MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH
nouvelle edition Sue BLATTES - Veronique JANS - Jonathan UPJOHN
Pool de langues de I'Universite Joseph Fourier de Grenoble

17, avenue du Hoggar Parc d'Activite de Courtabceuf, BP 112 91944 Les Ulis Cedex A, France

Ouvrages Grenoble Sciences edites par EDP Sciences
Collection Grenoble Sciences
Chimie. Le minimum vital a savoir (J. Le Coarer) - Electrochimie des solides (C. Depones et al.) - Thermodynamique chimique (M. Oturan & M. Robert)- Chimie organometallique (D. Astruc) Introduction a la mecanique statistique (E. Belorizky & W. Gorecki) - Mecanique statistique. Exercices et problemes corriges (E. Belorizky & W. Gorecki) - La symetrie en mathematiques, physique et chimie (J. Sivardiere) - La cavitation. Mecanismes physiques et aspects industriels (J.R Franc et al.) - La turbulence (M. Lesieur) Magnetisme : I Fondements, II Materiaux et applications (sous la direction d'E. duTremoletde Lacheisserie)- Du Soleil a laTerre. Aeronomie et meteorologie de I'espace (J. Lilensten & PL. Blelly) - Sous les feux du Soleil. Vers une meteorologie de I'espace (J. Lilensten & J. Bornarel) - Mecanique. De la formulation lagrangienne au chaos hamiltonien (C. Gignoux & B. Silvestre-Brac) - La mecanique quantique. Problemes resolus, Tomes 1 et2 (V.M. Galitsky, B.M. Karnakov&V.I. Kogan)- Analyse statistique des donnees experimentales (K. Protassov) Exercices corriges d'analyse, Tomes 1 et 2 (D. Alibert) - Introduction aux varietes differentielles (J. Lafontaine) - Analyse numerique et equations differentielles (J.P Demailly) - Mathematiques pour les sciences de la vie, de la nature et de la sante (F & J.P Bertrandias) - Approximation hilbertienne. Splines, ondelettes, fractales (M. Atteia & J. Caches) - Mathematiques pour I'etudiant scientifique, Tomes 1 et 2 (Ph.J. Haug) Bacteries et environnement. Adaptations physiologiques (J. Pelmont) - Enzymes. Catalyseurs du monde vivant (J. Pelmont) - La plongee sous-marine a I'air. L'adaptation de I'organisme et ses Iimites (Ph. Foster)- L'ergomotricite. Le corps, le travail et la sante (M. Gendrier) - Endocrinologie et communications cellulaires (S. Idelman & J. Verdetti) L'Asie, source de sciences et de techniques (M. Soutif) - La biologie, des origines a nos jours (P. Vignais) - Naissance de la physique. De la Sicile a la Chine (M. Soutif) Listening Comprehension for Scientific English (J. Upjohn) - Speaking Skills in Scientific English (J. Upjohn, M.H. Fries & D. Amadis)

Grenoble Sciences - Rencontres Scientifiques
Radiopharmaceutiques. Chimie des radiotraceurs et applications biologiques (sous la direction de M. Comet & M. Vidal)-Turbulence et determinisme (sous la direction de M. Lesieur) - Methodes et techniques de la chimie organique (sous la direction de D. Astruc)

AVANT-PROPOS

MCSE NOUVELLE EDITION - Depuis sa premiere edition en 1991, Minimum Competence in Scientific English a joue un role important dans I'enseignement de I'anglais scientifique en France. Plus de 50 000 scientifiques I'ont utilise et il a semble opportun de I'ameliorer pour mieux repondre a I'attente des nouvelles generations d'etudiants. La structure de base ayant fait ses preuves, nous I'avons gardee comme telle. En revanche, les textes ont ete renouveles et furent affines les key points et le lexis, elargie la gamme des activites linguistiques et communicatives et integree I'utilisation du web. Public vise - MCSE a ete congu d'abord pour les etudiants des universites scientifiques et technologiques, des IUT et des ecoles d'ingenieurs ayant une base d'au moins trois annees d'anglais, mais il est egalement adapte a tous les scientifiques francophones. Contenu linguistique - L'ouvrage est fonde sur une analyse du discours scientifique, notamment sur un recensement de la frequence du lexique scientifique, et des fonctions qui sous-tendent le discours scientifique. C'est cette analyse prealable qui a permis d'etablir un contenu particulierement pertinent. Contenu pedagogique- Pedagogiquement, I'utilisateur se voit dote des armes necessaires a un apprentissage efficace. D'abord il dispose d'un systeme d'auto-evaluation combine avec une check list et peut etablir avec clarte ce qu'il doit apprendre. Ensuite I'utilisation repetee des elements permet d'optimiser I'apprentissage. MCSE regroupe done pour I'etudiant un inventaire de ce qu'il doit savoir, avec les outils pour I'apprendre. II permet un parcours d'apprentissage rapide, efficace et, par consequent, un parcours qui apporte beaucoup de satisfaction. MODE D'EMPLOI - MCSE peut etre utilise de plusieurs fagons : dans le cadre d'un cours traditionnel, en semi-autonomie ou en autonomie. Les quelques suggestions qui suivent sont loin d'etre exhaustives. L'ouvrage est divise essentiellement en 2 sections : les 12 units, suivies d1annexes et d'un lexis. Chaque unit correspond a une fonction de base de I'anglais scientifique, measurement, frequency, hypothesis, etc. et comprend : Entry test - Ce test permet de faire d'emblee une evaluation realiste de son niveau ; trop frequemment, I'apprentissage est entrave par I'ignorance de I'etudiant quant a ses propres lacunes. Key points- Les key points doivent etre consideres comme une check list, indiquant tous les elements qui doivent etre sus. Ainsi, et apres avoir fait l' entry test, I'etudiant est en situation, des le depart de \'unit, de determiner avec precision ce qu'il doit faire, c'est-a-dire son "contrat d'apprentissage".

Exercises -Ce sont les exercices qui permettent de mettre la langue en pratique, de la manipuler et done de I'assimiler. Ceux-ci se caracterisent par une repetition et une fertilisation continuelle des fonctions et du vocabulaire, pour qu'en fin de parcours tout etudiant "ne puisse pas ne pas avoir appris". Notons, dans cette nouvelle edition, les starters, dont le but est d'amorcer un travail d'imagination de I'etudiant et de I'impliquer avant d'aborder le texte. Nouveaux egalement, les talking points, qui ouvrent la voie vers une interaction orale en petit groupe. Les checkpoints constituent une autre innovation congue pour permettre une revision et un approfondissement de trois domaines cruciaux pour I'apprentissage : In other words -Savoir reformuler est une competence essentielle pour I'apprenant qui, par definition, a des difficultes a se faire comprendre. II est done de premiere importance qu'il puisse maTtriser les outils lui permettant de clarifier, de reformuler, et de "dire autrement". Back to basics - Trap souvent, helas, les apprenants, meme avances, traTnent d'annee en annee comme des boulets certaines erreurs de debutant, deja corrigees 100 fois mais sans resultats. Cet exercice donne a I'etudiant la possibilite de faire le point sur son propre savoir et, ensuite, lui donne les outils pour se debarrasser de ses erreurs. The word web - Un mot n'existe pas seul, mais seulement en relation avec les autres. Get exercice donne I'occasion de revenir sur les families lexicales, les homonymes et les synonymes, la formation et la structure et de les approfondir. Nouveaux aussi sont web search et word search. Le premier prolonge le travail sur les textes en exploitant les richesses du web, le second, technique originale, amene I'etudiant a utiliser le web comme corpus pour personnaliser son propre apprentissage. Exit test -Comme dans les editions precedentes, chaque unitse termine par un exit testou I'etudiant peut faire un constat objectif de ses progres et en tirer les conclusions. Le lecteurtrouvera ensuite des annexes: OHP (utilisation du retroprojecteur), answers (corriges des exercices) et grammar notes (notes grammaticales). Enfin, le /ex/sjoue un role primordial dans MCSE. A ce stade, et contrairement a ce que tant de personnes pensent, ce n'est pas la structure mais bien le lexique qui est le maillon faible des apprenants. Cette liste de vocabulaire de haute frequence, organisee en rubriques, est construite a partir d'un pre-acquis du vocabulaire de base de quelques 1 200 mots et des homographes communs a I'anglais et au frangais. Elle constitue un outil puissant, permettant a un etudiant de "couvrir" 85% des mots de tout texte dans sa specialite. MCSE s'adresse a des apprenants volontaristes et motives qui ont fait le choix de passer au stade d'utilisateur professionnel. II permet a celui qui s'investit et qui travaille de fagon intelligente d'atteindre, apres une annee ou dix-huit mois, un niveau de langue ou il pourra utiliser indifferemment des documents en anglais ou dans sa langue maternelle, ou il pourra parler de sa specialite, sinon dans un anglais parfait, du moins avec clarte et aisance.

Pascal Dubois (p. Their thanks also to Michel Terrasse for permission to adapt the text on vultures (p.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to express their gratitude to all those colleagues and students at the Pool de langues . 120). 143) and Isabelle Girault. Josiane Hay. Christiane Guiraudie and Thierry Morturier of Grenoble Sciences for their assistance and patience in designing the layout of the book. 64). . 76). Chemistry Department . le CNRS . Marcel Barrali. Oregon University (p. Dr Kakuichi Shiomi (p. 63) and to the following for permission to reproduce photographs: le comite regional du sport universitaire de Lyon et Grenoble (p. Particular thanks are due to Elizabeth Anne. 109).Universite Joseph Fourier . 130). Senior Lecturer. CargoLifter GmbH (p.Grenoble (p.Universite Joseph Fourier .laboratoire de Cristallographie (p. Professor Stephen Salter (p. 28). 39). Elisabeth Jolivet. Marie-Helene Fries. Finally. Karen Henderson. and Grace Wilson whose comments and suggestions have contributed in improving the final text. the authors would like to thank Julie Ridard. 83). Claire Gemonet (p. Andre Deblock.Grenoble and elsewhere who have helped in the development of this book.

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in other words" Back to basics "turn into" The word web Adjective suffixes: able-al-ful-ic~ine-ish-ive-less In other words "someone whose job is to .week 30 Test writing Spacetravel ...experience/ experiment .physiological effects Babbage Contextual search .airships Test writing (Units 1-3) FAQs on cholera Causes of mortality Contextual search .dis -im .FAQs Contrastive search ..."important" Black holes Griffon vultures Contextual search ."actually" Comparative data .un In other words "basically .OHP presentation Hubble .present perfect The geography of lightning Treating AMD Test writing (Units 5-7) Conditionals ."make it impossible" ''?* .the latest news Contextual search .TABLE OF CONTENTS In other words "to be" Back to basics Questions The word web Suffixes: ment-th-ness-en-0 In other words "which/that" Back to basics "actually" The word web Multi-word verbs In other words "similar to .ir.OHP presentation Fetal development ..OHP presentation NEO ... basics "hard/hardly" The word web Verbs meaning "to perform" In other words "either .report Process description -OHP presentation • Search strings .."hard/hardly" The Nice tsunami Alternative energies Past modals Aviation crashes .OHP presentation FAQs . then" Back to.link words Dangerous sports .lay/lie" The word web Verb prefixes: over-under-un In other words "if.in ...last/latest realise/carry out" The word web Suffixes: able-acy-ence-hoodic-ing-ity-ive-ment-tion Image search . or" Back to basics Uncountable nouns: "adviceinformation-news-equipment" The word web Multi-word verbs In other words "designed to transform into" Back to basics "grow/grow up ." Back to basics "raise/rise . but + comparative" Back to basics "to agree" The word web Suffixes: verbs and nouns ation-sion-ise In other words "that is to say" Bade to basics "important" The word web Adjectives + prepositions In other words "consists of" Back to basics "according to" The word web Negative prefixes: anil.

8 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH .

.index p.word search Evaluating your learning objectives writing an exit test Lexis: » Introduction and phonetic alphabet * Sections 1-10 Grammar and usage notes . 195 p. 259 . 257 p.index Lexis .OHP presentation The Aardvark Compound nouns ..generalisations Process . 197 p.TABLE OF CONTENTS 9 In other words "a period during which" Back to basics Numbers The word web Prefixes and suffixes: en-ise In other words "means .so that" Back to basics The article The word web More multi-words verbs Mummification techniques The British Antarctic Survey Contextual search .

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more effective and far more satisfying. technology and engineering who have a basic knowledge of general English and wish to make that fundamental change . Grenoble. The present volume is a completely revised edition of the successful Minimum Competence in Scientific English. Jean Bornarel. The book has been written for students working in the fields of science. Minimum Competence in Scientific English and the other books in the series1. In writing the book our essential preoccupation has been to take into account what students do know. Minimum Competence in Scientific English has been designed specifically for learners whose ambition it is to master English as a worktool within the next 12 months. are attempts to provide answers to that question. PUG. D. web and group activities have been added. they must know. we believe that learning can become faster. if they are to function in the real world. The texts have been renewed and many new features. remarked: "We scientists are fast learners . UPJOHN. including communicative. UPJOHN. In this way. PUG. 1993. first published in 1991. Grenoble. FRIES. We have targeted the essential and all that is of secondary importance has been left to one side. Speaking Skills in Scientific English-J.INTRODUCTION Some years ago. 1997. MCSE . what they don't know and what. AMADIS.what we want to know most of all about languages is just what we need to learn".to move from the status of learner to the status of user.J. M-H. . professor of Physics at Grenoble University.How does it function? Do you need to learn ? What you must learn SELF EVALUATION ENTRY TEST CHECK LIST KEY POINTS LEXIS How you learn Did you learn ? EXERCISES READING TEXTS PAIR WORK OHP PRESENTATIONS BACK TO BASICS NET SEARCH DEFINITIONS SELF EVALUATION MASTERY • w EXIT TEST NOT MASTERY NEXT UNIT 1 Listening Comprehension for Scientific English .

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(a factor of a number that when multiplied by itself gives the number) 6. it goes from 50 to 100. British physicist who introduced the absolute scale of temperature. 8.entry test I Fill in the gaps in the sentences according to the definitions. and it is true to say that the history of scientific progress has run parallel to. the British Parliament offered a prize of £20. The first two letters are given.2 words) As a meteorite enters the atmosphere. mean) The notion of square ro was invented in the 9th century by Arabian mathematicians. (altitude) GIS (geographic information systems) are designed to process massive am of data. 4. Why start with measurement? As Lord Kelvin1 wrote in 1890.000 to the first man to develop an ac marine chronometer. Example: How de is the Pacific ocean? (distance from the surface to the bottom) -> How deep is the Pacific ocean? 1. recorded the location and the he of the most famous mountain in the world. it si (decelerates 2 words) The av brain temperature of animals hibernating in the Arctic may drop to 6°C. . 3. a colonial official. (exact. Sir George Everest. MEASUREMENT In this first unit. was able to wo the basic geometry of plate tectonics from seismic evidence. male alligator has a le of approximately 190 centimetres. (from the lowest to the highest limit. In 1841. (statistically normal. 9. 2. Self evaluation . 1 Lord Kelvin: 1824-1907. (longitudinal dimension) Xavier LePichon. 5. precise) A six-year-old. extent) It is said that Galileo dropped objects from the leaning tower of Pisa to prove that the speed of fall is not proportional to we (a force measured in kg) Colonial power depended on navigation.000 cycles. a French seismologist. 10. 7. In 1714. and been dependent on. we look at some of the different ways of expressing the function of measurement. (calculate . the ever-increasing precision in measurement. (quantities) The hearing ra of bats is enormous. "without quantification there is no scientific subject".1.

thick ^ thin • wide / broad * narrow >. far * near • fast * slow • heavy * light .suffixes ADJ/VERB + -th/-t (+ VOWEL CHANGE) ADJ + -ness depth • height • long / length • weight • width hardness • heavy / heaviness • nearness • thickness VERB + -ment to develop/development . (nought point two two square millimetres) I Rules for noun formation .measurement • movement . 2. Adjectives deep ?t shallow . accurate * inaccurate • average / mean • standard * sub-standard >• The mean density of Mercury is similar to that of the Earth. check • study • survey area • circumference • cross-section • diameter • radius >• The cross-section of the wire is 0.MEASUREMENT 1.high * low • long * short • odd * even .22 mm2. Nouns amount • extent • measurement • range • size • span • speed accuracy • average • level • mean • rate • scale • stage • step The rate of acceleration is expressed in metres per second per second.X\// pr/'me numbers are odd numbers.14 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH Functions & Grammar KEY POINTS .

4. Verbs I Rules for forming verbs NOUN/ADJ + 0 (NO CHANGE) to narrow * to thin • to range /to span /to extend6 -Notesl / to reach • to rate / to check / to monitor • to record / to plot >. NOUN/ADJ + -en to deepen • to lengthen • to shorten • to thicken • to widen >• The river widens when it leaves the canyon.UNIT 1 . . Structures Dimensions can be expressed by 4 different structures.MEASUREMENT 15 3.The speed of the neutrons is slowed down by the beryllium moderator. NOUN/ADJ + adv particle to check up • to level off • to slow down * to speed up • to step up • to work out >.The trajectory of the missile was plotted on a graph.

16 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH 5. 7i r2 (pi r squared)6 N"^ • Vx (the square root of x) I Volume The volume is 1. an extinct flightless bird. Other measurements I Area To obtain the area. lived in Australia roughly 8 million years ago. A considerable 2 Down Under: a name for Australia and New Zealand.000 cm3 (a thousand cubic centimetres). It was probably the heaviest bird in the history of evolution. antonyms or by an explanation. It weighs 10 kg It is 5 km away How heavy is it? / How much does it weigh? What does it weigh? How far (away) is it? / How many kilometres away is it? What is the distance? Examples in context DEAD DUCKS FROM DOWN UNDER2 Words mentioned in the Key points are written in bold. . It measures 10 cm by 10 cm. Questions Note the question forms. I Replace the words which are in bold and underlined by synonyms. Approximate measurements These can be expressed by means of adverbial modifiers. you multiply the length by the width. Dromornis stirtoni. x3 (x cubed) • V3y (the cube root of y) I Power x9 (x to the power nine / x to the ninth) x~9 (x to the power minus nine / x to the minus ninth) 6. with a weight of slightly more than 500 kg although its wing span was very small. The area is 100 cm2 (a hundred square cm). the Antipodes. 7.

The large head and formidable beak3 suggest that the bird was carnivorous. scientists now believe that it is related to the duck species. A.WHEN .UNIT 1 . 1. the oldest known stone bridge being built in Babylon in about 1800 BC. The cross-section of fossils of the leg bones reveals that the bird had short. Look at the photograph and guess the dimensions of the bridge by selecting one of the three options offered. Dromornis stirtoni appears to be similar to an emu or an ostrich. thick legs indicating that it could not have run as fast as the ostrich. however. enabling scientists to work out basic measurements. bony mouth of a bird. Write out your answer in full. • What can you say about bridges? With your partner make a list of three facts / questions (WHY . The width of the body was about the same as the length of the neck and legs. It is one of the largest bridges in the world and holds the record for the height of its two towers and for the length of its central span.). It probably has a total approximately The central span of in ..CONSEQUENCES. From a morphological point of view..HOW . DROMORNIS STIRTONI Estimated dimensions Height: 3 m Weight: > 500 kg Egg length: 26 cm Egg width: 21 cm • • • • Tell your partner to close his book and then ask him these questions. What would you guess is the total length of the bridge? (900 m . 1995. Exercise The Normandy bridge was opened on January 20th. How long is the central span? (550m/856m/1655m ) 3 Beak: hard.3. as the massive dimensions of the head show.WHERE .2. The bird attained a height of over 3 meters. starter Bridges have played a key role in cultural development.1.MEASUREMENT 17 amount of information has been obtained from recent fossil finds in Queensland. Check in the answer section when you have finished.9 km) 2. Why couldn't dromornis stirtoni fly? Why do we know so much about the bird? How do we know it is not the same species as an ostrich? What makes it possible for an ostrich to run so fast? Exercises 1.2 km .

B. How wide is the roadway? (10. The amount of lorry traffic using the bridge is rising each year and the average annual rate has now reached 300. It is considered to be one of the most elegant examples of modern bridge construction with its two narrow concrete towers extending high up over the ships as they pass in the river below. where the river widens before flowing into the sea. What is the approximate height of each tower? (60 m /130 m / 210 m) 5. Give a rough estimation of the weight of each concrete tower.000 t/ 8. The bridge was built to withstand wind speeds of up to 300 km an hour. The Normandy bridge is built across the river Seine just below Le Havre.18 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH The 3. It is a "cablestayed bridge".000. 1. What is the height of the bridge above sea level? (25 m / 52 m / 93 m) 6. the weight is supported by 184 thin steel cables which spread out on each side of the towers.5m/16. that is to say.000 t/ 20.2. Underline the 77 words listed in the Key points which express measurement. (2.000 t) is Each tower in The Each tower roughly about at least tonnes.6m/23. Fetal development .6m) 4.

1. width (+ what?) 7.UNIT 1 . volume (+ roughly) 5.function and the genitalia are visible.11th week Mean measurements Length: ~ 6. odd (+ each hand) 6. A. Describe the pictures using the following words. to range (+ weight) 3. narrow (+ arteries) 8.MEASUREMENT The fetus . but the vital organs . average (+ almost) 2. The head is still disproportionately big. Tiny blood vessels can be seen through the translucent skin.9 cm Weight: « 28-35 gm Head circumference: ~ 8.liver. The heartbeat can be heard with a stethoscope and the legs are beginning to move. circumference (+ slightly over) 4. The fetus floats in the amniotic fluid and nutrients are supplied via the arteries in the umbilical cord. thin (+ skin) .1 cm Volume amniotic fluid: ~ 60 ml 19 The fetus is now becoming more human. monitor (+ heartbeat) 9. intestines and brain .

. reducing the he (altitude. No they don't. The fetus monitors its own temperature from 30 weeks onwards. 1. while a th (opposite of thin) layer of volcanic ash. extending over a ra (half the diameter) of 1. harden / bones / begin / 13th week 2. As a result of the eruption. The most powerful volcanic eruption in re (officially registered) history occurred on Sumbawa Island in southern Indonesia. in April.851 m and leaving a crater 1. The Tarn bora eruption and the battle of Waterloo Is there any link between the climate and world history? According to geologist. 4. the peak of the mountain completely disappeared. was deposited on the surrounding islands. The first two letters and a definition have been given.000 km. The fetus moves its head towards the light). find examples of ways that the climate has affected history. lengthen / femur / 4th week / considerably 3. with the cataclysmic eruption of MountTambora.3. the eruption of Mount Tarn bora in 1815. Write the corresponding questions. thicken / the wall / uterus /fertilisation 1. Kenneth Spink. the destiny of Europe may well have been changed by a geological phenomenon. At what stage When Do In which week C. 1815. The fetus of the male weighs more than that of the female. 3. 1.000 m in de (measurement downwards) with a cr (transversal measurement) of 7 km. I Fill in the missing words. This happens at about 30 weeks (it can be checked by moving a light across the skin of the mother's abdomen. Make sentences using the following words. vertical measurement) from about 4. It has been estimated that 50 cu (measurement of volume) km of magma and sulphur dioxide were injected into the stratosphere. starter • With your partner.300 m to 2. Here are some answers to FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions) concerning the fetus. It usually begins to beat in week 5-7 2.20 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH B.

• What exactly Napoleon's problems were. The aerosol scatters and reduces incoming solar radiation which can lead to significant atmospheric cooling. The temperature in Europe and North America dropped 3°C below the annual me (average). • Why dust aerosols have a long life. 4 Riot: public disorder.000-15. Aerosols of dust and sulphur dioxide injected into the stratosphere have a relatively long life as they are situated above rain clouds and so are not washed back to Earth by precipitation. a geologist.000. the weather patterns were chaotic. This was particularly true in the ar (zone. reliability). It is believed that the total number of deaths may have at (reached) al (nearly) 150. the crops froze in the fields and in Switzerland. In July. extend) from 10. Recently.UNIT 1 . The heated lava flowing into the sea caused giant tsunamis. snow fell. As Napoleon prepared for the battle of Waterloo. relative size) of the damage with ac (precision. held back) his army since the number of feasible routes for his he (which weighs a lot) equipment was restricted. a far larger number of people died from various secondary effects. more than 30 m high and there was widespread famine due to agricultural losses and harvest failure. violent political protest. In 1816. However. region) around the CharleroiBrussels road in Belgium. total) of rain that fell.MEASUREMENT 21 It is difficult to evaluate the sc (extent. it was called "the year without a summer". he found that the wet conditions and soft ground si (delayed. There was much talk at the time of the extraordinarily vivid red sunsets and the enormous am (quantity. France and the United Kingdom food riots4 were reported.000. This prevented him using his artillery till late in the day. This lack of manoeuvrability could well have been a crucial factor in deciding the outcome of the battle of Waterloo. Estimations for deaths caused directly by the eruption ra (vary. He points out that in the summer of 1815. has suggested that theTambora eruption may have had political consequences that perhaps changed the course of history. . It was not only the southern hemisphere that was affected. Explain to your partner: • Why there was a famine in Europe. the weather conditions were already beginning to deteriorate. Kenneth Spink.

All the were wrong. Checkpoints Simple definitions: the simplest way of defining a word is by using the verb "to be".4. Example: a woman "A woman is an adult.3.The road is not wide enough. An emu weighs slightly more than 50 kg. I Check your answers. 3. 4. 3. Adjectives I." I The following words are used in Exercise 1. The of potential Lack of vitamins causes illnesses which diseases is considerable. We need better mea. . suffixes can be used to transform adjectives into nouns and verbs. A lack of vitamins can have wide-ranging effects. I If you have made mistakes. 2. female human being. Define them: magma • island • famine • stratosphere I Compare with the examples in the answers. Nouns The main problem is the of the road Verbs Why don't they the road? We require techniques to more accurately 2. Complete the columns using the suffixes: -ment • -th • -ness • -en • 0. 1. suring techniques. It became extinct about 8 million years ago. Asking questions: are you sure you never make a mistake? I Write a question about the words in bold. how do you intend to deal with the problem? GNotes3 I As we have seen in the Key points. An ostrich runs very fast.22 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH 1. from goitre to anaemia. Specialists examined the bones.

uk/refcap/785. Web search I Search the web for an image illustrating a famous or unusual bridge. The original estimation of the cost of building the Three Gorges Dam in China was extremely in (imprecise) 1. . Search the web for examples in context. as 8. htmlG-/Votes37 Word search I Choose 5 important words from the Key points. How is a horse? The of a horse can attain roughly 1. 6 The deluxe model is well-equipped.UNIT 1 . it is a symptom of bacterial infection.co. The car has got first class Verbs Genetically modified cotton can the growing season. becomes red. Entry test) for your partner6 Wofes32.com/lifebefore/fetalsense. * thick) 3. Prepare a 5 sentence test (cf. 1.babycentre.5. 7 When the eye of the eye is a symptom of conjunctivitis. Self evaluation . You could try the following for a simple description: >•http://www.MEASUREMENT 23 Adjectives 4. There is a weak attractive force between the molecules. Cotton is a textile with short fibres 5.000 kg. Nouns It is cheap because of the of the fibres Because of the of attraction the molecules can be separated. Make a 3 minute presentation (with dimensions) on the overhead projector.htmlG-Wotes3' or this site for a more complex discussion of fetal perception and fetal dreaming: >• http://www. A horse can weigh almost 1. The biosphere refers to the th layer surrounding the Earth where living organisms are found. It has been with the latest gadgets. I Find a site dealing with pregnancy and fetal development and make a report on the fetus in week 30.exit test I Complete the sentences by filling in the blanks with an appropriate word.000 kg. by a small amount) 2.birthpsychology. the average world death rate is expected to decline only si (a little. (small transversal dimension. Between 2005 and 2025. Raising the temperature the molecular attraction. The eye the bacteria spread.

(the opposite of odd) 6. (make stronger) . The Arctic Ocean is joined to the Pacific Ocean by the Bering Strait. In Greenland and Iceland there are a variety of small-sc manufacturing industries.24 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH 4. (step. A chain reaction is a series of reactions in which the result of each st causes the next. Bacteria can acquire resistance to antibiotics by mutations which may st their resistance. a narrow and sh channel with a depth of no more than 55 m. Satellite photographs provide valuable information about the ex of desertification. you get an ev number. (degree) 8. (size. If you add two odd numbers together. dimension) 10. All over the world. fc deep) 7. (following the evolution) 9. part of the process) 5. research centres are closely mo pollution levels.

This function can be expressed by: .(each) 4. repeated incidence) 5. emigrated to the US from Scotland and began work in a factory for $1. the average height of Europeans has increased st (regularly) 7. The Ebola virus produces a mortality ra in human beings. Over the past 100. (two times) -»> The batteries must be recharged twice a month. 1. It is estimated that the ho flow of water of the Amazon river is between 12. Example: The batteries must be recharged tw a month. Self evaluation . (a measure of frequency) which can be as high as 88% 6. The world population is growing fast.lexical items (particularly adverbs).grammatical structures (particularly word formation).2. .entry test I Fill in the blanks using appropriate expressions. The strength of a steel alloy depends on the ra (mathematical relationship of proportion) of iron to carbon. . Carnegie. (every 60 minutes) 10. the polar ice sheets have advanced or retreated depending on periodic sw in the climate. (variations. The se of earthquakes that struck Missouri in 1811 were among the most powerful ever experienced in the United States. of course.000 and 44. (succession. Under stress. A new child is born ev 60 seconds. The first two letters of the answer are printed. There will be a re of epidemics as soon as natural immunisation dies out. The famous 19th century millionaire.000 years. It refers to events that occur more often than once and less often than always. (they will happen again. Over the past 300 years.certain fixed adverbial phrases. . repeated incidents) 9.20 pe week.000 million litres. the heart be faster. (each minute) 8.(pulsates) 2. Frequency is. FREQUENCY Frequency is the expression of repetition. oscillations) 3. related to measurement and consequently you will meet certain expressions already seen in Unit 1 for a second time.

Adverbs >. >• From time to time. there are violent cyclones in the Gulf of Mexico. Adjectives • • • • regular • steady • even . Word formation NOUN (TIME UNIT) + -ly hourly • daily weekly • yearly >• A weekly newspaper. >• There is a relatively even distribution of the population in Holland. public opinion periodically swings from left to right. >. re. . >• The Galapagos consist of a cluster of islands in the Pacific. 2.26 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH Functions & Grammar KEY POINTS . you should consult a doctor at once.Politicians seldom admit their mistakes.FREQUENCY 1. 4.If the symptoms recur.In politics. 3. constant • non-stop irregular • random • unpredictable periodic • intermittent • recurrent • repeated • cyclic oscillating • alternating • fluctuating >• There were recurrent interruptions throughout the whole meeting.+ VERB to renew • rebuild replace • rearrange reorganise • reproduce >• They rearranged the furniture in the office. Nouns • an oscillation • wave • wave-length • pulse • beat • a group • set • cluster • range • array • pattern >• A series of remarkable events occurred. Verbs • to recur • repeat • reduplicate • echo • to oscillate • fluctuate • vibrate • alternate • beat • swing >. 5.

0 Time 18.0 Rest 5 min Rest 6 min Rest 5 min Day 1 30 min Day 2 Day 3 45 min 30 min 45 min 1 x 3. I Find out what AT running is.0 Rest 3 min Rest 3 min Rest 2 min Rest 5 min Day 4 DayS Day 6 45 min 30 min 45 min 10 x 200 m Hill sessions 2 x 10 x 100 m 3 x 3 x 400 m Time 25. What are aerobic exercises? • 2. antonyms or by explanation. answer the following questions. Is it advisable for athletes to train without running shoes? The following schedule was designed by Australian trainers to prepare athletes for the 1st week of the final month before the season begins.when is it produced? • 3. I Ratio >.FREQUENCY 27 6.UNIT 2 . What is lactate acid . PRE-SEASON TRAINING SCHEDULE starter • Before reading the text.0 s Time 54. three in ten people speak two foreign languages. 1. (a hundred to a hundred and six) Examples in context COMPETITION RUNNING: 800 METRES I Replace the underlined words by synonyms. ^ The normal ratio of girls to boys is 100:106.Two out of three road accidents are caused by alcohol.He goes to the hospital for a check-up every other month. >• In Denmark. >. Fixed expressions are also used to indicate: Recurrence month two weeks / three weeks other / second / third day once twice three times minute day week every a / per >. Aerobic running Gym 2 x 100 m 3 x 400 m 2 x 200 m Time 11.0 Time 25.They are producing cars at a rate of 100 a /per day.000 m at AT pace 6 x 60 m Time 8.0 45 min 45 min .

In what sort of situation do people work non-stop? 4. Give an example of an event that happens from time to time 3. followed by short recuperation periods. running speeds will be gradually increased. up-hill runs on slopes with gradients of no more than 1 in 6. • Work in the gymnasium is scheduled every second day. A set of runs over different distances. arm swing and to strengthen muscles in the back and abdomen. seldom exceeding 130-145 beats per minute. Where do you hardly ever go? . non-stop activity at a steady and relatively slow speed. The heart rate should be approximately 60-75% of maximum.1. low speed. Training should be carried out daily. I go to see the doctor . What is steadily decreasing? 2. Example: Periodically.Answer the questions and give a reason why. the pattern of track training must be varied. The necessary oxygen is provided by the respiratory and cardiovascular system and virtually no lactate acid should build up in the muscles. Aerobic running involves continued. Relaxation of foot muscles can be obtained by walking barefoot in sand or on grass. As aerobic capacity improves. Aerobic threshold training (AT) should be carried out no more than once a week at the beginning of the period. To avoid monotony. and twice a week when the season begins. Hill sessions are exercises designed to develop power. Exercise I ADVERBS . Exercises will range from weight-lifting to exercises designed to improve body posture. They consist of short.28 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH I Notes • The importance of aerobic running is crucial to 800 m training. Exercises 2.in order to have a check up. 1. What sort of accident seldom occurs? 5. enables the body to rebuild its forces.

Coconuts grow on trees in 13. 19. one k.FREQUENCY 29 I ADJECTIVES . 9. The depth of the sea can be measured by echo-sounding techniques consisting of acoustic 12. i. echoes I. generators f. Yellow fever is a disease that never attack provides immunity for life. The fermented liquid which contains between 7 and 12% ethanol is concentrated to 95% by a of distillations. 7. At this stage. The speed at which the pendulum depends on its length. Antibiotics came into use in the 1950s and have totally changed the of disease and death. of 10 or 20. makes aluminium bursts of radiation e. Gases consist of molecules that are in fast motion. pattern series clusters pulses ratio 17 The radio beam more strongly in this part of the moon which suggests that there may be underground ice. 15. Its high strength-to-weight useful in the construction of aircraft. the organism itself and combines several genes producing immunoglobulins. 20. Glaciers are formed by a sublimation and recrystalisation. d. reorganises o. 6. process of a. I NOUNS 11. The "Spirit of St Louis" made the first transatlantic flight in 1927 10.Supply the missing words.UNIT 2 . 18. The electric current from standard in direction. h. I VERBS 16. Pulsars emit short about once per second. b. non-stop 14. The climate during the Pleistocene period was responsible for the extinction of many species. recurrent fluctuating periodic random 8. recurs n. alternates . swings m. j. . g. c.

This development in echolocation has. This is critical for bats because of their enormous skin area. however. Use the words: WHEN • WHY • HOW • WHAT . According to Darwin.2. consequently. Jens Rydell of the University of Aberdeen and Raphael Arlettaz of the University of Lausanne have shown that a certain European bat. objects which are smaller than the wavelength are not detected.. "Tadarida teniotis" searches for its prey using much lower than those used by other bats. It also means that they are free from attack from predators and above all. is not static and the race between the predators and their victims does not stop there. with survival depending on genetic improvement. However. • FREQUENCIES • USUALLY • WAVELENGTH • DAILY • PROPORTION • PULSES • PATTERN (8-15) It is well known that bats use a sonar system to navigate. It means that they can fly by night when the temperature is lower which reduces the danger of dehydration. The ability to navigate acoustically has several aTdvantages for bats. They can consequently take evasive action and survive. it means that there is less competition for food. They are so low (between 11 and 12 kHz) that insects are incapable of detecting them. But nature..30 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH 2. an evolutionary cost. These waves are emitted and are in the 20-50 kilohertz As the bat gets nearer to its target. The 12 kHz frequency corresponds to a of 3 cm. the increases. . faced with such a predator some lepidoptera have undergone a of genetic mutations. The text gives one illustration of this process. Bats versus butterflies The "arms race" does not apply just to human beings. developing more sensitive hearing organs which enable them to detect the acoustic (8) used by bats. as Darwin pointed out. I Insert the following words in the gaps: RATE • ECHOES • PERIODICALLY • WAVES PER • SERIES RANDOM (1-7) • RANGE • starter • Before reading the text ask your partner 4 questions about bats. that they emit sound (1) which are reflected back as It is this that enables them to locate objects and food. that is to say. • Find 3 ecological advantages for bats for being nocturnal. finally reaching several hundred emissions second. evolution is a non-stop struggle between the species.

3. • What is the difference between Darwinism and Lamarckism? • Give an example of Darwinian selection. . a se (succession.T/F.T/F. Psychological disorders. Physical exercises are intensified just before returning to Earth. to sleep disturbance. . Rydell and Arlettaz carried out an experimental study to check this hypothesis. it became plain that they were 1 Droppings: excreta. . 4. A space gymnasium A major issue facing space medicine is the potentially harmful effects of residence in a microgravity environment. though se (rarely) serious. to bone calcium loss. Past experience has shown that prolonged conditions of weightlessness during space missions can lead to re (repeated) problems of cardiovascular and muscle atrophy. There have been "rebellions" during missions when astronauts have refused to obey ground control. • Explain in detail to your partner exactly why "Tadarida teniotis" rarely eats small insects. set) of remedial exercises to minimise physical de-conditioning was introduced from the start (Gemini 1965). stress and depression. Rydell and Arlettaz found the of large insects was significantly higher. 2. Little by little however. they made a examination of samples of bat droppings1 found in caves in Sisteron in south-eastern France.T/F. . except for catches.FREQUENCY 31 Rydell and Arlettaz concluded that the feeding of "Tadarida teniotis" would therefore be different from that of other bats and their diet would not include insects with a wing span smaller than 3 cm. led to a 24-hour "rebellion" when the crew refused to co-operate with ground control. in one case (Skylab 4). 2. can in fact be crucial and.UNIT 2 . as these would be too small to detect.T/F.8% of the total diet. Future long-term space missions depend on finding solutions to these problems. Over a period of 3 weeks. starter • Do you think these statements are true or false? 1. to fluid redistribution and to psychological asthenia.3 to 86. . ranging from 68. Approximately 50% of cosmonauts can walk unaided when they arrive back on Earth. The findings confirmed the hypothesis. I Supply the missing words.3. Astronauts can spend up to two and a half hours a day on exercises. In so far as muscular atrophy is concerned.

the length of the exercises gr (little by little) increasing to 2 x 1 hour a day. Shanon Lucid walking on the treadmill in Mir Space Station .WHEN? . fl (changes) in cardiac rhythm and weekly verification of osteoporosis by ultra-sound probes. The remedial exercises used during this mission were divided into 3 phases. Approximately one ten (1:10) cosmonauts was unable to walk unaided on re-entry. the exercises st (at a constant rate) increased in length and load until they reached 2 hr 30 minutes per day. back and leg muscles. Finally. there was a slight reduction during the 2 month pre-entry phase. Consequently. • Phase 2 Al (one after the other) bicycle ergometer and treadmill exercises tw (2 times) a day. • Phases Additional walking exercises using bungee2 cords for upper body musculation for 30 minutes per day. .1996 The International Space Station programme involves no (continual) residence in space. it will be necessary to reorganise protocols in a more systematic way. Then.WHERE? 2 Bungee: elastic cords.32 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH insufficient or applied too ra (without method) as they failed to maintain pre-flight musculoskeletal mass. exchange questions on the text using: WHO? . This will be facilitated by the more sophisticated instrumentation that will be available. Valeri Polyakov spent more than 1 year in space on the MIR mission which has provided the largest amount of data concerning extended space flight. Although you have probably never met the word before try and explain to your partner what "treadmill" means (see photo). The first phase lasted only 5 days and was designed to allow the astronauts to adapt to the space environment. allowing pe (from time to time) check-ups to monitor the heart be (pulsation). TRAINING SCHEDULE • Phase 7 Voluntary isometric exercises involving neck.WHY? . With your partner.

and changes in the larynx.4. Checkpoints Definitions . to be linked / a necessary part of h. 7." Example: "A bat is a mammal which flies by nigh I Define these words used in Exercise 2. to be made of/ formed from c. to provide an explanation . In 1830.relative clauses: "which / that" Make a definition using the pattern: "An X is a Y which does Z. the number of illiterate people in the world is increasing steadily.FREQUENCY 33 2. Babbage designed a machine to carry complex arithmetical calculations. 5. 8. The meaning of many verbs depends on the preposition or adverb that follows." I Check in the answer section.2: predator • sonar system • skin • food "Actually": do you use this word correctly? I Is the following sentence correct or not? "Actually. airports rely radar control. The level of pH depends the acid. the strength of a. four Soviet scientists set temporary scientific stations on drifting icebergs in the Arctic. to use because you have confidence g. 2. Testosterone is involved the development of secondary sex characteristics such as the growth of body hair. 1. I Match the meaning of the verb with the definition and then write in the correct particle for each verb: IN • OF • UP • OUT • FOR • ON.UNIT 2 . 3. In 1937. It is the ability to use the Sun and the stars to navigate which accounts the migration of birds. 6. These are called multi-word (or phrasal) verbs. to do / to perform b. A protein may consist several polypeptide chains held together by weak molecular bonds. When visibility is reduced. 4. Chemists can work the number of carbon atoms from the weight of the object. to be determined by d. to create / establish f. to calculate / find the solution e.

rarely) 5. The figures for those employed in agriculture ra Africa to less than 4% in Canada. There was an ar (a series. Which of the following expressions matches your examples best? JN PRACTICE • REALLY • IT IS SURPRISING. It ha ever rains in the Gibson desert in Australia.htm/ I Who was Babbage? (see The word web.5.exit test I Fill in the gaps according to the definitions given in brackets.ksc. Web search I Find out more about space travel.http://weboflife. again and again) 6. 1. The skeleton of reptiles fits the general bone pa vertebrates.gov/faq. 2. (schema. (agglomeration. A major health problem is that medical facilities are not ev distributed across the country.34 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH 2. (repeated. but se harmful effect. The hepatitis B virus is present throughout the world and the cause of re epidemics. (over a period of 24 hours) of the other have any 3. (regularly. Consult the FAQs at the NASA Life science site: >. Its programs make ra changes to its own rules and select the best results. (not often. display) 7. Mid-ocean earthquakes are fairly frequent. Six days after fertilisation. question n°2) Use the search string: < Charles Babbage analytical machine > Word search I If you are not sure of how to use "actually" (see Back to basics). (rarely) . BUT TRUE Self evaluation . make a Web search and find 6 examples in context. (extend. climatic conditions in Afghanistan exhibit great da and seasonal variations. the embryo consists of a cl 100-300 cells.nasa. vary) 9. Evolutionary artificial intelligence copies biology. concentrated group) of Because of the high altitude. equally) from 64% in 8. model) 4. of solar panels on the roof of the building. (unpredictable) 10.

However. 1. (growth. (as opposed to) 5. The upper salinity limit for irrigation is le of sea water. the addition of lead oxide en the refractive index. ."the two samples are similar" means that they have been compared. Im production techniques have enabled industrialists to reduce the risk of fire. bo the American and Russian space agencies began exploring the possibility of long-term habitation in space. For example: . Un true organisms. (identical . In the early 1970s. but the ho environment facilitates the destruction of pathogens. Example: Before building the prototype. comparison is frequently expressed by means of grammatical forms such as the comparative and the superlative.2 words) 6.entry test I Fill in the blanks. (comparing. Fleming noticed that a penicillin solution prevented the sp bacteria. Of course. (similar to hair) 9."to accelerate" means "to go faster". For example. Many of the drugs prescribed for human therapy are the sa those used for farm animals. Fever has a useful medical function. Chemicals can be added to vary the properties of the glass. using comparatives. (better) 10. further research will be necessary. proliferation) of - 8.3. Self evaluation . fitting together) . superlatives or other lexical forms. (more) -+ Before building the prototype. The smallest blood cells (averaging 2-4 micrometers in diameter) grow ha filaments from their membranes. COMPARISON Comparison is one of the ways of relating ideas and objects to each other. (higher temperature) 4. viruses are unable to synthesise proteins because they lack ribosome. (makes better) 7. fu research will be necessary. it not only increases the metabolic rate. The comparison can either be one of difference or one of similarity. fc more) 3. (the two of them) than 15% of the salt content 2. there is also a large store of lexical items which express similar meanings. Wegener was able to demonstrate the movement of tectonic plates by ma the shapes of the five continents.

Difference I Comparative (superiority) TO BECOME / MAKE SOMETHING (+) BIG to increase • grow • expand • lengthen • widen • enlarge • extend • spread (+) HIGH (+) GOOD to raise • lift • heighten to improve • boost • enhance >./ can go no farther.Further details can be obtained at the information office. I Comparative (inferiority) TO BECOME / MAKE SOMETHING (-) BIG (-) GOOD to decrease • reduce • lessen • shorten • lower to worsen • weaken • deteriorate >• Little by little the patient's condition worsened.Farther is used to indicate greater distance. 2.Blood transfusion is used by athletes to enhance performance. >. . additional".36 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH Functions & Grammar KEY POINTS . >. Irregular forms • • • • good / better / the best many / more / the most much / more / the most far / farther / the farthest * ^ * • bad / worse / the worst few / fewer / the fewest little / less/the least f a r / f u r t h e r / t h e furthest I Note .Further often means "supplementary. .COMPARISON 1.

Other comparative patterns >.COMPARISON 37 I Superlative meaning (++) IMPORTANT (++) HIGH the chief • main • leading • foremost the top • peak • tip >. 3. 5. (COMP + AND + COMP) >.The richer people become. >• Electrons can travel almost as fast as light.The situation is getting worse and worse.UNIT 3 . (COMP + s + v) + (COMP + s + v) . Similar or equal things can be contrasted SIMILARITY / DISSIMILARITY it is like / unlike • similar to • the same as • equal to • in comparison • by contrast COMPATIBILITY to match • fit • suit • correspond DUALITY both • either/or • neither/ nor >• Before transfusion the blood groups must be matched. the less happy they are.The foremost concern of the government is unemployment. As + as twice 3 times nearly almost large fast much/many likely >• Meteorite craters are roughly 20 times as large as the objects that caused them. 4.

One survey suggests that there is a potential world market for at least 200 airships. >.to overheat an engine • to overeat I Under (less than required) the meat is undercooked . outdated technologies to find a place in the modern world? This report seems to suggest that they can. for heavy transport.A bell-shaped curve (with the shape of) 7 Prefixes Comparison can also be expressed by prefixes. What did the Zeppelins carry? I Replace the underlined words by antonyms. starter LWhen and where did the Hindenburg Zeppelin crash? »2.An earth-like atmosphere (similar to the Earth) *. the CL 160. Although helium is heavier than hydrogen and has 7% less lifting power. I Over (more than required) to overload a circuit • to overestimate the results .38 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH 6. Where was it coming from? • 3. • CARGoLiFTER NETWORK GMBH: This Berlin-based company plans to build a new generation of airships. Word formation Adjectives of comparison expressing similarity. it is not flammable which considerably lessens fire risks. • HELIUM: The new generation of airships will be helium-filled.an underdeveloped country • underpaid workers • an understaffed research project I Out (better or greater than) to outdo the competitors • women outnumber men • the advantages outweigh the disadvantages Examples in context THE CL 160 .BACK TO THE FUTURE Is it possible for old. . CargoLifter believes that this is a considerable underestimation. Why did it crash? • 4.

2 m Empty weight: 118 tonnes Service weight: 220 tonnes Engines: 4 propellers powered by 1100 HP 16 cylinder diesel engines Gas volume: 200. It could also play a leading role in the humanitarian aid sector.000m. • ADVANTAGES: The foremost advantage of the CL 160 is that it does not need to land to unload. is waterproof. The craft's skin will be made of a multi-layered polyester membrane which. The cruising speed is 90 kph at an altitude of 2. Cargo is lowered by cable from an altitude of 100 m.000 km Cruising speed: 120 kph The Hindenburg crash One of the worst crashes in pre-war air history • Compare the CL 160 and the Hindenburg LZ 1 94.000 m3 Maximum range: 10.This reduces the need for large-scale ground infrastructures such as roads. the cheaper transport costs become. A further advantage is that delivery times to remote destinations can be considerably shortened. • DIMENSIONS: The CL 160 is 260 m long with a diameter of 65 m and a gas volume of 550. Economically. HINDENBURG LZ 194 -* Specifications Length: 245 m Diameter: 41. • USES: The airship is best-suited for transporting heavy and voluminous cargoes such as turbines.200 m3. Power is provided by eight gas-turbine engines driving six-meter propellers boosted by 12 thrust units for manoeuvring. as the fewer infrastructures there are. this is crucial. unlike the cotton used in pre-war models.COMPARISON 39 • POLYESTER MEMBRANES: Recent breakthroughs in materials science will be exploited to enhance performance. with volumes up to 3.000 m3. This will minimise both weight increases due to rain and gas leaks.000-10. It will be especially useful for construction industries and for inshore and offshore oil exploration firms. The potential range is 3. The CL 160 is designed to carry payloads weighing as much as 160 tonnes.UNIT 3 . major airfields and ports. The structure will be strengthened by an aluminium frame. .000 kilometres.

5. it is therefore necessary to find some way in which they can be simulated. When possible. As such conditions rarely exist in everyday life. 2.number of cars • temperature • wind strength road accidents • the price of petrol • electronic fraud starter • 3. Example: What will happen if the population increases? -*• The more it increases.40 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH Exercises 3. 7. give a definition of the word to your partner. standard of living .Haughton crater Space research cannot ignore the safety factor. A Mars analog . the less there will be to eat. Ask.the opposite of n°3) Thin The phrase: "+ expensive car = + good car" Why is the superlative form (nearly) always preceded by "the"? B. First.e. Pay special attention to the word order. use qualifying expressions like "the biggest in the world . Example: What is the most dangerous snake in India? -* The cobra is the most dangerous snake in India. 4. then explain the different rules for making the comparative and superlative. IRREGULAR 7 SYLLABLE bad « good • little near * large « fast • hot 2 SYLLABLES + Y early « healthy * easy « heavy 2 + SYLLABLES dangerous « serious *influential recent» common «important • widespread city • galaxy • hospital • language learning method • desert • written documents • profession • climate • star • layer • temperature • scientist • animal • plane crash • means of transport • food • threat • metal • molecule C. the comparative of inferiority . This means that new technologies must be tested in exceptionally severe conditions. 6. Work in pairs.the biggest in Europe . and then answer questions from the box below using the form: (COMP + S + V) + (COMP + S + V).the biggest I have ever seen". Warm Easy Expensive (+) Expensive (-) (i.2. Here is one example. 3. 1. Use the adjectives to ask 6 different superlative questions about the nouns in the box. Exercise A. . • Exchange with your partner information about Mars.1.

