gn I


EDITED BY At-rnnr\r HAKr(



Th is is t he f ir s t d i c ti o n a ry d e d i c a te d to th e ' w ork of Gi l l es D el euze. It provides an in-depth and lucid introduction to one of the most influential figuresin coniinentalphilosophy. The dictionary defines and contextualises more than 150 ter-rnsthat relate to Deleuzel philosophy including concepts such as 'becoming','body without 'decerritorializatiqn','differenre','repetition','rhizome''schizoanalysis'. organs', and The clear explanations also-address the main intellectualinfluences Deleuze on as well as tl're influence Deleuze has had on suDiects such as feminism, cinema, postcolonial theory, geographyand cultural studies.Those unfamiliar with Deleuze will find the dictionary a user-friendly tool equippingthem with definitions and interpretations both as a study and/or a teaching aid. The entries are written by some of the rnost prominent Deleuze scholars inciudingRosi Braidotti,Claire Colebrook,Tom Conley,EugeneHollarrdand Paul Patton.Thesecontributors bring their expert knowledgeand critical opinion to bear on the entries and provide an enrichingtheoretical context for anyone interestedin Deleuze. Adrian Parr is Professor of contemporary art and designat the Savannah College of Art and Design. She is the editor, with lan Buchanan,of Deleuze ond the ry Contemporo World, f orthcom i ng from Edinburgh U n iversity Press.

IS BN 0-7 186-1899-6 S


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Th e D e l e u ze Dicti onarv
Editedby Adrian Parr

EdinburghUniversity Press


Manchester. Chippenham. Designs and PatentsAct 1988.C ontents @ in this edition.and printed and bound in Great Britain by Antony Rowe Ltd. Wilts A CIP record for this book is availablefrom the British Library ISBN 0 7486 18988 (hardback) ISBN 0 7486 18996 (paperback) The right of the contributors to be identified as authors of this work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright.2005 @ in the individual contributions is retained by the authors Edinburgh University PressLtd 22 George Squarg Edinburgh Typeset in Ehrhardt by Servis Filmsetting Ltd. Acknowledgements Introduction Claire Colebrooh Entries A-Z Bibliography Notes on Contributors vl 308 315 . Edinburgh University Press. Longsight.

and to a ment of doubt. science philosophycould be understoodwithout a senseof their quite specificcreativeproblem. the strongintellectand generosity Ian Buchanan of and Claire Colebrook havebeena wonderfulsource inspirationfor me and I would iust like to of extend my warmestthanksto you both.then.say. A philosopher's concepts produce connections and styles of thinking. and in addition to the explicit historical presuppositions. the concept of the 'cogito' relatesthe mind to a movemeasurable matter. a 'nomadism' or On to a asa reactionagainst rigid structuralism linguistics. . This does not mean that one explainingDeleuze's reduces philosophyto its context. Even so. Without you this dictionary would never have come into existence. any shortthe comingsareentirelymy repeating recreating milieu of a philosopher or another said. Sq ing for sense that is the creativedrive of readinga philosopher.similarly. of how the habituated humanobserver can think from beyondits own constituted. Everyonewho hasentriesincludedhereand my editor. I am very gratefulto MonashUniversityand Savannah Collegeof Art and Design for their continuingsupport.or as a way of creating understanda someorientation by establishingpoints and relations.Lastly.desireor life of a philosophy.meansthat any philosophyis more than its manifestterms.disreprojectto form a Deleuzedictionary. spectful. for example. rrndall ttxl humanworld.)To translate term or to define distinctionbetween of corpus involvesan understanding a more any point in a philosopher's generalorientation. thereis an unthoughtor outside. Paul Patton and Williamsfor their comments and suggesgions.JackieJones.(The conceptof 'structure' in the twentieth century.could not be of isolatedfrom the problem of explaining the categories thinking and the is the effect of a conceptual imageof an impersonalsocialsubjectwho system. this project would neverhaveseen the light of day without your continuingencouragement support. problem or milieu. In addition to the producedtexts and terms. more than its context. of which havecerall James tainly strengthened theoreticalrigour of this dictionary.they allow for movementsand connection. have beentremendouslycooperative and helpful in more waysthan one. to a world of mathematically a thought and the body. existingset Concepts intensive: are they do not gathertogetheran already of things (extension).the problem. it is this strivwe can do is produce another sense. he alsorejectedthe idea that art. Ronald Bogue. and Adrian Parr Claire Colebrook Why a Deleuzedictionary?It might seema particularly craven. philosophy as the creation of a plane.I would like also to thank Keith Ansell-Pearson. all the canneverbe said. reading a philosopherrequires going beyond his or her produced lexicon to the deeper logic of producitself This sense of tion from which the relationsor sense the text emerge.For Deleuze.literal-mindedand reactive Not only did Deleuze strategicallychangehis lexicon to avoid the notion that his texts consistedof terms that might simply name extra-textual or truths. when philosl)eleuzereadsBergsonhe allowseachterm and moveof Bergson's ophy to revolvearound a problem: the problem of intuition. the contrary.A ckn o w l e d g e ments Intr oduc ti on First I would like to thank all rhe authorswho contributedto this proiect.



It would seem,then, that offering definitions of terms in the form of a dictionary- as though a word could be detached from its philosophicallife andproblem- would not only be at oddswith the creativerole of philosophy; it would alsosustainan illusion that the philosophicaltext is nothing more thanits 'said'andthat becoming-Deleuzian wouldbe nothingmorethanthe adoption a certainvocabulary. we,in systematising of Do Deleuze's thought, reduce eventand untimelyprovocation onemore doxa? an to If Deleuze's writings aredifficult and resistant this cannotbe dismissed asstylistically unfortunate, asthough he really oughtto havejust sat down and told us in so many words what 'difference in itself' or 'immanence' really meant.Why the difficulty of style and vocabularyif there is more to Deleuzethan a way of speaking? preliminary answerlies in the nexusof A conceptsof 'life', 'immanence'and 'desire'. The one distinction that Deleuzeinsistsupon, both when he speaks his own voicein Dffirence in Repetitioz and when he creates sense the history of philosophy, and, his of is the 'imageof thought'. Philosophy beginsfrom an imageof what it is to think, whetherthat be the graspof ideal forms, the orderly receptionof senseimpressions,or the social construction of the world through language.The concepts of a philosophy both build, and build upon, that image. But if the history of philosophy is a gallery of such images of thought - from the conversing Socratesand mathematicalPlatq to the doubting Descartes and logical Russell- some philosophers have done , more than stroll through this galleryto add their own image.Somehave, in 'schizo' fashion, refused to add one more proper relation between thinker and truth, and havepulled thinking apart. One no longer makes one more step within thought - tidying up a definition, or correctinga seemingcontradiction.Only when this happensdoesphilosophyrealiseits power or potential. Philosophyis neither correct nor incorrect in relation to what currently countsas thinking; it creates new modesor stylesof thinking. But if all philosophyis creation,rather than endorsement, an imageof thought, of havetried to givea sense conceptto this creationof somephilosophers or thinking: not one more imageof thought but 'thought without an image'. Deleuze's celebratedphilosophersof univocity confront the genesis, rupture or violenceof thinking: not man who thinks, but a life or unthought within which thinking might happen.When Spinozaimaginesone expressive substance, when Nietzsche imagines one will or desire, and when Bergsoncreates the conceptof life, they go someway to towardsreally asking aboutthe emergence thinking.This is no longerthe emergence of of thc thinker,or one who thinks, but the emergence somethinglike a of minintrrl rclation, cvcntor pcrocption thinking, of fronrwhich'thinkcrs' arc thcn cll'cctctl.'l'his nlcruls thrrtthc rcrrlhistoryof'plrikrsophy rcquircs

producesingularpoints,or the orienunderstanding way philosophers the tations within which subjects,objects,perceiversand imagesare ordered. Any assemblage such as a philosophicalvocabulary(or an artistic style, or a set of scientific functions) facesin two directions. It both givessome sort of order or consistency a life which bearsa much greatercomplexto ity and dynamism,but it alsoenables from that order - the creationof further and more elaborate orderings. philosophical A vocabulary such as givessense orientationto our world, but it alsoallowsus to Deleuze's or producefurther differences and further worlds. On the one hand, then, a Deleuzianconcept such as the 'plane of immanence'or 'life' or 'desire' cstablishes possiblerelation betweenthinker and what is to be thought, a giving us somesort of logic or order. On the other hand, by coupling this conceptwith other concepts, such as taffectt'concept'and tfunctiont,or and 'planeof transcendence' 'imageof thought',we canthink not just about life or the planeof immanence alsoof how the brain imagines, but relates pictures, to, styles, represents ordersthat plane.This is the problemof and how life differsfrom itself,in itself.The role of a dictionaryis only one side of a philosophy.It looks at the way a philosophy stratifiesor distinguishes its world, but once we haveseenhow 'a' philosophythinks and movesthis should then allow us to look to other philosophiesand other worlds. There is then a necessary fidelity and infidelity,not only in any dictionirry or any reading,but also in any experience any life. Life is both or cffected through relations, suchthat thereis no individual or text in itself; rrtthe sametime, life is not reducibleto effected actualrelations. or There rre singularities given.This or'powersto relate'thatexceed what is already is the sense the singularityof a text. Sense not what is manifestlysaid or is rrr denoted;it is what is openedthrough denotation.Sq we might saythat we needto understand meaningof Deleuze's the terminology- how 'territorialisation' is defined alongside 'deterritorialisation','assemblage', 'llody without Organs' and so on - and then how thesedenotedterms cxpress what Deleuzewantsto say, intention of the Deleuziancorpus. the llut this shouldultimately then leadus to the sense Deleuze,which can of only be giventhrough the productionof anothertext. 1 can say, here,that the sense Deleuze's of worksis the problemof how thinking emerges from life, and how life is not a being that is given but a power to give various scnses itself (what Deleuzerefersto as'?being'). in saying of But this I have producedanothersense. Each definition of eachterm is a different path from a text, a different productionof sense that itself opensfurther paths lirr definition.So, far from definitionsor dictionaries reducing forceof the itn iruthoror a philosophy, they createfurther distinctions. 'l'his clocsr.rotmcfln, as ccrtirin popular vcrsionsof Frcnch poststructuralism might irrclicrrtc, tcxtshuvclro nrcanings thrt onc ctn thilt rnd



make anything mean what one wants it to mean.On the contrary, the life or problem of Deleuze's philosophy lay in the event: both the event of philosophical textsand the eventof worksof art. The eventis a disruption, oneself, using of or violence dislocation thinking.To readis not to recreate alreadyhabitthe text asa mirror or medium through which one repeats ual orientations.Just as life can only be lived by risking connectionswith other powers or potentials,so thinking can only occur if there is an encounterwith relations,potentialsand powersnot our own. If we take Deleuze'sdefinition of life seriously- that it is not a given whole with unfold through time, but is t airtual power to potentials that necessarily potentialsthrough contingentand productiveencounters then this create We will relatedirectlyto an ethicsof reading. cannotreada thinker in order for to find what he is saying'tous', asthoughtextswerevehicles exchanging information from one being to another.A text is immanent to life; it new stylesfor thinking and new imagesand ways new connections, creates of seeing.To read a text is to understandthe problem that motivated its The assemblage. more faithful we are to a text - not the text's ultimate but message its construction,or the way in which it producesrelations and alreadyexisting vocabuamong concepts,images,affects,neologisms laries - the more we will havean experienceof a style of thought not our stylesassuch. of own, an experience the powerto think in creative and productivecontributionsof Deleuze's One of the most consistent thought is his theory and practiceof reading,both of which are grounded in a specificqonceptionof life. If there is one understandingof philosophy and as andgoodreading groundedin consistency doxa,which wouldreturn Deleuze logicandallowthoughtto remainthe same, a text to an assimilable of places himself in a counter-tradition distinctionand paradox.Neither philosophynor thinking flowsinevitablyand continuouslyfrom life; reason of is not the actualisation what life in its potentialwasalwaysstriving to be, vitalismor More than any other thinker of his time Deleuzeworksagainst servea function or somehow thinking and concepts the idea that reason, purposeof life, a life that is nothing more than changeor alteration for the sakeof efficiencyor self-furthering. If there is a conceptof life in Deleuze it is a life at oddswith itself, a potential or power to createdivergentpotendicto tials.Admittedly,it is possible imaginethinking, with its concepts, againstthe forcesof chaosand tionariesand organon,as shoring 'man' dissolution,but we can also- when we extendthis potential- seethinking to as asa confrontationwith chaos, allowingmore of what is nrt ourselves thought has'majorito transformwhat we takeourselves be.In this sense both a movementtowardsreducing tarian' and 'minoritarian'tendencies, and chnoticdiffcrcnccto uniformity and samencss a tendcncytowards I)clcuzc' inconrprchcnsion, to opcning lhoscsrmcunitics n'stttttcring'or

far from believingthat one might return thought to life and overcomethe submissionto system,recognises that the creation of a systemis the only way one canreally live non-systemically. One creates minimal or dynamic a order,both to avoidabsolute deterritorialisation the one hand and reacon tive repetitionof the already-ordered the other.In this sense, on Deleuzeis a child of the Enlightenment. Not only does he inhabit the performative self-contradiction, 'Live in such a way that one's life diverges from any givenprinciple,'healsodeduces this 'principlethat is not one' from life. If one is to lioe, theremust both be a minimal connection exposure the or to outsidealongside creationor perception that outside,with perception a of being a difference. Deleuze's ontology- that relationsareexternalto terms- is a commitment to perceiving life; life is connection and relation,but the outcomeor eventof thoserelationsis not determinedin advance intrinsic properby ties. Life is not, therefore,the ground or foundation differentiatedby a set of ternls, such that a dictionary might provide us with one schema order of amongothers.The productionor creationof a systemis both an exposure to thosepowersof difference already not constitutedasproper categories of recognising'man' and a radical enlightenment.Enlightenment is, defined dutifully, freedom from imposed tutelage - the destruction of masters. Deleuze'sdestructionof masteryis an eternal,rather than perpetual, paradox. Rather than defining thought and liberation against anothersystem, with a continualcreationand subsequent destruction, the challengeof Deleuze's thought is to createa systemthat containsits own aleatoryor paradoxicalelements, elementsthat are both inside and outside, orderingand disordering. This is just what Deleuze's greatconcepts serve to dol life is both that which requires some form of order and system (giving itself through differencesrhar are perceivedand synthesised) and, that which also opens the system,for life is just rhat power to d.ifferfrom which concepts emergebut that can neverbe includedin the extension of any concept. We canonly begin to think and live when we losefaith in the world, when weno longerexpecta world to answer and mirror ourselves our already to and constituteddesires. Thinking is paradox,nor because is simple disobediit enceor negation orthodoxy, because thinking hasany forceor disof but if tinction it hasto work againstinertia.If a body wereonly to connectwith whatallowedit to remainrelativelystable and self contained in imageof the autopoieticsystemthat takesonly what it can masterand assimilate then the very powerof life for change and creation would be stalled exhausted or by self-involved formsthat livedin orderto remainthe same. life Despitefirst appearances a dictionarycanbe the openingof a self-enclosed system. we If nrc faithfulto thc lifc of Dclcuzc's thought- rccognising as n crcation it


rather than destinedeffectof life - then we canrelive the production of this as systemand this response an imageof production in general. (I by must createa systemor be enslaved anotherman's'- so declares and chaoticagonisticsof his great Blake'sidealpoet in the highly contested libwereindebtedto an enlightenment poemJerusalem.Blake's aphorisms itself in a seeminglyparadoxicalstructure. If we are erationismthat found thenwe caneitherinhabitit pasto condemned live in someform of system to submission a system our or sivelyand reactively, we canembrace seeming proBlake'searlyresponse not of relations our own and respondcreatively. to the inescapabilityof the categoricalimperative vided an alternative and act asa moral beingthen which still hauntsus today:if I am to speak I can neither saynor do what is particular or contingent for me; living with othersdemands that I decidewhat to do from the point of view of 'humanity in general'.To speakor to live is alreadyto be other than oneself,and so Such recognitionof an initial submission. morality demands necessary a or a final consensus intersubjectivity may neverarrive, but it hauntsall life paradoxical eternalaffirmationof and Deleuze's nevertheless. contrast, By begins from the inescapabilityof a minimal system- to perceive creation or live is alreadyto be connected,to be other - but far from this requiring or a striving for a systemof consensus ideal closure,this producesan infinimperative- abandon ite opening.It might seemthat the Enlightenment all externalauthority - comesto function asyet one more authority, and it might alsoseemthat a fidelity to Deleuzeis a crime againstthe thinker of from thought is iust this passage But difference. the problemof Deleuze's . contradiction to paradox To not be oneselfis contradictory if one must be eitherthis or that, if life must decideor stabiliseitself (form a harrative or by imageof itself). 'Becoming-imperceptible', contrast,is an enablingand in productive paradox.One connectsor perceives order to live, in order to not be,but this very tendencyis alsoat the sametime a becoming-other: a nonbeingbut a?being.A Deleuziandictionarycomesinto beingonly in open the systemof thought its use,only when the thoughts that it enables to the very outsideand life that madeit possible.

ACTIVE/REACTIVE Lee Spinks The distinction between active and reactive forces was developed by Friedrich Nietzsche in his Oz the Genealogy Morality and rhe notes of posthumously collectedas The Will to Power.In his seminalreadingof Nietzsche, Deleuzeseizedupon this distinction (and what it madepossible) and placed at the very heartof the Nietzschean it revaluation values. of For Nietzsche,the distinction betweenactiveand reactiveforce enabledhim to present'being' asa process rather than 'substance'. The world of substantial being,he argued,is producedby the recombinationof multiple effectsof forceinto discrete ideas, images and identities. There is no essential 'truth' of being;nor is there an independent'reality' beforeand beyondthe flux of appearances; everyaspect the realis already of constituted quantities by and combinationsof force. Within this economy of becoming,every force is relatedto otherforcesand is definedin its character whetherit obeys by or commands.What we call a body (whether understoodas political, social, chemical biological) determinedby this relationbetween or is dominating and dominated forces.Meanwhile Deleuze maintains that any two forces constitute bodyassoonastheyenterinro relationship. a Within this bodythe superior or dominant forcesare describedas 'active'; the inferior or dominatedforces described are as'reactive'. Thesequalities ofactiveandreactive forceare theoriginal qualitiesthat definethe relationshipof forcewith force. If forcesare defined by the relative differencein their quality or power, the notion of quality is itself determinedby the differencein quantity betweenthe two forces that come into relationship. The characterof any relation,that is, is producedthrough forces.There are no intrinsic properties that dctcrmine how forccs will relate:a masterbecomes master a throughthe act <lfovcr.powcring, thc-cncountcr In bctwccnforccs, each

such as the differencebetween consciousness its world.theseforceschangetheir character and their meaningaccording to the extentto which they developtheir affinity for the will to nothingness. is. Consequently of the greatproblems one posed interpretationis to deterto mine the degree development of reactive forceshavereached relationto in negationand the will to nothingness. in Theseterms arethen related to eachother. nor can a collection of reactiveforces amalgamate themselves into gainspower.producesan activepower (that commandsthe relation) and a reactiyepower (definedby the relation).The differencebetweenforcesdefined accordingto their quantity as active or An reactiveis describedin terms of a hierarchy. depending upon their relativedifference quanin as tity. and such as somethingactualbearingthe capacityfor possible changes. What needsro be understood that is there is a variation or internal difference in the disposition of reactive forces. Consciousness activeforces. Its characteristics domiand commanding. Forces are dominant. il whilc rcnctivclirrccsrtrc wcnkcrthnn rctivc firrccs.termswhich areextended time. First. morality and religion. Consciousness represents and recognises the active force of difference. subjugating of unconscious. / REACTI V E AC TU AL ITY force receivesthe quality that correspondsto its quantity. The expression activnating. l)clcuzcscts diffcrentcouplc: r actuality/potenriality. a certainextent this is true. consciousness all ity is the expression what is necessarily of doesis express relation ofcertain reactiveforcesto the activeforcesthat the dominatethem. of Possibilityis somethingthat can be predicated or attributedto.thcy rlso posscss potentiallysublimeelementin as much as they are ableto advance new a interpretation of life (the world of moral ideas. remains what it is.It is at precisely historicalmomentwhen the slave the begins to triumph over the master who has stoppedbeing the spectreof law. similarlywe needalways attendro to the nuanceor relativedispositionof activeforce in terms of its development of the relationbetween actionand affirmation.versionof the Will to Power.but they alsoteachus new feelus ings and new waysof being affected. and is unlike abandoningconsciousness. and this privilegecan be seenin To the way philosophyhastraditionallydealtwith difference.or who bonds greater who something thanactiveforce. but they manifest themselves active or reactiveaccordingto their in the difference quality.imposerestrictions negative.and possiblyalsoextended space. will to asceticism of rlr wrlrld-rcnunciittion lftcr rrll. An active force becomesreactive when a reactive force managesto it of separate from what it can do. which rcmains the same. The historicaldevelopment reactive predicated forcesis itself upon the affinity between reactionand negation.rsc it trrkcs timc.Once the relationhasbeenestablished quality of forces. Suchseparation constitutesa subtractionor division of activeforce by making it work against the power of its own affirmation.thereis something If rctualit is not bccirr. and to recast in the spirit of the activeforce. Difference is betweenactual terms.Now againstthis understandingof actuality. The remarkablefeature of the it to becoming-reactive activeforceis that historically hasmanaged form of principle of the the basisof an entire vision of life. reactive idea forces separate from our power to createvalues. This understanding actualityis thereforeried to the conceptof possibility. meanwhilereactiveforce seeksto limit it upon it.or dominated.dominant or dominated.havingconto in tinuity . so differenceis something possible an alreadyactualised for entity.nor bccausc up timc is that whichlinks . Connectives Bergson Genealogy Nietzsche Will to Power ACTUALITY Claire Colebrook It might seemthat Deleuze's philosophyis dominatedby an affirmarionof the virtual and is highly critical of a wesrerntradition that hasprivileged arctuality.ACTI VE. nesslike ressentiment. By inventinga transcendent of life in orderto judgelife. a being of. forcecannottransformitself into a fully active Crucially reactive force. 'fhus.possessing. an affinity which is itself a weakform of the Will to Powerin so far asit is of Thc an cxprcssion nihilismor thc will to nothingncss.althoughnihilistic. rhereare deemed be actualterms. bad consciousness the asceticideal depends and upon a mystification and reversalof activeforce: at the core of thesenew interpretations of life reactive force simulatesactive force and turns it against itself. therebyseparating activity from what it cando. for example) and they supplyus with an original. Active force affirmsits difference from everythingthat is weakerthan and inferior to itself. still itn cxprcssion rpil/. virtue. This vision embodies a 'ressentiment': movementin which a reactiveand resentfuldenial of higher life begins to createits own moral systemand account of human The reactivetriumph expressed movementsof consciousin experience.A slave will remain a slaveand can only be freed from slaveryby with other slaves. or is a differencegroundedupon actuality. activeforce is the stronger are term and goesto the limit of what it can do.

Connective Virtual/Virtuality AFFECT Felicity J. what is. :rstronomy.l0 ACTUALI TY AFFEC T il from of or containsthe changes actualbeings. may or may not happen. powcrto cxprcss orrly is p<lssiblc bccirusc tltc rcvolttlion. affect is part of the Deleuzianproject of trying-to-understand.or ghost.For instance.meteorology. biology.rather. but all the while trans-historical.we needto think of the potentialor Ideaof revolutionassuch:how fully different.ffects becomings'(D&G 1987:256). by we might understand readingmore textsfrom the seventeenth Rather. forces. from the point of view of the is merely the possible: empiriactualworld.teaus: iA.but asthat which hasbeeneffectedfrom potentiality. and all wondrous. Colman Watchme: affectionis the intensityof colour in a sunseton a dry and cold autumnevening. should crrn bcconrc nrirtcriirl rr thing. Reactionis a vital part of the Deleuzian concept of affectivechange. subiectivityor of mind emerge. of is that of the Idea.rather. We can only fully underthe standand appreciate actualif we intuit its virtual condition. affectis an independentthing. without invoking or imagining some condition outside experience. empiricismaffirmslife and experiHowever. should generally actuallythought. a if For example.such as assuming by the must be a subjectwho thinks. ity. Afl'cct not only itttcxpcricntial is lirrcc. therefore. Any scrvituclc. lctu:rltcxt or cvcnt tirlm imposccl rclclscthcmsclvcs rrright il hrrs rcrrlity l virtuitldintcttsion. In all thesesituations. we want to understand text historicallywe needto go but beyondits actualelements not iust what it says alsobeyondits manFor ifestcontext.That is. or come into contact. In its of largestsense. tragic. forms. of Affectcanproducea sensory abstract or resultand is physically and temporally produced.On the contrary.nglislr tlill'crcrrt itscll'irrirlwirys rcvolution. There is.ntincral. Affect is the change. to empiricistDeleuzeseems be committedto the primacy As an avowed to of the actual:one should remain attentiveto what appears.time is the potential for variouslines of actualpresentand future. when one produccsor rccognises consequences movementand time for (corthe of porcirl.andcomprehend. should not readJohn Milton's Paradise torical documentrespondingto the English revolution.spiritual.desirable)to intuit the richer potentiality from which it has emerged. somerimes described terms of the expression an emotionor physiological in of effect. real conditionsarenot thosewhich must be that for any thought there presupposed the actual.of how individuals of how powermightrealisc how we might bc free. affect is the knowable product of an cncounter. specificin its ethicaland lived dimensions and yet it is alsoas indefiniteas the experience a sunset. express of the Idea of thinking.actualityis unfold'ed' seethe actual not as that from which changeand potentiality. Deleuzeinsists. trans-temporal. which is alsoa real condition.transformation. Lost (1667)as a hiswe instance. Run irwayfrom me: affected the bodiesof spectres are when their space disis turbed. event or thing. for Deleuze. ecologyand culture. the in which is then actualised any singlethought. itscl[. So we define what somethingis accordingto alreadyactualised what it is to think on the basisof what is establish not. Deleuzeusesthe term'affection'to refer to the additiveprocess€s. while it is true that Deleuze's he he refuses restrict life to the actual.It is determinedby chance and organisation and it consistsof a variety of factorsthat include geography.visualand tactiletransformation producedin reactionto a certain situation.Deleuze's itself. painful and destructive configurations things and bodiesastemporally of mediated.for Deleuze. potentials life from which conditionssuchas the brain. potential and virtual that defines the history of western metaphysics We accordingto alreadypresentactualities. or a group of things over a period of spaceand time.irncl .vcgctlblcand or c<lnceptual) bodies.:rnimirl. l"r'cnch thc rrctuirlitics: l'. trans-spatial and autonomous.the Russian revolution. We should differencetake place.or variation. From any actual or unfolded term it should be possible (and. those things that.In this respect overturnsa to ence.Affect expresses are the modificationof experiences independent as things of existence. for example.Nor shouldwe think that the virtual or the virtual problemfrom which anytext is actualised. Deleuze and Guattari write in A Thousand Plu.that occurs when bodiescollide.realconditionsare.powersand expressions change. Kiss me: affectis that audible. continuouseyents. As a body.a revolutionthat century.describingBaruch Spinoza's study of the transformationof a body.are specificand differentonly because rrctuality the expression an Ideaof revolutionwhich can repeatitself is of infinitely. as in phenomenconstitutestime by linking the past with the ology where consciousness Rather.a thing. or Time is not the synthesis continuity of actualterms.of the problemof Milton's text is a specificactualisation.and it is the essence the Idea to actualise cism potentialor power to think.

