altitude. and the slightly longer flight time. The next step in climb penalty planning is to ask what the difference in time and fuel for the trip would be in the following situation: Obviously the airplane in this situation must climb from the departure runway to the cruise altitude. Obviously the trip will take longer this way. The airplane would already be at cruise at the moment of liftoff.) This airplane will “fall behind” the other airplane at about 15 knots.

Take the airplane on the 500NM cross country on page Error! Bookmark not defined. First examine the third leg of the above navlog. Can you spot the flaw in the logic behind this procedure? Think about it before reading the next paragraph. This corresponds to the part II diagram above. Page 201 .9 gallons are consumed. Climb penalties are only applicable to flights at relatively low altitudes and over relatively short distances. In this case they do reflect the penalty due to climbing that we already discovered on page Error! Bookmark not defined. Once you have done this add a penalty of 30 seconds and .Navigation for Professional Pilots The idea behind climb penalty planning is simply to determine the difference between the above cases and then add that onto case I as a penalty. It shows a cruise leg of 100NM.25 gallons for each thousand feet the cruise altitude is above the takeoff altitude. The fuel penalty is 1. there is a penalty for not climbing. so it corresponds to the part I diagram above. Together they also cover a distance of 100 NM. i. Repeat the above ENL analysis for the B95 and determine the climb penalties for that airplane. but the airplane climbs from sea level to the cruise altitude of 6000 feet. At the beginning of this section I said that the real problem with climb penalties is that they don’t work. To use the penalties for a C-172P simply plan the trip as though the entire flight was in cruise.3 gallons per 6000 feet. i. which is a bit less than ¼ gallon per thousand feet.. as though the part I diagram applies. The time penalty is obviously 3 minutes per 6000 feet.e.6 gallons. The leg requires 55 minutes and consumes 6. This takes 58 minutes and 7. The airplane is level for this entire leg. In our earlier cruise altitude analysis we learned that depending on the length of a trip there not only is no penalty for climbing.e. Next examine the first two legs of the above navlog. a pilot planning this flight for cruise at 9500’ and then adding a penalty would be completely mislead. We can do this quite easily using the ENL. 30 seconds per thousand feet.

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Doing so reduces a lot of navigation effort. most of the in-flight skills are developed in Avia 100 and 200. size. For example power lines over mountain ridges can be quite easy to see because a wide swath of trees is cut down along the line. There are exceptions of course. The best procedure is to choose four or five geographic points on your map and then look out the window until you spot them. as well as relative position. . and power lines are quite distinctive. 30 or more miles away. as described above. Once you have this “list” of items gleaned from the map you scan the ground until you locate the corresponding locations. In flight you can see a long way and you should take advantage of that. NOT the other way around. rivers. And radio towers are very easy to see at night. Map Reading Its pretty obvious that a fundamental skill in navigating VFR is the ability to interpret a VNC chart and locate the corresponding geographic features on the ground. so it is highly recommended. etc. For example does the town have a river running though it? How many roads run in and out? And is there a nearby mountain? Try to have at least three distinctive features that will distinguish the location you are looking for from others. There are of course lots of towns. The specifics of night cross countries are discussed in your FTM/IPM and are covered in Avia 201. lakes and rivers. You must learn which features will be distinctive “out the window” and which won’t. In other words you locate a geographic feature on the map and then look out the window until you spot the same feature on the ground. roads and mountains in the world so how do you tell one from another? The key here is to analyze the map and develop a mental image of the distinctive characteristics of the ones you are looking for. and a mountain or valley. such as a small lake or road that you have spotted out the window. such as distinctive mountains. The latter procedure results in too much time with eyes in the cockpit. but there are some things you should keep in mind. These features can be anything. The first principle of map reading is work from map to ground. The primary emphasis in this course is on preflight planning. You do NOT spend time with your eyes down on the map trying to find some feature. but out the window they are nearly impossible to see. runways. small town. Good airmanship is to have your eyes out the window 99% of the time. a river. a road. towers. on the map certain things such as VORs.Chapter 11 Enroute Navigation Skills This section covers several navigation skills that you will need to develop and apply in flight. These could be a town. It is much easier to locate a geographic point that is 5 or 10 miles ahead rather than one directly below you (the airplane doesn’t have a glass floor. they will not be covered further here. NDBs.) You can often see large geographic features. A common mistake is to choose geographic points that are too close to the airplane.

