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W

W
K

? ? ?

K?

??

K

W

W
K K
K K
K
K K

KW

KW

-1-

W
J
EF

K
J

KE JF

-2-

KWE JF

(s)

(t)

(m2)

(A)

Em3F

EVF

(kg)

(M)

(kN)(N)

(F)

1 kN = 1000 N, 1 kg = 9.81 N

(m/sec)L

(v)

(m/sec2)L

(g)

L{Z
(m3/sec)L

(Q)

Pa = N/m2ELF
kPa = kN/m2ELF


(P)

MPa = N/mm2ELF
kPa = 1000 Pa
(N.m)

(W)

-3-

K K
K K
K K
K K

--
K = kg / m 3

1 gm/cm31000 kg/m3
=

Mass

=
Volume

K 4oC

--
W kg / m 3
=

Weight
=
Volume

WE FE F

= g E JF

KE g = 9.81 m / s 2 FW

-4-

--

E JF
W

Em2/sF =

(N.s/m2)EPa.sF =

Ekg/m3F =

--
K

KE JF

W
p=

F
E JF
A

EN/m2F = p

ZENF = F

Em2F = A

E h FE F

p = gh = ( g )h
E
= h

-5-

J F

h
H

p =h

P =h



()

P =h



()

KWE JF

KE JF
_

WE p F(bar)

_

p=

10 5

E JF

K0.102 m1.0 kPa

WE JF

(kPa)

W
WE JF1000 kg/m3

-6-

p = gh

kg
m
9
.
81

3m
m3
s2
kg
N
kN
29430
29
.
43
= 29430
=
=
= 29 .43 kPa
m.s 2
m2
m2

= 1000

K
EF

J J

WEFEFE JF

1V1 A1 = 2V 2 A2 E JF
W

EF = 2

EF = 1

EF = V2

EF = V1

EF = A2

-7-

EF = A1

(A) (Q)

W(V)

Q = VA E JF

1 = 2

Q = V 1 A1 = V 2 A 2

E JF

A2

V2

V1

A1

KWE JF

-8-

WE JF
4.0 m/s E JF

3.0 mmE1FKEF 0.25 m/sEF


EF

V2

V1
A1

A2

E JFWE JF

W
V 2 = 0 . 25 m / s V1 = 4 .0 m / s W
WE1F
2

A1 =

D1 2
4

1000

=
= 7 . 07 10 6 m 2
4

WEF
V 1 A1 = V 2 A 2
4 . 0 7 . 07 10

A 2 = 1 . 13 10

= 0 . 25 A 2
4

WEF
A2 =
D

2
2

= 1 . 13 10

4
= 0 . 012

m = 12 . 0 mm

-9-

WE JF
0.12 m3/s150 mm

W
Q = 0 .12 m 3 / s
A=

D 2
4

150 2
4

D = 150 mm W
W

= 17.671 103 mm 2 = 17.671 10 3 m 2

Q = AV

V =

Q
0.12
=
= 6.80 m / s
A 17.671 10 3


EF

J J

EFEF

EFEFE JF

H1 = H 2
KEF = H 2

- 10 -

KEF = H 1

W

p1

V 12
p2
V 22
+
+ Z1 =
+
+ Z 2 E JF
2g

2g

KEF = p 2

KEF = p1

KEF = V2 KEF = V1

KEF = Z 2 KEF = Z1
K = g

K =

(T.E.L.)

V2 2

2g

V1

2g

(H.G.L)

p2

p1

H2

H1

Z2

Z1

KWE JF

- 11 -

p W

(Z ) W

W
2
g

+ Z = H
2g

p + V

WE JF
E JF

KEFEF
EEFEFFh

0.5 m

Z2

Z1

V2 = 9.6 m/s

2.0 m

V1 = 2 m/s

E
F

KE JFWE JF

- 12 -

W
p1 = p 2 = 0
WE JFE JF
p1

V12
p
V 2
+ Z1 = 2 + 2 + Z 2
2g

2g

p1 = 0

V1 = 2 m / s

Z1 = h + 2m

p2 = 0
V2 = 9.6 m / s
Z 2 = 0.5m

Wh
0 +

(2 )2
2g

+ (h + 2 ) = 0 +

h = 3 .0 m

(9 . 6 )2
2g

+ 0 .5

EHydrologyF J

J J

E JF
K



- 13 -

KWE JF

W

- 14 -

I O = S E JF

E S F E O FE I F
K

J J

K 1.36 1018

m 3

E JFK
KWE JF
EF

E103 km3F

- 15 -

{
K800 m

J J

WKEin)(mm)