Bergson's thinker in the Deleuzian the corporeal condition of what he terms Matter and.Empiricism and. and theseaffective work with Guattari. accordingto an organisingprinciple implied or deterrnincd by the superiorconcept. Through art. inform and fabricate desire.patterns.creative interestingthan the transcendent. of concepts 'multiplicity'. affect operates as and meaningand relato a dynamicof desirewithin an assemblage manipulate tions. affectdescribes occasions world.theoretical criticism and even everyis day living. ontological.In his Deleuze'sconceptionof affectdevelops the discusses and. affective in by are thingsasevents described Deleuze terms of wherethings and bodiesare altered.or transcendentto particular. once so arranged. graphicoriginsand become independent In accounting for experiencein a non-interpretive manner. Deleuze'swritings of affect enablea material. biologicaland organicimages. forces'ethical. he and activities.t2 AFFECT A R B OR E S C E N T S C H E MA 13 history. power. Deleuzedescribes the Superiority as verbs becoming events. limbrrrcc tnd crcntivity.Rclations bctwccnclcmcntsof the . critique of capital nevertheless its operations.yielding different affectsin any given situation or event. suchthat the individual or particularelementis conceived lessimportas powerful. philosto his scattered across corpus.In his essay affect of Anglo-AmericanLiterature'. are unable to 'move' lrorizontallyin such a way as to establish creativeand productiveinterlclationshipswith other concepts. their position is final. l)clcuzc portrtys it. or describeaffectsasmore than sensate that affectscanbe detachedfrom their temporal and geowe can recognise entities. Typically.asDeleuzedescribes. hierarchical. nffcctivc rrtc. cnrrhlc Connectives Active/Reactive Arborescentschema Becoming Experience Hume Lines of flight Multiplicity Rhizome ARBORESCENT SCHEMA CIiffStagoll The arboreal schemais one of Deleuze's many potent and prominent is His criticism.and his useof the schema. cancompelsystems knowledge. memoryand circuitsof through his entire oeuvre. Deleuze's that tendsto structure the of conception affectexposed limits of semiotics Undeniably responses aestheticand physicalexperiences. other concepts particularsare organised All or verticallyunder The ordering is strictly this conceptin a tree/trtnk/root arrangement. driven and given by affect.a key book of development a theoryof affect. Deleuze's singular In tacit or as arc firrccs clcpicted reactive activc(followingFriedrichNietzsche).and repetitions between linkages all of systems. as by and well as the 'Absolute Spirit' of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel as cxamples.actions.naming affectsas perceivableforces. 'affection'inrelationto perception 1988a: Deleuzealsoengages and of and the latter'saddress affections affectin termsof work of Spinoza 'On a modality of 'taking on' somethingin the Ethics(1677). the modelsof the subjectespoused Ren6Descartes ImmanuelKant. to emotional of a romantic conceptwithin his discussion the regulation and production of desire and energy within a socialfield. concept 'affect'shouldalsobe considered as offlight'. and generateintensity . production the contemporary in behindall formsof social the forces and physiological cognitive.Memory addresses (D the l7). or The subordinate elements.productive. The notion of an arborescent tree-likeschema Deleuze's or tencounterpointto his model of the rhizome. at its top. habitsofthought. In Deleuze's works on epistemologyand ontology. study of David Hume in Ernpiricism SubjectiaityDeleuze ideas. molecular varioustimestargetingapproaches ophy psychiatry literature. thc trcc is a self-contained totality or closedsystemthat is cqual just to tlrc sum of its parts.'expeand Guattari's linkedto Deleuze Closely in of the rience'and 'rhizomatics'.SubjectioityalsosignalsDeleuze'sinterest in Henri Bergson. he identifies Plato's Forms. Within a Deleuzian framework.affective andcollaborative powers.particularsor models. rrnt. ethics. lfurthermorc. powcr cirnbe utilisedto As or pcrfrlrmccl.Perceptionis a non-passive continual moulding. the while describingthe relationshipbetweenaffect and differencein terms of temporally specificsubjectivesituations.To this end. cotttrol rrbility. from superior to subordinate. Rather. science. of it assuch. to Deleuze'smodel of the tree-likestructure appears be quite simple.'rruthrlrity. Situated part of'arborescence'and'lines relationto theconcepts of thresholds bodiesand the of of the Deleuzian'and' becoming. is some immutable concept given prominence either by transcendental theorising or unthinking presumption. In relation to art in What is Philosophy? and Guattari experience cognition.which he usesto challenge denciesin thinking and to suggestwaysof rehabilitating 'thought' asa creativeand dynamicenterprise.and thereforepolitical.

producingdifferentaffects. LawrenceGowing. 'Ihom:rs (iogh.a deviceusedby the philosopher Porphyry to show how reality and our conceptsare ordered proceeds. and perceptualterms of art through distinctive polemthe visual. rather art has a material capacityto evokeand to question by throughnon-mimeticmeans. criticsandmusical criticsthroughouthis philoliterarycritics. the inherent differencesof which By ought always to be acknowledged. GregoryBateson.usingexamples pologyto makecultural and philosophical Deleuzeaddresses distinctions.Japanese.writcrs irnd composers Singulrrr . and Umberto Eco. Clement Andr6 Duthuit. as that lived experiencecomprisesparticularity and uniquenessin each moment. The conceptof'Substance'can and how logicalcategorisation branchingat eachlevel be placedat the top of the tree. but trrking Nietzsche's observation that the world is emotiveandsensory.thought.ChistianMetz.leaves conceptsrelatively immune to criticism and tends to closeone's mind to particularityand change that is evidentin lived experience. Deleuze's modelcallsto mind the porphyriantree.Besides publishing bookson singular writers and artists. and G6rardFromanger). cinema.Deleuze employs'art' asa categoryof 'Critique'. it to Not only is suchthinking necessarily abstract.Georges Greenberg.t4 ARBO RESCENT SCHEMA ART l5 systemare interior to and inherent within the model.touched. Hardy.aesthetic such as biologicalevolution. Any remaining movementis minimal and the internal to the systemrather than exploratory or connective.some obtained addinga specific individual canbe identifiedasa sub-setof 'Substance'. an abstractconceptis usedto organiseindividuals and determine their meaning relative just to the hierarchy. Differencehasto be addedbackto eachelement organisational in order to define it asa particular. l)eleuze treatsplastic art movements and Primitive. the superior concept is the all-powerful the of definingforcethat dictates positionor meaning all elsein the system and.Because creativepotential of disorder and inter-connectivityis precluded.Klcc. Art excitedDeleuzefor its ability to createthe domainsthat he saw.The tree to is 'fixed to the spot' and static. literaryprellazin. experienceand individual. including music and sounds (birdsong). rrstrans-historical conceptsthat contributeto the field of art through their and propositionsand development forms. This versionof the arborealmodel alsohighlights somethingof its complexity and ontologicalimportancefor Deleuze.the descriptivenature of art lies with art's ability not merely to rcdescribe. formationsand concepts. imaginedand desired.the plastic arts (sculpture. Conncctives Rhizomc Sullsllncc ART Felicity J. His clccessors figure prominently (seework in Essays philosophical fathers from his adopted towardart comes cognitive approach In including Immanuel Kant. tasted. t hc Baroque. Maric Vinccnt Virn Prtul . They are stableor even essentialin so far as. Nietzsche Philosophy.painting and drawing). positing the concept over the particular. makingexperimental a encompassed range preferredart works for his discussions Deleuze's of mediums. Alois Riegl.thinking in such a way stiflescreativity. and. literature and lrchitecture.architectural sophicalpractice: Wilhelm Worringer. film critics.including making specific of concerning asa category criticalanalysis. rrll'ccts.rather than having individual elements Deleuze holds In serve the startingpoint for conceptualisation. superior For Deleuze.the tendency is to think of the systemeither as complete in in itself or elseunconnected othersystems anymeaningfulway. ilrtists. the dynamism. thinking of the arborealkind abstracts from lived experience in its very structure.Classicism. contrast. first. photography. at the lowestlevel.heard. For l)cleuze. Art Brut.As a writer. second. Deleuze's philosophical interests also led him to discussa from anthronumberof performative and theatrical works. of Deleuzeleansupon a critical assortment art history critics. lhul (l6zrrnrrc. aesthetics associated of virri<lus includingWilliam Blake. the potentialinherentin conceptualising thinking in this manneris very and limited.Deleuze's Critical and'Clinical).felt. alsoserves protectthe status quo and relieve dominant conceptsand positions from productive critique.The differenceevident betweenparticularsis subsumedby the similarity that definesthem in terms of superior concepts in general and the transcendent concept (Substance) particular. geological and mathematics. on rrny analysisof this world is bound by epistemologicalstructures. including Byzantine. art manifesto stylestatements Deleuze'sspecificactivitiesin respectto art extendedto writing short for cxhibition catalogueessays artists (for exampleon the French painter music(with RichardPinhas). Paul Claudel. Colman Deleuze'sdescriptionsof art remind us that it is one of the primary mediums with which humans learn to communicateand respond to the world. ical methodologies drawn from the sciences. Baruch Spinozaand Friedrich Nietzsche.and dichotomous by difference suchthat. Romanticism.the Gothic.Rather than deriving conceptsfrom individual in particulars(or interactions between them).

klwing Karl Marx.emotion. well asto the as combiningdecoded problematic method in the sciences.which is capable royal science. rather than as qualitatively differentiated by some intrinsic or Axiomsarein turn accompanied theorems. Samuel Beckett. diagrams and variations. thisrespect. to a discussionof the differencesfrom and similaritiesto the work of French painter Clzanneof Bacon'sown work. In whilstit implies capacity operate to and ubiquity is far greaterthan a form of capture. by making them visible. Antonin Artaud. affectof methods. Deleuze Guattarisignificantly and comment that theinspiration art for is givenby sensations. AXIOMATIC Alberto Toscano Plateaus'axiomatic' is Proposed Deleuzeand Guattari in A Thousand.Deleuzeunderstandsart asbeing much more than a medium of expression. Art is an integral componentof their three level operationsof the qualityof things(thebrain-becoming-subject). What is Philosophy? a 'art' is accorded privilegedpositionin their triad of philosophy.within science itself the axiomaticis deemed collaborate thc Statc in thc fixation of unruly flows. modelsof realby Proust. The methodology art forms the core of Deleuze'sstudy of Marcel of perdu (1913-27).and Alain Robbe-Grillet are critically absorbedby Deleuze in terms of their respective enquiriesinto the creationof art forms that translate. In Deleuze'sfinal work co-authoredwith Guattari.In his discussions concerning Deleuzeis thus a contributorto art. William S.this book. Connectives Affcct llacon l')xpcricncc Knlkrr ARTAUD. That is why Deleuze and Guattari defend the thesis of a formations: latter the difference kind between in capitalist and pre-capitalist without coding. write with sensations'(D&G 1994:166). In this book.its degreeof immanence of or thatof codingsystems.compose. art'.'Lacan'and'lines flight f art * politics'. ities of their domain of application and treat their obiectsas purely functional. a book that examProust's work A lo recherche temps du inesaspects temporality desireand memory.refer to the entries on 'art'. rgcncythat subordinatcs the lisscntinlly is rrstrrrtifying scmioticising it or .asinstantiated contemporary by capitalism juxtaposed schizoidpractice. of the bolderclaims One mlde by Deleuzeand Guattari is that we shouldnot think of the axiomatic to irsir notion analogically exportedfrom science illustratepolitics.sculpt. folof capital. in his bookco-authored of As with Guattari on KaJba. mortality. Deleuze mentions in passingan enormous range of artists of variousmediumsto makea point or an observation from Igor Stravinsky to Patti Smith.'art' as cerebral In a categoryhasdeveloped into the means which Deleuzeand Guattari can by operateaffect.'hysteria'. from Diego Vel6squezto Carl Andre.Deleuzeprivileges paintingasan art form that affordsa concreteapprehension ofthe forcesthat rendera body. isation. The active. FranzKafka.Leopoldvon Sacher-Masoch. the twentieth-century modernistcanon. temporality. compounding creativity of artists' work are described as aggregates sensation live beyondtheir cre'percepts'. illustrate and perform the forces of the world (such as desire).On the to with contrary. mathematicalset theory in particular. but rather orders a givendomainwith the adjunctionor subtractionof particularnorms or (axioms). ANTONIN (1895-1948).independent of that ators. The means and methods which art is ableto transformmaterialinto sensory by experience is of course part of the modernist contribution to art in the twentieth century. Within universal while the former operates code flows. 'Bergson'. Lewis Carroll. which is concernedwith eventsand singularpoints rather than systemic consistency. perception and becoming. memories objects: and and 'We paint. of whichrequireaninstance externality tranall scendence. of history the immanentaxiomaticof capitalismis activatedwith the passing at l threshold decoding and deterritorialisation. by capitalismwithin universal usedto definethe operationof contemporary and Originatingin the discourse science of history and general semiology. the momentwhen.'Body without Organs'.which apply them to certainempiricalor materialsituations. 'becoming* performance * of 'feminism'r'Foucault fold'. the materials. by of An axiomaticsystemdiffers from systems codingand overcoding its directlyon decoded flows. and art science.'ethics'. Burroughs.l6 ART AXIOM ATIC T7 Henri-Beyle Stendhal. 'axiomatic' denotesa method that neednot providedefinitionsof the terms it workswith. we areconfrontedby barelabourand independent and The axiomaticmethod. be to of can flowswithout the insertionof axioms. Deleuze'sbook FrancisBacon: TheLogicoJ'Sensation works through the complicated connections Deleuzeand Guattari'sBody without Organs of (BwO) and English painter FrancisBacon'streatmenrof the power and rhythms of the human body. and whose Axioms thus operate elements relations on commands They areindifferentto the properties qualor natureneednot be specified.

FRANCTS (t909-92) John Marks Deleuze's in Francis aim is not a representationalform. Baconhimself saysthat he is ccrebrallypessimistic in that he paintsthe horrors of the world . is to producephilosophical conceptsthat correspondto the aggregates' that the artist hasproduced.It is directedtowardsthe sensible rather than the intelligible. FRANcr s ( t gog.sometimes passing through objectssuch as washbasins umbrellas:the body seeks escape or to from itself. In as much as its mode of operationcan entirely bypass subjective suchan axiomatic movesus from belief or the codingof humanbehaviour. Bacon pursuesa middle path between abstractand the figural.that are otherwise incommensuand connections between rableand unrelated.t8 AXIOM AT IC BAcoN.and it is interrupted by entities(for examplenon-denumerable infinite sets)whosepower is greaterthan that of the system. 'Sensation'.but ar thc sametime nervouslyoptimistic. Moreover.rnd hc rcpro:rchcs himsclf whcn hc feelsthat he haspaintedtoo 'l'hc filrccs tttttclr horrot'.in the guise of nation-states. but rather an attempt to paint forces.Baconis optimistic to the extentthat he'believes' the world. a societyof disciplineto a societyof control. and a panoplyof territorialisations the levelof its modesof realisation. since it also generates'undecidable propositions' that demand either new axioms or the overhaul of the system. of Deleuzeand Guattariinsistthe capitalist axiomatic establishes relations decoded flows.authoritarian. Generallyin his work. too. though their dependence the axiomsmakesmodelsof realisationisomorphic (for on exampleall statesin one way or anothersatisfythe axiom of production for the market). For Deleuze. as if it has been replacedentirely by forces.It is also. refers to a pre-individual. since the opportunisticcharacterof the adjunction and subtractionof axioms opensup the question of the saturationof the systemand of the independenceof the axioms from one another. in but it is a very particularsort of optimism.the unity of an axiomatic system and of capitalismin particular.The axiomaticsystemis therefore or not a closed dialectical totality.Nevertheless. at Conncctives ( lrrpitrrlisrl Mirrx . The 'Figure' retains elements that arerecognisably human. between purely optical spaces the the of abstract and the purely 'manual'spaces abstract art of expressionism. As Deleuze and Guattari indicate.imperialist. and evenoverto note.The 'logic of sensation' 'sensible that Deleuzeconstructsshowshow FrancisBaconuses'Figures' to paint sensations aim to act directlyon the nervoussystem. Bacon'swork may be imbued with irll sorts of violence. impersonal plane of intensities.thc violcnce the sensation of ratherthantheviolence thespecof litclc. Deleuzeclaims. For this reason.the vocation of all non-representational is to make visible forcesthat would art otherwise remaininvisible. Bacon'spaintingscan be considered an artistic expression as of l)eleuzeand Guattari'sconceptof the Body without itself very difficult to pin is not simplythe case that flowscontinueto evade powerthe axiomatic.wherepoweractsdirectly on Deleuzeand Guattariarecareful a decoded dividualmatter.and which thus open breachesto an outside. that here.the oppositeof the facileor the clich6sof all his other with work on art. sovereignty and legitimation). There are cven somepaintingsin which the 'Figure' is little more than a shadow within a 'scrambledwhole'. such as the subjectwho must producefor the market.Sr'lt rtrrlv izort sis BACON. It is the capacityto conjugate and control flows without the introduction of a transcendent agency (a totaliser) that makes the capitalist axiomatic the most formidable apparatus domination.and subordinates theseflowsto a general isomorphy. In developingthe use of the 'Figure'.but he manages paint the 'scream'and not the to 'lrrlrror'. that is all the morecruel because its of one of (its impersonality beyondforms of citizenship.In this sense pointsto a resurDeleuze and Guattaridiscernthat the capitalist axiomatic gence machinicenslavement. that the globaland non-qualified but subjectivityof and capitalneverattainsabsolute deterritorialisation. 'failed' states). and that his paintingevinces extraordinan rrryvitality. tlut cirusc scrcirnr tlrc shouldnot bc confirscd with .gz) t9 transversal communications conjunctions flowsto a system fixed and of of pointsand constantrelations. social-democratic.It is for this reason that Bacon'sfiguresappear to be deformedor contorted. It is at one and the sametime the human subjectand alsothe impersonal event.he is at pains to point out that llacon hasa greatlove of life. is alwaysaccompanied by forms of socialsubjection. ln short. Deleuzeseeks contradictthe received to wisdom that artistssuchasBaconor FranzKafka arein somewayexpressing deep a tcrror of life in their art.thesemodelscan demonstrate considerable amountsof heterogeneity and variation (suchassocialist.

but rather azoneof not formal correspondences indiscernibility.Ratherthan a product.this approachis an abstractexercise that detractsfrom the liclrncssof our cxperiences. combatwith it. he provides challcnging writings designedto upset our thinking.but the to flesh in Bacon's paintings ceases be supported by the bones. and entering into of on it.or meat. ible forces. Philosophically.The separationbetweenthe spectator and the spectacleis broken down in favour of the 'deep identity' of becoming. our everyin day thinking. in making the decisionto paint represented.and the animal that suffersis a man.since these invisible forcesare even more overwhelming than the worst spectaclethat can be However. then becoming (by which l)eleuze means 'becoming different') defines a world of presentation rlnew. a range of terms or statesthrough or which something might passon its journey to anotherstate. Similarly. Taking his lead from Friedrich Nietzsche's early notes.conto which the drowsyfleshseems descend. but rather. 'becoming' is the key theme of Deleuze's corpus. a religiousdimensionthat relates but gious'aspect Bacon's in that we areall brutal realityof the butcher'sshop. So. Connectives Art Becoming Intcnsity Scnsitlion BECKETI tspace'. On Deleuze's irccount. ratherthan representing The 'spectacle' violence. the visiblespectacle because they lie beyondpain and which cannotbe represented. l'irr l)cleuze.Baconseeks dismantlethe strucof tured spatialorganisation the facein order to make the head emerge. llecoming is most often conceivedby comparing a start-point and an crrd-pointand deducingthe setof differences between them. between This is not to saythat becomingreprescntsa phasebetweentwo states.20 BA C o N . the scream. this approach meansfirst subtracting movementfrom the field of rrctionor thinking in which the statesare conceived.For Deleuze. bccomingis neither merely an rttlrillutc nor tn intcrmcditrybctwccn ofl cvcnts.At both levels.a moment of true becoming. final or interim.becoming is critical. The bonesare the spatialorganisationof the body. 'minoritarian * cinema' and SAMUEL (190G89) refer to the entries on 'art'.Bacondoes then. by confronting terror. cerebrally. the other beforethis horror. ir charirctcristic thc but of .Baconconstructs betweenman and animal.thesetwo concepts its cornerstones.siturtlcd betweenheterogeneous terms and tending towardsno particular goal rlr cnd-state.Deleuze works at two levels to rectify such habitual thinking.In short.Deleuzeargues. For the world of practice. deringus passive It is for these reasonsthat Deleuze talks at some length about the importanceof 'meat' in Bacon'spaintings.This focusis replicated. becomingis the very dynamism of change.The understanding the meat is not a moment of recognition or of revelation. F R AN c Is (tgog-gz) BEC OM IN G 2l inviscaptures The scream beforewhich one screams. feeling. constitutes not askus to pity the fate of animals(althoughthis could well be one effect that every human being who of his paintings). whetherphysical otherwise.In this way. together with a range of 'tools' for conceivingthe world anew.In so far as Deleuzechampionsa particular ontology. Baconsometimesmakesa shadowemergefrom the body asif it werean animal that the body wassheltering. For him. the man that suffersis an animal. such that the extent of the variety and changeof the experienced world has been diluted by a limited conception of difference: difference-from-the-same.Deleuzeuses thc term 'becoming' (deoenir) describethe continual production (or to 'rcturn') of difference immanent within the constitution of events. This flesh. Deleuzetalks of this in terms of a 'relito paintings.allowstheseforcesto remaininvisible. and then somehow rcintroducingit as the meansby which anotherstaticstatehas 'become'. are servingasantidotesto what he considers to be the western tradition's predominant and unjustifiable focus upon beingand identity. - BECOMING CliffStagoll 'logether with 'difference'. makesthe He to activedecision amrm the possibilityof triumphing overtheseforces.this may lead to pessimism. fbr if the primacy of identity is what defines a world of re-presentation (presenting the same world once again). what Deleuzecallsthe 'animalspirit' of man. and divertsus.but rather to recognise suffersis a pieceof meat. allows life to screamat death.Deleuze for remarksupon Bacon'spreference prone'Figures'with raisedlimbs. rcpetition and becoming. establishing combat that wasnot previouslypossible.Baconis a great to painterof 'heads'rather than 'faces'. renhand.Bacon is like a wrestler confronting the 'powers of the invisHe a ible'. or Becomingis the pure movement evidentin changes particularevents.Deleuzeclaimsthat.he developstheories of difference.The head. for Deleuze. from stitutesthe zone of indiscernibilitybetweenman and animal.

This time which does real time in which changes itsown time.For Deleuze. a function that frees the term from a direct relation to properly musical content. However. when counterpoint describes the interweaving of different lines rs something other than what we can hear.Rather. socictics.productivereturn of difference. Counterpoint might most usually constitute a specifically 'musical' case in that when one speaksof musical counterpoint the ilssertions made regarding the term usually refer back to a given musical cxample: in short. rn cpiphcnomcnonarising from chanceconfluences lanof' stl litwsitncl tln. other words.but that every eventis but a unique instant of proThe only evident in the cosmos. music enters into a relation of proximity to nature where music hccomes nature. Deleuze theorisesthis productive cycle using Nietzsche'sconcept of of a 'eternalreturn'.Becoming-different 'temporal occur. terms which are often loaded.Insteadof beingabouttransitions that somethinginitiates or goes throggh. or the interweaving of several different melodic lines horizontally where the harmony is produced through linear combinations rather than using a vertical chordal structure or setting. for example through the musical operation known as 'counterpoint'.the term aims at neither an objective conccption nor a discursive one. then it opens up to a different function. of the cosmosis to move continually through states and if the nature might be then becoming towardsany particularoutcome. If the term 'nature' is somewhat problematic as a rule in cultural theory.for encing changes assemblage changing as l)eleuzc. From the perspective outlined here.To im-ply. Deleuze'stheory holds that of things and states are prod'ucts becoming. originality and essence.22 BECO M I NG BEC OM IN G + M U SIC 23 existsbetween It very productionof events. but remaining. undercuts Platonictheory considered itionally For Deleuze.end-point and mid-point of an ongoingcycleof production. without heading as conceived the eternal. Connectives l)uration Nietzsche B E CO MI NG + M U S I C Marcel Swibod. duction in a continualflow of changes thing 'shared'by eventsis their havingbecomedifferent in the courseof their production. Consider the work of the ethologistJakob von Uexkiill on the relationship between animal behaviour among certain speciesand the cnvironments inhabited by these speciesthat led him to propound a theory of this relationship based on a conception of counterpoint.there is no that privilegesbeing.It is not that becoming 'envelops'them (since their production is wholly immanent) but that becoming'movesthrough' everyevent.and the relationship between forces at work in defining the extent that discourse implies material processesthat cannot lrc rcduccd to intcrpretation or the status of fixed'sself mustbe conceived a constantly of lilrccs. Rather. and becomingand conit is the time of production. tradSuch a view of the world hasimportant implicationsfor concepts any It centralto philosophy. Deleuzebelieves a measureof the relativestability of the construct. such. or between and across different species of animals . counterpoint is something that we normally hear. To this extent.foundedin difference sequent to relations between internal'and external differences. to cn-{irld. example. cxpcctrttitlns.can be tunderstoodas constituting a counterpoint in a sensethat extends beyond rrstrictly metaphorical deployment of the the very ways in which it can be figured through the interrction of different lines of movement.a 'Becoming' and 'music' are two terms that can be brought together such that a becoming is capable of proceeding through music.principally.The human subiect. Hurl11c$.becoming and empty time. as world 'behind appearances'. that eachchangeor becominghasits own duration. is not that the time of change one eventand another. rlrgrtnisms. for rationalindividual' experias ought not to be conceived a stable.the As moment correlatingto the productivethresholdof forces. If eachmomentrepresents uniqueconfluence forces. nor as a kind of neither in terms of a 'deeper' or transcendental ls backdrop'againstwhich changeoccurs.the presentis merely the productivemoment of becoming.such that eachis simultaneously start-point. in this irrstirncc. whcrcby langurgc can in somc instrnccsbc dcploycd is . kind of conentailsa special The continualproductionof uniqueevents tinuity: they are unified in their very becoming. nature . the unfold is not a Kantian a priori form not changebut in which all changes Rather dependingupon attributesof a particularkind of consciousness. it is to the extent that it cannot be unquestioningly presupposed as having rrny objective existence beyond the terms which define it. Becoming must be conceived time. In the present case.the sameperson. it representsthe disiunction betweena past in which forces have had some of effect and a future in which new arrangements forceswill constitute per seis Deleuze'sversionof pure In new events. between animals and their environments. this description attempts to restore to 'nilture' a material dimension that extends beyond the confines of discoLfrse.

