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Foundry Hand Tools

Foundry Hand Tools

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Published by: Kiran Munavalli on May 31, 2012
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07/05/2013

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Mr. D.A.

Ghatge

INTRODUCTION

Foundry Engineering deals with the process of making casting in moulds prepared by patterns Stages:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Pattern making Moulding and core making Melting and casting Fettling Testing and inspection

FOUNDRY HAND TOOLS

FOUNDRY HAND TOOLS

FOUNDRY HAND TOOLS .

FOUNDRY HAND TOOLS .

FOUNDRY HAND TOOLS .LADLES .

CRUCIBLES .FOUNDRY HAND TOOLS.

MELTING EQUIPMENTS In order to obtain the proper pouring and melting temperature of the metal several furnaces are used:  For ferrous metals:  Cupola furnaces  Open heart furnaces  Electric furnaces   For non-ferrous metals: Pit Type  Stationary type  Tilting Type  .

 Consumes easily available fuels.CUPOLA Used for melting for cast iron.  Low cost.  Better control of temp and chemical composition.  .  Easy tapping.

 For large quantities.  High cost and maintenance.  Fast Melting.  Fumes. . smoke and noise.ELECTRIC FURNACE  High Temp.  Controlled atm.

OIL / GAS FIRED ROTARY FURNACE .

Cheap.  Permanent moulds are made up of ferrous metals and alloys. costly  Temporary refractory moulds are made of refractory sands and resin. normally used for casting of low melting point material. .MOULDING  Mould is a void or cavity created in a compact sand mass with the help of pattern. for high melting points and bigger objects.  Core is a sand shape exactly similar to the cavities to be produced in casting. Generally made differently in a core box.

PATTERNS AND CORES .

Pattern Mould Core Mould Hole in Job by Core Casted Job Casted Job .

 Binders  Additives  Water . Imparts sufficient strength and cohesiveness. chemical resistively and permeability. 80-82 % High Softening Temperature and thermal Stability. in-organic and Clay are used. Organic. but decreases permeability of sand. Found in banks and bottom of rivers.MAIN CONSTITUENTS OF MOULDING SAND Principle Constituents:  Silica Sand      Major Portion.

ADDITIVES OF MOULDING SAND .

ADDITIVES OF MOULDING SAND .

SAND GRAINS .

Cheap and Easily available .PROPERTIES OF MOULDING SAND  Porosity or Permeability  Flowability or Plasticity  Refractoriness  Adhesiveness  Cohesiveness  Collapsibility  Durability  Fitness  Bench life  Co-efficient of expansion  Chemically Neutral  Reusable.

CLASSIFICATION OF MOULDING SAND .

SPECIAL SAND .

SPECIAL SAND .

SPECIAL SAND .

PREPARATION MOULDING SAND .

SAND TESTING .

Bench Moulding  For small and light moulds  Done in cope and drag 3.MOULDING PROCESS According to the method Used: 1. Floor Moulding  Foundry floor acts as drag and may be covered with cope or may be casted open.  Used for all medium and large casting 2. Pit Moulding  Moulding for extremely large casting is done in pit  Pit acts as drag and separate cope can be used to make gates and runners .

MOULDING PROCESS
4. Machine Moulding  All the jobs of ramming, moulding and gate making, drawing of pattern is done by machines.  Produces identical and consistent castings  Preferred for the mass production

MOULDING PROCESS

MOULDING PROCESS

MOULDING PROCESS

MOULDING PROCESS .

.

GATING SYSTEM  Gating System means all the passages through which the molten metal enters the mould cavity. .  Includes: Pouring basin  Runner  Gate  Riser   It has great impact upon the quality of the casting produced.

 Prevent formation of oxides.REQUIREMENT OF GATING SYSTEM Low flow velocity of molten metal.  Insure complete filling of cavity.  Assist directional solidification.  Prevent entry of slag.  . dross etc.  Prevent absorption of moisture while flow.  Should be practical and economical.

TYPES OF GATES 1. 4. 2. 3. Top Gate Bottom Gate Parting Gate Step Gate .

TYPES OF GATES .

SPECIAL CASTING PROCESSES .

can be reused many times  Made of grey cast iron.  Made in two halves with built-in gating system. inner surface coated with refractories.GRAVITY DIE OR PERMANENT MOULD CASTING Molten metal is poured under gravity only.  .  Uses permanent moulds.