W0.5 mmW E
7.6 mm/hrW

7.6 mm/hr2.5 mm/hrW

2.5 mm/hrW

0.5 mmW E
K1 mm/hr

W E
K

K5 mmW E

W
W E

KE JF
K

- 16 -

W E
K

KWE JF

W
W E
W

P =
i

Pi
N

E JF
W

: P
: P
: N
W E

E JF

- 17 -

P =

Pi Ai
i

Ai

E JF

K A
2
3
4
5
6

KWE JF

J J

K
W

KW E
KW E
KW E
W

K2900 mm/year

E JFEclass A panF

KK
- 18 -

K{

KWE JF

K W

E a = 0.35(es e )(0.5 + 0.54 u 2 ) E JF


W

Emm/dayF : E a

: es
: e

Em/sF2 m : u 2

WE JF

K18 km/hr{{

- 19 -

u 2 = 18 km / hr =

18 1000
= 5 m/s
60 60

E a = 0.35(es e )(0.5 + 0.54 u 2 )

= 0.35(14.4 5.8)(0.5 + 0.54 5)


= 9.63 mm / day

J J

WK

K E

K E

K E

K E

K (hydrograph)

KE JF


- 20 -

Emm/hrF

EhrF

KWE JF

J J

K
KE JF

- 21 -

KWE JF

Q = VA

E JF

K : V : A : Q W

KE JF

- 22 -

EmF

Em3/sF


KWE JF

- 23 -

W
KW E
KW E
K E
KEF E
E
K

K(kPa)K{ E
0.2 m/s 6 m/s E
cmK

K0. 2 m3/sMM E
E
KEF EF

h
1

2.5 m

V1 = 3 m/s
2
V2 = 10 m/s

Z1

0.6 m

Z2

EF
2

E
K20 km/hr{{
- 24 -

W

W

K
W
W
K K
K K
K K
K K
K K
KW

KW

- 25 -

K
K

K K
K K
K K

K K
K K

K K

- 26 -

J J

KK

J J

K
K

J J

J
K

J J

K
LL
K
- 27 -

J J

K
LL

J J
K

KLL

J J

K
K

J
E JF

- 28 -

KWE JF

EF

ELLF

K
K

W
- 29 -

WE

dP
dt

Kk

E JF
dP
W
dt

W
Pt = Po + kt

E JF
W

KW Pt
KEFW Po
KWk
Wt
K

k
k =

Pn Pm

tn tm

WE JF

E JF
W

tmWPm
Ktn WPn

- 30 -

Pn

k=

P
t

Pm

tm

tn


KWE JF

WE
W
n
Pn = P (1 + r )

E JF
W

KEFnWPn
KEFWP
KEFWn
KWr

WE JF

- 31 -


n
Pn = P (1 + r )

r =4% = 0.04P = 105000W


WZn
1
P
=
105000

(
1
+
0
.
04
)
= 109200
2010

WZn
2
P2020 = 105000 (1 + 0 .04 ) = 113568

WE JF

W
EF

- 32 -


WE

P t = P o + kt
ZEFW Po
k =


247000 201000 46000
=
=
= 1150

20001960
40

P2010 (t = 1) = 247000 + 1150 1 = 248150

P2020 (t = 2 ) = 247000 + 1150 2 = 249300

P2030 (t = 3) = 247000 + 1150 3 = 250450

P2040 (t = 4 ) = 247000 + 1150 4 = 251600


P2050 (t = 5) = 247000 + 1150 5 = 252750
WE
n
Pn = P (1 + r )