Implicationin is this sense illustratedby the useof the term 'counterpoint'. artwork rnd viewer that performanceart inauguratedcan at times be difficult but the Deleuzian concept of 'becoming' is especiallyuseful here in that it allowsus to considerart in terms of a transformative experience well as as conceptualise the processof subjectificationperformanceart sustains. Valie Export.(lhris llurdcn.Milan Knizak. and AndreaFraser. This capacity is what allowsus to usethe term to describe non-musical well asmusical as givesway wasthe personbeingfollowedwho lrrought the work to its final conclusion. Ricardo Dominguez.More importantly though. Lauric Anderson. include but are not restricted to: Coco Fuscq Guillermo G6mez-Pefra.24 BECO M I NG + PERFO R M A N C E ART BEC OM IN G + PER FOR M AN C E AR T 25 in waysthat foregroundits enfoldingof materialprocesses. AnirMcndictrr thc United States.( llrolcc Schnccnrirnn. viewer. artwork and milieu.'to follow anotherperson'. Instead. The territorial codingsbetween and acrosscertain bird speciesand their environments(transcodings)are carriedover into the music in the useof birdsong. their environThis expanded the term permitsthe conments) and oneanother. Franco B. between makesit amenable the task of conThis characteristic the term of to structing a different conception of so far as the event wasnever repeated the sameway twice and did not havea linear structurewith a clearbeginning.Counterpoint is such a term tash of thinhing and.middleandend.Lacy lnd in ancl | . betweenthe bodies of different animals.More recentlyperformance become siga Examples nificant.regardless the artist'sintention and despitethe 'goal' of ot'the work beingachieved.turebecomes music. Petr Stembera. TehchingHsieh.rian Parr The early era of performanceart from the mid-1960sand through the 1970s includcd such figures as Allan Kaprow. of 'Becoming'points to a non-linear dynamic process changeand when usedto assistus with problems of an aestheticnature we are encouraged not just to reconfigurethe apparentstability of the art object as 'object' definedin contradistinctionto a fully coherent'subject' or an extension of that 'subject' but rather the conceptof art's becomingis a fourfold bccoming-minor of the artist. if not primary.In fact.the Situationists.As such it doesnot describe a fixed object and the term's linguistic or semanticsenseis insufficient to accountfor whatactuallyhappens when counterpoint takesplaceasit draws its contingentconnections differentmelodiclines.Jan Mlcoch. Gabor Attalai. Hermann Nitsch and the Vienna Actionismusin West Europe. by and Conceptual Art. Plateaus process. where na. suchasthosetakingplace to an expanded conception oflinear interactions. Santiago Sierra. Bruce Nirunrirn.a term which haslargely beenretainedby Deleuzeand Guattari in A Thousand.and Gilbert and Georgein England. or enfold process.. Stelarc has and Mike Parr in Australia.escribing to the it because is capableof putting music and nature into proximity and describingthe material implications that orient thought towardsprocess.The ideawasthat the performance would independently arriveat a krgicalendpoint. vieweq art institution and art market occupy. Adrian Pipcr. BECOMING + PERFORMANCE ART Ad.wherethe ideaof the melodic line. Stuart Brisley. term is mostoftenusedin a musicalcontextto figure the of the (harmonic)interactions example of this proximity is embodiedin the work of the French composerOlivier Messiaenwho famouslytranscribed songs differentbird species the of beforeincorporating them into his musicalcompositions. strictly speaking.such as when she enteredher irl)ilrtmentor got into her car and droveoff. ingredient of many artistic practices.but tlrc cvcntualform the work took wasstructuredby the movements the of bcing firllowcd. was it because is highly amenable a thinking orientedtowards to As mentioned earlier.I lannrrlt Wilkc. in that it is detachable from its strictly musicalcontext in such a way that it still retains its capacityboth to describe and at thesame timeto imply. VanessaBeecroft. It is in this promptsus to consider productionandapprercgardthat performance the ciation of art away from the classicalsubject/object distinction that prcvailed and largeup until the 1960s.such that therecan no distinctiondrawn betweenthe produclongerbe a binary or hierarchical tculturetand thoseof 'naturet. Dada. thc artistwaslcd lround thc city at to as . Trying to articulatethe changedrelationshipbetweenartist.and Jill Orr. Matthew Barney. In this instance work was the grrovisionally structuredby a proposition.all performance interart rogatesthe clarity of subjectivity.animal species. performance art in its early days tended to define itself as the antithesisof theatre. by A good example of this would have to be Acconci's Following Piece (1969)that beganwith a propositionrandomly to follow peoplein New Yrrrk.ture naturebecomes and musicand their resulting indiscernibility is the product of a philosophicallabour: to select termsbest suited prlcess. artwork.d. JosephBeuys. Fluxus Stronglyinfluenced Antonin Artaud.disarrangingthe clear and distinct positions that the artist.Marina and Ulay. tions of Music becomes na. hcre the art can be considered a process as l)crson scnsitivc its own trrnsfilrmation. TamasSzentjobyin EastEurope. Vito Acconci. sense of struction of a renewedconceptionof nature that puts it in proximity to music.

later in CreatioeEoolutionBergson incorporatesthe cinematic model into his philosophical expression.affectsand percepts. to rather it is a particular kind of socialorganisation.a conceptof duration that is not spatiallypredetermined but continually alters its past through cognitive movement. H E N R I ( r 859- rg4r) BERG SoN. In BergsonDeleuzefinds an intellectualpartner for someof his core philosophicalpursuits: conceptsand ideasof temporality. given.Bergson only questions not the logisticsof existence terms of movement. HENRI ( 1859-1941 ) Felicity J. It helps us describe the processof change indicative of performanceart.appealingto Deleuze's own propositions the early decades that century. BERGSON. andperception. not of br.what we find is that this kind of artisticpractice proconcomitantly videsa radicalchallenge against wholeconceptof labourin a capitalist the context. performanceart involvesa multiplicity of durations. but in so far asit aspiresto bring a variety of elementsand forces into relation with one another.the art wasboth socially producedand conceived In the examples in terms of 'social formation'. Guattari and Lucretius.forces. Bergson a duration . the questfor 'knowledge' and and philosophical interestin Bergson manifoldand central is 'truth'.but his writing indicateshis in genuinefascinationwith the subjectsand objectsof life .Art of this kind may be bestarticulatedas 'art without guarantees'. Antonin Artaud. Deleuzeengages Bergson'sempiricism as a challengeto the rigidity of philosophy.David Hume. all of which are indebtedto Bergson's of disparadoxicalmodalitiesof time in his book. an event that in its singularity concomitantlyexpresses a multiplicity of relations. where Deleuze developsideas of differenceand repetition. There is a propositionto do 'X' then the activthe whim of someone ity of doing 'X' activatesnew previously unforeseen organisationsto take place. at on Cinema : The I ()inL'ma :'l'hc'l'irnc-I inuga. Bergson's of'his Io lhc crrnon of'kcy thinkcrs and work continnlcnlory rucs irnprirct l0 irllon disciplincs conccrncd with timc. in 1966. and the physicalmovements time.Valueis not decidedaccording profit marginsand the market.Ultimately.through an extendedconsideration what he of sawasBergson's three key concepts: intuition asmethod. HnNnr ( r 859.the morphologicalmovementof genetics.the art wasin how the two slowly developed sense trust in the other to the point wherethey a of The meaningthat emerged of the eventually sleptcurled up together. Matter and cussionof the proposes movingmodelof MemorylMatiire etMimoirel (1896). out piecewas not universal.what this demonstrates that performance is art turns its backon the opticalemphasis oncegoverned Instead.the demandfor an inventionand utilisationof a metaphysical orientationof science.with performance artisticvalueis producedsocially.when Beuysarrivedat the Ren6Block Galleryin New York (May 1974) wherehe lived with a wild coyotefor sevendaysin the gallery.rtthrough specificmoments of sound and optical registration. the political implicationsof multiplicity and difference. Empiricismand Subjectiaity.the intensive and extensive forms of time. Hulme. not in the simplistic sense that it'happened' at a particularmomentin time. and the temporal causality eventsashabitualand associated of series. Bergson's conceptsare influentialfor Deleuze'swork in Dffirence and Repetition.the affective nature of movementand duration. eachof which is implied in the art work asa whole. Deleuzesignals his interest in Bergsonin his essay Hume. movcmcnt. From this model(andthe Kantiannotionof time. is not an abstractvalue that is imposedoutside the creative Hence.Although neglected philosophical in canonsof the secondhalf of the twentieth century. Hence.Friedrich Nietzsche. a and logicalmethodand theoryof multiplicities.nor was it absolutely relative.Then. which he called Then. rrndHegelianconception thought and movement) Deleuzedevelops of his cxplicationof how the perceptualrecognitionof moving imagesof the cincmaticscreen operates through the apprehension that movement. one that convergeddifferences their in mutual becoming. Deleuze's to his entire oeuvre. of Bergson'swork was well known and widely discussed many artistic and in literaryarenas. art it processitself. such practicesaim at producing an encounteror event. of Baruch Spinoza. especially its useof transcendental in elements. is because this it entirelyin durationand amidstthe playof divergent forces exists that typifiesDeleuze's understanding 'becoming'.r g4r ) 27 else. of What is more. For an a-signifying process this wasan art practiceoccurringat the limits of signification. consequently conceptual the apparatus 'becoming'offersus is descriptive.the art is in the 'becomingof art' that is in itself social.phenomenological assumptions. from the FrenchCubiststo the Englishwriter T E. Deleuze in for 'a return to Bergson'. that art. Colman Frenchphilosopher I )clcuzchm bccncrcditedwith restoring Henri Bergson gcncration. memoryand repetition.26 BE R Gs o N . Along with the thoughts GottfriedWilhelm von Leibniz.This f )clcuzcdiscusscs lcngthin his two books the cinema. trtttt t crnut itncl 2 l-image . on publishedhis book Bergsonism.noting the cinematographicalcharacter of irncientphilosophyin its apprehension the thought of ordinary knowof lcdge(B 19l 1: 331-33). The crucialpoint is that performance cannot described art be within tradparameters itional aesthetic that reinforcethe validity of subject/object distinctions.

while although this term exists literally rather than as a metaphor (becauseit maintains an effect that is fully actualised. philosophical or otherwise. This interdisciplinary rlr projcct signiticancc cffcct(n<l mattcrhowsmall) sophicll h:rvc concurrcnt itttd rritl thitt witlrirrthc lickl ol'r:ont:cpl ttritlriccs thcylloth lpprollriltc li'ottt contribute to. numerous how the perceptual cognitive and Deleuzedescribes FollowingBergson. black holes threaten selfconscious acts of transcendence and self-destruction alike.28 BLACK HO L E BL AC K H OL E 29 blendingof perceptual of as Memory is conceived by Bergson a temporal hypothesis his discusin centralto Deleuze's imageryandthis ideabecomes importanceof cinema. Appearing predominantly in A Thousand. These engagementsare at times fleeting and at times more sustained.Thesedifferentmodes of rememberingare further temperedthrough the degreeof attention givenin the perception is presented as being engaged in its own processof deterritorialisation that is independent from the text that it has been woven into. they encouragephilosophy to occupy the spaceof slippage that exists between disciplinary boundaries.Nietzsche's (nowaspast). diagrammatism. the black hole is one possible outcome of an ill-conceived (which oftcn equates to overly self-conscious) attempt at deterritorialisation thirt is cirused by a threshold crossed too quickly or an intensity lrcconrcdangcrousbcciruscit is no longer bcarable. rather than simply analysing or interpreting the takenfor-granted final result or image. Pleteeus. or abilitiesof the dreamor wakefulreceptorof memoryevents imageryare in dependentupon a complexnetwork of factors. The Time-lmage. However. In other words.unwanted but necessary. Plateaus.the term .Deleuze's and multiplicitiesof mature conceptionof duration and the movements time aredeveloped. merhod.In his secondbook on sion of the philosophical Deleuze draws from Bergson'sinterest in the cinema. which is why l)cleuze and Guattari advise nomads to exercise caution as they disorganise themselvesaway from the molar organisations of the State. Arrotlrcrway of'thirrking lbout thc blrrckholc is in tcrms of how Deleuze i ttttl (i ttl tl ti tt' i r cwr it c lhc r clit t iot t shipphilosophyir nclpsychoir r r alysis s hir .As with many of the terms appropriated by A ThousandPlareaus. the subject is deconstituted. l')xisting as micro-fascisms across this plane. From Bergson.outcome for a failed line of flight. and different types of possiblememory states. halluDeleuze addsa breadthof memoryfunctions: death. and coverage designed make is to theirphiloandphysics. In the context of A Thousand.and micropolitics). and becomes a new kind of assemblagethat occupies what Deleuze and Guattari call the 'plane of consistency'. Connectives Cinema Difference Duration Hume Memory Multiplicity BLACK HOLE Kylie Message is that Deleuze Guattaribelieve the roleof philosophy to inventnewconand philosophy itselfis written andformulated. in sirlple terms.dreams. but happen to come into contact with it or move through it as l condition or processof their own moving trajectory or line of flight. for memoryof thepresent the futureuseof thepresent wherethe porAlain Robbe-Grillet's conceptof the 'recognition'process and and perceptual the 'automatic'or 'habitual'recognitionof things. is trayalof memory throughinvention elimination. pragmatics. affective and real). these concepts do not exist for the newly bricolagedtogether text. l)eterritorialising movement strays away from the concept and state of molar identity and aims to force splinters to crack open into giant ruptures rrnd cause the subsequent obliteration of the subject as he becomes cnsconcedwithin a processof becoming-multiple. cepts that challenge waythat the and from thoseof a multiBecause this. d6ji-vu.andthe seriesof renewed terms proposed by these texts (including schizoanalysis. which is a spaceof creativity and desire.affecting only the description the not of of object. fantasy. Engaged in this process. they draw both from new ideas of plicity ofalreadyexisting disciplines. becausethis plane is also that of death and destruction. This provides the foundation for the work presentedin I nti-oed'ipusandA Tkousand Plateaus. has been sourced from contemporary physics. it has been relocated away from its original source in scientific discourse. traps are scattered throughout this process. but the featuresof the object itself. So. theatre.As Bergsondiscusses of attentionare contingentupon Matter andMemory. Deleuze and Guattari describe the black hole as a star that has collapsed into itself.and contribute to their strategy of preventing their position from stabilising inro an ideology. the black hole is presented as being one . rhizomatics. and to question how things are made. Referring to spaces that cannot be escapedfrom once drawn into. includingbiological earthsciences.To these where we make a conceptof 'promise-behaviour' cinations.amnesia. cartography. or single metaphor.

such as consciousness or love . It is defined by the relations of its parts (relations of relative motion and rest. a linguistic corpus. Bodies are affected by different things. and by its actions and reactions with respect both to its environment or milieu and to its internal milieu. Deleuze and Guattari problematise the processof subjectification which. A body is not defined by either simple materiality. results either in self-annihilation (a black hole). or pru' t b y l) iu't . then it works to illustrate their contention that every strong emotion . As a potential outcome for both paths of transcendenceand destruction. they claim madnessto be a definite danger associatedwith attempts to break out of the signifying system represented by the face. A body being affected by another. its parts are minute particles of matter. this transition to a higher state of activity is experienced as joy. However. In addition to presenting the black hole as a possibleend-point to certain acts of deterritorialisation. and to what degree. wall or landscapethat nominally symbolises the generic white face of Christ. or producing effectsin it. entirely reject our organising boundaries becauseto do so can result in the complete rejection of subjectivity. Deleuze and Guattari advise caution when embarking on such a line of flight. or which bodies will decompose a body by c:rr. a political party. Since nature as a whole contains all elements and relations. Certain external bodies may prove insufficient to produce a reaction in a body.they tell us not to turn our backs on our boundaries. In this context. Recalling the slogan of schizoanalysis. onc body affecting. they claim. lilr rtncl sl:rrrtl sorrrc rclirtiorr onc rlnothcr. self-consumed desiring subject. the animal body is another. and avoid being swallowed by the black hole. a degree of physical intensity that is identical to its power of being affected. m<lstoficn 'bit by irncl bi l ' . its Whcther the effect is to increaseor decrease body's power of acting and a bcing 1ll'cctccl. is in rcrrlityrrcrlnrbinirrgirnclrr mixing of thc tw<lb<lclics. hrs r citpacitv to irr tlc(irritc llrrlls Irt'in g:rlli't'tt'rl lr v ot lr c l lr or lic s . if the combination decreasesthe affected body's power of being affected. Sonr ct int cst his nr ixing lr llu's onc ol'lhc bodics i . expressing the 'essence'or a power of existing of that body.We must not. and which corresponds to its essenceor power of existing. is a passivedetermination of the body. Indeed. In appealing to a deterritorialising activity. or even an idea. such that it is incapableof being affected any further. by its occupying space('extension'). for a social body. a system of relations among its parts. whereas in other cases.30 BO DY BOD Y 3l ll I 1 l with desire and subjectivity. If the black hole is one possibleoutcome faced by the overly convulsive. A body exists when. a social body or collectivity. expressing the whole order of causal relations in all its combinations. The parts of a body vary depending on the kind of body: for a simple material object. anothcr. The relations and interactions of the parts compound to form a dominant relation.rsing parts to enter into experimental relations. Deleuze is fond of quoting Baruch Spinoza'sdictum that'no one knows what a body can do'. such that the relations of its parts are the effect of other bodies acting on it. such as a rock. or fail to pass the minimum threshold. This expressesthe absolute impossibility of representation at the same time as it actively works to show how grand narrative statementscontinually intertwine subjectivity and signification. or re-engagement with different planes of becoming.pursues its own end. nature as a whole is a body. this is the irffect of sadness. In order to break through the dominating white face.the body being affected may reach a maximum threshold. black holes exist as the binary co-requisite of the flat white surface. ' l' lr t ' lt t t r t t r t r t l l r x l v i s j t t s l o t t c c x i t t t t g l l t 'o l ' such a body. but a body can also be a body of work. If an external body is combined or 'composed' with a body in a way that increasesthe affected body's power of being affected. but to keep them in sight so that we can dismantle them with systematiccaution. The more power a thing has. for whatever reason. speedand slowness). the lure of the black hole indicates the subject's attraction toward an absolute (lack) of signification. one must renounce the face by becoming imperceptible. or passion. as in a tick that dies of engorgement. they warn. its parts are human individuals who stand in a certain relation to each other. a number of parts enter into the characteristic relation that defines it. Deleuze and Guattari use it as a way of further conceptualising their notion of faciality. each type of body being characterised by minimum and maximum thresholds for being affected by other bodies: what can and what cannot affect it. and in different ways.the greater number of ways in which it can be affected.or wall of the signifier.It is impossible to know in advance which bodies will compose with others in a way that is consonant with a body's characterist ic relation or ratio of its parts. Connectives Molar Schizoanalysis Space BODY Bruce Baugh of wherethese its 'liocly'tirr l)clcuzcis clcfinccl irnywholccomposed parts. or the greater its power of existence. or by organic structure.

and in order to (or to have affect)it must exist . both everywhereand nowhere.they claim that the BwO hasno need for interpretation.It is rather an of reality.and is left with only skin and bonesto give structureto her otherwisedisorganisedbody.experiences of or privileges'lack' as the singular statesof being. In that the BwO existswithin stratifiedfieldsof organisation the same at time as it offers an alternative mode of being or experience(becoming). sometimes preserves relationof partsamongthem and it the both. words. there are two main points to note: firstly. of However. Rather than arguing that desireis basedon Oedipal lack. In referenceto the first point. when a poison destroys or a body's vital parts). And whereas proclaimsclosureand interprettrtion. the Body without Organs (BwO) refersto a substrate that is alsoidentifiedasthe planeof consistency (as a cannotbreak awayentirely from the systemthat it desires from. Deleuzeand Guattari take Miss X as their role model.Deleuzeand Guattari claim that by binding and judging desirein this way. sometimes altersboth and producesa composite it (as relationof partsthat dominates relations both components when the of chyleand lymph mix to form blood. and resultsin collective communalaffects.disparateand homogeneous. and was further refined with Guattari in Anti-Oedipusand A Thousand Plateaus. self-defining and enclosed subject. other process. must play a delicate it gameof maintainingsomereference thesesystems stratification.The BwO is the proposed antidote(aswell asprecedent. antecedent evencorrelate) this articuand to late and organised organism.within the be affective systemthat it aimsto subvert.rbjcctiticrrtion) organiseand bind us most effectivelysuggests that the possibility of'opcnings sp:rccs thc crcation ncw modes cxpcrinnd ftrr of of crtcc'.more or less. secondlgthe BwO doesnot equateliterally to an organ-less body. or other institutions.defineand the to speakon behalf of the collectiveassemblage organs. The BwO is proposed a meansof escaping as what Deleuzeand Guattari perceive the shortcomings traditional( is continuous and oriented only towardsits process moyementrather than toward or point of completion. of BwO is opposed the organisingprinciplesthat structure. Connectives Body without Organs Power Space Spinoza BODY WITHOUT Kylie Message ORGANS A phraseinitially takenfrom Antonin Artaud. and it is nevercompletelyfree of the stratified exigencies proper language. suggest they that implicit within. or internal organs. it is. or Since a body is a relation of parts correspondingto an essence.such two component bodies as a community or an association. corresponds a collectivepower of to beingaffected. sheclaimsto be without stomach. Whereaspsychoanalysis lnd productiveforce that maintainsdesire. despite this. . their critique of the three terms (organism.Consistent any teleological with this. family. Deleuze and Guattari explain that althoughthe BwO is a process that is directedtoward a courseof continual becoming.and all around theseare other .In other words. A hypochondriac.possibly more affective fieldsof immanence of and states being.indeed. they claim desireis a productive-machine is multiple and in a stateof conthat psychoanalysis stant flux. The characteristic relationthat resultsfrom harmoniously combiningthe relationsof the into a'higher individual'or'collective person'. It is not produced as the enemy of the organs.suchsubversion a never-completed is Instead. in which casethe two bodiesform parts of a whole.our understanding and rclati<lnship with the real or Imaginarybecomes furthcr removedand cornpromiscd. l{itlhcr tltiin llrrrcccding dircctly to invcrt rlr dcc<lnstruct lcnlls dominant in the production of identity and consciousness. to of or elserisk obliteration reterritorialisation or In backinto these systems.but is opposedto the organisation the organs.32 BO DY W I THO UT ORGANS BOD Y WITH OU T OR GAN S aa JJ (as when food is alteredin being assimilated. While it seeksa mode of articulation that is free from the escape binding tropesof subjectification and signification. they explainthat the BwO doesnot refer literally to an organ-less body.Through this example. a body need not have the hierarchical and dominatingorganisation organswe call an 'organism'. between.differentiated the maximumand minimum thresholds intensive by of its powerof beingaffected. terms of this.the State. non-stratifiedor destratifiedbody or term). The BwO doesnot exist in oppositionto the organism or notionsof subjectivity.Lacanian)psychoas of analysis.brain. non-organised. significanceand sr.which is of a differentnaturefrom its components). (a Attention is refocused awayfrom the subjectivity term which they feel is too often mistaken the term 'consciousness') for traditionallyprivileged by psychoanalysis Deleuze and Guattari challenge the world of the as articulating. The term first emergedin Deleuze'sTheLogic of Sense. or a degreeof physical intensity.

the Whole of existence.In Weismann's to the somaplasm simply providesthe housingfor the germplasm. BURROUGHS.WILLIAM (1914-97) refer'to the entries on tart' * and'post-structuralismpolitics'. Deleuze and Guattari insist any given social formation restricts or structuresmovementsor flows. developinto the soma. the flows of words that are bound up in a the egg. All Stltc rncl prc-Strtc socictics rrllthoscwhich irccording Murx lrc to - Connectives Becoming Body Desirc Lacirn l)sychorrnrrlysis Spinozit lL- .the embryo that develops (the for the zygotenot only setsasidesomegermplasm the next generation producesthe cells that will inheritanceof acquiredfeatures)but it also view.34 BO DY W I THO UT ORGANS C A P ITA LIS M 35 the Elaborating further on the natureof the BwO. While mentioningcapitalismin passing a number of places. (1885. but rid language the central role it has in arbitrating truth and desireaway real. They claim that theseflows are not just the flows of money and commoditiesfamiliar to economists. Deleuzepresentsthe BwO as to equivalent the egg. GEORGES (1904-95)-referto theentryon'schizo- CAPITALISM Jonathan Roffe In the periodbeforehis death. CANGUILHEM.and so forth).thought begins with the prcmissthat nature itself. is the in it two volumesof Caphalismand Schizophrenia which contain the most sustainedand radicaltreatmentof this theme.but is adjacentto it and continuouslyin the process constructingitself. offered by the BwO by as being contextualised the field of immanence As field of language. fields of the norm and its Insteadof slotting everythinginto polarised us antithesis. Deleuze and Guattari's political . desireis always rather than by the conclusive in of alreadyengaged a continuousprocess becoming.refer to the entrieson 'hysteria'and tfeminismt.eur Marx. at once a matter of is fkrws. or a collectionof heterogeneous BREUER.The Marxism of-Deleuzecomesfrom his insistence that all politicalthought must take its bearings from the capitalistcontextwe live in. and even the flow of matter itself of (the movementof the ocean.despite (and in somecases or embodying) field of immanence a plane a occupying decoded and as ofconsistency which areoften described beingdestratified. the body is morecorrectlydescribed uncontained a specific parts.the BwO doesnot exist beforeor prior' of to the organism. we needto maintaina mode of expresto a of the germplasm the BwO is to alwayscontemporarywith and yet independentof its host organism.of the organism. phrenia'. which he neverabandoned despitealteringmanyof its fundamental elements.electronsmoving in metals. Similarly. can be but seenat a variety of levels:the movementof peopleand traffic in a city. (whoseprindeterritorialised. BwO hasits own modeof organisation the ciples are primarily derived from Baruch Spinoza). the site sex in order to createthe next Weismann would insistthe chickenis simply oneegg's chickenor the egg? device for laying another egg.Relocating reality againstmadness the pre*symbolic and Deleuzeand Guattari presentit from a dichotomous linguistictrajectory. Certainlythe most important of theseelements is capitalism.However. Deleuzealsoinvokes and his 'theory of the germplasm' German biologist.They advisethat in seeking makeourselves BwO.Rather than being as matter form. such. flows of genetic the code betweengenerations plants.Deleuze and Guattari encourage to remove the poles of organisationbut maintain a mode of articulation.and that tny s<lcicty must structrlretheseflows in ordcr to subsist.August Weismann.published1893) contendthat . from Weismannbelievedthat at eachgeneration.What comesfirst. ensure of nourished and conveyed the germplasm the oppoto that it is protected. Thus. a of positiveattitudetowardsthe philosoThis fact clearlyindicates Deleuze?s phy of Karl Marx. JOSEPH (I8+2-I925) .Deleuzeannounced an interviewthat he in would like to compose work which would be called TheGrand.or body . generation.

capitalist society only produces a different.structureslike the governmentand the family still exist in capitalism. insteadof working by coding flows. it singularand critical. without some structure . However. prostitutionor youth culturehasbeendecoded capitalistsocieties. 'coding'.for three reasons: is retrospective. but rather a contingentproduct of fortuitous circumstance.capitalism a regimeof decoding.There are four featuresto this exceptionalstatusof capitalismfor Deleuzeand that this process decoding. moralsand popularculture . for Deleuzeand Guattari. and Plateaus include lengthy analysesof differentkinds of societies the waysin which they codeflows. talking. by emptyingflows of their specificmeaningin their codedcontext (sexasthe act of marriage. or structuring.In capitalism.ascommodities. and is Capitalism the radicalexception this basiccentralunderstanding to of the nature of society.The nuclear family in particular. Deleuzeand Guattari call this processof restriction.rrocccds this waycklcs mcanfor I)clctrzc of It Guattari that codedelements socialformation are entirely absent. where the father takesthe position (structurally speaking) the despoticand all-seeing ruler. in They cannot. Given that all such limits would be codes. Societies.they insistthat this is an'ironic'universal history. Orunilrisse\ cirllsthc 'csscntirtl difl'crcncc' bctwccrrit arrd thc othcrs: it il . bound to a certainstateof affairsto have be value . But by drawing on Karl Marx rather than GeorgWilhelm FriedrichHegel.the church. more insidious. howeveqmakesfor a celebrationof the liberatory effectsof capitalism.As they note. furthcr cxtcncling realmof monetaryequivalence.36 CAPIT AL ISM C A P ITA LIS M * U N IV E R S A L H IS TOR Y JI pre-capitalist on DeleuzeandGuattari'saccount. is Second.which in different societies locatethe practiceof sexin certaincontexts.relating)while denyingother more malleable ways. ism doesnot representthetelos ofhistory.our own coherent individuality and agencyfor example.ipus A Thousand.Governments and monarchiesremain. in Theseflowsremaindecoded sofar asthey arefluid partsof the economy. there could be no total decodedsociety. by in however. is rather the casethat certain fragmentsof Statesociety(in particular) are put to work in the serviceof capitalism. kind of unfreedom. since of codcd flows are continuallybeing turned into commoditiesthrough this proccss. havesucha restriction of flows astheir basicprinciple.asregulativemechanisms stabilisingthe growth of decoding/ axiomatisation. capitaltoward the end of history. for Deleuzeand Guattari the site is of a surprisingminiaturisationof Statesociety. mealasthe centreof family life.or tribe.Thus. making possiblenew kinds of relations that were excluded the codingregimes question.while having their real juridical power substantially reduced.thc fact thrrtcrrllitirlisl srrcicty in not rrnd . This accountsfor the sensein capitalistsocieties perpetual novelty and innovation. This confirms the singularity of capitalist socicty: is not somehiddensimilaritybetween it capitalism and previous s<rcill firrmsthrt makcs but rathcrwhat M:rrx (in thc clpitrrlism univcrsirl. example. by of For the coding of sexualrelationsthrough short.under capitalism. of None of thesepoints. [t is retrospective that the perspective schizophrenia in of only becomes available yet at the sametime. in This is first of all. The third important aspectof capitalismfor Deleuzeand Guattari drawingon Marx . the recodingthat would takeplacein non-capitalist societies recapture to decoded flows is replaced the process axiomatisation.for food to be a product it must be possibleto eat it in a context other than the family home. fourthly.they consider real freedom to be unavailablein the world of monetaryequivalence enacted capitalism. whetherthat is marriage. a good thing./axiomatisation no of has real limit.Deleuze and Guattari remain Marxists in so far as. regimesof coding. First. and in tandemwith this.Both Anti-Oed. cora relativeaxiomatisation takenplacemaking possible saleof sex as has the a product (what Karl Marx called a 'commodity'). the kind of coded entity that one might imagine would be dissolved by the decoding/ axiomatising movementof oxymoronicphrase.While imitating the decodby ing that makespossiblethe freeing up of flows and new ways of existing.which Deleuzeand Guattari considerspecific eachsocialformationand always to oppressive therewould be no basisupon which to challenge and attemptto alter the givencoding regime. coulclncvcr bc total. Connectives Freedom Marx Oedipalisation CAPITALISM EugeneHolland + UNIVERSAL HISTORY DeleuzeandGuattariarealoneamongpost-structuralists resuscitate to the notion of universalhistory.working.aim to bring about certainfixed waysof as existing(living.this movement effectivelyand voraciously erodesall such limits. Axioms operate. and so on) the and imposing a law of generalequivalence the form of monetary value. the suclrir proccss I krwcvcr. They conceivecoding as at once restrictive and necessary.Obviously.