If you miss one it won’t really matter.. Southern B. B. Failure to follow this advice is what will get you lost. Page 204 . Most importantly. Reorienting if Lost The first question you must ask is. This was mentioned above. It isn’t critical to identify every point. Time Awareness When you choose a geographic point on your map that you will be looking for a critical thing to do is estimate roughly how long it will take until you reach the point. If you can climb high enough to get ATC on the radio you will be able to get radar or DF assistance from them. Usually three is a good number. If you are truly “lost” stay calm and keep your wits about you (which means you mustn’t panic. so don’t worry about it. So. right? If the weather is suitable. Radar is available in most of southern Canada. we will assume you don’t have such equipment. You could draw a circle on the map and say. discussed next.) When you think about it you really aren’t “totally lost.C. The procedure for using this in the event of an emergency is covered in section F of your CFS. Most airplanes cover at least 2 miles per minute. Lucky you always record these things. and so on. but if you happen to be lost in the far north there is also the defense radar system. As long as you are flying one heading (as opposed to wandering) you can do a 180 and go back. If logic says you are past a checkpoint then forget it. For example you may be looking for a small town but not seeing it. In light of the above. The best way to get lost is to wander around on random headings that are not recorded. To do this simply be aware of how many miles per minute (roughly) you are covering.” From this known area of probability there are several things you can do: If you have been flying a steady heading you can simply reverse it and go back to where you came from. it is important to always be looking for more than one geographic point. finding one often makes it easier to spot the others. climb to a higher altitude so you can see farther. As long as you fly a straight-line you can always find your way back by simply “doing a 180. You probably know where you are within a few miles tolerance. “I am somewhere in here. east of Vancouver. Therefore a geographic point 6 miles ahead will be beneath you in 3 minutes. am I really lost? As a new pilot you may feel lost if you miss one checkpoint. This is due to a lack of time awareness.C.” But it is important that you fly the specific heading on your navlog. and many go much faster than that. Remember to write down the time you turn around so you can estimate how long it will take to get back to the starting point.” You can state your location in a hierarchy such as that you are in Canada. If you haven’t spotted it by then you’ve missed it. Of course if you have a working GPS you can read the latitude and longitude and immediately locate yourself on the VNC. Your previously recorded departure time will give you all the information you need. Also. but you really aren’t. choose another one and look for that. be aware of time passing. Don’t panic.Navigation for Professional Pilots Another frequent mistake is becoming too obsessive about spotting a particular geographic point. Some pilots will keep looking and looking and looking for this town until they are completely lost.

TIP: when doing a groundspeed check your calculations are subject to round-off error. Much more likely however is that you will reorient yourself and be able to continue your flight. which is described below. If you fly any direction you will come across a road within a short time. But be sure to recalculate your reserves. At a glance you will be able to see that you are ahead of or behind schedule. If the groundspeed is revised pencil the corrected value over the value on the navlog. In the prairies most small towns have the town name written on their grain elevator. which you must locate and correct. which got you lost. You should also record ETA revised ETA for each checkpoint. consider using the navigation technique called landfall. Follow it to a town and as you fly by you can read the name on the elevator to identify your location. The ATA should be quite close to the ETA previously filled in. Navlog keeping On your navlog you must record the takeoff time and time past each checkpoint enroute. If it does not then an adding mistake has been made. If your desired destination is not on an extended geographic feature suitable for landfall then pick an interim destination from which you will be able to continue on. It is almost always possible to use a landfall to reorient yourself. The final checkpoint ETA should match the previously calculated destination ETA. This amounts to saying that you normally will have a groundspeed within 5 knots of the planned value. Consider this before reading the next paragraph. Once clear of the departure airport we then write down the ETA and Fuel Expiry time in the designated locations. Ask yourself what tolerance you would apply to this value.Navigation for Professional Pilots If you have been wandering around. you measure a distance of 11NM and then measure a time of 4 minutes. On the Selkirk College navlog we write the takeoff time in the designated location just before takeoff. TIP: it is really quite rare for the winds aloft forecast to be wrong by more than 5 knots. but if fuel gets low and you are still lost you may have to do a precautionary approach. Selkirk College navlog keeping involves writing down the time we pass each checkpoint enroute in the ATA column. If you brought lots of reserve you will be fine. For example. then enter a revised ETA in the designated column. When the wind is substantially different than the forecast there is usually evidence such as turbulence or un-forecast storm activity. In addition your company may require many other pieces of information be recorded. But the distance is rounded off to the nearest nautical mile and the time is rounded off to the nearest minute. This amounts to saying that the actual distance is Page 205 . Keep track of your fuel. Most fuel starvation incidents follow getting lost. If they have shrunk too low divert to another location and refuel. These are standard procedures applicable to any log keeping exercise. The groundspeed according to your CR is 165 kts. If your calculated groundspeed is substantially different than the flight planned value you should recheck your calculations before jumping to any conclusions. Based on this your CR tells you that the groundspeed is ____ Kts. We then fill out the ETA column so that we have the ETA for each checkpoint.