EFP = 105000
r =

20.84
=
= 5.2%

40

1
P2010 ( n = 1) = 247000 (1 + 0 . 052 ) = 259844
2
P2020 ( n = 2 ) = 247000 (1 + 0 .052 ) = 273356

3
P2030 ( n = 3) = 247000 (1 + 0 .052 ) = 287570
4
P2040 ( n = 4 ) = 247000 (1 + 0 .052 ) = 302524

5
P2050 ( n = 5 ) = 247000 (1 + 0 .052 ) = 318255

WE


KE JF
- 33 -

K
EAFE{F

EAF KEEFEDFECFEBF

.EBF

KWE JF

KL
KL
KL
- 34 -

E F W K

K
E JF K

K
K

K


7000

(/ )

6000
5000
4000

3000
2000

1000

0
0

10

12

14

16

18

KWE JF
- 35 -

20

22

24

W
KZ
KZ
KZ
KZ

WE JF

KLL

LLZE{FE{FEFZ

W (flow)

0 .5
F = 18 C ( A )

E JF

KE{LLFELFWF
E{ZF
KWC
- 36 -

KE{ FWA

{ { C
K

L L
KL

E JF
K

E JF
K

KEFHEFZ

L {K
K

KWE JF

ELF

EF

{{

{{

{

- 37 -

KWE JF

EF


ELF

JKuickling Formula: Q = 1020

P 1 0 . 01

JNational Board of fire Underwriters: Q = 700

P E JF

P E JF

JFreeman John R. Formula: Q = 250

+ 10 E JF
5

EL{ZLFWQ
KEFWP

- 38 -

WE JF

KLL

30000 470 = 14 .1 10 6 l / day W

W
(14.1 106 ) 1.8 = 25.38 106 l / day

W (C = 1)
0 .5
F = 18 C ( A )

F = 18 1 (6 1000 10 .76 )0.5 3 .785 = 17310 .92 l / min = 24 .93 10 6 l / day

(25.38 10 ) + (24.93 10 ) = 50.31 10


6

W
6

l / day

F
WE

10

24

10
35.76 10 6
6
25.38 10 + 24.93 10
= 35.76 10 l / day =
= 1192 l / person / day
24
30000

) (


WE JF
K

- 39 -

Q = 1020 100 1 0.01 100 (3.785) = 34746.3 l / min = 2084.778 m3 / hr

W
= 10 (2084.778) = 20847.78 m 3 / day
J

J J

KE JF

K
K

EF

KWE JF

- 40 -

J J

KE JF

KWE JF


J J

K E JF

KK

- 41 -

KEFWE JF

WK

K
K
K

K
K

- 42 -

K
W

KEF
K
K K

KE JF
K

KE JF

WK
KW K
KW K
KW K

- 43 -

KWE JF

KWE JF

- 44 -


J
W
KHHZ K
KW K
KE JFE JFE JFW K
WW K

KE JF

W
K(PCEQ)

(III)(II)(I)
(III)Z(II)H(I)W
EFHE {FZ K

- 45 -

KWE JF

K J

K
K

- 46 -

W
K K
K K
K

K K
K K
K K
K

K
KLL

K
K
KLL

- 47 -

W

W

K
W

W
K K
K K
K K
K K
K K
KW

KW

- 48 -

WK

W(Primary Feeders) K

KE JF
K

W(Secondary Feeders) K

KE JF

W(Small Distribution Mains) K


K

KWE JF
- 49 -

WK
K K
K K
K K
K K
K K
W

K
K

W K
E J{F
KH
E J F K

L E J F

K K


- 50 -

J
W
W(Dead End System) K
KE JF

KWE JF

W(Ring System) K


KE JF
K

W(Radial System) K

KE JF
K

- 51 -

KWE JF

KWE JF

- 52 -

W(Grid System) K

KE JF

KWE JF

kPaE F
K

KkPa
KkPa

- 53 -

W
kPa
KkPa

kPa
K

WkPa
K
K

K
J

WE JF

K
K

K K

- 54 -

EF
EF

EF
EF

EF

KWE JF

KE JF

KWE JF
J

K
WK
K
- 55 -

KEF
K
K
W
W K

W K
K K

W K
K
K

K W K
K

KK

W K

W K
K
- 56 -

J
(Reynolds

WERe)Number)