Capturecanbe understoodasconstitutinga control of signs. the key human universalwas production: the species-being humanity was defined in terms of its ever-growing of ability to produceits own meansof life rather than simply consumewhat nature offered. CAPTURE Alberto Toscano The conceptof 'capture'is usedby Deleuzeand Guattari to dealwith two problems relationality:first.subjective natureofvalue-giving activity is accompaniedby a resubordination of that activity to another externaldetermination: the caseof Luther. Marx. such as to ground a thinking of becoming. to bolster and expand its sovereignty.arguing. it noncthclcss tttitkcs possiblc.eventhough capitalextractsits surplus from thc differentialflowsenabled this network.To free human activity from theselast externaldeterminationsis the task of world-historicalcritique: Marx providesthe critique of political economy to free wage-labourfrom private capital. the control of tools.somewhat laterby SigmundFreud.Deleuzeand Guattari return to many of the and key notions in Karl Marx's critique of political economyto bolster the thcsis of a constructivecharacterof capture. L So while the capitalist market inauguratesthe potential for universal history in its productionof difference.The logic of captureis such that what is cappresupposed generated the act of capture. in Smith and Ricardo.The principalontologicaland methological issuerelatedto this conceptionof capturehasto do with the type of relationbetween captureand the captured (namely in the caseof the war machine as the privileged correlateof the apparatus). whether that activity is religious devotion.The key discovery that valuedoesnot is inhere in objects but rather gets invested in them by human activity.not as an idea or a concept. Apparatusesof capture constitutethe machinicprocesses specificto Statesocieties. They can be conceived being primarily a matter of signs.complemented a Oneby Armed Priest or jurist who codifiesthesesignsin treaties.For Deleuzeand Guattari.Rather. putsit on lhc lristoricirl trrrivcrsrrlity irgcndrr.In the first instance. by Adam Smith and David Ricardo. the free-form desireof polymorphouslibido is resubordinated to heterosexualreproduction in the privatised nuclear family and the Oedipuscomplex. If capitalismmakeshistory universal. that surpluslabourcanbc unclcrst<xrdcngcndcr to labourpropcr(th<lugh can it irlsobc urrdclslood tlrc irttcrrrpl llkrckrlr nranipulatc:r irs to constitutivc . Even though the rlifl'crcrtcc-cnginc crrpitrrl of' fails firlly tu rcllisc universalhistory.38 CAPIT AL ISM + UNIVERSAL H IS TOR Y C APTU R E 39 exposes source the ofvalue that previoussocieties kept hidden. is the eliminationof capitalfrom it the market that will multiply differenceand realisethe freedom inherent in universal history. how to formulatea non-representational account of the interaction of different beings and their territories. specifically production of difference but the free from codification and representation. physicallabour or libidinal desire.for a crucial discoveryis madein a number of different fields:by Martin Luther. evenwhen the Stateas a complexof institutionsand as a system of control is not yet meansof exploitaby ti<lnirnclthc ncvcr-cncling repaymcntof an infinite debt. The marketfostersan increasingly differentiated network of socialrelationsby expandingthe socialisation production of alongwith the divisionof labour. capturedefinesthe operation whereby the State (or Urstaat) binds or encaststhe war machinb. tured is simultaneously and by appropriated produced.the discovery ofthe internal. of objectsturn out to be merely the support for subjective value-giving activity.accompanying the other paradigmatic dimension of the State.contractsand laws. Deleuzeand Guattari'snotion of universalhistory evades any explanation by strict causality or chronological sequence. for instance.In this fundamental reversal perspective.whencethe figure of the as One-EyedEmperor who binds and fixes signs.who will therefore considered'the be Luther and the Adam Smith of psychiatry'. it turns to notionsdrawn from catastrophe theory and the sciences complexityto of revivethe Hegelianintuition that the Statehasalwaysbeenthere. the key universalis not just production(not evenin the very broadsense they grant that term inAntiOedipus). how to conceive the connection of of between the State.this is ultimately because proit motes multiple differences.Yet in eachof the threefields.but as a thresholdendowedwith a kind of virtual efficacy.the war machineand capitalismwithin a universalhistory of politicallife. societycan finally becomeself-critical. Deleuzeand Guattari provide the critique of psychoanalysisto free libido from the private nuclear family and the Oedipuscomplex. therebyturning it into an objectthat canbe madeto work for the State. Friedrich Nietzsche providesthe critique of religionand moralismto free Will to Power from nihilism. and second. subjective in faith freed from subordination the CatholicChurch is nevertheless to resubordinated the to authority of Scripture. to in Freud. because the capitalistmarket operatesas a For 'difference-engine'.wage-labourfreed from feudal obligationsis resubordinated private capital accumulation.And hence capitalismoffers the key to universalhistory because with capitalism. Capitalistmodernity represents key turning point in this view of the universalhistory.

but also in non-state in mechanisms capture such asthe captureof corporealrepresentationby of faciality. which Deleuzeand Guattari describeas 'the vcry modcl of an apparatus capture' (D&G 1987:441). but on the process of convergence and assemblagebetween heterogeneous series. Contraryto the widespreadcolonial presumption that indigenouspeopleswere unsuited for primitive societies not societies labour. now reframed as a type of symbiosis. The ruler became'the sole and transcendentpublic-property owner.upon labourand money. but on the contraryare or due of societies freeactionand smoothspace of that haveno usefor a work-factor.they point out that 'so-called are of shortage subsistence to an absence work.the masterof the surplusor stock. anymorethan they constitutea stock'(D&G 1987:491).the organiser large-scale of works (surpluslabour). understood as the political control of signs. this time linked to the privileging of ethological models of intelligibility within a philosophy of immanence.tribute or surplus labourimposes suchstandards comparison. and specifically to a reconsideration of the status of mimesis. an encounter that transforms the disparate entities that enter into a joint becoming.the sourceof public functionsand bureaucracy' (D&G 1987:428).Instead.The of earliestforms of Stateinvolvedthe captureof agricultural communities. Here Deleuze and Guattari are sensitive to the juridical aspectsof the question. both of which can be regarded as schemata alternative to a dominant hylomorphic mode of explaining relation: the first. such that capture.namely ground rent.Together.these define the abstractmachine which is expressed the different forms of State.Historically the most important mechanisms capturehave of products. Here the emphasis is no longer on the expropriation and appropriation of an outside by an instance of control. therebyeffectingthe transof formationof freeaction into labour. such a process is linked to a renewal of the theory of relation. the form of a definitequantityto be produced is in or a time to be worked.Inthesesocieties. rather than to the intermediary stage represented by the bourgeois nation-state and its forms of disciplinary subjectivation.Such activity only becomes labour once a standard of comparison imposed.The obligationto providetaxes.40 CAPTURE C APTU R E + POL ITIC S +l flight from labour). The notion of capture can also be accorded a different inflection. on the emergence of blocs of becoming. the second defines a co-existence and articulation of becomings in terms of the assemblage of heterogeneous entities and the formation of territories. such as the one of the wasp and the orchid. translates a co-existence of becomings (as manifested by the war machine) into a historical succession. such that State capture defines a domain of legitimate violence. Capture is thus both an introjection and determination of an outside and the engendering of the outside as outside of the apparatus. the captureof political reason public opinion. always an ontois logically constructive operation and can never be reduced to models of unilateral causation. What is paramount in both instancesis the affirmation of the event-bound and transformative character of relationality (or interaction). whether understood as control or assemblage. in as much as it always accompaniescapture with the affirmation of a right to capture. productiveactivity proceeds under a regimeof 'free action' or activity in continuousvariation. The sametwo elements presentin the conditionswhich enablethe are extractionof ground rent.they arguethat Stateshavealways of existedand that they are in essence alwaysmechanisms capture.the apparatus of capture is proper to both the initial imperial figure of the State and to fullblown global or axiomatic capitalism. Under the heading of capture we thus encounter two opposite but entangled actions. find the same in we two key elements: general the constitutionof a space comparison of and the establishment of a centre of appropriation. In its intimate link to the notion of machinic enslavement.thc cxtrtrction grouncl rcnt prcsllpposcsmcans of r of prlrtirlns llrrrcl thc ol'dill'crcnt of' conrpirrirrg prtlcluctivity sinrrrltirrrcorrsly Connective ( lrr rrlisnr pit . In Deleuze and Guattari's KaJha.but they have long existed other forms. CAPTURE + POLITICS Paul Patton Deleuzeand Guattari deny that the Stateis an apparatus which emerged asthe resultof prior conditionssuchasthe accumulation surplusor the of emergence privateproperty. interpreted as a kind of originary violence imposed by the State to prepare for the functioning of capital. It is in this regard that capture is made to correspond to the Marxian concept of primitive accumulation. What we have here is properly speaking a double capture or inter-capture. the constitution of a milieu of interiority and the exerciseof sovereign power. making the State pass from an attractor which virtually impinges upon non-State actors to an institutional and temporal reality. or by Consider first the capture of human activity in the form of labour. Deleuzeand Guattari arguethat 'labour (in the strict sense) beginsonly with what is calledsurpluslabour' (D&G 1987:490). profit and taxes. beenthoseexercised upon land and its Thesecorrespond Karl Marx's 'holy trinity' of the modern sources to of capitalaccumulation.In all cases.From an ecoof nomicpoint of vicw.

That is why the fundamental jurisprudentialproblemof colonisation the mannerin which the terriis into a uniform space toriesof the originalinhabitants become transformed of landedproperty. considers he sucha chaosmos the as chaos non-participation. measure of a of differences between of the earth'ssurfacewhich is absentfrom the territorial assemblage of hunter-gatherer society. In this sense.Deleuzianchaosis formlessbut not undifferentiated. Chaos thus both the as intimatethreatand the sourceof philosophical creation. CHAOS Alberto Toscano in This term canbe saidto receive maintreatments the work of Deleuze two In and Guattari. in Crown land amountsto a uniform expanse of potentialreal property which coversthe earth to the extentof the sovjurisdictions. which all intensive this . In A Thousand. of chaos envelops distributes. of invention taskof through personae composition concepts. Against this they proposethe conceptsof 'rhizome' and in 'plane of immanence'. leavingbehind no consistency. the the first acceptation. of principal antidoteto the trinity sustaining philosophies representaall of tion and transcendence: world.42 cARRoLL. intra-philosophical.It followsthat. other non-philosophical. In other words. within these legalimpositionof sovereignty constitutes apparatus capturein the an of precisesense which Deleuzeand Guattari give to this term.pieces people quantitative of landaredistributed among according a common to criterion' (D&G 1987:441).which is a privative Moreover. from a legal point of view. PAUL (ltl39-1906).forms and entities that populate it emergeonly to disappear immediately. LEWIS (1832-98) referto the entries on'art'and 'incorporeal'.In thosecolonies which wereacquired and governed in accordance with British common law. polemical juxtapositionto those systems thought that lie beyond the powersof of in differences are equivalent the ontoto contained 'complicated' but not 'explicated' Put logicallyproductiveaffirmationof the divergence series. as art In this context.Deleuze thus opposesthis Joyceanand Nietzschean in simulacrafor their diverchaosmos. differently. and philosophy. the sovereign right of the Crown privaterightsand meantthat it hadthe powerboth to create andextinguish interests land. reference any determinate or consequences.When chaosmakesits reappearance What is Philosophy? is asthe shared it correlateof the threedimensions thought of (or of the brain). The imposition ofsovereignty effects instantaneous an deterritorialisation ofindigenas ous territoriesand their reterritorialisation a uniform space Crown of land centredupon the figureof the sovereign. The measurement productivity provides a general of qualitative portions space comparison. example conby or Phiklsophy can sistcncy othcrthrn thoscprovidccl frrnctir)ns percepts. the drawingof planes immanence. chaos designates the type of virtual totality that the philosophyof differenceopposes the foundationaland self-referential to In totalities proposedby the philosophiesof representation. is then the philosophy. 'labour and surpluslabourare the apparaof tus of captureof activityjust asthe comparison landsand the appropriof ation of land are the apparatus captureof territory' (D&G 1987:442). and without identifying.such that the but particles. the extraction of ground rent is 'inseparable from a processof relative deterritorialization' because of 'instead peoplebeingdistributedin an itinerantterritory. understood the for a imposition onto the virtual of its own typeof consistency. God and subject(man). 'sclrs:rt liort'. L .the heterogeneities that makeup the world. which the eternal return selects gence) the chaos to that Platoattributesto the sophist. in One further condition is necessary order for ground rent to be (D&G the in mustbelinkedto a landowner extracted: difference productivity 1987: 441).science. (lt'lZANNIi. Deleuzianchaos. requiresthe establishment a of therefore The centreestablishes monopolyover what has now becomeland and a assigns itselfthe right to allocate to ownership portionsof unclaimed of land. alsodesignated chaoids.rcfcr to rhc cnrricson 'irrr'.chaos not definedsimply by the mannerin which it conis tains (or complicates) differences. common-law the ereignterritory. This centreis the legalsovereign and the monopolyis the assertion of sovereignty over the territoriesin question. In other words.having moved away from the structuralistinspiredterminologyof series(which chaoswasseento affirm). pitrticular it wrtyof'livirrg with it1 thusbc tccirst tcrtrts CARROLL. The conversion portionsof the earthinhabited of primitivepeoples by so-called into an appropriable exploitable and resourte juridicalcentreof appropriation.or of comparingthe productivity of the sameportion successively exploited. L Ew IS (r832-98) C H A OS +3 exploited. Deleuze and eternal return as and Guattari provide a critique of both chaosmos an insufficientbulwark againsta (negative)return of 'the One' and of representation. is It Chaos thus definednot by its disorderbut by its fugacity.trtd 'scttsltlioit c:ittcrttlt'. giveconsistency of to to of conceptual and its is chaos whilst maintaining speed and productivity. by its infinite speed. of'iln cthicsof'chiuls. Thus.

. a phenomenon simultaneouslyoriented toward a network of reproductive forces. In Cinema 1.brings cinema into a relation not with an ideal of Truth. Deleuze'sCinemabooksCinemal: The mooement-image Cinema2: The tirne-image underand stand film as a multiplicity. academicisccl film intcrprctationsincethe mid-1970s. . any any or Chaosand opinion thus provide the two sources inconsistency of for thought. on the other.between a series of images. to establish a communication betweentwo presents (the former and the present) which co-exist in relation to a virtual object . That is. a symbolic blockage.but never totally arresting .it is alsoclear is for that the struggleis twofold through and through.that is not drawn out directly into action. which make it a-signifying totality (a 'being-One').are directly connected to a time-im age. that chaosnot be considered simply synonymous with ontological univocity.The first interpretation of film finds its clearesr expression two Breatmechanisms cinematicovercoding historical in of poeticsand textualanalysis that havedominatedanglophone. These two critical interpretations of film correspond to. that facilitate the connection and creation of an encounter (a 'becoming-Other'). . This is the large circuit of the dream-image ('onirosign'). and equally toward a network of productiae creating conceptual formscapable sustaining infinitespeed chaos of the of whilst not succumbing the stupidity. an intensive system which resists a hierarchical principle of identity in the former present. This direct presentation of time . in as much as it is the inconsistencyor idiocy of a chaotic thought that often grounds the recourse to the safety and identity of opinions. where the movement-image and its sensory-motor signs are in a relationship only with an indirect image of time.the subjecis on tion of the planeof immanence somevarietyof transcendence would to that guarantee uniqueness its and. but is 'primarily optical and of sound. . the one determinedby an excess speed. to or Philosophical creation thus poisedbetween.w hi ch it sclf plays t hc r r llc of t hc vir t uit l im agc bcing r t ct ualiscd . but with powers of the false: opening. . movement does not strictly stop but is now grasped by way of connections which are no longer sensory-motor and which bring the sensesinto direct relation with time and thought. and . durabledifference structure. In place of these nomalising . that contril'rutcs one to lhc. invested by the senses'(D 1989: 4). Delguze describes a post-war crisis in the movement-image. contributes to the realism of the 'action-image'. As Deleuze describesit. In Cinema 2. Appealing to Henri Bergson's schemataon time. Though chaos a vital resource thought. and). In the later work with Guattari it is essential the definition of philosophical to practiceand its demarcation from and interference with the other chaoids. acreative stammering (and .cinema's potentially active and creative lines of flight.its 'opsigns' and 'sonsigns' . and produces the global domination of the American cinema.and againstthe sterile clich6sof opinion (doxa). and .a becoming-in-the-world . Eachof theseapproaches turrdcrstrrncls rcpctitionas a kind of rcdundirncy.the other by a surfeit of of redundancy. and a rule of resemblance in the present present. repetition (redundancy) functions as a principle of unification. even though this opticalsound image implies a beyond of movement.a neo-realism .but that it is accorded suigeneris a statusasthe non-philosophical dimensiondemanded by philosophical thought.+4 CINEM A C IN E MA 45 chaos.the absolutely different. the one hand.informational and/ or symbolic . huhiluul rccttgttitioltof'tlrc sllnlc: ilr. Deleuze identifies the classical or 'movement-image' as that which gives rise to a 'sensory-motor whole' (a unity of movement and its interval) and grounds narration (representation) in the image. a type of intensive system in which a virtual image (the 'diffcrcnciittor') bccomes actual not directly. a sensation of the present presence of the moment. in the place of representation.thoughtlessness folly of the indeterminate. yet cut across' the separateaspectsof cinema dealt with in each of the Cinema books.rindustrirl rcprcscrrtirtiorrirl model. a break-up of the sensory-motor link that gives rise to a new situation . The latter describes Deleuze's 'crystalline regime'. Deleuze describesa situation in which the optical-sound perception enters into a relation with genuinely airtualelements. but by actualising a different in i nri tgc.accounts of cinema.a 'chronosign' .and . and . Connectives Plato Representation Thought CINEMA Constantine Verezsis Following his work on A Thousand Plateaus. .that has subordinated movement. This movement-image. . Within these totalising and homogenising approaches to film. which relates principally to pre-World War II cinema. the pure optical and sound image . the surging up of a chaosthat would dissolve consistency. limiting . another approach develops an experimental-creative understanding of film in which an attentive misrecognition abandons representation (and subjectification) to sketch circuits . .

In the idea (or vision) of the large form (SAS'). actual and. reduced to entirely inoperative and defenceless Kinski's foetal figure in Nosferatu (1979) or in the films starring the schizophrenic actor Bruno S. is given remarkable. In a brief example. for Deleuze the opsign (and sonsign) finds its true genetic element only when the actual image crystallises with its own virtual image on a small circuit. The time-image is a direct representation of time.). doomed visionaries. a bit of time in the pure state' (D 1989: 82). the actual and the virtual. such that the actions and the characters bearing them are stripped oftheir intensities (whether in use. of an earth beyond man.while contributingto the film's narrative economysketch the complementary panoramicvision of a large circuitindifferentto the conditionsof meaning and truth. Herzog immerses the viewer in the (micro. the limits imposed by nature. then in Cinema2 with the momentous introduction of the crystal image. which tries to confront. Additionally.the motifsof waterand eye. staged as a mad attempt to delve into the abyssof nature by linking man and landscapein the creation of a sublime situation.virtual at the same time.'lnti-Octlipus. become irrdisccrniblc. a situation (S) poses a problem to a character requiring an action (A) whereby the initial situation (and the character herself) will be transformed (S').But its subtlepatterningof repetitions. nature and production. a crystal-imagethat consists in the indivisible unity of an actual image and its own virtual image so that the two are indiscernible. a progcrritorof thc schiz<lirt ol' is r t t t r t lv l ' s liln(' c .a woman'sdeathin Chinatown.The cinematic ideasextracted from the work of Herzog intervene at two very significant moments in Deleuze's confrontation with cinema. where it is accompaniedby the depiction of figures that approximate what Deleuze called structuralist heroes: pure individuals or larval subjects capableof sustaining their habitation by pre-individual singularities and deformation by spatio-temporal dynamisms. through an excessiveproject. These are in turn split between a sublime or hallucinatory aspectthat seeksto equal an unlimited nature. which reaches its most accomplished moments precisely when it stages their reversibility (the sublimity of bare life in Kaspar Hauser (1975). Chinatzwncanbeunderstoodasa representational symbolictext and .ltscrt .'l'his is thc kincl of romanticism which.y) i rr r d ol' c: r cr r t ion indiscclr r iblc lir r r r t lhc int p: t ssivc) . and a heroic or hypnotic one. Sublimity and a kind of bare life are the metaphysical foci of Herzog's implementation of the action image. he transforms the small form (ASA ) by weakening it to the extreme. and so on. Herzog's films and documentaries of the 1970sare unmatched as contemporary representativesof a heterodox fidelity to romanticism. in a kind of perpetual oscillation irnd indiscernibility.the film's final repetition. attaining a point of non-distinction between man and nature. While Herzog operateson the large form by excess. This point of irrdisccrnibility signrrls il purc cxpcriencc of timc (indisccrnible from ( ctcrni t.I I cr z.and macro-) cosmosof sensationborne by beings of remarkable fragility (akin to Bartleby) and great hallucinating. first in terms of the large form and the small form of the action-image in Cinerna 1. Deleuze says:'what we seein the crystal is time itself. Connectives Crystal Lines of flight Time imase CINEMA + WERNERHERZOG Alberto Toscano Deleuze's affinity with WernerHerzog exceedsthe explicit references to the German filmmaker in the Cinema volumes. Herzog's variation on this schemaentails the staging of actions whose delirium is to try to transform situations that does not make any such requirement on the character. The metaphysical import of Herzog's work is even more prominent in Cinema 2. og's . where he is accorded the rare praise of having best realised the crystal image: the smallest possible circuit joining. in the referenceto lf rrclrrrcr thc vcry ot.making the two situations (S and S') incommensurable. separating the latter from its Kantian presuppositions and Hegelian consequences order to discover a dimenin sion in which materiality and ideality.a detective film and an Oedipaldrama.+6 CI NEM A + W ERNER HERZOG C IN E MA * WNRNER H E R ZOG +7 another. it This thinking of the impersonal. Chinatown(1973) is a perfectly realised(neoclassical) Hollywood genrefilm bur one that exhibitsan ability to exceed itself. What Deleuze isolatesin Herzog is thus a pure idea of the large.brings the detective Gittes'pastandpresent togetherwith hallucinatory exactitude form to a smallcircuit in which the virtual corresponds the actual. a crystalline but temporality.albeit divergent expression in films such as Fitzcarraldo (1982) or Stroszek(1977). Although the optical-sound image appears to find its proper equivalent in this infinitely dilated circuit of the dream-image.The final act to gestures towardneithera diegeticnor oneirictemporality. the destitution of visionary greatnessin Aguirre (1972)). Herzog's 'action films' provide two extreme realisationsof those cinematic schematapreoccupied with the transformative interaction of action and situation.

and Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz. Thesepoint to a realmof virtual conditionsdefinedasintensities Ideas and (the capitalindicates that thesearenot ideasto be thought of asernpirical things in the mind. these others(morehating. expressivity the ofthe artspointsto sensationsand deeperldeas. Descartes'foundationalmethod is the rationalist construction of a systemof analytictruths. I am' from the on Meditations. he believes that certainpropositions are true independentlyof any others and that thereforethey can stand as a ground for the deductionof further truths according reason. That singulardefinition brings someintensitiesto the fore while hiding greatercaring.haunted by the uncertainty of the crystal. The cogitocannotbe self-evident. These are related to any singularthought in the way it implies differentarrangements intensitiesand differentrelationsof clarity and of obscuritybetween Ideas.Deleuzeis not of rather. as of t" opposedto Cartesianmovesfrom secureand inviolable basesout into the reason the heart of his method.a kind of alchemicaladventure. sivity and through the conditionsfor sensation. depends the view that all knowledge partial and opento revision. he extendsthe activesubjectthrough passimply anti-Cartesian. the syntheticmethodandfor the oppositionto the free for activity of the inspiration that can perhapsbe tracked elsewhere in Deleuze'soeuvre.can be divided into a critique of the Cartesiananalytic method. We can thus see how the crystalimageis not simply a matter of a certainkind of intuition.after their sacrifice). Deleuze'sphilosophydependson Descartes' rationalistcritics.Deleuzeemphasises sensation. are thereforepassive with respectto our virtual 'dark prewe cursorst. such as the cogito.48 CO G I TO C OGITO 49 Heart of Glass(1976) is the key locus for the cinematic manifestation of this exquisitelymetaphysical type of image. The cogitois an important moment in philosophy. 'I think. thoughactualand virtual are as ultimately indiscernible.lessanger.Unlike the Cartesian cogito. developedin Dffirence and. Wherever we presume to have found pure thought.We cannot directly chooseour sensations. for the extension the subjector monad to the whole of reality. of and The 'I' is therefore independent carriesall intensities not but and all Ideas with it. The subjectis thereforeextendedthrough the sensations singular of individualsinto virtual intensitiesand Ideas. In intensitieslight up Ideas in different ways making somerelationsmore obscureand others more distinct (The Idea of love for humanity took centre unknown. is Thought must be responsive sensations to that go beyond its capacityto representthem.Repetition.notably BaruchSpinoza.they can be distinguishedby the perspecive taken on the relation at hand (for example germ/milieu). A thereforeinseparable from sensations that themselves bring a series intensities Ideasto bearon the subject. to Deleuze's synthetic and dialectical method. Heart of Glass is. Deleuzeholdsthat no thought is freeof sensation. and the germ. in Deleuze'seyes. rather they are like Kantian Ideasof reason). any relativetruth is open to extensionthrough syntheses with further discoveriesand through further experiments. COGITO James Williams Deleuze'scritical approachto the cogito of Ren6Descartes. it requirescompletingthrough syntheses but that bclic its indcpcndcncc.sincefrom anotherperspective it is a virtually differentiatedstructure.Following on from an intuition of Gilbert Simondon.The relation bctwccn thcsctruths is dialectical rathcrthananalytical understood actual. The Cartesian hope of defeatingsystematic doubt through the certaintyof the cogitomust therefore fail.Deleuzeunderstands film in terms of the this relation betweena germ capable crystallisation of and a milieu of application which is qualified as actually amorphous. turn. the thereforeI am' from the Discourse Methodor the 'I think. a critique of the self-evidence the cogitoand an extension of of the Cartesian view of the subject. and 'fhcrc is r rcciprtrcirl proccss rcvisionand changcbctwccnthcm.But this amorphousnessis not that of a mere prime matter. because sensation alwaysextendsto a multiplicity of further conditionsand causes.Where Descartes situates at shownby the role of thinking in the cogito. on is Thus. Sensation resistantto identity in representation. suchthat the former canpass from virtual to actualimageand effectthe passage the latter from actual of amorphousnessto virtual and infinite differentiation.or pure representations.lessjealousy). but involvesthe construction of scenarios with their own very special kinds of actions. You do not think without feeling. initially qualified a virtual image. .Feelingdefinesyou as an individual. positedon the activity of the thinking subject. That is. revealing Herzog's genius for joining the most deprived and infinitesimal of creatures with the most cosmic and grandioseof projects.Thus. in which what is at stake is the encounter between red crystalglass the and the world. literature and cinemato convinceus of the insufficiency of the cogito. Deleuzeoften turns to dramatisations from art.Deleuze'sindiwhich is vidual has an all-important passive side.

and Connectives llcrgson |)urrtion . Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz's monad. creationis so powerfulthat it becomes normal part of life.therebyincorporatinga notion of or the contingency the circumstances eachevent. of and so cannotbe hypothetical conceived priori. criticism. and numerousconceptsfrom literature. and causation a the creationof other conceptswithout the is a conceptthat represents perceptions ground them. he argues. The apparent inconsistencyof their meaningsand uses. It is true. so Ratherthan bringing things rogetherunder a concept. terms and theories.Rather than 'standing a apart' from experience.whilst refusalto giveany concept for is a challenge his reader. conceptsought to be meansby which we movebeyondwhat we experience that we canthink of new possibilities. experience problem. Deleuzereappropriates of concepts inheritedfrom the greatphilosophers the pastin termsof new of problems.however.and privilegesconcepts to over what is supposed be means in for Deleuzethat philosophers ought to engage new linesof thinking and particularideas. In Deleuze'swork. and intuition. and arguments fieldsof specialnew connections between isation. Deleuzeargues. hereand now. putting concepts work in new ways.On sucha view. Henri Bergson's concepts duration uses. concept is defined just by the unity that it In must heterogeneous elements.he is interested in relatingvariables according newconcepts asto create to so productiveconnections. A conceptis createdor thought anew in relation to every particular event. or a l)clcuzc'stheoryof concepts part of a potentcriticismof much philis osophy drrtc. privilegefor the conceptof presupposing ontological epistemological or an By 'Being' or 'utility' that is not evidentin immediateexperience. to Too often.the An is absolute and changeless objects and standards knowledge of against which all humanknowledge but an inferior copy. Deleuzeabidesby his proposalthat concept-creation an conceptsthat are as such that philosophycreates ended'exercise. In his own work.insight. requirementfor sense to Moving from a reiterative history of philosophyto the practiceof philoin sophymeansengagingwith inherited concepts new ways.For example. The application of abstractconcepts subject to metaphysical merely gatherstogether discrete particulars despite their differences. conceptsbecomethe meansby which we move so beyond experience as to be able to think anew. Deleuzegoesto is conceptby explainsomelengthsto showhow causation a truly creative and anticipateoutcomes beforethey occur. doesnot consider or to He it to be very useful or productive.conof of ceptscannotbe thoughtapartfrom the circumstances their production.suchillusionsareavoided. thereby of one might understand things as instances Being or usefulness. By cutting routinely acrossdisciplinary be boundaries.50 Connectives Kant Sensation CO NCEPTS C ON C E P TS 51 CONCEPTS CliffStagoll Deleuzeunderstands philosophyas being the art of inventingor creating concepts. of For Deleuzeand Guattari.philosophyhas used real experience merely as a source extracting deducing for or abstract conceptual means categorisfor ing phenomena. science and evenmathematics reworkedand put to work in new and creative are ways.Only then doesphilosophytakeon a positivepower to transform numerous our waysof thinking. and our makingcommunication and opinion-formationsimpler. a sign of Deleuze's a single purpose or referent. when it creates and usesconceprs in themannerthathethinkshastypifiedmuchof western philosophy date. but Deleuzeinsists such simplicity detracts from the varietyand uniqueness evidentin our experiences the world. only to order. ing how it brings us to expect anticipatory at and evenoutcomes that we don't observe all.Hume's associationism.concepts expresses amongst descriptive simor be creative activerather than merelyrepresentative. is arguing to Hc thilt iuryphikrsophy frriling rcspcct parto thc tictrlitlilyol' coltsc-iottsncss irr lirvoulol' broirdcorrccpluirl skctchcs is illusion. that concepts help us in our everyday lives to organise represent thoughtsto others. For this reason. hastendedthen to employthese [t same concepts eitherto determineor express essence phenomena. In suchcases. 'open as accessible usefulto artistsand scientists to philosophers.Sucha conceptdoesnot help is us appreciate contributeto the richnessof lived experience. bearing in mind that the conceptat work relatesjust to this being or this useful thing. or Deleuze argues.labelandmeasure but individuals relative anabstract to norm.Conceptsought to express states affairsin terms of the conof tingent circumstances dynamics and that leadto and follow from his work on David Hume. so that eachconceptis relatedto particularvariables that change .mutate' or it. example Plato'sconceptof Forms. elseto order and rank the of or them in termsof the concept. or plifying. other words.

