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Atari-System Reference Manual

Atari-System Reference Manual

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Published by: Николай Николай on May 31, 2012
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11/18/2013

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The PIA (Parallel Interface Adapter) is a commonly used I/O chip. It consists of two 8 bit
parallel ports with hand shaking lines. In the Atari, it has the following functions.

• Game controller port control (bi-directional).
• Peripheral control and interrupt lines.

Registers in the hardware chips are treated as memory addresses. Many of the registers are write
only. These registers cannot be read from after they are written to. Other registers control one
function when written to and give the status of an entirely different function when read from.
Still other registers are strobes. Any command which causes the address of one of these registers
to appear on the address bus will cause their functions to be performed.

The write only registers have shadow registers in RAM. Data to be put in the registers is usually
put into the shadow registers. The data in the shadow registers is automatically moved to the
operating registers during vertical blank.

For register use and address, see the previous chaptes on the associated functions.

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