Navigation for Professional Pilots between 10. Simply calculate how may thousand feet you need to descend and multiply by three (or four) then start your descent that number of miles from the location you which to reach circuit altitude.) Put another way. you don’t want to descend too late.4 and 11. If you are approaching a major airport with a lot of traffic. You can use a stopwatch to get a more accurate time value. if you reach the airport well above circuit altitude you will have to circle down (which wastes time and fuel) or will dive (which is uncomfortable for passengers and you. which is to say just about useless. And a 3 minute groundspeed check is accurate plus or minus 20 knots.4 and the time is between 3:31 and 4:29. So. Three miles per thousand feet is the most common. IFR flights routinely divert around areas of bad weather. If your navlog predicted a groundspeed of 150 knots should you revise your ETA or not? The answer is that you don’t have an accurate enough groundspeed to decide.) That is a very large spread of “correct” values. The best you can usually do is measure distance plus or minus ½ nautical mile Even after you do this you will find it difficult specify the precise moment you pass the checkpoint.) Most pilots plan descents based on a certain gradient. If you are flying a turbo-charged piston airplane it might be better to use four miles per thousand feet. which adds another error bringing distance tolerance to at least 1 NM. it might be wise to descend to circuit altitude 10 miles before the airport (I am thinking about single engine airplanes here.) Choosing it wisely is important. and in an area with lots of good forced approach sites. in order to keep as many safety options open as possible. Using these values your groundspeed could be anywhere between 149 and 196 kts! (Check these values for yourself with a CR. Top of Descent At some point you must start a descent from your cruise altitude so that when you reach the destination airport you are at the desired altitude. but it is still difficult to achieve an accuracy right down to the second (see previous point. To make an accurate groundspeed check you need more accurate data. The specific techniques for this however will be deferred to Avia 260 Page 206 . make sure you use fairly long groundspeed checks (10 to 15 minutes minimum). Diversions A diversion means changing your route and or destination while in flight.) But in more rugged terrain you want to reach circuit altitude only one or two miles prior to joining the circuit.) If the obtained value lies within the tolerance of your flight planned speed it is usually wise to take this as confirmation of the navlog and make no revision to your ETA.) Consequently. On the other hand. A lot of VFR pilots are in the habit of descending quite early. Diversions are very very common occurrences in both IFR and VFR flight. a six minute groundspeed check is at best accurate to plus or minus 10 knots. if you want a groundspeed check accurate to the nearest knot you would have to fly a groundspeed check of at least one hour (60 minutes. and know the tolerance of their accuracy (4 or 5 knots at best. This is the top of descent point (TOD.