In particular.the most northern regions. the Earth has an atmosphere and ground level pressure is (100 x > great) than on Mars. although winter temperatures on Mars may fall to -90°C. more efficient robotic vehicles and a DNA reader for examining potential microbial remains. Nevertheless. provide an ideal testing ground for the NASA space programme and are being exploited to develop improved technology and human exploration procedures. As features of the climatic and geological conditions closely match those that can be found on Mars. i. Haughton crater has been selected by NASA as being well-suited for space training programmes. It is located on Devon Island which is in the upper Arctic regions and the largest uninhabited island on Earth. The area is classified as a polar desert.UNIT 3 . These Mars-like conditions therefore. The atmosphere provides protection from high level radiation while the intensity of the sunlight is relatively strong. summer temperatures can be compared to those on Devon Island and scientists believe that present conditions on Devon Island are similar to those that were found on Mars 1 million years ago when the climate was warmer and more humid. The major projects include the development of more sophisticated information sharing systems. no site on the Earth can offer identical conditions to those on Mars. the top soil is thin and rocky and precipitation averages (> little) 8 cm per year. . Haughton crater was formed by a meteorite impact 23 million years ago.COMPARISON 41 I Find acceptable synonyms or replacement expressions for the words in bold and for the gaps. Example: The upper Arctic . This means that in summer it is virtually snow-free. the comparable morphology will provide insights into the evolution of Mars and offer a testing ground to study climate models and other geological phenomena such as the enigmatic Martian (similar in shape to a U) glacial melt-water channels.e. Unlike Mars. Clearly. it experiences extreme subzero temperatures. The Haughton-Mars project will also be used to further fundamental research. enhanced permafrost drills.

I Fill in the gaps with appropriate comparative and superlative forms or with synonyms. not new. has announced its intention to market "shape-memory polymers" (SMPs) in the near future. This means that SMPs with predetermined mechanical strength and transient temperatures can be designed to su (match. However. is Haughton crater similar or dissimilar to Mars? • Can you think of other "analogs" for testing. correspond to) specific functions. are currently developing a new family of en (improved) SMPs providing (+ good) performance and (+ versatility).42 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH • In what ways. manufactured from low molecularweight compounds called monomers and consist of long chains of molecules. training or developing models? 3. MNEMOSCIENCE. Modern chemistry allows the structure of these chains to be designed to fit specific industrial needs. the specification of deformations can be adjusted with (+ accuracy). . un (in contrast to) alloys. Dr Andreas Lendlein.SMPs versus SMAs Synthetic polymers are macromolecules. R. not mentioned in the text. Langer of MIT. the programming of polymers can be carried out rapidly and at (+ low) temperatures. Other advantages include: • The reaction time after the transient temperature has been reached is much faster. The (# worst) known is "Nitinol". Their fo (main) advantage is that they are much (+ easy) to make and consequently (-expensive). • By varying the proportions of the two monomers. The new process is based on polymers containing oligo (e-caprolactone) dimethacrylate which provides a "switching" segment. This is because. Mnemotechnology . in collaboration with Prof. of the "German Wool Research Institute" at Aachen. • The deformation capability is (20 x> great) S>M/\s. The material is programmed by forming it into the required parent shape and then ra (increasing) the temperature so that crystallisation of the "switching" segment occurs and cross links are formed. about 70°C instead of several hundred degrees. in fact. Shape-memory substances are. a nickel-titanium alloy that has been widely used for actuators in robotic applications and medical devices for a considerable time. The material can then be bent into any other configuration and will switch back to the former parent form at the transient temperature. determining the temporary and the permanent shape of the polymer. a German company specialising in polymer technology.3. SMPs have a considerable number of advantages over shape-memory alloys (SMAs) and offer a far wider range of applications.

there are considerably (# more) problems in producing biocompatible and bio-degradable SMBs. + er. "I that " We can learn things from astrology. programmed by into the parent shape. (When?) to the parent form. As science develops. I Check in the answer section. another configuration. The major problems for the future are ethical not technological. This wi (extends. I 3. After that. enlarges) the potential range of uses and has considerable importance for medical applications. It will be possible. First of all. 2. 1. (Result?) 4.4. "To agree": do you agree or disagree with these statements? Write a full answer.COMPARISON 43 • Finally. complete the following flow chart showing the programming and function of SMPs.. to insert bio-degradable implants which do not require (+ far) intervention in order to be removed and thus le (reduce) the need for invasive follow-up surgery." I Define the following words: a rat • diamond • a village • Mars I Choose a word of your own that can be defined in this way and ask your neighbour to define it. ( 5. When it is 6 reheated J 7.. Checkpoints Definitions . • With your partner.defining by comparison Use the following pattern: "X is similar to Y but much .UNIT 3 . the I 3. ." Example: a tiger "A tiger is similar to a cat but much larger. for example. using the word "agree". Next. Happiness has got nothing to do with the standard of living. it is becoming more dangerous.

Make a 3 minute OHP presentation. . you could add words of your own e.000 people were killed in the Hiroshima The oxygen supply is stored under The generation of solar energy involves the conversion of hydrogen. 6. 80. Verbs 1. The astronauts are provided with a 14-day supply of pressurised oxygen. "cinema". character -> to characterise.. Choose "images" on the tool bar of the research motor and write strings like: < graph data > or < graph statistics > To focus the search. The committee was set up to standardise civil aviation procedures. 0-|-Q G. Examples: to vary -*• variation. is more economical.asp . 4.. If gases very rapidly cryogenic temperatures are attained.5. 8. an had to be built 3. to divide -*• division. The first atomic bomb exploded on August 6. It is cheaper to regulate the temperature automatically.44 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH I You can use suffixes to form nouns or verbs: -(at)ion ' -sion • -iseG-Notesl. Efficient insulation reduces heat losses to a minimum.com/civil. People get old because the body genetic damage. 1945. It was necessary to extend the research facilities Nouns Automatic temperature . 9. Web search I Make a web search for images / graphs illustrating comparative data. 2.g. Rapid expansion of the gases produces temperatures of below 120 Kelvin. 5. 3. His job involves the of aviation safety procedures. Because of the increase in staff. 7 Solar energy is from hydrogen. Heat losses can be by thermal protection. "arctic". Notes 33 I Go to the following address to find out more about civil applications of airships: >• http://aerosml.. Ageing is a result of the accumulation of genetic damage.

As a result of the dust cloud raised by the impact of a large asteroid ne heat light would penetrate the Earth's atmosphere. not the other) 2. 1. un human beings. (x 2) 9 (+ people poor/. fc make stronger) 7.UNIT 3 . The government would like to bo imports. The constant stress and vibration we the metal. can survive a drop of 46% of the body fluid. The two colours do not ma (go together) 5. (in contrast to) 8. (advancing) 6. (better) 3. The disease is sp rapidly. Optical fibres will produce en performances for computers. (not one. Self evaluation . Chameleons.they eat) 10.exit test I Supply the missing words.COMPARISON 45 Word search I Choose two important words from each of the Key points of Units 1-3 and prepare a revision test for your partner (cf. the engine will ov (get too hot) . If you drive up the hill too fast. The reason why NASA is interested in nuclear propulsion is that space travel would be fast. (help to improve) 4. Entry test).

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St inclination) hillsides are inevitably under threat of erosion.000 people have been killed in traffic accidents over the last 10 years. (essentially.4. Self evaluation . (exceedingly small. slightly fewer than) 2. the major problem is not finding answers. Example: Epidemics in the third world are ma due to malnutrition. (extensive. tiny) > Americanisation of comparable to those of units or corpuscles called 8. Light is emitted and absorbed in mi photons or quanta. pertinent) 5. (with a big gradient. Al 15. "hot" or "cold". The dimensions of dwarf stars are ro the Sun. The Roman calendar was ba only 355 days. It is easy enough to say that something is "good" or "bad". MODIFICATION This unit reviews modification. their interpretation is often not re (sure. but asking the re questions. a function which is much more important than is commonly realised. But the problem when learning a language is to go beyond the expression of simplistic ideas so that nuances and subtle differences can be expressed with ease. fundamentally) 4. (constant) increase in viruses which are resistant to a lunar calendar and contained 3. throughout the country) 6. there has been a wi Japanese society. It has been said that in science. adjectives. verbs or phrases. (nearly. (above all) -»• Epidemics in the third world are mainly due to malnutrition. 1. . Statistics must always be used with care. Since World War II. Enzymes have an ou (exceptional) ability to biodegrade natural products. (appropriate. There has been a st antibiotics. 9. dependable) 10.entry test I Supply suitable modifiers. (approximately) 7. Modification is expressed typically by adjectives to modify the meaning of nouns and by adverbs to modify the meaning of other adverbs.

MODIFICATION 1.Blood plasma contains minute quantities of creatinine. Adjectives I Importance important • significant • crucial • meaningful • relevant >• What Bachelard wrote in 1934 is still relevant to contemporary scientific problems. I Aptitude and utility • appropriate • suitable • useful • reliable • efficient >. . electrons are ejected.If electromagnetic radiation of suitable wavelength falls upon the metal. I Hierarchy major • main • chief • leading • primary • foremost • outstanding • secondary • minor • common • average • typical • standard >.There has been a sharp decline in the quality of river water. I Intensity dramatic • striking • acute • steep • sharp >.48 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH Functions & Grammar KEY POINTS .Little by little the patient's condition worsened. I Dimension enormous • tremendous • huge • widespread small-scale • tiny • minute >.

there is little difference between the two processes. that things are a little bit more complicated than that. hardly any of the nutrients remain. The text discusses the difference in death rates for men and women.The results were slightly better than last year. starter Examples In context LIFE EXPECTANCY AND SEXUAL INEQUALITY Philosophers say that we are all born equal. It appears. Adverbs I Essence essentially • fundamentally • basically • on the whole >. however. I Degree a little • a bit • slightly relatively • quiteG. I Approximation nearly • almost • roughly • more or less • virtually • to a certain extent • partly totally . I Negation hardly (any) • scarcely (any) • barely (any) >• After processing. I Manner carefully • steadily • thoroughly • accurately • properly >• The 1st law of thermodynamics was not properly formulated until the middle of the 19th century. • Why do women live longer than men? I Select important words in bold and ask your partner for definitions. Notes 5 • entirely • utterly • thoroughly >.MODIFICATION 49 2.extremely • exceedingly >.quiteG.UNIT 4 . living without a motor car would be utterly unacceptable. . I Draw the graph.Basically.Notes5 • rather • fairly very .For most people.

on the whole. reaching 200%oo at the age of 64 and just over 2000%oo at the age of 90. Similarly. at the age of 90. despite minor fluctuations. For the next 14 years.5%oo occurs at the age of 13. however. This difference may be accounted for to a certain extent by sociological factors. there is a sharp drop to roughly 3%oo for males and 2%oo for females. It is striking that the difference in life expectancy lasts virtually throughout the entire life span. the gap between the two sexes begins to narrow and finally. It then starts to rise again. males are more vulnerable. there is a tendency for more males to be employed in manual work or in jobs involving high stress. Basically. the overall lower mortality rates for females. In early adolescence the pattern changes.50 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH The line graph in the figure below gives comparative data for the evolution of average death rates for males and females between birth and the age of 90. reaching 80%oo at the age of 65. the higher levels for adult males can be partially related to traditional working roles. the probability of death for females is in the vicinity of just over 1000%oo. It is traffic accidents that are the foremost cause of death for young adults and. From then on. male adolescent life styles are more risk oriented. the curve continues to rise steadily. At all stages. This is followed by a rapid rise until it levels off at just over 4%00 between the ages of 18 to 24. more or less parallel to the male curve. By contrast. The lowest point of approximately 1. It is true to say that. There is a steep rise to 14%oo by the age of 19. . the curve for young females is significantly different. attaining 2%00 at the age of 13. However. From the age of 65 onwards. in the 15-35 year old range. except from birth to the age of 3. involving activities including dangerous sports and a greater consumption of alcohol. the rate of increase slows down and attains 20%00. The rate for males continues to fall. inducing work-related mortality such as industrial accidents and cardio-vascular diseases. The period immediately after birth is naturally a high risk period. particularly in the 5-12 period which is common to most cultures (it is also widespread among higher animals) would seem to indicate that there is some genetic factor involved which makes females the more resistant sex. Over the next five years. 80% of the deaths are males. with figures standing at slightly over 60%ooo. The data raises a number of interesting points. but more slowly.

UNIT 4 - MODIFICATION

51

Exercises
4.1. Exercise
A. Match the modifiers on the left with the crossword puzzle definitions on the right. a. Quite exceptional - you just can't class it with the others b. Almost c. A little more than nothing - but not much d. Could be more, could be less - not much precision here e. Within limits f. Completely, carefully and conscientiously g. Conforms totally to expectations - zero surprise h. The capitalist's dream - maximum work, minimum waste i. All over the place - ubiquitous in fact j. Not just big - a macro-dimension k. You can count on this - it will never let you down I. To start at the beginning or, more accurately, to go right down to the foundations

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Typical Efficient Huge Reliable Virtually To a certain extent Thoroughly Roughly Outstanding

10. Widespread 11. Basically 12. Hardly any

B. Insert the above modifiers into one of the phrases below. Farms are most when they comprise a thousand hectares or more. 2. Although it has a population, China has successfully reduced both fertility and mortality. 3 , there are four types of language in Europe. 4. Historical records of earthquakes before the middle of the 18th century are not 5. There is still fear that genetically modified viruses might escape from the laboratory. 6. A human being requires 3,000 calories a day. 7 Intra-species fighting can be observed in all vertebrates. 8. Osteoporosis (thinning of the bones) is a example of an age-related disease. 9. Military trainee pilots are very prepared. 10. From a technological point of view, Concorde has been an success. 11. There are tigers left - they'll soon be extinct. 12 , I agree with you. 1.

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MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH

4.2. Maps, medicine and cholera The statistics for third world infant mortality show only too well the close connection that there is between medicine and geography. The text below describes one of the first and most famous examples of spatial geography.
LEADING • RELIABLE • REAL

starter

• The table below gives comparative figures for life expectancy in different places and at different times. Before reading the text try to suggest potential explanations for the English figures.

I Replace the words in bold with modifiers from the list: ALMOST • MINUTE •
• HUGE • EXCEEDINGLY • PRACTICALLY. • ENTIRELY • BARELY • ACUTE • HARDLY • CAREFUL • APPROPRIATE

From the moment that coal became the main raw material for power supplies, the industrial revolution was characterised by the massive expansion of the new towns as hundreds and thousands of unskilled workers left the countryside, drawn by the promise of work in the new industrial centres. Towns sprang up from virtually nothing and within a span of 30 or 40 years tiny villages had grown to become major industrial centres. LIFE EXPECTANCY AND INFANT MORTALITY COMPARATIVE DATA
Period France India Papua Yemen England Liverpool Manchester 1990s
"

Life expectancy
78.5
60

Infant mortality
6%0 60 60 130

57 49

1600 1041 1843

42
259

24

However, in the 19th century, Britain was neither socially, politically, technologically nor scientifically prepared for such a massive change. It must be remembered that the new populations flooded into the towns at a time when there was practically no public transport. The direct outcome of this was that workers were obliged to dwell near their work places resulting in extremely high population densities around the mines and factories. To make matters worse, centralised government and the notion of town planning hardly yet existed in Europe which meant that there were no laws setting minimum standards for housing, space and sanitation. The new overcrowded slums1 were built without any proper means of disposing of the vast volume of sewage and waste, as the relevant technology had not yet
The famous map by Dr John Snow shows

the connection between the London cholera infection and a single polluted water pump in Broad street.
1 Slum: poor, dirty, overcrowded urban area.

UNIT 4 - MODIFICATION

53

been developed. Efficient steam pumping engines capable of evacuating the sewage only came into use in the 1840s and the metallurgists lacked the relevant know-how which would have permitted the mass production of iron pipes with joints that could withstand the high pressures. Urban society has also a crucial need for great quantities of drinking water, but here again, little had changed since the Romans. It was thus inevitable that the traditional underground wells should become contaminated. But, once more, there was a deficit in knowledge. In those days, medicine was scarcely more than a folk art. Doctors had little understanding of disease and were utterly ignorant of how infections were transmitted. In 1854, there was an outbreak of cholera in London. John Snow, a London doctor, carried out a thorough spatial analysis and, by plotting the cases on a map, was able to demonstrate how the epidemic in central London was linked to the Broad street water pump. Only then, was it understood that cholera must be a water borne disease. The solution was extremely simple; the handle was removed from the pump and the epidemic died out.
• What other examples can you find of historical events being dependent on, or influenced by social, technological or scientific knowledge?

4.3. The disposal of high level radioactive waste It appears to be a law of nature that the richer countries become, the more waste they produce. The UK currently produces 500 million tonnes annually, much of it polluting, toxic or hazardous. Developing techniques for coping with different types of waste, and particularly nuclear waste, will be one of the major problems of this century. starter

• What are the main risks, and what solutions have been proposed for disposing of nuclear waste?

I Read the text and complete the blanks with the following words:
CRUCIAL • FOREMOST • QUITE • RELIABLE • ROUGHLY • STEADILY • WIDESPREAD • THOROUGH (1-8) ALMOST • BASICALLY • FAIRLY • HUGE • MINUTE • SUITABLE • VIRTUALLY (9-15)

As a result of the present (1) (extensive) concern for ecological problems, one of the (key) issues facing the nuclear industry today is the disposal of High Level Waste (HLW). HLW is primarily a by-product of nuclear power facilities and weapons programmes and although, in fact it is (relatively, fairly) small in volume, it accounts for 95% of radioactive waste. Accumulated world stocks stand currently, at (approximately) 110,000 tonnes, but this figure is (constantly) growing at an estimated 10,500 tonnes a year. It should also be mentioned that present storage facilities have not proved to be totally (dependable)', there have been several reports of cracks developing in the concrete cooling tanks, leading to incidents of leaking.

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MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH

A large array of different HLW disposal procedures have been proposed, including disposal of the waste in space, in glaciated areas and destruction by nuclear transmutation. At present, the (leading) candidate is disposal in deep geological formations and recently, there have been a series of (careful) feasibility studies carried out to this end. A lesser known variant of this technique is disposal of HLW under the sea bed which some researchers claim has certain very worthwhile advantages. (9) (essentially), the process works as follows. Standard, welltried petroleum drilling technology would be used to drill a hole to a depth of several hundred meters through the upper layer of sediments on the ocean bed. A cylindrical steel pipe would then be inserted and containers of vitrified nuclear waste lowered into the pipes by cable. Each container would be packed vertically and separated from the next by 20 m of sediment. As the ocean floor covers (nearly) 70% of the Earth's surface, it would be (relatively) easy to locate sites remote from populated areas. Furthermore, the danger of seismic activity would be (on a very small scale, tiny), as there is a wide range of sites in the Atlantic or Pacific oceans that are far from the boundaries of tectonic plates and which have remained geologically inert for tens of millions of years. The natural plasticity and low permeability of the ocean sediment provides (satisfactory) packing material to stop any cracks which may appear and, at a depth of one meter below the ocean bed, there are (practically) no living organisms capable of transporting radio active material. This means that even after the inevitable corrosion of the steel pipe and the container, radioactive migration would not exceed one meter in 24,000 years. Finally, the ocean provides a (tremendous, enormous) dilution capacity if the safety system fails.

• People are concerned with HLW because of the enormous time it takes to decay. But what other sorts of pollution do you find worrying? What can you say about their time span?

UNIT 4 - MODIFICATION 4.4. Checkpoints Definitions - reformulation: "that is to say"

55

Use the following pattern: "X is Y, that is to say it is Z." Example: a cataract "A cataract is when the eye becomes opaque, that is to say, no longer transparent." I Define these words: an adolescent • a bus • cancer • an antibiotic I Look at Exercise 4.3 and find a word that you can define in the same way. Compare with your neighbour. Q "Important": are you sure you know what this word means?

I In which sentences can you use the word "important"? 1. Cambridge is a small but university. 2. The graph shows that production is getting more and more year by year. 3. They have got a very number of research laboratories at NASA. 4. Because of the population the country is obliged to import food. I Check in the answer section.

I Insert the correct preposition: AT • IN • FOR • TO • OF • WITH. 1. Although they have normal motor activities, people suffering from somnambulism are not aware their surroundings. 2. Contrary to what most people think, musicians are not particularly good languages. 3. The virus responsible Ebola fever comes from animal sources. 4. What he told the police is incompatible the facts. 5. Satellite images are capable detecting objects less than 15 cm across. 6. One of the effects of aspirin is to make patients less liable heart attack and thrombosis. 7. They want to recruit a doctor who is qualified tropical diseases. 8. Five research students were involved industrial espionage.

To a certain ex . Experience has shown that the most su type of plane in such mountainous terrain is light. Complete the sentences using suitable synonyms. (large and important) 2. (almost. The aeroplane has. Half a century ago. it was vi get from one side of the country to the other. (up to a point) 6. (appropriate) 9. (leading) 7. the natives living in the highlands of New Guinea are afraid of the sea and prefer to travel by air. (approximately) 3. (hardly) . formed the only link across Papua New Guinea's mountainous terrain.http://www. an airstrip was built at Mount Hagen and it was at this stage that flying became the inhabitants' ch form of transport. As there was sc any aviation fuel available. Web search I Go to the World Health Organisation site and look at the FAQs on cholera. Make a 3 minute report using the OHP. for ro 40 years. sl sl more than two million inhabitants of Papua lived cut off from the rest of the world. search the web and note down 6 examples in context. Prior to the development of airstrips. 1. single-engined aircraft.56 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH 4. >. On the wh . No ma or even small town in Papua New Guinea is complete without its airstrip.exit test I The following examples refer to air transport in Papua New Guinea. (generally speaking) 10. Use advanced search strings such as: < important microgravity > < HLW risk important > Self evaluation . nearly) impossible to 4.int/csr/disease/cholera/en/ I Find the main causes of mortality in the 15-30 year range. air traffic expanded rapidly. (sure) 8. Word search I If you made a mistake with "important" (see Back to basics). it was the gold rush of the late 1920s that precipitated the development of the air industry in New Guinea. As the aircraft became more re . there was a decline in air transport during World War II. (a little) 5.who.5. In 1933.

it is easily accessible.). moreover d.5. actually c. 5. 9. in spite of b. Computers can process data extremely fast..e.). whereas b. besides d..the information stands in contrast to what has been said before (but. Superconducting. i.g. this. when materials lose all resistance. The device enables temperatures to be monitored. moreover a. The presence of high concentrations of elements that are rarely found on Earth. thus b. 3. to indicate that: . a consequence or an illustration (because. besides a. The new engine is far more efficient. a. 6.. for example . e. moreover d. thereby b. that is to say a. c. actually b.. despite .. obviously b. namely d. that is to say c. suggests there was a meteorite impact at that spot. Programmable electronic systems are more reliable . for example. The data is stored on hard disk. such as b.g.e. as a rule c. d. LINK WORDS The structures and functions that we have seen up to now have been concerned mainly with single ideas. 4. . for instance c. whereas a. besides b.). whereas c. besides b. namely d.. they have several serious drawbacks. nevertheless c.entry test I Choose the correct answer. namely .the information is a cause. A new technique. 2. in the initial stages there were minor problems to be overcome. means that dust surrounding new stars can be penetrated. hence c. neverthless a. relating one idea to another is also one of the essential roles of language. but from then on. more work is required to reduce noise levels. however d. 1. in other words c. a. such as a. 10 . on the whole c. obviously a. 8. will boost computer performances. . they can be used to handle radio-active material. improving the safety margin. Applicants for the job should speak at least one other European language French. whereas b. These are conjunctions and adverbs that can be used. d. the infra-red camera.the information is supplementary to something already said (and . One way of doing this is by means of link words. moreover d. 7. whereas a. the prototypes were perfectly reliable. iridium. Self evaluation . besides d. However.

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MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH

Functions & Grammar
KEY POINTS - LINK WORDS 1. Giving additional information and • not only/but • as well as • in addition • furthermore - moreover - besides • apart from >• The flat is too small and furthermore, it is not in the town centre. 2. Contrast but • however • nevertheless • yet G/Vofes7 • although • (even) though • in spite of/despite • whereas • on (the) one hand / on (the) other hand >• Geologists are using radio-active analysis of rocks more and more, nevertheless it is not suitable in every case. 3. Contrast to what people think actuallyG. Notes 8 • in fact • in actual fact • in reality >- Most people think that Fleming was the father of penicillin, but actually most of the work was done by Florey.

4. Introducing a cause / consequence • because • as • since • consequently • therefore • thus • hence • as a result • therebyG. Notes 11 >• The arteries become gradually blocked, thereby reducing the oxygen supply to the brain. 5. Introducing something obvious / generally accepted obviously • naturally • of course • clearly • doubtlessG. Notes 9 >- Obviously, unless the birth rate decreases, there will be a major food crisis.

6. Making a general statement in general • generally speaking • on the whole • as a rule >• As a rule, metals are inflammable.

UNIT 5 - LINK WORDS

59

7 Clarification
for example • for instance • e.g. G. Notes 10• that is to say • in other words • i.e.G. Notes 10 • such as • namely

>- The quantity of heat is expressed in the same units as energy and work, namely joules.

Examples in context
PROFESSOR STEPHEN HAWKING I Replace the words in bold by synonyms, antonyms or by explanation.

starter

• Who is Stephen Hawking? what do you know about him?

Stephen Hawking is doubtless the most well-known theoretical physicist and cosmologist of our time. At the age of 21, while he was still a young student, Stephen Hawking was diagnosed as having amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, that is to say, a degenerative motor neurone disease that prevents voluntary control of the muscles. He was informed that he had not long to live. Despite the disease, or as he himself says, perhaps as a result of it, he continued with his studies and was awarded his PhD in 1977 and so started a brilliant scientific career. He has made important contributions to the theory of black holes and the origin of the universe. Besides losing the ability to control his arm and leg muscles, he gradually lost the ability to speak clearly. This meant that, as a rule, at scientific conferences or seminars he was obliged to speak via an interpreter. In 1985, he caught pneumonia and was obliged to undergo a tracheotomy, i.e. an incision of the oesophagus. The tracheotomy operation, however, removed his ability to speak altogether. For a time, the only way he could communicate was by signalling with his eye muscles. A computer expert in California designed him a program linked to a voice synthesiser that could be activated with one finger, thereby enabling Hawking to move the cursor. At present he can produce 15 words a minute. Hawking is nevertheless, very active. He travels a great deal and recently has given conferences in the US, India, South Korea and the UK.

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MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH

Exercises
5.1. Exercise
A. Link the two halves of the sentences together. 1. It must be six o'clock. No, actually ... a. it begins to melt. b. they float on water. c. it should be handled with care. d. they should be kept away from children. e. it does not do so if you add salt. f. the wires began to overheat. g. it consumed too much fuel. h. it is a fluid. i. at higher altitudes, the temperature is lower. j. it is five past six.

2. If you heat copper to 400°C, it becomes viscous, in other words ... 3. The current was too high, as a result ... 4. Mercury is a metal, nevertheless ... 5. Amphetamines are dangerous, therefore ... 6. As a rule, water freezes at 0°C, but ... 7. Glass is fragile, thus ...

8. The motor was out of date, besides ... 9. Hydrocarbons are relatively light, in fact... 10. Water usually boils at 100°C, however ...

B. Use the following words to join the phrases: DESPITE THE FACT • NAMELY •
OBVIOUSLY • ACTUALLY • YET • HENCE • THEREBY.

1. Symptoms such as pain, fever, and vomiting are not diseases they are defence mechanisms. 2. "Psychotic" means that a patient has lost touch with reality, "neurotic" refers to a less serious state. 3. People have always recognised the waste, brutality, and inhumanity of war, it goes on. 4. The mesosphere is important that it contains only about 0.1 per cent of the total mass of the atmosphere. 5. As a rule, aquatic reptiles use the same means of propulsion as fish and whales, they use powerful beats of the tail. 6. The heat increases, 7. Cells and antibodies may co-operate, the entropy increases. destroying invading bacteria.

8. For a person who weighs less, the concentration of alcohol will be proportionally higher. C. LINK WORDS - Study the example below of a chain of linked sentences. Example: More women are getting executive jobs in high finance. 1. Clearly, this means that they are under greater stress. ^2. The number of women drinking alcohol is therefore rising. ^ 3. In addition, many of the women suffer from depression.

UNIT 5 - LINK WORDS

61

Write 2 similar chains, using different link words, each time based on one of following the sentences. 1. Gold is a very expensive metal. 2. Death rates from infectious diseases will be reduced by 20% over the next 30 years. 3. The first atomic bomb was dropped in 1945. 4. Oil reserves will run out by the middle of the next century. 5. Girls are now getting better results than boys at school. 6. There is more and more congestion in the town centre.
1 ^ 2 ^ 3 1 ^ 2 «* 3

« in addition, furthermore, besides • however, nevertheless, yet, in spite of, on the other hand • but actually, but in reality, in fact • obviously, clearly, doubtless « in general, on the whole, as a rule • in other words, that is to say, namely « consequently, therefore, thus

5.2. Solar flares
Solar activity is cyclic, fluctuating from periods of low activity to periods of high activity every 11 years. Solar flares are most frequent during periods of maximum sun spot activity when occurrences can attain as many as 25 daily.

starter

• Before looking at the text, what information can you provide about solar flares?

I Read the passage on solar flares and then complete the outline below. The exact nature of solar flares, which constitute the most powerful releases of energy within the solar system, is still not fully understood. They consist of rapid and intense variation of brightness, resulting from the liberation of magnetic energy. The quantities of energy involved are enormous, with temperatures attaining typically 10 to 20 million degrees K, but temperatures as high as 100 million K have been recorded. The energy released consists essentially of ultraviolet radiation, accompanied by X-ray emissions. These are converted in the chromosphere into solar plasma heat, releasing accelerated particles, including electrons, protons and heavy nuclei into the solar system. The duration of the flares is variable, lasting sometimes several hours. Light emitted from the flares reaches Earth within 8 minutes - particles travel more slowly, taking 36 to 48 hours to arrive.

62

MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH The distance involved means that only a small part of the energy reaches Earth, but the effect it has on the magnetosphere and ionosphere directly influences the terrestrial environment in several different ways: • the atmosphere of the Earth facing the sun undergoes increased ionisation from the X-ray radiation, thus disrupting radio communications; • the material released causes magnetic storms and auroras in polar regions. The flares are also potentially hazardous to space projects:

• the intense heat generated increases the temperature of the Earth's upper atmosphere, causing it to expand and become denser. This means that the velocity of low orbiting satellites is slowed down. It was because of this phenomenon that the re-entry of the MIR satellite in February 2001 had to be delayed; • the particles themselves are a potential hazard, as they can damage electronic instrumentation and endanger space-walking astronauts. I Reconstruct the text (it may be necessary to reformulate the phrases). 1. Solar flares , yet they are still not totally understood. 2. As a rule, temperatures attain 3. Temperatures are usually in the vicinity of 20 million K. Sometimes, however, 4. Basically, the energy released 5 thereby releasing accelerated particles. 6 , such as are released.

,

7.
whereas light arrives within 8 minutes. 8. The distance Sun-Earth is considerable, hence 9. The distance is considerable, nevertheless, 10. Since the atmosphere is ionised, 11. Besides disrupting radio communications,

12
therefore it becomes denser.

13
furthermore, they can endanger space-walking astronauts.

1 Aviary: a large cage for keeping or breeding birds. . • 9 were born in the project aviary 1 . • 24 were given or exchanged by zoos. In 1981. This is an excellent habitat for vultures for two major reasons. farming is still focussed on sheep breeding and it is also an area of high cliffs and canyons. • post 1986: free evolution of the population. by 1945. obtaining strychnine prohibition and gathering 50 captive Griffon vultures. they were totally extinct . Where did the new vultures come from? • 4. What do you imagine were the main problems after release? I Insert the words into the text: WHEREAS • NAMELY • FURTHERMORE • SINCE • AS • THEREFORE • SUCH AS • BESIDES • THEREBY • IN FACT • INTRODUCTION Griffon vultures were gradually eliminated from south central France during the first part of the 20th century. • 6 were seized from dealers (unknown origin).3. Why do you think they became extinct? • 3. a reintroduction project began and ten years later. 1.UNIT 5 . Introducing the Griffon vulture into the Massif Central Griffon Vultures disappeared from the southern Massif Central around 1945. This report describes the different stages of the process. A RESULT • AS • HOWEVER NATURALLY • ALTHOUGH HENCE (8-15) (1-7) starter • The text describes a reintroduction programme for vultures. The locality chosen was the last known breeding site in the Gausses region in the Massif Central. in 1968 a reintroduction project was started. victims of direct destruction by gun and poison (1) the local population wrongly considered them as pests . • 1981-1986: release phase. education of hunters.LINK WORDS 63 5. PROJECT DESIGN The project was carried out in three successive stages: • 1968-1981: preparation of public opinion. This study analyses the implementation of the project and the precautions that were taken to ensure a successful settlement. the new colony consisted of about a hundred individuals. VULTURES USED Between 1970 and 1987. 86 Griffon vultures were obtained from different origins: • 47 came from the wild or rehabilitation centres (31 from Spain and 16 from France). What do you know about vultures? • 2.

some were already accustomed to man. They had considerable difficulty landing and they did not make proper use of the thermal currents rising from the cliffs wasting a great deal of energy beating their wings to little effect. in previous raptor introduction programmes immature birds had often been used. A further problem was that the birds Released Wild born Dead Recaptured birds birds birds birds _ 1* 10 8 1 3 2 17 1 1 1 11 1 2 12** 5 4 2 6 12 10 9 15 17 77 1 3 2 5 1 20 1 1 1 1 9 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 total 61 * This bird escaped from the aviary but returned 3 years later. at the time of display and sexual pairing. This high energy cost. radio tracking was abandoned. combined with the fact they had difficulty feeding. the life span of the transmitters never exceeded 6 months. After 1983. one vulture died after 40 days without food. released vultures were marked with leg bands displaying a plastic letter. MONITORING All individuals were monitored daily. This policy was adopted to maximise the chances of settlement and to facilitate the fixing of breeding groups. of those held in captivity for shorter periods. resulted in a certain number of losses. The first vultures (1981-1982) were all paired adults. but this technique proved to be unsatisfactory identification at distances over 300 m was often difficult. (5-10 years) .64 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH More than one third of these vultures had lived in captivity for a considerable length of time. They were released in December. all released birds wore radio transmitters (weight 17 gm) fixed to the two central tail feathers2. plumage covering birds. during the first few weeks after release. 2 Feather: natural coating. young vultures are marked in the nest with a system of coloured rings which are more easily identifiable. . birds presented poor flight abilities. transmission distances proved to be less than 1 km and. RELEASE CONDITIONS During the Gausses project. ** Non-marked birds escaped. for the maximal theoretical range of the transmitters was 20 km. In the initial stages. ADAPTATION OF RELEASED VULTURES . if not impossible. however. Today. the majority of which had been bred in an aviary. only adult pairs were released. . Radio-tracking made it possible to recapture vultures who had landed during their first flights in anomalous sites dense vegetation or steep slopes. (8) . From 1981-1983.

From 1983 onwards. they managed to fly much more quickly.consists of Another way of explaining a word is to enumerate the different parts of which it is made: "X consists of Y and Z. I Check in the answer section and then give personal opinions about the following: global warming • third world poverty • the education system • vivisection . a bicycle consists of a frame and two wheels. 10 were found dead and 4 were removed from the wild. it will rain tomorrow. Of the 59 birds released. heat and work are inter-convertible. Since 1983." I Define two of these words: the solar system • a zoo • a telescope • water Q "According to" I Which. These birds had been in captivity for less than one year and . of the following sentences are correct? According to Peter. One 1-year-old bird disappeared in 1985 to return in 1988. The main cause of mortality was electrocution. 2-4 year old birds were released. • There are a growing number of reintroduction programmes for different species. public transport is underdeveloped. MIGRATION There is a tendency among juvenile birds for seasonal migrations in search of areas with high food availability. Checkpoints Definitions . What are the main problems involved? 5. while another was found poisoned in North Senegal in 1991." Example: a bicycle "Basically.UNIT 5 . The prime minister is going to resign according to the BBC. Give examples. According to the first law of thermodynamics.LINK WORDS 65 scattered and adults of the same pair sometimes found themselves several kilometres apart. the colony has been enlarged by 9 immigrants coming from Spain and the Pyrenees.4. According to me. if any.

htm Word search I What are the most important words in the Key points? Find examples in context from the web and report back. the lexis can be extended by the use of prefixes and suffixes. There is no way of proving it. Odysseus attached himself to his ship because the songs of the Sirens were resistible. Crime statistics are frequently reported. which explains the direction of wind patterns. but it is highly not rise tomorrow. Tycho Brahe did not accept the Copernican system. 9. big bangs and singularity. 8. 2.hawking.uk/ I For further information about the Griffon vulture contact: >• http://www. aware of it.• dis.hawk-conservancy. According to Greek legend. In fact. 6. The coriolis force. accurate as so many crimes are never 5.• un-. probable that the sun will Before changing any of the components.• in. anxiety and social withdrawal. The development of electronic communication is making distance relevant. 10.org/priors/griffon.• ir. it lowers the freezing point. He thought that the Earth was mobile. all electrical equipment should be connected. Insert the following negative prefixes into the sentences: anti. 5.org. 7. Glycol is an freeze. 3. Web search I If you are interested in Black holes. is clockwise in the northern hemisphere and clockwise in the southern hemisphere.66 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH I As we have already seen. The typical abilities of Alzheimer's disease include loss of memory. 1. . that is to say.5.• im. try the Stephen Hawking site: >• http://www. Many people who are colour blind are 4.

) 4. The comet travels at 75 kilometres per second. what other different ways are there of storing energy? (apart from) 2. magnetic resonance imaging is not entirely satisfactory when applied to proteins surrounded by water molecules. he waves when it enters the atmosphere. The combustion of methane can produce an undesirable product. Environmental concerns will do (certainly) 10. The gas containers are kept underground. Oral administration of insulin does not reduce blood sugar.3 words) 6. when dealing with toxic and hazardous material. (yet) . The evidence has often been contradictory. (consequently) . on the other hand) 7. wh orally administered corosolic acid can. which is responsible for global warming. (clearly) minimising temperature increase in the years to come. th change. (generally . na carbon dioxide. it creates shock 8. (that is to say) 3.LINK WORDS 67 Self evaluation . As . (although it has had . 1. Ob . Be using rechargeable batteries.. animals who survive in desert habitats tend to be small. robots offer great advantages. (by that means) 9.UNIT 5 .exit test I Fill in the gaps. ne is finding numerous medical uses. hypnosis 5. (while. De its numerous spectacular successes..

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(to work) 4.entry test I Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate tense. the earliest geographers shores of the Mediterranean Sea. (to be) 6. Fermi as professor of theoretical physics at Rome University for more than 10 years when he was awarded the Nobel Prize. For instance.that is to say. (to find) 5.6. word-for-word translation in another language.to map) material on Earth irrevocably I will telephone you. By 1400 BC. (to know) for the results of the clinical 2. (already to be made) -> Several attempts have already been made to identify the virus.organising data chronologically. Biologists for a long time that there is some kind of electrical communication system in plants. This is the first time scientists created by recent supernovae. (now to wait) 3. The tenses are often accompanied by characteristic time markers . TIME . the English expression "She has been working" may not correspond to any literal. 1.PRESENT & PAST An essential function of language is sequencing events . As soon as I 1. Example: Several attempts to identify the virus. Einstein 8. Slowly but surely. (never to work) from a loss of memory the 10. It is alleged that the Roman emperor Nero played the violin while the city (to burn) . the world's rain forests damaged by global warming. (to suffer) 9. (to finish) in the Soviet Union. (already. Self evaluation . This often poses a problem for learners because "time" can be expressed in different ways in different languages. Victims of Alzheimer's disease and judgement. The researchers trials. adverbs and other expressions which give supplementary information confirming the choice of tense.

he can't walk now.currently • at present • temporarily Meaning On-going present time. The result is important . He has broken his leg. She lives in Turin. -Time markers may be implicit) Meaning The "general" present.. She drinks coffee. every day • usually • often • sometimes 2.B. TIME MARKERS now • at the moment . Present continuous Example Look! It is raining.. Scientific facts. The "status quo". 3. TYPICAL TIME MARKERS (N. Water freezes at 0°C. Temporary actions in the present. . Present simple Example The newspaper says. PRESENT TIME 1.70 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH Functions & Grammar KEY POINTS . he is working in London. Habitual actions. At the moment. He likes Ann. He leaves for work at 7 o'clock. Opinions and habits. -Actions happening now. Mary is trying to finish her work. Present perfect simplele Example She has already finished her work. Meaning ft is important now / a surprise.ORGANISING TIME: THE PRESENT & THE PAST -»• There are four present tenses and four past tenses.

In 1865. She has been working in Bordeaux. He has worked in Madrid since 1999.. Present perfect continuous Example He has been living in Paris for several months. PAST TIME 1.up to now. In my life . Past simple Example I went to the cinema last week.not last week. TIME MARKERS • • • • just G. When I was a child .UNIT 6-TIME . .neverG.not yet completed.PRESENT & PAST 71 Example / have just finished.it is not history. The time span is the present this week . Dates . Non-stop . I saw her briefly a couple of hours ago. Notes 13 • recently • already • not yet ever . Notes 14 • so far • up to now since 1999 • for 3 years this week • this month 4. Pasteur discovered the theory of microbes. I have seen him twice this week. Meaning The finishing is part of the present. Temporary present . TIME MARKERS for 10 years • for a long time • since 1999 Meaning An on-going situation . From then till now ."History" Past action considered as no longer important Memories. They have been studying the question for years. finished actions. I have never been to Miami.up to now. TIME MARKERS yesterday • two days ago • last week • in 1970 • in the 18th century • during the war Meaning Past.up to the present..

Two past actions . the TV imploded.one interrupted by another.past action with duration. He had been working on the problem for years. he was living in London. She was trying to finish a letter. At the time. when • after • for a long time • during this period . Past continuous Example Meaning Past duration. Past perfect continuous Example Meaning They had been living in Cairo for about ten years when the war broke out. TIME MARKERS The first of two actions . Stress on the action. While he was eating the meal.72 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH 2. TIME MARKERS The first of two past events. he went out. Temporary past. Past perfect simple Example Meaning As soon as he had finished his meal. after • as soon as • when 4. TIME MARKERS while • when 3.

Errors in the protocol of certain research studies do not mean that all previous studies are PAST invalid. CONTINUOUS the vast majority of large scale O studies have clearly demonstrated that. • Positive effects .negative effects? I Draw an arrow connecting the verb and the verb form. aims to provide independent advice for health care PERFECT workers. However. He pointed out that so far. Notes 15 in the text) I Underline the time markers or contexts justifying the verb forms (sometimes the markers are implicit). The article maintained PRESENT PERPECT SIMPLE O that the test groups had not been properly matched and concluded that the results were virtually worthless.PRESENT & PAST 73 Examples in context THE MEDIA AND MEDICINE starter The text below discusses the potential dangers of the mediatisation of medical knowledge. PAST .UNIT 6-TIME . The team. ° Breast cancer kills . PRESENT O The heated discussion which is currently taking place concernCONTINUOUS ing the effectiveness of mammography is an important warning for us all.everyone knows that. CONTINUOUS PRESENT SIMPLE However. • Give recent examples of mediatisation in medicine. does the message always get across? Over recent years. for women in the 50-70 year age range. a Danish research O team published an article which severely criticised six different studies of mammography screening for breast cancer that had PRESENT been carried out over the last three years. (N. • Explain to your partner what you understand by "mediatisation". O which has been working in an area called "evidence based PRESE/NT O medicine".B. there has O been a certain number of cases which have clearly shown the danger of the mediatisation of scientific information in the _____ general press. early detection of breast PERFECT cancer can reduce mortality rates by SIMPLE as much as 25 per cent. -There are passive forms G. a spokesman for the Imperial Cancer Research Fund said that such alarming reports are potentially very dangerous O AS WOMEN as women who were intending to be screened were likely PAST change their mind after reading the SIMPLE article. At the beginning of the month.

Exercise A.74 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH • Explain to your partner "does the message get across?" (line 1). Insert the time markers into the sentences (some can be used in more than one place) and write the tense of the verbs in the column on the right: IT IS A FACT THAT LAST 20 YEARS • WHILE • THE NEW SCIENTIST REPORTS THAT • CURRENTLY • PREVIOUSLY • BUT WITH LITTLE SUCCESS SO FAR • THIS YEAR • RECENTLY • NOWADAYS • OVER THE 1. The theory of plate tectonics suggested that the world was older than scientists had thought. 9. . The government is considering whether to ban the use of depleted uranium in weapons. There have been more than 20 cases of cholera reported in the Philippines 10 weather forecasts have been gradually becoming more accurate thanks to enhanced computers. 3. they were major problem 2. • What criticism did the Danish group make of the 6 studies? • Explain what the Danish group is trying to do.1. geologists have managed to trace the shift of the Earth's magnetic poles by analysing lava deposits. according to the Imperial Cancer Research Fund. Victor Lorenzo from the National Centre of Biotechnology in Madrid has been trying to develop genetically engineered plants to combat toxic metal pollution 6. 7. • Why. detergents dissolve hydrocarbons. Two balloonists were killed carrying out tests in Australia. Britain has decided to relax its restriction on carbon dioxide pollution from 150 to 200 parts per billion. is the report dangerous? Exercises 6. A for health authorities is that rats and mice are becoming increasingly resistant to poisons designed to kill them. 4 5. 8. thereby making it easier for bacteria to break them down.

Candidates (to be expected) to have excellent communication skills and the ability to work in a team. Sports that kill The violence and danger of certain sports is doubtless what makes them attractive to some.AS A RULE INTERRUPTED • (e) A LAW • BY ANOTHER ACTION IS PROBABLY NOT FINISHED. Then write the tenses and the most appropriate time marker from the list below (markers may be used more than once): (a) THE FIRST OF TWO PAST ACTIONS OF NATURE • • (b) CURRENTLY .PAST ACTION . the sport could be far more dangerous than is commonly realised. there appears to be a new sport to be added to the danger list speleology.PRESENT & PAST 75 B.SOME TIME AGO Speleology is one of those new outdoor sports that is growing fast in popularity. The research was sparked off when one of the team.AT THE MOMENT • (c) THE ACTION • (d) USUALLY . However. Amongst recent projects we (to be involved) in developing an integrated meteorological processing system for Thailand and in configuring display systems for use on Royal Navy ships. while he was exploring a cave. IT IS IMPORTANT (f) A CONTINUOUS PAST ACTION - (g) RECENTLY . This text is based on a job advertisement from the meteorological office. decided. • What sports are particularly dangerous? Why do people do them? I Read the text once and summarise it to your partner in not more than 4 sentences. 90% of professional boxers will suffer from brain trauma. Now. Currently.THE INFORMATION IS NOT OUT OF DATE • (h) FINISHED . we (to work) on the integration of web technology and geographical information systems and also in the exploitation of data from a new geostationary satellite. The Meteorological Office (to seek) a highly qualified physicist to join our world renowned research department which (to play) an essential role in developing key weather forecasting and display systems. according to a team of researchers from Northampton University College who have been studying data on air conditions in underground caverns.000 people practice the sport.2. I There are 3 verbs in the passive. Supply the required tenses. Preference will be given to those who (to have) at least 2 years' relevant experience in industry. First mark them with a "P" in the box on the right and indicate the agent (by whom).UNIT 6 -TIME . It has been estimated that in the UK alone. more than 20. to bring back an air sample to the laboratory for . starter 6. who was a keen speleologist. while parachutists know that there are no second chances.

Hipparchus. In such cases. therefore. build up to very high concentrations. at the time. Many of them have been working for several years and may spend annually up to 800 hours underground. Cosmology . the only tools available for scientific research were mathematics and the naked eye. The explanation is. he found to his astonishment that it contained extremely high and dangerous levels of radon gas. starter • What three things do you know about Aristotle? . The foundations were laid in antiquity when Aristotle. The Nottingham team has shown that speleologists spending 40 hours per year underground receive radiation doses of up to 4 millisieverts . I Read the text and answer the questions at the end. quite simple. they are likely to have received five times as much as the authorised safety level for radiation workers. After it had been analysed. hardly surprising that certain of his and his contemporaries' ideas proved to be so utterly wrong. Ptolemy and others were the first to begin to reason in terms of natural law. His decisive contribution was made while he was living in Athens where he set up the "lyceum" (BC 335) after he had returned from Alexandria.this is 4 times as high as the annual safety limit. for instance.what was the contribution to cosmology of Galileo (a).what did he believe about the universe? . as they cannot escape from the underground caverns.3. Even worse however. It is. in fact. Due to the decay of uranium in granite.past and present There have been three main peaks of achievement in the history of cosmology. • Can you suggest an explanation? 6.76 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH analysis. the belief . to offer mathematical explanations and to propose models. radio-active gases form and. Newton (b)? • Explain to your partner how spectroscopy can aid cosmology. It is Aristotle who has probably had the greatest influence on the history of Western science. It must be remembered that. is the situation of guides and instructors. You will doubtless be surprised to learn that one of the sports with the highest mortality rate in the US is golf.

To take just one example. of course. fire and water. opened up the way for the heliocentric universe. It maps just one small part of the sky. . revealing clusters of galaxies stretching back millions and millions of years to when the universe was just 10% of its current age. Never before has so much data been available. the ancients were also often right.PRESENT & PAST that the moon was inhabited or that the universe consisted of just the four elements . backed by the powerful new theories of dynamics and gravitation and also.900 years for the next breakthrough to occur. The "Hubble deep field" consists of 300 images which were taken in 1995 over a period of 10 days.earth. that the Earth was a sphere. It was the refracting telescope that gave Galileo access to new data showing that the surface of the moon was not smooth and that satellites orbited Jupiter. the radius of the Earth . The theories of relativity. a whole set of new paradigms has been developed. the revolutionary new tool. cosmology is living through another golden age. It was in the 16th and 17th centuries that Copernicus. Four hundred years later.notions that scientists have been using ever since. Over the last 80 years. the telescope. with a reasonable degree of accuracy. They even managed to calculate. radio astronomy and satellite technology increase the hard data that can be fed into the new models. quantum mechanics and the notion of the expanding universe have opened up new perspectives. we now have at our disposal the extraordinary power provided by modern data gathering technology. At the same time. It was they who worked out many of the fundamental notions of cosmology: the causes for eclipses. the Hubble telescope has dramatically enlarged the universe. 77 One measure of how much Aristotle achieved is that it took almost 1. air. Spectroscopy. never before have the theories been so powerful. Galileo and Newton.UNIT 6 -TIME . Nevertheless. that the orbit of the moon was circular.

) . Paragraph 2 Underline the tenses used.. Q "To transform / to turn" I Answer the questions. What comment can you make? 3. a weakness.78 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH 1.. Find the verbs and explain to your partner: a) why the present perfect is used. in other words .4." I Give a definition of the following words: a letter • a drug • a nose • petrol I Look at Exercise 6.two verbs in the present perfect and three verbs in the present. nearly all the verbs are in the past tense. in other words. Paragraph 1 The theme of the paragraph is cosmology in antiquity. Paragraph 3 Check through the Key points again (p.generalisation and clarification Use the following pattern: "X is basically Y .. . Consequently.. Checkpoints Definitions .g. What does a dynamo do? (transform / mechanical energy / electrical energy) What did alchemists want to do? (turn / base metal / gold) I Check your answers. 6.. I Give four examples of transformations (e. Fahrenheit. 70) and associate the verb forms in bold with meanings.. Z . 2. .. there are five exceptions ..3 and find a word that you can define in the same way. " Example: a drawback "A drawback is basically some sort of disadvantage. However. a nuclear reactor . b) the use of present tense in the middle of the text.

Self evaluation . Cheaper synthetic diamonds are now being made for (industry) applications. above all..exit test I Supply the most appropriate verb form.These are particularly (use) for cutting tools. Web search I Make a web search for statistics and information about the dangers of sport. Make a 3 minute OHP presentation. however. the majority having a (slightly yellow) or (slightly green) colour caused by different mineral impurities and gases. hence. society mental disorders. I What is the latest news on Hubble? Word search I Search the web for 5 examples of the present perfect continuous. It is quite obvious that the new technology the way people think. a particularly clear and brilliant reflection of light.. extremely rare. Diamond is a form of pure (crystal) carbon which has been formed under great heat and pressure and brought to the surface of the Earth by (volcano) activity. Throughout history. The most (value) diamonds are completely (without colour) They are.UNIT 6-TIME . checking thermal conductivity is a (rely) method of detection.5. using head words such as: STUDYING • WORKING . 1. It is the hardest (nature) substance in the world with a very high (refract) power giving specific (optic) properties.PRESENT & PAST 79 I Form adjectives with the suffixes: -able • -al/-ial • -ful • -ic • -ine • -ish • -ive • -less.ATTEMPTING • EXPECTING. 6. (to influence) . The government the first soldiers were killed. (to consider) the existence of what action to take when 3. Diamond feels cold to the touch as it dissipates heat very quickly.). (to recognise) 2. >• Example : "have been studying" Report back on the context in which the words were found (time markers . You can see the results already.