the point is to get reality right. One of Deleuzeand Guattari'smain concerns to distinguisha propis erly philosophical relationbetweenconceptand context from the betterknown scientific(or socialscientific)relation basedon 'representation'. philosophy between and socio-historical context that Deleuzeand Guattari will call utopian: 'utopiais what links philosophywith its own epoch'(D&G 1994:99). are but to The purpose of philosophyis not to representthe world. philosophybecomes politicaland 'takesthe criticismof its own time to the highest level' (D&G 1994:99). they arenot reducible reality. philosophical thoughtidentifies certainaspects that stateof affairsasproblems of requiring new solutions. and eventually evenoutsideof philosophy. new and improvedone. because they arethought to havebeenbadly posed. in the senseof what we are in the process differing from.and not simply in orderto claim that contemporary societyis disciplinary. Philosophyaimsneverto settle.schools. Important that determine like or or is [its] success failure' (D&G 1994:82). by previous at thinkers. to settle of on a correctunderstanding the world.rtrlirtior. for and it is an activity forcedupon rather than initiated by the philosopher. in extractas and ing a philosophical conceptfrom a historicalstateofaffairs. that. llrc philosophyand its socio-historical So the connection between milieu is essentially diagnostic ratherthan representative-scientific. This is the sense the actualin Foucault's of work. Here. in the estimation a creative of have beenpoorlyconceived and hencedemandto be oll'cr rrcw ancl clill'crcnt pcrsgtcctivcsrlricrrlrlions ort l()wilr(l wrlrlcl. herethe problems not strictly speaking originallyphilosophical. traincd ancl/<lrpunishcclrt vlrious tinrcs thcir lifc. during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. but to createconcepts. the 1970s In Michel Foucaultshowedhow. in this way. or not posed all.52 Hume Plato CO NCEPTS + U T OPIA C ON TR OL SOC IETY 53 CONCEPTS + UTOPIA EugeneHolland.Remarkable.Philosophyresponds problemsthat arisewhen to givenmodeof existence practicalorientationno longersuffices. and thcscconccptsservenot to replicateaccurately discourse in specificsegrrcntsof thc w<lrkl it rc:rllyis (m scicncc rrs ckrcs). Disciplinarysocieties developed networkof sitesand a institutions .The creationof concepts thus cruciallyselective well as(or aspart ofbeing) diagnostic.isciplinarysociety had developedthat was based on strategiesof confinement.r'cnrcrgcs irr thc irsan . Sciences to aim graspstates affairsasthey are.philosophy does respond not to problems its own'. The centralactivityof philosophy Deleuzeis the creationof concepts.and/or because problems histhe are toricallynew or havechanged radicallyover time asto renderprevious so responses inadequate.the family .it is paradoxthat provokes thought. or ulationsthat areindeedphilosophical. but to problems presented it or forcedupon it by of to its real-worldmilieu. CONTROL SOCIETY John Marks Deleuzedevelops notion of the 'control society'at the beginningof the his 1990s. in is Deleuze reminds us that disciplinary societies succeeded 'sovereign' societies. a d. a or Such problems realenough. are or but provoke philosophical theynonetheless thoughtto furnishsolutions or at tq leastnewand improvedarticulations thoseproblems solutions articof. The second kind of provocation consists topicsor problems of (no within philosophy longerlimited to logicalcontradictions paradoxes) or philosopher. Unlike the socialand natural sciences. And it is this kind of connection.prisons. Deleuze giventhreekindsof answer this question.factories. to proposc but articulations ol'itttd/rlr soltttiorrsto problclns. Deleuzeuses of Foucault's insightsasa startingpoint to claim that we aremoving towards control societies which confinement no longerthe main strategy. here. philosophyis creative. locus of the stimulusto of the thought shifts steadilyoutsideof thought. Foucault carriedout this historicalwork in order to showwhat we had inheritedof the disciplinarymodel. his has to In early works. Irr this wiry.the provocation to thoughtis internalto thoughtitself. Rather it is categories Interesting.within which indivicluals wcrc locatcd. HenceDeleuzeand Guattari insist that philosophy for them 'doesnot consistin knowingand is not inspiredby truth.In the latercollaborations Guattari with (and perhapsbecause that collaboration).hospitals. What is it that befallsphilosophers forces that them to think?In the course of his career.As Deleuze points out. that they concentrated the organisation life and proand on of duction rather than the exerciseof arbitrary entitlementsin relation to thesetwo domains. figurcof'thc'po. servingas a kind of relaybetween one practicalorientationto the world and another. The utopianvocationof concept-creation thus consists in proposingsolutionsto the pressingproblemsof the time. of but on the contraryalways unsettleand to transformour understanding to of certainproblems. The third kind of provocation arises from the connectionbetweenphilosophy and its socio-historicalcontext.

a constantvariation.dominatednow by the myriad forms of intelprovision. The factory functioned accordingto somesort of equilibrium betweenthe highest possibleproduction and the lowest possiblewages. the other In on hand.whilst the mass is reconfigured terms of data. placedin various'moulds' at differenttimes.productivelabour. by areinstead increasingly blurred. by the alienating which do awaywith the constraints be in favourof a movetowardssocieties of individuality.ulation.It may evenbe he the case. measurable object. suggests. they turn the individual a real socialengagement no to into an objectthat hasno resistance.Although the Body without Organslacksthe discreteness what know asan individual that is not to sayit doesnot have we conventionally by is the preciseway in which control societies dismantlethe individual that alarms Deleuze. suggests the movc towarcls continuous:lsscssmcnt schoolsis bcing cxtendedto in socicty gcncral. Deleuzesees little more than a new systemof domination. bccomcs of oldcrthrt will bclrlllc dispcnsc to irrvolvcd crcirti<ln irnccon<lmic thc irlwnys . Connectives Body without Organs Fold Foucault Intensity CONTROL SOCIETY + STATE THEORY Kenneth Surin says In his shortbut prescient essay'Postscript ControlSocieties'Deleuze on (asopposed the disciplinary sociof to that in the ageof the societies control capital by etiesof the previous epochfamouslyanalysed Michel Foucault). giventhat it entailsmight in somewaysbe unexpected Deleuze's sometimeslooks like a conventionaldefenceof the individual threatened One might expectDeleuzeto forcesof globalcapitalism. Just as the worker was a componentin a regulatedsystemof massproduction.It may be traversed On forces. In contrast to this.and so forth) and entities. in the wagespaid to workers.54 CO NTRO L SO CIE T Y C ON TR OL SOC IETY * STETE TH EOR Y 55 observable. that is ableto harorganisation' hasbecome vast'internationalecumenical a forms even assemblage the most disparate moniseinto a singleoverarching (commercial.The individual. as home and workplace becomes boundarybetween labour. Deleuze uses as an examplethe world of work and production. In this new disreligious.In the domainsof prison.are continuous form. irt with thc cll'cct that muchof lif'ctrrkcs thc tcxturc<lf on or llrc Hnrncslrow lhc nrrrrkclirrg sc. This means that we aredeniedthe privilegeof havingnothing to say. althoughthesechanges may be presentedasbeingmore closelytailored to the needsof individuals. the contrary.The individualis becoming a'dividual'.this means that the figurein the individualis replaced a dividby of ual segment codedmatter to be controlled. which claimsto be movingtowardsa system'withoutdoctorsor patients'.However.In the caseof medicine. 'dividuals' are caught up in a processof constantmodulation. Whereas disciplinary individualsproducedquantifiable and discrete amountsof energy. hospitals and business. The variousforms of control constitute a network of inseparable variations.In generalterms) the duality of massand individual is being brokendown. artistic. The of directlyencompassed the latestregimes accumulation.Rather than encouraging with the pre-personal. so unions could mobilisemassresistance. constant availability everythingthat creates of play. There is a deeperlevel of modulation.which emerge particularly after World in War II . we may cometo view the harshconfinements that of disciplinarysocieties with somenostalgia. Another reasonwould be that we areconstantly coerced into forms of 'communication'.the dominantmodel is that of the business. We may regret the lossof previoussolidarities. which it is more frein quently the task of the individual to engage forms of competitionand in in continuingeducation order to attain a certainlevelof salary. appears It that we will incrcasingly lack a space creative for He that 'resistance'. disciplinarysystem one of contiguity:the the is individual movesfrom site to site. leisure. societiesof control . for One reason this is obviously that techniquesof control threatento be isolatingand individualising. areno longerleft to'private' domains but is a zoneof intensity.rnirrirr'. which is susceptible various forms of to manipulation. asit bccomcs cvcn ubiquitous. The critiqueof contemporary societies the notion of controlsociety that in work.beginningagaineachtime.samples in and markets.whereas indiis the vidual in a contemporary control societyis in a constantstateof mod.andsoon. Although he is in no way suggesting that we shouldreturn to disciplinary institutions. capacity 'fold' the line of modof ulation.but it is not simply a relay for those forces. expanded covereverysegment of has to lectuallabourandservice with the extended scope capitalis coterminous of society: exponentially the Human consurplus-value. Deleuze clearly finds the prospectof the new control in a disciplinary society. control societies. pensation. work and'casual' Capitalism doesthe demrrcation between 'regular' ()apitalism's hx telos infilrmrrliscd. cultivatingthe of particularkind of creative solitudethat Deleuzevalues.the old institutionsare breakingdown and. Essentially.

is that these superimposednarratives and the selectioncriteria they sanction. 'Turks are not Europeans'. Such selectioncriteria.the 'accords'thatchannelsocialand politicalpower. become crucial one for capitalism.whetherin administration or business. are being weakenedor qualified in ways that deprive them of their force. and. but on bar-codingand other forms of electronictagging.and so on).which specifywhat is to be Accordsareconstituted selection by Thesecriteria by includedor excluded the termsof the accordin question. a setof As govcrning accords rcgulatc opcrations the rtcc<lrds axioms rlr the that thc of vnrious componcnts ln immcnscly of powcrfhlnndcomprchcnsivc systcm L capital is situatedat the crossing-pointof all kinds of of accumulation. This essentially dispersive propensity is reflected in the present regime of capitalist accumulation. can of accords'par excellence. no longer basedon the written document kept in the appropriate box of files. an unendingcycle. capitalformations. Recording.movements) so forth. goodness beauty(reminiscent albeit translatedwhere necessary the so-calledmediaevaltranscendentals.the 'accord or phenomena. traditional the separation between Stateandsociety nowno longersustainable.What seemsto be happening something that continues throughout life. These 'accords'are organising principleswhich make possiblethe grouping into particular configurations whole rangesof of personages. on but rather the sale of services(especiallyin the domain of finance and credit) and already finished products. and this is a generalisation that is conit junction with capital. revamping thesein Dffirence and. the Statehasmutatedin if the era of control societies. and is not confined to those aged six to twenry-rwo. processes. objects and personages and even incompossibleseries. that is. into the appropriatecontemporary vernacular). to and when public relations consultants are more important to prime ministers and presidentsthan goodand wisecivil servants.However.but is now a branch of marketing. policed by the State. Social control is no longer left to schoolsand police forces. societies CREATIVE TRANSFORMATION Ad. in which politicians seekdesperately an for imageof themselves market to the electorate. retainsthe function of regulating. WhereDeleuze concerned. The state itself has become fragmented and compartmentalised. tend to function by assigningprivileges of rank and order to the objects they subsume ('Le Pen is more French than Zidane'.and so the productionof socialcooperation. has a This needto maintainconstant control overthe forms of socialcooperation in turn requiresthat education. the criteria. such and that the resultingconfigurations become integratedformations. value-laden. asthe lossor attenuationof the customaryforce of such accords makes dissonancesand contradictions difficult or even easierto affirm. institutions. whereproduction is now meta-production. development is this doesnot requirethe Stateandits appurtenances beabolished. productiveunderstanding repetition.rian Parr In developingthe idea of 'creative transformation' Deleuze draws on sources. The implications the above-mentioned of developments statetheory for are momentous. undertaken primarily by the serviceand informationalindustriesin the advanced economies. Keen to expandupon the generative evolutionhe turns to Baruch creative dynamicimplicationsof Bergsonian in Ethic's. can now be assignedto severaldivergent Events. asevenpolitics hasbecome'retail politics'. to Rather.makesdivergences impossibleto resolve.that is. Initially in his work on Henri Bergson a variety of philosophical conceptof 'creativeevolution'and 'durhe picks up on the philosopher's into of Repetition a discussion the ation'. bring togetherheterogeneous and makethem express sameworld. that of capitalistaccumulation. and education becomes'continuing education'.and thus hasthe capacityto integrateand recompose ist and non-capitalist sectors modesof production. In his book on Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz.and in its current phasethis telos becomemore palpably has visible. and has accruedmore power to itself in somespheres while totally relinquishingpowerin others.all the while embracing concept a of of difference that beliesthe negativestructureof a 'differenceto or from' and in in favourof 'difference itself'.56 CO NTRO L SO CI ETY + STATE THEORY C R EATIVE TR AN SFOR M ATION 57 with the State.The criteria that constitute accordsare usually defined and describedby narratives governed by of and a certainnormativevision of truth.Capital. in which all capitalhasbecome translatable into is'on the in job' as opposedto being basedon the traditional apprenticeship model (itself a holdover from feudalism). is Society State and now form one all-embracing matrix. never end: the business time-scale now '2+/7'so that the Tokyo stockexchange is opens when the one in New York closes. Deleuzemaintainsthat stateand non-stateformationsare constitutedon the basisof such 'concerts' or 'accords'. particularthe conceptionof bodiesthat Bergsonand Spinoza's . no longer focusedin the advanced economies the useof raw materialsto producefinished goods.The functioning of capital in the control requiresthat the Statebecomeinternally pluralised. business. also determinewith which other possibleor actual accordsa particular accord will be consonant(or dissonant). correlatively.criteria which may or may not be explicitly formulated or entertained.A lessportentous way of making this point would be to say that accordsare inherently axiological.

The temporality durationis not conceivedof chronologically.the'crystal-image'.It is. Then. genes on andorganisms.spontanby changes eous.rather. time and differencesin becoming. creative transformation becomes systemof involutionwheretransversal a movements engage materialforcesand affects. life placedon nonThe theory of creativeinheritanceand the emphasis organiclife is then given a makeover and turned into the conceptof the 'rhizome' in his collaboration with Guattari. focusof inheritance away from determination the continuance a fixed and of Deleuze chooses bring to essence is passed overtime. Deleuzian seconds.Inheritance is not articulated within an essentialist frameworkthat placesthe emphasis species. is the force It to our attentionthe creative dimension thus.durationmaintains in an openstateof indeterminacy.Here creativity is taken to be a machinic mode of evolution that is productivein and of itself. Colm. Plateausthe force of life is describedby Deleuze and Guattari asinherently innovative and social. In Bergson Deleuzefindsthe possibilityfor a philosophy that grasps in life of termsof durationandthe inhuman. however. Explaining this distinction they write that what 'distinguishes map the in from thc tracingis that it is entirelyorientedtowardan experimentation (D&G 1987:12). wherebythe end of onemomentmarksthe beginning of the next. The crystalthen becomes conceptthat Deleuzemethodologically a usesin his considerationof thought. evolutionis construedasa process repetition it that is inherently creative: is productiveof difference. taking placeon a planeof consistency that precedes univocalBeing.The crystal is configured through Deleuze'samalgamation writers. in his collaborationwith Guattari.they clearly state that a rhizome is a map not a trace. nor is it a measurable time. The whole question of transformationis clearlysituatedby both Deleuzeand Guattari in an experimental milieu and the creativityof this milieu is necessarily social. which is to sayit is not the antithesis being 'closed'. vitality of life and difference the of life that persists. The next philosophical influence Deleuze's of creative in use transformation would haveto be Friedrich Nietzsche's conceptof the 'eternalreturn'.Thesevaryingconcepts enmeshed are with the idea that the figure of the crystal is representative specificstatesof temporaof lity. as as durationneeds be construed the flow of time. that on inherentin evolution. through the middle. comingand goingratherthan startingand finishing'(D&G 1987: 25). T'hescincludeHenri Bcrgson's vitalism. The questionof 'life'.rcnnrultiplicity. As it was articulated in of Dffirence and Repetitiozl. philosophers of and filmmakerswhose workscrcatcdfigurcsof time-spacc. PlateausDeleuze Guattaricharacteriserhizomeasindeterminate and a and interpretexperimental.conceptsaretools for Deleuze). Connectives Bergson Difference Representation Spinoza CRYSTAL Felicitjt J.'l'hc rhizomcis conccivccl asan contlrctwith thc rcal' of o.58 CREATI VE TRANSFO R M A T I O N C R Y S TA L 59 Spinozashare:a body is constitutedon an immanent plane. Steering emphasis the awayfrom representational ative frameworks. In A addressed Deleuzeasan experimental.Accordingto this schema nent. creativetransformation immais are affirmed. importantto notethat their useof 'open' hereis not conceived of negatively. and open processof transformation. creative transformation takes a turn through biophilosophy. In both his 1956 essayon Bergson and his 1966 book Bergsontsm (D 1988a) Deleuzeutilisesthe idea of 'evolution'proposed Bergsonin by Expandingon this a little more. the handsof In Deleuze(remember.or years.Like Michel Foucault. Mauricc Mcrlclu-Ponty'scxpcrimcnts with thc lrticulirtionof' thc .bypassingboth the human condition and teleological theoriesof evolution characteristic Jean-Baptiste of Lamarck in favourof a transhuman theoryof heredity. Initially he co-joinsexistingscientificand artisticconceptions of the formal properties and concepts of a crystal to work through the Platonic conceptionof a real image and its counterpoint:virtual image. as discerned through images. of the machinic character of a rhizome arises out of the virtual and the dynamicboundaries that constituteit. Hence.Deleuzeshiftsthe terms of transmission. it is intensive muchas to it is creativein so far as it is the movementof time that marks the force of life.through change.The conceptof the 'crystal' is engaged Deleuzein his book Cinerna The by 2: Time-Image the'crystallinesign'or'hyalosign'. Early on in A Thousand. rrlllifb is r rlrizonrlticnrrxlco1'clungc withoutfirm rrnd and fixed boundariesthat proceeds'from the middle. as and the 'crystallinestate'. months. that is broken down into minutes. Put differently. producedcrystalform fascinated The multifaceted natureof a geologically produce affectsand being open to being affected. because Deleuzeand Guattarirecognise it is the power that of affect that is creative. namelythe force that persists over time and the that ensue.

expressed of infinitive verb (mourir. Gaston Bachelard'sstudy of reciprocal. characteristic other bodies. Connectives Actuality Affect Bergson Time-image Virtual/Virtuality DEATH Bruce Baugh Death is many things: a state of affairs. Death in this sensealwayscomesfrom outside and it and assuchis both fortuitousand inevitable: is the necessary detergoverned by encounters with otherbodies. of In is inevitablethat at somepoint it will encounterbodiesthat the 'decompose' vital relation of its parts.the resultant crystal-imagein turn producesan external representation an imageof thought.Augustine's system enablesDeleuze to discuss the crystal-image as a modality of knowing time and its possibleconstitution. Affection may not be instantaneous.'lir thisclcath.60 CRYSTAL D EATH 6T perceptionof things.unempleyment. Memory (B 1994:105)that Deleuzereworksin his second book on cinema: The Time-Irnage(D 1989: 289). and the crystal-image employed Deleuzeto encompass shifts in is by vast meaningcausedthrough the exchanges betweenpast. A crystal-image involves a multilayered and infinite register of montaged 'realities'. forms impersonal event of dying. 'model' of immobility and of energythat is not organa destrucisedand put to work. perception and affect . capitalism's famineand disease. a the A body existswhen its parts compose relationthat expresses singular forceof existence 'essence' that body. This systemis from St Augustine's understanding temporalrelations. and in relation to the image. their variousstates virtual and real. affective imagery. tion of surplusvaluethrough war.and causethoseparts to enter into new relations. the effectsof time alter the molecularstructureof things (includingcinematicinformation).when a body's parts. put irnd and affectiveexperiences may into effect. mined resultof a body'schance with purely mechanical lawsof cause and effect. The crystal'sspecificstatesof formation. and finally the 'deathinstinct'.to die).time. Deleuzedescribes cognitiveand physical the apprehension time asperceptual of and 'modification'. Friedrich Niezsche's suspicionof linguistic phenomenology.each within a particular circuit of meaning. Over time. where examplesof the crystal-image and the conceptof 'crystallinenarration' are discussed at length.Together of with the Bergsonian conceptof time as a 'thought-image'. and Alain Robbe-Grillet and Alain Resnais'play with socialfolds of time. the experience zero 'intensity' that is in of or implicit in a body's feelingor experience an increase decrease its forceof existence. of and Deleuzeutilisesit to describe an image'sconfigurationof a memory. as thc dccompositionof a body's characteristic prcscnt of :rnd clcath thc Sclf or cgo. In The Time-Image.the crystalconceptis the productionand apprehension time. Deleuzedescribes crystallinestructureas a process a and placeof the is between actualand virtual (D 1989: the 69).This 'exchange'that enacted process from Bergson's is conceptof'reflective perception'. Deleuzeequates crystallinestructureof the cinemawith the the nature of its self-reflexivity and the temporal medium. enter into a relation that is incompatiblewith that body's through an continued existence.and ceases be when its to or of parts are determined by outside causesto enter into a relation that is incompatiblewith its own. mutation and of are of transformation thus effects differentprocesses time. Dependent upon the component layers of time-space montage.The crystalis thusa philosophical of mechanism that is illustrative of concept production. 'affectation' properties Configuringthe crystalasa temporalconceptwith affective enablesDeleuze to addressthe associated implications for relationships generatedby movement. thc brrsis thc pcrsonal of . As Deleuzedescribes cinema's it.or recollection an event.Through thesethree variin of ationsof the crystal-image. memory. Deleuze's 'crystal' sccks to dcscribc a cognitivc processwhcrcby the temporal rcgistrltiono1'fhcmovcnrcrrts firrnrsof lffcct lrc cxprcsscd. through external causes.medium or surround. presentand future images.Deleuze describes threefoldsystemfor the crystal's a variationsof past-present-future time.Sinceeverybody interacts other bodies.described in his 1896bookMatter and. Deleuze describes the exchange that structureof virtual-actual relations means that the crystal-image is an amalgamatedform of virtual and actual in its various stagestoward infinity. contextand form. of rclation. perception be delayedin their consciousor corporeal acknowledgement. and utilisation. techniqueof acknowledgement experand imentationwith the crystal-image's medium achieves divergent modalities of the image.

JACqUES (1930-2004)referto theentries and'virtual/virtuality'.that resultsin an in with increase the body'spowerfelt asjoy.In eachof the featuresusedto definethis conceptionof desire.nor is 'mortal' a quality that inheresin things or subjects. unemployment. schemat. poweror forceof existing. but also as :r f<lrcclblc t<l firrm conncctionsand 'l'lrcsc lwo lcrttttrcs arc irr tlrc cnlrrrrrcc lxrwclol'bodics thcir cor. Sincethe BwO doesnot perform any labour.ritrrlisrrt's itbsorptiorr itrrlist systcrrr spccilicirlly.'one'dies. natural. an emptiness retainshis definidisguisedby everyappetite. catatonicBwO arises the from within the depthsof the instincts. Instead of desire being externally in organised relation to prohibitions that give it a constitutiverelation to of for Deleuzedesireis definedasa process experimentationon a 'lack'. Other bodiescancombinewith a body either in a way that agrees with the body's constitutiverelation.a cliflirscd imnrirncnt rn .but oneneverceases finishes to deathof the Self or 'I' is when it ceases die and is actuallydead:when or is its vital relationsaredecomposed.asthe decomposition one living body is simulthe taneously compositionof a new singularlife. ot'llrc surplusvirltrc crr. expressed the infinitive of dying. Every transitionfrom a greaterto a lesser existence from a lesserto a greater.Added to this conceptionof desireas productive. The 'model' of zero intensity is into thus the Body without Organs(BwO).asa deathinstinct. increases diminutionsof their bodies experience or During its existence.The psychoanalytic of tiable lack regulatedby Oedipal law is one of the main inaccuracies desire that Deleuze tries to correct. Connectives Body Body without Organs * on'becoming DERRIDA.timmanence'.the energy of for which is not put to work.and the selectionof certain populationsfor starvaThe death instinct is thus historical and political. irnd ttnction of thc c:rp| )crrtlr bccomcs instinct.the deathinstinctis a productof the sociallyclctcrminccl rclationsof procluctionin thc capitalistsystcm. theory is the conceptionof desireaspositive. or dying.what Deleuze form (taking 'speculative'in the senseof calls death in its speculative financialspeculation).'nonbeing' on DESCARTES. procluctivcfirrcc.or alternativeconception of desire as premised on 'lack' or regulated by conceptionof desire as an insa'law' is contested. DESIRE Alison Ross 'Desire' is one of the central terms in Deleuze'sphilosophicallexicon. the body that is not organised organswith specificfunctions performing specifictasks.Deleuzecontrasts 'event' asfoundedin the personal in and incorporeal. to is thus felt in everyfeeling.eventhoughthe deathof a body effectuates actualises dying.involvesand envelops zero intensity with the Death its or respect which it experiences powerasincreasing decreasing.experienced life and for life'.and the Self or the egowith it. Poweris that relation.resulting is immobile and catatonic. but which are never physicallypresentin bodies and or this things. the subsumptionof the deadbody'sparts under a new relation. such as war. a In his work with Guattari. Dying is not a process that takes verb 'to die' and in the predicate placein things.Whereasin psychoanalytic desireis locatedwithin the individual as an impotent force.62 DEATH D ESIR E 63 the self and the body.the positive and productive dimension Deleuze ascribesto desire makesit a social Thus rcinterpretcd. .the verb and the predicate past and future. cinema'. flrrrcc. degreeof intensity.'Spinozat tcogito'. plane of this very of deathloseitself in itself.or in a waythat is incompatible in a diminution of power felt as sadness. meanings that extendover the express Rather. to Yet.In Anti-Oedipus. and'thought'.desireis vicwcdnot iust as an cxperimental.Deleuze for energyavailable investment. RENf (1596-1650) referto theentries 'arborescent tplanet.rrcclion.ln TheLogicof Sense. they are returnedto the zero intensityfrom which intensity.impersonal dying makes reduced zerointensity. 'in It is in that sensethat the life instincts and appetitesarise from the emptinessor zero intensity of death. Deleuzedevelops definition of desireaspositive and productive that supports the conception of life as material flows. it producesthrough anti-production or the production of lack. but argues that ratherthan a principle.'Hume'. not tion and disease.The In impersonal dying. its essence powerof existence and that everyincrease decrease or in a poweris an increase decrease intensity. which is impersonal mortal. tion of the deathinstinct asdesexualised of and as the source of the destructiveness drives and instincts. but is available investment. in or When the body dies.