Semi Centrifugal 3. helps to distribute the molten metal evenly to all surfaces and separates the slag from out flowing molten metal. Centrifuge .  Centrifugal force plays major role in shaping and feeding of the casting. True Centrifugal 2.  Three types: 1.  C.CENTRIFUGAL CASTING  Mould is rotated rapidly about its central axis as the metal is pored into it.F.

.

TRUE CENTRIFUGAL CASTING .

TRUE CENTRIFUGAL CASTING .

SEMI CENTRIFUGAL AND CENTRIFUGE CASTING .

 Pure dry silica is mixed with 3-5% sodium silicate and water. and is rammed in the moulding box.  Co2 is forced into mould at high pressure. the sand immediately becomes extremely strong bonded as sodium silicate becomes a stiff gel giving the necessary strength to the mould.  Additional hardening may be done by baking.CARBON DIOXIDE MOULDING  This process is basically a hardening process for the moulds and cores. .  As Co2 gas is passed through a sand mixture containing sodium silicate.

CARBON DIOXIDE MOULDING .

CARBON DIOXIDE MOULDING .

 .SHELL MOULDING The sand mixed with thermosetting resign is allowed to come into contact with heated metallic pattern plate.  The shell is removed from the pattern and paced in cope and drag with backing material and molten metal is poured for casting.  A thin and strong shell of mould is formed around the pattern.

5 mm of sand/plastic mixture to adhere to the pattern. this causes a skin (Shell) of about 3. . the sand mixed with a thermosetting resin is allowed to come in contact with a heated pattern plate (200 oC).. Then the shell is removed from the pattern.SHELL MOLDING PROCESS  It is a process in which. The cope and drag shells are kept in a flask with necessary backup material and the molten metal is poured into the mold.

. and dimensional tolerance of 0.  The process overall is quite cost effective due to reduced machining and cleanup costs.SHELL MOLDING PROCESS  This process can produce complex parts with good surface finish 1. and aluminum and copper alloys.25 µm to 3.  The materials that can be used with this process are cast irons.75 µm.5 %.  A good surface finish and good size tolerance reduce the need for machining.

SHELL MOLDING PROCESS .

 First method is Cold coating method  and another one is the hot method of coating.MOLDING SAND IN SHELL MOLDING PROCESS The molding sand is a mixture of fine grained quartz sand and powdered Bakelite. There are two methods of coating the sand grains with Bakelite.  .

thereby imparting fluidity to the sand mixtures.COLD COATING. . the resin envelops the sand grains and the solvent evaporates. 5% bakelite.  In     the method of cold coating. quartz sand is poured into the mixer and then the solution of powdered bakelite in acetone and ethyl aldehyde are added. The typical mixture is 92% quartz sand. 3% ethyl aldehyde. leaving a thin film that uniformly coats the surface of sand grains. During mixing of the ingredients.

 In     the method of hot coating. .HOT COATING…. The mixer is allowed to cool up to 80 � 90 o C. the soluble phenol formaldehyde resin is added. In the course of sand mixing. the mixture is heated to 150-180 o C prior to loading the sand. This method gives better properties to the mixtures than cold method.

SHELL MOULDING .

Shell For Moulding Rotational Shell Moulding .

SHELL MOULDING .

? or covering the pattern assembly with refractory slurry  Melting the pattern assembly to remove the pattern material  Firing the mold to remove the last traces of the pattern material  Pouring  Knockout. or polystyrene patterns  Assembly of these patterns onto a gating system  ?Investing.INVESTMENT CASTING -The basic steps of the investment casting process are  Production of heat-disposable wax. plastic. cutoff and finishing. .

When the casting is solidified.INVESTMENT CASTING         The investment casting process also called lost wax process begins with the production of wax replicas or patterns of the desired shape of the castings. . the mold is broken and the casting taken out. The mold is prepared by surrounding the pattern with refractory slurry that can set at room temperature. The mold is then heated so that pattern melts and flows out. A number of patterns are attached to a central wax sprue to form a assembly. leaving a clean cavity behind. A pattern is needed for every casting to be produced. The patterns are prepared by injecting wax or polystyrene in a metal dies. The mould is further hardened by heating and the molten metal is poured while it is still hot.

INVESTMENT CASTING Steps in the investment casting process (a) Wax patterns are produced by injection molding (b) Multiple patterns are assembled to a central wax sprue .