Predators prey and prey that is the law of nature. When. By the end of the second World War. Currently. (to drill) to ensure full the stars of the Milky Way. scientists the spot where the meteorite fell. Rome (to be utterly destroyed) .80 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH 4. (to manage) for oil in 9 different countries. (to eat . after all these years and thanks to satellite photographs. Nero stopped playing his violin. (to improve) airline 5. at last.to be eaten) 10. While they accidentally found a new galaxy. they technology considerably. (to study) 9. (to identify) 6. they by predators - 8. So far. BP 7. no government employment. At last.

(consequences. (by doing this. 1. A superficial interpretation of statistics may le conclusions. (consequently) to erroneous we can expect an increase 3. (collateral. We have already seen some of these in a different context in Unit 5. serum rather than plasma is often used si is more readily available. CO2 is transformed into oxygen. th reducing viral health risks to the population. th in the tourist industry. it indicates two deaths from multiple organ failure. thus) . start) 5. results) 6. (because of) of metabolism. with reasons and results. (cause. with causes and consequences.in other words. Self evaluation . (because) 10.entry test I Fill in the gaps. The accident re as a consequence) 7. New York City has spent $10 million on mosquito control.7 CAUSE & CONSEQUENCE Axiomatically. (had Lake Geneva is becoming severely deoxygenated during the summer months ow the hydroelectric dams built in the upper Rhone. These functions can be expressed in a variety of ways. the average thickness of polar ice is only half as much as it was 10 years ago. New data supplied by the human genome project is going to sp a revolution in medical research. science is concerned with questions of "Why?". (have as a consequence) 2. The airports are being enlarged. Example: Th chlorophyll. In surgical operations. CO2 is transformed into oxygen. to verbs and nouns. (because of) -> Thanks to chlorophyll. The C02 produced in respiration is a bysecondary result) 9. "How?" and "What?" . ranging from link words. Du rising temperatures. is 0. when the number of possible ou that an event will never occur. In statistics. (because of) 4. it 8.

Verbs I Cause to cause • result in • lead to • be responsible for • bring about • give rise to • trigger (off) • spark (off) G. therefore he was forced to resign./Votes 17 >. I Consequence consequently • therefore • thus • hence • as a result • therebyG. .result from • arise from • stem from >• The minister's resignation stemmed from his bad health. I Consequence to come from . because • as • since >• As he was ill. the minister was forced to resign. 2. thereby putting the government in difficulty.CAUSE & CONSEQUENCE 1. Adverbs and conjunctions I Cause because of • owing to • due to • on account of • thanks to >• Owing to his bad health.82 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH Functions & Grammar KEY POINTS . the minister was forced to resign.The minister was in bad health. >• The minister resigned.Illness led to the minister's resignation. Notes 11 >.

hence it is possible to visualise molecules and even atoms. • Ask your neighbour questions about scanning electron microscopes. I Consequence • consequence • result • outcome • effect • by-product • spin-off >• The final outcome of the illness was the minister's resignation. a 3-dimensional image of the surface structure can be obtained. Samples cannot be scanned unless they are dry (to prevent vaporisation) and electrically conductive. this means that there is a lower limit to the resolution of optical microscopes.UNIT 7 .The real cause of his resignation was bad health.what for? . as an outcome of his research into quantum mechanics. How? . Nouns I Cause cause • reason • origin • source >. To obtain higher resolution. .who? when? As the wavelength of visible light is approximately 4. Electrons used in SEMs have wavelengths of 0.000 angstrom. The suggestion that electrons might be regarded as a form of wave motion and used for microscopy stems from the work of Louis de Broglie (1924). Thanks to the scanning pattern. As a result. starter Examples in context THE SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE (SEM) I Read the description and find synonyms for the words in bold. such as gold.5 angstrom. organic materials must be coated with a metallic layer.CAUSE & CONSEQUENCE 83 3. shorter wavelengths are required. The first SEM was built in 1933.

Extra galactic stars are moving away from the Earth 4. thereby allowing the shape and the focus of the beam to be controlled. Exercise A. The beam must therefore pass through a vacuum. the discovery of penicillin. (the Doppler effect) f. h. TARGET The electron beam strikes the target. there is a red shift in the light. 4.1. c. The formation of Gondwanaland a. 3. Match the causes and consequences and insert the appropriate words: LEAD TO • HENCE • COMES FROM • OWING TO • ARISES • SINCE • WAS BROUGHT ABOUT • THANKS TO. SCAN COILS Energising the coils triggers the scanning function. Genetic variation 3. heating it up and thus liberating electrons. The population explosion will 7 He will certainly be travelling abroad 8. famine and epidemics throughout the world. the fact that predators have been eliminated. a fine powder used as an eye cosmetic. THE ELECTROMAGNETIC LENSES Variation of the current in the wire coils alters the magnetic field.84 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH 1. he now works for a petroleum company. when mutations occur in genes and chromosomes. 2. 5. The data can be visualised on a monitor. VACUUM COLUMN In air. . scattered and slowed down. e. backscattered electrons and secondary electrons. Millions of lives have been saved 6. electrons are ionised. by the collision of the Earth's tectonic plates. g. The word "alcohol" 2. the Arabic "al-kuhl". b. The strong attractive force of the anode results in the formation of an electron beam which passes through the anode. A voltage is applied to a tungsten cathode. Their numbers will increase 5. d. 6. giving rise to interactions and liberating X-rays. THE ELECTRON GUN This functions as the electron source. Exercises 7. 1.

e. The increase in temperatures will lead to 2. with an estimated 6.when? What was his famous experiment with electricity? • Explain to your neighbour how lightning works. are also concerned as electronic control devices are especially liable to . The huge amount of water being withdrawn from the river Jordan is responsible for 6. Diseases spread on account of 5.2. the underlined phrase is the answer to your question). This stems from the fact that the power lines of the electricity grids are particularly vulnerable. As the outcome of the experiment was totally unexpected.000 strikes per minute on the surface of the Earth and with 2 strikes per sq km annually for France. 1. mice and men share a great number of genes. How to zap lightning The Key points are written in bold. The occurrence of lightning and the extent of the damage it causes is far greater than is commonly realised. Complete the sentences. much of the financial backing for the research comes from the electricity companies.CAUSE & CONSEQUENCE 85 B.UNIT 7 . I Ask questions about the phrases underlined (i. The development of protection systems against lightning strikes is currently arousing renewed interest in the world of physics. they 3. Other sensitive sectors. This stems from the fact 8. The strike was sparked off by 4.where? . Not surprisingly. The serious shortage of organs to be transplanted has given rise to 7 Monkeys. starter • What do you know about Benjamin Franklin who? . like the nuclear and aviation industries. One of the by-products of a higher standard of living is 7.

000 MW. delivering 1 kJ of energy in 50-ns pulses in each beam. it is necessary to have access to extremely accurate real time data with regards to the state of charge of the electric field so that the precise moment of breakdown can be determined. In order to protect the system. There have been various attempts in the past to address this problem. because of our genetic make up. the cost of lightning is high. The macula. But. timing is critical. it has the highest concentration of photoreceptive cells and is the part of the retina used for detailed vision and reading. . One of the important features of laser beams is that on collision with air molecules they displace electrons. When actuating the discharge. have recently managed to trigger a natural lightning discharge of 20. including the launching of small rockets carrying thin conducting wires. the technique is potentially hazardous. A more promising line of approach appears to be the use of laser technology. but also for extensive damage to buildings and it is the origin of the majority of forest fires throughout the world.3. Hence. Certain problems persist however. However. • OUTCOME • STEMS FROM • BY-PRODUCT • TRIGGER • THUS • IS BROUGHT ABOUT Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a degenerative disease affecting the central portion of the retina. Two carbon dioxide lasers were used. the beams were reflected by an array of mirrors. Globally. It is not only responsible for thousands of deaths and injuries each year. while the lightning strike was earthed via the tip of a discharge tower. the failure rate considerable and furthermore.86 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH damage. the laser beam generates a path of ionised plasma which acts as a conductive channel and can thus pilot the immense surge of current towards a safe spot on the ground. the unit cost per rocket is high. it would seem that it is something that a great many of us are destined to lose. 7. Researchers from the Institute for Laser Technology in Osaka. I Fill the gaps with thefollowing words: ON ACCOUNT OF • HENCE • RESULTING IN • SINCE starter • Give five different causes of blindness. In this way. thereby creating ions. Blind spots Many would say that sight is the most precious sense we have. which has a diameter of no more than 5-6 mm. Japan. known as the macula. plays an essential role in vision. in densely populated areas.

These accumulate in the form of yellowish retinal deposits as a of the conversion of light into nerve signals and so prevent the photoreceptors from functioning properly. It by the pathological development of new blood vessels (neovascularisation) beneath the retinal tissue. with a 30% risk of getting the disease by the age of 75. The retinal surface is deformed and the photoreceptors and macula are damaged blind spots of the central cone of vision and significant visual loss through distortion. The final is that patients are no longer able to read. This form of the disease is relatively mild. The most common form is "Dry AMD". This proliferation can certain harmful consequences. the ageing population.UNIT 7 . between 25 and 30 million suffer from AMD. Inevitably. The incidence of "Wet AMD" is. the ratio is particularly high in the developed countries. to drive a car or even to recognise familiar faces. Degeneration reduces central vision required for reading. called "drussen". including haemorrhages which burst through the retinal layer and leak blood or fluid into the retina. to evacuate nutrients and wastes. there is only slight visual loss. driving. world-wide. considerably lower. corresponding to less than 10% of the cases. . etc. AMD affects primarily people over the age of 60. It is estimated that.CAUSE & CONSEQUENCE 87 High density of light sensitive nerve cells. There are basically two forms of AMD. epithelium. by contrast. which a failure of the retinal pigment.

to lay / to lie" I These word pairs are often confused. 2. If the temperature . The doctor told the patient to on her side. Complete the sentences with the correct verb (present tense only). They decided to the temperature in the incubator. I Suggest an explanation to distinguish the pairs and then check in G. It is up to you . . The results a number of interesting questions. the balloon slowly 5.defining professions Use the following pattern: "An X is a person whose job is to do Y . 7. 1. " Example: a banker "A banker is a person whose job is to run a bank. . Checkpoints Definitions . will you the book on the table? 4." I Define two of the following words: a manager • a dentist • a biologist • an electrician I Make two more definitions of your own.the decision with you.88 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH Answer the questions without consulting the text. Notes 18. • Why is the macula so important for vision? • Why will the cases of AMD increase? • What are the causes of dry AMD? • What is neovascularisation and its results? 7. As the gas gets hotter. the average speed of the molecules is increased.4. 8. 6. Q "To raise / to rise . 3. It was Mendel (1822-1884) who helped to the foundations of modern genetics. Please. .

3. underexploited or unexploited. 6. they express the notions of "too much". (thus) .html Word search I What are the 6 most important words in Units 5-7 (Key points)? Search the web for Examples in context and make a 6-question test for your partner along the lines of the Entry tests.http://science.macula. 4. the rat will eat and become obese. Consult: >.• under. 8. Here. Web search I The geography of lightning. Some educationalists claim that unless exceptionally intelligent children are put in special classes. Ceramics are well-suited to resisting heat ow bonds that hold them together. A direct cause of the Bhopal catastrophe in India was that the operating procedures were sub-standard and the plant was chronically staffed. 1. Liberal economists maintain that there are too many employed workers in the public sector. Cancer is characterised by checked cell growth. they will achieve. "not at all". "not enough". It had been exposed. If the hypothalamus is damaged.http://www. 75. 9. Self evaluation .org/treatment/index. the strong chemical take up less space.• un-" can be used to modify the meanings of verbs. (thanks to) 2. 5.exit test I Fill in the blanks. Human beings have a tendency to estimate to what extent their ideas are their own. Example: Natural resources may be overexploited. Leonardo da Vinci has a reputation as artist and scientist matched by any other man. 2.UNIT 7 . leading to tumours that damage the surrounding tissue.CAUSE & CONSEQUENCE 89 I Prefixes like "over. Low farm prices are a direct consequence of production.nasa.gov/ (enter < lightning geography > as search words) I Find out ways of treating AMD: >. The photograph was almost white. The molecules move less and th 1. 7.

(caused. (result) 8. Freud's theory st from his observations of dreams. the virus will ultimately br the death of the host cells. (has as its origin) 1. theou of surgical operations was very often fatal. (be responsible for. The current rate of deforestation is having a direct ef on wildlife. Before the discovery of antiseptics. 1. cause) 10. (positive consequence) 6. (consequence) . (cause. The new laws will inevitably sp a controversy. Unless it is checked in some way. The disease ar from a developmental failure in the brain.7 million years ago. It was the development of more advanced stone tools thattr the first human migration out of Africa. start) 4. arose from) 5. Theoretical research into lasers has had considerable sp for eye surgery. (originated in.90 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH 3. started) 9. To a certain extent.

In the first sentence. we focus on the different forms and uses of the conditional. (to be transformed) 2. adverbs and verbs. Compare: >. there an earthquake of magnitude 5. Conditionals link two ideas . making hypotheses and building models are essential functions of scientific activity. however. he (to be burned) 9. In the first sentence the patient gets some medicine. Example: If oil prices increased. If the red light begins to flash. those fish will die. Geological Survey predicted that if the stress on the San Andreas fault increased.by conditionals. the dinosaurs would not have become extinct if an asteroid with the Earth. . Self evaluation . it is also very much concerned with what remains to be discovered. In this section.through the use of certain conjunctions. she doesn't. If water is boiled. (to become) 8. Hypothesis can be expressed in three main ways: . (to become) -*> If oil prices increased. If Galileo had not withdrawn his claims. it luminescent. (to be) 3./ gave her some medicine when she was ill. (to be) 10 you oxygenate the water. Exploring zones of doubt and ambiguity.a hypothetical cause and its result. (if you do not) . the illness is a fact. >• If she was ill. I would give her some medicine. Provided the smoke has been detected. (to take) 7. In the second it is only a hypothesis. (to mean) 5. As soon as phosphorus is exposed to ultraviolet light.by modals (see Unit 9). it that the machine has overheated.5 to 6. it into steam. You must follow the instructions carefully. . the journey less than an hour.entry test I Supply a suitable verb form or conjunction. Science. It can be proved. (not to collide) 4. If you went by plane. In the second. air travel more expensive. 1. It exists. The U. air travel would become more expensive.8.S. is not only concerned with what is already known. HYPOTHESIS A fact is something certain. According to Morrison. the alarm (to go off) 6. otherwise there an accident.

she would not come. mEANING Speculation.92 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH Functions & Grammar KEY POINTS .B.CONDITIONALS 1. I The first conditional >• If you boil the water. Used for predictions. Verb forms -* There are four different forms of the conditional. I The timeless conditional >. N. I would help you. it produces steam. Typically.If water boils. >. I The second conditional >• If it snowed. unreal or imaginary situations which are not very likely to happen. potential consequences and warnings. >• If water has boiled. this form is used to express scientific facts and logical links.If the low atmospheric pressure continues. mEANING Conditions which are invariably true .it is a difference in the probability of the condition. it is safe to drink. mEANING Potential future events and situations. >~ If I had more money. . it will produce steam. -The difference between the first and the second conditional is not a difference in time .therefore timeless. there will be rain.

POSITIVE CONDITIONS if • provided / -ing • on condition that NEGATIVE CONDITIONS unless • otherwise >.Notes19 2. Conjunctions -* "If" is not the only conjunction used to introduce conditions. >• He would have avoided the accident if he had left earlier.UNIT 8 . mEANING Reference to events and results in the past that did not occur because the conditions were notfulfilledG. • a requirement • a prerequisite • to depend on • to require • it is necessary • essential >• My visit depends on the weather. . Lexical expressions -> There is a restricted number of lexical expressions which can have a conditional meaning. 3. French would have become the language of science. (if the weather is bad.HYPOTHESIS 93 I The third conditional >• If Napoleon had invaded England.We will go swimming tomorrow unless it rains. I won't come) >• Hygienic conditions are a prerequisite for surgical intervention.

C. the wind erodes the soil. If the temperature does not stop rising.scientific statements and logical propositions Australia is the driest continent Some biologists claim that water requirements for agriculture are exhausting the soil and the country is heading for ecological collapse. 1 Albedo: proportion of light reflected from the (Earth's) surface. deserts spread. . starter • Give some examples of phenomena which seem to indicate that the climate is changing. Timeless conditionals . If there is a shortage of rain.speculation. A. B. using negative and interrogative forms). First conditional . Second conditional . warnings The effects of global warming are particularly visible in the Arctic. The albedo1 will decrease if the ice cap becomes smaller.predictions. If vegetation dies. imaginary situations Motor vehicles cause greenhouse gases.94 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH Examples in context CLIMATE CHANGE I Look at the examples and add hypotheses of your own (try changing the order. It has been suggested that the only solution is for the government to drastically restrict the use of private cars. the icebergs will melt.

3.1. Explain the difference in meaning between the two sentences to your partner.HYPOTHESIS 95 If the use of private cars was restricted. you will receive a gold medal. a) If the anti-pollution measures become law. a diploma and a large sum of money. b) If oil had been discovered in Ireland.UNIT 8 . . 2. a) If oil was discovered in Ireland. b) If you get a Nobel prize. D. Most of the out-of-town supermarkets would close if car travel was forbidden. you receive a gold medal. the tourist industry would collapse. the standard of living would have changed. 1. cars will be more expensive. Third conditional past events that did not occur They would probably have adapted better if their brains hadn't been so small. cars would be more expensive. Exercise A. Would the Dinosaurs have survived if the climate had not changed? Exercises 8. b) If anti-pollution measures became law. the standard of living would change. a diploma and a large sum of money. a) If you get a Nobel prize.

. *-»• c) If the cells died. SECOND CONDITIONAL (speculation.. you would be paralysed.... • If people eat too much ... Conditional chains MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH Example: If the vein was blocked a) If the vein was blocked.. • If urban pollution increases .. the cells would die... 1.. predictions.. • If iron had never been discovered . • If ice did not float. THIRD CONDITIONAL (past events which did not occur) If I had been born in Ethiopia ... ^ b) If there was a lack of oxygen in the brain. a) b) c) ... • If babies cry .96 B. a) b) c) 4. FIRST CONDITIONAL (future events. imaginary situations) If I was unemployed .. I Choose the hypothesis that you find most interesting (only one) and write a chain of consequences... a)If b)lf c) If 2.. TIMELESS CONDITIONALS (logic and scientific propositions) If animals have no predators . • If Columbus had not discovered America . warnings) If you switch on the heater .. there would be a lack of oxygen in the brain. If the wind is too strong ... • If they set up a space station on the moon . a) b) c) 3.

It was Malthus who pointed out that there was a link between population growth and the danger of famine. timeless. Scientists assume that they lived on cliffs by the sea as this is the only way to explain that they learned to fly.B. (there to be) 2. (to be destroyed) 8. You have to be single if (to want) 3. 2nd conditional or 3rd conditional. (the ovaries) 4. You didn't get the job for one reason. The continued production of progesterone by the ovaries depends on fertilisation taking place. Millions of people were saved thanks to Penicillin. 1. you hadn't got enough work experience. To become a member of the Antarctic research team. Unless they had developed Penicillin. etc. Selection to go on a Russian space mission entails learning Russian. Pterosauria had very primitive wings.g. it is imperative to be single. Rewrite the sentence using a conditional. Pasteur realised that if milk was heated. (to die) 7. Provided fertilisation occurs. Pterosauria (not to learn) . 1st conditional. If you had had more work experience. (to have to) 6. e.UNIT 8 . Pasteur realised that the destruction of micro-organisms depended on heating milk to 57°C. Malthus warned that if the population continued to grow. N. If you were chosen for the space mission. – Avoid using modals (must/could.). Unless they had lived by the sea.HYPOTHESIS 97 C. Indicate in the box which sort of conditional you have used. (you) 5.

it was to make recommendations of how international co-operation might best be facilitated. So far.98 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH 8. this warning tumed out to be a false alarm. It is not. Secondly it was to examine the feasibility of potential counter-measures and finally. Asteroids and comets consist of the remains and debris of the formation of the solar system about 4. A task force was set up by the UK government with three main directives. (1 AU = distance Earth-Sun) it is labelled as a "NEO". • What is the difference the Earth will be destroyed by a collision with an between an asteroid and object from outer space. (Near Earth Objects). and thus forming the tail which can sometimes be seen with the naked eye. or comprised of clusters of rocks held together only by their own weak gravitational forces. on the other hand. They are not spherical in shape and may spin as they travel. Near Earth Objects starter Life on Earth cannot last for ever. they may be solid masses of stone or iron. it was to attempt to identify the facilities required for obtaining reliable data to improve our understanding of the nature of NEOs and to assess the likelihood of a collision. either directly. The following text is an extract from the final report. however. freeing dust. classified as "potentially hazardous". Fortunately. using data gathered from ground-based telescopes or. I Reformulate the phrases in bold using a negative 3rd conditional. unless it comes within 0. If their trajectory brings them close to the sun. . 258 potentially hazardous objects have been located. but the outcome was that it sparked off research at an international level into NEOs. rocks (silicates) or metal.5 km across might come into collision with the Earth in the year 2028. either the Sun will cool.5 billion years ago and range in size from small stones to rocky or icy masses nearly 1. Sooner or later. The numbers and dimensions of NEOs can be worked out. consist essentially of dust-covered ice.000 kilometres across. they would not have raised the alarm. the gases evaporate. alternatively.2. Example: If they had not spotted the asteroid.05 AU (7. First of all.3 Astronomical Units. If the trajectory of an asteroid or a comet intersects the orbit of the Earth or is within 0. In structure. a comet? I Locate the 4 timeless conditionals in the text. or more dramatically. In 1997. Comets. it can be derived from calculations based on crater impacts on the Moon or the planet Mercury.5 million kilometres) of the Earth and its diameter attains 150 m. Asteroids are made up of different carbonaceous materials. astronomers reported that an asteroid 1.

Provided they have sufficient mass. for without the carbon and water from space. hundreds of tonnes of dust enter the upper atmosphere and each year. . there are bigger impacts whose destructive capacity is proportional to their mass (see figure). which fell in the middle of the Siberian forest. flattening 2. the Tunguska blast in 1908. more recently. are potentially hazardous. Mexico) and. find five different things that you would like to know about NEOs.000 sq km. four and a half billion years ago. The best known are the impacts that allegedly caused the extinction of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago (Chicxulub. larger objects of a few meters in diameter do likewise. that this bombardment of Near Earth Objects is one of the prerequisites to life on Earth. the Earth has been subject to a non-stop stream of debris from outer space. these objects may reach the ground before being consumed and therefore. there could be no life as we know it on our planet. Daily. Every century or so.UNIT 8 . It should not be forgotten however. an area equivalent to greater London.HYPOTHESIS 99 Since its formation. As a class.

Once understanding has been attained at a microscale. RESEARCH REQUIREMENTS The main prerequisites for progress in this area are : • Improved interfaces. • Huge data bases will have to be set up and storage capacity developed. • A breakthrough in chip miniaturisation. I What does progress depend on? Rephrase the words in bold. they can be used to bend. etc. Transmitting data at speeds approaching that of light means that a 1. Biometrics is concerned with developing systems that can recognise unique biological features so that individuals can be reliably identified.3.100 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH 8. retinal patterns. RESEARCH REQUIREMENTS • Identification and cheap synthesis of electrooptical polymers which have the appropriate physical properties. POTENTIAL USES . . In a • What is your guess for recent issue of the "Technology Review" from the future? Suggest one or two interesting social changes the Massachusetts Institute of Technology the resulting from new technology editors listed areas of emerging technology that might happen in the next that they believe will have the greatest impact 20 or 30 years. In the near future.Current identification methods are not secure for electronic transactions.Brain-machine interfaces would allow disabled or paralysed people to control wheel-chairs. In the long term. Tomorrow's technology starter What is the most important question of all? Doubtless. automatic analysis and synthesis. Photonic crystals and photons can be compared to semiconductors and electrons. detection of gene mutation and drugdelivery techniques.000 times as much data could be transmitted. • Progress also depends on the development of reliable and safe implant techniques. many basic functions of analysis.High speed analysis of DNA. Biometric software can already identify finger prints. the project will fail. RESEARCH REQUIREMENTS • Improved algorithms for interpreting electrical activity in the brain. during the next decade. accurate control of artificial arms should be possible. "What will the future be like?". write e-mails. voice patterns. Depending on the wavelengths and the design of the crystal. Example: Unless they develop better algorithms. synthesis and diagnosis could be done automatically. • Improved amplification and signal regeneration techniques will also be required. to split or to reunite photons. POTENTIAL USES -The fibre optics network for telecommunications is on the point of saturation. As these crystals do not scatter or absorb light. POTENTIAL USES . they are significantly faster and more efficient. digital codes and other passwords could be replaced by biometric identification. RESEARCH REQUIREMENTS • More sophisticated search algorithms and pattern recognition software will be needed. POTENTIAL USES . This field is concerned with research at the level of the nano or picolitre. Use the first conditional (PRES + WILL) and the following conjunctions in turn: UNLESS • PROVIDED • OTHERWISE • ON CONDITION THAT. Implanting sensors in the cortex will open the way to the interpretation of electrical activity so that thought processes can be converted into actions. and facial features.

then you use a credit card.HYPOTHESIS 101 Which of the above-mentioned technologies do you find least / most interesting? Why? 8.if + then Use the following pattern: "If you want to do X. "Hard / hardly": are you sure you know what these words mean? I Write an example of each. Example: He a major error in his calculations. then you use Y" Example: a credit card "If you want to withdraw money from the bank. 3. We are getting nowhere. 7. 8. There is very little that can be to reduce the danger of floods. But which word should be used? It depends on the context. We must a completely different approach. 2. .UNIT 8 .4. showing the different meanings. 4. (made) 1." I Define these words: a map • a fax • a switch • a parachute I Make two definitions of your own. Checkpoints Definitions . Most of the damage was by the fire that followed the explosion. 5. 6. I In what ways are these words different from each other? I Check in the answer section. Enormous progress has been in metallurgy over the last 50 years. 9. Much more information is required before any action can be They have arrangements for another meeting early next month. I The verbs "DO • MAKE • TAKE" can all have the meaning of perform. The government is measures to improve food safety. It is the government's responsibility to something about the shortage of skilled workers. The sonic boom is caused by the noise by the shock wave.

2 (Talking point). or write in the required tense for the verbs. No one knew whether the epidemic or not. Web search I Find a graph on the web and make a 3 minute OHP presentation showing . If the water within 24 hours. (to be) 6. hypnotic trances seldom occur. (if not) 10. the resulting symptoms from visual troubles to total loss of consciousness.either: future patterns and tendencies (2nd conditional). (to take place) 8. If passengers had worn seat belts there half the number of road deaths last year. 1. (if) 5. The subject must be willing to co-operate.gov/faq. Self evaluation . . (to be pumped out) 3.uk/ (select FAQs) or alternatively. I Find answers for the 5 questions you asked in Exercise 8.exit test I Either replace the "if" forms by appropriate terms.or: past developments (3rd conditional). The report warned that the Yellow River if they continued to irrigate on this scale. You could try the British National Space Centre: http://www. find four contrastive samples from the web. but only on that they paid the travelling expenses. The radiation level is not dangerous protective clothing is worn.nasa. (if) 2. She agreed to come. (to spread) 9.nearearthobjects. there will be little danger of contamination.html Word search I If you made a mistake with "hard / hardly" (Back to basics).co. Repairs carried out by the crew would have been impossible if the experiment on an unmanned spacecraft. Heat generation will be so great that it will lead to thermal shock high quality ceramics are employed. (if not) . If a pilot undergoes a force of 4 g for more than a few seconds. (to range) 7.102 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH 8. (to dry up) 4. the NASA FAQs: http://neo.5.jpl.

could 8. can c. feasible a. could a. doubtless b. Nostradamus predicted the end of the world for AD 3797. probability. feasible d. might a. must d. may a. there be an increase in prices.5 times as to die in a motor-vehicle accident as the statistical mean. it due to a short circuit. a.entry test I Choose the most appropriate term. If there is a reduction of the area of the habitat. may c. 9. may have been been c. unlikely a. 5. expected d. 4. Unlike most verbs. could have been d. must have been d. The estimation of the total number of species that exist in the world varies enormously. X-rays are potentially dangerous and be used on pregnant women. likely b. a forest lose up to 50% of its species. 1. others suggest 5 million. adverbs and non-modal verbs. might not a. should c. MODALITY In the previous unit we looked at how conditionals are used to express doubt and hypothesis. is expected to have been c. and expectancies of a given situation or action. In 1555. might have been b. expected c. In the following example all the answers are correct. Another linguistic tool used for this function is modality. 10. could not . there are alternative ways of expressing modality. 6. ought to b. Self evaluation . will not c. will doubtless d. The best acoustic qualities require natural sound. Some say there be 100 million. That is why. modals do not refer to facts about the real world but give the speaker's opinion as to the possibility.can b. ideally. should d. might d. expects to b. should not b. must have b. possible c. 2. As always in language. may d. The computer has crashed. is . would have been a. might a. 7.3. recording studios be designed to have a normal degree of echo. As oil becomes scarcer. Explain the different meanings. ought to c. An intoxicated person is 4. The modals are a small set of auxiliaries which behave quite differently from other verbs and convey a different sort of information. a. will b. would b. It be realised that the conventional segregation of zoology and botany is meaningless as many lower organisms are neither plants nor animals. including adjectives. Most scientists now agree that the extinction of the dinosaurs caused by an asteroid impact. expects to c. Most people think this is 3.

Notes 21 Modals give a different sort of information from other verbs. The volcano may erupt. it tells us whether the speaker estimates that the action is probable. In an ordinary verb phrase when you say "The volcano has erupted" you are giving information about the volcano. must. Most modals have at least 2 meanings . . (it is possible. cf.. MIGHT It might erupt next year..there is no possible doubt) Meaning-Total certitude about a future event .probability "90%". should / ought to.I am almost sure . (perhaps it will erupt..probability "25%"..she must be ill. MAY The volcano may erupt next year. ... but . cf. (it is the only logical explanation) Meaning-Almost total certitude . (I think it would be a good idea) WILL The sun will rise at 5. With modals. it is just possible . They include: can / could.It is certain ....-Perhaps . However. or advisable. will / would.MODALITY 1. but I have no proof) She's absent .Perhaps.. The meaning of modals Modals are a special category of words. MUST There must be ice on the moon. may / might. but I would be rather surprised) Meaning .." . (I am convinced.104 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH Functions & Grammar KEY POINTS .a simplified presentation is given belowG.The difference between might and may is slight in modern English. That is why it is often followed by "but ..probability "50%"... (I think there is a 50% chance of this happening) The inhabitants should leave the valleys. perhaps it won't) Meaning-There is a reasonable chance .. might frequently expresses the notion of "reduced probability". the information is not about the action. maybe . cf. possible.32 tomorrow.probability "100%".. (this is a fact . cf.

normally / theoretically / in principle . good.It is a possibility . but that it will not necessarily happen... the knowledge . they are used almost interchangeably. when speaking of probability and possibility.. . you will waste electricity) You should read this book. Someone is knocking on the door.this is one of them) Meaning-Could expresses the idea that something is technically possible. to succeed in .. ) The distinctions in meaning between "could".) He can't answer the question. cf... COULD A short-circuit could be responsible for the break-down. N.. .UNIT 9 . (he has the capacity. normal".It would be a good idea . cf.MODALITY 105 SHOULD / OUGHT TO You should / ought to help old ladies cross the road.. It may / might / could be the postman.it would be a mistake not to read it) The letter should arrive tomorrow. (if you are a good person) You should turn off the electricity at night...) He can speak German.The primary meaning of should / ought to is "what is right.what is physically. (it is feasible. maybe .. (it is too difficult . (if not.. (it is a good book .. it is to be expected / if nothing goes wrong . It is just one hypothesis. "may" and "might" are very small. (if nothing abnormal happens) Meaning . CAN Satellites can detect objects with a diameter of 10 cm. but feasibility . can and could do not express probability.. it is advisable / desirable ..To be able to . technically or intellectually possible. : cf. technically possible .. (there are several possible causes ...) Meaning .. In practice.. ... The feasibility is 100%.B.. perhaps . ..Unlike the previous examples.

beginning to take much more seriously the need to replace them by alternative forms of energy. it was assumed that all observers obtained identical measurements. Alternative expressions to suppose • assume • to presume • to expect it is probable • possible • feasible • likely / unlikely • doubtless / doubtful The introduction of screening procedures for all donors means that infection through blood transfusion is now extremely unlikely. but in time. at last. Examples in context THE POWER OF THE RISING SUN starter Not only do fossil fuels threaten the biosphere. • What do you think are the most promising alternative fuels today? Read the text and then match the modal forms (in bold) with the most appropriate description: (a) IT IS NOT TO BE EXCLUDED. Future and past time 3. In classical physics. . they will inevitably run out.106 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH 2. They believe that operations can start by 2040. the Japanese Ministry of Economy. Trade and Industry (METI) plans to launch a geostationary orbiting solar power station to collect solar energy to be transmitted back to Earth. Governments are. THERE IS SOME CHANCE OF THIS • (b) THIS SEEMS TO BE THE ONLY POSSIBLE EXPLANATION • (c) IT IS FEASIBLE • (d) IT IS CERTAIN • (e) PERHAPS • (f) IT IS A TECHNICALLY ACCEPTABLE HYPOTHESIS • (g) IN PRINCIPLE Faced with the problem of ensuring future energy supplies.

UNIT 9 . Nevertheless. Write 3 sentences referring to the present and 3 sentences referring to the past using the modals (see photos on the next page): SHOULD / OUGHT TO • COULD • MIGHT • MUST • CAN • MAY Example: photo (a) photo (b) She ought to take his pulse. It is to be equipped with 2 solar panels. Molly Macauley. It is estimated that the total cost of the enterprise should be in the region of 1. This is a clear indication that the government must now be taking the issue of future energy supplies and environmental problems very seriously indeed. the intensity of solar radiation is 8 times as great as on Earth. mountainous regions. solar power stations will help reduce the emission of greenhouse gases from fossil fuels. Exercise A. is that Japan is willing to spend such enormous sums of money on such a futuristic project. Although the plan is to locate the receiving station in remote.000 km and weigh 20. believes that the long term effects of such high power densities might well pose a problem. (present) The sea level must have gone down. Preliminary estimations suggest that the huge investment means that the cost per kWh could be three times as high as the current cost of conventional power sources in Japan. 3 km in length and 1 km wide and will be capable of generating 1 gigawatt of energy.1. however. Exercises 9. In addition.MODALITY 107 The Space Solar Power System will be placed in orbit at an altitude of 36. Exposure to solar energy is uninterrupted and. The energy will be converted into microwaves before being beamed back to ground-based receiving antennae. a certain number of questions have been raised concerning the project.8 billion euros. First and foremost is the problem of cost. There are also concerns that such high power densities on ground stations may lead to health problems. (past) .000 tonnes. What is significant. There are several advantages of producing energy in space. author of a NASA report on the subject. as there is no cloud or atmospheric dust.

The temperature 2. In the Kalahari desert. 1.108 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH B. but more research is needed. it is possible for the temperature to range from freezing at night to more than 44°C during the day. It is almost certain that she is at work. Improved telescopes mean that. She must be at work. In the next few years. I am convinced that this is the right solution. we will theoretically see great progress in astronomy. in the next few years. It is currently estimated that it would be possible for farmers to use 15% of the salt deserts for growing crops. Example: Kate is not at home. It has been claimed that the new techniques will perhaps enable doctors to detect cancer cells with absolute accuracy. The techniques 5. Present or future time I Rewrite the sentences using the most appropriate modal: SHOULD / OUGHT TO • COULD • MIGHT • MUST • CAN • MAY. This 3. Farmers . we 4.

He and his team are confident that GM monkeys will provide valuable experimental models for a range of major diseases. He 8. The epidemic 7.MODALITY 109 C. headed by Professor Schatten. He 9. He might have telephoned yesterday evening. No one is quite sure of the exact figures. Schatten hopes to insert other types of genetic markers that can be tracked with magnetic resonance or PET scans. but the 1918-1920 Spanish influenza epidemic almost certainly killed more than 30 million people. but this is not totally unexpected. "we are at an extraordinary moment in the history of mankind". His work was lost because he hadn't saved it. ought to pass on the fluorescence to any future offspring. has produced the first genetically modified primate. the minister had several alternatives. it is impossible that he caused it. In the immediate future. he believes that this research may speed up the development of new treatments for diseases such as HIV and Parkinson's. The computer crashed. the most likely explanation being that the expression of fluorescence has been delayed because of problems of manipulation or maturation. The pilot 10. but he didn't. . but I don't think so. The minister 9. One of them was to resign. As monkeys are genetically closer to humans than mice.2. He made a mistake. The gene used was a green fluorescent protein from a jelly-fish. a rhesus monkey called ANDi ("Inserted DNA" spelled backwards). Check in the Key points if necessary. ANDi has not shown any signs of fluorescence. What was the cause of the accident? Perhaps the pilot misunderstood the instructions from the control tower. So far. Of mice.UNIT 9 . As he was in hospital when the accident happened. monkeys and men starter I Give an explanation of each of the words in bold. The new gene however. Faced with the crisis. What recent examples of genetic modification have you heard of? A team from Oregon University. According to Schatten. Past time (MODAL + HAVE + PP) Example: Perhaps he telephoned yesterday evening. 6.

their speed is reduced and their amplitude increased.110 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH Other scientists. chairman of a Royal Society Committee. They caused by a wide range of geological disruptions. will we be "designing children according to our caprices"? 9. the waves often attain no more than 40 cm in height. fearing that this success will lead to a needless surge in experiments on primates.when? Exchange questions with you partner. Although it is possible that medical benefits might result from producing genetically modified monkeys.3. volcanoes and earthquakes. in the Pacific Ocean. As they approach the sea shore. More than 80 tsunamis have been recorded since 1990. They occur most commonly. the disruption of the seabed causes a corresponding displacement of water masses. The resulting waves attain several hundred kilometres in length. and the sea bed begins to slope upwards. "monkeys are a little closer to home". an Oregon State University plant geneticist. "there is no reason to assume that this type of research will provide the bridge between mice and men. however. fears that it could end up in a new form of eugenics where we start "designing our own children according to our caprices". including submarine landslides. Tsunamis (the word is Japanese in origin) (1) among the most potentially dangerous natural hazards threatening mankind. waves of 30 meters in height have been reported. says Terri Lomax. Because of the high population density . In extreme cases. it is important that this sort of work should be subject to strict monitoring for any potential harmful effects". Tsunamis Insert the appropriate words: MAY HAVE BEEN • CAN • MUST BE • CAN BE • MAY • ESTIMATED • COULD (1-7) SHOULD • UNLIKELY • SUPPOSING • DOUBTLESS • MUST HAVE BEEN • WILL • MIGHT • ASSUMED (8-15) starter • What is a tsunami? where? . The genetic engineering of primates raises serious ethical issues and many people must be wondering exactly where this is leading us. which explains why they often go unnoticed by deep sea shipping. When large-scale underwater seismic tremors occur. In twenty years' time. David King of the campaign against human genetic engineering in London. however. According to Patrick Bateson.why? . are more sceptical. While most people seem to have few problems with genetically altered mice. triggered by the subduction of tectonic plates along fragile seismic fault lines. travelling at speeds of up to 800 kph. The speed and amplitude of the tsunami depend on the depth of the water. but not exclusively. This means that while travelling across oceans.

within a few seconds.MODALITY 111 along most coastal regions. caused by the Krakatoa eruption. Day and Ward have shown that a crack has developed in the steep mountain side dominating the sea. which within the next few hundred years. However. As a result. directly into the sea. be no real danger occur at anytime generate an ocean- 9. Checkpoints Definitions . a mass of several billion tonnes be dumped.000 people killed." Define the words below: a Landrover • water • the money • a computer Now define two words of your own in the same way. the volcano is quiescent and there for the present. their damage potential is immense and low-lying islands be utterly submerged. It is (8) that this caused by the 1949 eruption. a future irruption." Example: a scanner "You can use a scanner either to photocopy or to read a text. the entire west face of the mountain has become unstable and is now sliding at a rate of about 1 cm per year towards the sea that the mountain does collapse.UNIT 9 . . In the 1883 tsunami.4. curving southwards towards Africa and northwards towards the European coastline. it is that the trajectory will be a straight East-West line across the Atlantic. London and Steven Ward of the University of California suggests that the Cumbre Vieja volcano in the Canary Islands well present a major tsunami threat. At the moment. According to the model that Day and Ward have developed. Recent research by Simon Day of University College. would wide disaster.alternative uses: either / or Use the following pattern: "You can use an X either to Y or to Z. it is that more than 36. producing a giant tsunami. It seems more probable that it will be slowed down by the shallow water near La Palma and then spread out in an arc.

I would like some more programme. . Three (equipment) by fax bad. (advice) 4. advice . I will send you all tomorrow. You could use < tsunami 1979 Nice > as a search string. .. 1.112 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH Information . Complete these sentences.Fuel cells.Geothermal power -Wind power .5.....each gives a 5 minute OHP presentation on one form of alternative energy. Consult the web and make a report.. equipment. Check your answers in the grammar section. Definition I Complete with the most suitable phrase: SMOKING • A TOOTH • THE EXAM PAPERS • THE ELECTRICITY • A • to give 01 to give uf to take ur to take 01 to step u| DIFFICULT JOB • PRODUCTION TO PREVENT A CONFLICT MEAT • THE I Provide the definition: INCREASE REMOVE DISTRIBUTE DIVIDE INTO • STOP THE SUPPLY • INTERVENE TO HELP • STOP /ABANDON SMALL PIECES • • • to step in to cut up to cut off ACCEPT RESPONSIBILITY 9.. The from Madrid 3. It started at Nice. (news + to be) about the have just arrived. Web search A tsunami occurred in the Mediterranean in 1979. Solar power . Divide the class into 4 groups .. news .. (information) 2..

MODALITY 113 Word search I Search the web for examples of past modals in the field of animal experimentation. there is no real technological problem. 1. (inevitably) 7. (a possible solution) 5. sustained electro-shocks affected the appetite and memory of all six rats.exit test I Fill in the missing words (sentences 1-6 are modals). thought probable) 10. In fact. (will probably) . Try the following sorts of search strings: < "could have already" monkey experimentation > < "should have known" mouse laboratory > < "may have been" cat test > N.UNIT 9 . Any significant change in the climate of population. The question is whether or not it is economically fe (possible) 9. (predicted. He realised his mistake as soon as he put down the telephone. (it is almost certain) 4. Nanotubes be inserted through the cell membranes to act as sensors. He come by bike. we as that future avalanches will occur under circumstances similar to those in the past. (perhaps) 2. Prehistoric man discovered the therapeutic value of medicinal plants by trial and error. Self evaluation . Palaeontology is at the cross-roads. The question is. -The modal string should be between inverted commas. the most exciting scientific developments are li to occur in biology. It is generally acknowledged that. but I would be surprised-it is raining. (suppose) 8. involve vast movements In these models. As ex .B. which way we proceed from here? (is it best) 3. in the coming years. (perhaps this was the case) 6.

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(providing. the A complete survey of the surface of the Earth has been carried out by high-resolution satellite photography. objective) 2. Process is frequently associated with the passive form. while process describes how. the ta is to extend the tram network by 25 km within the next 6 years. The escape velocity. en the Earth's gravitational pull. Purpose is concerned with the question of why or for what reason something is done or exists. It was only in 1947 that women were first al members of Cambridge University. th reducing diversity. 1. When predators are withdrawn from the area. thanks to-3 words) a rocket to overcome to become full negligence and lack of 8.entry test I Supply the missing words. the number of dominant species increases. (using. (permitted) 10. which is 40. (the objective) 5. Self evaluation .10. (in order to .3 words) 4. PURPOSE & PROCESS This unit deals with two closely linked concepts: purpose and process. As far as public transport is concerned. Example: The go of the Cancer Research Fund is to provide financial backing for research teams. (made the plan) 7. It was Canadian scientists who first proposed and de experiment. (permits) 9. (because of) . or the manner in which it is done. The ai of the Government's population policy is to bring about a fundamental change in the demographic pattern. thus) 6. To survive on land. (by doing this. The machine was badly damaged th maintenance. (goal. This is discussed more thoroughly in Unit 11.250 kph. (objective) The goal of the Cancer Research Fund is to provide financial backing for research teams. The infection causes an inflammation which blocks the artery su blood to the appendix. reptiles had to develop a skin which was relatively impermeable to water so prevent desiccation. feeding) 3.

Nouns the purpose • function • use Metal is increasingly used in architecture for structural purposes. Other expressions it provides • supplies in order to / so as to • so that N.PURPOSE & PROCESS 1. . Purpose Purpose ISCis concerned with questions of "why" or for "what reason" something is done.B.Notes23 • is devised to / for • is planned to / for • is aimed to / for • is responsible for The new safety measures were designed to reduce the risks of contamination.116 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH Functions & Grammar KEY POINTS . the aim • goal • target • objective The main objective of hydrology is to study the physical and chemical processes of the water cycle. "In order to / so as to" have basically the same meaning as "to". it functions (as) • operates (as) The haemoglobin provides the extra oxygen. Verbs it is designed to / forG. A cooling system was devised for the preservation of clinical specimens. They are merely stronger ways of expressing the idea of purpose.

Visibility was poor . Process Process is concerned with questions of "how" or "in what way" something is done.B. thereby losing all the data. 2.the plane was not allowed / permitted to land. Verbs to enable • make (it) possible (for) • allow • permit V It is the carbon compounds that are responsible for the chemical reactions that enable / make it possible for the cell to grow. The Erasmus grant enabled made it possible for allowed permitted him to go on studying . Platinum contacts should be used to prevent oxidisation. "To allow / to permit" have the primary meaning of making something possible by giving authorisation or permission.UNIT 10-PURPOSE & PROCESS 117 • "So that" is followed by a clause composed of subject + verb. N. therefore • thus • thereby He switched off the computer. the meaning of to allow / to permit is often extended to physical possibility. Platinum should be used so that oxidisation can be prevented. in modern English.Meaning ) "To enable / to make possible" have the primary meaning of making something feasible or physically possible. I Adverbial and prepositional phrases (see Unit 5) by means of • through • thanks to • via The brain was damaged through lack of oxygen. . However. Platinum contacts should be used in order to / so as to prevent oxidisation.

7. The man moves from left to right.118 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH Examples in context starter AN 18™ CENTURY WATER PUMP This rather eccentric and highly impractical 18th century design for a hydraulic power project reminds us to what extent the pre-industrial world was handicapped by lack of power systems. The water is conveyed to a storage tank by means of a pipe. I Answer the questions following the text. thereby changing the centre of gravity. (how/man/keep his balance) 4. The steel springs enable the downward movement of the platform to be checked. The valve system makes it possible to control the water flow. using the expressions in brackets. The pressure is transmitted via the connecting rods. 5. 8. I Write questions corresponding to each statement.what? consequences? 6. The counter weights are designed to stabilise the machine. A human being provides the power. There is a hand rail in order to help him keep his balance. 2. 1. 4. (what / be for) What is the machine for? 1. Example: The machine is designed to pump water. (what/counterweights/do) 5. (how/machine/operate) 3. In the past. (what/human being/provide) 2.who? . it was essentially the lack of power systems that was responsible for industrial stagnation. (what/water pipe/be for) . • The steam engine the industrial revolution: when? . 3. 9.

cosmic y-rays will be detected. to determine with accuracy the path and speed of the Gulf Stream. In all probability. 2.. 2. 6. e. 7 The cancerous cells are transmitted to the other organs by means of .. there will be thousands of deaths.UNIT 10 . 4. The sensors are orientated 7 to detect the virus before any lower the melting point of alloys. (what / responsible / industrial stagnation) 119 Exercises 10. A small bit of specialised tissue. The main advantage of sexual reproduction is that it enables . (Process) Draw arrows to link the phrases. f. (what/steel springs/do) 7. . an advertisement. a. (what / valves / control) 9. to spread. 3. Earth-orbiting satellites have made it possible . he got the job through . If the infection is allowed .. called the sinoauricular node. hydroelectric It should be pointed out that quantum mechanics was originally introduced for the of explaining chemical facts. The particles then collide with gas molecules in the atmosphere. 5. Cadmium can be used 6.. The acoustic wave enters the ear and the information is transmitted to the brain via . the auditory nerve.PURPOSE & PROCESS 6. Biochemistry. the blood stream.. g. thereby . The software will harm is done. (Purpose) Insert the required word or expression: MAKE IT POSSIBLE • PROVIDES • RESPONSIBLE FOR • SO THAT • PURPOSE • AIMS • DESIGNED • IN ORDER TO. exciting them and causing luminescence.... 8.. 3.. c. a species to adjust and adapt to changing conditions.. is initiating the heartbeat. The Akosombo dam on the Volta river power to Ghana and neighbouring countries. 5. 1.1. at quantifying or measuring results. (in what way / pressure / be transmitted) 8. 4.. 1. b. B. d. like other sciences. Exercise A... It is a new generation of artificial organs specifically to be implanted in patients with diabetes.

as can be seen in the figure.120 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH 10. . Kakuichi Shiomi. I Fill in the gaps with the following words: SO THAT ENABLES • • OBJECTIVES DESIGN • • BY MEANS OF • PROVIDE • • DEVISE starter MAKES IT POSSIBLE TO • IS RESPONSIBLE FOR • Give examples of both major and minor accidents. chief researcher of ENRI. According to Shiomi. One area of particular concern is pilot fatigue. Fatigue is particularly linked to the crossing of time zones which can severely disturb the circadian rhythm. the pattern alters. This explains why one of the primary of the aircraft industry today is to ways of improving these figures. Mark Rosekind claims that "70% or more pilots say that they have fallen asleep at least once while piloting". gradually losing its structure and becoming chaotic. heartbeat and voice. has been able to software which these minute distinctions to be identified the pilot's voice pattern can be matched with a control model of an alert voice. It takes no more than 10 seconds for data samples to be processed which means that fatigue can be measured in real time without interfering with the normal activity of the flight crew. such as blood pressure. Under stress or fatigue. Biological functions. Despite the thousands of parts which are used in the construction of aeroplanes. • Were they brought about by faulty technology or human error? • Was any action taken as a result of the accident? • Give examples of how technology can be used to increase safety. in fact. It is. human error that 80% of air accidents. very few air-crashes are caused by component failure. the system detect tiredness in test subjects 10 to 20 minutes before they become aware of it themselves.2. is currently in the process of developing a monitoring system which will be able to early warning of fatigue voice recognition techniques. have a fractal structure which can be identified. By using the mathematics of chaos theory. Electronic Navigation Research Institute (ENRI). This problem is far more widespread than is commonly realised and Dr. The Japanese company. Sleeping pilots and chaos theory Why are there accidents? Where does the responsibility lie? One of the uses of technology is to devise ways and means of reducing the consequences of human error. these physiological manifestations undergo change and consequently.

behaviour patterns and the use of tools. The text below gives examples of a less well-known similarity: the capacity of animals to be "dishonest". more concerned with similarities between human beings and animals. animals can be observed to adopt unusual behaviour. Byrne and Whiten have documented a large number of cases of what they call "tactical deception" among primates. thereby successfully hiding their intentions from others in the group. a Swiss primatologist. This has enabled them to give a precise description of "machiavellian strategies".UNIT 10 . fatigue predictors obviously extends far beyond the field of aviation. 1. whose primary aim appears to be to mislead2 other members of the group and so gain advantage. 10. The hierarchy of hamadryas baboon harems is maintained by a single dominant male who forbids 1 To deceive / deception: to cause someone to believe something that is not true. Nowadays.PURPOSE & PROCESS 121 • The uses of non-intrusive. They point to parallels in neural structure. scientists tend to be examples. I Draw the missing figure. Tactical deception1 in upper primates starter Descartes assumed that animals were merely • Are animals intelligent? "automata" and that thought was uniquely a If so in what way? Give human activity. write questions referring to the words in bold. For what else could they be used? • Describe the flow chart of the ENRI system (below) to your partner. 2 To mislead: to lead someone to a wrong conclusion. to deceive. .In such cases. real time. Three main classifications are proposed. Hans Kummer.3. ACTIVE CONCEALING . I When you have finished reading the text. describes the following case.