Schizoanalysis the adds discovery that labour-power libido arein essence sidesof the same and two coin. of Schizoanalysis insistson thc contrary thrt 'sucill-productionis purcly nnd simply dcsiring-prrrcluction itsclf . Sexualityis one flow that entersinto coniunction with others in an assemblage. joinslibido andlabour-power distinctinstances production-in-general. is not a privileged infrastructure It within desiringassemblages. For this reason when Deleuze argues against dualismthat prohibitsor intcrruptsdesircfrom the thc cxtcrnd pointsof lackrlr plcirsurc. desire a process which anything permissible.eventhough under certainconditionswhat we want subsequently takenawayfrom gets us by the repressive figure of a castrating fatheror the oppressive figureof an exploitative boss(amongothers).Against psychoanalysis. an energyableto be transformed.Such dualism. irsscmhhgcs Connectives Immanence Kant Lacan Oedipalisation Psychoanalysis Schizoanalysis DESIRE + SOCIAL-PRODUCTION EugeneHolland. This integralprocess described is inA Thousand.Desireis thus not a fantasyof what we lack:it is first and foremost the psychicaland corporealproduction of what we want . Desire is alsoa crucial elementin Deleuze'scritique of philosophical dualism. which as of The is developed response the subjectivist in to misinterpretation the desiringof machinesof Anti-Oedipus. underlinesthe view that desireis experimental and relatedto an outside. all the while explaining simple activities such as sleeping walking or writing as desires.By restoringthe link betweendesiring-production and social-production. Whetherdesireis relatedto the law of lack or the norm of pleasure is misunderstood regulatedby lack it as or discharge.whetherin ImmanuelKant or psychoanalysis.6+ DESI RE D ESIR E + SOC IAL _ PR OD U C TION 65 used to distinguish the experimentationof desire from any variant of naturalism.eventhoughthey areseparated capitalism its historically by in unique segregation ofreproductionfrom productionat largevia the privatisation of reproduction in the nuclearfamily. desire in Deleuze'svocabularyis irreducible to a distinction between naturalism/artificeor spontaneity/law. alsomakcs hc asccsis important an filr conditiorr thc proccsscs c<lnstruct thirt <lf'clcsirc.and they advance new ethics of'schizoa analysis' whose task is the differentiation between active and reactive desires. is this relationto an outsidethat underpinsthe It social dimension given to desire in Deleuze'sthought.bourgeoispsychiatry discoveredthat the essence eroticvaluedoesnot inherein objects is invested them by of but in subjective activityin the form of libidinal cathexis. subnor or limatedinto other flows(D 1993b:140). is in is Desireis accordinglydistinguishedfrom that which 'would come and break up the (D integralprocess desire' 1993b: of 140). This conception of desire works or across a number of themes in Deleuze's writing with Guattari. The conceptof desiring-production prevents desirefrom beingunderstoodin terms of 'lack' (asit hasbeenin westernmetaphysics from Plato to Freud): desiring-productionactually produces what we take to be reality (in the sense that a lawyerproducesevidence) through the investment of psychicalenergy (libido). Productive and positive desire works in their writing as an operative vocabularythrough which they explain fascismin politics as the desire for the repressionof desire.schizoanalysis deprives psychoanalysisof its excusefor and justification of repression. is ableto submit desireto a iuridical systemof regulationprecisely because it first distinguishes the domain of existencefrom those transcendent valuesthat arrangeit in relation to ordering principles. and Deleuze defines desire accordingly in his work with Guattari as assembled machined. Plateaus the construction assemblages.and exists independent socialconditions. tandemwith uses in to link SigmundFreud and Karl Marx: the term con'social-production'. term.In the caseof psychoanalysis exercise transcendent this of regulationerroneously containsdesireto the field of the subject's sexuality andturns it into a problem of interpretation.or asa process whosegoalis dissolutionin pleasure. Deleuzetries to de-sexualise and de-individualise desire.that psychic repressionis somehowautonomousfrom social oppression. as of politicaleconomy discovered the essence economic that of Justasbourgeois value doesnot inhere in objectsbut is investedin them by subjectiveactivity in the form of labour-power. Schizoanalysis the pivotalterm 'desiring-production'. just associal-productionproduceswhat we take to be reality through the investmentof corporeal energy (labourpower). Understood as an assemblage. Againstthis alliance Deleuze describes desire the construcas tion of a planeof immanence which desire continuous. in is Instead a regof ulationof desire pleasure lackin whichdesire extracted by or is from its plane of immanence. Deleuze particularly is criticalof thealliance between desire-pleasure-lack in which desire misunderstood eitheran insatiable is as internallack.

In A 'l'housuntl rrs l'lttttttts dclcrrit<lriitlisittiort cortstilutcs cultingcdgcol'ln irsscnrltlirgc lhc (D&G 1987:88). original/copyand soon).For instance.hence. there are two different deterritorialising moveQralitatively speaking ments:absolute and relative. Absolutedeterritorialisation a way of moving and assuchit hasnothing is to do with how fast or slow deterritorialisingmovementsare./R ETER R TTo R TAL IsATTo N 67 under determinate conditions'(D&G 1983:29).thought is deterritorialised all that is outsideof thought. how is deterritorialisationconnected to reterritorialisation?Perhaps deterritorialisationcan best be understood as a movement producing change. they describe a Kafkaesque literary deterritorialisationthat mutates content.and that psychicrepression therefore derives from social oppression: transform those social conditions. There arethreemodes social-production.the fixed form of desiresuband jected to socially-authorised belief (in God.but alsoin the moreenduringforms of State-sponsored nationalism.Put succinctly. the teacher. In fact. whcreasthe problcm positsall that is unrccognisable or 'l'hcy suggcsttlrlt whirt is dctcrriturialisccl music rrrc unknowrrblc.all the way up to and including of the State. is not the polar oppositeof territorialisation reterit or ritorialisation(when a territory is established once more).66 DETERRIToRI ALI s ATI oN. the boss. that is. of work?Second. discuss usedeterritorialisation Theseinclude:art. moving through relativedeterritorialising are movementsthat areactual.deterritorivector. forcesoperating in institutions ranging from the nuclearfamily and Oedipal psychoanalysis.Meanwhile in philosophy. such movementsare immanent. the Oedipuscomplexand the nuclearfamily. is concerned with overcomingthe dualistic frameworkunderpinning western philosophy(Being/nonbeing. Capitalism frees desiring-productionfrom capture and repressionby codes and representations. the free form of desire promoted half-heartedly by capitalism and wholeheartedlyby schizoanalysis.capitalism the mostpromising. but evenmore its propensity for generatingschizophreniaas the radically free form of desiringproduction. paranoia. It is because schizoanalysis insiststhat social-production alwaysprovidesthe determinate conditionsunder which desiring-production takes shapethat it can hold the mode of social-production responsible that for shape. forcing enunciations and expressions 'disarticulate'(D&G 1986:86)./represses desiring-production a specificway. and philosophyand politics. deterritorialisation indicatesthe creativepotential of an assemblage. while at the same time it recapturesand represses desiring-production mostly temporarycodesand representain tions. In this regard. the and of eachof which oppresses. is tied it alisationinheresin a territory asits transformative to the very possibilityof change immanentto a giventerritory.In this well as Guattari. how doesthe process deterritorialisation emerge.And the corresponding challenge schizoanalysis a revoto as lutionarypsychiatry to eliminate countervailing is the forces that recapture free desire and subject it to paranoiaand belief. in Of the three. free up the fixed relationsthat contain a body all the while exposingit to new organisations.the relationship must not be condeterritorialisation to reterritorialisation has struednegatively. the father. to deterritorialiseis to So.facesand in landscapes are deterritorialised. differentiatedand ontologicallyprior to the movementsof relative deterritorialisation. schizoanalysis evaluates modeof social-production a according to the form of desiring-production makes possible.mental or spiritual (D&G 1994:68). music. There are severaldifferent theoretical contexts Deleuze and Guattari in. / RETERR IToRIALISATIoN D E T E R R ITo R TAL TsATIo N . DETERRITORIALISATION Adrian Parr / RETERRITORIALISATION There are a variety of ways in which Deleuze and Guattari describe thc proccss is not the by questionthat is deterritorialisingbut the problem.absolutedeterritorialising movements virtual. Anti-Oedipus <rf In thcy speakof deterritrrriirlisrfion 'il corning unclonc'(l)&G l9tl3: 322).because at leastis ambivais it lent: it activelyfosters both forms of desiring-production.literature. irr (ritournrllt). in the way that Deleuzeand Guattari describe and usethe concept.A hclplirlcxirrrrplc frtrnrrrrr voiccs hcrc would irnd thc rcli'nirr . soon). There are two basicforms of desiring-production: schizophrenia. whereas preits decessors alwaysdid their utmost to crush the one in favourof the other. it The valueof capitalism as a mode of social-productionis not only the extraordinary materialproductivity so admiredby Marx.Philosophyis an exampleof absolute deterritorialisationand capital is an exampleof relative deterritorialisation. can Given this seemingly broad spectrum of descriptions two questions First. the westernvisualarts.In their book on the novelistFranzKafka. to the bureaucracy private enterprise. In their to -Deleuze and Guattari posit that final collaboration What isPhilosophy? deterritorialisation be physical. leader.because question the sccksan answcr.In so far as it operatesas a line of flight. It is important to rememberthat Deleuze.Relative deterritorialisation movestowardsfixity and as such it occursnot on a molecularbut molar plane as an actual movement.and you transformthe degreeand form of psychicrepression aswell.

Henry Eliot Howard and Konrad Lorenz all suggested malebirds aggressively defenda particular territory as a way of sociallyorganisingthemselves. earing and so activities were and populationsmoved from rural to urban undergoingradicalchanges. antecedents the for and In additionto the bioethological psychoanalytic concepts of deterritorialisationand reterritorialisation. rather he brought birdsong into relation with the piano in a mannerthat transformedthe territory of the musicalinstrument (piano) and the birdsongitself Here the distinctiverone. theseworkshe did not iust imitate the songs [n of birds.For him a 'territory' refers to a specificmilieu that cannotbe separated from the living thing occupyingand creatingthe milieu. Accordingly. decode.Deleuzeand. a Apart from biologythc tcrm'tcrrit<lrialisation'can bc foundin psyalso choirnirlysis. / RETER R T T o R T A L I s A T T o N D E T ER R ITOR IAL ISATION . it a of of libidinal investment.Instead. it wasthe French psychoanalyst Jacques For Lacan.aggressiveis nessthe basisof the territory'(D&G 1987:315).Commenting on capitalism. that Connectives Becoming Lacan Lines of flight Nomadicism PirrtirlObjcct Ithizonrc . that he makes. Rather than understanding deterritorialisation as destabilisingthat which produces meaning.In one sense rural labour-power was deterritorialised (peasantand landowner) but in another senseit was reterritorialised (factory worker and industrial capitalist). the psychoanalytic This freeing is to deterritorialise to free desirefrom libidinal investment. 'territorialisation'refers to the way in which the body of an infant is organisedaround and determined by erogenouszones and the process one is This organisational connections forms with part-objects. means To in to strike out at the selfsame codesthat producerigid meanings opposed as to translatingmeaning. so that the meaningof a milieu for Von Uexkiill is affective. such as when they becamefactory workers in the textile industry (H 1999: 19-20). That selfsame to when it is then connected anothermeansof probeingreterritorialised duction. (or of peasants banished 'freed') from one means prowereconcomitantly onto other means reterritorialised duction only to havetheir labour-power of production. flowsof codearereterriDeleuzeand Guattari insistthat deterritorialised between into the axiomatic capitalism of and it is this connection torialised the the two processes constitutes capitalistsocialmachine. suchasmating. in Yet asthe bird singsits songis it simply beingrerritorial?Here we may considerthe way in which the bird refrainis a territorial sign. This is important when we cometo considerthe supposed slippage between deterritorialisation and decodingthat happensin Anti-Oedipusbutnot in A Thousand. arguing that territoriality actually organises the functions. In this wag they usethe undersranding territory advanced the of by ethologistJakob Uexkiill. a systemof deterritorialising flows prevailed:markets were expanding.They claim functions. Guattari usethe biological understanding 'territoriality' asdiscussed of in the studiesof birds conductedduring the earlyto mid-twentiethcentury. Leaning upon Karl Marx. Von Uexkiill proposed thar there is no meaning outside of a milieu (Umweh).Deleuze and Guattari extend a political use to them. for example. however. crrrlyrrs l9fifi Guattari uscclthc psychoanrrlytic As tcrm isitliritt' : in his lxx>k Piltrfuutlutlltsc 'l'rtnstttrytlit(.areorganised'because areterritorialised'(D&G 1987: they 3 I 6).These studies of bird activiry undersrood territoriality as a biological drive pitched towards the preservationof species. the waythat Deleuzeand Guattariintend it. up of desire includes setting desire free from Oedipal investment (desire-as-lack). Bernard Altum. when the English Enclosure Acts the (1709-1869)enclosedcommon land for purposesof sheep-grazing. upshotof Deleuzeand Guattari'sreconthe to figuration of Lacanian'territorialisation'is that the subjectis exposed shatnew organisations. The problemthey havewith Lorenz. 'f crrilrrrirtf tt Lacan who influencedGuattari. Deleuzeand Guattari address territoriality from the position of what is produced by the biologicalfunction of mating hunting. Plateaus.Similarly Messiaen'scompositional style alsochanged when it enteredinto a relationwith birdsong. timbre and tempo of birdsongswere fundamentally changedthe moment theseelements connected with musical organisation.llcra. During the early phasesof industrialisation when capitalismwas really gaining momentum. environments. in A Thousand Plateaus Deleuzeand Guattariregardit asa transversal process that defines crethe ativity of an assemblage:nonlinearand nonfiliativesystemof relations.whereby thesecompositions could be described rermsof a becoming-bird. principal insight being: deterritorialisation the ters the subject. In isationits orificesand organsareconjugated. usedbirdsongin his compositions. Eugene Holland explains. from around 1955on.they push this work in a different direction.68 DETERRTToRTALt s ATI oN. they the posit that labour-power deterritorialised momentit is freedfrom the is labour-powercan be describedas meansof production./N ETER R ITOR IAL ISATION 69 be the composer Olivier Messiaen who.As the infant undergoes process territorialsense. to help shift the focusawayfrom a mechanvon istic understanding life onto an expressive of one.

Absolutedeterritorialisation is planeof consistency' rather but not a further stagethat comesafter relativedeterritorialisation its internal dynamic. which refersto the waysin which distinct deterritorialisations intercan act to accelerate another.Absolutedeterritorialisation posconjugationof deterritorialised itive when it leadsto the creationof a new earth and new people:'when it vital line or them to the powerof an abstract connects linesof flight. the particular waysin which it can effect transformation in other assemblages or in itself (D&G 1987:531). raises (D&G 1987:510). not whetherchange slowor suddenbut whetheror is deterritorialisation. legal possibilities.nirnrcly of thc itxiontut ol' cirllit ic irlisnr.thc reterritorialisation thc flows of capital and of hbour lclclst<ltlrc cnrcrgcncc ir ncw kinclof lsscmbhgc.Lines of flight in turn define the form of creativity specific to that assemblage. '[. 'fold'. deterritorialisation within relative deterritorialisation' forms of absolute deterritoThe difference betweenpositiveand negative rialisation correspondsto the differencebetweenthe connection and the is flows. Processes deterritorialisation of are the movements which definea givenassemblage sincethey determinethe presence the qualityof 'linesof flight' (D&G 1987: and 508).'black hole'. evenasthe societyreproduces all socialchange other levels.the stateof 'unformedmatteron the the (D&G 1987:55-6).deterritorialises productsinto commodities.'ouctrult t'old'.The key question.Deterritorialisation relativein so far asit concerns is ments within the actual order of things. Karl Marx's account of primitive accumulation in Capital illustratesthe operationof'vectors of deterritorialisation' a socialand in economicterritory: the development commodity marketsdeterritoriof alises socio-economic the territory of feudal agricultureand leadsto the emergence large-scale of commercialproduction. * irncl 'scntiotics' 'virtuitl/virturlity'. breakingthroughinto history' (D 1995:153). it concerns virtual orderof things. of they involveassemblages connection DIAGRAM . Relativedeterritorialisation elementis immediatelysubjectedto negatiyewhen the deterritorialised which enclose obstructits line of flight. deterritorialisation reterof and ritorialisationare inextricablyentangledin any given social field: 'The merchantbuys in a territory. everythinghingeson the kinds of deterritorialisation present. itself on happens the time. and is reterritorialised on commercial circuits' (D&G 1994: 68). Deleuze and of Guattari distinguishbetweenthe 'connection'of deterritorialised flows.politicalor The rioting of May 1968 was an event of this kind.From the point of view of socialor political change.positiveand negative(D&G 1987: the twin axesof absolute is only move508-10). Deterritorialisationis alwaysbound up with correlativeprocesses of reterritorialisation. is however. Deleuzeand Guattari define deterritorialisation the movementby as which somethingescapes departsfrom a given territory (D&G 1987: or 508). Sometimes. Reterritorialisationis itself a complex processwhich takesdifferent forms dependingupon the characterof the processes deterritorialisationwithin which it occurs.In this casc. not it is animated a positiveforceof absolute by along Deleuzeand Guattaridistinguishfour typesof deterritorialisation and relative. positivewhenthe line of flight prevails oversecondary elements eventhoughit may still fail to connectwith otherdeterritorialised in Deterritorialisation absolute so far as is or enter into a new assemblage. changeoccurs through the eruption of events a which breakwith the pastand inaugurate new field of social.'plirtciru'.Sincereal transformation drawsa planeof consistency' in of elements mutually suprequiresthe recombination deterritorialised only when portiveways.rcfcr to thc cntries on 'axiomatic'. Deterritorialisation always complexprocess is a involvingat leasta deterritorialisingelementand a territory which is being left behind or reconstituted. one and the 'conjugation'of distinct flowswhich refers to the ways in which one may incorporateor 'overcode'another thereby effectinga relativeblockage its movemenr(D&G 1987:220). that societies definedby their are When Deleuzeand Guattari suggest they meanthat fundamental lines of flight or by their deterritorialisation. These are all turning points in history after which somethings will neverbe the sameasbefore.70 DETERRI TO RI ALI SATI O N + POLITICS D IA GR A M 7l DETERRITORIALISATION + POLITICS Paul Patton The concept of deterritorialisationlies at the heart of Deleuze and Guattari'smaturepoliticalphilosophy. It is or forms of reterritorialisation with the steady difference and its role in socialand political erosionof myths aboutsexual institutions. are social politicalprocesses truly revolutionary or ratherthan conjugation. which doesnot mean returning to the original territory but rather the ways in which deterritorialised elementsrecombine and enter into new relations.Other examples 'a becoming of include the suddencollapse EasternEuropeancommunismor the dismantling of apartheidin South Africa.The processes territory formation.Sometimeschangeoccurs by degrees. since there is 'a perpetualimmanenceof absolute (D&G 1987:56). . of Marx's accountof primitive accumulation showshow the conjugationof the streamof displacedlabour with the flow of deterritorialised money capital provided the conditions under which capitalist industry could dcvelop.

that are and that thereis at base sameness a against which variationcanbe observed or deduced. transcendence. differencebecomesmerely a relative measureof sameness and. whilst the To conceptcan be applied to an infinite number of particular instances. of Differenceis usuallyunderstood either as'difference from the same'or differenceof the sameover time.72 DIFFERENCE CliffStagoll DIF F ERENCE D IFFER EN C E 1a IJ Deleuzeis often labelledas a 'philosopherof difference'. specificdifferences.identity. He considersboth to haveimportantand undesirable political. The genealogy an individual lies not in generalityor but of commonality. and then drawingdistinctions berween groups. To realisethis is to of in of a challenge developing new perspective orderto resist meetDeleuze's Only by destabilisHowever. hinr.As such. not mean to refer. challcngcs philosophy differencesof degree. difference is subordinatedto sameness.and there is nothing 'behind' every asp€ctof reality evidences is difference not groundedin anythingelse. and realise uniqueness eachmoment and thing. however.Evenif thingsmight be thing as attributesallowingthem to be labelled being conceived havingshared as to of seeks privilegethe conception difference kind.the primary philosophicalfact. instead simplifying phenomenaso that they might 'fit' within the dominant model of unity.thc lirkc nirlurc ol'thc worldirsit is llcrccivcd. for Deleuze. between individual differences Such individuality is. Awareness such specificcircumstances of some'thing in general'canbe setasidein favourof one'sexperience this thing.but irtstcird scliorrsly. To think about such relationstypically means groupinglike with assessment that highlightsthe criticalplace 'difference' his work. l)clcuzcilrgucstlrlt wc ought n<ttto prcsunlc prc-cxisting ir unity. meansthat the notion of of tion.identity must alwaysbe identity and sameness.the uniqueness implicit in the particularity of things and the momenrsof their conception and perception. doing so.Deleuze uses notion of empiricaland non-conceptual'difference itself in the his in service sucha disruption. In Deleuze challenges two critical presuppositions: privilege accorded the Being and the representational model of thought.Such difference internalto a or event. in a process individuationdeterminedby actualand multitudinous influencesand chanceinteractions.differenceis understoodin terms of resemblance. Connectives Crcativetransformation T'ltcrnirl rcturn llcpctition . moment. rather than theorisinghow individualsmight be grouped. hereand now. means particularityor'singularity'of eachindividual same.implicit in its beingthat particular.the kinds of relations used to determine groupings of things. so that. Deleuze's of the same them. he the of rcprcscntirti< is more or'becoming'of and uniquedevelopment importantto explorethe specific of eachindividual. On such an account. differencefrom domination by releases Deleuze'sdifference-in-itself Indeed. being'sweptup'in the inherentin the particulars referredto the difference process constructinga relationshipbetweenthem. Sucha conception assumes states comparable. l. and becomes objectof representation relationto someidentity. opposition and do so routinely is not which he means the identicalor in anysense itemsthat areconsidered amongst distinctions he the Instead.Deleuzedoes suchdifference. being the product of a comparison. and so logically subordinated to it.It is because Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel drew a comprehensive cohesive and world of Being that madehim sucha significant targetfor Deleuze's critique. on this account. disrupting our facultiesand freeing our senses evidentin the lived might we uncoverthe difference tendencies established of the world. Deleuze's from sucha model has 'liberation' of differerrce two parts. a conceptionof presence that alonemakesthe groups wholly consistent and meaningful.overand above suchgroupingsmight be positeda uniztersal grouping. an in it is never conceivedin terms of 'difference-in-itself'. Yet this rendencyto think in terms of sameness detracts from the specificity of concreteexperience.First.irr difference. which we tend to consider each individual as of ('presenting again')somethingas iust anotherinstance a re-presenting that might be is category original.aesthetic ethicalimplications and that a disruptionof traditionalphilosophycanhelp to surmount. the traditional theory Deleuze'stheory of differencealso challenges by of representation. In either case. meansto set the conceptasideand think in terms of difference-in-itself of and the unique circumstances its producfocusinsteadon the singular.On sucha concernsexternal relationsbetweenthings.As such.difference something or predicated of a concept. he develops conceptofdifferencethat doesnot rely on a a relationship with sameness second.Rather. refers to a net variation it between two states. from ing our thinking.perceptionor conception. is thing. He is concerned of in to overturn the primacy accorded identity and representation western in rationality by theorising differenceas it is experienced. the Furthermore. such as Being.

' are of the potentialfor transformation not determinedby the normalising power of the majority but by the transformative potential of becomingThey do not mean to suggestthat minor. and (D&G 1987: cf.In other variationor deterritorialisation process continuous of the real focus of Deleuze and Guattari's approach to the politics of of of They do not denythe importance the installation is determinwomen)s strugglefor the vote. .but to bring to bearthe forceof sarilytautological sets. It is obvious 'man'holds .no lessthan thoseincluded of within it. however small they may be. oncein the constant and again thevariable in from whichtheconstant extracted.However. iust as differences presuppose areinhabited identities.. he twice.'this trotlo silythrrltlrcstrugglc thc is on on levelof the axiomsis without importance.for abortion. however.while the minority is defined by the gap which separates membersfrom that standard. ./D IFFE R E N C IA T I ON 75 DIFFERENCE + POLITICS Paul Patton Deleuze's ontological conception a world of free differences of suggests a defence the particularagainst forms of universalisation representaof all or tion.In a its socialcollectivity. . he there is an 'unrepresentedsingularity' which does not recogniseitself in the representant (D 1994:52). is ln imporfiultinFrc(licnt . of the minoritarian-becomingof everyone. This processof becoming-minor. produceeffects upon the majority. this they meanthat the limits By sets denumerable . the contrary. criterion of the majority.Deleuzeand Guattari insist upon the importance suchpieceof mcll changcs thc [<lrm to andcontent a givcnmajrtrity. arethepotential bearers thepowerto transformthat set. . dependent term in addition to the pair majority-minority.291) not way which they meanthe creativeprocess becomingdifferent or diverging from the maiority.the struggleof the regionsfor autonomy.but insist that the difference berween them is not quantitative sincesocialminoritiescanbe morenumerous than the so-called majority.hetero or homosexual and so on. a Identities presuppose differences and are inhabited by them. argues. politicsof difference inevitably and by A requires specification politicallyrelevant the of kindsof difference. ing (at the most diverselevels: the for jobs. Social minorities are here conceivedas outcastsbut potentially able to be included among the majority. struggleof the Third in . ants. Suppose rhereare only two groups and supposethat there is a standardor ideal type of member of the larger collectivity: the majority is defined as the group which most closely approximates the standard.74 DI FFERENCE + PO LI T I C S D IFFE R E N T IA TION . They insist that the powerof minorities'is not measured their capacityto enter and make by the nor evento reverse necesfelt themselves within the majority system. theother would seekto broaden standard that it becomes the so maleor female European nonor European.'(D&G 1987:470-l). At the sametime. minoritiesdo not enter into and potentialof minoritarianbecomon Their insistence the transformative politics. That is because appears etc. A liberal politics of differencewould simply defend the right of the minoritiesto be includedin the majority. Deleuze and Guattari's concept of minority and their support for minoritarian politics provides a novel understandingof the kind of difference which is relevantfor democraticpolitical change.whether (D&G newaxiomatic or in the directionof a new setof axioms an altogether powerof minority-becoming 1987:471). They define minority in oppositionto majority. from the Thoseexcluded not of ingsdoes imply a refusal democratic majority as definedby a given set of axioms. Everyonemay attain the creative and new peoples. or becoming-revolutionary. against the the non-denumerable (D&G 1987:471). majority cantakemany simultaneous forms: Let ussuppose theconstant standard theaverage that or is adult-white-heterosexualEuropean-male speakingstandard a language . if heisless even numerous mosquitoes. women.neither this critique of representation rhe onronor logicalpriority of difference establishes politics of difference. order to World of in draw attentionto the sense which the reconfiguration the majority is they introducea third of upon a prior process differentiation. that the majority. with it the potentialfor new earths that carries DIFFERENTIATION/DIFFERENCIATION Adrian Parr are The concepts 'differentiation'and 'differenciation' primarily eluciof (D 1988a: 9G8) and Dffirence and datcd by Dcleuzc in Bergsonism the (l) he 20tt-14) rnd the distinction formsbetween two Rcpctition 1994: 'ftr bcgin with hc of'his dill'crcntial ontrtkrgy.Both minority and majorityinvolvethe relationship of a group to the largercollectivityof which it is a part.namely'becoming-minor' of or 'minoritarian'. is Majorityassumesstate a of power domination. peasblacks.'thcy sct itsscrr. Every time there is representation. of After rcdescribirrg thc non-coinciclcncc minority and mliority in thc lirnguirgc of of irxiolrrirlic thcory. but they stress importance the stantsor the attainmentof maiority status.homosexuals.including the recognised bearersof minority statuswithin a given maiority. than children.which subjectsthe standardto a (D&G 1987:106).

that conditionsa wholein all its provisional consistency. Connectives Acturrlity Irrdivirlurrt ion Representation Virtual/Virtuality DISJUNCTIVE SYNTHESIS Claire Colebrook At its most general.or mouth./D IF F ER E N C I AT I O N D ISJU N C TIVE SYN TH ESIS 77 appeals the mathematical to conceptof differentiationin order to unlock his understanding the Whole asa unified system. In contrast. preferring insteadto of think of openwholesthat continuallyproducenew directionsand connections. or this or this. differentiationin the way Deleuzeintendsit happens only in the virtual realm.r Deleuze and Guattari expand the concept of the three syntheses into political terms: association. Kant's three syntheses For Kant. eitheryou'remaleor female. possibiliry l)isjunclion. or flow. or anus.Deleuzeregardsdifferencepositively. of The conceptof synthesis centralto both Dffirence andRepetition is and Anti-Oedipus. In Anti-Oed. The significance the conceptof disjunctionin Deleuze's of work is threefold. For Deleuze. Meanwhile. is not but also of'bodics tcrmsinto somcmanifillcl cxpcricnccd or rlr thing.Deleuzeconsiders actualisation termsof creativitll whereby in the process doesnot simply mark a changeinto what waspossible the in first instance. In effect.consciousness connect can with a language.ipu. into Overall.but a further extension the series.for disjunction is open and plural: neitherliberalismnor terrorism.There is a potentialin life to produceseries: desire a can attachto this.for movements. there are syntheses from which subjects are formed. differenciation the process actualising virtual how does if is of the this avoidthe representational of similitude and identity?Why isn't trap differenciationsimilar to. thesesubjects not personsbut points of relativestability are resultingfrom'asscmblitgc'. disjunctivesynthesis the production of a series the is of differences.there is not a subject who synthesises. a sound. given that Deleuze is not a representational thinker. a body. what are differentiated are intensitiesand heterogeneous qualities and this is what makesthe virtual real but not disjunction is a mode of production. ln Dffirence and.To be truly creative. machine. Rather. or a version o( the virtual it differenciates? For Deleuze. Second.nor is differenciationa processthat unifies heterogeneous qualities. Actualisationcan be either conceptualor of material such as an 'eye' which Deleuze describesin Dffirence and Repetition a'differenciated as organ'(D 1994:21l). either you're for the war or for terrorism .for example. whereas structuralismconceives negadifference tively.The problemthis poses.differenciationneedsto be understood assomething new insteadof something that resembles virtuality.Sexual desire.Put simply. There is not one point or term (suchas consciousness language) or from which differencesare unfolded or connected. as this would imply differenciation that the differentiationit is like is in itself a fixed subjectmore than an intensivesystemcontinually undergoingchange.lhc subscr.Life should not be reducedto the miserable logic of contradictionor excludedmiddle eitheryou wantliberalismor you don't. Association thc connection. BergsonisrnDeleuze ln is actualisation the virtual.the actualised differences differenciation not enioy of do a privileged point of view over the differences making up the flow of differentiation. and this meansthat a seriesmay traverseand connect different potentials.the differences ofdisjunction aretransversal. disjunctionis not binary.for colour. differentiation can be likened to a zone of divergenceand as such it is fundamentally a creativemovement.Carrying on from here he outlines that the virtual differenciates itself.a colour. is how difference differenciates without itself turning into a system representation? of That is to say. of or phallus . sccorrcl llrc syrrtlrcsis.what Deleuzerefersto as 'larval subjects'. Finally.what is differenciated the heterogeneous is series virtual of pointsout that differenciation an differentiation. a vibration of light can be perceived as this. Continually dividing and combining. might leavethe series body parts. rather it simply affirms these qualities and intensities without completelyhalting the flow in its tracks.First. what this meansis that the process differenciation a questionof variationmore of is than identity and resemblance because Deleuzeprefersto think of it as a dynamicmovement that bringsdifferences relationwith oneanother. our experiencedworld of time and spaceis possibleonly becausethere is a subject who experiencesand who connects (or synthesises)received impressionsinto a coherentorder. or this.The actualisation that producesis not'like'differentiation. justof data(asin Kant'sphilosophy). disjunction and conjunction.ucnt is ot' . without this the virtual could not be actualised because there would be no lines of differenciation that could enable actualisation happen(D 1988a: to 97).and invest different territories . or this.the desire for sounds.76 D IF F EREN T IAT I O N. Repetition Deleuze rewrites Immanuel (from the Critique of Pure Reason).suchthat an undifferentiated formless or world is then differentiated by a structure.breast.