Re< 500W K

>Re>W K
Re> W K


(Re)

K(velocity)

(headlosses)

(Hazen-Williams)
W

K K
K K
K K
W
V = 0 . 849 CR

0 . 63

S 0 . 54 =

E JF
W

.(Velocity)ELFWV
.(Hydraulic Radius)EFWR

- 57 -

.(Hazen-Williams) WC

KCE JFCoefficient)

.(Hydraulic Gradient)WS
.(Flow)ELFWQ

.(Hydraulic Area)EFWA
W


=R

W
R
R = D

/8 D
=
D / 2
4

R = D

/4 D
= W
D
4

.(Hazen-Williams)WE JF
C
140


Extremely smooth and straight
Cast iron:
New
5 years old
10 years old
20 years old
30 years old

130
120
110
90-100
75-90

- 58 -

120-140
120
110

Concrete or cemented:
Welded steel, as for cast-iron pipe, 5 years older
Rived steel, as for cast-iron pipe, 10 years older

150

Plastic

120-140

Asbestos

WE JF

V1
2g

hL

P1

V2
2g

Q, v1, A1

P2

Z2

D
Q, v2, A2

Z2

KWE JF
Q = 0 . 278 CD

hL
L

2 . 63

S 0 . 54

E JF

WE JF
WE JF

h
Q

S = L =
L
0 . 278 CD


- 59 -

2 . 63

1 / 0 . 54

E JF

WE JF
W
Q = 0.25 m3/s

C = 130

A=

D 2
4

V=

W
=

3 .14 0 .5 2
= 0 .2 m 2
4

Q 0.25
=
= 1.25 m / s
A 0.2

Q = 0 . 278 CD

2 . 63

0 . 54

= 0 . 278 CD

hL
Q

=
L
0 . 278 CD

h L =
hL

D = 500 mm

2 . 63

2 . 63

hL

0 . 54

1 / 0 . 54

10 . 7 Q 1 . 85 L
C 1 . 85 D 4 .87

10 . 7 ( 0 . 25 ) 1 . 85 1000
=
( 130 ) 1 . 85 ( 0 . 5 ) 4 . 87

= 2 . 96 m


J
E JF

KC = 100(Q, D, S, v)K

WC

- 60 -

WS Dv
100

S c = S 100
C

1 .85

E JF

WDS Q
100

Dc = D100
C

0.38

E JF

WQSD

C
E JF
100

Qc = Q100

WE JF
KL

W
L = 1500 m
D = 200 mm

Q = 2 m3/min

(Q, D, S, v)E JF

K S = 10 10 3 WS Q = 2 m3/minD = 200 mmW


W
S=

hL
= 10 .10 3
L

3
hL = S L = (10 .10 ) (1500 ) = 15 m

- 61 -


K(Hazen-Williams) WE JF

- 62 -

KE JF

K
K

KE JF

W
K
K
K


- 63 -


KWE JF


KWE JF
- 64 -

WE JF

W(Non-return valve)

W(Plunger valve)
K

W(Sluice valve)

W(Pressure reducing valve)