ACTIVE MISLEADING . The second assistant. he would return to eat the hidden food. Once she was behind the rock. however. 4 To pretend: to mislead by acting as if something is true when it is not. apparently devised to neutralise the deception. After some time. one member (B) of the group seemed to realise what was happening. On one occasion. .122 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH females to seek contact with other males. The first assistant was "friendly".It sometimes happens that a monkey becomes aware that he is being misled by another.Woodruf and Premack conducted an experiment in which chimpanzees behaved with the clear objective of intentionally misleading laboratory assistants. a young female baboon. 2. who could clearly be seen by the dominant male. COUNTER DECEPTION . began shifting position very slowly so as to approach a young male sitting behind a rock. 3. After being shown where the food was. he would immediately walk away with the apparent purpose of encouraging the rest of the group to do likewise. when the chimpanzees indicated in which container the food was. he would take the food and share it with them. The whole process took about 20 minutes. As soon as the others had left. After a short number of trials. that is to say. however. As soon as the first monkey returned to take the banana.but in fact remained hidden behind a tree in order to keep watch. Two human assistants were introduced one after the other on the food side of the grid. 3 To groom: when an animal cleans or picks out the parasites from the hair of another animal. A wire grid however. she immediately began to groom3 the young male. Byrne and Whiten describe a case where the victim appears to react accordingly by taking counter measures. This chimpanzee then pretended4 to leave with the others . seized it and ate it. he rushed back. he ate it all himself. made it impossible for them to get access to the food. behaved in an "unfriendly" manner. while keeping her head and the upper part of her body visible to the dominant male. the chimpanzees learned to give a "dishonest" reply to the unfriendly human by pointing to the wrong container. When a certain chimpanzee (A) realised where a banana was hidden. Food was placed inside one of two containers in the presence of the chimpanzees.

Match these words with those above: bus • clinical tests • scientific • flowers • suddenly personal • child • news ." I Define the following words: a turbine • a solar panel • a voice recognition program • a loudspeaker I Now make two more definitions of your own. TO GROW TO REALISE LAST EXPERIENCE TO GROW UP TO CARRY OUT LATEST EXPERIMENT Explain to your partner the difference in meaning.4.UNIT 10 . These word pairs are frequently mixed up. Checkpoints Definitions Purpose: designed + turn / transform + into Use the following pattern: "It is an X that has been designed to transform Y into Z. It suggests that animal behaviour is far more complex than previously supposed and may often be a result of conscious decision making.PURPOSE & PROCESS Examples such as these appear to support the hypothesis that the upper primates are aware that information can function as a tool and be used to manipulate the actions of others. 123 What is chimpanzee (A) "thinking"? What is chimpanzee (B) "thinking"? 10." Example: "A photoelectric cell is a device that has been designed to turn / transform light into electricity.

vulcanologists were able to announce the (likely) of the event within a time-scale of a few months. This 12-month course will en students to gain a broader perspective of fundamental aspects of microbiology. so far there has been little (improve) in the (accurate) of prediction.124 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH I Provide the missing suffixes. The main risk is that the laser beam may damage the structure of the cells surrounding the ta (objective. (allow. EARTHQUAKES AND VOLCANOES One of the main reasons that earthquakes are so (destroy) is that there is no (rely) method of predicting their (occur) This means that they strike suddenly and without (warn) Although enormous amounts of money have been spent on earthquake research.com/statistics/ I Search the web for an illustration of a process. (via. By contrast.exit test I Fill in the gaps according to the definitions given in brackets. Priortothe Mount St Helens' (erupt) in 1980. 1. 10. Self evaluation . scientists do have the (able) to predict certain other geological activities. It is essentially th research and development that aviation safety can be enhanced. goal) 2. Make a 3 minute OHP presentation.airdisaster. Some are used more than once:-able • -acy • -ence • -hood • -ic • -ing • -ity • -ive • -ment • -tion. Word search I Collect 6 sentences using the string: < "make it impossible" chimpanzee >. (thanks to -3 words) a . as a result of) 3. changing the stem of the word if necessary. Consequently. The sample can be maintained at low temperature by large cryo-vacuum container. with a (reason) degree of success. Web search I Make a report on aviation crashes: http://www. ground (deform) were reported and (seismography) (record) clearly indicated that (volcano) activity was present. such as volcanoes.5. let) 4.

(as a result of this action. (aim. (consequently.3 words) avoid sharp variations in 10. The pu of the Mars Society is to further the goal of the exploration and settlement of the "red planet". as the air rises. (permit . The first step involves acquiring the information needed to de treatments or cures for these diseases. in this way) . objective) 8. (in order to . The liquid must be heated slowly so temperature. Weather conditions are very similar to those found in an anticyclone. The money will be used to help fishermen in Liberia buy equipment.3 words) 7. so) 6. th reducing their dependence on foreign aid. Preliminary calculations predict that fluorescent imaging could ma to detect 1-micron samples. (elaborate. design) 9.UNIT 10-PURPOSE & PROCESS 125 5. there is cooling and condensation and th clouds are formed.

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Before applying. 6. Amundsen discovered the South Pole. 3. 1.on "what was done" and not "who did it". . Self evaluation . Medical staff Prior to posting. IMPERSONAL FORMS One of the most striking features of scientific English is the intensive use of the passive and other impersonal forms. The passive form alone accounts for roughly 35% of all verbs found in general scientific texts. the South Pole was discovered (by Amundsen). 9. It not widely In an emergency. The UK government has sent research teams to the Antarctic since as far back as 1923. Since as far back as 1923. Science is not particularly interested in the actor ("I". "you". It is the action or result that matters.entry test Complete the sentences with a passive form. potential candidates should realise that contracts of employment may stretch for a period of 33 months. BAS will give specialist training to all selected candidates. Not many people know how this is organised. 5. In 1911. during World War II. 10. evacuation is always costly and sometimes impossible. "she"). Measures BAS provides a 24 hour telemedicine support service via satellite telephone. Specialist tra training Candidates will have to master unfamiliar techniques such as dentistry. What is the reason for this? By using the passive. A 24 hour telemedicine support service Currently. BAS is recruiting medical staff to work in the Antarctic. It was only during World War II that the first regular station The first stations were set up because enemy shipping was using the whaling bases for shelter. research teams It was only in 1943. Hence BAS (The British Antarctic Survey) have taken measures to avoid it. Unfamiliar techniques 4. the focus can be placed on the action .11. that the government set up the first regular station. Example: In 1911. The first stations were set up because the bases Medical care in the Antarctic is crucial. taking and processing X-ray films and plastering1. 7. It 1 Plastering: to immobilise a broken bone with gypsum. 2. 8.

Note . The following patterns are particularly frequent in academic English: PASSIVE VERBS EXPRESSING OPINIONS AND BELIEFS + THAT . however... ADJECTIVE + TO / THAT CLAUSE (it is impossible • it is important • it is essential • it is crucial ...) It should be noted that a similar heating process has been used before.. (it is often said • it is widely believed • it is commonly thought • it is sometimes maintained • it has been suggested . The passive Why is the passive so common in scientific. Impersonal forms: it The impersonal form can also be expressed by using "it" as a subject.. In the following example. MODAL PASSIVE + THAT. By placing the complement at the beginning of the sentence.) It is sometimes maintained that the movement of the stars influences our lives. artificial snow can be produced in greater quantities. Huge amounts of energy must be used to break atomic bonds.. administrative and formal written English? It is because these registers are concerned with processes and events more than they are with the actors.. is much more common in literature and the spoken language where it is people who are the focus of attention. (it should be realised that • it must not be forgotten that • it could be said that . 2..128 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH Functions & Grammar KEY POINTS . The doctor removed the cataract The cataract was removed.) It is important to remember to switch off the computer.Notes25. It is important that you remember to switch off the computer.. it can be seen how the transformation from active to passive evacuates the actorG.IMPERSONAL FORMS 1. it is the importance of the action (the subject + the verb) that is stressed. The active form. Thanks to ice-nucleating bacteria.Passives and modals The passive is frequently used in conjunction with the modals. .

but he doesn't think it likely. conductivity can be increased. reassuring terms. We can increase conductivity if we reduce the temperature. By reducing the temperature. Examples in context BRIDGE BUILDING N.unless there is a major problem. The person is completely confident. We have detected a fundamental fault in the design. Notice that the action (verb + -ing) is frequently introduced at the front of the sentence.if it is not completed. He/she doesn't want to take a decision. Who says what? 1. The 2nd engineer 4. perhaps it won't. An outside advisor from Manpower It is essential . -These examples are all illustrations of the modal passive (see Unit 9).B. But if you decide to employ our know-how. the firm will go bankrupt.UNIT 11 . I The staff and collaborators of an engineering company are discussing the possibility of getting a bridge finished according to schedule.000 million bits.000 million bits to record 45 minutes of hi-fi stereo. "-ing" The "-ing form" is a powerful way of expressing impersonal ideas. He/she is speaking in careful. The third engineer 6. The chief engineer. in charge of the project 3.IMPERSONAL FORMS 129 3. An outside consultant who has been called in to do a feasibility study . Perhaps it will be completed. The manager of the firm 2. then it will be possible. 7. In theory . We require 4. Recording 45 minutes of hi-fi stereo requires 4. A pessimist: it is just possible. It is technically impossible. A spokesperson for the firm speaking to the press 5. At the moment things don't look very good.

university examination procedures are unreliable. efficient government is impossible in a democratic society. . f. Match the phrases. It is widely believed that .1. It is seldom admitted that .. 1. b. the stars influence our health.. 4. g. It has often been suggested that . incest is not uncommon in Western Europe... It is commonly thought that ... It is hardly ever acknowledged that 2. We can make them more acceptable by qualifying them. the accident rate of surgeons increases sharply. 3. c. d.. Make two qualified generalisations of your own.. "All generalisations are dangerous. said Alexandre Dumas fils. It is sometimes claimed that . Make qualified generalisations about the photos. e. 6. Exercise A.130 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH Exercises 11. after the age of 55. 5. C. simple people are more honest than intellectuals.. the rich are too rich and the poor are too poor.. even this one". a. B.

2 Sealed: closed. returning results in four hours compared to the two days taken by conventional methods. Underlying this new technology is the principle that certain materials are reactive to the environment. It is reported from Cranfield University that a research team is developing an electronic nose using artificial smell sensors to detect tuberculosis-carrying bacteria. I There are 6 phrases written in bold. With your partner. in the long term it would constitute a very significant advance in the fight against TB. taste and touch. such as electrical conductance. with a rate of almost 4. the device provides much more comprehensive results. • Human beings have five senses: hearing. The disease kills around three million people each year and is on the increase in Europe owing to growing poverty. may bind to materials causing changes in fundamental properties. biologists have had no other option but to grow laboratory cultures which then have to be analysed under a microscope in a process that may take as much as six weeks. the most commonly used materials are metal oxides or polymers. 3 Sputum: saliva and mucus. give examples of technological devices employed to replace the natural organs. Up until now. This corresponds to a 20% increase over the last 10 years. in the past. Molecules in vapours. the more it spreads to areas which.000 per year. are enclosed in a hermetically sealed2 container. is a significant breakthrough in medical technology. which analyses samples of patients' sputum3 and lung material containing potential TB bacteria.UNIT 11 . It is in the UK that the highest number of cases is recorded. The Cranfield project. not more than a few microns thick and responding in ppm (parts per million). I Reformulate the underlined phrases with passive forms. The unique signature of the gas can then be identified after processing the data with pattern recognition software and matching it to a memory bank. In the Cranfield project. "e-noses" and tuberculosis 2IS starter The more sophisticated technology becomes. Foremost among its advantages is that it speeds up the detection process considerably. A circulation pump ensures the airflow of the previously gasified sample via the inlet and outlet pipes. Besides being faster. . Suggest the missing agent (by whom / by what).IMPERSONAL FORMS 131 11. In "e-noses". for example. This text offers just one more example of machine replacing man. smell. If the "e-nose" proves successful. different strains of bacteria present in the sputum spray can be immediately distinguished. an array of polymeric thin film sensors. the latter being particularly favoured as it is possible to engineer their molecular structure for specific applications with great precision. were the sole responsibility of human beings. sight. The device has been modelled on techniques that were first pioneered by the food production industry to recognise smells in industrial food production.2. An electric current is passed through the sensors which transduce the acidic chemical quantities into electrical signals.

. The woman was approxithe prototype. it is not merely because of the remarkable skill of the ancient Egyptians in preserving bodies. with its exceptionally high oxidant and particulate levels. there was no human presence and so the air was relatively sterile. the atmosphere dry and the temperature 2 It is possible for extremely stable. It is unfortunately true to say that it is often in museums that 3 Pollution is doing irreparable damage to our oldest and irreparable damage. organic the environment materials easily.000 years to the What do you know about ancient civilisations of Egypt.3. these fragile objects are vulnerable to attack organic materials.2. With the help of the Getty Institute. The project had the triple aim of producing a case that would control biological damage. 5 Designers The prototype using a 3. the Kings.who? (apart and China. This is particularly true in busy metropolises. It has been estimated that up to 730 million bodies were mummified before the practice died out in AD 700. micro-organisms and atmospheric pollution. such as Cairo.000 years. In a more hostile environment. Looking after mummy starter The discovery of chemical processes is not new. it is also due to the excellent storage conditions in which they 1 People kept Inside the tombs of the Valley of the mummies.000 yeardeveloped old Egyptian mummy as a model. a prototype display case 4 Engineers at the "Instituto de Conservacion". would provide optimum display conditions. I Fill in the gaps by transforming the active verbs into passives. judging from the expensive mummification treatment and by the layer of gold €i It is possible over her eyes. it that she was from to assume this a rich family. coupled with the daily pressure of thousands of visitors. Mesopotamia mummification? . Exercise 10. It dates back more than 4. 11.why? the Egyptians to preserve bodies for the afterhow? . Museum in Cairo. If the Egyptian mummies survived for more than 4. from insects. while ensuring that the cost per unit was kept as low as possible.132 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH Draw a flow chart of the different stages of the process (paragraph 3). Cf. most precious cultural treasures.when? life was in fact one of the first large-scale industries with a chemical basis. The mummification carried out by from the Egyptians) . mately 40 years old when she died and. have designed in Madrid. and once transferred to damage to museums. for the Royal Mummy Collection in the Egyptian a display case.

133 7 8 9 This brings microbiological activity to a halt. Unlike common fumigation systems.duration Use the following pattern: "An X is a period during which we do Y . Although. satisfactory 11It is possible to obtain satisfactory results.4...1%-0. However. It is possible to handle nitrogen easily. Checkpoints Definitions .2% range. It is desirable to remove all oxygen. the mummy was placed in a hermetically sealed display case and the air replaced by nitrogen at low relative humidity. estimated at 20 ppm per day. provided the residual concentration can be maintained within a 0. 77.UNIT 11 ." I Define the following words: weekend • Ramadan • hibernation • semester I Give two examples of your own. ." Example: an eclipse "An eclipse is the period during which the Earth is in the Moon's shadow. results The project has been an overall success and the display cases which locally are being exported to India. Nitrogen environments provide one of the most effective places for the conservation of organic objects since the gas is inert and all microbiological activity to a halt. all oxygen this in fact to be impractical 10 Engineers have shown this. 12 The Egyptians are now manufacturing the cases locally. ideally. a fungal species. in an oxygen-free atmosphere. nitrogen and it is also safe and inexpensive.IMPERSONAL FORMS The mummy was decaying fast because of severe contamination by "Daedalea beinnes Fries". because of air leaks. After a preliminary sterilisation by y-ray radiation using cobalt-60.

(minimum) pain in 2. It is the investment in research and development since the war that has French manufacturing exports to expand at such an enormous rate. How do you say the following (write down your answers)? The prefixes "en-" and the suffixes "-ise" can be used to form verbs (see Unit 3). morphine is used to terminal cancer.. The most urgent question is how to not spread. (character) 8.to modernise I Supply the required verb form. Plants that have been can be found in Precambrian coal. When other analgesics have failed. dementia. (sure) that nuclear weapons do . (fossil) 5. and death within 20 years of onset.to make something have this feature". Huntingdon's disease is by uncontrolled movements.134 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH Check your knowledge of numbers. 1. (rich) 3. Research in physics and chemistry in the US was considerably by the arrival of European refugees in the 1930s. Examples: to enforce . The firm has in the manufacture of heat resistant polymers. The seating capacity and wingspan of the new Airbus has been considerably (large) 4. The general meaning is "to transform . (special) 6.to change . (able) 7..

It is important to bear in mind that tissues more than a few millimetres thick require blood vessels. Web search I What exactly are the different techniques that have been used for mummification? You could try: http://www.uk/history/ancient/egyptians/mummies_01.shtml I Find information about the British Antarctic Survey (see Entry test): http://www. It should be remembered that for thick tissues. It that a key role by Judah Folkman. engineered tissues which can replace malfunctioning and deficient organs. hormones affecting the growth of bones 2.UNIT 11 . 4.antarctica. . So far.bbc. In 1972. Currently.IMPERSONAL FORMS 135 715. They have not yet completed the clinical trials.ac. Most people acknowledge that Judah Folkman has played a key role in neoorgan engineering. 5. Folkman discovered that developing tumours need their own blood vessels to supply themselves with nutrients.uk/ Word search I Make a web search for generalisations.exit test Neo-organs are man-made.co. 3. Use search strings like: < "it is often suggested" > < "it is commonly thought" > < "it is seldom admitted" > Self evaluation . The importance of blood vessels to developing tumours in 1972. They are currently testing bone-growth hormones capable of regenerating bony tissue. 1. Reformulate the sentences using an impersonal form.

Up to now. they have only examined blood vessel growth thoroughly. So far.000 deaths per year. Folkman suggested that we could use specific molecules to slow down the growth of tumours. Folkman suggested that to influence the growth rate of tumours. As the population ages.136 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH 6. 10. as the population gets older. 9. in order to convey bio-active molecules is a potential solution. One solution is to use injectable polymers to convey bio-active molecules. Reports have said that more than 30. 7.000 people die each year because of liver failure. only 8. hospitals will need more and more replacement tissue. It are more than 30. . Clearly.

entry test I Replace the phrases by more concise. There are a large number of frequently used formulaic compounds: "Greenhouse effect". Self evaluation . Compounds are widely used in scientific and technological English as they allow new concepts with multiple meanings to be expressed in a concise way. A crater of a meteorite which is 2 metres wide 5. compound forms.72. Cells which are sensitive to light 2. A technician for research in the field of microbiology (who is senior) 8. A family with three children . COMPOUND NOUNS & ADJECTIVES In this last unit we look at compound nouns and adjectives. "Geneva Peace Conference". A rate of unemployment which increases fast 7. A satellite which is for espionage and is geostationary 3. An engine which burns petrol 4. A system of injection which is controlled by computer 6. These are groups of two or more nouns or adjective which are combined to express a complex single idea. A victim of a landmine with one leg 10. A conference which lasts four days 9. "gamma ray detector" but there is no definitive list as combinations are always being "invented" to express new concepts. Example: A thermometer containing mercury A mercury thermometer 1.

They are extremely common in scientific and specialised English because they make it possible for complex notions to be expressed in a concise. Example: What is a "robot control technology"? It is a technology. It is a technology designed to control robots.. This is particularly clearly illustrated by acronyms. these nouns function as if they were adjectives. St Mary's/a children's . i. hospital Compound nouns are used to refer to specific. identifiable objects or concepts.. elegant way. PAST PARTICIPLES a big / a general / a private / a mental.COMPOUND NOUNS & ADJECTIVES 1. a research /a city/a prison . POSSESSIVE FORMS 3. "-ING" PARTICIPLES 4. UNO NATO -> ONU OTAN (United Nations Organisation) (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) The reason that the order is inverted is because the principal meaning of a compound noun is in the final word. nouns can be modified in several different ways: 1..138 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH Functions & Grammar KEY POINTS . a well-built / a modernly-equipped . ADJECTIVES 2. Compound nouns As you know. hospital hospital hospital hospital However.... These constructions are called compound nouns. it is very important to understand that nouns can also be modified by other nouns. a teaching /a smoothly-running . . Notes 27 Compound nouns are frequently difficult to understand.. Compare: X-ray therapy and a therapy using rays which are in the category X G. Why? It is because the order is the inverse of what is usual in many languages..e. It is a technology designed to control...

e. I There is no definitive list of compound nouns. a four door car • a 20 euro note • a 5 man crew . a well-written report (the report was written well by someone) • a well lubricated machine • a pre-tested drug • widely-used techniques .. new compound nouns are "invented" to correspond to specific purposes. A new word (which.UNIT 12 . a hard-working student (he/she works hard all the time) • an amplifying system • a warning device • a distinguishing feature ..COMPOUND NOUNS & ADJECTIVES 139 I Modifying nouns have the same function as adjectives. something in the past. Compound adjectives There are three different forms: I The "-ing" form The present participle of the verb can be used as a modifier. . I A small number of compound adjectives are formed by adding "-ed" to a noun (the nouns act as if they were verbs)... This form has usually a passive meaning (i. doubtless. Notes28) . a cold-blooded animal • a red-haired girl • a two-winged insect • a twinengined plane • a 6-wheeled lorry .. defining characteristic. has never been used before in the history of the language) can be invented to describe this tool: a remote controlled Mars radon detector I The rules for spelling compounds are not fixed: • sometimes they are written as one word • sometimes they are linked by a hyphen • and sometimes they are written as two words a wavelength an X-ray a radon detector 2. I The past participle may also be used. Supposing that NASA required a new tool to detect radon gas on Mars.. This form refers to a typical.even after numerals. you can add "by") and refers to something already done. This explains why they do not take an "-s" (with some exceptionsG.. As new ideas develop..

on the right. batteryoperated.1. It is designed to enable astronauts to monitor their own physiological data and alter their physiological responses to counteract the effects of space motion sickness. 1 with 6 and 3 with 3 elements.5-50 uMHOs± 2%) Respiration (40-60 breaths/min) Electrocardiography (40-180 beats/min) Acceleration (± 0. 1. The weight of the bridge was borne by a 25 tonne concrete column. Find and underline them. . Check. there is 1 compound form with 9 elements. all the words are either 2 or 3 word compound forms.5) Skin temperature (70-99. WEIGHT: 2 kg POWER: four 9-volt lithium thionyl chloride batteries SENSORS: Blood volume pulse (1-200 ± 0. fully ambulatory physiological monitoring system that allows complete freedom of motion for users. Caffeine boosts rat brain activity. Expand the five compound nouns below by making full definitions. I In the specifications. Exercise A. That is to say.9 ± 1°F) Skin conductance level (0.25 G ± 5%) Exercises 12. AFS-2 THE AUTOGENIC FEEDBACK SYSTEM Specifications The AFS-2 is a light-weight. 2.140 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH Examples in context LIFE SCIENCES LABORATORY EQUIPMENT (LSLE) Advanced technology uses compound forms (and acronyms) massively. tests which are carried out on fuel that is used in planes. Example: They have introduced new "aviation fuel tests". The text below illustrates the typical jargon that is being developed in the space industry and elsewhere. I In the figure of the AFS-2 on the left.

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3. Yellow fever has a 3-6 day incubation period. 4. The ship was sunk by a remote controlled underwater mine. 5. Antarctic fish can only survive because of protective anti-freeze proteins.

B. Put all the 10 compounds in part A) and part B) in the correct column in the box (the first one, "rat brain activity", has been done for you). 6. Plasma can be defined as electrically conducting ionised gas particles. 7. They manufacture high-temperature fuel cells. 8. The majority of the children were suffering from an insect-transmitted eye disease. 9. The bike had a reinforced aluminium alloy frame. 10. They are developing new avalanche victim search strategies. C. Using the words below, give 4-stage definitions of these words:
(1) A THERMOMETER • (2) A GEIGER COUNTER • (3) A BUS SERVICE (5) A TELEPHONE • (6) A PACEMAKER • (4) NASA ' • (7) AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA • (8) A VIRUS

Example: What is a "mouse"? 1. You could say a mouse is an interface. 2. It is an interface which is used for computers. 3. It is an interface which is used for computers and is controlled by hand. 4. That is to say, a hand controlled computer interface.

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D. With your partner make as many 3-term compound nouns as you can from the selection (start with the final word of the compound noun).

72.2. Landmines - the Dervish
The UN estimates that anti-personnel mines kill 24,000 people each year, while at least 450,000 are injured. Present mine-clearing techniques are exceedingly dangerous, slow and expensive. In Kuwait alone, after the Gulf War, eighty four mineclearers using hand held detectors were killed and it can take up to 80 days for one person to clear a hectare. I Answer the questions at the end of the text.

starter

• What five things can you say about landmines? Pool your ideas with your partner.

Faced with the growing number of deaths due to anti-personnel mines, Stephen Salter, Professor of Engineering Design at the University of Edinburgh, has designed a low-cost mine clearing vehicle called a "Dervish". It is a remote controlled 3 wheeled robot with wheels set at 120 degrees so that it spins as it moves forward. This means that the wheels cover every 3 cm of ground in almost concentric circles clearing a 5 m wide mine-free path. The wheels, actuated by three computer-controlled hydraulic pumps, powered by a 350 cc electricity generator are made of hardened Swedish steel alloy, each one weighing 80 kg. As the weight distribution resembles that of the human body, the load triggers the mine on its passage. The Dervish has an open, tetrahedral frame to reduce the profile for mine blasts and the engine is shielded by a protective V-shaped case suspended at the apex.

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The Dervish is extremely versatile and can operate on open, uneven or moderately sloping ground. Its foremost advantage, however, is that it has a 5 square metre per minute clearance capacity - more than 1000 times faster than hand clearance. The Dervish has certain limitations. Mines which are hidden by obstructions or those at the bottom of steep craters and holes remain untouched, and its performance drops sharply on hard, frozen ground or if the mines are faulty. Nevertheless, at a cost of under $16,000, the Dervish brings a new capability to mine clearance programmes operating under restricted budgets in post-conflict situations.

The Dervish mine-detector

I Answer the questions according to the text using one word only. 1. What did Professor Salter design? 2. What is a Dervish? 3. As it advances, what does it clear? 4. What actuates the wheels? 5. What is it powered by? 6. What are the wheels made of? 7. What reduces the force of the blasts? 8. What shields the engine? 9. What is the Dervish's strongest point? starter

12.3. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection Research involving human embryos is, justifiably, one of the most sensitive areas of modern medical research for it poses fundamental ethical problems about scientific responsibility. I Supply the appropriate compound nouns.

Suggest two or three ways in which medically assisted fertilisation might be genetically or socially dangerous.

Infertility rates are far higher than is commonly appreciated, with some estimates suggesting a figure as high as 17% for European populations. Last year, in the US alone, as many as 20,000 couples sought aid from (technologies which concern fertilisation and which are assisted). There is a wide range of different causes for infertility. In the large majority of cases, the problem stems from a (a count of sperm which is low),

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i.e. less than 10-15 million sperm per ml of semen (normal range - 50 million). This affects one out of thirty males in Western Europe. The complete absence of sperm, however, is relatively rare, affecting no more than 1 per thousand. Advanced in vitro techniques have represented a major breakthrough for the treatment of severe male infertility by reducing the need for the couple of turning to (sperm from donors who are outside (the couple)). One example of such techniques is ICSI, Intracytoplasmic sperm injection, pioneered in 1992 by Drs. Van Steirteghem and Devroey from the Free University in Brussels, in which a single sperm is injected directly into the cytoplasm via a (pipette which is made of glass and is controlled by a computer). This technique offers (rates of success of implantation of 65%) and, as a result, is one of the (areas which are growing the fastest) in infertility treatment. However, recent research carried out by Sherman Silver, director of the (centre for infertility which is in the town of St Louis) in Missouri, has confirmed earlier worries about potential dangers of embryo manipulation. The findings of one study, concerning four boys born using ICSI, revealed that the Y chromosomes of all four subjects had a deficiency on the long arm of the chromosome, pointing to the likelihood of (defect of the sperm which is related genetically) being passed on to male children, thus making them infertile like their fathers. This raises at least two separate ethical issues. On the one hand, is it acceptable to allow genetic deficiencies to be knowingly transmitted? On the other, what (effect in a term (period) which is long) could this have on the (pool of genes of humans)?
Some people maintain that the danger to the gene pool is a minor problem that need not be taken seriously. What do you think?

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72.4. Checkpoints
Definitions - purpose Use the pattern: "X means to do Y so that Z occurs." Example: to monitor "To monitor means to systematically collect data so that progress can be checked." Define these words: to diet • to hurry • to examine

to sum up

Find a word in Exercise 12.3 that can be explained in the same way and ask your neighbour to define it.

"The / a": do you know how to use the article?

I Complete the text about scorpions with the/a /0.
1. Douglas Gaffin is zoologist working at Oklahoma University. One of his fields of expertise is arachnid ecology. 2 scorpion is nocturnal animal and its study is facilitated as it fluoresces under ultraviolet light at night.

3. The species is extremely resistant. Desert scorpions can withstand high temperatures of up to 47°C which kill other desert arthropods, while other sorts of scorpion can be frozen for weeks and within few hours, return to normal levels of activity. 4. After male. 5. The venom of some species found in Middle East, South Africa and Philippines can be highly dangerous as it contains neurotoxins which attack nervous system and can cause death. sexual activity females sometimes eat

He opened the letter and threw the envelope. to accelerate 72.exit test I Form compound nouns corresponding to the following definitions.146 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH First match the sentence with the definition and then insert the appropriate particles: FORWARD • THROUGH • UP • ON • DOWN • AWAY • OFF • OUT. William put a new suggestion. termite-eating animal. "process" . As the speed of the molecules decreases. the space vehicle speeds as it approaches the planet. Examples in context). Self evaluation . to f. 6.. Make a 3 minute OHP presentation (cf. to lose heat h. a. 5. We must put it till the following week. At the end of the meeting. I am not free for the appointment on Friday. They carried talking for at least half an hour after he had left. 8. His hand-writing is terrible. to d. 4. I Do you know what an aardvark is? It is a four legged. "system". Find out more about it. Due to the force of gravity.. Web search I Find a specifications list or an image of a process. to e. 2. A program which sequences genes . Word search I Search the web for five 4-word compound nouns using head words like "technique". 1. A module for travelling in space designed for three men 2. to c. the gas cools 7. Have you got time to look my essay before I hand it in? 3.5. to propose distinguish get rid of cancel / delay continue check/examine g. It is difficult to make what he has written. to b. 1.

Techniques which sensor and are controlled by satellites 10. Techniques for survival over a period of time (term) which is long 4. Cells which cause cancer and destroy bones 8. A period for trials which lasts four days 9. Research into drugs which is oriented towards profit 5. Levels of dioxide of carbon which rise 6. A tube that is made of steel with a diameter of 88 millimetres 7.UNIT 12 . An insect that has six wings and four legs .COMPOUND NOUNS & ADJECTIVES 147 3.

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2. Part 1 Answer the question using the phrases in brackets. 1.if you forget what you were going to say. Figure A . A "reference bank" of functions to help you prepare your presentations. A model OHP presentation. 3.USING THE OVERHEAD PROJECTOR Being able to use the OHP is an important skill to master. 4.000 Road accident Homicide Fire Firearms accident Aircraft crash Flood Snake bite 3.1994 (adapted) . A brief review of the most common forms of graphic support followed by exercises so that you can practise using OHP presentation structures. Students sometimes think that this is difficult. Where is the information concerning causes of death located? (indicated/left hand column) 1 :100 1 :300 1 :800 1 : 2.500 1 : 20.Table CAUSES OF UNNATURAL DEATH STATISTICAL PROBABILITY 1. What does the table show? (figure A /provide / comparative data /probability) USA 2. . you know your subject well. What can you say about the source of the data? (as you can see /bottom left hand comer/ data / first published) Source: Nature. Pair work practice. There are several reasons for this: .as the speaker.000 1 : 100.you become easier to understand. as what you say is reinforced by visual communication. the transparency supplies notes to remind you of the next point. . it is relatively easy to make a high quality and elegant presentation.000 1 : 30. but in fact.

150 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH Figure B . What can you say about the consumption of meat in Zambia and the US? (roughly / ten times as much) Figure C .1997 Source: World Resources Institute (adapted) 6.Line graph 7. What happened in 1989? (immediately after / attain / peak /fall/ abruptly) Incidence of measles in the US (%.) Per capita consumption % of US consumption .Bar chart 4. What happened in 1986? (after / sharp / increase / level off) 9... What happened between 1982 and 1986? (to begin with / slow but steady / increase / curve / rise / sharply) 8. What is shown on the horizontal axis? (per capita / can be seen) 5.) (comprehensive vaccination campaigns were stopped in the early 1980s and reintroduced in 1989) Source: National Immunisation Program -2002 (adapted) 10. What happened after 1990? (from then on / virtually / die out) . What does the graph show about developing countries? (basically / the poorer countries are .

1985 (adapted) available which accounts for Inevitably. USA . (clearly / far greater) Natural and artificial sources of radiation. Compare the risks of artificial and natural radiation..the vicious circle of underdevelopment Source: Elements of human geography.. Allen and Unwin . this means that Consequently. this situation leads to . Describe the first 4 stages of the vicious circle using the following framework: "Since productivity is low.) (adapted) Figure E .Pie chart 11.USING THE OVERHEAD PROJECTOR 151 Figure D .Flow chart 14. Agriculture . Compare the danger Of radiation from Source: National council on radiation protection cosmic and radon sources.1987 13. (roughly/seven times as . What do the different sectors of the pie chart show? (correspond / distribution) 12.annual dose .

152 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH Part 2 Describing a graph .1999 (adapted) The graph on the left and the model of the first part of an oral description on the next page illustrate how. . I When you have finished studying the two documents. functions are used. 156) describe the graph to your partner using as far. in practice. as possible. look at the graph again and with the help of the reference bank (p. new functions.model Medical care (France). Average annual spending per capita Source: INSEE .

USING THE OVERHEAD PROJECTOR 1 53 .

law.1998 Source: LEDA. Niger.http://leda. Pseudoscience . I Then. Pair work I Chose any one of the figures below that you would like to describe.edu/leda/ (adapted) Index of rainfall and milk production. personal communication ..cornell.belief in astrology and the paranormal.154 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH Part 3 A.1990-1997 (France) Source: Drees (adapted) Seasonal car and canoe traffic in the "Gorges de I'Ardeche" Source: P. I Improvise an OHP presentation to your partner using your list as notes. Mathias. Mali and Chad Source: FAO (adapted) Induced abortion rates .. make a list of functions that you wish to learn from the different sections of the "reference bank" (p. USA . 156). Here is an example of the sort of list you could make: >• Well • This figure illustrates • With particular reference to • As you know • To begin with • Then • And finally • The data comes from .

11. etc. 13. 4 6. Make sure that your transparencies are not monotonous . Prepare your final sentence . Choose a subject which interests you personally and which you would like to communicate to others.USING THE OVERHEAD PROJECTOR 155 The problem of obesity: body mass for men and women in the UK Source: http://www.. 15. 18. 2.the golden rules I Work in pairs.annecollins.2003 (adapted) B. boxes. 12.probability of survival after burial Source: Federation francaise de la montagne et de I'escalade . Respect the time limit for the talk scrupulously. Make sure that your writing is large enough to be read by all. .com . Diagrams and graphic elements are not just decoration. Before you start. Making a good OHP presentation . It is essential to have something interesting and thought-provoking in the introduction. units. you must use the structures in the reference bank. You cannot make a good OHP presentation if you neglect body language. The golden rules of OHP presentation 1 . Be careful that you leave the audience time to read the information. Make a list of what you consider to be the five most important and the two least important pieces of advice.vary the size of letters. make sure that your transparencies are in order. make sure you use a pointer.. 3. use colours. Don't forget to explain diagrams. 10.tell them tell them what you have just told them". To speak fluently. Make sure that you use them dynamically. 9.arrows .it is not easy to end elegantly. Never hold notes in your hand -you will end up by reading and become incomprehensible. 17.2003 (adapted) Avalanches . sources. When referring to information on the OHP. A good rule to follow for OHP presentation is "tell them what you are going to tell them . * 7. 8. Shift your eye contact from one person to another. 5 11. Turn off the OHP when you are not using it. Never write more than 2 running lines of text. 14.

.. it is because... RELEVANCE The reason that I have chosen • As you know.. FRAMING Well • Now • So • Good morning . Thirdly • And finally • And to end /conclude .. 2..156 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH Part 4 .. The article raises the question of / is a report on / is an account of / outlines recent research on .A functional reference bank INTRODUCTION 1. /discusses ways of dealing with .. I would like to .. This is a striking example of • It underlines one of the main problems • The interest of the article lies in the fact. THE SUBJECT / would like to discuss / speak about • I am going to talk about • I would like to present • The topic I have chosen is • The issue I would like to discuss is . that is why • Why talk about medical expenses? Well... 4.. ..... medical expenses have a major impact on .... Secondly • Then • Next • Afterwards • This will be followed by. To begin with • First of all • In the first section • I'll start by . FOCUSING And more especially /specifically • With particular reference to • In relation to • Laying particular emphasis on . I 5.... PLAN / ORGANISATION There are three main points • Before going on to describe X.. I I II 3.

. with minor fluctuations ....The talk is based on . SOURCE AND REFERENCE The information comes from • It is adapted from • The article was published in .USING THE OVERHEAD PROJECTOR 1 57 6.. ..The temperatures drops / goes down / decreases / declines / reaches a low point..A sharp / steep / significant / considerable / unexpected / gradual. 9. on the bottom left hand corner • This can be seen over here in the second column .. A survey was carried out in • An experiment was designed to .... Falling .It levels off/ reaches a plateau /stagnates / remains stable ..... 8. GRAPH DESCRIPTION 7. DESCRIBING A CURVE Rising . This curve illustrates • The table illustrates • The pie chart shows • The figure • Diagram • Dotted line • Shaded area • The largest sector.. Modification . fall • It declines steadily/abruptly/dramatically/unexpectedly .. the more energy they consume . PATTERNS AND TENDENCIES A general trend • A growing tendency • A slow but steady increase A clear pattern • An overall improvement • A swing .The curve rises/increases/goes up/attains a peak .. The richer people are.. Stability ...... REFERRING TO VISUALS As you can see • Here.

.158 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH 10.. I DISCUSSION 12. .... Over the last few years • Up to now . In the same way • Similarly • Likewise .. However • While • Nevertheless • On the other hand. COMPARISON & SIMILARITY By contrast • As opposed to • Unlike ... GENERALISATION & APPROXIMATION Basically • On the whole • Generally speaking • As a rule .. In the near future It is expected . By comparison • Compared to • A great deal better • Considerably worse ... in the first place • It is due to the fact • Owing to Can be accounted for.. 13...... This leads to / results in /brings about / triggers off. Consequently • Therefore • Thus • Hence • Thereby.. Since • Because • As. To a certain extent • More or less • Roughly • Almost • Virtually. CONTRAST.. CAUSE & CONSEQUENCE There are 3 main reasons..... CHRONOLOGY From then on / onwards • Immediately after that • At this stage .. • Shortly • Before long • By the end of the year • 11...

This means there may be • It could well lead to • There might be ... 17..USING THE OVERHEAD PROJECTOR 159 14.... RECAPITULATION AND FINISHING To summarise • To go over the main points again • Basically.. 15... CONCLUDING 16.... Are there any questions? . CLARIFICATION & RESTATEMENT In other words • That is to say • What I mean by this is • To put it simply • For example • For instance • e. HYPOTHESIS It can be assumed • It would appear likely that • In all probability/likelihood. • Namely • Such as • This can be illustrated by. If the project is finished on time • Unless carbon emissions decrease . Finally • As a conclusion • Last but not least • I would like to add just one last thing. what I have tried to show .g.. DRAWING CONCLUSIONS This means to say that • It suggests • It is a good / striking example of It brings out / illustrates the importance • It underlines how important..

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-B 1. Examples in context • • • • • • • • • • roughly .distance across -» 1. 7.2. 8. 5.approximately weight . 9. In the 4th week.1. 2. At what stage does the heart begin to beat? When does the fetus begin to monitor its own temperature? Do male and female fetuses weigh the same? In which week does the fetus begin to detect light? -» 1. The bones begin to harden in the 13th week.mass slightly more * much less wing span . The heartbeat can be monitored in the 9th week. 3.reached cross-section .-C 1. 9.6 m.000 tonnes. 2.ANSWERS -» 1. What is the width of the umbilical cord? The nutrients are supplied through the narrow arteries.distance from one wing tip to the other amount .quantity work out . The weight ranges from 28 to 35 gm. 3. 2. Exercises 4. 6.2. 3. The volume of the amniotic liquid is roughly 60 ml. The circumference of the head is slightly over 8 cm. The average length of the fetus is almost 7 cm. The width is 23. 10. the femur lengthens considerably. 1.calculate attained . 4. Blood vessels can be seen through the thin skin.-A 1. 4. 5. 4. 8. Each tower is roughly 210 m in height. There is an odd number of fingers on each hand. 6.2. the wall of the uterus thickens.-B UNIT 1 Entry test 1. The height is about 52 m. height amounts range weight accurate length work out slows down average root widens • narrow • extending • high • weight • thin • speeds • amount • average • rate • reached -» 1. 3. 6. The central span is 856 m in length. It probably has a total length of approximately 2. .1. 2. Each tower weighs at least 20. After fertilisation.transversal dimension thick * thin width . 3. 2.-A 1. 7.2 km. 5.

area delayed . 6.scale precision . semi-liquid rock from a volcano. The stratosphere is a high layer of the atmosphere. short / shortness / shortens 5.regular rate . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • officially registered . 3. 7. heavy / weight / weigh Examples in context • • • • • • • • steady .recorded altitude . When did it become extinct / How long ago did .mean quantity . Checkpoints IN OTHER WORDS -« Exit test 1.thick half the diameter .depth transversal measurement . .. What runs very fast? THE WORD WEB -< 1. Famine is when people die or are hungry because of a lack of food. 8.cross-section measurement of volume . 5.4. 10.movement Aerobic Threshold running . An island is land which is surrounded by water. 5.slowed down which weighs a lot . organisation set .attained nearly .schedule. BACK TO BASICS •< 1.group.beat seldom * often pattern .accuracy vary .the upper limit of aerobic exercise just before lactate acid is produced. 8.3.almost average .every other day range .height measurement downwards ..162 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH -» 1. ranging / range / range 4.range reached . weak/weakness/weakens 6.. 4.vary swing . equipped / equipment / equipped 7.radius extent . slightly thin inaccurate stage even shallow extent monitoring scale strengthen UNIT 2 Entry test 1. measuring / measurements / measure 3.. 4. How much does it weigh / How heavy is . 9. 3.cubic opposite of thin . beats swings per recurrence rate steadily every series hourly ratio Magma is the hot. 10. wide/width / widen 2. 7. series every second day .? 2. What did the specialists examine? 4. /What is the weight? 3.Notes ' 8. 2. 6. 9. red / redness / reddens G. 2.amount zone .heavy «-£ 1.

gradually continual ... —^ Talking point Darwin showed that evolution was a result of genetic mutations which were transmitted and then reinforced by natural selection.. involved in / g 7 accounts for / h 8.. random catches . per second ... work out / d 6...alternating 2 times . A sonar system is a system which uses echoes to locate objects. rate increases . /n • -» 2.. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • (1) -waves which are reflected . 163 Treadmill . • • • • • • • • • • • • • repeated . /m • 13. (8) .. range.pulses / frequencies used by bats . carry out/ a.. 6.non-stop from time to time ...in /out often at a constant rate . 5.randomly 1 : 10 .. consist of / b 4. rely on / f 2.. THE WORD WEB -< 1. d 3.2.recurrent rarely .. it depends on what you mean.twice little by little . / c. /d 10.. / k • 18. depends on / c. A predator is an animal which kills and eats other animals. / b • 9. 3. periodically and are in .. /o • 17. / I • 19.the sentence can be either right or wrong. It is this . 10. 6. usually used by other . BACKTO BASICS -< Actually ..beat changes . pattern of "Tadarida teniotis".. daily examination . /i • 12... 4. 7 8.1.a machine (for exercise) on which you walk without advancing. echoes. /j • 14. set up / e 5. Lamarck believed that acquired characteristics could become hereditary and be passed on to the offspring. 2.seldom succession ... /g • 15. As the bat .ANSWERS Exercises -» 2. The sentence does not mean "now/ today / at the moment" but it means "you may be surprised to know/contrary to what most people think / in fact. The skin is a membrane which covers an animal's body. Checkpoints IN OTHER WORDS -< 11.periodic pulsation ../f 16. 9. the number is increasing".4. Food is a substance which we eat to obtain calories. series of genetic mutations .steadily one after the other .series without method . a • 8. wavelength of 3 cm . / e • -«$< 2.. g Exit test 1. cluster daily pattern seldom recurrent array evenly range random hardly -» 2. /a 7. frequencies / pulses than those ...3.. /h 20.fluctuations . proportion of large insects ..

164

MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH 5. 6. 7. thinner / thinnest the more expensive a car is, the better it is because it is unique

UNIT 3
Entry test 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7 8. 9. 10. both less hotter unlike same as enhances spread / spreading hair-like improved matching

-fr 3.2,
• • • • • • • • largest - biggest / greatest > little - less than closely match - are very similar to well-suited - suitable / adapted unlike - in contrast to 100 x > great - a 100 times as great as / a 100 times greater than warmer and more humid - hotter and wetter Mars-like conditions - Mars analog conditions / conditions comparable to Mars improved - better/enhanced major - main enhanced - better / more efficient to further - to extend / develop similar in shape to a U - U-shaped

Examples in context The Hindenburg crashed in Lakehurst, New Jersey in 1937, coming from Germany. The crash was caused by an explosion due to a hydrogen leak. The Hindenburg earned essentially passengers. The competition of faster aeroplanes in the 1930s and their vulnerability to bad weather made Zeppelins less and less competitive. • • • • • • • • • • underestimation * overestimation heavier than * lighter than lessens * increases enhance * reduce strengthened * weakened foremost * the least important lowered * raised reduces * increases major * minor the fewer infrastructures there are, the cheaper ... * the more infrastructures there are, the more expensive ... • shortened * lengthened • leading * secondary • • • • •

«
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

3.3.

Exercises
-> 3.1. - A '-*- see G. Notes 4)

improved - enhanced -i-good - better -i-versatility - more versatility increasing - raising worst * best main - foremost +easy - easier -expensive - less expensive in contrast to - unlike + low - lower + accuracy - more accuracy match - suit 20 x > great - 20 times as great as / greater than more * fewer extends - widens +far - further reduce - lessen

«-> Talking point
1. 2. The material is programmed by forming it into the parent shape. The temperature is raised.

1. 2. 3. 4.

warmer / -est

easier /-iest
more / the most expensive less / the least expensive

ANSWERS As a result, crystallisation of the switching segment occurs. 4. The material can be bent into another configuration. 5-7. When reheated, it will switch back to the parent form at the transient temperature. -^ 3.4. Checkpoints
IN OTHER WORDS

165

3.

UNIT 4
Entry test 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. almost steady basically relevant widespread roughly minute outstanding reliable steep

A rat is similar to a mouse but much bigger. Diamond is similar to glass but much harder. A village is similar to a town but much smaller. The climate of Mars is similar to Haughton but much colder in winter. BACK TO BASICS To agree - "/ do not agree (with you) that..." (N.B. - Do not put "to be" before agree: "•f-sfn agreed-that..."} THE WORD WEB 1. regulation 2. expand 3. standardisation 4. accumulates 5. explosion 6. pressure 7. generated 8. minimised 9. extension

Examples in context • • • • • • • • • • • • • • average - mean slightly - a little sharp - steep, sudden roughly * exactly steep * gradual steadily - regularly more or less - approximately virtually - almost entire - whole to a certain extent - partly on the whole - basically foremost - leading basically - fundamentally widespread - common

Exit test
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7 8. 9. neither/ nor enhanced boost match spreading weaken unlike twice as fast the poorer people are, the less they eat 10. overheat

GRAPH

166

MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH • • • • • relatively - fairly tiny - minute satisfactory - suitable practically - virtually tremendous, enormous - huge «->• 4.4. Checkpoints

Exercises -» 4.1.-A

1./g • 2 . / h • 3 . / j • 4 . / k • 5 . / b 6 . / e • 7 . / f • 8 . / d - 9 . / a • 10./i 11./i • 1 2 . / C

-f 4.1. -B
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. efficient huge basically reliable widespread roughly virtually typical thoroughly outstanding hardly any to a certain extent / basically
-» 4.2.

IN OTHER WORDS

-<

An adolescent is a young person, that is to say, someone who is not yet an adult. A bus is a vehicle that carries people, that is to say, a means of transport. Cancer is a disease caused by an uncontrolled growth of cells, that is to say, a tumour. An antibiotic is a chemical product that can destroy viruses or bacteria, that is to say, a drug. BACK TO BASICS -< Important - "Important" should be used only in sentence 1.
-*• if you have made a mistake, check the mean-

• • • • • • • • • • • • • •

virtually - almost / practically tiny - minute major - leading massive - huge practically - almost extremely - exceedingly hardly - barely proper - real / appropriate efficient - reliable relevant - appropriate crucial - acute / real scarcely - hardly / barely utterly - entirely thorough - careful
-» 4.3.

ing in the G. Notes 6

THE WORD WEB 1. / of • 2. / at • 3. / for • 4. / with 5./of • 6./to • 7./in • . /in Exit test 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. major/main roughly virtually slightly extent chief reliable suitable whole scarcely

• • • • • • • • • •

(1) - extensive - widespread key - crucial / foremost relatively - quite approximately - roughly constantly - steadily dependable - reliable leading - foremost careful - thorough (9) - essentially - basically nearly - almost / virtually

ANSWERS

167

-» 5.2.

UNIT 5 Entry test
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
thereby namely that is to say moreover in spite of nevertheless such as hence besides as a rule

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

Examples in context (possible answers) • • • • • • • • doubtless - clearly / in all probability that is to say - in other words despite - although he was suffering from as a result of - because of besides - not only did he / apart from as a rule - usually / generally i.e. - that is to say however - unfortunately / but the tracheotomy • thereby - thus • nevertheless - in spite of this

... are the most powerful releases of energy within the solar system ... ... 10-20 million K. ... temperatures of 100 million K can be attained. ... consists of ultraviolet radiation and X-rays. They are converted into solar plasma heat ... Accelerated particles ... electrons, protons and heavy nuclei ... Particles take 36-48 hours to reach the Earth ... ... only a small part of the energy arrives. ... there is an effect on the magnetosphere and ionosphere. ... radio communications are disrupted. ... they cause magnetic storms. The Earth's atmosphere is heated ... The particles can damage electronic instrumentation ...

-» 5.3.
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • (1) - since /as as a result however namely furthermore whereas / however as /since (8) - therefore / hence such as although in fact besides naturally thereby / therefore / hence hence / therefore -> 5.4. Checkpoints
IN OTHER WORDS -<

Exercises
-» 5.1.-A

1./J 6./e
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

2./a • 3./f 7/c • 8 . / g
-» 5.1.-B

4./h 9./b

5./d 10./i

actually whereas yet despite the fact namely hence thereby / hence obviously / hence

The solar system - basically, the solar system consists of the sun and the 9 planets. A zoo - basically, a zoo consists of a collection of animals for public display.