To estimate the time enroute if you don’t have a CR computer there are numerous mathematical tricks. I am sure than many of the pilots who have killed themselves in the mountains (and there are a lot of them) did so when they had to divert but were unprepared to do so. When diverting in the mountains. Position Reports and Amending Flight Plan No one likes to think about having an accident enroute and not making it to destination. and it is well worth the effort. But you must keep track of time so that you don’t run low on fuel. These are laid out on the ProfessionalPilot. on a valley crawl. This is a great exercise in mental approximation but it is important for you to realize that if you are actually doing a diversion there is nothing wrong with using a ruler. or a calculator. so as long as your navlog shows that you have lots of contingency fuel you are fine. When diverting around weather you are by definition using your contingency fuel.7. It actually bears almost no resemblance to 99% of real life diversion scenarios. To meet the Transport Canada diversion challenge most pilots estimate the distance by using the minute marks on the VNC’s lines of longitude as a scale. Anyone can do it. To facilitate quickly locating you in the event you do not arrive at destination you should file position reports frequently during your flight. On the flight test exercise you are required to draw a free-hand line to a designated destination then estimate the heading and distance without using a protractor or a ruler. You either divert to an alternate route that you have previously analyzed and planned. frequently you can skirt the area of poor weather and re-intercept the route beyond the area affected. it just takes a bit of practice. Ideally position reports should be made about every half hour on a cross country. Transport Canada has established a specific diversion exercise that you must demonstrate on the commercial pilot flight test. usually means taking a totally different route. just use a ruler if you have one. This is however a skill that requires practice. Scanning the map looking for an alternate route once you have run into poor weather is a recipe for disaster. To estimate the track to the destination you can just “eye-ball-it” or use a VOR rose to help you be a bit more accurate. It is important to realize that this is only an exercise. You must then calculate (estimate) the time enroute in your head without a flight computer.Navigation for Professional Pilots VFR flights also often divert around areas of bad weather. Your instructor will show you how to do this if you haven’t done it before. The secret to success is in knowing all the routing options before you takeoff. In the mountains there are often limited opportunities to make position reports. but this is a possibility. But if you have not allowed contingency fuel then you will have to change your destination in order to refuel. In such cases the Page 207 . Radar surveillance is covered in the AIM RAC 5. It is not always necessary to change destination when bad weather is encountered. or you do a 180 back to the last suitable airport and land there until you get organized to go on. In the real world. especially on valley crawl trips.ca website in the miscellaneous section. An even better idea is to avail yourself of radar surveillance enroute. If you run into bad weather in the mountains and have to divert then there should only be two possibilities. The best thing to do is estimate all tracks before putting a protractor on them. NEVER plan a substantial diversion in-flight in the mountains. The contents of a VFR position report are listed on the back cover of your CFS. You will be surprised how closely you can eye-ball-it with a bit of practice.

Navigation for Professional Pilots best advice is to make every position report that you can.” This is a technique that goes back centuries to the days of sailing ships. The strategy used is to deliberately aim to one side or the other of the intended destination so that when you do make landfall you know for sure which side of the desired point you are on and can follow the coast to your destination. if you file a position report in which you give an ETA for your destination that correctly predicts your new arrival time FSS will still initiate a search for you at the original ETA based on your flight plan. Many pilots misunderstand this fact. if you are falling behind schedule and will arrive 45 minutes late. This technique is often practical on a diversion around poor weather or for reorienting yourself if you get “slightly” lost. Hybrid Navigation Procedure – Landfall There is a navigation procedure that falls between pilotage and true DR called “laying a landfall. Despite its age it is quite useful at times in modern aviation. For example if you are in Kelowna and fly east you really cannot miss the Arrow Lake. In modern times you would use GPS or Loran-C th to navigate accurately in a straight-line between the ports. for use if you don’t arrive at your destination. If you sail west from France you are most definitely going to hit North America.” But you are probably going to drift so if you aimed directly at the Saint Lawrence there is no way to know if you are north or south of it. If you are going to lay landfall simply estimate a heading that will put you one-way-orthe-other from your intended destination. and so on. Page 208 . But imagine it is the 16 century and no such system exists. The Arrow Lake meets that criterion. When you do sailors say they have “made landfall. It is vital to realize that when you make a position report the information is recorded. The same technique can be used by pilots. The ocean currents present the same problem for ship navigation that wind does for pilots. Many airports in the Prairies are along major highways. The first step is a rough DR (just accurate enough to guarantee you don’t miss the target (Arrow Lake)) the second leg is pilotage (follow Arrow Lake to Castlegar. Once you make landfall use pilotage to find the destination. For example. which can be used the same way. To prevent this you must specifically request that your flight plan be amended to your revised ETA.) Laying a landfall only works if the destination is on an extended geographically distinct feature that you can lay landfall for and be certain you won’t miss. Imagine you wish to sail a ship across the ocean from France to Montreal. other towns are on railway tracks. but it DOES NOT update your flight plan. This sometimes means making two reports only 10 minutes apart and then other times an hour or more might pass due to lack of ground stations. Once you find the lake you can follow it to Castlegar.