(d) The ceramic is dried. ceramic is fired to burn all wax. Several layers may be required. . the wax is melted out.(c) A shell is built by immersing the assembly in a liquid ceramic slurry and then into a bed of extremely fine sand.

sprueand pouring cup become one solid casting. Hollow casting can be made by pouring out excess metal before it solidifies. gates. the parts. On solidification. (f) After metal solidifies.wax(e) The shell is filled with molten metal by gravity pouring. the ceramic shell is broken off by vibration or water blasting .

.(g) The parts are cut away from the sprue using a high speed friction saw. Minor finishing gives final part.

Cross-sectional dimensions of a continuous casting are constant along the casting length and they are determined only by the dimensions of the mold cavity. The length of a continuous casting is limited by the life time of the mold. Continuous casting technology is used for both ferrous and non-ferrous alloys.Continuous casting is a casting method. solidification and withdrawal (extraction) of the casting from an open end mold are carried out continuously. . in which the steps of pouring.

Traditional continuous casting processes use stationary (or oscillating) molds. Friction caused by the movement results in formation of micro-cracks and other defects in the surface regions of the casting. in which the solidified bar moves relative to the mold surface. .

wheels) characterized by zero relative movement between the mold and casting surfaces. The castings may be further processed (rolled) without surface machining.Lubricating oil supplied to the mold surface and selflubricating graphite molds decrease the friction/sticking and reduce the defective surface zone. This defective zone is commonly machined (milled) prior to Rolling The alternative continuous casting methods use moving “endless” molds (rolls. belts. . Strips and slabs fabricated by Continuous casting in traveling mold have low defect surface.

Depending on the mold position (vertical or horizontal) continuous casting machines may be vertical  horizontal. .

The water-cooled copper mold (primary cooling zone) extracts the heat of the metal causing its solidification. .VERTICAL CONTINUOUS CASTING Steels are commonly cast in vertical continuous casting machines Molten metal is continuously supplied from the ladle to the intermediate ladle (tundish) from which it is continuously poured into the mold at a controllable rate keeping the melt level at a constant position. The mold oscillates in order to prevent sticking with the casting.

The casting is continuously extracted from the mold by the withdrawal unit followed by a cut-off unit.VERTICAL CONTINUOUS CASTING When the casting goes out from the mold it is cooled in the secondary cooling zone by water (or water with air) sprayed on the casting surface. Most of vertical continuous casting machines are equipped with strand guide units bending the casting and changing its configuration from vertical to horizontal. .

Then a molten metal is poured into the mold where it solidifies and grips the end of the dummy bar.VERTICAL CONTINUOUS CASTING The casting process begins from inserting a dummy (primary) bar into the mold. . The dummy bar is disconnected from the casting after passing the withdrawal unit.

Due to the water cooling (primary and secondary) solidification rate provided by continuous casting is higher than in other casting methods therefore continuous castings have more uniform and finer grain structure and enhanced mechanical properties. Twin-roll caster and Twin-belt caster are most popular methods of this type.HORIZONTAL CONTINUOUS CASTING… Horizontal continuous casting machine is generally used for casting nonferrous alloys. . Horizontal continuous casting in stationary mold with graphite water-cooled molds.

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CASTING DEFECTS .

8. 10. 3. Blow holes Porosity Shrinkage Hot tears Drop Metal Penetration Fusion Shot metal Shift Swells Hard Spots Warpage . 7. 6. 11. 12. 9.CASTING DEFECTS 1. 2. 4. 5.

CASTING DEFECTS .

CASTING DEFECTS .

CASTING DEFECTS .

CASTING DEFECTS .

CASTING DEFECTS .

CASTING DEFECTS .

2.CLEANING OF CASTING (FETTLING) After casting has solidified it is removed form the mould and is cleaned to remove the runner risers cores etc. Rough Cleaning Surface cleaning • • • 1. 4. Wire brush Sand blasting Shot Blasting 3.  Finishing Inspection of casting Destructive and Non-Destructive .

INSPECTION OF CASTING Destructive  Cutting samples and examining properties  Tensile. Compression and Torsion Testing Non-Destructive  Visual Inspection  Dimensional Inspection  Pressure Testing  Radiographic Inspection  Magnetic Inspection .

THE END… Self Reading assignment: Chills and Chaplets Continuous Casting Investment casting and Injection casting .

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