168
A telescope - basically, a telescope consists of a tube and a series of adjustable lenses. Water - basically, water consists of two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen. BACK TO BASICS < According to - all the sentences are correct except sentence 3. "According to" is rarely used to express one's own opinion. -*• look at the G. Notes 12 for more detail on how to express personal opinion THE WORD WEB < 1. immobile 2. anticlockwise 3. unaware 4. inaccurate 5. disabilities 6. improbable 7. disconnected 8. irrelevant 9. irresistible 10. antifreeze Exit test 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. besides namely despite nevertheless as a rule whereas obviously thereby / thus doubtless / doubtlessly hence

MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH

UNIT 6
Entry test 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. have known are now waiting had been working / had worked have found are being have finished/finish never worked suffer had already mapped was burning / burned

Examples in context • kills - pres. simp. - everyone knows that (general truth) • have shown - pres. perf. simp. - Over recent years • is taking - pres. cont. - currently • criticised - past simp. - At the beginning of the month • had not been matched - past. perf. simp, passive - before they were tested (implicit) • has been working - pres. perf. cont. - up to now (implicit) • aims - pres. simp. - it defines what they are (implicit) • were intending - past cont. - temporary duration in the past (implicit) • have demonstrated - pres. perf. simp. so far -^ Talking point • It is a fact - but is it clearly understood by everyone? • They were not properly matched. • Trying to provide independent scientific advice. • The dangers of cancer outweigh the dangers of minor faults in protocols.

Notes 1 • volcanic • natural • refractive • optical • valuable • colourless • yellowish • greenish • reliable • industrial • useful Exit test 1. 1. 3. .on-going."historical" dates (passive) «$• 6.1. -*• see G. A drug is basically a way of treating an illness. cont.3. 169 2. a fuel.the high mortality rate is partly due to heart attack from old age and partly to lightning. / (d) passive (by a speleologist) / past simp. in other words.concerned with historical information "is living" . perf.from then (80 years ago) up to now "has enlarged" . 2. 3. Over the last 20 years 1. / (c) passive (by people) / pres. pres. "were taken" . a sensor.A (possible answers check in the Key points for tenses) 1. in other words. / (a) 8. pres. pres. / (g) 10. / (e) 9. a) "has probably had . / (h) 6. passive (by the laboratory) / past perf. 2. pres. perf. A nose is basically an organ used for smelling. simp. a medicine.it is therefore". in other words. perf. 4. The results are important now the text is concerned with the influence of Aristotle up to now. present time. The remarks (about antiquity) are addressed to the reader today. 2. 4. 4.1. in other words. / (b) passive (by experts) / pres. simp. past cont. now "has been developed" . 3. nowadays / currently while recently The New Scientist reports that but with little success so far / over the last 20 years 6. / (9) pres. almost exclusively past tense . perf. currently 9. -B • • • • • • is seeking has played / is playing / has been playing have been involved are working are / will be expected have had / have A letter is basically a written message.4.2. It is a fact that 8. They wanted to turn base metal into gold. -» 6. 5. / (c) -fr Talking point Golf.ANSWERS Exercises •^ 6. simp. Checkpoints IN OTHER WORDS -» 6. simp. has recognised was considering is influencing / has influenced had improved -» 6. Notes 16 THE WORD WEB • crystalline B. previously 7. cont. 5. Petrol is basically a source of energy. this year/over the last 20 years 10. a means of communication.the results are important now. cont. BACK TO BASICS It transforms mechanical energy into electrical energy. / (h) 7. 3. 1. b) "it must be remembered . . simp.have been using".

5. 9. 6.because of stems from . 9.1. • Where does the financial backing come from? • What is lightning responsible for? • What did the rockets carry? • What do laser beams do? • What does the laser beam generate? • When did they trigger a discharge? I Franklin's kite Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) was a US statesman (he helped write the "Declaration of Independence") and scientist. 10. 8.1752). 7.consequently / thereby results in . lead thus / therefore due to spark (off) outcomes resulted in owing to by-product since thereby Examples in context • • • • • • • • • • • • as .triggers off / leads to therefore . 6. hence / since / e owing to / f thanks to / owing to ("since" is possible if it has a temporal and not a causal meaning) / a lead to / g since / d was brought about / c 5.sparks giving rise to .therefore / thus as a result . 2. 4.as a result of this triggers . 8. comes from / b arises / h .due to the fact that / since hence . -» 7. 10. UNIT 7 Entry test 1.result thus . He is famous for having proved that atmospheric electricity is the same as the electrostatic charge that can be found in a Leyden jar. 4.hence thanks to .-A 1. 3.causing Exercises -» 7. 2.comes from outcome . 7. 5.170 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH have identified is drilling has managed were studying eat / is eaten had been utterly destroyed 3. 7.2. In his famous (and very dangerous experiment . 6.consequently thereby . 8. he flew a kite during an electric storm and conducted electricity down a wet string to a Leyden jar.

hence / thus / since there is only ... A biologist is a person whose job is to study biology. lies THE WORD WEB 1. underemployed 7. 3.. 7. rises 8. raise 7.. 2. underachieve 6. lie 2. H> 7. . • • • • • • • • • • since it has the highest . BACK TO BASICS 1. 10.. raise 3. understaffed UNIT 8 Entry test 1. a) It explains the rules. 4.. overexposed 2. lay 4. resulting in blind spots .. lay 6. 5.4. 7.3. 2. b) You are talking to someone who is a possible candidate for the prize. stems from a failure . overproduction 3. 10. unmatched 8. 8. trigger certain harmful consequences . 3. 9. overeat 5. 6.. 2. 171 Exit test 1.. 8. a) You are talking about a possible future event-for instance. overestimate 9. A dentist is a person whose job is to treat teeth. An electrician is a man whose job is to repair electrical equipment. 9. but it would logically lead to certain results.... unchecked 4.. Checkpoints owing to therefore spark (off) stemmed spin-off arises outcome triggered (off) bring about effect IN OTHER WORDS -« A manager is a person whose job is to run a firm.1.. is brought about by the pathological development . . 4. the issue is being debated in Parliament.. outcome is that patients are no longer. on account of the ageing population .ANSWERS -» 7. b) This is just a speculation.. is transformed would be had not collided means will go off / goes off would take becomes would have been burned will be unless Exercises -» 8.. 6.. rises 5.. by-product of the conversion . thus / hence deformed .. 5.A 1.

then you use a fax.. .. .. micro-organisms would be destroyed. . Progress can be expected on condition that there is a breakthrough in chip miniaturisation. 5. • Provided they have sufficient . unless it comes . unless 10. On condition that the hypothesis is satisfied.question 1 • If the trajectory of an asteroid or a comet intersects . you would have to learn Russian.. millions would have died.. (a lot) -> if you made a mistake.. do something about the shortage . 6.. 9. -f 8. A parachute .. action can be taken.. A map .. this future consequence is inevitable.. Unless implant techniques are improved.2. b) Oil hasn't been discovered so the standard of living has not changed. Biometrics has a future provided huge data bases are set up.. these objects may reach .. Checkpoints IN OTHER WORDS 3.. . 4..if you want to turn off the electricity... .. . progress has been made . 3.if you want to know which road to take.1. ««> 8. . • If the Earth had not received carbon and water from meteorites. .-C (some variation in the answers is possible for type of conditional. taking measures . you would have got the job.. 4. . made arrangements . 7 8.... noise made by the shock wave. 2.... then you use the switch. then you had better use a parachute.. the ovaries continue to produce progesterone. Amplification and regeneration techniques must be improved.. Notes 20 for more detail THE 1. then you use a map. there would be a danger of famine. 2.. 6.172 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH a) Speculation. . . provided / providing is pumped out would dry up condition would have been range had taken place would spread / had spread / was going to spread 9.. 2.. 2. 3.. little can be done . .. «H^ 8. there will be no progress. see Key points) 1. -» 8.question 2 (examples) • If it hadn't been a false alarm..3.. 7 8.. however . 5...if you want to send a message quickly. 7 8. otherwise 1. • It is not. -> 8. would not have learned to fly. the gases evaporate .. 3. there would have been global tsunamis... it is labelled .. 3.... 5.2.. life would not have been possible on Earth....if you want to jump out of a plane. Exit test 1. (few) It rained hard all day. 4.. . A fax .4. . . . the damage would have been enormous. you want to become a member of the Antarctic research team. BACK TO BASICS He has hardly any friends. 4. . WORD WEB ...... damage was done ... . otherwise development will be delayed.. 6.. take a completely different approach... look at the G. • If the asteroid had not landed in theTaiga forest. .. • If their trajectory brings . A switch . • The Task force wouldn't have been set up if there hadn't been a threat..

will perhaps .. . . . 8..it is almost certain could . They can be caused .. The minister could have resigned .. 36. The pilot may / might / could have misunderstood .. 3..... 2.-B 1. there should be no real . . He can't / couldn't have caused .It is assumed that this . The money . 4. The epidemic must have killed . ... This must be the right ... (8) .....Tsunamis must be among . we should see .adopt the hypothesis might ..you can use a computer either as a word processor or to consult the Web.probable ought to . it is unlikely that the trajectory .... Water ....it is possible assume . which might occur .you can use the money either to go on a holiday or to buy a computer.... . 2. 3... A computer . 9. .. • • • • • unexpected .. 5.4. all the information (no "-s") 2. Supposing that the mountain .. the news + is 3.. will be dumped .accept responsibility -» 9. -» 9. perhaps it was not... -» 9. The temperature can range ... The techniques might / may enable .. The resulting waves can / may attain . 7.stop • to take on a difficult job ..distribute • to give up smoking .... -^ 9...3..... b) Perhaps it was. .... could / may well present .. 5. A Landrover . Notes 22 THE WORD WEB • to give out exam papers . 4. Farmers could use . d) It is a fact. .you can use a Landrover either in town or on mountain tracks. should not unlikely may ought to likely must have been should will doubtless might a) It is almost certain...2.. 7.it cannot be excluded should .ANSWERS • • • • • • can .000 people may have been killed.1.this is a possibility 173 UNIT 9 Entry test 1... 8.it is advisable must ..will theoretically will . more advice (no "-s") 4. this must have been caused . three pieces / bits of equipment -* see G.. would doubtless generate . He should have saved .it is certain may . BACK TO BASICS 1.. 10. low-lying islands may / can be utterly submerged.-C 6. 10...you can use water either to wash with or to drink.. it is estimated that more . 6. .surprising likely ... c) This is one of the possible explanations...1.. . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • (1) . 9. Checkpoints IN OTHER WORDS Examples in context (other answers are possible) can / (c) • will / (d) • should / (g) • could/ (f) • may / (e) • might / (a) • must / (b) Exercises -> 9.

2... 4. 7..174 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH 7... 7.. In what way is the pressure transmitted? What do the valves control? What was responsible for industrial stagnation? • • • • • to take out a tooth . 2. target supplying so as to aim thereby designed / devised by means of enables allowed through -f 10. 6. 6. 9. . 6. / e • 5. 3. designed provides responsible for make it possible in order to so that purpose aims -» 10.. . 6. -A 1. . might / may (have) should must have could / can may / could / might have will assume feasible expected likely -» 10. 7. is to devise / design ways of improving these figures.. .. 3.... which enables these minute . 5.. 5.. . UNIT IP Entry test 1.. the primary objectives of the aircraft industry . . has been able to design / devise software ... by means of voice recognition . / g • 6.. 2..3. 8.2. / f • 2 . 4..../d • 7/c -» 10. / a • 3 .. 9.. 4.increase to step in to prevent a conflict .remove to step up production . Examples in context 1. 3. 5.divide into small pieces to cut off the electricity . / b • 4 . .. 8... . 8. be identified so that the pilot's voice .1... 8. 10.. 10. 9. will be able to provide early warning . 3. human factor that is responsible for 80% of air accidents. 2.stop the supply Exercises Exit test 1. 5.1. ..intervene to cut up meat . -B 1 .. the system makes it possible to detect tiredness .... What does the human being provide? How does the machine operate? How does the man keep his balance? What do the counterweights do? What is the water pipe for? What do the steel springs do? What has it enabled them to do? What was the primary aim? Why do they adopt unusual behaviour? Why did she shift position? What was the objective? What made it impossible to gain access? What were the counter measures devised to do? Why did he walk away? .. 4.

4."I know where the food is. 7. if I leave the others will probably leave then I will come back and eat it by myself. I will pretend to leave. have been sent was set up were being used It is not widely known have been taken is provided is / are being recruited will be given will have to be mastered should be realised Examples in context (answers are open to interpretation) L/C • 2 . 8. / e • 6 . / f • 5. 8. 2. If I take it now the others will seize it from me. A loudspeaker is a system that has been designed to transform electric waves into sounds. when he leaves he then comes back and finds food. A voice recognition program is software that has been designed to turn speech into text. so as to 10. Notes 24 THE WORD WEB • destructive • reliable • occurrence • warning • improvement • accuracy 9. I wonder why. On the other hand. 10. 9. 7."That is strange. 3. 4. 5. Checkpoints -« •••••••• 175 • • • • • • • • ability reasonable eruption deformations seismographic / seismic recordings volcanic likelihood Exit test 1. 5. 4. / a • 4. / d • 7/b . / g ." -^ 10. 2. target through / thanks to enable by means of thus / therefore make it possible purpose devise IN OTHER WORDS A turbine is an object that has been designed to transform pressure into electricity.ANSWERS • Why did he remain hidden? • What can function as a tool? -^ Talking point Chimpanzee A is thinking: . 6. hide behind a tree and watch what happens. 3. A is suddenly leaving." B is thinking: . Often. 6. Perhaps he will do it this time. thereby / thus UNIT 11 Entry test 1.3 .The others do not. BACK TO BASICS (other answers are possible) • flowers grow • a child grows up • to suddenly realise • to carry out clinical tests • the last bus • the latest news • a personal experience • a scientific experiment -»• see G. A solar panel is a device that has been designed to turn photons into electricity.

3. 2. . 6. 8.. Hibernation is the period during which the metabolic rate of animals drops. 1. fossilised 5... . . 5.4. enriched 3. Checkpoints IN OTHER WORDS Exercises -> 11. 11.2.. 4. enlarged 4. Vaporisation of sample Sample pumped through the sensor container Electrified sensors react chemically to gas.3. specialised 6... A semester is a period during which we work at University. 2. blood vessels are required . two thousand and five / March the second • Five three double oh six five • It costs a hundred euros • Nought point five oh three • Half past two / two thirty • A quarter to six / five forty five -»> see G..2. .. Ramadan is the period during which Moslems fast (do not eat). blood vessel growth has been thoroughly examined. enabled 7. . 6.. 10. Chemical reaction produces electrical variation.. 2. the clinical trials have not been completed... It is (widely) acknowledged that a key role has been played . 6. 5.. . 7. Data identified -f 11. 3. minimise 2.. were kept can be damaged is being done has been designed was developed can be assumed is brought can be easily handled should be removed has been shown can be obtained are now being manufactured . Notes 26 THE WORD WEB 1.question 2 • • • • is reported by our correspondent has been modelled by the research team are enclosed by the designers can then be identified by pattern recognition software • can be immediately distinguished by the e-nose • have to be analysed by biologists «->• Talking point (your flow chart should include the following stages) A weekend is a period during which we have time to relax. 4.question 1 • an electronic nose is being developed • their molecular structure can be engineered • the airflow is ensured by a circulation pump • the detection process is speeded up • 3 million people are killed each year -|> 11. Data is processed and matched to memory bank.176 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH «-f> 11. . ensure Exit test 1.. six hundred and seventy three • 9 to the power minus 6 (nine to the minus six) • The second of March. 5. BACK TO BASICS • Forty-seven • Ninety three thousand.. 3.. specific molecules could be used .. 9. 7. 4.. 1. are being tested.. . 12. characterised 8. was discovered .

3. more and more replacement tissue will be needed. a vehicle a robot a path pumps a generator alloy a frame a case its (clearance) capacity > 12.. 2. -» 12. 8 •4 12. Using injectable polymers . Proteins which protect by preventing freezing. .. 3. 9 1.. 6. fully ambulatory physiological monitoring system • space motion sickness • 9-volt lithium thionyl chloride batteries • blood volume pulse • skin conductance level • • • • • • • • • • Exercises «» 12. To hurry means to go faster so that you do not arrive late. 6. 9. 10.1. battery-operated. 8.2. 4. 6.-B 177 a) b) c) 3. 2. 5. Checkpoints IN OTHER WORDS To diet means to eat less food so that you lose weight. a heat measurement instrument / device an alpha-ray detection device a passenger transport system a space research organisation an information transmission appliance a heart muscle regulator a paper data bank a disease carrying organism -» 12. A period during which incubation takes place and which lasts 3-6 days. 4. Examples in context • a light-weight. To examine means to study closely so that errors can be detected. 3.-A 1. 4. 5.1. 5. 5. 7 8. 4. 4. It has been reported / said . 3. 9. 7 8. . 1. 2.. 7.. light sensitive cells a geostationary espionage satellite a petrol (burning) engine a 2 metre (wide) meteorite crater a computer controlled injection system a fast increasing unemployment rate a senior microbiology research technician a 4-day conference a one-legged landmine victim a three child family 1. 10 2.-C (other answers are possible) UNIT 12 Entry test 1. A mine which is placed underwater and can be controlled at a distance. A column which is made of concrete and weighs 25 tonnes. 10.. assisted fertilisation technologies low sperm count outside donor sperm computer controlled glass pipette 65% implantation success rates fastest-growing areas St Louis infertility centre genetically related sperm defect long-term effect human gene pool -fr 12.3.4. 9. Activity which is located in the brain of rats. 7. 2. 5.ANSWERS 8.1. 6.

Consequently... the risks of natural radiation are far greater. 4.. 3... Notes 30 Exit test 1.. 8. the disease virtually died out.. Each sector corresponds to the statistical distribution of the total radiation risk. . 3. 12. there is no surplus available which accounts for the lack of capital to invest.. 8. the data was first published in 1994. 6. the male. 5.. 2.. Notes 29 OHP Part 1 1.. there was a slow but steady increase and then the curve began to rise sharply. .. Inevitably.. 7. WORD WEB to throw away / c to look through /f to put forward / a to speed up / h to carry on / e to cool down / g to make out / b to put it off / d 5. 0 ultraviolet light at 0 night.. the less they consume. 8. the curve levelled off. . 9.. The scorpion is a . this situation leads to technological stagnation. The danger of radiation from radon sources is roughly seven times as high.. 0 sexual activity 0 females .178 To sum up means to repeat the main points so that everyone understands. After a sharp increase. a three man space module a gene sequencing program long-term survival techniques profit-oriented drug research rising carbon dioxide levels an 88 millimetre (diameter) steel tube bone destroying cancer cells a 4-day trial period satellite controlled sensoring techniques a four-legged. 0 high temperatures . US consumption of meat is roughly ten times as much as in Zambia. 2. -» multi-word verbs: see G. this means that there is a low crop output. THE 1. 11. a zoologist working at 0 . 14. the number of cases fell abruptly. 4. Immediately after attaining a peak of 250 per thousand. 3. . From then on. BACK TO BASICS 1. 0 arachnid ecology. 13.. As you can see in the bottom left hand corner.. . -*• see G.. 0 neurotoxins . Per capita consumption as a percentage of US consumption can be seen on the horizontal axis.. 0 activity. 6. Basically. a few hours .. 3. 7. The causes of death are indicated in the left hand column. 5. the nervous system ... the Middle East. the poorer countries are. Figure A provides comparative data on the probability of unnatural death in the USA. Clearly. 5. 4. 6. 10. 0 South Africa and the Philippines . 4. 9. Since productivity is low. To begin with. 2. six-winged insect 10. 7. 2.. 0 death.

B.The first is common in the UK and the second more widely used in the US. *. "-f". >.to advertise • to devise • to compromise • theorise / theorize . The shift is from an "unvoiced sound" (no vibration of the vocal chords) to a "voiced" sound. must be spelt "-ise". Spelling I t -»-d / c-»-s / f-»-v A minor change in spelling can occur between nouns and verbs and between singular and plural with words ending in "-t". d I Red .begin / beginning • travel / traveller • crystal / crystalline I American and British English There are some minor spelling differences between British and American English: • "-ise" / "-ize" are in most cases interchangeable verb endings.redden Monosyllabic words finishing with a single consonant preceded by a single vowel double the consonant. "-c". however. >• to organise / organize • privatise /privatize • Some words. >• red / redden • big / bigger • hot/hotter N.GRAMMAR NOTES 1. . >• cool /cooler The same rule applies for many (but not all) polysyllabic words ending with one consonant.In the following example the consonant is not doubled as it is preceded by two vowels.

180 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH I In Am. -When the Q word is the subject of the sentence the form is: (o WQfi&) 4.colour behavior . E. E.meter . the pattern is: (o yVQBD) + DO 0Q£S DID + SUBJECT + INFINITIVE (Why) Do Does Did you he he work? work? work? I N. 2.B. high.color centre . Pronunciation of p K is pronounced /pai/ cf.metre . "program" is used when referring to computer sciences.traveler leveled -AMME -»> -AM programme* .traveller (and double consonants) levelled * In Br.labor . behaviour-labour . E. "my.theatre center . there is a tendency to simplify and spell phonetically.theater program .. Questions I The question form for auxiliary verbs and modals is: (o WORD) + AUXILIARY MODAL + SUBJECT + VERB FORM ADJ/ADV (Why) Is Must Is she he he there? work? working? I For verbs which are not auxiliaries. Br. -OUR ^>-OR -«F -*•-ER -ER Am. sky". VERB Who worked? (answer: John worked) . 3. E.

big. words which express qualities that are "binary"." -y -» -i >• It is easier than I thought. I Quite = totally with words which are not "gradeable" (i. Long adjectives: "expensive. Short adjectives ending in "-y": "easy... fast.. the less comfortable she feels. Short adjectives ending with one consonant preceded by one vowel: "hot. you cannot use "more" or "less". important ." more / less + adj + than It is more expensive than I expected. Quite This word has two very different meanings: I Quite = relatively when modifying words which are "gradeable" (i. "either / or").It is hotter than yesterday.." >• It is quite warm today • The film was quite good • The book was quite interesting . 5. Parallel comparatives (the second action is dependent on the first) (the + comp + S + V) + (the + comp + S + V) The hotter she is.. tiny . Something can be more or less "warm.. which can be associated with "more" or "less").. good.GRAMMAR NOTES 181 4.. quick .e.e. The hotter she is. You are . red ." double consonant + -er >..." adj + -er + than >• It is colder than yesterday. the more she drinks. hot ... Comparative I Short adjectives: "cold.

something is either right or wrong. It is used to express a difference between reality and what people think. >• The animal was quite dead • You are quite wrong • It is quite impossible .considering the knowledge that I have. the research may yet prove to be valuable. but it was not important. . 9. it did not matter) 7 Yet (multiple meanings) I Meaning: "but. surprise.e. It means. 75% volunteered. 8.182 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH either dead or alive. by contrast" >• He was suffering from cancer. Important Important is a false friend." Look at the examples: >• It is a small but important town.. 6. valuable. I Meaning: "up to now" (only used in negative and interrogative phrases) >• / have not yet finished the book. and personal opinion. crucial. Actually.. Doubtless This is not really an equivalent of "it is certain". having an effect .She was convinced that she was clever. >• NASA expected 25% of the pilots to volunteer for space training. "I. yet he never complained.The increase in exports was important.. It does not mean "now. the speaker have no doubt .. It has only the meaning: "significant. (strategically significant) >.. (i.. there is no reason to think otherwise. Actually This is one of the most common false friends. but it had a crucial impact for the country) >• The number of people at the meeting was limited. she was rather stupid. >. (not necessarily a big increase. currently". but actually. I either agree or disagree with you. I Meaning: "time in the future" >• Despite the bad results." >• He will doubtless come • You will doubtless find a solution . It expresses contradiction. In English important never has the meaning "big". In many languages it has two meanings: "big" and "significant".

e. >. ».personal opinions According to is rarely used when speaking about yourself.) >• I just saw him. 12. /i. • post hoc = after the fact. Thereby / therefore The difference between thereby and therefore is not always obvious. but it is not necessarily true (cf. . • i.Personally. • e. When speaking of your own opinions you should use phrases like: "I would say • Personally. however. >• / have just seen him. • PhD = doctor (philosophiae doctor). (Am.An anticoagulant is added. I think/believe • It seems to me • In my opinion .. is not of Latin origin). *Therefore means "consequently".m.The British normally use the present perfect with just. it will rain tomorrow.e.According to Shenfield. = for example (exempli gratia). 13./ would say that she is at least 30 years old.cit.000 years old. 11. •Thereby means "as a consequence of this action". . • op..GRAMMAR NOTES 183 10.g. /p.. I think that the state of public transport is scandalous." >. • a. The Americans often prefer the past simple. • non sequitur . = in the work that has been quoted (opere citato). be followed by other verb forms. thereby maintaining the blood in a fluid state. Just There is a slight difference between US and UK usage. • N. It is used to indicate what somebody else thinks. the fossils are 27. "John claims that.) . >. >• A photosensitive molecule can change shape and thereby set off a chain of reactions. = that is to say (id est).g.e. E. = note (nota bene). thereby is followed by an "-ing" form.before / after midday (ante / post meridiem)."). It is usually reserved for "outside" or "expert" opinion. (Br.it does not logically follow. • status quo = the existing state of affairs. E. It can also.B. In most cases.. According to . >~ According to the news.m.Latin expressions A large number of Latin expressions and abbreviations are still widely used in modern English: • AD = after the birth of Christ (Anno Domini) (BC = "Before Christ".

(during that period of my life which is now finished) 15. Never In slightly simplified terms we can say that never can be used with the present perfect when the subject is living. up to now in my life .... >~ Napoleon never went to Miami.) It was studied (by . for inevitably the action is part of "history". into is used with verbs like "to change. Present -SIMPLE -CONTINUOUS I study I am studying 'Passive • It is studied (by ... ' . The tenses: active and passive forms . up until now.} 16.. ' .184 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH 14.The cat jumped into the chair • He drove into the town centre .." >• / have never been to Miami.) Pres&nt perfect -simple I have studied . not yet in my life) If the subject is dead the past tense is used.) It was being studied (by .CONTINOUS I have been studying Past -SIMPLE -CONTINUOUS I studied I was studying It has been studied (by . Notice.) Past perfect -SIMPLE .a comparative table Active ' ... I never played Black Jack. to turn.. that a living subject may wish to refer to a period of his life that is finished ("historical"). with the meaning: "during my life. >.. Compare: >• / have never played Black Jack..When I was in Miami.. to make" which indicate a transformation. To transform / to turn / to change into The difference between in and into is that into indicates a change of state or a change of place.. however.. >• He was reading in a chair • She was working in the town centre . (so far in my life) and >.. Consequently.CONTINUOUS ~ I had studied 1 had been studying Ithad been studied (by . (so far. In this case. the past tense may be used. >• The prince was turned into a frog • To transform water into steam ... .. to transform.) It is being studied (by ..

To raise . Hard/hardly Compare the examples: >. would is used in the main clause. I Hardly (cf. he would stop corruption. scarcely) has a negative meaning. barely.to lie Compare: >• The government is raising the taxes. (i. he would have stopped corruption.He works hard / He hardly works •To work -hard •To hardly work means "to work a lot". In practice. >-I have hardly any money left.GRAMMAR NOTES 185 77 To trigger (off) / to spark (off) The verbs trigger and spark can be used with or without the particle "off". >.to rise / to lay .e. 18. •Tb. and is often followed by any. ^ The book is lying on the table.e. but not always. start". >• A psychosis can be triggered (off) by stress. I Notice the irregular past forms: To raise -*• raised / raised To lay -> laid / laid To rise -*• rose / risen To lie -»• lay/lain 19. they are followed by a complement). >• If he had been elected. (almost none) . means "to do almost no work". he would stop present corruption) 20. >• An electron or a proton can spark (off) a cascade of changes. he would have stopped corruption last year) If past conditions have present effects. I Rise and lie are intransitive verbs. ^ The taxes are rising. I Raise and lay are transitive verbs (i. Off emphasises the meaning "initiate. •To raise •To lay means "to put something in a higher position". means "to be in a flat position". past conditions refer to the past.riss •To lie means "to go to a higher position". Past conditions (3rd conditional) Typically. (i.e. >.If he had been elected. the difference between the two forms is small and they can be considered as being interchangeable. The meaning is to put something or someone in a different position.He lays the book on the table. means "to put something in a flat position".

Hardly usually goes before the word it qualifies.there is no possible doubt) Almost total certitude .She should not work so much.Will you post the letter for ma? tptease do it.B. (adv) I The adverb hard goes after the verb.It was raining hard. (a fact .He (should) come • He (ought to) come • I want him (to come) . It must be 5 o'clock. WILL MUST Total certitude about future events. the "to" is part of the modal . Modals: meaning We mentioned in the Key points (Unit 9) that modals often have several distinct meanings.You must lubricate the car. >• The food contained hardly any vitamins. >• Steel is a hard metal. predictions . .Hardly anyone came to the meeting. You are obliged to) >. >.. lit is necessary) . 21.. (I am convinced that it is 5 o'clock) >.probability 90% >. (adj) >. Modals: structure >.She's absent. N. I They do not take do / does / did to form the negative and interrogative. (it is the only logical explanation) ».In the modal "ought to". fit is the law You have to.186 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH I Hardly is an adverb.32 tomorrow.not of the infinitive.probability 100% >• The sun will rise at 5. Hard can be both an adjective and an adverb. she must be ill. >• He hardly said a word. additional meanings are listed in the dark box. >. I The progressive form can be used with modals. I They are always followed by the infinitive without "to". >. I Modals never take "-s" in the third person singular. >. In the table below.He has tried hard.Where is Helen? She may be working at home.You Must pay your taxes. Are you willing to do it?) >.

te^w u$& $w fibmry vrt$3p. news. (it is not feasible) Possibility >• 77?e s/?o/t c/rcu/Y could cause a break-down. the knowledge) >.Could I use your car? (please may I?) *-1 em see a plane in the distance • I «&»-lt«af a noise ' -Could you pass me the salt?"(would you be so kind as to pass me the -salt?) 22. (It is allowecO >* You '-ma stop work when you like.m. research . there is no plural form.That is to say that normally.. let me go Homel . you cannot associate them with the numerals "one" or "two".GRAMMAR NOTES 187 MAY MIGHT Probability >. what is feasible. (you ha\?e the permission) *• Gun you pass m& the salt? (p^s me the salt pl^fse) ^ Gtn-t go home now? {^ease. equipment. knowledge. advice.. (perhaps it will rain. (but I would be surprised) CAN HHHHi COULD • • •i • • i Ability or capacity .what is intellectually or technically possible. Countable / uncountable nouns I Words like "information." >• It might rain tomorrow." are uncountable nouns. .. progress. >~ / have -an-important information. (he has the capacity.Vt>u can't //Ve on Mars.often followed by "but. >-1 have 3-informations.It may rain tomorrow. (there are several possibilities this is one hypothesis) >•. >• He can speak German. perhaps it won't) Reduced probability ..

although it ends in "-s". to elaborate./ have an important bit / piece of information / news. The tests were carried out in secret. As the main reason for using the passive is to reduce the importance of the actor. You have missed the last bus. It refers to the elaboration of a new concept. However. Mice are often used for experiments as they breed fast.He devised a clever way of overcoming the problem.188 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH In order to itemise these words. 23. in contrast to its production. this is not very common (only about 20% of cases). >. I realised that I had made a major mistake It took three years to realise the objective." >. I To / for To is used before verbs. N. >• They replaced 2 pieces of equipment. use expressions like "a bit.The news is bad. The computers were designed for processing massive amounts of data. it is . A new system was devised for underwater exploration. >.The car was designed in Italy and made in Brazil.. 24.. LAST LATEST EXPERIENCE EXPERIMENT 25. >. . Have you heard the latest news? He was severely traumatised by his experience of war. Designed / devised + to / for I To design means to make or draw plans for a certain purpose.B. For is used to introduce nouns (including verbal nouns: '-ingMr was originally designed to operate 5 years. She grew up in the East End of London. a piece . Word pairs TO GROW TO GROW UP TO CARRY OUT TO REALISE (A) (B) To get bigger To become adult To do. I To devise has a similar sort of meaning. however. work out)."News" is singular. >• He designed a very simple little country house. perform To become aware To fulfil The final one The most recent Personal contact with reality A scientific test The population is growing. this word insists on the complexity of the process or the difficulty that is overcome (cf. "By" and the passive With passives it is possible to refer to the actor at the end of the sentence by using "by".

six hundred and thirty two thousand.. >• Thousands of people came. I said one hundred. five hundred and seventy one (N. ^ A hundred and fifty people came.5. • because the speaker wishes to avoid responsibility for what is said: >• It is said that hypnotism can .they have no complement to become subject: >. >• / didn't say two hundred.The liquid must be heated • The letter was typed and sent immediately . • because he is irrelevant or of secondary importance: >.GRAMMAR NOTES 189 logical that he should not be mentioned. . 26. Numbers I In British English..B.632.. million.. or refers to "people in general": >• He was arrested (obviously by the police) • War was declared • It is widely believed. numbers are read in the following way. >• 3..153 ZERO } Three thousand one hundred and fifty three.Zero degrees Kelvin. I The distinction between "a" and "one": • "a" is the neutral form. I Hundred. it is used if there is no opposition to another number... >. • You say "one hundred / thousand" to indicate that the number is in opposition to another number. The actor may be suppressed for a variety of reasons: • because he is unknown: >• He was killed during the war • Marilyn Monroe may have been murdered . . There are three words for zero in English: zero / oh / nought. I Intransitive verbs cannot take the passive form . only take "-s" if no number precedes them. >• € 100 >• 150 ^ It costs a hundred euros. • because the information is obvious. >."and" is inserted after hundred).571 = five million. I Zero is frequently used by the military or when referring to temperatures..The sun rises • The President died ... thousand.

a data bank • media studies .. two thousand and five) 27. >. medium) .722356805 DATES } Seven double two three five six eight oh five. >• 0. "made of steel". I Words which normally do not have a singular form with the same meaning.00 (or 14.2. "designed for computers" are implicit and do not need to be expressed.2.30 >. 28.. Compound nouns: implicit meanings In phrases such as: "X-ray therapy • a steel box • a 2 inch strip of copper • computer software ." [post meridiem]) >• 2.40 >• 2..15 >• 2. >• 02. nought and oh can be used alternately.It is two o'clock." the notions "using X-rays".03.m.2005 --> : 2nd March 2005 / March 2nd 2005 (the second of March / March the second." [ante meridiem] and "p. Jfc It is twenty to three / two forty. . >. >. >. (singular: datum.190 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH I In decimals. Compound nouns: plural modifiers As we have seen in the Key points. Dates can be written in different ways. there are exceptions..|> It is half past two / two thirty. } It is a quarter past two / two fifteen.503 TIME £ Nought point five oh three. >• a sports car • a newspaper • a physics book • a goods train • a communications network .. (if it is necessary to make the distinction between morning and night you say "a.10 >• 2.a five dollar note However. TELEPHONE NUMBERS In the UK. I Latin plurals are frequently used.00) 'f. ^ It is a quarter to three / two forty five..^ It is ten past two. "measuring 2 inches".m. telephone numbers are usually said individually. the modifying noun in a compound noun is nearly always singular. when two zeroes are present.45 : .

B. they are identifiable . iron and copper are metals / The gold that he used was 18 carat No article is used for continents..She needs advice.examples One of the striking features of English is the way in which verb meanings can be modified by adding particles (adverbs or prepositions .-An alternative way of saying the same thing would be to use the plural form. Articles: "the" / "a" I The definite article "the" is used when words are determined. I Zero article . Multi-word verbs .GRAMMAR NOTES 191 29.the species "dog") N. On the first occasion the noun (man / hat) is not determined. beauty and philosophy.. Swaziland and Zambia. >.also called prepositional and phrasal verbs).the United States • the Suez Canal • the Middle East.0 No article is used for abstract singular words. Words which are considered to be unique are accompanied by "the". cities or countries. The man was wearing a hat.. >. N. >. "the" is if course used.) "the" is used in scientific and formal language when referring to the totality of the class. At this stage."a" is used for nouns which are not determined..The dog is a four legged carnivore.B. (all dogs . etc. On the second it is (which man? . 30.the man I saw). You cannot use "a" with uncountable nouns. >• the sun • the sky • the moon • the government • the president.. >. That is to say. went to Africa and visited Botswana. I The indefinite article "a" is used for professions. you should try to familiarise yourself with these structures so you can recognise them. >. The hat was brown.Dogs are four-legged carnivores. >. >• His only subjects of conversation are love. • She is a doctor ./ saw a man on a bike.If the name is qualified.. Notes 22. . >• Gold. No article is used for materials and other uncountable nouns (unless they are determined).He is a microbiologist >. See G. Below you will find a list of multi-word verbs which are common in scientific English. . (of our country.you can answer the question "who?" or "which?" .He.

they carried on working. (to continue) >. (to return) >• She gave back all the money. (to stop) TO GO >. (to proceed) >• I can't go on working like this. (to continue) >. (to start) TO CARRY >.She turned down the offer of an internship in the US.She turned on the hot water.A cholera epidemic broke out./ am not sure of the figures.You should try to give up smoking. to destroy totally) >. (to divide into small pieces) The electricity supply was cut off after the snow storm. (to amputate) The tungsten disk cut through the plastic coating. (to disconnect) They had to cut off his leg because of the gangrene.B. (to stop functioning) >. complete) TO CHECK >. completely.To set up an experiment. (to finish. (to penetrate) TO GIVE >• He gave in his exam papers.Don't forget to turn off the electricity. To cut up the meat. (to finish. (to repay.They decided to go ahead with the project. - "UP" Notice that the particle "up" can have at least three completely different meanings: >• The temperature goes up The planet is warming up. (to reduce) She cut up the meat with a knife. (to verify from beginning to end) >.John checked into (* out of) the hotel at 12 o'clock.Despite the rain.Could you go through this paper for me? (to read and check) TO TURN >. (to create) . (to increase) >. (to refuse) N.They were unable to carry out their intentions.The government broke off negotiations (to interrupt) >.192 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH TO BREAK >. (to disconnect) >.The machine broke down. To blow up a building.The baby drank up the milk. (to connect) >. could you check up? (to make a complete verification) TO CUT >• >>>• >• The department must cut down on expenses. return) >. (to register arrival) >• Don't forget to check through the results.

\ >. For example.birthpsychology. it means that the site has been rewritten. Graph search When searching for graphs you will find it helpful to select [^"liT^ges""] on the tool bar and use strings like < graph data > or < graph statistics >.http://www.com/ ^V 32. You will probably be able to reach the same information if you type the home page and try searching from there. It is for this reason that when complex addresses are written we have entered the specific pages in bold.birthpsychology.GRAMMAR NOTES 193 31. try using complex search strings including words linked to your own field of interest. . you could enter < rate avalanche > or < rate biopsy murder > Below is an example on the home page of the Google research engine: 33. instead of just entering "rate". >http://www. Examples in context To obtain more interesting examples during a Web search.html If you find that an address does not function. Changes in address Web addresses change frequently because the sites are replaced or because the pages are rewritten.com/lifebefore/fetalsense.

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. E. to give you a rich variety of examples of how the word is used in context.. It has been simplified as much as possible and unnecessary grammatical information has been excluded. . In order to help you to assimilate the words. Once it has been learnt.200 words in English. it will enable you to deal with approximately 95% of the lexical items in any general scientific text. etc. at the same time. it is a learning tool.. I When antonyms are given they refer to the last example given. I Boxed notes are included for points of particular interest ("False friends". I Nouns. the Lexis has been divided into 10 sections corresponding to important areas of scientific discourse. It is organised in the following way : I Words are listed in only one section.LEXIS If you are using this book you probably already have a knowledge of at least 1. Abbreviations used in the Lexis n adj adv v prep pro noun adjective adverb verb preposition pronoun uonj num Br. Its aim is to provide you with a clear definition of what it is essential to know and. The following supplementary vocabulary consists of high frequency words found in both specialised and general scientific texts. The Lexis is not a dictionary.) I A general index is to be found at the end of the book.0001. I Groups of words that frequently occur together (collocations) are printed in heavy type... I Multiple meanings are indicated by 1. I The different definitions correspond to the order of the examples. 2. even though they may be associated with two or more categories. E. etc. det conjunctions number British English American English determiner . Am. adjectives and adverbs which have the same root and commonly used suffixes are listed together. verbs.

here there. yellow VOWELS i: i e 32 ei 9U say. must bird. It is hardly pronounced at a/I) boy. my now. thing fish. child jam. cat father. wear poor. jump thin. CONSONANTS tj d3 e 6 g I 3 j cheap. sure 9 cut. me his. think then. who DIPHTHONGS ai au 19 69 U9 91 go. shall measure yes. hot door. no fly.196 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH T h e phonetic alphabet The symbols used correspond to those in the "English Pronouncing Dictionary" (14th edition). It is never stressed. cow near. toy The sign /' / indicates that the syllabe which follows has a strong stress. mother sing. win get. more put. make a: D o: u u: A 31 see. let bad. Less familiar symbols are illustrated with key-words below. about (-+• this is the weak vowel. Many of the consonant symbols are identical. could too. Example: a qualified engineer -*• / g'kwolifaid endsi'nig / . car not. word doctor.

-*• Approximately * exactly 2. -*• Wide. In cases of acute suffering. This technique provides an accurate evaluation of the chemical reactions. -*• Quantity Amount / a ' m a u n t / n Breadth / b r e d G / n Area 1. -*7"o evaluate. large. The total amount of sulphur dioxide emissions has been reduced by 50%. adv Altitude can be most accurately determined by triangulation. diagram. Precision # inaccuracy n A yearly assessment of world population. -* To reach. I agree with you. -*• At a distance. to achieve Average adj n /'sevsrids/ Acute adj /s'kjuit/ An acute angle is less than 90°. -*• Sharp. A broad definition. The pancreas has a breadth of about 3. normal Almost adv /'orlmsust/ Away adv /s'wei/ The next town is 10 kilometres away. On average.7 m. A zone. related to Accurate / ' a e k j s r s t / adj Quartz watches are extremely accurate. the distance between the sides The river becomes broader as it approaches the sea. discipline Broad /bro:d/ adj adv 2.n Chart n /tju:t/ The daily evolution of the patient's temperature was plotted on a chart. -*• Width. The comet is moving away from the Earth. Industrial output was above average last month. Not at home. -*• Exact. The cool air sinks.8 cm.900°C. The average velocity is 10 m per sec. n To measure with great accuracy. such as burns. -*• Nearly A large amount of money. In the opposite direction # towards They measured the length. sector He is a specialist in this area. She will be away this weekend.prep A book about astronomy. Natural gas can attain temperatures in excess of 1. There was an acute shortage of food.7. Broadly speaking. The long-term impact is difficult to assess. mean. . -*• A field of study. graph. -*• A table. map Assess v /g'ses/ To assess the effects of solar radiation. What are you thinking about? -*• On the subject of. approximate * narrow It was almost time to stop work. The neutron has almost exactly the same weight as the proton. An evaluation Attain v /s'tein/ An adult zebra attains a height of about 1. -* Median.adv The car weighs about 1 tonne.000 stars. severe # mild The average life expectancy for human beings is about 80 years. Ptolemy's chart of the sky contained more than 1.n /'earis/ The area is the length multiplied by the width. he visits Madrid three times a month. -*• The size of the surface. very great. About 10% of the population caught the disease. the height and the breadth of the box. The population has almost doubled in the last 25 years. to succeed in getting something. morphine may be used. creating an area of high pressure. A thorough assessment of the health risks is required. India finally attained independence in 1947. A growing amount of radio-active waste. MEASUREMENT About / a ' b a u t / 1 .

to check in at the airport ' ' (tot register) •*. The Far East -* Distant. <*. the price.Pl"data". -* Smooth. (cost. -*• To mark on paper.b4 ' either singular or ptwral. -*• Divisible by 2 ^ odd 3. A typical sample The data is stored on the hard disk. disease depends on the standard of living.adj The microscope must stand on an even surface. /the tf&m $F& . A cross-section of society.adv It is far too hot to work.n 2. As far as I am concerned.v To draw a straight line. cost) The car costs a lot of money. n To study a technical drawing. -*• To join. With a binary system.198 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH /tjek/ Deep adj adv n Check 1 . you will still be late.v The air is drawn into the lungs via the nose. -*. cost.v /'kApl/ Extend / i k ' s t e n d / v The region extends from Hungary to Poland.to check out of a hotel • (toleave. to wrify) -*• to check up on some caleatntions (to verify) Cost n /kost/ Mass production reduces costs.adj He lives on the far side of the town. Workers exposed to radiation must have a monthly check-up. The cost of living. drew. To that extent 2.. . are even numbers. The resistance of wire is proportional to its length and its cross-section. -*• Degree. -* What must be paid. to make a picture. To require money v Draw /dro:/ (draw. -*• To stop temporarily. Under hypnosis. remote # near Data / d e i t a / n Note*-— Data is a Latin word. -*• Surprisingly. -* To cover a distance. the matter is of no importance. -*• To verify.'' • . The notion of male superiority is deeply rooted in traditional societies. data can be handled much more quickly. To study data-processing. facts To what extent does meteorology effect human behaviour? To a certain extent.. The temperature must remain even throughout the experiment. -*• A view of an interior surface. no one has been able to find an answer. to include To have a couple of drinks. What is the depth of the river? -*• Profound.to pay the bill) •"** to check over someone's work (to reread. adults appear to draw like children. •*. To arrive at Even /'i:vn/ l. •*• Much. amount Far /fa:/ 1 . Graphic representation 2.Information. / ' •*M^"-i»iprBly-usal *fti*8f-^. -*• Distant. Even if you take a taxi. The electromagnetic spectrum extends to ultraviolet and to X-rays. Developing alternative fuels will cost millions of dollars. to reach..adv Even the doctor was ill. believe it or not Couple 1 .:'' . Working conditions are now far better. She noticed a couple of mistakes.adj 4. adv The population is evenly distributed. 6. Up to now. Equally 2. inspect.tfm dtr&r*$\. -*• Two together To couple two circuits together. 'Sing. regular. Economic growth is closely coupled to capital investment.adv How far is it to the post office? So far. to slow down Note— To check is often followed by a particle which changes its meanirtg. Inspection New vaccines will check the spread of the disease.v n 2. The cost of recycling industrial waste is increasing. 8. drawn) 1 ."datum". considerably 3. Distance below the surface To check the oil level of a car. to link Extent n /ik'stent/ Cross-section n /kros'sekjn/ To examine the cross-section of a sample under a microscope. It is too early for a conclusion to be drawn -> To move in a direction.v /di:p/ Avalanches are most common when the snow is deep. The results must be checked before publishing them.

To put weight. As the tumour grows. distance. A lack of qualified engineers. lit) To light a fire. Signification The mean temperature for July is 33°C. The circuit can take a load of 15 amperes. flat /'figs/ 2.n /'levl/ 200 meters above sea level. method Level 1.v Load n /laud/ The bridge can carry a load of 10 tonnes.n /lait/ Ultra-violet light . To be short of Length n v /ler)9/ What is the length of a football field? To go to considerable lengths to find an answer. -* Way. -*• A vertical extension. -* A diagram. output levelled off. To lack time to finish the job. It will be necessary to lengthen the duration of the clinical trials. A biochemical reaction in the eye converts light into electrical signals. absence.000. . Amniotic liquid is withdrawn from the uterus by means of a thin tube. The figures for imports for last month were significantly better. -*• Of considerable weight. -*• Lacking in precision # accuracy Mean 1. shortage. Galvanometers cannot be used for . the force that can be carried. -* Average Lack n v /laek/ He died through lack of food. •* A number. the ground must be levelled . The civilian population suffered heavily from the bombing.MEASUREMENT Figure 1. What is the meaning of life? -*• To signify. a cargo. To make longer # shorten Means n /mi:nz/ (N. -*• To make something burn. To calculate the mean life of an unstable nucleus. chart displaying topographical features Inaccurate adj n /m'askjsrst/ The estimation was inaccurate. Peak. After increasing for five consecutive years. hormone levels increase.v n 2. to ignite Graph n /grsef/ 2.LEXIS 1 . -*• Diagram with two or more variables Heavy adj adv /'hevi/ Mercury is a heavy metal. high density. -*• The measurement of the longest side. The scale of the map was 1 : 50. Severely # lightly 4.v Before building the house. lit. -*• A diagram Light 1.n 199 2. -*• Energy in the form of photons # darkness She was wearing a light blue coat. The road network is overloaded.adj 3. To lack the necessary skills. an altitude. -*• Reflecting many photons. In fusion. -*• Of small weight # heavy (light.n Computers can process figures rapidly. Heavy hydrocarbons are semi-solid and have large molecules.B. bright * dark A gas which is lighter than air.adj /mi:n/ What do you mean? Increased pollution means higher temperatures. -> A degree. A certain amount of inaccuracy is The inaccuracy was due to distortion in the telescope lens. -*• Not enough. To increase # to reduce Map n /maep/ A road map of southern Italy. To plot the data on a graph.adj The annual variation of temperature is shown on the graph.usually considered as singular) The quickest means of getting there is by plane. The graph illustrates the increase in road accidents. two light atoms are united into a heavier one. To load a ship. an amount Measurement n /'me39m9nt/ pH indicates the measurement of acidity in a solution. -*• The weight. Satellite technology means that more accurate maps can be made. pressure on something Height n v /hait/ v What is the height of the Eiffel tower? At the height of the crisis Car accident risks are heightened by alcohol. statistics The increase in output is shown in Figure 2. -*7To make / become horizontal.

a limit. To make / become smaller. arbitrary 2. Vibrations are produced which range from 8 to 40 cycles per second. The pace-maker is powered by a lithium-iodine battery.n adv Range 1 . A wide range of food.v /'monits/ Satellites are used to monitor changes in ocean temperature. 5. to shrink * widen 2. A gas-powered engine. The seismograph readings are recorded automatically. diversity Short range ballistic missiles. -*• An (electronic) display for showing results Radius / ' r e i d i a s / n The circle has a radius of 20 cm. -*• First major. a numerical relation Power n /'paus/ v adj The satellite instruments run on solar power. Over the last twenty years. A randomly selected number. A network of observation stations will monitor solar activity.v /reinds/ Narrow /'nasrsu/ adj A narrow road. progress The shape of the wave form was displayed on the screen of the monitor. -*• A figure. unexpected # common. -*• Main. -*• Strange. The experiment requires powerful. 3. -»• A measure. -*• To fluctuate. -*• A force. . -*• To mark the position. 13 is a prime number.adj Something very odd happened yesterday. To increase production at a steady rate. -*• Dimension. foremost. Strong. 3. There is a narrow gap between the electrodes. An X-ray with a short wavelength has a greater penetrating power. 7. The target is out of range. •*• A choice. a level indicated by a measuring instrument Reading / ' n : d i r j / n Primary /'praimsri/ adj The primary aim is to increase production. to attain He checked the reading on the voltmeter. Ten to the power minus 9 (10~ 9 ). -*• A small distance across. magnitude The primary cause of anaemia is deficient production of red blood cells.000 TV sets per year.n Odd / D d / 1 . To provide energy. -*• Unpredictable. there has been a decrease in the birth rate. Divisible only by itself Monitor 1 . -*• Not divisible by 2 # even Plot v /plot/ To plot the monthly production figures on a graph. The ratio of old people in the population is increasing. above all Minus prep /'mainss/ adv The temperature falls to minus 30°C in winter. having power # powerless Reach v /'ri:tj7 To reach a conclusion.200 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH the measurement of alternating current. -*• A proportion. to vary between two extremities A large range of electrical appliances. v The river narrows as it enters the canyon. to illustrate progress on a graph with dots Ratio n /'reijiau/ The ratio of female births to male births is 100 : 105.. -*• To arrive at. The computer automatically plots the curve on the screen. less than * plus Prime adj /'praim/ It is of prime importance. -*• Negative.n The temperature ranges from 5°C to 25°C. -*> Half the diameter Random /'raendam/ adj The position of gas molecules is random. . -*• A distance. Production figures have reached 100. value typical 2 1. proportion.. An odd phenomenon. Earthquakes occur primarily along the boundaries of geological faults. Electrons in the outer orbit of the atom move at random . capacity. an extent Rate n /reit/ The rate of acceleration. 120 trillion watt lasers. speed. The gas is compressed until it reaches a temperature of 85°C. are odd numbers. size. Radiation levels are monitored continually.