deliberatereflectiveawareness willed self-consciousness. and this and. overtakto ignore an analogous awayin the 'already'. flow with music. there are (desires) connections. there is not a transcendentor external the point beyond the world from which synthesisemerges. movement conof disparate in time asa series temporally positions. lncl dcringlncw I lunrc'sirccounts .It can be contrasted elemental time physics practical and life.sotherecanbe no transcendental subjectasthere synthesising wasfor Kant.Bergsoncontendsthat allow us to mark one kind of thought or mentalstates differences between one particular thought from another. l)clcuzc o1'hrbit. a timebecomes series separable is and mentalstates. Rather. while conjunctionor the third synthesis the referralof thesetermsto the is ground or planeacross which they range. interpretationand use of the of Deleuze's but is concept at oncealmostentirelysympathetic its dynamism tially temporal.relationships constitutedifferences In of characteristics durationarecriticalfor Deleuze.with previousnoteslingering and future onesanticipatedin the unity of a piece. Second.Subscqucntly. consciousness of models. (pasFrom relationsor syntheses sions. Deleuze and Guattariopenthe disjunctive synthesis: one can be this or this or this. such.Mental states duration by usinganalogies and soexplains togetheras if parts of a melody. is First. such as the mother. ing what might be calledthe 'not yet' and passing with its quantification duration to be inconsistent of Bergsonconsiders with 'clock time'. the musicis because graspthis flow asa completeset of notesis alteredby the addition of a new always the vergeof endingand always on systemis as note. or Connectives Becoming Desire Kant Oedipalisation (DURir) DURATTON CliffStagoll I lcrrrillcrgson intcrcsts l)clcuzc bccrtusc of'hisrrrdicrrl dcparturc fiom philrr )unrtionQlurttt) orrcol'scvclirl llcrgs<ln's iclcirs solrfty's rlrlltockrxy.We should. | is ol' kcy Typical his of by adopted Deleuzewhen developing philosophy difference. asit were. lived reality. or One The Oedipuscomplexis the disjunctive synthesis its transcendent in and illegitimateform: eitheryou identify with your fatherand become subject a (thinking'man') 0r yottdesireyour mother and remainother than human. Whenarranged accordance these a crass imprecise and is'situated' inst4nts. syntheses. usccl durationasan cxplicatory workson DrrvidHumc. a (or.or an immanent and transcendent employment. durationis the immediateawareness this flow of in Bergsonbelieves that intuition's findingsare bestexpressed images. ongoing of a and the mutual interpenetration its states. try and the pointless. time internal to one'sself.then. mental life) to be essenIntuition reveals consciousness more generally. between and.a mergingof thoughtsasone consciousness. becoming-animal becoming imperceptible.this and. which eitherspatialises by situating grid or usesthe digitsof a time-piece as instants on end-to-end a referential physical in with image. maleor female'. the Deleuze. subjection modernthought liesin the illegitthe of imate use of the disjunctivesynthesis.asa way in which bodieshave beensynthesised assembled.a kind of flowingexperience.see malefemalerelationsor genderasa production. line up beneath signifierof man or womanand submit to the system the of sexual difference.clock In static between ceivedin terms of relations from the notion of duration by distorting its continuity.this: neither mother nor fatherbut a becoming-girl. his to usualapproach Bergson. No point or term canbe setoutsidean eventof synthesis its transcendas ent ground.whilst constituting simultaneously As a singularflow. itssociittion tintc. Syntheses are immanent when we recognisethat there are not subjectswho synthesise world.durthat of ation is the immediate awareness the flow of changes simultaneously particulars. other words. canbe maleor female. The disjunctivesynthesis important for two reasons. Deleuze (or waysof thinking aboutthe world) havelegitargues that all syntheses imate and illegitimateuses.sympathies) among bodiescertain terms are formed. one canonly comprehend notion of duration Accordingto by using Bergson'smethod of philosophicalintuition (intuitionphilor or ophique). mental activity that constitutes. from which pointsor terms areeffected.but a flowing togetherof are different from one anotherin important ways.fatherand child of the modern family. the time of immediate..78 DURATI O N ( DUR E E ) D U R ATIo N ( D U R EE) 79 relationsbetweenor among such assembled points of relative stability. his early Scvcral rcnt<xrl. An immanentuseof the synthesis would refusethisexclusioe disjunctionof Instead insistingthat onemust of 'one mustbe this or that. then.the permeationof eachnote by To of othersrevealing extremecloseness their interconnection. mentalstates that 'one long thought'. time abstracts But constitutiveintegrationof momentsof duration must not be overis Bergson'sintuition confirms also that consciousness not emphasised. and Mental life is. To speakof 'mind' or tconsciousness' a comprehensive attribute of duration: it is alwaysflowing.

the 'new earth' (nouaelle terre)is the becoming-virtual of intensive material.Earth can also mean the virtual realm or Body without Organs(BwO). ln A Thousand.y?. neithermustit be derivedphiloand sophically. differences of Deleuze argues. is unfortunatethat Brian Massumi translates it zae nouaelle terreas'a new land' (D&G 1987:509). at points in for A Thousand.E) As prrrt<rf'whrt l)clcuzcirncl Guirttari comcto calla gcophilosophy llhat in is l'hilovph. ofa There is no consistency Deleuzeand Guattari'suseof the majuscule in in the French text. 509-10). Third. philosophers For suchasImmanuelKant. rented. In contrast. entails potentialsof material systemsto new human relationshipsto the creative form consistencies. to and is that terrain that canbe owned. as lived experience./LINo (rnnnn) 8l Deleuzeadoptsit asa meansfor exploringdifference and becoming key as elementsof life. there is a disconnection between events that allowscreativityandrenewal. Furthermore.vrl) 'cilrth'rrkrng rrnd 'territory' (territoire) expressmanners of occupying terrestrial spaceby differentsocialmachines: nomadwar machine.he considers time to comprise homogeneous a series of successive instants.1 with . Land can be gridded. when dividedor reconstituted. For one is ableto call upon new concepts reinterpretone'smemories perto or ceivesomevistaanewin the light of one'sexposure a work of art. As such. Brian Massumi usestwo English words to translate French terrerwhich meanboth'earth'in the astronomical the can sense ofour planetand'land' in the geographical sense cultivatedarea. Second./LAND(rrRftr) EARTH. both Terre and.all of the qualitative ('differences kind') of one'slived experience. outside all territories. it marks new potentials for creation (D&G 1987: 423. If duration 'includes'. distributed. example.ground'(. Land refers nifying regimeand the Stateapparatus exclusively striatedspace. territorial tribe. does transcend It not experience. Plateau. Deleuze. remainthe same aggrein gateas their unified form. 'earth'is equivalent the BwO. made to produce and taxed. standingin needof synthesis.called. Even in the continuity of one'sconsciousness. of all selforderingforces('forcesof the earth') for intensiveterritorial assemblages (the virtual seenfrom the point of view of territorialisingmachinicassemblages).classified and categorised without evenbeing physically experienced.duration. otherwise to understood Deleuze by and Guattari as the virtual plane of consistency upon which strata are imposed(D&G 1987: 40). Hence. machines.s. The anglophone terre('earth' and 'land') with territoire('territory').80 EARTH. Connectives Bergson Intuition Kant EARTH/LAND John Proteai (rrRR. liberating potenrial of these differences. distributed. not the machinicassemblages actualise selection singularthat a of ities).. I'hounnl Pluttttus . unlike matter.In this sense. to Deleuze usesduration to make some important philosophicalpoints abouttime and difference. Duration.the becoming-intensive strata. of Hence 'earth' is the gathering point.cannotbe divided into elements which. Plateaus and madea focal point of What is Philosophy?. it were.'earth' is part of the earth-territory (terre-territoire) systemof romanticism.terre are used in the senseof 'earth' and readershouldkeepin mind the closeproximity of 'land'.(terre) constituted the overcoding territoriesunderthe sigis by of (D&G 1987:440-l). time is not an at empiricalconceptbut an a priori necessity underlyingall possible experience.held as stock. Furthermore. rhizomes war or from a varietyof means. while 'a new earth' (unenouaelle terre). for Kant.but extendsto the forestlands(as irnd to thc unusablc spaces that become nltional parks. 'nrttionrl'fbrcsts) bi<lsphcrc rcscrvcsr so filrth. The system of of stockpilingterritories and overcodingthem as land for the Statedoes not stop at thc firrm or evcn thc ranch. Put differently. and a striking exampleof this is the township-andrangesystemof the US that imparted striatedspaceto a vast part of the North Americancontinentahead actualsettleroccupation. is the tappingof 'cosmicforces' to it (the virtual seenfrom the point of view of the abstract machines composing it. durationis always present the'givenness'ofone's in experience. 'l'hcscspilccs hcld irsrcftgcs firr Statc itncl lrc . the 'new earth' is the correlate of (the leavingof all intensiveterritorial assemabsolute deterritorialisation blages attainthe planeof consistency). then it also emphasises the productive. brings together both unity and difference a flow of interconnections. time is both a form ofreceptiveexperience aboutthe world and a necessary condition for any human experience all. in For these contrastsrepresentthe differencebetweena dictatorialphilosophythat creates 'superior'concepts that subsume and order the multiplicitiesand creativityof life and one that creates opportunities change for and variety. the the the overcodingState.

though we in must be carefulnot to laud the stabilityof strataasinstantiating moral the virtue of unchanging self-identityespoused Platonism. life Consequently.The mere fact by that an assemblage body politic is flexibleand resilient.has proved controversialin philosophicalcircleswhere it has generallybeeninterpreted aseither an existentialor inhumanvision of existence.lly. If difference occurredin order to arriveat someproperend . Each differenceis a power to differ. This difficult and enigmatic idea. new earth' becomesthe rallying cry in the 'a 'geophilosophy'of Deleuze and Guattari. or does not guarantee ethical choice-worthiness. Eternalreturn is thereforethe ultimateidea. in Strataare in fact 'beneficial manyregards'(D&G 1987:40). and it returns eterna. becomes other than itself because is difference. caremust be takennot to confusethe structural differenceof strata and consistencywith an a priori moral categorisation. In Dffirence and RepetitionDeletzearguesthat Duns Scotus.Only differencereturns. inhuman or cosmological the propositionasthe fundamental Nietzsche's axiomof a philosophy of stands forces in which active force separates itself from and supplants reactive forceand ultimatelylocates itself asthe motor principleof becoming. But differenceis an event that is joyful in itself. By going through this affirmation of difference. what Deleuzeand Guattari its for call 'micro-fascism' not rigid at all but rather a suppleand free-floating is body politic. there is not a 'who' or 'what' that or then has variousproperties. crucirll lo tltc rrrdicrtl is cxlcrtsiot't ol'tlrc llhikrsollhy of' immanenceand univocity. war or In the constructionof the new earth. ity is thought adequately. rhizomesfrom a varietyof means. Strata.if therewere purposeor properend to life . This is opposed the construction a 'new earth' that entails to of new human relationshipsto the creativepotentialsof material systemsto form consistencies. wc firilto undcrstirnd ctcrnirl rcturnif'wc conccivc ot'it Yct tlrc . the thought of eternalreturn compelsus to considerhow we ought propin erly to live. which l)clcuzcclrirws from lfricdrich Nictzschc.with each repetition of differencebeing Time is what different. ln What is Philosophy?.The perversityof this naivcreading.It is according Deleuze. in which 'stratification' is the process wherebythe implantationof codesand territoriesform dominating bodies. (time is difference). Nietzsche imaginesa world and this is because of 'pre-personal singularities'.nor is there someone somethingthat ri. followsfrom difference difference cannotbe locatedin time. Deleuze'ssignalcontribution to the post-warphilosophical revisionof Nietzschewas to establishthis secondreadingof eternal return as the return and selection forcesat the heart of modern theoriesof power. only the 'thing' that 'is' is difference.then the process becomingwould have a of some ideal end point (even if this were only imagined or ideal).if only in providingrestingpointsfor further experiments forming war machines. both Nietzsche and Deleuze arrive at the eternal return. Accordingto the existential reading.both painfulandjoyous. is in everyniche' (D&G 1987 214)and not only thosepractices : that 'intend' to producea life-affirmingassemblage resultin such. That is.He of explicitly repudiates naivereadingof Nietzsche the that envisages eternal return asa doctrineproclaimingthe infinite recurrence everyhistorical of moment in exactlythe sameorder throughouteternity. will Connectives Body without Organs Blackhole Deterritorialisation Plato Space Virtual/Virtuality ETERNAL RETURN Lee Sltinks 'l'hc conccptof''ctcrn:rlrcturn'.Eveniffascistsarereterritorialised the'blackhole'oftheir on subjectivity:'thereis fascism when a war machine installedin eachhole. with no event of differencebeing the ground or causeof any other.along with codesand territories. developedmost concertedly in Nietzsche'sThus Spake would we needto live to justify the recurrenceof eventhe most terrible and painful events? readingunderConversely.and by abandoningany ground or being before or beyond difference. Deleuzeargues. Baruch Spinozaand Nietzsche affirmedunivocalbeing. ratheralways retainthe pragmatic but to and empiricalnature of Deleuzeand Guattari'swork and perform the ethicalevaluation the of life-affirming or life-denying characterof assemblages.With eacheventof difference is transformed.are alwaysneeded.however. that it converts is Nietzsche's vision of bcingasthc cndlcss bccoming clifl'crcntial of furccs into a simplcprinciplc ot'idcntity. This thought can be expressed the following way: were we that ofour lives.82 ETERNAL RETU R N ETER N AL R ETU R N 83 subiectswho seekto escapefrom private property to find some sort of becoming-earth commons. suddenly recognise everyaspect to was fated to return in the guiseof a potentiallyinfinite repetition. it is not the differenceo/this life life beingor for this end. to that the joyful ideaof univoconly with Nietzsche. machines.

in this way.Morality is a setof constraining rules that judgeactionsand intentionsin relationto transcendent valuesof good and evil.Spinoza.there are no transcendent valuesagainstwhich we should measurelife.For it is not being that recurs in the eternal return. the principle of return constitutes the one thing sharedby diversity and multiplicity. What is at stakeis not rhe repetition of a universalsameness the movementthat produceseverything but that d. FriedrichNietzsche and BaruchSpinozaarethe two main influences on Deleuze'snotion of ethics.It i$ not r cirsc giving ficc rcign to thc of of . In accordancewith the principle that whateverwe will.84 ETERNAL RETU R N E TH IC S 85 as the ceaseless return of the same.ouble selection by the activity of force and the affirmation of the will. the eternal return eliminates reactive statesfrom the becoming of being.It appears rhe funas damental ontological principle of the differenceand repetition of forces that will bear the nameof Will to Power. This secondselectiontransforms a selectionof thought into a selectionof being: somethingnewis now brought into being which appears the effectof the revaluationof as forces. In this way. the strongest spirits come to embody the becoming-active of reactive force.An ethicalapproachis.and it conceives societyas of experiment rather than contract: a community of inquirers with an experimental spirit. For Deleuze.however. Thesestrongreactiveforcesaresubsequendy incorporatedinto the eternal return in order to effect the overcoming of negation and the transformation of reactive into active force. instead. phiBoth thinkers reorientate losophyby callinginto questionthe wayin which morality conceives the of relationshipbetweenmind and body. whereas ethicsis a way of assessing what we do in terms of waysof existingin the world. asDeleuzeputs it.ffirs.Morality implies that we judge ourselvesand others on the basisof what we are and should.The return eliminates everyreactiveforce that resistsit.Such an ethics applies the acceptancethat the world is.For the systemof morality. ethics for Deleuze is inextricably linked with the notion of becoming. Rather than weighingdown life with the burden of higher values. The return selects forcesaccording to the quantity of Will to Power that they express.Deleuze characterisesthis processas a d. neithertrue nor real. he takesthe idea that ethicsis a form of affirmation and evaluation.The eternal return 'is' this movemeRtof transvaluation: according to its double selectiononly action and affirmation return while the negativeis willed out of being.mind as proconsciousness dominates passions the body. be. eternal return inscribes differenceand becomingat the very heart of being.From them. Such revaluationtakesplace because the eternal return brings the nihilistic will to completion:the absolutespirit of negationinvolvesa negationof reactive forces themselves. Eternal return is thereforeproperly understoodasa synthesis of becomingand the being that is affirmed in becoming.Deleuzesetsthe ideal of this for pragmatism a world which is 'fn process' againstthe 'European morality' of salvation and charity.itsown immanent pragmatic. the of poses ethicalroute that is lator takenup by Nietzsche. rejectingthe an by supcriority mind ovcr body.and to createnew values. iu so doing it affirms both the being of becomingand the becoming-activeof forces. To affirm is to evaluatelife in order to set free what lives. whereas ethicsimplies that we do not yet know what we might become. seeks makelife it to light and active. This first selectioneliminates ali but the most powerfully reactive forces .but'living'.and it is ethics. This movement of affirmation constitutesthe secondor doubled selection undertaken by the eternal return: the transvaluationofreactive forcesby meansof an affirmation of negation itself.It rejectsthe search moral consensus for and the construction of transcendentvalues. Connectives Active/reactive Ilccoming Difference Kant Multiplicity Nietzsche ETHICS John Marhs Throughout his work. It is rather 'Life' itself that constitutes. Deleuzedraws a clear distinction betweenethics and morality. we must will it in such a way rhat we also will its eternal recurrence.Within this negation of negation reactive forces deny and suppress themselves in the name of a paradoxical affirmation: by destroying the reactive in themselves.and of maximising the powers that will expand the possibilitiesof life.those which go to rhe active limit of what they can do and form the basisof the nihilistic impulse and the will to nothingness. Morality is a way of judging life.essentially no surprise that Deleuze admiresthe American pragmatist model that substitutesexperimentation salvation. To think the eternal return is to think the becoming-activeof forces. Ethics involvesa creativecommitment to maximising connections.

an As eventis not a particularstateor happening itselflbut something madeactual in the Stateor happening. Deleuze'scommitment to ethicsis closelyconnected the conceptof to becoming. but areexpressible language in nonetheless. eventis not what the evidentlyoccurs(the tree becomes green)because is merelya passing this surface effector expression actualisation.the unbnown the body and the unconsciousthought. and in the sam€ way that the body surpasses the knowledgewe haveof it. such. thus ofa particuofan event's and lar confluence bodiesand other events(such as weatherpatterns. must overcome itself by learning from the lion who. to of and Nietzsche particularshows in how judgement subjects manto an infinite debt that he cannotpay.since in it condemns to infinite restitution and servitude.D. in or relieson guile and violence.On Deleuze's account. Rather in claimingthat there is a parallelism between mind andbody.eventssignify the internal of dynamic of their interactions. positionpresents alternative traditionalphilosophies Deleuze's an to of substance. and who is followed by four 'disciples'who developthis ethical approach:Nietzsche. so thought also surpasses consciousness the we have of it. Once we can begin to explore thesenew dimensions. As the prod. of a licenceto act thoughtlessly.and which constitutes basicsfor an ethics. whilst at the sametime not diminishher ing similar powersin others. challengingthe notion that reality ought to be understoodin .Eventsare changes immanentto a confluence of partsor elements.we makea By dynamicattribution of the predicate.Spinozais the greatethicalthinker who breakswith the Judeo-Christiantradition. For Deleuze. is a question of maintaining it our 'belief-in-the-world'. using the infinitive form'to green'. ratherthe stateis constituted events'underlying' that. Lawrence. pigmentation effects and the circumstancesof the original planting).an eventis the potentialimmaIn nent within a particularconfluence forces. real inherentposas sibilities)and distinguishing themselves only in the courseof their actualisation in somebody or state.Spinoza suggests new. Connectives Becoming Nietzsche Spinoza EVENT CliffStasoU Deleuzeintroduced the conceptof the 'event' in The Logic of Sense to productions intrinsic to interactions between describe instantaneous variouskinds of forces. the The dominationof the body in favourof consciousness leadsto an impoverishmentof our knowledge the body. as Nietzschesays.we arein the domain of of of ethics.86 ET HICS EVEN T 87 passions the body. The ethical drive for the 'great health' that allows life to flourish is all too often channelled into serving the petty 'human' ends of self-consolidation and selfaggrandisement. They areall opposed the psychology the priest. We do this by creatingforms of resistance to what we are becoming (Michel Foucault's 'actual') and not simply to what we are in the present. us Deleuzegoesfurther to showhow these four 'disciples' elaborate wholesystem 'cruelty' that a of is opposedto judgement.sincethis would be nothing more than a reversal.refusesto rage againstthe ticks and flies that seekshelterand nourishmenton its body. The drive for justice.Franz Kafka and Antonin Artaud. H. subsisting pure virtualities(that is. other words. Rather than judging.Loosely.soil of conditions. The event is not a disruption of some continuous state. we need to makc s<lmcthing cxist. on Deleuze'sinterpretation.Thereforewe oughtnot to say'thetreebecame green'or'the tree is now green'(both of which imply a changein the tree's 'essence').eventsmight be characterised (as Deleuzedoes) termsconsonant in with the Stoicconceptof lekta:asincorporeal transformationsthat subsistover and abovethe spatio-temporal world.The transcendent categories Good and Evil canbe abandoned of in favour of 'good' and 'bad'. A 'good' individual seeks makeconnecto tions that increase powerto act.Take as an examplea tree's of changing colourin the spring. when but by it actualised. but rather'the tree greens'.We do not fully explorethe capof acitiesof the body. incorporeality an distinct from both the tree and green-ness nonetheless dynamismof the which captures the event'sactualisation.for example. mark everymomentof the stateasa transformation. In a more generalpolitical sense.and in particular that of becoming-animal. One way of going beyondthis calculationof profit and lossis to'become'animal.The 'bad' individual doesnot organiseher encounters this way and either falls backinto guilt and resentment.morecreative a wayof conceivingof thought.uct the synthesisof forces.This meansthat the doctrineof judgementis only apparentlymore moderatethan a systemof 'cruelty' accordingto which debt is measured blood and inscribeddirectly on the body.

Instead. an experiential eventis subjectless. Deleuze'seventis a sign or indicator of its genesis.particularthing without the eventsthat define it as that particular.Experience renderedmeaningfur by grounding is not empirical particulars in abstract universals but by experimentation. that is. just in the machinIn his theoryof the event. This notion was expressed clearlyby Platq who established contrastbetween a fixed and determinate states things definingthe identity of an objecton the one hand and. First. a includes 'a draft. a day.and their relationship with Deleuze's notion of dynamicchange 'becoming'.Transcendental empiricism is what Deleuzecalledhis philosophical method:thinking is not a naturalexercise but always second a powerof thought. being insteadthe primitive effect or changegenerated the moment of their interaction.passivesense. an eventhasno goal. is and inclusive. Experience qualitative.yet not in the reductive.being without fixed eyentis unrelatedto any material content.88 EVENT EXPER IEN C E 89 terms of the determinatestatesof things. such. and without beginningor end.rathersubjects constituted is are in relationswithin experience itself. he doesnot meanjust that 'one thinks and thus creates'butthat thinking and creatingareconstituted simultaneously. Eventsthemselves haveno beginning-or end-point. Specificallyin terms of his model of thinking.the entire its surroundingl which it traverses' (D&G 1987: 30).constituting its potential for changeand rate of change.his generaltheoryof the eventprovidesa means As for theorisingthe immanentcreativityof thifking.therebytranscending facultiesof percepthe tion beyondthe 'given' data of sense-impressions.representing momentat which new forces a might be broughtto bear. by meansof individuation via haecceity.Deleuzeis not interested potentialinherentin forces ationsof affirm this sense.a time of day. Connectives Becoming Plato EXPERIENCE Inna Semetsky Deleuzeconsidered himself an empiricist. This somethingis an object not of recognitionbut a fundamentalencounterthat can be 'grasped a rangeofaffectiverones'(D 1994:139).The intensityof difference a function is of desire. as pure effect. however. with the event representing iust a momentaryproductiveintensity. Three characteristics highlighted in Deleuze's texts point to this distinctiveness.being insteadwholly of immanent.a battle. on of the other. but rather always'in the middle'. no event is ever constituted by a preliminary or precedentunity betweenthe forcesof its production.novelconcepts in In are to be inventedor createdin order to makesense of singular experiout ences and.thc insidc lnd thc outsiclc. be supplanted supplemented the next. ancl .temporalseries causes effectshavingan impact uponthe and of object. are madeup of we relations. Experience not an individual property.then the wholedualistic lrc to split llctwcctt thrlught itndworld.born under the constraintof experienceasa materialpower. neverbeyondexperience is because everyphenomenon is in fact conditioned by difference. bccontcs invalicl.temporalityor property. original and creativeproductions. the expression and of the productivepotentialof the forcesfrom which it arose. only new possibilbut ities.but alsoin the productive of all kinds.position. somethingin the experiential world forcesus to rhink.a force. latter embedded experience the in because objectis . says Deleuze(2000).Third.Deleuzewould saythat thereis no distinct. If rclati<lns irrcduciblc thcir tcrms. The difference embedded in real experience makes thought encountera shockor crisis. 'the noumenonclosestto phenomenon'(D 1994:2zz).a stream. it As highlights the momentaryuniqueness the nexusof forces(whetheror of not to someobviouseffect)whilst preservinga placefor discontinuity in terms of someparticular conceptor planeof consistency. This is not to saythat he means to chrrf fcngcurito think in terms cvcnts. rathcrt<lmakcthinkingits own of but cvcntby cnrbrrcing rich ch:ros thc of'lifc andthc unitprcncss potcntial tnd ol' citclt lllo nlc at are produced neither in the image of somemodel nor as representative copiesor likenesses a more fundamentalreality.Rather. Deleuzeis careful to preservedynamismin his concept. neitherone of momentstogether'nor one in which an eventis the 'end' of one 'joining productiveprocess.An event is neither a beginningnor an end point.Experienceis that milieu which provides the capacity to affect and be affected. which. is a-subjectiveand impersonal. exteriorityof relations The presents vital protestagainst prin'a ciples'(D 1987:55). challenging to think us differcntlyand to considerthingsanew.Second.a place.and experience makes sense us only if we to understandthe relationsin practicebetweenconflicting schemes the of said experience. an illness' (D 1995:l4l): yet.multidimensional.tabula rasa-like. Differenceis an ontological category. to or by becoming'moves through' an event. such.Eventscarry no determinate outcome.which is embedded the objective in structureof an eventper se.