K

W(Air valve)
K

W(Wash valve)
K

E JF K


E JF K

- 65 -

KWE JF
- 66 -

KWE JF


KWE JF



- 67 -

K
W

W K

W K
K

KW K
W K
E JF K
K

KWE JF

WK

K K

- 68 -

K
K

K K

K{

K K
K K
K
K

K K
K
KE JF

KWE JF




- 69 -

J
W
W K

W K

K
K

- 70 -

W
K
K
K
K

K
K
K K

D = 200 mm K
KC = 130 Q = 0.45 m3/s

- 71 -

W

W

W
W
K K
K
K

K K
K K
K K
K K
K K
KW

KW

- 72 -

K
K
K

KWW

- 73 -

J
W

W K
K

W K
K

J
W
K(A) K
KECF K
KEtF K
KEiF K
KEQF K
KEDF K
W
K
KL
K
K

- 74 -

J J

WK

Q = iA

E JF
W

E m3 / hr F :Q
E m/ hr F : i

E m 2 F : A

K
K

W

Q = CiA

E JF

KE JF

- 75 -

W

C avg =

C i Ai

Ai

E JF

KWE JF

{{
{{
{{

{{

{{

{{

{{

{{

{{

{{

{{

- 76 -

WE JF

{km2

64 mm / hr
W

W
C=

Ci Ai
Ai

Ci

E JF

Em2F Ai

EF

{ J{

{ J{

175000

{ J{

{ J{

200000

{ J{

{ J{

{ J{

K{
K

Q = CiA = 0 . 6975

64
6
3
0 . 5 10 = 22320 m / hr
1000

- 77 -

J J

KEInlet TimeFETime of FlowF

WK20 5




{

- 78 -

WE JF

K0.75 m/sKE JF

5 min


6 min

8 min

KE JFWE JF

WEFEF
t1 2 =

120 m
= 2 . 67 min
m
sec
60
0 . 75
min
s

WEFEF
t 23 =

150 m
= 3 . 33 min
m
sec
60
0 . 75
s
min

WEF
- 79 -

t A = 5 + 2 .67 + 3 .33 = 11 min WA

t B = 6 + 3 . 33 = 9 . 33 min WB
t C = 8 min

WC

J J

E JF
K

i =

a
t+b

E JF

W

KE mm / hr F :i
KE min F : t
K : a & b

- 80 -

KWE JF


WE JF

{ km2
K i

4830
t + 25

C = 0.30

i =

4830
4830
=
= 130 .5 mm / hr
t + 25 12 + 25

W
W

m3
130 .5
6
0 .25 10 9800
Q = CiA = 0 .30
hr
1000
- 81 -

J J

WK

EF

WEManning EquationF

1
R
n

V =

2/3

S 1/2

E JF
W

E m/ s F :V

EF : n
E m FE R

D
4

F : R
: S

R 2 / 3 S 1/ 2

Q = A
n

E JF

W A = D R
2

D
4

E JFE JF

0 .397 3 2
D S
V =
n

- 82 -

E JF

0 . 312
D 3 S 2
Q =
n

E JF

K
m3 / s m/ s WE D F

KE JF

KEnFWE JF


WE JF
K 0.048 m3/s{

n = 0.013

WE JF
8

0 . 312
Q =
D 3S 2
n
8
1
0 . 312
0 . 048 = 0 . 013 D 3 (0 . 0025 )2
3/8
D = (0 . 04 ) = 0 . 30 m = 300 mm
- 83 -

WE JF
2

0.397 3 2
V=
D S
n

2
1
0.397
=
(0.30 )3 (0.0025 )2 = 0.68 m / s
0.013

K1.0 m/s

W




K

EF J

KE JF
K

WK


- 84 -

KWE JF

EF J

K
E JF

KE JF

KK

KE JF

- 85 -

KWE JF

KWE JF

KWE JF

- 86 -

J
E JF

WWK
W

K
K
K

WE JF
J
W
K
K

K
K

- 87 -

K
K
K

WE JF

W
A1 = 1 .55 10 2 km 2

A2 = 1 .40 10 2 km 2

A3 = 1 .22 10 2 km 2

A4 = 1 .05 10 2 km 2

A5 = 0 . 67 10 2 km 2

= 10 min

C = 0.40

n = 0.013
L = 90 m
i

2880
t + 20
- 88 -

95

94

93

92

91
90

A3

A1

A5

A2

A4

A = A1 WE JFWE JF
A = 1.55 10 2 km2 = 15500 m 2
t = 10 min
2880
2880
=
= 96 mm / hr = 0.096 m / hr