To carry out a survey of public opinion. an accepted measure of quality Step n /step/ The first step in the process is called Short adj /Jo:t/ A short report was published in "Nature". -*• Basic source Square / s k w e s / adj Alaska is roughly square in shape. study Thick adj v /9ik/ The book is 5 cm thick. -*• With a geometrical shape of 4 equal sides and 4 right angles Stage n /steid3/ The experiment can be divided into three stages. -*• A rate of movement. unique /saiz/ What size shoes do you wear? The size of a proton is approximately 10. To walk on A galvanometer records the strength of a current. Survey n v /'ssivei/ Slight adj adv -*• Dimension /slait/ There was a slight increase in output. -*• Not long. -*• Small. -* A stage. In fission. •> Section. In September. reduce * to lengthen phototransduction. -*• Examination. v To move one step closer to finding a cure for the disease. v Size n -*• Only one. -#• Short distance between surfaces * fat. Six square cm of skin contains up to 4. -*• Force. a velocity Thin adj /9in/ He was a tall. Unmanned space probes have surveyed all the planets except Pluto. minor. The frame of the machine must be strengthened. Antibiotics can shorten the duration of the disease. Alloys are lighter and have greater mechanical strength. In the early stages. Safety standards are set by the government.MEASUREMENT Root 1. the temperature of the universe was 10 1 0 °C. The scale of the map is 1 : 200.n 2.000. thick . To make / become thick # thin Speed n /spi:d/ To travel at a high speed. There was a shortage of food during the war.n 201 /ru:t/ Desert plants have deep roots. To inspect. He stepped on the wet cement. the standard of living is improving. power. -*• A (large) dimension between surfaces. to a certain extent * much A recent survey of genetic research. The metal melts at slightly more than 600°C.LEXIS 1 . To be short of money. -*• Underground part of a tree or plant which absorbs water and nutrients The root of a problem. a small distance. Debris in orbit travels at speeds approaching 11 km per second. To make short. -*• A level. The material is in short supply. To make stronger * to weaken n v Strength / s t r e r j 9 / n Single / ' s i n g l / adj A single child. A ratio of numbers comparing measurements Standard n /'stasndsd/ Shallow adj /'Jaelau/ The Mediterranean is a relatively shallow sea. resistance. restricted. Progestogen makes the cervical mucus thicken and stops the sperm. * Deep For most people. Radio-active waste must be surrounded by thick protective walls. a single atom is divided into two parts. A little. A movement. period Scale n /skeil/ A large-scale simulation. -*• A measuring system.1 2 cm. thin man. The square root of 16 is 4. The temperature is higher in shallow water. The surface was covered by a thin layer of gold. Insufficiency. The resolution of the telescope depends on the size of the lens. there is usually a slight drop in unemployment. Moment. overview.5 metres of blood vessels. The Richter scale for earthquakes is a logarithmic scale.

To make bigger. -*• Covering a large area. n The width of the chip is 1 micron. The cost will be in the vicinity of 20. adv A widely distributed newspaper. v To widen the road. n The weight of the baby depends on the mother's diet. -> Dimension across. common Vicinity /vs'sinati/ n Einstein predicted that light would bend in the vicinity of the Sun.000 euros. extensive. in the neighbourhood W e i g h /w e i/ v The car weighs 900 kg. A widespread belief in astrology. to enlarge. Transversal dimension Widespread / ' w a i d s p r e d / adj A widespread fear of unemployment. Evaporation can be measured by weighing the sample after heating. mass . close. -*• To measure in kg. -* Near.202 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH Wide / w a i d / adj The Amazon is the widest river in the world. Heaviness. etc.

help. In the graph. -*• Between. -*• Forward. FREQUENCY.S. What are the brain mechanisms behind this behaviour? -#• At the back of. just follow the arrows. a line of reference l.prep The shop closes between 12. -> Higher. weather forecasts are unreliable. past the limits of .v The government backed the project. Above all. Beyond a period of 5 days. The task is beyond the capabilities of most computers. -*• Sign indicating direction Between /bi'twim/ Axis n /'asksis/ The Earth turns on its axis once every 24 hours. A regular flight between Geneva and New York.prep A policeman stood behind the President.A.m. Among adult patients. Underlying. and 2 p. * Front To prove something beyond doubt. more than * below Ahead adv /a'hed/ 2. -*• Unassisted. He found the letter amongst the papers on his desk. he likes football. The production figures are below last year's. * To go forwards 4. few with Parkinson's disease ever get better.adv To come back home in the evening. lower than * above Beneath prep /bi'ni:6/ Arrow n /'aersu/ Beneath the surface of the sea. Excluding others 1. -*• Under To find the car park. places 2 What is the link between colour and emotions? There is a reaction between the cells and their environment. -*7 To give support. -*• A centre line (imaginary) around which something turns. -*Late Below prep /bi'lsu/ Among(st) prep /g'mAg/ Genetic selection comes from competition among different members of a species. Aid Behind /bi'hamd/ Alone adv adv /s'lsun/ He preferred to work alone.v To back a car into a garage. -*• The period or space separating two times. She was carrying the child on her back. Female birds usually incubate their eggs alone. n To get financial backing from the Despite protests about the new airport. in front * behind government. The firm was obliged to pay back the money. relating two things Beyond prep /bi'jond/ Back 1 . More than 1 million blood samples are tested daily in the U.n /baek/ To sit in the back of the car. -* To return (to the starting point) 3. supporting 2 To be behind schedule. time is indicated on the horizontal axis. In advance. alone. -*• Further than.00 a. -* Connecting. the government has decided to go ahead. SPACE & SHAPE Above prep /s'bAV/ The plane was flying above the clouds. In the middle of There are huge stocks of mineral resources below the Antarctic ice. -*• Under. The temperature fell to 15°C below zero. The level of contamination is above 600 becquerels. Cancerous cells were found beneath the membrane. the peak temperature is indicated by an arrow.2.m. The US is 5 years ahead of Japan in space research. On the graph.

He signed his name in the bottom right hand corner of the letter. detailed # superficial /kbuz/ (N. A close examination of the heart showed signs of infection. a spot adj 2. A remarkable feature of the brain is its capacity to function when damaged. -*• A bend. Modern amphibians did not appear until the Mesozoic era. In the natural environment He is an expert in this field.n /fiild/ There were three horses in the field in front of the house. A closed circuit T . A gravitational field. -*• The lowest part # top Close 1. in the vicinity of. a crescent-like deviation. The development project featured two new research laboratories. epoch adj Cluster n /'klAsts/ A village consists of a cluster of houses.204 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH /blaerjk/ Write your name in the blank space at the top of the paper. Thorough. boundary. V . unhealthy and dangerous. collection Era / ' i s r s / n Core n /ko:/ The core of an atom is the nucleus. You need a flat surface to draw. The projection for the next 5 years is shown on the graph by a dotted line. -*• A boundary of a surface. -*• Near. -*• To shut # to open Dot n /dot/ Pixels consist of very small illuminated dots on a screen. -* Unfilled. To possess an attribute Field 1. -*• The point at which two lines meet Feature n /'fi:tja/ Corner / ' k o i n a / n v There are several features which make this car unique. To deviate from a straight line Bottom n /'botsm/ Daily adj /'deili/ A daily newspaper. Light is curved by gravitational attraction. -*• An aspect. span of time.B. -* Frontier. The 19th century industrial towns 2. . Iron makes up the major part of the Earth's core. -*• An area of activity. Daily behaviour patterns are linked to circadian rhythms. -*• An area of land. -*• A group. -*• The central part.notice the difference in pronunciation of the adjective and the verb) To close the windows at night. German astronomers have discovered a new cluster of stars. edge A curve in the road. The country is on the border of a major crisis. -*• A small point. They analysed an ice core from the Antarctic. At the bottom of the page. To carry out field-work on Antarctic ecosystems. A sample obtained by deep drilling There is a shop on the corner of the street. The sum of the angles at four corners of a rectangle is 360°.v Edge n /eds/ A tree was standing on the edge of the river. The curve on the graph indicates the rise in temperature. The computer crashed and the screen went blank. A cube has got twelve edges. a characteristic. .adj /klaus/ The bank is close to the station. The Hindus were the first to use a circle or a dot as a symbol for zero. a discipline Crowd n adj /kraud/ A large crowd of people watched the football match. The meeting line of two surfaces The modern era. The increase in traffic means that airspace is becoming dangerously crowded. When too many people gather together Blank adj Curve n v /kaiv/ Border n /'bo:cb/ The troops crossed the border at midnight.n Flat 1. -* Period. -*• A multitude.adj /flaet/ The Earth is not flat. Bacteria was growing on the edge of the sample. a zone. -*• Every day Submarine robots will explore the bottom of the sea. The panda is close to extinction. Empty were overcrowded.

to discover the position of something The first non-stop transatlantic flight was made in 1927. -*• As soon as There was a hole in his shoe. -*• Smooth. The experiment failed partly because the X-ray source was too weak. -* An empty space. -*• Reasons Hole n /haul/ 1 . •*• (Complex) supporting frame or structure The ground was covered with snow. Eclipses of the sun seldom occur. Main points. -*• Inside # outer Layer n /'leis/ Sedimentary rocks lie in layers. continually Occur /s'ks:/ 1 . The steel sphere was hollow inside. -*• To detect. A higher degree of aggressiveness occurs among animals in captivity. Black holes are caused by intense gravitational forces. to a certain extent. The seven stars of Ursa Major have an easily identified outline. to think of something adv v 2. -*• Silhouette. A frame of reference. •*• The surface of the Earth Ground / g r a u n d / n Once /WAHS/ Grounds n /graundz/ There are good grounds for thinking that the results are not valid. A case 2. The government is partly responsible. an orifice Hollow / ' h o l s o / adj A hollow tree. -* In part.FREQUENCY.v It did not occur to me to ask his name. coating Partly adv /'pa:tli/ The problem has been partly solved. -* Without interruption. a gap.conj Once it has penetrated the cell wall. on the periphery * inner As you fly into New York. We need a better description of the patterns of neural connections. Satellite telescopes are controlled from the ground. -*• The surrounding structure of something Framework n /'freimwsik/ The steel framework of a building. previously 3 He saw the mistake at once. -*• To have an idea. Thin covering. level. n Several occurrences of malaria have been reported in the UK. To explore outer space. -* A single time 2 Chloroform was once commonly used as an anaesthetic. summary Outline / ' a u t l a i n / n Inner adj /'ins/ The inner diameter of a tube. To make level He lives in a flat in the city centre. The primary tumours must be located and destroyed. -* Located outside. -*• To take place. -*• Immediately 4. He lives in the inner city. To work within the framework of a project. The surface was covered by a thin layer of gold. The outer membranes of the cell react to the stimulation.n The town was flattened by bombs. Pattern n /'pastn/ Non-stop / ^ a n ' s t a p / adj Economic development usually follows the same pattern. Animals' bones are hollow.LEXIS 2 . To write an outline of a research project. -*• Horizontal division. -» An apartment Frame n /freim/ The frame of the window is made of metal. The ozone layer is in danger. you can see the outline of the Empire State Building. -> With an empty space inside * solid Outer adj /'auts/ He lives in outer London. There have been recurring patterns of malaria epidemics. Airsickness is triggered by a disturbance of the inner ear. not completely # totally Locate v /lau'keit/ To locate an error in the circuit design. SPACE & SHAPE 205 He worked non-stop until the sun rose.v An accident occurred last night. the drug begins to have an effect.adv I have only once been to Venice. Something which happens. -*> In the past. -* An arrangement or sequence of things that is not random .

you should consult a doctor at once. to take the place. timetable. Natural gas is progressively replacing oil as a fuel. range Seldom adv /'seldsm/ Remote adj /ri'maut/ He lives in a remote village in the mountains. A better public transport scheme is required. map. A square is a 4-sided figure. A cyclic signal v Every week the work schedule changes. -*• To make a project.singular) n A series of accidents occurred. -*• To change. -> A drawing. scattered across the valley. From a distance It seldom rains in August. the recurrence of infectious disease is cyclic. Remote underground sensors are used to record seismic waves. -+ Plan. -*• Distant. To draw a ring round the correct answer.m. to plan Scheme n /ski:m/ 2. Improved telescopes will considerably widen the scope of astronomy. To give form to.206 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH /pi:k/ The peak of the mountain is covered with snow. Over the years. to intend. Telescopes are built with a series of concentric mirrors. Earthquakes are seldom recorded in the UK. The shape of the wave can be displayed on the oscilloscope. scheme. -» To happen again. Repetition. rarely * frequently Replace v /n'pleis/ Series / s i s r i i z / (N. -*• Not often. tip. -* Something circular. The train arrived on schedule. . -> Highest point. Substitution Shape n v /Jeip/ France is hexagonal in shape. a band. Periodic The question is beyond the scope of this article. the outline. A scatter of dots on a graph. Malaria is characterised by recurrent attacks of fever. To organise. The satellite was monitored by a remote-controlled telescope.n The government proposed a new tax scheme.B. The ethanol must be concentrated to 95% by a series of distillations. -> Recurring events. The Museum was scheduled to open at the end of the year. a succession n The battery must be replaced every 2 months. a circle Side n adj /said/ Trees were growing along the side of the road. To reach the highest point Peak n Scatter v /'skasts/ n v The population lives in tiny villages. They are two sides to an argument. There is a plan to widen the motorway. lying in disorder yt a cluster Schedule n /'Jedju:!/ Plan / p l a e n / 1 n . Hormone replacement therapy is now widely used. Radio waves are scattered by ionisation. -*• Dispersed. Aspect .v To plan for the future. To work to schedule. The dollar peaked after the export figures had improved. A project. -* The form. -*• Field of reference. far away. There are cyclic peaks in the sun's activity. -*• Rhythmic peaks of blood pressure from heart beats. to influence Ring n /rig/ Most married people wear a gold ring on their fingers. The peak output of electricity occurs between 7-8 p. arrangement Pulse / p A l s / n Scope n /sksup/ Recur v n adj /ri'ks:/ If the symptoms recur. Computer technology is shaping the future of the world. An electronic pulse generator. a scheme To make a plan of the building. graphic representation Hypoxia causes the pulse rate to increase. The manager plans to modernise the plant. apex. -*• Lateral boundary. -* a plan. the scope of biology has shifted significantly. As a rule. A new scheme has been proposed to reduce desertification.

n /spat/ The albatross has a black spot on its head.a large-sized car -*. -*• To follow the tracks. The North Pole is not the coldest spot in the Arctic. Sputnik I was the first vehicle to travel in outer space. adv To read through an article. there was a shortage of sugar. -*• To go from one end to the other 2. immediately 2. -* A hillside. A particular place To spot an aeroplane in the distance. He took the top off the box. -*• Direct.LEXIS 2 . to detect Throughout the war. To draw a straight line. inclined surface Space n /speis/ More space is needed for the new equipment. SPACE & SHAPE 207 Swing / s w i g / (swing. swung) v A pendulum swings from left to right. A movement Through / 0 r u : / 1 . -* Because of.A 4-sided figure A large number of compound adjectives are formed by adding *-ed" to nouns: •». Sound waves travel faster through water than through air. You can see the tip of the mountain in the distance. the factory was stripped of all the machinery. Bacteria are found throughout the world. There is a steady flow of electrons towards the positive pole. -*• To take off / away (rapidly. The temperature increased steadily. -* Something which is long and narrow in shape Before demolition. He didn't answer straight away.v Top n adj /top/ The top of the table is covered with dust. due to Note . the more erosion occurs.n Straight / s t r e i t / 1 .v Strip 1. -*• A round mark.FREQUENCY. You can see the track of the car wheels in the snow. move from side to side.v Underneath / ^ n d a ' n i i S / prep . -* Regular # fluctuating. -> A path. So far. for the whole time. without deviation # Curved 2. -*• During. To strip insulation off an electrical wire.prep They died through lack of water. The temperature must be kept at -5°C throughout the experiment. swung. to monitor the trajectory Steady ad] /stedi/ adv A slow but steady decline in production. A gradient. Chalets have sloping roofs to prevent snow accumulating. the atomic bomb has been dropped twice for military purposes.adv To go straight back home after work. Radio isotopes can be used for tracking microbes. Everywhere Tip n /tip/ The tip of an iceberg. way.prep Gas flows through the pipe. -*• Two times # once Underneath the surface of the Earth. under * above 2. Electrical contact was made by a thin copper strip.adj A straight road. There is a spot of ink on the paper. completely) Twice adv /twais/ Unemployment is twice as high for women. sporadic Track / t r a e k / 1.n /strip/ She marked her place in the book with a strip of paper. point # bottom The railway track. The hand of the voltmeter swings to the right when there is a discharge. You should leave a space at the end of each paragraph.-a right-angfodl triangle -*~ a 6-wheeled lorry Slope n adj /slsup/ The steeper the slope is. unoccupied area Throughout prep /0ru:'aut/ Spot 1. -*• The highest surface. Older fossils lie underneath the Palaeozoic rocks. -» Directly. n A swing in the voting pattern. -*• Gap. apex 2. The top layer of water is warmer. The tip of the drill is made of tungsten. The trace made by something To track the movement of the particles on the screen. To spot an error -* To see something small. -*• Below. -*• To oscillate. -*• The end point.

The wave length of the colour red is 620-760 nm. There was a wave of protest throughout the country. MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH Malignant cells within the tumour must be destroyed.208 Wave / w e i v / n Oscilloscopes display the shape of a wave. -*• Oscillation. -* Inside Yearly /'jisli/ adj Amnesty International publishes a yearly report. The meteorological records provide the yearly pattern of rainfall. -*• Annual . cyclic movement Within /wi'din/ prep You must pay your taxes within 14 days.

An arrangement. Both samples were treated alike. Decreasing profits. -*• To put together.3. Both the hippocampus and the cortex were damaged. Agree v n /s'gri:/ The manageragreed to give h i m a job. to have the same opinion. -*• To count on. The strength of the signals is increased by adding them together. Members of the competing teams stayed in the Olympic village. accessible ^ unavailable Available / s ' v e i l a b l / adj Choose /tju:z/ (choose. bound. A reduction # increasing She depends on the bus to get to work. I will send you the components as soon as they are available. -*• To be responsible for Choice / t j o i s / n The choice of materials that was available was limited. a pact -*• The two together # neither (In) charge of /mtja:d33v/ n Who is in charge of the export department? To be in charge of industrial relations. -*• To accept. The boiling point of hydrocarbons depends on the molecular structure. -*• Similar. protons and neutrons bind to form nuclei. to rely on. To make a total # to subtract Both / b g u 9 / adj He shut both of his eyes. COMPARISON & RELATION Add v /aed/ To add two numbers together. to be determined by Decrease / d i ' k r i i s / v n adj Bind v /b a i n d / (bind. -*• A selection. What is chosen Alike adj adv /g'laik/ No two people are exactly alike. Opposing The population has decreased by 5%. Mercury belongs to group lib of the periodic table. Biochemistry is a branch of both chemistry and biology. the temperature decreases. A diplomatic agreement between France and Spain. -*• Ready to be used. To be a part of Animals have to compete for food in order to survive. As the pressure is reduced. bound) As a result of nuclear interactions. To make a strong Depend on / d i ' p e n d o n / v connection . -> To combine. A decrease in the annual rainfall. In the same way The apparatus will not be available till next week. Polymers are formed by bonding monomer molecules. -> To be owned by. If an electron is added to a neutral atom it acquires a negative charge. to cohere Bond n v /bond/ A bond is formed when two atoms share an electron. -*• To struggle to be first. Good results depend on accurate data collection. There were only 4 possibilities to choose from. The segments of early arthropods were much alike. A multiple-choice question. -* To select Compete v adj /ksm'pht/ Belong v /bi'lor)/ Less than 5% of the land belongs to small farmers. The person in charge of the laboratory is absent. The final choice of equipment will depend on the cost. chosen) v To choose the best location for building a nuclear reactor. -*• To become less. Neurologists agree that schizophrenia has different causes. -* A strong link. chose. The successful sperm initially binds to the outer layer of the ovum.

Drugs can be used for enhancing sporting performance.n 2. -> Extremely.to enable him to work -*-to ensure success •*. to be exactly similar. The enlarged brain of Homo Sapiens was a prerequisite for language. -*• To become greater in volume * to contract. conflicting opinion. Annual meat production exceeds 2. -> To let something fall Exceedingly /ik'siidirjli/ adv The walls of capillaries are exceedingly thin. -*• To be greater than.adj /fit/ Do the shoes fit you? The theory does not fit. to come together # to scatter Equal / ' i i k w s l / adj Women should have equal pay for equal work.v 3. -*• Leading.to enrich his family Gap n /gasp/ The generation gap. to go beyond Drop 1 . Data gathering techniques. Enzymes perform diverse duties as catalysts. It is impossible to exceed the speed of light. The following points are important. -*• To make better. exceptionally Expand v adj /ik'speend/ Duty n /'djuiti/ To do your duty. extend. -*• To be the right size. adapted To fit a car with an alarm system. then it follows that X= 2Y. Oil prices dropped sharply last year. The electronics industry is expanding rapidly. Computer-enhanced learning.v /drop/ A drop of blood fell on the floor. The number of electrons is equal to the number of protons. -*• To go after. responsibility. To be a logical consequence. -*• A decrease. Biologists often disagree on the meaning of the word "progress". -* An empty space or time To gather information. -> The same as. Italy is among the world's foremost car manufacturers.v 2. improve Fit 1 . A major disagreement between members of the government.210 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH Disagree v /diss'gri:/ Exceed v /ik'siid/ n The experts disagreed about the causes of the crash. -*• To equip The house is not fit to live in. fallen) In winter the temperature falls. There is a huge technological gap between rich and poor countries. fell. The "Big Bang" implies an expanding universe. -* Have an opposing. weakened muscles lead to an enlargement of the heart. -*• Good enough. difference of opinion He was stopped by the police for exceeding the speed limit. A fall in production -> To go down. An electric spark occurs across the gap between the electrodes. If 2X = 4Y. -* A globule of liquid A drop in the population. -*. shrink / f o : l / (fall. of suitable quality Enlarge v n adj /in'la:d3/ The University intends to enlarge the biology research facilities. -*• To make bigger. The firm has already equalled last year's production. top * minor Foremost / ' f o i m s u s t / adj Note — The prefix "en!-** Is used to form verbs with the meaning of to wake*. Increased # reduced Follow v adj /'folau/ Thedogfollowed theman backhome. to go down * to rise The second atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. A doctor's duty is to save lives. task Fall v n Enhance v /in'hcuns/ Gases expand when heated. -*• To collect. A microscope provides an enlarged image of the sample. To come next He was one of the foremost astronomers of his time. To reach the same results v Gather / ' g e e d a / v . An expansion.n v 3. tonnes. A decrease * a rise Speed can be greatly enhanced by using optic fibres. Eclipses of the Sun are exceedingly rare. -*• (Moral) obligation. More than 300 specialists gathered in Toronto for the meeting. In myocarditis.7 m.

important * secondary Left n adj /left/ In England. To raise.LEXIS 3 . -*• Expansion. -*• Not high.E. The road links the two towns. Hydrocarbons with small molecules have low boiling points. the speed limit in the UK was lowered. *•:*. chemical symbol: Pb Low/ I s u / adj The lorry could not get under the low bridge. led.A. -*• To continue in time -> A connection. rise. and likewise viruses. samples must be carefully matched.v "All roads lead to Rome". to be compared .lif «©«tly. -*• Major. -» To make better. An increasing number of people are dying of cancer. -*• Major. The hole in the top of the parachute lessens the initial shock of deceleration -*• To reduce. The chemical composition of meteorites matches that of the sun. One of the key problems in pollution is how to dispose of chemical waste. to correspond. The increase in robotics may lead to unemployment. led) 1 . it leads to a decrease in surface pressure.COMPARISON & RELATION Improve v 211 Note s-j. The Romans emperors went mad because they ate from plates made of lead -*• A soft heavy metal. About 10% of people write with their left hand. Following the oil crisis. to result in /led/ Lead is a heavy metal used for making batteries. -*• Metal instrument for opening a lock The C. Hydrocarbon resources will not last for ever. Oppenheimer played a leading role in the development of the atomic bomb. They are improving techniques for diagnosing the disease. In statistics. There has been an improvement in the unemployment figures. has played a key role in developing underwater robots. Amelioration # worsening th@y Mm . to enhance. To reduce * to heighten. -*• To go in the direction. raise v 2. cars drive on the left. Last v /la:st/ The journey to Turin lasted 5 hours.adj To open a door with a key. This is an improved model.feNt \AMh'^:fm^ 3JMM0 +• the lead :. There is pressure to increase safety levels. v Lessen /'lesn/ n -*• To be / become connected. The tubes are connected by a flexible rubber joint. to moderate * to increase Likewise /'laikwaiz/ Microbes. -* In the same way.n 2. are unaffected by the treatment. To join * disconnecting Lead /li:d/ (lead. similarly Link n v /lirjk/ There is a link between weight and heart disease. -*• On the same side as the heart * right Join v /d3Din/ The Missouri joins the Mississippi near St Louis. Polymers are formed by linking monomer molecules.n Match v /maetjV The two colours do not match.Hhe verb *t» fytuA* and the noun for tte jrtetai . linked Key /ki:/ 1 . Left-wing politics. When the ice melts."|&wf* $rt* riot. The period of revolution of Mercury lasts 88 Earth days. Each vertebra is joined to the next one by ligaments. The went home on foot. critical adv Reducing speed lessens the danger of road accidents. James did likewise. More and more # decreasing Pericles was a leading figure in Athenian politics of the 5th century BC. -» To be suitable to each other.fa# / ft* i?f4 bead} Leading adj /'liidirj/ Increase n v adv adj /m'kriis/ There was a gradual increase in the number of red blood cells.related and /im'pru:v/ adj n Computers are used to improve the quality of images. It is increasingly difficult to find a job.|jrpBpurtbs€.

-*• To be connected. -* A sort of filter. pertinent . to increase. -*• To make smaller # to raise Span n /span/ The average life-span of a giraffe is about 26 years. to be absent Note — The suffix "ship" is used to form abstract nouns.a partnership between Italy and France Net n /net/ He took the fish out of the aquarium with a net. Not to be there. To go from one side. typically used for catching fish France'has an extensive railway network. -*• To move upwards. -*• To divide. It means "the fact of the state of toeing. A link . to be left Remain / r i ' m e i n / v Network / ' n e t w s i k / n adj Per prep /pa:/ Seventy per cent. to distribute. -» Not to catch. to discuss Share v /Jea/ To share the money between two people. Unemployment rates are clearly very relevant to crime figures. It was thought that "Australopithecus afr/canus" was the missing link. -*• For each Right 1 . a distance. -*• A duration. The Boeing B-52. -* Correct. Appropriate. the remaining members of the crew were killed.212 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH Miss v adj /m i s/ To miss the train. Airbus is increasing its share of the aviation market. Some pages of the book are missing. When gas is compressed the temperature rises. Chemotherapy has considerably reduced the mortality rate.' •*• the friendship between two people -*. usually made of string or wire. extremity to the other Relate v n /ri'leit/ v Production is related to demand. Many birds pursue prey by swimming under water. #Left This is the right answer. -*• Importance. Salary is usually related to education. The details of the evolutionary process remain a mystery. IBM has a world-wide sales network.* irrelevant At 6 p. first of all we need the relevant data. a net separates the two players.adj /rait/ Most people write with their right hand. -*• Complex interconnected communication system Relevance n adj /'relsvsns/ Darwin immediately saw the relevance of Malthus's work. Part belonging to someone n Reduce v /n'dju:s/ To reduce the amount of fuel used. •*• To follow (in order to catch). The research budget must be shared between the different laboratories. To mention. rose. the satellite will be launched tomorrow. A rise in production figures. The bridge spans the river. The World Bank aims to raise the standard of living in the Third World. only two people remained in the office. -*• To continue to be. The issue was not raised during the meeting. suitable * wrong Pursue v /ps'sju:/ n To pursue an ideal. It is vital to reduce unemployment figures. A fine net was used to filter out the living organisms. Search Rise v n / r a i z / (rise.000 to 700 BC. Provided weather conditions are right. had a wing span of 56 m. To make a realistic decision. An increase * a fall Raise v /reiz/ To raise your hand.adj 2. risen) Hot air rises. -*• To move upwards.m. The Bronze Age spans the period from about 2. Several teams are actively pursuing this line of research. A newton accelerates 1 kilogram at 1 metre per second. linked. Two men escaped. Lions travel about 8 km a day in pursuit of food. built in 1950. There is a statistical relationship between sex and suicide. In tennis.

A job on a newspaper would suit her. To make efforts to succeed Subtract / s s b ' t r a s k t / v The cost of maintenance must be subtracted from the total profits. v To struggle to improve production. -*• To be appropriate. they tend to absorb less calcium. -*• To get worse * to improve . to extend. superior * lower Worsen / ' w s : s n / v The economic situation is worsening. There is a growing tendency to marry several times. spread. ->A movement. After the war. fashion Trend / t r e n d / n The latest trend in computer design. Digital films. the housing shortage worsened. inclination. Identical * single Unlike M n ' l a i k / prep Unlike plants. -*• To provide what is needed. Unless food supplies arrive quickly.n It is advisable to wear a suit for the appointment. a fashion. jacket and trousers are made of the same material 2. a tendency Twin /twin/ n Monozygotic twins have the same genetic heritage. -*• To travel. -*• Dissimilar. -*• To take away.v This colour does not suit you. can be viewed immediately. reserve v Tend / t e n d / v Dark objects tend to absorb solar heat. Stock. To be right for a specific purpose * unsuitable Supply /ss'plai/ v The power station supplies electricity to industry. in contrast to # in the same way as Upper / ' A p s / adj The upper part of the Amazon is still largely unexplored. According to Darwin. unlike conventional photographs. As people grow older. A twin-engined plane. To disperse Struggle / ' s t r A g l / n Marx introduced the concept of the class struggle. Currently there is a trend towards using more plastic in car design. top. -*• Brothers / sisters born at the same time. -> Clothes (formal). adj Rats are suitable for gene manipulation as they reproduce fast. Y must be subtracted from both sides of the equation. Psychoanalysis is not well-suited for the treatment of psychotic disorders. -* Higher part. Aircraft technology spread rapidly to other countries. n A supply of drinking water. spread) The news spread across the continent. -> Usually to do this. to remove * to add Suit / s u i t / 1 . The upper surface of a wing. the 'struggle for life improves the species. -*• Competition. The microbes are spread through the body via the blood system. to have a tendency to do something Tendency / ' t e n d a n s i / n Female monkeys show a greater tendency to protect their young. there will be a famine. -*> A predisposition. animals must search for food. adj The question is how to address the twin problems of poverty and health. Astronauts must wear space suits.LEXIS 3 .COMPARISON & RELATION 213 Spread /'spred/ (spread.

The wing span of the smallest bird barely exceeds 7 cm. to act with precaution. obsolete Current / ' k A r a n t / adj adv Note — Many adjectives are formed by adding the suffix "-fill* to the noun. Genetically engineered crops will make food cheaper. Radioactive contamination is higher than currently accepted levels. To import crude oil. •*. As they are cheaper. -*• Not costing much money # expensive Chief adj /tjiif/ The chief reason for the strike was the working conditions. second-hand car. -*• Only just. The system allows the readings to be checked quickly and conveniently. Road accidents are chiefly caused by alcohol. Frequently* but not always. Food technologists are busily developing low-fat products. Rapidly # in detail adj Common /'komsn/ Bright / b r a i t / adj A bright light.careful f careless hop&M / hope/ess •*• useful/ useless powerful I powerless •*•• beautiful /0 skilful / 0 -*• 01 valueless 01 endless . To give a brief explanation of the situation. the city centre is very busy. there are three types of telescopes. -*• Primitive. attention * careless Convenient adj /ksn'vimisnt/ adv Care / k e g / n adj adv The time of the meeting is not convenient. Easily Crude adj /kru:d/ Cro-Magnon man made crude tools. Kappa Crucis is a galactic cluster commonly known as the "jewel box". Basically. -* Ordinary. -*• Involving a lot of activity. widespread. Glass must be handled with care. -*• Short. Essentially To buy a cheap. The light from Quasars is brighter than a whole galaxy. -> Suitable. Electricity is far more convenient as a power supply. -*• Highly luminescent. shining # dark adv Depression is one of the most common emotional problems. unprocessed * refined What is the current theory about Black Holes? The process is currently approved in all European countries. -* At the present time # past. The basic principles of radioisotopes are clear. He briefly summarised the project. Pedigree animals are carefully selected for breeding. Occupied To take care of the baby. You should be more careful. -*• Fundamental. The X-ray data only gives a crude picture of the structure.m. The chief advantage of platinum resistance thermometers is their accuracy. most important. He is busy repairing the TV set.4. adjectives with opposite meanings can be formed by adding "-less". Frequently * rarely Busy adj adv /'bizi/ At 6 p. You have broken the window. The particles were barely visible to the naked eye. MODIFICATION Barely adv /'besli/ Cheap adj /tji:p/ The child was barely able to walk. Above all adv adv Brief adj adv /bri:f/ There was a brief interruption. -*• To look after. Mercury (II) sulphide is a common antiseptic. •*• Main. polymers are used as conductors instead of gold. hardly Basic adj /'beisik/ The basic problem is that we cannot identify the virus.

utterly # partly n Eventually adv /I'ventjusli/ Dramatic / d r s ' m a e t i k / adj Eventually.adj /fea/ Unequal pay for men and women is not fair. -*• a dramatic success Drawback / ' d r o i b a e k / n The high costs are a major drawback to the project. Video equipment must be kept dry. The decimal system has several drawbacks. Humidity * dryness There has been a dramatic improvement in production. Arteriosclerosis is caused by an accumulation of fatty deposits in the arteries. defect * advantage Note — Eventually is. To evacuate water * to wet adj Ease v n /nz/ The by-pass helped to ease the traffic flow. the radio-active isotopes will eventually reach the biosphere. -*• Whole. -*• In the end. -*• Without rain. Recently Scientists are showing great interest in ultra-violet astronomy. Dry your hands after washing them. humidity. » Able to act as one wants. -*• Not salt. life on Earth will die out. When the water tanks are emptied. a false friend. The equipment can be transported with ease. -*• Productivity. Echography can give us a great deal of information about the fetus. -*• A weakness. Poisonous plants often grow in damp areas Lumbago is usually caused by prolonged exposure to cold or dampness. -*• With nothing in it. Naturally occurring oily substances found in animals. much. A dramatic breakthrough in low temperature physics. Without (tax) adj Efficiency /I'fijnsi/ n Lubrication will increase efficiency.LEXIS 4 . wet. Freshly cut wood contains up to 50% water. They wish to adopt a fresh approach. -*• To reduce trouble. new. the submarine rises to the surface. This is not so in English.adv Mutations occur fairly frequently. It only has the meaning "spectacular". adv It freezes more efficiently than other cryogenic systems. One of the drawbacks of incineration is that it causes pollution. A fairly expensive machine. esters of glycerol Dry adj v /drai/ It was a dry summer. The work is entirely satisfactory. spectacular. To evacuate Great / g r e i t / adj adv # to fill . -*• To be corpulent. It is far easier to remain silent. Electrons are free to flow at random. An important feature of the new model is ease of maintenance. at last. It means: "after waiting a long time* It does not have the meaning of "possibly. I am not entirely convinced that you are right.g. -*• Relatively * exceedingly Fat adj /fact/ In industrialised countries many adolescents are far too fat. Not restricted. in due course * immediately Note — Dramatic is a false friend In many languages it often has the meaning "bad". Mammals and birds in the Arctic are insulated by layers of fat. overweight. -*• Exciting. Totally.000 years. Agriculture will benefit greatly from genetically engineered organisms.MODIFICATION 215 Damp adj /daemp/ The climate on the West coast is relatively damp. every man is born free. After 1. Simple # difficult Free adj /fri:/ According to Rousseau. Amnesty International defends each man's right to a fair trial. Wasting little energy Fresh adj adv /frejV A fresh-water lake. equitable # unfair 2. Tax-free alcohol can be bought at the airport. Facility. sudden Entire / i n ' t a i s / adj adv To spend the entire evening working. Considerably* little # inefficiently Empty / ' e m p t i / adj v A glass can be half full or half empty. maybe* Fair 1 . -*• Humid. -*> Just. e. adj Electric motors are highly efficient. ~>A lot of.

-*• Important. unrelated * relevant Loud / l a u d / adj The explosion made a loud noise. -*• Of secondary importance * major Minute / m a i ' n j u : t / adj In Tibet. can be studied under the microscope. adj The legislation controlling hazardous chemicals is too weak. •*• Very small. copper is the most widely used conductor. Human noise pollution can harm ocean animals such as whales. The main cause of the breakdown. n Selenium can cause harm to wildlife. Clearly Plenty / ' p l e n t i / n There is plenty of time to finish. Harmful * safe Huge / h j u : d 3 / adj A huge amount of money. sodium and magnesium. Modern agricultural techniques lead to a huge increase in crop yields. Generally speaking Plain /pi em/ adj She was wearing a plain yellow dress. The flight was announced over the airport loudspeaker -* Appliance for converting electrical signals into sound waves Main /mem/ adj Protein is the main component of living matter. Domestic animals need plenty of exercise. principal * minor Mild / m a i l d / adj The UK has a mild climate. Insects provide an outstanding example of social solidarity. obsolete ? modern Outstanding / a u t ' s t a e n d i n / adj Airbus has been an outstanding success. The policy was based on outdated concepts. low Loudspeaker / l a u d ' s p i i k g / n The loudspeaker is connected to the amplifier. without decoration. Antibiotics have contributed to the overall reduction in the death rate. -»• Not pertinent. adv Plainly. -» Principal. tiny * huge Note the difference in pronunciation. His studies were irrelevant to the job requirements. -*• Global. The major constituents of seawater are chloride. To suffer from a mild attack of pneumonia. only a minute fraction of the population can read. -*• Without clothes.216 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH Minor / ' m a i n s / adj Tourism plays a minor role in the economy of the region. -*• Relatively many decibels # quiet.minute: (60 seconds} /'irumt/ stress on 1st syllable •*. Without assistance Outdated / . -*• Very big.minute: (very smalt) /mai'nju:t/ stress on 2nd syllable : I Naked / ' n e i k i d / adv In ancient Greece men ran naked at the Olympic games. -* Risk. adv The interest in transgenic animals is mainly due to commercial interests. minute Irrelevant / I ' r e l s v s n t / adj What she said was quite irrelevant. Minute amounts of mercury can be found in Earth rock. -*• Old-fashioned. out of the ordinary Harm /ha:m/ v CFCs harm the ozone layer. Dangerous * harmless Hazard / ' h a s z s d / n The natural hazards of climate cannot be avoided. -*• To damage. The Andromeda galaxy is visible to the naked eye. Radon gas can pose a serious health hazard. she was worried. -*• Exceptional. Above all Major / ' m e i d 3 3 / adj A major problem. adj Harmful toxins have killed 15% of the yellow-eyed penguins. enormous * tiny. -* Simple. It was a relatively minor form of the disease. •*. Some autistic patients have an outstanding ability to calculate. most important. -*• Moderate & severe Overall /^uvgr'o:!/ adj There has been an overall increase in the standard of living. To speak in a loud voice. like bacteria. . a u t ' d e i t i d / adj An outdated communication system. Minute organisms. adv Overall. Volcanoes release huge quantities of energy.

fairly # extremely 2. -*-• it was a s&nslbfa idea Sensitive means 'quick to react'. Their diet consists of eggs rather than meat. Thermosplastic compounds soften when heated. less than a lot Sharp /Ja:p/ adj A sharp knife. The laboratory lacks the proper equipment. -*• Relatively. -*• With an even surface. The surface was too rough to allow the molecules to bond. Security # danger Quite l.adv /kwait/ Sensitive adj /'sensitiv/ Summer is conning. Abruptly # gradually Smooth / s m u : 6 / adj A smooth surface causes little friction. Safe storage of nuclear waste. If the prism is properly cut. -*• Irregular. -*• Approximate yt exact 217 deal Proper / ' p r o p a / adj adv At last. •». -*• Acceptable. To rely on a friend for help. The office needs a reliable secretary. On the whole. uneven * smooth A rough estimation. Reacting with precision -*• Completely. The vaccine is not yet readily available. it is getting quite warm. There are several different reasons for cancelling the project.adv It has become quite clear that smoking causes cancer. The food must be clean and safe to eat. The human organism is very sensitive to foreign bodies. -*• Quick to react or feel. Correctly Safe adj n /seif/ Modern aircraft are much safer. suitable. acute.adj . -*• Without risk. Clear. Rather / ' r a i d s / utterly Note — Sensitive / sensible Sensible is a frequently misused false friend. It is quite impossible to do molecular biology without the aid of a computer. you can rely on the TGV to be on time. regular * rough Reliable adj v /n'laisbl/ Quartz watches are very reliable. -*• Instead of. Organisms with soft bodies are not preserved as fossils. Geckos can climb up perfectly smooth walls. he has got a proper job. In a natural state.adj 2. the light will be polarised.adv It is rather cold today. in preference to Several det /'sevral/ Raw / r o : / adj Wild carnivorous animals eat raw meat.more than a few. a great adv The larger asteroids are roughly spherical. Over the past few years. The raw data must be analysed. To import raw materials. production decreased sharply. Soft adj v /soft/ Gold is a soft metal. Cases of colon cancer are increasing quite rapidly.LEXIS 4. a lot. Untreated * processed Readily adv /'redili/ Plants can form viable hybrids much more readily than animals. -*• Not hard * to harden Rough / r \ f / l. -*• Uncooked. To depend on A rough surface increases friction. More sensitive seismic apparatuses are now available. -*• Which cuts well. -*• Relatively 2 Intermediate technology aims to improve rather than destroy traditional cultures. adv As a result of the crisis. A sharp increase in prices. several countries have built synchrotrons. -» A certain number . The explanation is rather complicated. -*• Which always works.a cat's ears are very sensitive to sound 1 .MODIFICATION Treatment usually involves rest. road safety increases. -*• Easily. When speed is reduced. aspirin and plenty of fluids. Children are extremely sensitive to pain. effortlessly Several people telephoned last night. There is no sharp distinction between hot and cold. •*• More than enough. In English sensible means "reasonable*.

218 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH /ssul/ He was the sole survivor of the air crash. Which helps jt useless n The whole town was destroyed by the volcano. profitable. potential. A world-wide distribution network. -»• Deficient. It was difficult to obtain spare parts for the machines. Advantage. The police carried out a thorough enquiry. rising / falling sharply. Carefully * superficially The virtual image of a lens. Some lunar rocks are weakly magnetic. but also extremely wealthy. has had a tremendous influence. Penicillin has been particularly valuable in the treatment of syphilis. Sea water contains tiny quantities of gold. even electrons. acute # gradual He made a thorough examination of all the components. Picasso became not only famous. Only adv The meeting was an utter waste of time.O. The responsibility lies solely with the manager. Almost. Virtually 90% of the population voted. Generally speaking World-wide adj adv /'wsildwaid/ Utter adj /'Ms/ The explosion was followed by utter confusion. -*• Complete. -> Damp. Enormously adj Mineral wealth is heavily concentrated in southern Poland. All cars have got a spare wheel. On the whole. There has been a steep decline in agricultural production. Senegal has a wet season from July to October. The vibrations weakened the metal. Replacement Virtual adj adv /'vsitjual/ Steep adj /sti:p/ The sides of the canyon are extremely steep. Coca Cola is sold world-wide. If you wet the electrode. A large amount. -* In addition to what is required. The popularity of cycling has increased tremendously. -*• To employ. -> Huge.N. The project is virtually finished. minute * huge. can now be detected. Escherichia coli is the most thoroughly studied of all organisms. Completely # partly Sole adj adv Valuable /VEeljusbl/ adj A valuable painting. DVDs hold a tremendous amount of information. -*• Prosperity. He is the virtual manager of the business. A system is required to amplify the weak electric current. -*• Worth a lot of money. Nagasaki was utterly destroyed. To humidify * to dry Tremendous /trg'mendss/ adj v adv Whole adj /haul/ Use v n adj /ju:z/ He uses a plastic bag to carry his books. Vitamin D can be produced solely in the presence of the sun. useful * worthless Spare 1 . practically Weak adj /wi:k/ Many dinosaurs had relatively small eyes and weak vision. -*• Unique. Food was in short supply during the whole period. -*• Complete. -*• Total. all over the world . -*• Abrupt. A tiny tube with a diameter of 50 nanometres is used. What is the use of working so hard? Certain snakes are useful because they feed on rats and mice. -*• Not real. not strong * strengthen Thorough / ' 0 A r 9 / adj adv v adv Wealth n /wel9/ Tiny adj /'taini/ Tiny particles. enormous U. detailed. Scanners provide a wealth of information concerning diseases. Rich ytpoor Wet adj /wet/ The highest accident rates are on wet roads. conductivity will be increased.adj /spes/ I have got little spare time. -*• Very small. -> International. Aerial survey has become extremely valuable in mapmaking. Mountaineers should always carry spare food and first-aid equipment. the death rate increases as you go south.

The book is not worth reading. -*• Valuable. There is something wrong with the motor. -* To have (financial) value. Would it be morally wrong to transplant organs from anencephalic children? "* Not correct * right . merit Worthwhile / W 3 : 6 ' w a i l / adj It is a worthwhile research project The process is relatively efficient and economically worthwhile. useful * worthless 219 Wrong /ror)/ adj To arrive at a wrong conclusion.LEXIS 4-MODIFICATION Worth /ws:0/ adj How much is the car worth ? Seismology has become a business worth billions of dollars.