Navigation for Professional Pilots Page 209 .

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Still. In such a case you never reached a point of no return (PNR. the point beyond which you do not have enough fuel to return to the departure aerodrome. which are usually considered important for oceanic flight. and the wind. but they really don’t make a lot of sense in that context. even a short over land flight in a C-172. or in other word PNR would equal total range divided by two. the mechanics of doing the calculation is the same no matter what type of airplane you fly. to come back to the departure point. E is the amount of time in hours that the airplane can fly. For the C-172 with standard tanks we could set the value of Eu at 4:40 for example. Endurance Eu We will represent endurance with a capital E.e. PNR depends on the airplane’s Endurance. what if the illness arises four hours into the flight. Groundspeed GSout and GShome The groundspeed of the airplane is an important factor in determining PNR. However. . and possibly some contingency fuel. We will define GS out as the groundspeed when the airplane is outbound from departure.Chapter 12 Oceanic Flight The full details of oceanic flight are beyond the scope of this course. will be covered here.9 gallons at takeoff and an endurance of 5:18. For example a C-172 with standard tanks has 38. which must include at least reserve fuel.) Each of these concepts can be applied to any flight. You will learn more about them in second year. GShome will be the groundspeed after a 180° turn. A passenger becomes ill 30 minutes into the flight. Et is the total endurance to dry tanks. Speed. do you have enough fuel to return to New York? Obviously you do. It would be very unwise to calculate PNR based on this number however because that would imply proposing to return and land just as fuel runs out – a very scary idea. can you still return to New York? On many of the short flights you have made in C-172 and similar airplanes in your flying career you probably carried enough fuel to fly all the way to destination and then return to departure point.) PNR is simply what the name says. i. Eu will represent the useable endurance. If there was no wind the airplane would reach PNR by flying out to half its endurance. enroute to destination. Point of No Return (PNR) Imagine you lift off from New York headed for Paris France. two points of navigation. But. These are the point of no return (PNR) and critical point (CP.

I.Navigation for Professional Pilots We also define engine-out-PNR in which we assume all engines operating prior to the 180° turn and one engine out after the turnaround.E. but GS out is always based on all engines operating normally. The result is always a distance LESS than the zero wind distance above. Now let us consider the formula that accounts for wind: Page 212 . PNR Formula In zero wind PNR is determined very easily by calculating total range (E x GS) and dividing by two: PNRzero wind = (Eu x GS) / 2 It is always a good idea to do the above calculation as a first estimate. For example an airplane with a zero wind GS of 100 Kts and an endurance of 4 hours has a PNR of 4 x 100 / 2 = 200. I. wind always reduced PNR.E. GS home-SE will be based on the engine out performance. then use the formula below to account for wind.

i. therefore PNR should be routinely calculated and if it is beyond destination – great. Page 213 . By using only the first line you can find the correct answer from among a selection on a multiple choice exam. the definition. and the last line. Here is the “proof” of the formula. this is slightly less than the zero wind DPNR. Note that PNR questions will be on the ATPL and IATRA written exams IMPORTANT: if a question asks for engine-out-PNR calculate GSout with all engines operating normally and GShome with one engine inoperative.Navigation for Professional Pilots If the airplane in the previous example experiences a 20Kt tailwind outbound the PNR will be 4. the airplane can turn around at any point on the flight and return to departure point.e. This is good to know. I. As expected. Note that you can always apply the DPNR formula to any flight but in many cases the PNR is beyond the destination. It is not necessary for you to memorize the proof but you should know the first line. Important: PNR with wind is always less than PNR with no wind.5 x 120 x 80 / (120+80) = 216Nm.E.