t + 20 10 + 20
Q = C i A = 0.40 0.096 15500 = 595.2 m 3 / hr = 0.1653 m 3 / s
i=

S=

94 93
= 0.011
90

W
8

0 . 312
D 3S 2
n
8
1
0 . 312
3
2
(
)
0
.
1653
0
.
011
=
D

0 . 013
3/8
D 1 2 = (0 . 0654 ) = 0 . 36 m = 360 mm
Q =

- 89 -

V12

2
1
0.397 3 2 0.397
(0.36) 3 (0.011) 2 = 1.63 m / s
=
D S =
n
0.013

A = A1 + A2 WE JFWE JF
A = 1.55 10 2 + 1.40 10 2 = 2.95 10 2 km 2 = 29500 m 2
90
1

= 10 .92 min 11 min


1.63 60
2880
2880
i=
=
= 92 .9 mm / hr = 0.0929 m / hr
t + 20 11 + 20
Q = C i A = 0.40 0.0929 29500 = 1096 .22 m 3 / hr = 0.3045 m 3 / s
t = 10 +

S=

93 92
= 0.011
90
8

0 . 312
D 3S 2
n
8
1
0 . 312
3
2
(
)
0
.
3045
=
D
0
.
011

0 . 013
3/8
D 2 3 = (0 . 1204 ) = 0 . 453 m 450 mm
Q =

V 2 3 =

2
1
0.397 3 2 0.397
(0.45 ) 3 (0.011) 2 = 1.88 m / s
D S =
n
0.013





A = A1 + A2 + A3 WE JFWE JF

- 90 -

A = 1.55 10 2 + 1.40 10 2 + 1.22 10 2 = 4.17 10 2 km 2 = 41700 m 2


90
1

= 11.80 min
1.88 60
2880
2880
i = t + 20 = 11.8 + 20 = 90.6 mm / hr = 0.0906 m / hr
Q = C i A = 0.40 0.0906 41700 = 1096.22 m 3 / hr = 0.42 m 3 / s
t = 11 +

S=

92 91
= 0.011
90
8

0 . 312
Q =
D 3S 2
n
8
1
0 . 312
3
2
(
)
0
.
42
=
D
0
.
011

0 . 013
3/8
D 3 4 = (0 . 167 )
= 0 . 51 m 500 mm

V3 4

2
1
0 .397 3 2 0 .397
(0.50 ) 3 (0.011 ) 2 = 2.02 m / s
=
D S =
n
0 .013

A = A1 + A2 + A3 + A4 E JFWE JF
A = 1.55 10 2 + 1.40 10 2 + 1.22 102 + 1.05 10 2 = 5.22 10 2 km 2 = 52200 m 2
90
1
t = 11.8 +
= 12.54 min
2.02 60
2880
2880
i=
=
= 88.51 mm / hr = 0.08851 m / hr
t + 20 12.54 + 20
Q = C i A = 0.40 0.08851 52200 = 1848 m 3 / hr = 0.51 m 3 / s
91 90.2
S=
= 8.888 103
90
8
1
0 . 312
3
Q =
D S2
n
8
1
0 . 312
3 2
3
0 . 51 = 0 . 013 D (8 . 888 10 )
3/8
D 4 5 = (0 . 225 )
= 0 . 572 m 570 mm


- 91 -

V4 5

2
0.397 3 2 0.397
(0.57 ) 3 8.888 10 3
=
D S =
n
0.013

1
2

= 1.98 m / s

K1.0 m/s
K300 mm

- 92 -

W
K
K
K
K
K
EF K

K
K

K
i

4830
t + 25

{
K

K L{ K
{

- 93 -

K
W

W
K K
K K
K K
K K
K K
K K
K K
KW

KW





- 94 -


J
W
W K
K

W K

W K
K

W K
K
K

J
W

K
K
K
- 95 -

K
K
K
K
J
W
W K
K

W K
K

W K
K

K
KE JF

- 96 -

506

504

502

KWE JF

J

WK

W(Verified clay pipes: VCP)


KE JF

W(Plain concrete pipes: PC)


K

W(Reinforced concrete pipes: RC)


E JF

- 97 -

W(Glass fiber reinforced pipes: GRP)