Clearing the rainforests leads to erosion. He looks poor. he cleared away the apparatus. besides..v n adv Comprise v /kam'praiz/ Although conj /oil'dau/ magnesium is a metal. are low. it does not oxidise. parenthesis. Apart from being expensive. the car also consumes too much fuel. the Nile fertilises the land. Ethyl alcohol is a clear. the body affects the mind. conversely.5. Besides growing new skin. •*• As said by. Atmospheric ionisation. the weaker the bond. as reported by. In fact adv Actual / ' a e k t j u s l / adj 2. plants produce oxygen. they produce C02. Medically speaking. -*• Real. Although 2°C. The clearance of trees in the forest reduces biodiversity. During the day.g. Absolute zero can be approached.adv The two towns are 30 km apart. comprises England. -*• To be composed of Viruses have become resistant to drugs. Obviously After the experiment. it will rain tomorrow. to get rid of unwanted things According to the radio.adj A clear distinction should be made between the two problems. environmental pollution must be drastically reduced. -*• The opposite. According to Dr Mitchell. Moreover The translation of the word is written between brackets. -*• With the exception of. The farther the molecules are apart. It is possible to deduce the DNA sequence from the position of the molecules. -*• In addition to. but actually he is very rich. LINK WORDS & LOGIC According to prep /s'koidir)/ Clear / k l i a / l. some salamanders can regenerate whole legs. as a result The converse of protectionism is free trade. {. -* Easy to see. the patient is out of danger. nobody spoke. separate 2 Apart from the chairman. existing as a fact. it the sea temperature is only be used as an energy of the fact Although burns. but the converse is likewise true. } adv adv Deduce / d i ' d j u : s / v Bracket / ' b r s e k i t / n . Transparent. Scotland. The committee comprises people of different nationalities. Wales and Northern Ireland.. -> Therefore. Prices vary according to demand. it can source. Clearly. -*• In spite Apart /s'pait/ The U. -*• Typographical signs which include. by contrast Newton deduced that the orbit of a planet would be an ellipse. A nucleus is comprised of protons and neutrons. at night. but cannot actually be reached. Square brackets. Depending on The actual cost of nuclear power is higher than expected. colourless liquid. Gold is an excellent conductor of electricity. consequently malaria is spreading. -* To remove. -*• Distant from each other. e. -*• To draw logical conclusions 1 . besides Consequently / ' k o n s i k w s n t l i / adv Converse / k o n v a i s / n Besides / b i ' s a i d z / prep Besides providing fish for the population. There is no actual proof to demonstrate that it is true.K. and consequently electrical conductivity.

very reliable. The process runs at low temperature. -*• Regardless of. -*• Because of.g. Australopithecus afarensis had a brain hardly any larger than a chimpanzee. Difficult. therefore Note — -Elsewhere has the same meaning as somewhere else. France and the UK. elements hardly ever form chains of more than 8 atoms. Rarely Furthermore /'faida'mo:/ adv Either / ' a i d s / conj adj adv v Hard /ha:d/ Else adv /els/ You can transmit images. He expressed his doubts about the value of the project. hence it must be destroyed at once. The male is killed by the female either before copulation or after. to require.m. to make necessary Due l. Despite all the efforts. -*• Besides. This job entails both analytic and environmental chemistry. possess atomic weapons. To work hard. Pharmacology was doubtless well developed in Babylonian civilisation.to look for a job elsewhere / /di'spait/ Despite the danger. Does anyone else want some coffee? -*. scheduled Energy loss in transformers is due to resistance. and furthermore. Barcelona / Turin: the former is in Spain. Try something else -*-. With effort. •*. -*• Lack of certainty. The high cost is due to the fact that the materials are rare. -*• And also. What else can you do? Doubt n /daut/ There is some doubt about the matter. Temperature can be expressed in Fahrenheit. or else in Celsius.Call the police. small. furthermore it is raining. It is hard to say. With age. abbr /i: d ^ i : / Renewable energy sources.g.LINK WORDS & LOGIC Despite prep 221 •*. e. Gases diffuse slowly despite high molecular speeds. The Aral lake was formerly the fourth largest lake in the world. Doctors in Canada and elsewhere are attempting to transplant brain cells.g.Everybody else agrees -*. previously. ex. scientists have failed to discover any antigens. Very little. -*• In a different place /hens/ Certain stars are much brighter and hence much larger. The existence of a single cause for leukaemia seems doubtful. The development scheme entails increasing the telephone network. -*• Consequently. furthermore fuel supplies are limitless. -* To involve. It takes a few hours for the cement to harden. e. he ran into the burning house. Certain European countries. instead of. -*• Almost none. Certainly v Entail /in'teil/ adj adv Playing the piano well entails years of hard work. moreover Steel is a hard metal. the blood vessels harden.It does not work. -*• Opposite of soft. The first one of two mentioned # latter It is cold. Salt was used as money in Ethiopia and elsewhere in Africa.adj 2 /dju:/ The train is due at 11 a. solar. Apart from carbon. or anything else that can be digitally encoded. -> Expected. -*• For example. No one else has any access to the data base. -*• Before. To become hard # to soften To have hardly any money. even with somewhere else Else is used in conjunction with many other adverbs and pronouns. the former USSR conducted rocket tests with animals. Improbable. such as You can buy either a diesel or a petrol car. You can answer either by fax or by e-mail. -*• The one or the other # neither In the 1950s. Silicon chips are cheap. a result of Former adj adv n /'foims/ e. A tumour grows exceedingly fast. . wind and bio-fuels. otherwise Hardly / ' h a i d l i / adv Elsewhere adv /els'wes/ Hence adv He left San Francisco and went to live elsewhere.LEXIS 5 .

went on strike. Obviously. it is not commercially economical. hurricanes and famines. the epidemic is spreading. The hypothesis is . Male deaths are 1. to allow. Clearly . nevertheless they get widespread publicity. in the interval Merely adv /'misli/ Imply v /im'plai/ The window is open. specifically Neither conj /'naiSa/ Instead adv prep /in'sted/ He did not go to the cinema. let) i. namely Tangshan in China. -*• In place of another thing She eats neither meat nor fish. Androgens are male hormones that induce secondary sex characteristics. this implies that someone is at home. -*> That is to say. -> But. i. -*• To be a part of. Everyone. The same units are used for expressing heat and energy. he went to the theatre instead. -*• To indicate. on the other hand /aii:/ Natural hazards. It is now obvious that world climate is changing. killed 750. -#• During the time. Meantime/meanwhile /'mi:ntaim/ adv The job starts in April. A mere 5% of the population has acceptable living conditions. only Moreover adv /moi'rauvs/ Include / i n ' k l u i d / v prep The price is high.99% for girls. besides Namely adv /'neimli/ Induce v /in'dju:s/ Nothing could induce her to accept a job in the US. Neither helium nor krypton form chemical compounds. It is claimed that acupuncture is superior to Western. security measures must be taken to prevent contamination. In cases of prolonged comas. moreover they spin rapidly. although. drug-induced analgesia. moreover the house is old. no more than. The lack of oxygen implies that there is no life on the planet. to include I cannot come. he is taking a holiday. -*• In addition to what has been said. The technique involves inserting protein genes into the cells.. doctors should let the patient die. it is relatively cheap. meanwhile. The first satellite.000 people. The figures do not include potential reserves in Antarctica. -*> To entail. silver was used. The situation is not good. joules. -> To persuade. namely Let meexplain w h a t l a m tryingtosay.e. The results imply that these microbes are immune to antibiotics. however.35% compared to merely 0. a logical conclusion Taxes are included in the price. including the engineers. however the latter is less expensive. -*• Not one or the other # either Nevertheless adv ^nevaSa'les/ Involve v /in'volv/ He was involved in a serious road accident. Pulsars are very dense. are frequently man-made. •*• The last one mentioned (of two) * former The cause of the accident was obvious. -*• Just. Air crashes are fairly rare. was launched in 1960. i.222 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH However adv /hau'evs/ Let v / l e t / (let. nevertheless thank you for inviting me. abbr Gold can be extracted from sea water. The virus has not yet been identified. namely Sputnik I. As well as * except adj He was merely 16 years old when he wrote the book. -> Easy to see. The job involves working abroad. Instead of using copper. to cause. it is not hopeless.e. In the meantime. however. to suggest. -*• To permit. to lead to The worst recent earthquake. however Obvious adj /'obvias/ Latter adj n /'lasts/ adv Bilbao/Turin: the latter town is in Italy. Let x = 2 and y = 3.e.. To be comprised in. ->• In spite of that. floods. let. Aluminium is lighter and moreover. -*• That is to say. Gold and silver are both precious metals.

on condition that Regard / n ' g a : d / v Some people regard science as being responsible for modern war. rotate on their axes every 5 to 20 hours. principle. -*• If not. -*• Before that. or else Owing to /su irj/ prep The rugby match was cancelled owing to snow. to start 2. Can graffiti be regarded as an art form? A highly-regarded book. 223 Asteroids. due to. The meaning depends on the particle which follows. The control group was provided with food at regular intervals. the firm was closed. otherwise it will be too late. . earlier. set. improved diet leads to a decline in diseases. it will not evaporate. in spite of Rule /ru:l/ n The rules of football were first drawn up in 1863. Aboriginal society is organised around highly sophisticated social rules. The importance of Newton can scarcely be exaggerated.v Note — To s#t is a multi-word verb. adj The inspector arrived without prior warning. on account of Previous / ' p r i i v i s s / adj He has no previous experience. The laboratory could not provide enough vaccine. otherwise they will overheat. -* Because. -> Because of. the new plan will take far less time. to make available Provided / p r o v i d i n g / p r g ' v a i d i r j / conj Provided it is kept cool. No hypothesis can be elaborated since the data is unreliable. he went alone. previous Provide / p r a ' v a i d / v The Middle East provides most of Europe's oil. regardless of sex. The transistors must be cooled by liquid nitrogen.LEXIS 5 . regardless of size. Cells are removed and then engineered prior to their reimplantation. -> A collection of things that go together (set. set). Owing to the strike. Normally Scarcely / ' s k e a s l i / adv I have scarcely any time. -*• To consider. Aluminium is used owing to the fact that it is a light metal. -*• Before. -*~ to set off to work /to start a journey} -*-to$&toffa bomb (to start. Compared to previous projects. as Note — Since has two completely different meanings. few people had cars. -*• If. A committee has been set up to co-ordinate medical research. adv The drug had not been used previously. As a rule.to set out the samples (to show display} -*• to set up an experiment (to organise. -*• Law. I wilt stay at home (In) Spite of / s p a i t / prep The firm made profits in spite of the competition. put into place) Since / s i n s / conj Since Catherine did not want to go. -* Hardly. -*• To supply. to assess Regardless /n'gaidlss/ prep Workers have the right to equal pay for equal work. with difficulty Set 1. trigger an explosion / reaction) •*. To set the counter at zero. Prior to * subsequently Prior / ' p r a i s / prep Prior to the 1st World War. A complex set of factors. The generator works non-stop providing it is not allowed to overheat. n /set/ A set of tools A television set A set of numbers. Such tiny variations are scarcely measurable. -» Without taking account of. barely.LINK WORDS & LOGIC Otherwise / ' A d s w a i z / adv You should phone the bank immediately. -*• To put. Temporal: "from the time* -*~ / have lived here since 1985 Causal: "because" -*• Since it's coid.

an ecological crisis is inevitable. regardless of MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH Unless conj /sn'les/ Subsequent / ' s A b s i k w s n t / adj adv The meeting had to be cancelled because of subsequent difficulties. The initial scheme was subsequently abandoned. The data is not accurate. because of this I do not know whether I will come or not. Though it is not universal in mammals.224 He quitted the job in spite of the good pay. Thanks to a grant. Prior to. therefore I am" (Descartes). thereby increasing the temperature. -* But. The immune system destroys most foreign bodies. The orbital speed is low. Fusion will not occur unless the temperature is raised to a million degrees. later * previously You cannot go to South America unless you have got a passport. he managed to finish his research. Viruses are spread through the body via the blood system. In spite of all the evidence.conj Though it was cold. so far 2. thus the satellite gradually loses altitude. -*• Although there was. -> If or not /wail/ Therefore adv /'Seafo:/ "I think. such as lasers. despite that . such as PVC. -*• Up to the time. -* Except if Until prep conj /sn'til/ He worked until 7 p. consequently 1 .conj It is a cheap yet efficient system. -*• By contrast. Unless industrial output is reduced. hence Though /6su/ 1 .conj While clean water is essential for health. -*• Although. -*• Therefore. The tails of whales (which contain no bone) are strong yet flexible. hence. The cell was damaged. -*• Up until now. maternal instinct is very common. is required. yet bacteria continue to kill us. whereas Kim lives in the country. On the other hand 1 . Synthetic polymers. -*• Of this sort. we still have no actual proof. whereas for men. are cheap. -> Thus. it is not sufficient. similar to Via prep /'vaia/ He flew to Lima via Madrid. therefore the results are not reliable. through Whereas conj /wesr'asz/ Thanks to prep /Qaerjks/ Meningitis can now be cured thanks to penicillin. I got the news via a friend. Extremely powerful equipment. -*• Because of Sarah lives in the town. before Such det /SAtJV I have never seen such wastage. The brain damage occurred while he was under anaesthetic. Life expectancy for women is 83. The USA has not yet ratified the treaty. Don't switch off the computer until you have removed the disk. -*• Despite the fact. The drug was administered even though it was potentially dangerous. -* During the time 2. thereby preventing nutrients from being absorbed.m. Aluminium is a light metal. -»• By way of. nevertheless.conj While searching for trilobites the bone fossils were discovered.dea'bai/ While The gas is compressed. thus costs will be reduced. The effects are the same whether the radiation is internal or external. It is the largest fossil forest yet found in the Arctic. -*• After that. they went on working. although Yet /jet/ Thus / 6 A S / adv The new machine is more efficient. on the other hand Whether conj /'weds/ Thereby adv /. it is 79. while lead is a heavy one.adv I have not seen the film yet. -*• Consequently.

recommendation . Reincarnation is a basic assumption of Buddhism. Acceptance Note — Many nouns are formed by adding the suffix "-meni". To avoid intoxication. On receiving the invitation.6. the filaments form a hexagonal array. condemnation Array n /s'rei/ An array of figures was displayed on the screen. -*• To say what someone should do. UNO should address the issue of atmospheric pollution. -*• A display. he sent a written acknowledgement. to recommend Allege v /a'leds/ Acknowledge v /sk'nolid^/ n The government acknowledged the need for increased salaries. adv It was alleged that he was killed by the police. Under the microscope. to consider Approve v /s'pruiv/ n Address / s ' d r e s / v The female condom was first approved for sale in the UK in 1993. Genetic variation in species accounts for differences in life-span. workers are advised to wear masks. It is generally acknowledged that Ariane has been a success. The disease is characterised by a large array of symptoms. a well-ordered arrangement. -*• To suppose. It can be assumed that the temperature will continue to rise.v Assume / g ' s j u i m / v Advice n /sd'vais/ n When in doubt. -*• A personal opinion. you should ask for advice. I ' l l play tennis. to presume something to be true. Copernicus was asked to give advice on calendar reform. The risk of human error must be taken into account. Attractive /'askrsnim/ "LASER" is an acronym for "Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation". -* To face up to. The idea of studying abroad appeals to me. series Assuming that it does not rain tomorrow.v /ad'mit/ To admit to making an error. -*• A request. consideration. Government approval is necessary before drugs can be marketed. to recognise the truth # to deny The cornea is a membrane which admits light to the inner eye. -* An abbreviation made with the first letter of each word To address a problem. -* To answer. The government was forced to admit that criminal offences were rising. To interest. -» A report. to recognise. declare something that is not necessarily true Appeal n v adj /a'pi:!/ •*• a statement-equipment-arrangementmeasurement Acronym n To launch an appeal for money to help cancer research. -> Agreement. An appealing idea. suggestion. -*• To allow entry # to expel 2. -*• To acknowledge. The problem of bio-genetic patents has not yet been properly addressed. He was allegedly connected to the Mafia. KNOWLEDGE & STATEMENT Account n /s'kaunt/ Advise v /sd'vaiz/ v A written account must be made after each incident. Belief Admit 1 . -*• To claim. To accept officially # disapproval. The drug was approved for medical use in 1979. He was obliged to give up his job for alleged sexual harassment. To explain The doctor advised him to stop smoking.

to accept •JtfjM*. Evidence is:a. -*• To persuade. sci&fittfj£ data* . A declaration. To be elected chairman. -*• To suppose. the chairwoman called for a vote. Events on a sub-atomic level cannot be predicted. A traffic census was carried out. -> Conscious. to exhibit Encounter /in'kaunts/ To encounter economic difficulties. He claimed to be the first to discover the virus. they are convinced that the model will work. -* To refuse to acknowledge. Despite the problems. think that something is probable Face v /feis/ Small firms are facing strong competition. The results were not expected. New ideas generally encounter a certain amount of hostility. -*• A visual presentation. She denied being involved with KGB. The theory of evolution is supported by evidence from fossils. To display information on a computer screen. to keep secret There is little evidence to support the theory. . -* A conviction.. Understanding Belief n v /bi'lirf/ A religious belief. Data which supports a theory Convince adj v /kan'vins/ The evidence is not convincing. to come into contact Event n /i'vent/ The most important event in your life. An action Claim v /kleim/ The government claims that it has reduced inflation. Creationists deny the validity of scientific procedure. •jibdbes' net'. The Dodo was described by several 16th century travellers. to contest # to confirm. -*• An official counting. to be sure The minister denied the accusation of fraud. The suggestion has encountered a lot of opposition. f&tee friend. •*• Proof. To be sure something is true # to doubt n v To describe what happened in the accident.. To show. -> What happens. -*• To hide. -* To meet. -*• President. to give the details Display /di'splei/ Census / ' s e n s s s / The first national census of the population in Britain was held in 1801. They have analysed the sequence of events leading to muscle contraction.. Akhenaton was perhaps the first to believe in a single God.obvious fact* Expect v /ik'spekt/ Deny / d i ' n a i / v I expect that it will rain tomorrow./£.-mmn • "tt /$ • m. It is believed that the universe was created 15 billions years ago. . Light can be described either in terms of waves or in terms of particles. •' :. After the accident he made a claim to the insurance company for a pension. The government is faced with a difficult decision. survey of the population or of objects Chairman / woman / ' t j e s m s n / n The chairman of a committee. Doctors are convinced that heart diseases are related to fetal development. head of a committee n v A digital display on a watch.226 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH /s'wea/ Describe v Aware adj n /di'skraib/ He was not aware of the danger.-. There is a growing awareness of the consequences of global warming. The fossils were displayed in a glass case. Encryption allows you to conceal your password. a request Evidence n /'evidsns/ n Conceal v /ksn'si:!/ Plastic surgery can conceal signs of ageing. -* To declare something is true. Humans may hear a sound without being aware of it. At the end of the meeting. Solar activity is expected to increase next year. tngarts "proof. -*• To say what something is like. Several researchers have evidence that the treatment improves rat memory. to realise.

the export of meat was forbidden. Because of the epidemic. n The main focus of the seminar. To focus attention on a subject. being afraid of Find out / f a i n d / (find. it was necessary to find out how to connect the nerve fibres.LEXIS 6 . to make illegal * to permit Forecast / ' f o : k a : s t / n Weather forecasts are becoming more accurate. to forecast Guess / g e s / v If you do not know the answer. forbade. An estimation of a future event Foresee /fo:'si:/ (see. -* To ban. enquiry"). Galvani was the first to find out that electrical currents have biological effects. A German pharmaceutical company was accused of hiding evidence. attention. awareness Intend / i n ' t e n d / v He intends to go to Rome. new data Focus / f s u k a s / v He focused the microscope on the cell. -* Something that is true. Can you guess the number of species becoming extinct each year? -*• To estimate. v The police inquired about his activities. This problem could have been foreseen. she is ill. The friction is so small that it can be ignored. forbidden) v Smoking is forbidden. Ptolemy's conception of the world was based on a false assumption. to aim . to be confronted by /faekt/ Fact is stranger than fiction. To ensure fuel supplies. hid. long-term planning forecasts are essential. The hypothesis is backed by the experimental findings. First of all. -*• Apprehension. to reveal Ignore / i g ' n o : / v He ignored the doctor's advice. make a hypothesis without knowing the facts Hide / h a i d / (hide. The instructions are intended to help beginners. -*• A prediction. Fact n v 227 Bankers forecast an increase in the exchange rate. Wrongly * correctly Fear / f i g / n The fear of death. hidden) v He hid the money under the bed. Anti-pollution devices are intended to reduce carbon monoxide levels. Investigation Insight / ' i n s a i t / n The teeth of extinct species provide valuable insights into the diet. -* To predict. guess. to conceal # to expose. In 1819. -*• To keep out of sight. to take no notice of* to pay attention Inquire / m ' k w a i s / (alternative spelling of "enquire. The study of seismic waves is giving new insights into the Earth's structure. -*• To discover Finding / ' f a i n d i q / n The findings of the government inquiry will be published tomorrow.KNOWLEDGE & STATEMENT They were faced with the problem of obtaining pure samples. -> Understanding. -*• To ask for information. seen) v It is impossible to foresee long-term technological trends. Scientists can only guess why the satellite stopped emitting. found) v To find out the cause of the engine failure. There are no facts to support this theory. -*• Results. Previous research has ignored hereditary factors. -* To plan. As a matter of fact. Traumatic experiences often remain hidden in the unconscious. adj An unforeseen difficulty. He wrote to inquire about entry conditions to the university. adv Statistical data is often falsely interpreted. v The government fears that unemployment will increase. found. -*• Not corresponding to the truth. -*• Not to take into account. n There was a government inquiry into industrial health hazards. a law forbade the employment of children under nine. saw. -*• To concentrate light. Central point Forbid / f s ' b i d / (forbid. There is a widespread fear of the dangers of genetic engineering. -*• To encounter. that has actually happened # fiction False / f o i l s / adj A false alarm.

-» To observe. Reactions under stress are not predictable. To classify. the two fixed points that definean ellipse are labelled Fand F1. -*• To suppose. It is likely to rain tomorrow. Before discussing the main points. to assume Presume / p r i ' z j u : m / v . -*• Probable. It was only two days later that he noticed the symptoms. to use forthe first time. -*• A prior condition. In figure 1. Statement of what always happens Under stress. -* The probable future. Foreseeable # unpredictable Liable / ' l a i a b l / adj adj Prerequisite n ^prii'rekwszit/ Likely adv /'laikli/ n The weather forecast is bad. The enlargement of the brain area was a prerequisite for language. Law /!D:/ n A brief overview of the project. The economic outlook for Africa is catastrophic. -> Subject. -* A piece of paper etc. indicating the name. message Outlook n /'autluk/ Knowledge n /'nolid^/ Candidates must have a good knowledge of English. to make someone notice Predict / p r i d i k t / v Astrologists claim to be able to predict events on Earth. There is little likelihood that the government will increase the student grant.228 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH Introduce /^ntrs'djiKS/ v He introduced the new manager to the staff. what is expected Overview n /'auvsvju:/ Label n v /'leibl/ There was a label on the bottle marked "Poison". -* General summary Point out / p o i n t / v To point out a mistake in the calculations. Children with gastric infections are liable to develop appendicitis. a requirement To presume something is correct. Sociologists point out that homicides increase after executions. Population growth is one of the main issues of modern society. We can presume that the friction is negligible. expected. -*• To draw attention. to tend. predisposed. Future strategies are likely to become increasingly complex. to become aware of. Boyle's law is only accurate at low temperatures. question of interest Motive / ' m a u t i v / n What was the motive for the crime? Profit is the main motive behind the current interest in biotechnology. -> What is known. Angela is absent. prospect A knowledge of Italian is a prerequisite for the job. Genetic material is introduced into the fetus. Newton discovered the law of gravity. -*• The reason for doing something. In the early stages. Penicillin was not introduced until 1942. The report points out that research facilities are under-used. to mark It is against the law for children to drive cars. I presume that she is ill. -*• Forecast. computer programs are liable to contain errors. There was a notice on the door saying the doctor was out. understanding * ignorance The outlook for the electronics industry is good. -> To present. Grounds Notice v /'nsutis/ n He noticed that the switch had not been turned off. Our knowledge of the universe increases year by year.. Public health authorities predict a world-wide crisis. people are more liable to make mistakes. he gave a short overview of the situation. Chance. A written announcement. topic. -*• A rule. Identifying the type of blood cells is a prerequisite for transfusion. Industrial pollution is a major political issue. -*• Likely to do something. to insert Issue / ' i j u : / n This is a minor issue.

He requested an interview with the manager. a search was carried out to locate the black box. sought) v To seek advice from a specialist. TC plays a role in many calculations and proofs.a 'tmofd . The use of lunar reckoning began at least 2. -*• To identify. The scanner revealed a malignant tumour.• stress on the 1st.000 years BC. to show this in reality /n'kwest/ 2. -*• To write. A precondition Military research is paid for by the government. "If you cannot measure it. to conceal Search v n /saitjV Recognise v /'reksgnaiz/ She didn't recognise me at first. The police searched the house. the 2nd sylfabie •*. write down information.m. to demand.v He suddenly realised that he had made a mistake. Palaeontologists are required to identify new fossils by genus and by species. Euclid proved that there are infinitely many prime numbers. The most frequently quoted variables are temperature and precipitation. The police records were destroyed by the fire. Information that has been kept Note — Req$Fd:vtt)e rpun and the verb have :diffdi»nt ''stfesis. appeal. -*• To store. After the crash. to seek Seek /si:k/ (seek. -*• To demonstrate beyond doubt. -*• Scientific investigation into new fields 2. to acknowledge To search for gold. -* To need. Bankers reckon that the inflation rate will be 3%. Lymphocytes can recognise foreign molecules in the body. To record the results of an experiment. It took several years before the danger of acid rain was recognised. -*• To work out. to apply for Require v /n'kwaia/ Quote v /kwaut/ To quote Lord Kelvin. -»• To repeat someone else's words n n Realise v /'rislaiz/ Electronic equipment requires little maintenance. Visitors are requested not to walk on the grass. -* A scientifically acceptable demonstration All the data is recorded on a hard disk. Several Spanish research students were working in the laboratory. The first book printed in Britain was a translation from Arabic.v The hospital made an urgent request for blood. In the 1930s. •*"" to re'eofif: st»$£-0n. To ask for. -*• To understand.-'p^ttf rns. . Calculation Reveal v /ri'vi:!/ Medical examinations revealed a significant loss of calcium. to become suddenly aware Le Corbusier was not able to realise these projects until after the war. scientifically So far. sought. syifebte Request n v Prove 1 . Oxygen is a basic requirement for human life. The quotation comes from a 19th century textbook. -*To show. to estimate. to expose * to hide. no drug has proved to be totally effective. . to make a book mechanically /n'ko:d/ n Proof n /pruf:/ ADN can be used as a proof of paternity. fulfil Research / n ' s a i t j V n v Reckon v /'reksn/ n Jane reckoned that she would arrive at 7 p. physicists realised that nuclear fission was possible. -»• Demand.v /pru:v/ It was Pasteur who proved that diseases were spread by microbes.KNOWLEDGE & STATEMENT Print v 229 Record v /print/ The newspaper is printed in three different towns simultaneously. The group are researching into potential damage to the hydrosphere.LEXIS 6 . it is not science". to display. -> To be found to be. -* To achieve. -*• To look for carefully.

-*• To inform of potential danger. -*• To calculate. A piece of research Warn v n /wo:n/ The doctor warned him of the danger. practical knowledge. announce. It is true to say that urban growth depends on the transport system. Academic investigation. •*• To spend time learning. -*• An outline. The project involves working out new security techniques. corresponding to the facts. Declaration Technical dictionaries are updated every two months. A government spokeswoman made a statement to the press. -* Subject. To be exact Skill n adj adj /skill Computer skills. He is a skilful dentist. Indication of a threat To work out a solution to the problem. -*• Expertise. -*• Exact. There were some elements of truth in what he said. -*• Improbable. Such behaviour can be viewed from two different perspectives. The weather forecast gave a warning of avalanche risks.Ap'deit/ State v /steit/ The Prime Minister stated that taxes would be increased. -> To look for. potential danger. All distances. Wanted v MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH The manager threatened to quit the job. Competent. -*• To say officially. Qualified True /tru:/ adj n Solve v /solv/ To manage to solve the problem. safety regulations must be updated. -*• An indication of future. It seems highly unlikely that oil prices will increase. Some calculators can solve differential equations. The government will make an official statement tomorrow. They are currently attempting to work out the causes of the crash. Becoming an airline pilot involves mastering a variety of different skills. The red warning light indicates low oil pressure. to discover by thinking Sum up v /s Am/ The chairwoman summed up at the end of meeting. -> Person selected to speak in the name of a group Unlikely adv /An'laikli/ He might phone. issue It was a true story. doubtful # likely Update v /.230 The only solution is to seek alternative ways of identifying the particles. are measured in meters. to include the latest data n View n v /vju:/ What is your view on the question? Several studies support the view that acupuncture is effective. Industry requires skilled workers. a shortened version Threat n /Gret/ A threat of war. way of seeing. -*• To find an answer for Spokesman/woman / ' s p a u k s m a n / n A spokesman for the ministry of defence. to try to find. The only topic that interested him was computer technology. Pieces of debris in orbit are a threat to satellites. but it is unlikely. It is by no means easy to sum up the situation. A much sought-after job. -*• To repeat the main points. unless otherwise stated. to make a synopsis Work out / w a : k / v Summary n /'sAmsri/ To write a summary of the year's activities. sulphur pollution is spreading. Such molecules are unlikely to be found in DNA. -*• Opinion. As technology develops. an abstract. . Meissner and his colleagues have partly solved the problem. To warn Topic n /'topik/ Five different topics were dealt with during the meeting. Erasmus grants are intended to help students study abroad. To consider Study v n /'stAdi/ To study electrical engineering. -*• To make more modern. According to a recent study.

' : Blast n v -** art 8dftf*rtt$0fn»nt . In Br. prevent 2. to do something Blow 1 . A shock Allow v /s'lau/ Smoking is not allowed in the office. Publicity Note . to destroy * to repair.• _ /9'fo:d/ /blaist/ The blast of the explosion broke the windows. . Macroscopic algae are attached to the surface of the rock.r the tertic stress ts on the first syllable for the vetto and on tht second syllable for the noum The teachers were awarded an increase in salary. broken) 1 . time. cyclonic winds blow in an anticlockwise direction. -*• To create a current. changes acquired during an animal's lifetime are inherited.v To break a window. a flow of air He was killed by a blow on the head. blown) In the northern hemisphere. As a result of the car accident. The computer simulation avoided the need for further tests. Electro-ceramics acquire significant conductivity at higher temperatures. The accusation of fraud was a serious blow to his reputation. Microbes can be used to break up the pollutants in the environment. E... -* To take action not to do something. There is a UN ban on the use of chemical weapons. Break / b r e i k / ( b r e a k . blew. Subliminal advertising is illegal. the judge awarded 100.7. -*• To get. to mend -* To fix. PROCESS & MANIPULATION Acquire / s ' k w a i g / v Children usually acquire language by the age of two. The life-span of the insects is too short to allow for genetic change. The US has not yet banned capital punishment. . to obtain Avoid v /s'void/ You should avoid eating between meals.Advertise / advertisement These words ere frequently pronounced incorrectly. broke. to fasten. Try to avoid driving through the city centre. The fetus is attached to the mother by the umbilical cord. -> To make a public announcement for sales. . To blast open the door with dynamite. to prevent an action Advertise v n /'aedvstaiz/ Award v /g'woid/ Rhone-Poulenc is advertising for engineers. The somatic system allows voluntary control over skeletal muscle. As the standard of living increases. ' . etc. To break the structure of the molecule. .v /b 1 su/ (blow. Glass fibre is made by blowing molten glass into tiny filaments. According to Lamarck. -* To be hit hard. to make possible # to forbid. You can't afford to waste time. ' • . etc.000 e damage De Broglie was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1929.n Attach v /s'taetjV He attached the caravan to the car. -*• To have sufficient money. people can afford to travel more. -*• To grant money (or honours) Ban v /b ae n/ Cigarette advertising was banned on Malaysian TV in 1982. to connect . To place an advertisement in the newspaper.to •'&d$ertise Afford v . To break open with explosives Few developing countries can afford to buy the vaccines. -> To make something illegal. A prohibition n "*. -*• To separate into parts. -* A shock wave. -*• To permit.

The factory system brought about fundamental changes in social structure.v n /drill To drill for oil in the North Sea. After WW 2. Lava and ash are emitted during a volcanic eruption. The data we have is not sufficient to build a consistent theory. To cause harm # to repair. -* To stop a meeting. The drill has a tungsten tip. Radioactive waste will be buried deep underground. built) v It took 6 months to build the bridge. etc. * to absorb Catch /kaetjY (catch. The car was badly damaged. To capture. caught. the Vatican compelled Galileo to renounce his theories. The cat caught the mouse. brought) v The accident was brought about by an excess of alcohol. to have offspring v Lack of oxygen can cause brain damage. -*• To reproduce. decisive step forward Breakthrough / ' b r e i k G r u : / n n The car consumes 6 litres per 100 km. to trigger Disturb v adj n /di'staib/ Build /bild/ (build. bred. Worrying. Viruses will ultimately bring about the death of the host cells. alarming. -*• A (radical) change MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH In 1633. Most bats catch their prey in flight.n This constitutes a break with the conventional approach. -> To make. -*• Repetitive exercise 2. Britain was compelled to abandon her colonies. to get rid of underground The football match was cancelled because of heavy rain. caught) v To catch a disease. seize # to release Emit / I ' m i t / v Compel v /ksm'pel/ Everyone is compelled togo toschool. drove. To provide power An internal combustion engine emits carbon monoxide. Agitation Bury v /'beri/ The dog buried the bone. -»• To make a hole (rotary movement). The driving force of the weather system is solar radiation. To cancel an appointment. -*• To interrupt. time). brought. White blood corpuscles destroy microbes. -*• To oblige. -* To cause. The amount used Damage n /'dsemid^/ Breed / b r i id/ (breed. -*• To control a car. -*• To give out gas. to decide that it will not take place Drill 1 . The police records were destroyed in the fire. After 1570 BC. he is asleep. first used in 1814. built. to mend The Amazonian forests are being rapidly destroyed. Checking computer programs is a time-consuming job. The damage was caused by an acid leak. The accident was caused by a breakdown in the hydraulic system. When there is no disturbance. The news is disturbing. constituted a breakthrough for astronomy. -*• To stop working. Spectroscopy. ecosystems appear to be stable. -*• Victory.n Cancel / ' k a e n s l / v Drive / d r a i v / (drive. . to force Breakdown n /'breikdaun/ Consume v /ksn'sjuim/ A mechanical breakdown. a failure The invention of transistors was a major breakthrough in electronics. to eliminate * to create Destroy / d i ' s t r o i / v B r i n g about / b r i g / (bring. -*• To put. -*• To terminate the existence. -*• To get an illness. adj The generator is driven by a turbine. An electron gun emits a beam of electrons. -*• To use (energy. A tool for making a hole He spent 20 minutes doing drills in the language laboratory. After midnight the consumption of electricity drops steeply. Albatrosses return to land only to breed.232 2. driven) v To drive a car carefully. bred) v Thousands of mice are bred for experimental purposes. Black and Decker make electric drills. electrons. -» Partial destruction. to construct # to destroy Do not disturb him. the Egyptians began to bury the pharaohs.

-*• To shut. laid. To insulate a building against heat loss. The planets in the solar system lie within the Sun's outer atmosphere. He was not familiar with the building's layout. lock. After reading the letter.LEXIS 7. -*• Although. ensure that the machine has been switched off. Thermal insulation reduces the flow of heat between hot and cold regions. To complete n Electric wires are insulated with a plastic coating. to protect against energy wastage. A Roman temple was found lying 20 m beneath the surface. -*• To cover. -*• To make full. Special attention must be paid to the layout of instruments in the control room. Last week. To lay responsibility on the Fulfil v /ful'fil/ To fulfil one's ambition in life. fix * to release Insulate v /'insjuleit/ Fill v /fil/ To fill the petrol tank. held) v To hold a child by the hand. to cause pain /'inc^s/ He was badly injured in a car crash. At the age of 65. to satisfy To hand someone some money. the chairman handed over the job to a youngerman. The new law may hurt self-employed people. The process of ionisation enables food to be sterilised. laid) A gas pipe line was laid on the sea bed. lay. -*• Design. hurt) v The girl fell and hurt her leg. whereas government. The lock was broken. To ensure that the oil level is maintained. hurt. -* To take in your hand. To lay stress on the importance of research. Protection Lay v / l e i / (lay. Large computers enable scientists to simulate experiments in real time. -*• To shut in. deal with. The final decision lies with the Handle v /'haendl/ The equipment is fragile. plan Lie v /\ai/(lie. -*• To give On the one hand the pay is good. so he fastened the door with a piece of wire. The petrol tank can hold 50 litres. Electro-magnetic radiation can injure mice fetuses. he handed it back. -> To manipulate. The nucleus is enclosed by the cell membrane. To put Hand / h a e n d / 1 .000 people were seriously hurt in the accident.n The layout of a circuit. -> To be situated (horizontally). -*• To make certain. -*• To hurt. on the other the working hours are long.PROCESS & MANIPULATION Enable / I ' n e i b l / v The grant will enable research to continue. The underground reservoirs will be filled with toxic waste. -*• To place (horizontally). It is unlikely that the production quota will be fulfilled. to damage. An electronic sensor was fastened to the bird's wing. It must be handled with care. Part of an appliance that is designed to be held Hold /hsuldl (hold. To be the responsibility of . To contain. -> To make possible * to prevent n 233 To hold a cup by the handle.v Layout n /'leiaut/ 2. There is no chemical reaction unless all the conditions are fulfilled. More than 4. government. lain) The book was lying on the table. Harm Fasten v /'fa:sn/ Please fasten your safety belts. Ensure v /in'Jus/ First. to surround Hurt /bait/ (hurt. make secure. There is a real danger of injury to the nerve system. He was unable to handle the situation. To cause physiological damage. To fill up the application form. held. To organise Enclose v /m'klsuz/ The dogs were enclosed behind a wire grid. You must ensure that the electric appliance has been earthed. a meeting was held in Rome. -*• To carry out. to verify Injure v n -> To injure.

-* To manufacture. Vaccination will prevent the disease from spreading. A velocity of 129 km/ sec. To overcome development problems in a prototype. . break the glass and pull the lever down. is needed for a rocket to leave the Milky Way. To detect Prevent /pri'vent/ v Safety measures are taken to prevent accidents. came. goods. to shut with a key. Animals manage to survive by hibernating and so reducing metabolic activity. -* To fasten. to function Pull v Operate / ' o p s r e i t / v Certain cancerous cells produce biochemical substances. locked it and went into the shop. A device for closing a door * to unlock She managed to answer all the questions. to halt. To gain control Pick / p i k / v To pick an apple from the tree. -* To stop. to acquire How do you operate this machine? Silicone lubricants can operate at very high temperatures. -*• To take. Produce v /prs'djuis/ n n Obtain v /ab'tein/ He obtained the fossils while travelling in China. -*• To get. The total energy needs for the town are 640 MW. Engineers have managed to produce 0. to inform of future danger* Manage / ' m a e n i d s / v Master /moists/ v Process n v /'prauses/ Mend v /mend/ He was unable to mend the TV set. to succeed * to fail Once you have mastered the instructions. They are in the process of renewing the equipment. Unless something is done to prevent it. Results obtained so far indicate that a fish diet may reduce cardiac arrest. to solve Lock / I n k / v n He got out of the car. what is necessary. He was unable to obtain permission to travel abroad. -*• To move something away from you ?* to pull Overcome v /suvs'kAm/ v (come. New electronic products. Hydrogen can be produced from zinc and sulphuric acid. In the middle of. come) Fever helps the body overcome infectious diseases. A requirement Need /ni:d/ v Cell renewal is a continuous process.5 million years ago. Repair /n'pea/ He managed to repair the TV set. Most antibiotics operate by inhibiting cell synthesis. -* To work.234 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH The aim of the project is to overcome future fuel shortages. to provide. A needs analysis. To handle numbers etc. to select. what is produced /pul/ The tractor pulled the car out of the snow. -> To master. The information from the sensory organs is processed in the brain. the program is easy to run. -> To do something difficult.1 micron chips. -*• To require. To push the alarm button. -*• To repair * to break Industry needs more electronic engineers. To pick the most suitable candidate The data picked up by the sensor must be converted into an image. Items. It is often cheaper to replace a component than to mend it. there will be a famine throughout Africa. -*• To understand thoroughly. He put the key into the lock of the door. -> A series of connected actions. It means "to stop11 It ctoes not mean "to warn. It will take 3 days to get the car repaired. In case of fire. to check N«rt» — To prevent is a false friend. Data processing has become essential for meteorology. Fire was mastered approximately 1. The blood absorbs carbon dioxide and other waste products of metabolism. -*• To move something towards you # to push Push v /pujV To push someone into the river.

Force for movement Train v /trein/ To train a football team. An oil spill. to store 2. A beam of high-energy electrons was fired at a target of protons. she took a taxi. To save data. Weather forecasts enable airlines to plan their routes and save fuel. The explosion was caused by an electric spark. thrust) v Angrily. A vaporiser Throw /0rau/ (throw. -*• To propel with force. he thrust his hands into his pockets. Place where things are kept Seize v /si:z/ The documents were seized by the police. -* To come from. spilt. patients are trained to co-ordinate their movements. -*• To trigger.n /stem/ The stem of the flower is thin and green. You should seize this opportunity of working abroad. mechanical stress grows. To save money. to mend # to damage 235 -*• The long.v /seiv/ To save time. A visible (electric) discharge A stressed syllable. -> To protect from death. to cause. Fibre is produced from the stems of the cannabis plant. When atoms are split. If the abscess ruptures. a loss of energy occurs. Instruction Stem 1. A shop. A hair spray. central part of a plant to which the branches are attached The problem stems from early childhood. spilt) To spill acid on the floor. -* To economise # to waste Penicillin has saved millions of lives. The Earth throws a circular shadow on the moon. -* To damage. To give importance to Target n /'ta:git/ Spill v n / s p i l / (spill. thrown) v She threw the revolver into the river. A training course in graphic design. To buy something from a general store. the liquid spills into the abdominal cavity. thin. tension. A division n Spoil v /spoil/ The water spoiled his new clothes. -*• Take something suddenly. . A boomerang can be thrown more than 90 m.v Store v /sto:/ Camels can store water in the blood system. Pressure. A split in a political party.LEXIS 7. to ruin Spray v n /sprei/ To spray the corn with insecticide. -*• Accentuated. quickly n Stress ad] n v /stres/ Spark(off) v /spa:k/ n Massive unemployment sparked (off) protest marches. -* To make something work. to originate in Save 1 . The spare fuel is kept in a storage tank. split) The water molecules are split into atoms. threw. What is aimed at Split v / s p l i t / (split. A data store. -*• To teach a skill. The production target for next year is 10. An accidental leak The missile hit the target. -*• To allow liquid to flow into the wrong place. If nerve fibres are damaged. n Rockets provide the necessary thrust for the satellite to escape gravity. As the plane accelerates. -*• Goal. I would like to stress this point. thrust. -*• To project vaporised liquid. -* To divide into two parts. The tail of the flying fish can provide enough thrust for a 180 m flight.000 units. -* To push with violence. To record. The stress of modern life. The chimpanzee seized the banana and ate it. Allergies can be caused by traumas stemming from emotional conflicts. The experiment was spoiled by inaccurate measurements. to stock. to project Thrust / 9 r A S t / (thrust. -* To keep. The debris will be stored inside the satellite. adj Treat v /tri:t/ The problem must be treated very seriously. split. The genome project has sparked off a surge in research.PROCESS & MANIPULATION Doctors can now repair nerve fibres.

went. To pull the trigger of a revolver. light aircraft are used for treating crops with insecticides. To what extent are species currently undergoing genetic change? -*• To experience. to spark off. to be subject to n Trigger(off) v /'trigs/ n The alarm system is triggered by an optical sensor. they yield ammonia. gone) v To undergo a heart operation. He was taken to hospital for emergency treatment.236 In the US. to start working. -*• To give. The deeper rock layers yielded new specimens of fossils. -*• To cause. (Medical) care MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH Undergo /Anda'gsu/ (go. -*• To consider. The discovery of semi-conductors triggered off a revolution in electronics. the prototype must undergo trials. To deal with. First. Kissing triggers off an acceleration in the rate of the heart-beat. Genetic engineering can increase crop yields. A lever which activates Yield v /ji:ld/ When organisms decompose. to produce. Production n .

Classifying the elements was a major achievement in the history of chemistry. it 'does wtt nwn: to Irish. -*> To intend to reach. borne) She can't bear watching violent films.v To apply a formula. some deep-sea fish have luminescent organs. The behaviour of animals depends on their living conditions. Normally the heart beats between 60 and 100 times each minute. Metal bends more easily when heated. Napoleon beat the Austrians at the battle of Wagram. To study the behaviour of electrons. -»• A curve. The lenses can be adjusted to produce a parallel beam. strike repeatedly. a concentrated stream of light. to make a formal demand 2. Utilisation Attempt / s ' t e m p t / v In the 17th century. He was able to read Greek by the age of seven. Microbes are able to reproduce themselves every 20 minutes. -* To request. -*• To act. beaten) The child had been badly beaten. To attract prey.A4Mim<wti«-t ItItItItIItItItItItItI It means.8. to carry KM* .: t<?. To apply a force of 20 newtons. bent. beat. To aim an X-ray beam at a target. Victory # failure Bear 1. v To bend your arm. to direct. -*• To hit. Certain cell membranes have the ability to detect magnetic fields. -*• A ray. bore. to administer. The purpose Beat 1 . Conduct Bend / b e n d / (bend. -*• To do better than. to shape into an angle # to straighten . The government must bear the responsibility for inflation. to make an effort. -*• To try. -*• To succeed in getting. bent) n A bend in the road. ~> To support. To fill in an application form. The act of trying Behave v n /bi'heiv/ The child behaved badly. to attain. -*• To use. An attractive suggestion. A pulse To beat the world record. to defeat Apply 1 v n /g'plai/ To apply for a job. An electron beam scans the screen. what someone does. Higher speeds can be achieved by using fibre optics. to manage. skill. Unlike magnetic poles attract each other. to pull by magnetism. Appealing adj People should be paid according to ability. n She found the answer to the question at the third attempt. isweeeeci. -* To cause interest.v 2. The prehistoric skeleton bore the signs of serious calcium deficiency. EXPERIMENTATION & ACTION Ability n /a'bilsti/ Attract / g ' t r a s k t / v She was attracted by the idea of a job in California. The beat of the music. radio waves n The firm managed to achieve an annual growth of 4%. Doctors are attempting to transplant brain cells. To deform. •*• To tolerate The bridge can bear a weight of 30 tonnes. doctors attempted to transfuse sheep's blood.v n 2 v /bi:t/ (beat. To have the capacity * unable adj Achieve v /s'tjiiv/ Beam n /bi:m/ A laser produces a highly concentrated beam of light. -* Capacity.v /bes/ (bear. The aim of the project is to speed up traffic flow. n No application has yet been found for these drugs. Aim v n /eim/ The measures were aimed at modernising the industry.

-*• Agreeably cold. Genetically selected plants will boost food production. To reduce the temperature * to heat. element of a whole system Conduct / k s n ' d A k t / 1 . what is contained Carry out / ' k a e r i a u t / v Cool adj /ku:l/ To drink a cool glass of water. Blood contains white and red corpuscles. to attack with the teeth. -*• To perform. to carry out Copper is both malleable and conducts electricity well. -*• To encourage. bitten) The dog bit the child. The accelerated ions collide with atoms of the gas. SO2 is produced when coal is burnt. -*• To do. Most of the cadmium output is a by-product of the zinc industry. A water-cooled engine. If the oxygen content of the blood is reduced. A reservoir. The termite nests are constructed from soil cemented by saliva. burnt) v The fire was burning. to perform The water tank contains 500 litres. The introduction of computers in the 1960s was a major boost to research. To assemble the components of a machine. Proteins constitute the main components of living matter. -*• To injure. while its boiling point is -33-35°C. burnt. Cope v /ksup/ He could not cope with so much work.v Mammals can't breathe underwater. -*• Temperature at which a liquid becomes vapour * to freeze The two cars collided in the main street. bit. brain damage will occur. to be on fire Contain v n /ksn'tein/ By-product n /'baiprodAkt/ Stress is one of the by-products of modern urban life. -*• A part. Oxygen and breathing equipment is used in aircraft flying above 10. -*• A secondary result of a process. Breathing is stimulated by the presence of carbon dioxide in the blood. -*• To be consumed by flames. Ammonia melts at -77. to help Increase. He was bitten by a snake. She collapsed from loss of blood. Radon gas is a by-product of radioactive decay. to stock something. The anti-inflation measures are beginning to bite. water boils at 90°C. This experiment was conducted in a vacuum. to impact # to miss. -*• To hold. A stimulus n Diodes and transistors are electronic components.7°C. -*• To fall down. The toxic waste was stocked in steel containers. disintegrate under pressure Bite v Collide v /ka'laid/ Boil v adj /boil/ At high altitudes. to make Breathe v n /bri:6/ 2. Spin off Babbage's "Analytical Engine" could carry out complicated calculations. To cool a hot gas.000 m. -* What is inside. tank Content n /'kontent/ She emptied the contents of the box onto the table. to warm v Collapse v /ks'laeps/ The building collapsed after the earthquake. -*• To transmit energy The oldest bridge in Australia was constructed by prisoners in 1823. There was a leak in the cooling system. The experiment was carried out in the chemistry laboratory. The geological survey could not be carried out through lack of money. . -*• To crash into. to avoid Component n /kam'psunsnt/ Boost v /bu:st/ Computer assisted design will help boost output. taking air into the lungs Construct / k s n ' s t r A k t / v Burn /bs:n/ (burn. Most microbes can be killed by boiling water. Organic waste can be burnt.238 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH / b a i t / (bite. -> Respiration.v To conduct a survey. Many asteroids are on orbits that could collide with the Earth. To have an effect adj A black hole is a collapsed neutron star. -*• To build.

When he was young. -* Is about Extra medical staff will be needed to deal with the epidemic. Einstein earned a living as a maths tutor. -*• For personal use. Computer engineers can get excellent salaries. -* To be paid. This requires a great deal of time. -*• To deal with. dealt. contract for selling. The storage tanks cracked under the heat.LEXIS 8 . destruction Company directors have a car at their disposal. -*• To make a hole in the ground Crush v /krAJV She crushed her finger in the door. -* A highly qualified person working in technology. A treatment 2. a piece of equipment designed to do something Devise v /di'vaiz/ Crack n v /krsek/ There was a crack in the window. . -*• To make.n /ig'zDist/ Catalytic exhaust pipes reduce pollution. etc. dug) To dig a hole in the ground. -> To damage. Amputation may be required if the leg has been severely crushed. A fuel-saving device. The drug is dissolved in the blood. distribution. in exchange for work or goods 2. A branch of applied science Exhaust 1. Penicillin is used to cure pneumonia. The nuclear industry is faced with a major problem of waste disposal. etc. Rolls Royce make aero-engines. to think of a system. to manage 239 An amplifier is a device for increasing the intensity of an electrical input. The ice expands causing the rock to crack. Although no cure has yet been discovered. A plan. to get money. to harm by applying pressure Dispose 1 . His success was well-earned. Dumping.000 6 a year. He has a great deal of money. -*> A machine converting fuel into mechanical energy Engineer ^endsi'ms/ Device / d i ' v a i s / n Lasers are optical devices. -*• Arrangement. etc. to take necessary action To make an important business deal. a process Dig v / d i g / (dig.v This book deals with recent developments in low temperature physics. dealt) 1. Most metals can be dissolved in acid. To break (partially). -> To cope with. -*• A fracture line on the surface. I haven't got enough time to deal with the problem. New proteins can be designed by arranging the sequence of aminoacids.n Most domestic waste is disposed of by incineration. -*• Quantity. to split To devise a system to reduce costs. diagram The steam engine was invented by James Watt. To study civil engineering. » An appliance. amount Sugar dissolves in coffee. -*• To invent. Immuno-suppressive disorders result in an inability to cope with infections.v Earn / s i n / v 3. It took 8 years to dig the Panama canal. A scheme to dispose of radio-active waste. -*• To deal with. to be used as required Dissolve v /di'zolv/ Deal / d i l l / (deal.n Engine n /'endsm/ 4. dug. The process was devised to recycle industrial waste. conceive of a plan for an appliance.v /di'spsuz/ n Cure v n /kjus/ It was a mild illness. Roosevelt introduced the New Deal. The weight of the glacier crushes the rock below.EXPERIMENTATION & ACTION Air hostesses are trained to cope with an emergency.n Design v /di'zain/ n n The car was designed in Italy and built in Germany. get rid of. -* When a solid mixes and is incorporated in a liquid He works in Madrid and earns 5. -*• To make better. the disease can be controlled. The doctor soon cured her. The circuit design was defective. He is a mechanical engineer.

The whole factory was on fire. to detonate v Experiment n adj /ik'spenmant/ Float v He carried out an experiment in the laboratory. -*• Combustion. with no energy left. v During the trials. the ground is frozen 10 months per year.000 years ago. and similar implements. In a beta test. -*• Information reintroduced into a system to improve performance Fire n /'faia/ Humans began to use fire more than 400. Both research teams are attempting to achieve the same goal.240 Exhaust gases from motor vehicles are the main cause of nitrogen oxide pollution. We have exhausted all the possibilities. Asphyxia is a result of the failure of the respiratory system. Albatrosses sleep while floating on the ocean. they experienced serious difficulties. buildings provided for a specific purpose Freeze / f r i : z / (freeze. The building caught fire. Mice are commonly used for experimental purposes. -*• Possible. froze. The laboratory is suffering from a lack of research facilities. If the male cell fails to unite with the female cell. •*• Error. Completely finished Experience /ik'spiansns/ n He talked about his experiences in Tibet. frozen) v Water freezes at0°C. f e d . To increase temperature # to cool v Feasible / ' f i i z a b l / adj Implement 1. Major faults have been located where the tectonic plates are in movement. The plane crashed because of engine failure. Breakdown * success Goal n /gsul/ The long-term goal is to reduce pollution rates by 50%. Technically realistic Feed / f i : d / (feed. -*• A (scientific) test /flout/ Most woods float in water.v At the end of the day he felt exhausted. -> What has been lived. The food supplies will soon be exhausted. -*• A measurement of temperature. -*• Waste gas.n /'implimsnt/ Production was boosted by improvements in farming implements. to burn. The primary goal is to reduce infant mortality. Third world agricultural production cannot feed the population. instrument . To be confronted by MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH n To carry out a feasibility study. practical knowledge. fertilisation cannot take place. Heat n /hi:t/ The heat of the sun is transmitted by radiation. Gas that has been burnt 2. desired result n Fault n /fo:lt/ The fire was caused by a fault in the electric circuit. The project was technically feasible but too expensive to be realistic. Candidates should have at least two years' experience in industry. feedback from users helps eliminate programming errors. Faults in metals can be detected by X-rays. In Siberia. -*• To be unsuccessful. To ignite. fed) v To feed the baby with milk. -*• Equipment. in flames. -*• Very tired. Frozen carbon dioxide is used as a refrigerant. Archaeologists employ pneumatic hammers. aim. structural abnormality Living on the planet Venus is not feasible. etc. -*• Tool. The liquid was heated up to 150°C. drills. -> To remain. -*• Purpose. viable. To fire a revolver. -> To supply with food. Bioluminescent animals produce little heat. -*• To solidify because of low temperature * to melt Fail v /feil/ He failed to pass his driving test. There seems to be no solution. be suspended on the surface of a liquid. gas # to sink Facility n /fs'silsti/ Computer facilities are available to all students. Feedback n /'fi:dbaek/ The prototype was tested and the feedback used to improve the design.