In other words on a 1000 NM flight CP is 500 NM. if there is a tailwind you will reach CP before the mid-point or if there is a headwind you will reach CP after the midpoint – see if you can visualize why this is so. if you are asked for the single-engine CP use single engine speeds. Thus.) The formula for CP is given in the diagram below: Page 214 . I. if asked for all engines CP use all engine speeds – NEVER mix speeds in a CP calculation (this is different than a PNR calculation. This is known as the critical point (CP. CP can be calculated for all engines operating normally and also for engine-inoperative. But CP will move into the wind. to return to base or continue to destination IMPORTANT: when calculating CP always use the speed as it will be after the CP. In the later case the CP represents the.E.Navigation for Professional Pilots Critical Point (CP) There is some point on every trip you make where it would take the same amount of time to turn around and return to the departure point or to continue on to destination.) It should be obvious that in zero wind the CP is exactly at the mid-point of the flight. on one engine.

On a 400Nm flight zero-windCP is 200 Nm. Therefore CP = 400 x 120 / (120 + 80) = 240. Let’s calculate where CP is with a 20 Knot headwind outbound. Page 215 . with a headwind CP move to beyond halfway point. So. with a tailwind CP comes before the halfway point. SUMMARY: CP always moves into the wind. Therefore CP = 400 x 80 / (120 + 80) = 160. GS on is 80 KT and GSreturn is 120KT. So. Let’s calculate where CP is with a 20 Knot tailwind outbound.Navigation for Professional Pilots Effect of Tailwind and Headwind on CP In a previous example we flew an airplane with GS of 100 knots in zero wind. GSon is 120 KT and GSreturn 80KT.

Page 216 .

Appendix 1– C-172 Interpolation Tables Power setting ___________ feet ___________ temp RPM TAS _______% 65% ______% Power setting ___________ feet ___________ temp RPM TAS _______% 65% ______% Power setting ___________ feet ___________ temp RPM TAS _______% 65% ______% Power setting ___________ feet ___________ temp RPM TAS _______% 65% ______% ________ feet Page 217 .

________ feet ________ feet Page 218 .

or if it is an over-60 write down PT (for procedure turn.Inbound PDT Practice Sheet In the sheet below fill in the heading you must turn to.Appendix 2 .) Bearing to beacon 150 Desired inbound bearing 100 Heading to steer 300 280 240 290 040 120 135 165 In the table below fill in a random selection of bearings to beacon in the first column: Bearing to beacon Desired bearing Heading to steer Page 219 .

fill in the third column Repeat above MANY times. Finally. Page 220 .Next fill in desired bearings considering the first column and making the bearing within 60 most of the time.

There is no “over 60” limit for outbound PDTs. Bearing from beacon 210 Desired outbound bearing 250 Heading to steer 340 240 005 320 140 180 280 270 In the table below fill in a random selection of bearings from beacon in the first column: Bearing to beacon Desired bearing Heading to steer Page 221 .Appendix 3 .Outbound PDT Practice Sheet In the sheet below fill in the heading you must turn to.

Next fill in desired bearings in the second column. fill in the third column Repeat above MANY times.) Finally. but normally the desired should be within 180 (to make sense. There is no 60 degree limit. Page 222 .

) Rhumb Lines are popular with pilots because you can fly a constant heading rather than changing headins as you would on a Great Circle.Appendix 4 – Definitions Deviation: The difference between actual magnetic heading and the compass indications. as such they are not quite parallel to each other. Convergence is zero at the equator and increases the closer to the pole you fly. or the equator. This error is shown on a compass correction card. Page 223 . Great Circle: A line on the surface of the earth that when extended completely encircles the earth and has its center coincident with the earths center. Convergence: Meridians of longitude converge at the north and south poles. This due to the magnetic north pole NOT being at the actual north pole. Variation is shown on both IFR and VFR charts as lines of equal variation. A Rhumb Line is only coincident with a great circle if it is also a Meridian. The angle at which they converge is known as convergence. known as isogonic lines. An aircraft flying along a Great Circle route much change heading to compensate for convergence. Rhumb Line: A line on the surface of the earth between two points such that the true track along the line is constant. Variation: The difference between magnetic track and true track. Such a line is the shortest distance along the surface of the earth between any two points on the line. All other Rhumb lines vary from the Great Circle (see above definition.

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