K

W(Polyvinyl chloride pipes: PVC)


KE JF

.(VCP)WE JF

.(RC)WE3 JF

K(PVC)WE4 JF

- 98 -

W
K K
K K
K K
K K
K K

K

K

KE JF

KE JF
K

KWE JF

KWE JF
- 99 -

J
W
K K
K K
K K
K K
W
K
K

W K
KL
KL
KL
K
KL
KL
{{
K

J J

- 100 -

EF E F EF = E JF
{

P =

E JF

2 P 6 W(Peaking factor)W P

W
P=

5.75

p 0 .2

E JF

W
P = 1+

18

4 + p 0 .5

E JF

KWp

WE JF

KLLL

{ EF E F EF =
3
/ 4987.5 =

1
0.75 175 4 9500 =
1000

= E F EF =
W
P=

5.75 5.75
=
= 2.78
p 0.2 38 0.2

L{ = { { = P =
- 101 -

J J

(Manning Equation)

0 .397 2 / 3 1 / 2
D S
n
0.312 8 / 3 1 / 2
D S
Q=
n

V =

E JF
E JF
W

(Velocity)ELF:V
EF:D

(Hydraulic gradient):S
(Flow)ELF:Q

K{{Z:n

WE JF
{

n = 0.013K0.16 m3/s

WE JF
8

0 . 312
Q =
D 3S 2
n
8
1
0 . 312
3
2
(
)
0
.
16
=

D
0
.
0033

0 . 013
3/8
D = (0 . 116 ) = 0 . 446 m = 446 mm

D = 450 mm
- 102 -

WE JF
2

0.397 3 2
V =
D S
n

2
1
0.397
=
(0.450 )3 (0.0033 ) 2 = 1.03 m / s = 103 cm/s
0.013

J
W
K(Earth load) K
K(Live load) K
K(Bedding) K
K(Load factor) K
K(Factor of safety) K
K(Pipe strength) K

J J

WE JF

W E = C d WB

E JF
W

K:WE

W E JF :W
K

K B = 1.5D + 300 W:B


K:Cd
:D
- 103 -


B
()

WE

KWE JF

WE JFCd
1 e 2kuH / B
Cd =

2ku

E JF
W

K:H

K:k
K:u
- 104 -

K (ku ) E JF

KWE JF
(kg/m3)

(Dry sand)

(Ordinary sand)

(Wet sand)

(Damp sand)

(Saturated clay)

(Saturated topsoil)

(Sand and damp topsoil)


KCdWE JF

- 105 -

(ku ) WE JF
(ku )

(Cohesionless granular soil)

(Sand and gravel)

(Saturated topsoil)

(Saturated clay)

(Saturated clay)

WE JF

K
W

W (H )
Z
H = 3.6 0.6 = 3.0 m
WE JF
W = 2080 kg m 3
WE JF
ku = 0.110
W

B = 1.5 D + 300
= (1.5 600 ) + 300 = 1200 mm = 1.2 m

WCdE JF
- 106 -

1 e 2 kuH / B
Cd =
2 ku
1 e 2 (0.11)3 1.2
=
= 2 .2
2 (0.11)

WWE

WE = C d WB
= 2.2 2080 1.2 = 5491.2 kg m


J J

KE JF
KE JFE JF


WE JF
K

KEFWE JF
- 107 -

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

0.0

0.89

0.88

0.86

0.85

0.5

0.80

0.77

0.75

0.72

1.0

0.72

0.67

0.64

0.61

1.5

0.64

0.59

0.55

0.52

2.0

0.51

0.45

0.41

0.37

3.0

0.41

0.35

0.31

0.27

4.0

0.33

0.27

0.23

0.19

5.0

0.26

0.20

0.17

0.14

6.0

0.17

0.12

0.09

0.07

8.0

0.11

0.07

0.05

0.04

10.0


KEFWE JF

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

0.0

0.81

0.79

0.78

0.77

0.5

0.66

0.63

0.61

0.59

1.0

0.54

0.51

0.48

0.46

1.5

0.44

0.40

0.38

0.35

2.0

0.35

0.32

0.29

0.27

2.5

0.29

0.25

0.23

0.21

3.0

0.19

0.16

0.14

0.12

4.0

0.13

0.10

0.09

0.07

5.0

0.08

0.06

0.05

0.04

6.0

0.04

0.03

0.02

0.02

8.0

0.02

0.01

0.01

0.01

10.0


- 108 -

J J
W
Lf =

[W E

+ WL ]