EXPERIMENTATION & ACTION 2. -*• Result.LEXIS 8 .• . -*• Physical suffering II^HfrilJ^lMfetWV ftthfeVOxnhton - nwsili^'^'f^eErt-f^^-. '. the doctor will prescribe morphine. One of the outcomes of increased education has been a shift in marriage patterns. -* Device (to be inserted) for examining (at a distance). inside the body can be destroyed by small cryogenic probes.9 .'. Helmholtz proved that electric circuits obey the law of conservation of energy.(Ufa • ' -'a-'^-'Mffc. Compared to cats. e.nto'r> *• ^'^iBf-^ 0$Wl~'-egtk*il. In 215 AD. -*• Sort. Caracalla massacred all the male inhabitants of Alexandria. Osteoarthritis is a relatively mild disease. To start Maintain v /mein'tein/ Probe n A thermostat is used to maintain a constant temperature. nevertheless.-*. Lesions in the cortex can lead to an inability to control the muscles.This is vsmi' s^^M^ &: <ofci£N5tig&. inhabit the rivers of Amazonia.•: .a w^ffic wtipttott &f molten rock or .g. like the Anaconda. are typical of developed countries. Well disciplined * disobedient Future policy depends on the outcome of the election. to conserve in the same condition Atmospheric pressure depends on the altitude. . -* To apply.^. Purified protein was inserted into the muscle by injection. -*• To send a ship / missile into the water / air. The population Obey v /a'bei/ You should obey the instructions. . it can be painful. Tumours. influence /prsub/ Probes inserted into the brain are used to locate cerebral activity.:iaf^ten/#ia. The European Space Agency used " G i o t t o " to probe outer space. to put into use 241 A substance can be identified by its melting point. to conform.4°C by evaporation. -*• Incapacity # ability ••»l^:«-^W^/. To investigate v Melt v /melt/ When the snow melts. The company has launched a new advertising campaign. With age. The oxygen supply to the brain must be maintained. -*• To respect the law. -*• To live. Mgh t&rap»mt^f&: tiQ&jfaeikm'J ' ••' . the level of the river rises. . consequence Insert v /in'ssit/ Before inserting the cassette you should switch on the machine. to dwell. dogs are obedient animals. H^f1H^.^^-r/M4^.'''• ' Inhabit v n /m'hasbit/ Snakes. Body temperature is maintained at 37. % "• Launch v adj /Isintf/ Pressure n /'prejs/ To launch a new ship.ttiagm&'-' . -*• The exertion of force. ->• To put something inside something else # to withdraw. -* To keep. -*• To change from a solid to a liquid state * to freeze Inability n /^ns'bilati/ One of the symptoms of depression is the inability to concentrate. Ecologists are putting pressure on the government. type Pain n /pein/ If the pain is too great. Sputnik 1 was launched in 1961. Genetic modifications can be made by inserting DNA into the fetus. Certain kinds of diseases. NASA implemented stricter safety regulations.K f'^pb^-^^^^ . stomach ulcers.• ••• ^ • *•'aSoj® £0$ fc jftyjpwwr *ow» molten ' JfljrtiiMlflfe' •' . The number of inhabitants in small villages is decreasing. arteries lose their flexibility and there is a rise in blood pressure. Beneficial outcomes of genetic mutations are reinforced by natural selection.v After the accident. to extract adj Outcome / ' a u t k A m / n Kind n /kaind/ What kind of car has she got? Different kinds of fossils are found at different geological layers. The gas causes temporary blindness and great pain.

-> Consuming carelessly.n There are several ways of resolving the problem. •+A (difficult) job Recover 1 . With intent * by accident When the electric current is switched off. muscular contraction stops. To resolve a vector into its component parts. -*• To get better. . It was not an easy task. The task of identifying the virus will take months. to continue. According to Darwin. -* To make. without real purpose # to save Not every one is willing to work on Saturday. The blood is sampled to check for contamination. There is a ban against dumping nuclear waste in the sea.v /n'kAvs/ 2. Which lasts 2. the weather begins to get warmer.242 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH Purpose n /'paipss/ n The main purpose of the meeting was to find a short-term solution. To test a part Warm /wo:m/ v adj Sample /'sa-. Are customers willing to pay more for better goods? -> Prepared. The sample was analysed by carbon 14 dating techniques. the pressure must be sustained for 6 hours. -*• A test At the end of the trial he was sentenced to 3 years prison. the purpose of sexuality is to create organic diversity. The conflict in the Middle East will not be resolved for years. A circuit-breaker Task n /taisk/ He managed to finish the task on time. Typical example.n /weist/ The US exports large quantities of toxic waste to the Third World. -* Small part representing the whole. To learn by trial and error. To separate into constituent parts Different samples of the bacteria were analysed. To do something on purpose. Sustainable development aims to protect the needs of future generations.n v Willing /'wihrj/ adj Switch v /switj/ To switch from manual to automatic control. -*• To find a solution. In April. Pilots lose consciousness under a sustained force of 4 to 6 g. It took 5 years to recover from the economic crisis. to recuperate Trial 1.mpl/ n Waste 1. -*• Unwanted. -* A legal examination To warm your hands in front of a fire. -* To maintain.v Nowadays 90% of children recover from Hodgkin's disease. rejected material It is a waste of time and money. The motor driving the compressor is controlled by a thermostatic switch. ready # unwilling v Sustain v /sa'stein/ ad] For a satisfactory bond to be obtained. Centralised planning often wastes resources. Mammals are warm-blooded animals. function. -* Aim. -*• To change positions. To interrupt. -* To find again. be appropriately hot *cool Resolve v /ri'zolv/ 2. A general-purpose volt-meter.n /'traisl/ The plane crashed during trials. Drugs cannot be commercialised until clinical trials have been completed. to overcome Most of the meteorites recovered on Earth are asteroid fragments.

to organise Backwards adv /'bsekwsdz/ Actuate v /'sektjueit/ The switch can be actuated by remote control. arisen) v An unexpected problem has arisen. outbreak Arise /a'raiz/ (arise. -*• Road around a town. to make more suitable. Under stress. to modify Bleed /bli:d/ (bleed. bled) v The child's nose was bleeding. To swim. •*• To lose blood Blood n /blAd/ In 1628. A burst of activity. avoid . to control Adjust / g ' d 3 A s t / v n To adjust a microscope. Three main issues arose during the meeting. -*• To change slightly. Graphite consists of weakly bonded atoms arranged in hexagons. Minor adjustments can be made by hand. -*• A red fluid in the body circulated by the heart Anticlockwise ^ s e n t i ' k l o k w a i z / adv To switch off the radio. Modification Alter v /'o:lt9/ The frequency must not be altered. arose. burst) Water pipes burst when they freeze. the victim may bleed to death within minutes. The list was arranged in alphabetical order. 19th century Japan was a closed society. MOVEMENT & CHANGE Abroad adv /s'broid/ Arrange v /a'reinds/ To travel abroad you need a valid passport. Harvey discovered the circulation of the blood. adrenaline is released into the blood. -*• In the direction from front to back * forwards •*• To operate. bled. In case of an arterial rupture. -*• To appear. Citizens were forbidden to travel abroad. The protein's stability can be altered by the introduction of amino acids. To go round. Sea currents in the South Atlantic flow in an anticlockwise direction. he took the by-pass. To adjust a hypothesis in the light of new facts.000 years. alternative route. to begin to exist Bypass n v /'baipais/ To avoid driving through the town centre. This pipe enables cold gas to bypass the cooling circuit. An increasing number of students spend a year studying abroad. An explosion. to come to notice. Many new species of animals have arisen over the last 100. To alter the design of the experiment. -*• To change. -*• The opposite direction to the hands of a clock * clockwise Burst v n /bs:st/ (burst. -*• To put in order. The position of the wings is actuated by hydraulic pumps. push your arms in front of you and then pull them backwards. turn the adj button anticlockwise. -»• A foreign country To arrange a meeting. By working backwards. burst.9. they were able to build up the chain of events. -*• To break suddenly under pressure. Reptiles are cold-blooded animals.

m®$ in.. We are very busy. The generator broke down because of a defective cooling pump. wood decays fast. Large quantities of chemical waste were dumped in the North Sea. There will be a delay in delivery time. -*• To distribute. every morning. Antibiotics disrupt the cell structure of the bacteria. -* To make progress. to throw away. it will disrupt the entire economy. The decay of teeth is caused by oral bacteria. -*• A failure. toxic waste dumps will pollute underground water. to slow down Our present alphabet has evolved from cuneiform and hieroglyphic symbols. Note — . A leak. counterclockwise Drift v /drift/ The clouds drift slowly across the sky. .. -> To dispose of. The decision was delayed until after the election.m. Artificial intelligence has developed programs that can evolve or "learn". humid forests. The steam is delivered by a copper pipe. spill Evolve v /I'VD!V/ adj Delay n v /di'lei/ There was a 30 minutes delay at the airport because of fog. to deteriorate . Slow movement. efenomfes'with th« rr)^ani«gt:-*^eW^§ '• i^mfSfnt^drsootisstslowpffC^'.244 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH /'klokwaiz/ n Under the influence of marijuana. In the long run. The information is conveyed along the nerve fibres. Transport and distribution * collection If the price of petrol rises.' • . to stop living Dump / d A m p / v Death / d e 6 / n n Decay v n /di'kei/ In hot. -> To disturb. A detail which escaped notice. deviation The toxic material had been dumped in an open field. Side-effects of penicillin include delayed hypersensitivity and fever. Living organisms drifted on the ocean's surface. The electron microscope revealed microscopic defects in the metal. -*• In the direction of the hands of a clock * anticlockwise. Plate tectonics can explain continental drift. Not working #in working order Gas escaped from the leaking pipe. v When the engine begins to overheat. to cause confusion Clockwise adv adj When you play cards you deal them clockwise. To avoid.Pttnifilfif is also. -*• A sudden bright light. -> To move slowly. weakness. The airflow over the wing provides the lift that sustains the aircraft in flight -#• Movement through the air. Escape v n /i'skeip/ Defect n /'diifekt/ The plane crashed because of a defect in the hydraulic system. Flash /flaeJV n The sky was illuminated by a flash of lightning. a red warning light starts to flash. Bacteria have evolved defences against certain antibiotics. A place where waste material is left Convey v /kan'vei/ n Liquid is conveyed along the pipe. -*• To retard. Electricity must be conveyed from the power station to the user. The pollution was caused by an escape of toxic waste. flying Flow v /flsu/ Oil flows through a pipe. (intermittent) illumination Flight n /flait/ Disrupt / d i s ' r A p t / v The plane crashed during the first test flight The jet engine made supersonic flight possible. Anticyclones are produced by a clockwise movement of the wind. A rapid. spreading to other continents. to convey. To take from one place to another Is there life after death? Death was caused by strychnine poisoning. there is a disruption of cognitive processes. -*• To find a way out. to develop Deliver v /di'livs/ n The post is delivered at 10 a. -* To carry. without aim. -*• To decompose. The death rate of the Australian Aborigines is among the highest in the world. -*• To die.

Air pressure on the wings provides lift for a plane. -*• To pick up. His future income will depend on his diploma. An internship allows you to gain experience. T-lymphocytes detect and destroy foreign organisms in the body. Erasmus grants enable European students to study in foreign countries. n The growth of the electronics industry. n There was a slight gain in efficiency due to the new equipment.v /lift/ The box was too heavy to lift. voyage. the plane was not able to land. -*• To circulate. To go in that direction. -* From abroad. -*> A hole or crack allowing gas or liquid to get out. -*• Towards the front. Increasing. -*• Trip.MOVEMENT & CHANGE Light activates the nerves and causes an electric current to flow. After a five-hour journey. a stream of liquid. Traffic control is concerned with improving the flow of vehicles. a different country. grown) v Certain bacteria can grow in the absence of air. What is taken in # output Inward(s) /'inwsdz/ Gain / g e m / To gain time. A person Lift 1. ship reaches its destination Leak n adj v /li:k/ The explosion was caused by a gas leak A leaking pipe. -*• What is fed into an appliance # output n Foreign adj /'forsn/ To speak a foreign language. Different. grew. Average consumption per head. air transport has grown rapidly.n The volcano raised a dust cloud which reduced incoming solar radiation. -*• Consumption. To escape Head / b e d / v n To head the government. money that is earned n Incoming adj /'ir^kAmirj/ 2. Upward pressure There is a lift in the hotel. etc. -* To lead. The head of a department. adj There is growing concern about the over-use of antibiotics. approaching * outgoing . At last. Radio-active gases leaked from the cooling system. advancing # backwards You must check the child's weekly intake of calcium. Slowly but surely the project is going forward. The gas pressure in the balloon equals the inward pressure of the atmosphere. a movement. Owing to fog. -*• Salary. -*• To disembark. The cortex analyses incoming information from the sense receptors in the body. A reduction in oxygen intake causes the heart to pump faster. he went straight to the hotel. Expansion # decline v Gravity exerts a pressure inwards. the government has lifted import restrictions. -*• In the direction of the centre. -*• An (electrical) platform for changing levels in a building Income n /irjkAm/ Most people have to pay income tax. An increase # a loss Grow /grsu/ (grow. unfamiliar Intake n /'mteik/ Forward(s) adv /'foiwsdz/ adv adj The train began to move slowly forwards.LEXIS 9 . the interior # outward Journey n /'dssini/ The journey to Manchester took longer than expected. gas. to obtain. A director. When a plane. -> Entering. The Third World is heading towards catastrophe. The quality of the image depends on the input signal. -*• To win. Time taken for travelling Land v /lasnd/ Columbus landed in the Bahamas in 1492. The land masses were lifted by tectonic pressures. Discs supply data input for a computer. 245 Input n /'input/ The transformer requires a 24 V input. Over the past two decades. •*• To develop. making the neutron star collapse. to raise.

-> A device which causes liquid to flow under pressure Release /n'li:s/ v At the age of 72. Fuel Pump / p A m p / n The car overheated because of a failure of the water pump. they proceeded with the experiment. the start * the end Onward(s) / ' o n w s d z / adv Uranium was split in 1939. -*• To change position. In order to move. -*• After that moment Output / ' a u t p u t / n Industrial output increased last year. The generator has an output of 220 volts.246 Lose / l u : z / (lose. . Because of his job. The birds were released from the cage. adj A jet-propelled plane. After mending the car. Studies released by the government show that industrial injury is increasing. ~> The beginning. Mandela was released from prison. At the onset of pubescence. From then onwards. The nerve paths were damaged during the operation. The new drugs delay the onset of secondary infections. To drill for offshore oil. The growth of cancer cells is proceeding at an alarming rate. trajectory Pregnant / ' p r e g n a n t / adj Pregnant women are liable to transmit the disease to the fetus. -*• To take away / out. a complex coordination of muscle and brain is required. Extraction * replacement. way. lost. To make public Remove /ri'mu:v/ v When you have finished. to liberate. There is an ongoing project of modernisation. In the sea # inshore Ongoing / ' o n g g u i n / adj Ongoing studies suggest that industrial development of the Antarctic is feasible. -> Wastage. To not have any more * gain M o v e /mu:v/ v He moved the table to the other side of the room. to gain Loss / I n s / n Energy loss in transformers is due to resistance. -* Expecting a baby Proceed / p r a ' s i i d / v Despite criticism. -*• Away from the land. insertion Rid / r i d / adj To get rid of something you do not want. The company is losing export orders because of the strike. place Offshore /'ofjo:/ adj An offshore island. he proceeded on his journey. lost) v He lost his money on the way to the cinema. -*• To continue. -* To drive. to push forward. Van Gogh's mental health deteriorated. v The heart pumps at a rate of approximately 72 beats per second. to go forward * to stop Propel / p r s ' p e l / v The heart receives blood from the veins and propels it through the arteries. to cease to have * to find. The surgeon removed the tumour. As people get older. n Biopsy involves the removal of living tissue for examination. Insecticides are used to get rid of parasites. -*• Production * input MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH Path /pa:0/ n A narrow path leads up to the house. please remove the key from the lock. -*• Set free. he moved from Rome to Turin. in progress at the moment Onset / ' o n s e t / n The road must be finished before the onset of the rainy season. Anti-coagulants should not normally be prescribed to pregnant women. progress was rapid. -*• Current. Do not remove the back of the TV set if it is switched on. From 1888 onwards. n Hydrogen is used as a propellant for projectiles and rockets. The path of the comet. the brain suffers from a continual loss of neurones. ~* To be unable to find. The output of the computer can be either via screen or printer. fundamental physiological changes occur. -»• Track.

A shift in priorities. The rubber skin of the meteorological balloon stretches as the helium expands. ran.v 3. sprang. -*• To organise.n 3. shrunk) v Some textiles shrink if you put them in water. To flow quickly The garden is surrounded by a low v Slide / s i a i d / (slide. The gas molecules strike the suspended particles at random. A striking improvement. collateral benefits. The chains of DMA molecules run in opposite directions. the cat sprang out of the window. to turn fast on its axis Run 1 . In the 1990s. -*• To contract. The pressure of the heart beat is absorbed as the arteries stretch. The first colonists settled along the East coast of America. slid. the filaments slide past each other. in time Spin-off n /'spinof/ 2. burst. -* To jump. The number of workers in the car industry is shrinking. -»• To undergo an elastic deformation. To colonise. -*• A helical coil which is elastic and can be compressed 2.v Suddenly. They ran a 5-day test. -*• A small movement. The river flooded and water surged through the town.n Shrink /Jrirjk/ (shrink. run) At the age of 28. -*• To rotate. -*• To dispose of. to go In the long run. . -*• To function. Recent research data will doubtless settle the question. The tourist industry would benefit from positive spin-off from a new airport. struck.T The gene helps the body get rid of carcinogens.v He was struck on the head by a falling rock. he was running a small computer company. the storage tanks will corrode. An agreement Stretch /stretJV v Elastic stretches. to alter Strike / s t r a i k / (strike. -*• To hit. To eliminate Spin /spin/ (spin. to manage The motor is running too fast. the pattern of air transport has shifted. shrank. to expand * to contract n Shift n v /Jift/ A shift in the direction of the wind. To originate. A boson is an elementary particle that has a spin equal to zero. Global warming is causing the polar ice cap to shrink. struck) 1 . The trains run on time. -*• To refuse to work adj 2. move suddenly. -*• In due course. adj As the muscles contract. To change. slid) v To slide across the ice. -*• Sudden increase. n A gyroscope remains stable because it spins at high speed. -* The first season of the new year When the pressure is released the metallic spring forces the contacts apart.n The development of "Velcro" is an example of spin-off from space research. -*• To stop moving. summer and autumn. to sink. to become smaller * to expand Surge n /ss:d3/ There has been a sudden surge of interest in Buddhism. spun) v The wheel spins on its axis. sprung) 1 . Side-effects Spring / s p r i g / (spring.v / r A n / (run. thousands of computer service companies sprang up. A sliding door. To resolve. Remarkable The factory workers went on strike. -*• Incidental. Lightning caused a power surge and the breakdown of the electricity grid. spun. Since the end of the Cold War. to start Spring. The government's attempt to reach a diplomatic settlement failed.n Settle v /'setl/ Insoluble particles in the liquid gradually settle on the bottom of the container. -*• To go smoothly over a surface with minimal friction v Surround / s a ' r a u n d / wall.

To turn the handle of the door. -*• To transfer an organ from one person to another Wear / w e s / (wear. worn) 1 . Towards the end of the century. corneas must be transplanted within 48 hours. Afterthe accident. wore. Significant borderline /ts:n/ To turn the key in the lock.v 3. to insert . there is a trend towards more miniaturisation. which was the heart of Rome. -*• To remove. is surrounded by the Seven Hills. In the computer industry. 35% of the population thinks the Sun turns round the Earth. Deteriorated by use Travel v /'traevl/ To travel by train. to encircle tWSftMffe'-aftrwostr*©vtru^d/as a noun. To avoid damage to the tissue. drew. . -*• To switch on / off 2. If the level of hormones falls below a critical threshold all activity ceases.v :: Threshold / ' G r e j h a u l d / n The whole economic system is on the threshold of collapse. to have clothes on 2. friction.' . ^•«*afag»-~a se&jt&irti&? ''Va J^ffcf. -* An edge. The shock waves travel away from the epicentre.v The surface of the metal is hardened so that it will wear better. -*• To be dressed.an atrjoitFft&y Turn 1 .v Toward(s) prep /ts'woidz/ To drive towards the town. A sample of amniotic fluid was withdrawn from the uterus. -*• To make a journey. drawn) v To withdraw money from the bank. To turn uranium into plutonium. To travel at the speed of light. -*• To make something go round an axis Acid turns litmus paper red. The atmosphere surrounding the planet is maintained by a gravitational field. The pain threshold depends on psychological factors. -*• To transform To turn on / off the electricity. To move Withdraw / w i d ' d r o : / (withdraw. To extract * to deposit. -*• In the direction of # away from Transplant n v /trsens'plamt/ Dr Barnard carried out the first human heart transplant in 1967. the pharmaceutical firm withdrew the drug. limit. ySiHpwfty-is tha: general noun used for trsy©4linfl.248 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH The Forum. -*• To make a perimeter. -> Resist erosion. Mitosis is the process by which organisms grow and replace wornout tissue. to enclose. '**#'€& journey iMore specific? terms for travelling include: .v The manager was wearing a grey suit and a light blue shirt.

to transmit power Channel n v /'tjaenl/ Blind adj /blaind/ A blind man stands on the corner of the street. Calcium is needed for the bones to develop. Platinium-irridium alloy is used to define the standard of mass. There are more than 360 acupuncture points in the human body. Doctors have transplanted brain cells in an attempt to treat Parkinson's disease. -*• Apparatus. form fossils. Bats are typically cave-dwelling animals. -* Mammary gland A cell has a single nucleus. an animal or an object It is forbidden to sell certain chemicals to the public. To direct Chemical n adj /'kemikl/ n Body n /'badi/ The body of a dead man was found in the river. -*• A circular band of plastic. After the cremation the ashes were scattered at sea. A 6 channel input. -*• Greyish powder left after incineration Bat n /baet/ Bats navigate by echo-location. You should fasten your safety belt when you get into the car. Normally. An anode is the positive electrode of an electrolytic cell. only organisms with hard parts. structural internal elements of body. MATTER & OBJECTS Alloy n /'aeloi/ Steel is an alloy composed of iron and carbon. such as bones. ->• A metal made by combining two metals Bone n /bsun/ The human skeleton consists of 206 bones. Approximately 7% of men and 1% of women are born colour-blind. instrument /brein/ The human brain weighs roughly 450 g. mouse-like. part of the skeleton Appliance n /a'plaisns/ Brain n Most mechanical appliances must be lubricated. To be unable to see She watched a TV programme on Channel 3. The hippocampus is the part of the brain concerned with memory. Breast cancer is the most common cancer for women. -*• The science of composition. related to chemistry Chemistry /'kemistri/ n To study inorganic chemistry. rubber. -*• Without sight. -> The physical structure of a human being. Used to support trousers. The dynamo was driven by a belt from the motor. -*• Hard. -*• Small. -*• The smallest working division Cell / s e l / n Belt n /belt/ To be a black belt in judo.10. nocturnal mammals that fly Breast n /brest/ She held the baby to her breast. A falling body accelerates because of the force of gravitation. Cataract and glaucoma are a common cause of blindness. -> Organ controlling the central nervous system Ash n /aeJ7 The cigarette ash fell on the floor. -*• A substance produced by chemistry. Not enough money is being channelled into cancer research. structure and reaction of substances . Dehydration can be caused by chemical reaction. He examined the blood cells under the microscope. etc. -*• A communication path. Integrated circuits have reduced the price of electronic appliances.

Insects have compound eyes. Crop n /krop/ The tobacco crop must be sprayed with insecticide. to inhabit A concrete storage tank. Very small. She was wearing a thick brown coat. -> To live. A crew of TV reporters was taken hostage. Coal-fuelled power plants are responsible for sulphur dioxide pollution. The disease spread fast. -*• A black. The Irish famine (1845-1849) was caused by a failure of the potato crop. sand. fossilised mineral used for heating He has been a regular customer at the shop for 5 years. Cliff n /klif/ From the top of the cliff you could see the ships in the distance. The death rate from alcohol-linked diseases is increasing.n /tjip/ A chip of stone hit him in the eye and blinded him. Compound chemicals are difficult to separate. -* Frontier between the land and the sea n Disease / d i ' z i i z / Coat n v n /kaut/ It was cold. To cover. thing # giant Concrete n /'konkri:t/ Dwell v /dwel/ Troglodytes are people who dwell in caves. Cadmium.n Copper is a good conductor of electricity. -*• A small. -*• Plants grown by farmers Customer n /'kAstams/ Coal n /ksul/ To put coal on the fire. High cliffs rise on each side of the canyon. Electric wires are usually made of copper. -*• A person who buys Dam n v /dasm/ The Aswan dam supplies electricity and water for irrigation. deposited by electrolysis. silicon crystal containing a circuit Copper n /'kops/ 2. parts. -*• A barrier. group working on a ship. -* A team. The foundations were made of reinforced concrete. The miniaturisation of electronic circuits has been largely due to the silicon chip. dense stars (0. cement and water . -*• A building material made of stone. -*• Small particles of matter suspended in air Compound adj /'kompaund/ Compound microscopes have at least two lenses. ~* Precipices. the rivers have been dammed to prevent flooding from the North Sea. a small piece of something To replace a chip in an electronic circuit. -*• An illness. the air is forced to rise. infection Coast n /kaust/ The Atlantic coast. -*• Clothes worn on the outside.250 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH Chip 1 . carbon. a wall to stop the flow of a river To suffer from an infectious disease. causing rainfall. oil and gas. Electronic chips must be made in dust-free conditions. sickness. -*• A combination of several elements. In Zeeland.01% the diameter of the sun) are called white dwarfs. Dust from volcanic eruptions blocks incoming solar radiation. An electric wire is coated with a plastic insulator. Exterior layer Dust n /dAst/ The old book was covered with a thick layer of dust. Desert-dwelling animals feed at night. -*• Red metal. -*• An abnormally small person. The temples of Abu Simbel were cut into the cliffs in the Nile valley. etc. provides a chemically resistant coating. When wet winds reach the coast. Chemical symbol: Cu Crew n /kru:/ The submarine has a crew of 50 men. Dwarf n /dwo:f/ Snow White and the seven dwarfs. There will be a shortage of nonrenewable fuels such as coal. The company lost customers because of the poor after-sales service. -> A fragment. vertical rock face found in gorges or by the sea etc.

a grant made available for a specific purpose adj #m Note . -*• Things. Electric appliances should be earthed. The universe is flooded with Neutrinos. modems and other peripherals. without disease v Emergency /I'msic^snsi/ n n Grid / g r i d / Flood n /flAd/ In the rainy season. call the police. large stars.000 miners to the area. health depends on diet.n v Life on Earth will not go on for ever. -> The machinery of a computer * software Smoking can seriously damage your health. very big. thing * dwarf The Klondike gold rush (1890) attracted more than 30. -*• The ground. the Amazon is subject to severe floods. An open-heart operation. A monstrously big person. The ministry of industry allocated a research grant. -*• Money. Electricity is distributed through the national grid. The project ran out of funds. -*• Crisis.Health / healthy Adjectives are . To a large extent.dtef A. •*. -plural) n Goods weighing less than 40 kg should be sent by air.0ften formed from nouns Giant adj n /'d^aisnt/ Commerce is increasingly controlled by giant. A great deal of engineering research is funded by industry. -*• Financial help.«^d^'. -»-• v^f:T-f. -*• Organ for circulating blood."-.n 2. the soil. Central part Gold / g s u l d / n . gas and oil are non-renewable fuels.noise. Red giants are very bright. Hardware includes printers.tf«^:. The cancerous cells are surrounded by healthy tissues. ' .» (fo^'boo*. In earthquake zones. funds. To inundate v Hardware /'haidwes/ n Fuel n /fjus:!/ Coal. The heart of the city.• •*.. New polymers are replacing gold as electrical conductors. etc. To provide financial backing The hole in the road was covered by a metal grid.a:rmjji¥ mmttin® Heart /hu:t/ n Half an aspirin a day considerably reduces the risk of heart attack. multinational corporations. These goods must be handled with care. -*• Medical condition. Airport facilities must include emergency and fire-fighting equipment. -*• A substance which burns producing energy. An electron beam sweeps across a screen consisting of a grid of dots called pixels. A goods train. The yearly flooding of the Nile makes the soil more fertile. lines..LEXIS 10-MATTER & OBJECTS Earth /'s:0/ 1 . -*• An overflow. To provide an energy source Health / h e ! 0 / n v Funds n v /fAndz/ The government supplies funds for basic research. -> Enormous. To re-fuel a plane. objects which can be bought or sold Earthquake /s:6kweik/ n Grant / g r a : n t / n The Erasmus programme gives grants to help students study abroad. buildings must be designed to withstand shock waves. Fossil fuel resources are limited. To connect an electrical circuit to the ground The Richter scale for measuring earthquakes is logarithmic. -*• A soft yellow precious metal. a surplus of water. -*• A framework of parallel bars. -* Seismic disruption In case of emergency. urgent situation 251 Goods / g u d z / (N. A fuel tank. To grant financial aid. The electricity distribution network Computer hardware is getting smaller and smaller. ' •' •• •*• ice-'&nlk^'fMd .B. Chemical symbol: Au by adfting th»:-rtfx *-ir". -* The third planet from the sun The earth was of poor quality and contaminated by nitrates.

A group.252 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH Iron n /'aisn/ Iron was first discovered 3. The Egyptians lifted the blocks of stone by means of long wooden levers. Moving parts of the machine should be oiled.the plural does not takes "-s") Birds feed their offspring until they can fly. -* Human beings. arrow Nest n /nest/ There were 5 eggs in the bird's nest. equipment . cluster The atmosphere consists of 78% nitrogen. -*• A thin (metallic) tube. where blood is oxygenated Oil n v /oil/ Saudi Arabia produces oil. Magnetic north is shown by the needle of the compass. The iron in bird brains makes them sensitive to the Earth's magnetic field. The core of a magnet can be made of iron. The first optical lenses were the time of Galileo. the origins of mankind derive from a cosmic egg. A pipe-line. The liver produces albumin. The core of an electromagnet is made of iron.B. In African mythology. The town centre is noisy. Chemical symbol: N Lens n /lenz/ He dropped the camera and the lens. To lubricate Magnet n /'maegnst/ Pipe n /paip/ Water pipes are usually made of copper. rod which exerts pressure through a pivot Noise n /noiz/ The baby is asleep. -*• Colourless gas. measured in decibels adj Liver n /'livs/ He is suffering from cirrhosis of the liver. the human race Plant n /plaint/ A hydraulic power plant. blood is bright red in colour. -*• An industrial complex. -*• A hollow tube for transporting gas. -*• A bird's "home". stores blood sugar and regulates potassium levels. Don't make a noise. The relative humidity effects the noise level. -*• A long bar. Chemical symbol: Fe Needle n /'ni:dl/ The doctor inserted a hypodermic needle into the vein. The nuclear plant was inspected by security officers. To focus the microscope you adjust the lower lens. -*• Glass devices designed to light converge / diverge broke must made in make Nitrogen / ' n a i t r s d s s n / n Lever / ' I i : v 9 / n The rat can be trained to push a lever to receive food. objects. A micrometastasis consists of a small nest of cancerous cells. -*• Acoustic vibrations. sound. The female Aardvark normally has two offspring. -*• Ferrous metal. pointer. biological activity decreases. Truck (N. If the oxygen is replaced by nitrogen. he switched off the OHP -* A device for projecting images on a screen behind the speaker Lung n /I An/ Smoking causes lung cancer. . After it has been oxygenated in the lungs. liquids A magnet produces a magnetic field. -*• An iron object which attracts other objects containing iron Mankind n /maen'kaind/ The Nobel Prize is awarded to the person who has most benefited mankind. -* Fuels composed of hydrocarbons. facilities. Cars and lorries are transported by train through the Eurotunnel in 35 minutes. -*• A large organ of vertebrates regulating toxic materials in the blood Offspring n /'ofsprin/ Lorry n /'lori/ The goods were delivered by lorry. ~> Organ for breathing. There was a leak in the fuel pipe. human being OHP n /su eitj" pi:/ When he had finished his presentation.000 years ago. -* Motor vehicle which carries goods. -*• Babies. the young of an animal.

Because of diffraction. Underground pipes convey the sewage to recycling plants. Each element of the nitrogen group has an outer shell of 5 electrons. To protect Shore n /Jo:/ The fossils were found on the shore of the lake. The car's windscreen was broken by a stone. -» Dark areas hidden from the light Sheet n /Ji:t/ He wrote the letter on a sheet of white paper. The Ministry of Defence screens all potential candidates. the sale of alcoholic drinks was illegal. The alarm system includes smoke sensors for detecting fire. use n Enzymes are widely used for water purification and sewage treatment. -*• To investigate. -> Selling. -*• Chemical symbol: NaCI Around the core of the reactor there is a thick concrete shield. She cannot afford the rent for a flat in Paris. protective exterior Sale n /seil/ The sales of electric cars are rising. to check for disease. n .v Pixels are displayed on a rectilinear grid on the screen. Inhabitants living close to the factory fell sick with unknown symptoms. -*• A screen.LEXIS 10-MATTER & OBJECTS 253 Prey n /prei/ Insects comprise the main prey of bats. From 1919 onwards. -*• Fine yellow particles from siliceous rocks Shuttle n /'Jutl/ Screen 1. or for protection People should be screened for cancer every two years. -* Hard covering. etc. The space shuttle will return to Earth in three days' time. -* Coast. -* Thin layer. He shielded his eyes against the sun. exchanging something for money Shield n v /Ji:ld/ Salt n /soilt/ Salt can be obtained by distilling sea water. political opinion. stratum Rubber n /'rAbg/ The glass pipes are connected by a flexible rubber tube. -*• A vehicle that provides regular transport between two places Sick adj /sik/ An ambulance transports people who are sick or injured.n /skri:n/ 2. •*• A surface for displaying images. only the empty shell of the building remained. -* Elastic substance produced from latex Shell n /Jel/ He broke the shell of the egg. Ammonium nitrate is a salt of ammonia. radiation n The switch is controlled by an optically-reactive light sensor. -*• Payment of money for temporary possession. The edge between sea and land Sand n /saend/ The sand dunes shift. He works in the sales department. a protective coating. The Antarctic ice sheet could collapse as the sea level rises. To pay the monthly rent. -*• A narrow beam of light. Offshore reserves of oil and natural gas have been found in Ireland. The penetration power in air of c-rays is only a few centimetres. -» A component designed to detect. An anaconda is a snake which kills its prey by constriction. the edge of a shadow is not well defined. to react to stimulation Sewage /'su:id3/ Rent v n /rent/ To rent a car for the weekend. Cement must be mixed with sand and water. Rubber is an efficient electric insulator. -* Animals which predators eat Sensor n /'senss/ Ray n /rei/ X-rays ionise gases. -*> Industrial and domestic waste water Shadow /'Jasdau/ To sit in the shadow of a tree. There is an hourly bus shuttle service between the town centre and the airport. After the fire. Ultra-violet rays are one cause of skin cancer. The Tsetse fly transmits an often fatal disease called "sleeping sickness". advancing in the direction of the dominant wind.

A stream of electrons is projected onto the screen. The speed of sound is 331. -*• The upper layer of the Earth where plants grow He fastened his shoes with a piece of string Airbus has achieved an outstanding string of successes. The olfactory nerves convey the sensation of smell to the central nervous system. and water supporting life on Earth. Radar systems convert analogue signals into a string of numbers. soil. Chemical symbol: Ag Steam n /sti:m/ Skin n /skin/ Dermatologists specialise in skin diseases. There is a law against copying software. -*• Vaporised water Steel n /sti:l/ High quality steel tools. A movement of liquid or gas String n /strin/ Soil n /soil/ The soil was eroded by the heavy rain. measured in decibels Species n /'spiijiiz/ v adj The tiger is an endangered species.6 m per second.5 m in length) is the world's longest poisonous snake. but his sight is poor. -> The natural outside covering of an animal. precious metal. Odour. -*• A group of workers. results from a state of acute oxygen deficiency. known as hypoxia. -*• Capacity to see. -* A thin cotton (etc. By adding 7. a hard alloy can be made. a current. -*• A flow. -*• Bad weather with high winds. A linear sequence of data .he needed glasses. To supply workers Silver n /'silvs/ The conquistadors brought back silver and gold from Bolivia and Peru. Epidermis If you boil water. -*• Long. legless reptile Software n /'softwea/ He writes software for IBM. etc. you produce steam. Perceptive She could hear the sound of music in the distance. A rhinoceros has an acute sense of smell. A disease * health MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH Sound n /saund/ Sight n /sait/ His sight was failing . -*• White. The Aborigines used the same stone tools throughout the Pleistocene period. The ship has gone over the horizon it is out of sight. One of the five senses Storm n /sto:m/ Snake n /sneik/ The snake offered Eve an apple. vision.) cord. smelt. -> An alloy made of carbon and iron Stone n /staun/ He threw a stone at the dog. in 1643. The firm was under-staffed. -> Programs.5% copper to silver. -*• ///. The king cobra (5. Electricity can be produced by a steam turbine. smelt) v He could smell coffee coming from n the kitchen. Chromium steel resists oxidisation. Darwin wrote "The Origin of Species". Electrons travel faster than sound. The firm employs a staff of 1. A series. Pavlov demonstrated that dogs automatically produce saliva at the sight of food. observe. The Fiji islands were first sighted by the Dutch navigator Tasman. An increase in solar activity will lead to more cases of skin cancer. To staff an office. A small rock Smell / s m e l / (smell.600. The most obvious symptom of allergies is a reddening of the skin. -> Hard mineral matter. A tempest Stream /striim/ n The gulf stream. -> What can be heard. -* Animals and plants of the same kind Staff n v /sta:f/ The secretarial staff went on strike. for computers * hardware There was a rain storm. -> To detect with the nose. The stone age. The biosphere consists of the air.254 Altitude sickness. To see. Radio-active isotopes are introduced into the blood stream. It was a far-sighted decision. Skyscrapers may be struck by lightning several time during a single storm.

supporting surface for flight. empty of all gas Wrist n /rist/ She was wearing a gold bracelet around her wrist. At a speed of Mach 1. made of metal. an electric current flows along the wire. The wheel was introduced into America by the Spanish. A six-wheeled lorry. -*• A thin filament. -*• A (military) arm . The air flows more rapidly over the upper surface of the wing. The death rate fell from 45% to 12% when surgeons began to use antiseptics. Lateral extension Tank n /taegk/ Wire n The fuel tank was nearly empty. The metacarpal artery is located in the wrist -*• Joint. -*• Carrying out a medical operation Tail n /teil/ She picked up the mouse by the tail. The back part of a plane.LEXIS 10-MATTER & OBJECTS 255 Well /we I/ n In the oasis. Electric wires overheat if the current is too high. -*• Instruments which facilitate work /'wais/ The loss of power in an electric wire is due to the resistance. -> A circular object. articulation between the hand and the arm Weapon n /'wepsn/ It is virtually impossible to control the production of chemical weapons. When a voltage is applied. oil Surgeon n /'ssid^sn/ The tumour was removed by a brain surgeon. shock waves arise from the nose and tail of the plane. -*• A (metal) container holding liquids Tool /tu:l/ n Some animals use primitive tools. The water tank holds 500 litres. Enzymes can be an effective weapon for the treatment of leukaemia. often used for carrying electricity Vacuum /'vaekjusm/ n The space at the top of the barometer is a Torricellian vacuum. -*• A highly skilled doctor who operates inside the body by incision Wheel n /wi:l/ Surgery n /'safari/ Acupuncture is widely used in Chinese surgery to reduce pain. water is drawn from the well by a camel. -*• A space. -*• Lateral. A tool-box. etc. The first off-shore oil well was drilled in the Gulf of Mexico in 1946. A partial vacuum is an excellent thermal insulation. -*• A hole in the ground which is a source of water. Left-wing politics. ->• Prolonged coccyx of an animal. To change the wheel of the car. turning on an axis to facilitate movement Wing n /wig/ The pterodactyl had wings and could fly. Radiotelescopes are one of the main tools of modern astronomy.

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GRAMMAR AND USAGE NOTES . / i. .e.g.INDEX According to Achieve Actually Advertise Alter Articles "By" and the passive Carry out/ realise Check Comparative Compound nouns: implicit Compound nouns: plural modifiers Conditional (past) Countable / uncountable nouns Data Designed / devised + to / for Doubtless Dramatic Dumping e.Latin expressions Elsewhere / somewhere else Eventually Evidence Experience / experiment Hard / hardly Grow/ grow up Important Just Kind Last / latest Lead (verb and noun) Lay/ lie Minute Modals Grammar Lexis 8 Grammar Lexis 7 Lexis 9 Grammar Grammar Grammar Lexis 1 Grammar Grammar Grammar Grammar Grammar notes 12 notes 8 183 237 182 231 243 191 188 188 198 181 190 190 185 187 198 188 182 215 244 183 221 215 226 188 185 188 182 183 241 188 211 185 216 186 notes 29 notes 25 notes 24 notes notes notes notes notes 4 27 28 19 22 Lexis 1 Grammar notes 23 Grammar notes 9 Lexis 4 Lexis 9 Grammar notes 10 Lexis 5 Lexis 4 Lexis 6 Grammar Grammar Grammar Grammar Grammar Lexis 8 Grammar Lexis 3 Grammar Lexis 4 Grammar notes 24 notes 20 notes 24 notes 6 notes 13 notes 24 notes 18 notes 21 .

258 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH Molten Multi-word verbs Never Numbers (zero/time/ telephone / dates) Lexis 8 Grammar notes 30 Grammar notes 14 Grammar notes 26 Grammar Lexis 3 Lexis 7 Grammar Grammar Grammar Lexis 6 Lexis 9 Lexis 4 Lexis 5 Lexis 2 Lexis 5 Grammar Lexis 5 Lexis 3 Lexis 4 Lexis 6 Lexis 9 Lexis 10 Grammar Grammar Grammar Lexis 9 Grammar Grammar notes 2 241 191 184 189 180 210 234 180 181 185 229 247 217 223 207 223 179 224 212 214 225 243 251 184 183 184 248 185 182 n Prefix "en-" Prevent Questions Quite Raise / rise Record Run Sensitive / sensible Set Sided Since Spelling Such / so Suffix "-ship" Suffix "-fill" Suffix "-ment" Suffix "-wards" Suffix "-y" Tenses (active and passive) Thereby Transform Travel /journey Trigger / spark (off) Yet notes 3 notes 5 notes 18 notes 1 notes 15 notes 11 notes 16 notes 17 notes 7 .

203 .204 .237 .197 .237 .232 .249 . Breast Breathe Breed Brief Bright Bring about Broad Build Burn Burst Bury Busy Bypass By-product Cancel .237 ..214 ..243 .232 .203 .249 .231 .249 .232 .203 .204 .243 .214 .249 .243 .225 .203 .243 .232 .237 .214 .214 .LEXIS .197 .209 .226 .238 .232 .231 .249 .238 .214 .238 .243 .209 .197 .231 .203 .231 .237 .238 .226 .237 .243 .231 .197 . Average Avoid Award Aware Away Axis Back Backwards Ban Barely Basic Bat Beam Bear Beat Behave Behind Belief Belong Below Belt Bend Beneath Besides .203 .237 .225 ..209 .225 .209 .238 .249 .231 .209 .203 .197 .243 .231 .238 .237 .220 . Account Accurate Achieve Acknowledge Acquire Acronym Actual Actuate Acute Add Address Adjust Admit Advertise Advice Advise Afford Agree Ahead Aim Alike Allege Allow Alloy Almost Alone Alter Although Among (st) .232 .203 . Amount Anticlockwise Apart Appeal Appliance 237 197 203 243 220 225 197 237 225 231 225 220 243 197 209 225 243 225 231 225 225 231 209 203 237 209 225 231 249 197 203 243 220 203 197 243 220 225 249 Apply Approve Area Arise Arrange Array Arrow Ash Assess Assume Attach Attain Attempt Attract Available .232 ..204 .249 .197 .197 .220 Between Beyond Bind Bite Blank Blast Bleed Blind Blood Blow Body Boil Bond Bone Boost Border Both Bottom Bracket Brain Breadth Break Breakdown Breakthrough.249 .INDEX Ability About Above Abroad According to .

250 .250 .g 239 Earn Earth 251 251 Earthquake 215 Ease 204 Edge 215 Efficiency Either 221 221 Else 221 Elsewhere 251 Emergency 232 Emit 215 Empty 233 Enable 233 Enclose 226 Encounter 239 Engine Engineer 239 210 Enhance 210 Enlarge Enquire / enquiry (see 227 Inquire) 233 Ensure 221 Entail 215 Entire 210 Equal 204 Era 244 Escape 198 Even 226 Event 215 Eventually .204 .198 .232 .220 .239 .239 .244 .198 .239 .244 .244 .238 .226 .198 .226 .204 .238 214 220 .226 .244 .232 204 Dot 221 Doubt 215 Dramatic 198 Draw Drawback 215 244 Drift 232 Drill 232 Drive 210 Drop Dry 215 221 Due 244 Dump 250 Dust 210 Duty Dwarf 250 250 Dwell 221 e.210 .239 .244 .250 .239 .226 .204 .250 .198 .239 .244 .260 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH Care Carry out Catch Cell Census Chairman /woman Channel Charge of Chart Cheap Check Chemical Chemistry Chief Chip Choice Choose Claim Clear Cliff Clockwise Close Cluster Coal Coast Coat Collapse Collide Common Compel Compete Component Compound Comprise Conceal Concrete Conduct Consequently Construct Consume Contain Content Convenient Converse Convey Convince Cool 214 238 232 249 226 226 249 209 197 214 198 249 249 214 250 209 209 226 220 250 244 204 204 250 250 250 238 238 214 232 209 238 250 220 226 250 238 220 238 232 238 .198 .204 .250 .239 .239 .209 .239 .204 .214 .238 Cope Copper Core Corner Cost Couple Crack Crew Crop Cross-section Crowd Crude Crush Cure Current Curve Customer Daily Dam Damage Damp Data Deal Death Decay Decrease Deduce Deep Defect Delay Deliver Deny Depend Describe Design Despite Destroy Device Devise Dig Disagree Disease Display Dispose Disrupt Dissolve Disturb .209 .250 .221 .232 .214 .239 .215 .244 .

227 .228 .240 .e Ignore Implement Imply Improve Inability Inaccurate Include Income Incoming Increase Induce Inhabit Injure Inner Input Inquire Insert Insight Instead Insulate Intake Intend Introduce Involve Inwards Iron Irrelevant Issue Join Journey Key Kind Knowledge Label Lack Land Last Latter Launch Law Lay Layer Layout Lead Leading Leak 222 227 240 222 211 241 199 222 245 245 211 222 241 233 205 245 227 241 227 222 233 245 227 228 222 245 252 216 228 211 245 211 241 228 228 199 245 211 222 241 228 233 205 233 211 211 245 .210 .204 .210 .210 .245 .198 .233 .240 .244 . Exhaust Expand Expect Experience.240 .215 .226 .227 .215 .210 .LEXIS .227 .210 .226 ..227 .227 261 Former Forwards Frame Framework Free Freeze Fresh Fuel Fulfil Funds Furthermore Gain Gap Gather Giant Goal Gold Goods Grant Graph Great Grid Ground Grounds Grow Guess Hand Handle Hard Hardly Hardware Harm Hazard Head Health Heart Heat Heavy Height Hence Hide Hold Hole Hollow However Huge Hurt 221 245 205 205 215 240 215 251 233 251 221 245 210 210 251 240 251 251 251 199 215 251 205 205 245 227 233 233 221 221 251 216 216 245 251 251 240 199 199 221 227 233 205 205 222 216 233 i.INDEX Evidence Evolve Exceed Exceedingly..227 .244 .198 . Extend Extent Face Facility Fact Fail Fair Fall False Far Fasten Fat Fault Fear Feasible Feature Feed Feedback Field Figure Fill Finding Find out Fire Fit Flash Flat Flight Float Flood Flow Focus Follow Forbid Forecast Foreign Foremost Foresee .240 . Experiment.204 .240 .244 .204 .227 .239 .240 .198 .226 .240 .251 .233 .210 .240 .244 .240 .240 .199 .227 .210 ..

262 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH 211 199 252 211 222 199 252 228 233 245 199 228 211 211 252 199 205 234 252 246 246 216 216 211 252 252 216 241 216 234 252 199 234 211 199 199 222 199 241 234 222 216 216 200 216 212 241 Monitor Moreover Motive Move Naked Namely Narrow Need Needle Neither Nest Net Network Nevertheless Nitrogen Noise Non-stop Notice Obey Obtain Obvious Occur Odd Offshore Offspring OHP Oil Once Ongoing Onset Onwards Operate Otherwise Outcome Outdated Outer Outline Outlook Output Outstanding Overall Overcome Overview Owing to Pain Partly Path 200 222 228 246 216 222 200 234 252 222 252 212 212 222 252 252 205 228 241 234 222 205 200 246 252 252 252 205 246 246 246 234 223 241 216 205 205 228 246 216 216 234 228 223 241 205 246 Pattern 205 Peak 206 Per 212 Pick 234 Pipe 252 Plain 216 Plan 206 Plant 252 Plenty 216 Plot 200 Point out 228 Power 200 Predict 228 Pregnant 246 Prerequisite 228 Pressure 241 Presume 228 Prevent 234 Previous 223 Prey 253 Primary 200 Prime 200 Print 229 Prior 223 Probe 241 Proceed 246 Process 234 Produce 234 Proof 229 Propel 246 Proper 217 Prove 229 Provide 223 Provided / providing....223 Pull 234 Pulse 206 Pump 246 Purpose 242 Pursue 212 Push 234 Quite 217 Quote 229 Radius 200 Raise 212 Random 200 Range 200 Rate 200 Left Length Lens Lessen Let Level Lever Liable Lie Lift Light Likely Likewise Link Liver Load Locate Lock Lorry Lose Loss Loud Loudspeaker Low Lung Magnet Main Maintain Major Manage Mankind Map Master Match Mean Means Meantime / while Measurement Melt Mend Merely Mild Minor Minus Minute Miss Molten .

INDEX Rather Ratio Raw Ray Reach Readily Reading Realise Reckon Recognise Record Recover Recur Reduce Regard Regardless Relate Release Relevance Reliable Remain Remote Remove Rent Repair Replace Request Require Research Resolve Reveal Rid Right Ring Rise Root Rough Rubber Rule Run Safe Sale Salt Sample Sand Save Scale 217 200 217 253 200 217 200 229 229 229 229 242 206 212 223 223 212 246 212 217 212 206 246 253 234 206 229 229 229 242 229 246 212 206 212 201 217 253 223 247 217 253 253 242 253 235 201 Scarcely Scatter Schedule Scheme Scope Screen Search Seek Seize Seldom Sensitive Sensor Series Set Settle Several Sewage Shadow Shallow Shape Share Sharp Sheet Shell Shield Shift Shore Short Shrink Shuttle Sick Side Sight Silver Since Single Size Skill Skin Slide Slight Slope Smell Smooth Snake Soft Software 223 206 206 206 206 253 229 229 235 206 217 253 206 223 247 217 253 253 201 206 212 217 253 253 253 247 253 201 247 253 253 206 254 254 223 201 201 230 254 247 201 207 254 217 254 217 254 263 Soil 254 Sole 218 Solve 230 Sound 254 Space 207 Span 212 Spare 218 Spark 235 Species 254 Speed 201 Spill 235 Spin 247 Spin off 247 Spite of 223 Split 235 Spoil 235 Spokesman / woman 230 Spot 207 Spray 235 Spread 213 Spring 247 Square 201 Staff 254 Stage 201 Standard 201 State 230 Steady 207 Steam 254 Steel 254 Steep 218 Stem 235 Step 201 Stone 254 Store 235 Storm 254 Straight 207 Stream 254 Strength 201 Stress 235 Stretch 247 Strike 247 String 254 Strip 207 Struggle 213 Study 230 Subsequent 224 Subtract 213 .LEXIS .

11.264 MINIMUM COMPETENCE IN SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH 224 213 230 230 213 247 255 255 247 201 242 207 242 255 255 235 242 213 213 224 224 224 201 201 218 224 230 248 207 207 235 235 224 218 Tip Tool Top Topic Towards Track Train Transplant Travel Treat Tremendous Trend Trial Trigger (off) True Turn Twice Twin Undergo Underneath Unless Unlike Unlikely Until Update Upper Use Utter Vacuum Valuable Via Vicinity View Virtual 207 255 207 230 248 207 235 248 248 235 218 213 242 236 230 248 207 213 236 207 224 213 230 224 230 213 218 218 255 218 224 202 230 218 Such Suit Summary Sumup Supply Surge Surgeon Surgery Surround Survey Sustain Swing Switch Tail Tank Target Task Tend Tendency Thanks to Thereby Therefore Thick Thin Thorough Though Threat Threshold Through Throughout Throw Thrust Thus Tiny Warm Warn Waste Wave Weak Wealth Weapon Wear Weigh Well Wet Wheel Whereas Whether While Whole Wide Widespread Willing Wing Wire Withdraw Within Work out World-wide Worsen Worth Worthwhile Wrist Wrong Yearly Yet Yield 242 230 242 208 218 218 255 248 202 255 218 255 224 224 224 218 202 202 242 255 255 248 208 230 218 213 219 219 255 219 208 224 236 Imprime en France. JOUVE. bd de Sebastopol. 75001 PARIS . Depot legal: Juin 2003 .FRANCE N°328121X.

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