WB

E JF
W

(Load Factor)WLf
(External Load)WWE
(Live Load)WWL
(Three-edge bearing strength) WWB


J J
WFS
F s = 1 W

F s = 1 . 25 1 . 5 W

J J
W
WE

WB =

Lf

WL
FS
1.5

E JF

EF J

WK

- 109 -


KE JFW

E{ {F

E F

KWE JF

J
EF

- 110 -

K W W

J
W
K
K

K
K

KE JF

K
K E JF

K
K

K
K

- 111 -

KWE JF
- 112 -

WK
K K

K
K

K K
K
WK

{W
{W

K
K

- 113 -

W
K
K
K
K

K
K

K
E F

K
K

- 114 -

W

W

K
W

W
K K
K K
K K

K K

KW

KW

- 115 -

K
J
W

W K

W K
K

W
(Centrifugal Pumps)
(Reciprocating Pumps)
(Rotary Pumps)

K E JF

- 116 -

KWE JF
J

K K

L { {

K L{

E JFK

K




- 117 -

H1

HL :

H1 :
()

HL = H1 + H2

H2

H2 :
()

KWE JF

(Head)

(TDH: Total Dynamic Head) K


W

TDH = H L + H F + H V E JF
W
(Total Static Head) :HL
W

H L = H 1 + H 2 E JF
KEFH2EFH1W


- 118 -

(Total Friction Headloss) :HF


W

4 fLV 2
E JF
Hf =
2 gD

W
WD
Wf
EHFWL
WV
Wg
EF (Velocity Head) :HV

W
1 V 2

W
2 2g

V 2
W
2g

1 V2 V2
V2
H V = + = 1.5
2 2g 2g
2g

E JF

(Net output)

P w = KQH

E JF
W

(Water Power, kW)EF:Pw

(Flow, m3/min)ELF: Q
(Total dynamic head, m):H
- 119 -

K :K
K{K(kW, m3/min, m)

w
Pp = E E JF
p

W
(Power input to the pump, kW)EF:Pp
(Water Power, kW)EF:Pw

(Pump Efficiency):Ep

WE JF
L {

W
Pw = KQH
Pw = 0.163 1.9 70 = 21.68 kW
Pp =
Pp =

Pw
Ep

21.68
= 24.9 kW
0 .9

- 120 -

W
K

K L K
K


L K {
K

- 121 -

? ?EF K
K

? ? EF K
K

Chin, David A. (1999), Water Resources Engineering, Prentice Hall. .


.

Hammer, J. Mark. & Hammer, J. Mark, Jr. (1996) Water and wastewater
Technology, 3rd Edition, Prentice-Hall, inc., New Jersey.

Lin, Shun D. & Lee, C. C. (2001), Water and Wastewater Calculations Manual, .
McGraw-Hill Professional.
Mays, Larry W. (2001), Storm Water Collection Systems Design Handbook, .
McGraw-Hill Professional.
Mays, Larry W. (1999), Water Distribution Systems Handbook, McGraw-Hill .
Professional.
Qasim, Sayed R. (2000), Edward M. Motley and Guang Zhu. Water Works .
Engineering Planning Design and Operations, Prentice Hall PTR.
Steel, E. W. & Mcghee, Terence J. (1979), Water Supply and Sewerage, 5th .
Edition, McGraw-Hill Inc.
Streeter, L. Victor & Wylie, E. Benjamin (1979), Fluid Mechanics, 7th

Edition, McGraw-Hill Inc.


Vennard, K. John & Street, L. Robert (1982) Elementary Fluid

Mechanics, 6th Edition, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York.



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