elements The with which we experimentare desires. To experimentis to try new actions.We experimentwhen we do not know what the result will be and haveno preconceptions concerningwhat it shouldbe.forces.but seeks discoverhow it works or to functions by uncovering an order of causes. unfolds in an unpredictable It know aheadof time what the body (both physicaland mental) can do. 'what it doesand what is done with it' (D&G 1983:180).making it endurable. the characteristic relations among the parts of an assemblage their structures.and alsoto revealthe effectsof combinationsof : different bodiesand elements.or cominginto being. Deleuze's method. cationof life' (D&G 1994:74) revaluating Connectives Difference Force Power Spinoza 'llnnsccnclcntnl cmpiricisnr EXPERIMENTATION Bruce Baugh In French. contrastto analyticphilosophy. is about' (D 1995: 116). This logic is inspired by empiricism because'only empiricism knows how to transcend the experiential dimension of the or to visible'(D 1990:20) without recourse Ideas.moral universals. it's of 'we don't seeit.environments and soon) arecapable of. not limited to in experience. that 'like wherebyworkmentestthe quality of somematerial'(D 1992:317). Deleuzevalorises an 'experimentation is without interpretation or significance that and restsonly on tests of experience'(D&G 1986:7). . and our experimentation ourselves for Deleuzerthe on philosophy-becoming. Experimentation be an investigative can procedure that seeks explain to how assemblages function by analysingthe elementsthat compose them and the links between thoseelements. an'assemblage'being compound any in which the parts interact with each other to produce a certain effect. As an open-ended process that explores what'snew and what's cominginto beingrather than something alreadyexperienced known.wherethe outsideis virtual yet realby virtue of manner. actuallywhat folding the line outside. acting within experience. enables readingof the with Henri Bergson's that lay down the dynamical structureof the signs. an idea or a desire. beingun-thought.the fold being'the insideo/ the outside'(D 1988a: 96).and Deleuzeemphasises passionate quality of such an experience: the State of passion. . a complexplace.Experience is.languages. its and creates own terms of actualisationtherebyleadingto the 'intensifiby experience. Experimentation necessary reveal'what a body or mind can do.not only to 'seewhat happens'. painting. value judgements. and experimentation inseparable is from innovation anddiscovery.By virtue of experimentation.whether a procedureor combinationproducesan increase in one'spowerof acting(ioy) or a diminution (sadness). arrangementor combination of the affects a body is capableof (D 1988c 125).for a virtual. only The Deleuzian objectof experience. to determinewhat different entities but (bodies. It actualisesitself through multiple different/ and living. socialgroupings. flows and connections .lengthenedand enfolded. a like only reality.powers and their combinations. experimentaland experiential:experian encethereforeis future-oriented.namely. modesof existence. The experiential world is folded.As affective.90 EXPERI ENCE EXPER IM EN TATION 9r relationallogic is the logic of experimentationnot 'subordinateto the verb to be' (D 1987: 57). perceived: line of flight or becoming realevenif the is what is immediately perceptible things' (D 1995:45).or whcthcrthe combination will destroy or'decom'l'hc conrpttibilityor incompntihility posc'onc or nlorc of thc clcmcnts.evenwhen experimentation concernsthoughtsor concepts. the crucial experiencebeing the affectiveone.methods. is nevermerely theorit etical. in is to a given encounter'. 'without aim or end' (D&G 1983:371).and the resulting tendencies. witch's flight. whetherthesecombinations and especially or encounters will increase powersof actingof the elements the combined into a grcatcrwhole. or rather to subsist. is 'perhapspassion.techniques and combinations.compatible intuition.the word expirience meansboth 'experience' and 'experiment'. Becausethe body. presented in its tendencyto exist. sub-representative experiment. cinema.such as a text.Effects are demystified by being related to their causes that explain the functions and usesof an assemblage. because the least Thinking enriched with desire. . symbols and symptoms is Experience.'means'. Experimentationdoes not interpret what something.practicalwisdom in a Spinoziansense meansof or immanent evaluationsof experience. is equally impossibleto know 'the affectsone is capable (D 1988b:125):life becomes experimental an and experiential affair that by requires.representing constitutes experiment with what is new. the experienceis as yet a-conceptual. Deleuze holdsthat'existence itself is a kind of test'. literIn ature. escapes old frame of referencewithin which this flight the like seems an immaterialvanishingthrough defined by its affective of' it capacity. experimentation is also a practical dismantling of assemblages and the creativeproduction of new combinationsof elements.and it is impossible to its pragmatics.

the conceptof expression tied to Deleuze's is understanding conceptuality. Thus. is not that therearepoints or potentials it in life which thenundergoan expression.Experimentationby its nature breaksfree of the past and dis(social mantlesold assemblages formations.movementsand flows pass unimpeded by the repressivemechanismsof judgement and interpretation. 'the new. a closedset.the Self).suchas'all the catsin the world that areblack'. must try to grasp movementsand potential.92 EXPERIM ENT AT ION E X P R E S S ION 93 of differentelements and bodies. If however. certaincombinations may be destructive the experimenter as to and to others. and one would create a concept in trying to grasp these differentunfoldings.and the effectof their combination.establishing temporalityratherthana set a of terms. Becauseoutcomescannot be known or predicted in advance. the case expression. experiments practices are that discover and dismantleassemblages. it would not be an if experiment. if we read a poem as a set of words that might be linked in meaning.and constructs lines of flight or movementsof deterritorialisationby effecting new and previously untried combinations of persons. seethe words as having unfolded from a potential.or the thought of this life.a fixed set of points that one might then move among to establishrelations. Connectives Body withoutOrgans I)csirc Immanence Lines of flight EXPRESSION Claire Colebrook 'Expression' is one of Deleuze's most intense concepts. extensive are An term .producing organisedsetsof what exists. for it allowsus to think a type of relationbut not anyconcludedsetof relations. Experimental constructions proceed bit by bit and flow by flow. nothing more than the possibility for the creation of new relations. expression tied to a commitmentto the is creationof concepts. 'continuums and coniunctions of affect' (D&G 1987: 162).and soa concept. rather than collectionsof generalities. the knowledgegainedthrough experimentationwith differentconjunctions and combinations allowsfor an art (social. Active experimentation involves trying new procedures.the dangers on these lines. the differences intensive.then expression be understood an set can astruly conceptual. of organising'good encounters'. through a set of practiceseffectingnew combinations and relations and forming powers.intensities. Life-experimentation. is biological and political.Rather. requires patienceand experimentation prudence. life is an expressive and open whole. of is of We cannotundcrstrncl this conccptof cxprcssion without bringingin a ncw .with its points alreadylaid out or set apart from eachother. and which look for the linesof flight of individualsor groups.And it is an ordinatefield. forces and things. organiseor name. conceptcovers In of this the potentialfor movements. with the unfolding of life in all its difference beingexceeded expressive by and potential. 'One (D neverknowsin advance' 1987:47). which thought would then have to structure. and often involvesexperientiallydiscoveringhow to dissolvethe boundariesof the ego or self in order to open flows of intensity.with the meaninggoverning the proper relation and order of the words.thereare expressions.Thc conccpt cxpression a styleor possibility thinking. strucA ture is a set of coordinates.If we take Deleuze's definition of a concept.The conceptof expression excessive therefore refersto intensity. of constructingassemblages or political. In literature.intoxication) can be produced by different means(ingesting peyote or 'getting sousedon water'). and is extensive. Concepts not structures are because althoughthey establish differences.for expression the power of life to unfold itself is differently. we a potentialthat will producefurther relations all the readings thoughts or producedby the poem. without any pre-establishedor set rules or procedures. then we are governed by a structure.and and in life. interesting'(D&G 1994:lll). using different techniquesand materials in different circumstancesand under different conditions.combinations and their unpredictable effects to producea 'Body without Organs' (BwO) or a 'field of immanence'or 'plane of consistency'. artistic) in which powers of acting and the active affects that follow from them are increased.On the other hand. Rather.whereas intensive an conceptis infinite in its possible movements.can only be ascertained through experience.that it is a philosophical creationthat produces intensive ofordinates. Indeed. and. So a simple mechanismtakesthe form of a structure.andnewcombinations that will thwart predictions andallow the new to emerge. haveno a priori knowledge we of An methodof discovery them through principlesor axioms. one did.we approach a poem which similar effects(for example. experimental through the experience new combinations things encountering of of each other is contrary to any axiomatic-deductive systemor any system of judgement using transcendental criteria.politics. is not that we havea world of set terms of It and relations.

and Deleuze somctimes one casts thc distinctionasidc. Spinoza'simmanenceprecludesany point of that precedes A perfect expressionthat would ground particular expressions. Deleuzeconsiders Hume to be the first to insistthat relationsareexternal to their terms .this meansthat to the interior/exterior division lacksany substantial meaning. or expressions planesof life. First. In his first book on David Hume (Empiricism and Subjectahy.but the relation is also external: nothing determinesin for how potentiality will be expressed. but are the or partswhich haveno sigresultof enormous numbersof relationsbetween nificanceon their own. This will not provide anything relevant.we must not look to the internal or intrinsic 'meaning'. the kernel of social or structure hidden within all of its expressions. remainsthe same. and that their actions derive from the unfolding or embodying of this essential unity.and this presages much of Deleuze's mature philosophy. / I N TER I O R I T Y Exr ER t o nr r v. [n other words.This is part of the Humean philosophythat strikesDeleuze as particularly important. Deleuze'sphilosophy is rigorously critical of all forms of transcendence.Rather. different styles.elementsin a biological system. In other words. the world is made up of monadsor points of perception. sinceit is in the relationsbetween(or externalto) things that their nature is decided.hc insists thc grcatcst nspccts I)clcuzc'sphilosophicrrl thrrtthc .1953). In other words. of by or For Leibniz thereis not a world that is then expressed perceived separate subjects. powerto act. A being is just its specificperceptionof the order to understandany stateof affairs. it is the nature of expresadvance to sive substance unfold itself infinitely.Deleuze insists on three points.things that haveno necessary connection to anything else. tcrms likc 'outside' and 'cxtcriority' play a ccntrnlrolc. and what it isto thinb that being. fact. FIe wants to come to grips with the world as a generalised exteriority. Deleuze'suse of the term 'interiority' refers to the thought. dominant in westernphilosophysince Plato. being iust its is its expression.the interior conscious intentions of a human speaker.Second.'structure' or 'life' of the terms involved(whetherthey be people. he goesso far asto connectthe sentimentof 'the hatredof interiority' to his philosophy. infinite being only dimly. Likewise.Rather. specificbeingsare produced from within a generalised milieu of exterioritywithout reference any guiding to interiority. a more radical and immanent is one which allows Deleuze to imagine divergent expression possible.There is not a substance and variations or expressions. / I N T ER I o R I T Y 95 approachto what it is for somethingto be. and so on). The world is not an objectto be known. there are stylistic With is substance the thought of the open whole of all theseexpressions. rather than being a philosophyconcernedwith showing how the interior reasonor structure of things is brought about in the world . and he comes back to it a number of times. Rather. 'interiority' is a word indexedto transcendent unities. On the other hand.a book which is Deleuzedistinguishes in avowedly dedicated expressionism philosophy.Third . that things exist independently. to the expressionism Spinozafromthat of Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz. so observedor represented. in an open seriesof productive relations. In his conclusionto his book on Baruch Spinoza.9+ EXT ER I O R I TY.indivisible and immortal forms the interior of the self. rather than a being that then relates. whereby the human mind . there is no natural interiority (conscious willing.and which transcendthe external world around them. that there is no natural interiority whatsoever: the whole philosophical tradition beginning with Plato that wanted to explain is things in reference their essence mistaken. no longerimaginea world of substance that which addedto it acciand then haspredicates remainsin itself.and this describes of of lahrur . God is the only being of eachfinite beinggrasps the who perceives world perfectlyand completely. The Cartesianegocogitowould be the most familiar exampleof this thought.he demonstrates organthat ised beings are not the embodiment of an essence an idea. much asa planeof powersto unfold or express of differentpotentials life. So. While there is still not a self-presentworld expression.and where the body and the physicalworld in general form a contingent exterior. for example)involved in human subjectivity.a personand an animal. Connectives Spinoza EXTERIORITY/INTERIORITY Jonathan Rofe One of the underlying themesof Deleuze'sphilosophyis a reiection of In the valueof interiority in its varioustheoreticalguises. itself in various that then expresses his bookson Baruch Spinoza. we the conceptof expression begin with a relation. For Spinoza. we With expression. Deleuzeinsiststhat for Hume. the subiect is formed from pre-subjectiveparts which are held together by a network of relations. and each perceivingmonad is an expression one being.

The aim of what Deleuzecallsethicsis to reconnect with the externalworld again.contrary to polysemy.A seriesof layersor strata.96 F ACIAL IT Y FA C IA LITY 97 interior is rather produced from a generalexterior.deploysa lens of shorterlengthto obtain afacialprojectionor distortionat the centreofthe imagewhile the surroundingmilieu is seenin sharpfocus. sofar asinteriority is a 'caved-in' In selection the of externalworld of relations. Alfred Hitchcock. Georg Wilhelm Pabst.To discerndetailsof the facewithout wishing to idea political rr thtrtcallsinto qucstion nliscits iluril or charm constitutcs micropolitics . a surfhcc which signs on are projectedand from which they rebound or are reflected.For the Marcel Proust.on which a creof ative itinerary can be drawn. David Wark Griffith. Connectives Hume Immanence Plato Spinoza Subjectivity FACIALITY Tom Conley The concept of faciality. Subjectivation and signifiance are correlated. the contrary.describingin Un amourd. Plateausand applied to cinema in the chapters of Cinema I: The moztement-image devotedto the close-up. and so forth: this is a topic that the two volumes of Capitalismand. square. In Miller's descriptionof facesa process deterritorialisation makes work of art not an end in itself but a process the that plots the faceinsteadof diving into it.Facialityis and holes. The face emits signs from its to surfaceat the sametime that the viewer seeks fathom meaningfrom its darkeror hidden regions. to He further elaborates conceptthrough reference literature. respectively.the nostrilslairs and caves. order to sanctify faciality in the name of art. with the 'blackhole' or unknownareaof the face (that can range in which the subjectinvcsts or her affectivc his encrgics from f'car prtssioi) to nnd with thc 'whitc wnll'. is a displacement what a perceiver or makesof the milieu and the faces that he or shediscerns. theorised in detail in A Thousand.Deleuze's philosophy of alsoembodies an ethicsof exteriority. tators.the facebecomes landscape a from the world at large and understoodas a deterwhen it is abstracted It of ritorialisedspace topography.The nature of this production and its regulationproved to be one of the foci of his philosophy. To counter Proust's reductiveturn.Luis Buffuel). or else. the immanent world of relations. remainsseparated it from the life and movement of this world.its specificencounters. Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein.aesthete drawn from memories of to wax poeticalby recallinginfinite expressions. lines. the cinematictechnique that generallyusesa lens of long focal length to bring the faceforward and soften the edgesof the frame. standsat a crossroads subjectivation of and sig(how a nifiance.Schizophrenia deal with. its relations. Hence.If the faceis a 'white wall' it is connotedto be or in what resists understanding semiosis general. and an adventure In A Thousand Plateausfaciality is formulated to serve the ends of polcmic. earsat might be reflective and Yet the landscape facealsolooksat its specor oncequarriesand cirques.triangular face. Deleuzerelatesfaciality to the close-upin film.e Swannthe faceof the beloved (but delightfully crassand despicable) Odette de Cr6cy in the eyesof the that he is awestruck Swannis an abstraction that allowshim . eyes the the rotundity of a person's cheeks resemble can poolsand ponds. in Yet worksof art. he showsthat Henry Miller undoes the face by travelling over it with artistic dexterity.' Finally. a long. The (1939)makes lessa goalor an essence it than authorof Tropicof Capricorn of a surface a white wall or the blank sheet a future map.The former belongsto the language psychogenesis of living beinggrowsinto and negotiates ambientworld) and the latter to the (denoting.The face'is a surface: thus constitutedby a systemof surfaces traits. calling their gaze into question or even psychically 'defacing' sequences a gooddeal in them.and to be caughtup in its life.In either mode hillocksor mesas. the face is a map' (D 1987:170). once him the jealouslover discovers that her faceis a fetish or she disillusions even a black hole. and can be summed up in the following Deleuziansentiment:'The interior is only a selected interior. semiotics signsthat disseminate infinite meaningin both conscious unconscious and registqrs in directionsnot and under the control of language rules).Deleuze observes. Suchis the effectof close-ups that establish of classicalcinema (Deleuze's preferred directors being Jean Renoir.human subjectivityasa produced interiority undergoeschangesaccordingto its social milieu. Proust meticulously describesSwann's passionfor in Odette's visage.on the basis these points. musicalnotesand sculptedsurfaces his fantasies.

Such micro-fascismsspreadthroughout a socialfabric prior to the centralising of resonance that creates molar apparatus the the on State. Roughlyspeaking. .98 F ASCISM FA S C IS M 99 the powerof facialimages. firlkrwirrg thc Italirrn S. suchcoclcs would fix subjccts to rigid boundaries thought and actionand fix bodiesto pre-established of patterns of flows. more precisely. Deleuzeand Guattari'scritiqueof analyses fascism termsof ideology of in is important.Micro-fascism is then the construction of a 'thousand monomanias'in 'little neighborhoodpolicemen' resulting from 'molecularfocuses interaction.Perhapswe owe the impressionthat a major focus of Anti-Oed.oing foce. But in fact historicalmanifestations fascism of asFoucaultacknowledges are explicitly addressed Anti-Oed. Ratherthan being the result of fooling peopleby falseconsciousness.thoughnotin Anti-Oedipzs.jury and executioner. fascismof the couple. it is the spirit in a corporealform. It is a BwO that belongsto the organismthat resides a stratum. Plateous. The cancerousBwO is the third type of BwO discussedin Plateaus. television conferupon it. in . Micro-fascismis a cancerous (BwO). Connectives Bacon Black hole Molecular Subjectivity FASCISM John Protezsi ln Anti-Oed. The cancerousBwO is the strangest and most dangerous on BwO.ipus in relatively infrequently. Implied is that Deleuze(with Guattari) micro-fascism eachbody is a 'micro-blackhole that stands its own and communicates with the others' (D&G 1987: 228).after the 'full' (positively valued in A Thousand. rather.ipzs fascism to Michel Foucault's preface to the English is translation.rirnish or firrrns). The cancerous BwQ then. Left and of the Right.By endlessly individuals in a processof 'conformity' the cancerous of homogenised BwO breaksdown the stratum on which it lodges:social cloning and personalities.cinema. repeatingthe selection tation. Despite the lack of attention to historical fascism.and the 'empty'. A Thousand Plateaus devotes leasta few pages an analysis historiat to of (in of crrl manifcstirtions macro-firscism its Nazi ftrrm rathcr than its 'l'hc Nazi rcginrcis charnctcriscd.aesthetics and political theory. the neighbourhoodwatch organiser.ipus. a bodily and vital breathwhoseend is that of und. which he callsthe text'An Introduction to the Non-Fascist in Life' (D&G 1983:xiii).In sum. thus attenuating the fascist obsessionwith erotic perversion.advertising. pole of paranoiddesireis opposedto schizophrenic the or revolutionary desire. first. By turning it into an abstraction (but not an idea)and a siteof multiple possibilities of affectivity(and neithera hearthnor a site of warmth) they turn it into a zoneof intensity. we can call micro-fascism 'molecular orientedto unity. too much contentor codingand territorialising. a the forceful reconsiderationis madeof the facework in philosophy. and Guattari or He wish to divest the faceof any auratic or seductivepower of the kind that contemporary media.r f'ascist dcsircis thc dcsirc for codesto rcplacethc dccoding thrttf rccsfklwsunttcrcrrpitrrlist lxiomltics. It is runawayself-duplication not stratification. an indimolarity': eachsubjective unit is self-contained.and macro-fascismin Body without Organs A Thousand Plateaus. . BwQ that forms under tracking down fascismlies here in the cancerous or runawaysedimenconditionsof runawaystratification. fascist desirehasits own properconsistency. just in can The key to the stratanamedorganism.The latter finds a powerful visual correlativein Deleuze'streatmentof the paintingsof FrancisBacon.significance and subjectification. In contrast to Anti-Oedipzs'srelative neglect of historical fascism.with insufficientovercoding. school.The headsof the artist'sportraitsmeld the faceinto the body and thus confuse facewith the its tradition asa'veil of the soul'with the humananimal. Although Deleuzeand Guattari do not do so. assembly-line that is.and office' (D&G 1987:214).independently (molecular). ro be finishedwith the facewhereit would be a site of psychological inquiry or of a reassuringhuman essence goodness. of rather than beingthe limit of a stratum.economicand politicalconditions. . vidual (molar).4nti-Ocdipu. A Thousand. judge. private eye. spreads and under ccrtain social.In'the text of The Logic of Sensation that studiesBacon'sportraiture Deleuzeshowsthat the head is not what lacksspirit. a proliferation of micro-black holes: thousandsof individuals all completeunto themselves. a proliferation of points of capture. Deleuze and Guattari discuss both micro. home video operator.where the full BwO is catatonia). legislators and subjects in one. but they interact in solely local manner. rural fascism and city or neighin youth fascismand war veteran's fascism. Sucha cancer occurevenin socialformations. The result is a cancerof the stratum. fascismof the borhoodfascism. the first 'pincer' of a stratum. occurswith too much sedimentation.and policeman.

as Connectives Body without Organs Desire Stratification FAMILY . To do so or would be at once to assume and position an organisation recognition of based prior resemblances.a 'solar nihilism'. In A Thousand of focuses the processes on of Guattari's discussion 'becoming-woman' formation. organic. and assumptions that Deleuzeand is in itself one of the key critical systematic Guattari dismantle. self-destructiveline.through the writing of Virginia Woolf.ln A Thousand. of that is. ln Anti-Oed. on givenstructures. Such a runawaywar machine.but a war machine that takesover the institutions of State power.then. Yet in his writings one message that is continually relayed is: Do not ever smugly assumethat you have reached the limit edges.and political circuits as 'minority'. phrase'becoming-woman' a critique of all is Deleuzeand Guattari's aspects anthropocentrism. With womant. develtheoretical Deleuze's of the 'difference'of womenundergoes use in his opment in the 1960s. rather than being too slow or the freezing.refer to the entry on 'psychoanalysis'. causalorigins of knowledgeof any forn. Deleuze'swritings are suffusedwith examplesof published male philosophers. and relationships that have beencodedaccording linguistic and economics_ystems. activities and theories The conceptof a 'limit to be reached' ity. forms a 'war machinethat no longerhad anything but war asits objectandwould ratherannihilate own servants its than stop the destruction' (D&G 1987:231). in Anti-Oed. F'cminism's thcorcticalhistory and legacyhavebeensuchthat its foun<htionll prcmiscs of'pointing thc incclurrlitics rcstrictions out and imposcd by thirrkingiur(l priictisirrg withirr givcn hrundirrics bcclmc principll in subjectivconcerningsexuality.ipusDeleuze Guattari attack and reject the psychoanalytand historical zonesfor its bourgeois ically enframedfamilial unit and gendered hierarchy and assumptions an Oedipally figured desire. turn this changeinfluences later theoriesof difference and minority groups. Placing the body on a platfurm of the systemsof exchangeprovides spatial and temporal zonesfor analysis gendered of categorisations.where core conceptualpoints are made through reference to canonical twentieth-century filmmakers to including MargueriteDuras and ChantalAkerman. equality.Deleuze and are few in Deleuze's works.This triggers the last form of the line of flight. Deleuzeis attentiveto the gender and the patriarchallyproduced behaviourof both genders.onceit reaches consistency a enablingit to takeovera Stateapparatus. Indicativeof subjective of the twentiethcentury'sdivisionand demarcation labourrolesaccording to normative patriarchal gender and biological functions. scientists artists. difference. of which is 'quintessentially (D&G 1987:230. of onceit is conceived not in termsof its past and structure. paranoid. and is thus codedby all ecoeverydiscourse that is not anthropocentric. tbecoming of and Guattari take the body not to be a cultural medium but a compositionof sociallyand politicallydeterminedforces.Deleuzeand the concept a'minority discourset. Plateaus. fascismis too fast. This reversionof the line of flight to self-destruction had 'alreadyanimatedthe molecularfocuses fascism. as a 'suicidestate'rather than a totalitarianone.cultural.writers. the self-immolating. nomic. marginalisation. This 'body' is one that affordsa creative for the collection and expressionof the formation of desire. rrncl . FEMINISM Felicity J. whereman is regardedasthe central refersto Becoming-woman and most important dynamicin the universe. echoingBataille. conservarive' StalinistUSSR is the target here). and biases westernmythology of However. a cancer. social.but in terms of a future modality.references women Plateaas. to These systems operatemost efficientlythrough prescribed genderwork and leisureroles. Colman Deleuze did not advocate 'feminism' as the movementhas historically come to be known.Deleuzedrawsupon Baruch Spinozato developthe playwright-poetAntonin Artaud's conceptof the site Body without Organs(BwO). With the exception of his cinema well as public and capitalistgenerated recognise theories the clcsirc and its cffccton thingsin thc world. Deleuzc's politicrrl publicshaping of'an incliviclual's culturitlrcrlm nnd milicu. economics.Here it is not a State army taking power.t00 F AM IL Y FE MIN IS M l0r analyses Paul Virilio. of and madethem interact in a war machineinsteadof resonatingin a State apparatus'(D&G 1987:231).Valuablefor of of feminism is Deleuzeand Guattari's discussion a body in terms of its potentialities capabilities. lunar nihilism it is portrayed.ror thought.what we could call.ipus.The ethical constructionof the body asa constituent/contributorof a pre-configured (and hencegendered) is organisation continuallypointed out by Deleuze.

the folding of time. the effect of the self on the self).this techniqueof folding. thoughtsor structures. receivingthe world's imprint asit were. in the Leibniz book we are offered other diagramsof our subjectivity.suchasChristianity. of folding. surfaceand depth).The economic. This imbuesthe fold with explicitly ethicaland politicaldimensions.and maintained of in provides valuable capitalism. involvea folding. The world is superabundant. Individual historical figures are utilised by Deleuze to examinethe structuration of bodiesvia historical organisation. haveinventedtheir own forms of subjectivation.that beingthe Renaissance madman.subjectivity to might beunderstood precisely topologyof these as a differentkindsof folds. As for Deleuze's use of Foucault and Leibniz.This canbe configuredasa question of ownership.We might go further and saythat thought itself. There is no boundary between the organicand the inorganichereaseachis foldedinto the other in a in and of the world. The formation and reformationof suchbodiesand things are questioned terms of the waysin which relationships in and qualities provide identity reality and virtuality.because its history.Indeed. To 'have'is to fold that which is outside or inside. the fold of the sea.that presumea simple of interiority and exteriority (appearance essence. and so on ad infinitum. and They inventedsubjectivation takento mean the self-productionof one's subjectivity. deploy. And thcn thcrc is tlrc firlclbctwccnthcsc .whereby cavernscontainingother caverns. like others Deleuze has written.t02 FO LD FOL D 103 This philosophical position on the narrarionof the multiple may appear abstract and antithetical feministmethodologies focuson the analyto that sisand identification the personal. The Greeks were the first to discover. There is a varietyof modalities folds:from the fold of our materialselves.without window or opening.this might bc dcscribcd thc incorporas cal aspccto1'our subjcctivity. Deleuze's of Yet ideas consistently poinr out how a method that points toward the 'truth' of a particular representation hasa universalising tendencyand doesnot refer to the 'forces'that shape beliefs. of Connectives Body Body without Organs Desire Oedipalisation Psychoanalysis Woman FOLD Simon O'Sulliaan Although appearing throughoutDeleuze's work.ln instancc whatDclcuze of calls 'firrccs thc outsidc' thc of .or of (selfmastery'. Subsequent cultures. or simply memory. In this sense. thrrtfirkl thc irrsiclc. Meanwhile. or the regimeof matter. formsof subjectivity. one's subjectivity for Deleuze is a kind of Nietzschean masteryover the swarm of one' entailingdomination. Deleuze's work demonstrates how. the fold names the relationship. and or For the fold announces that the insideis nothing more than a fold of the outside.In or Deleuze'saccountof Foucault this picture becomes increasinglycomplex.the emergence new kinds of struggle of inevitablyalsoinvolves productionof new kinds of subjectivity.enigmatically. the folds of the soul.or if wc wcrc to folkrwGuattarihere. conceptof the fold allowsDeleuzeto think creatively the aboutthe productionof subjectivityand ultimatelyaboutthe possibilities for.It containsinnateideas. fold can alsobe understoodasthe namefor one's relathe tion to oneself (or.and of course or it might be saidthat our own time hasits own folds. fact. well as its projectof rewriting histories exclusion.andproduction non-human of.whq in beingput to seain a ship becomes a passenger. In eachcasethe fold is developed relation to another' turn contain further caverns. or eventhat it requires new ones.on onelevel In the fold is a critique of typical accounts subjectivity. their own kinds of foldings.for as Deleuzeremarks.Here matteris foldedin the mannerof origami. the 'fold'is particularly mobilised in the books on Michel Foucault and Gottfried wilhelm von Leibniz.subjectivityis of a political constirurion not the result of an individual community.The lower floor. Indeed. The upper chamberof the baroquehouseis closedin on itself. of our bodies. in We might even say that thesebooks. is rrkinclof ftlld. prisoner in the interior of the exterior. new the or kinds of fold (hereDeleuzehasthe uprisingsof 1968in mind).One exampleis the two-floored baroquehouse.logicaland aestheticconstitution of these bodies is also consideredby Deleuze in terms of their structuraland systematic constitution. with smallerfish betweenthesefish. Deleuzegivesus Foucault's vivid illustrationof this relation. culturalaffiliations and social differentiation. a revolutionary and unorthodoxapproach for feminism'scritique of the surfaceeffectsof genderroles. ethical.Deleuze's systemof thinking through conceprs identity givenby history.of Deleuze's own tliought into the thought of anothcr.or doubling.of oneselfto (and 'over') one's 'self'. like a lake teeming with fish.

This world is one amongst many 'possible worlds' each as different as the beings that expressthem.Can we perhapsextendthis notion of a minor literature in to other realms?Might there be a sense which a resistantand radical In politics today must involve a stuttering. it is the radical discoveryof a person'spotential / or the revolutionary activationof immanence.the fold of silicon of biology.But they might equally produce simply new comIt modified and alienatedsubiectivities. the smell of its prey and the tactile sensationof where best to burrow. The world of a different from that of a human. then the 'superfold'is synonymous with the superman. involving asit doesiust the perceptionof light.nor positionspeoplesolely in rclationship thc frrrccs finitudc. the variousexperiments communal in in living drug useand sexuality. Another way of putting this is that a minor literature namesthe becomingrevolutionary of characteristics a minor of all literature (the other two accompanying nature and its alwaysalready literature being its inherently collective political nature). thisncw kind of firld in a personis involvedin what Deleuzeterms an'unlimited finity' (D 1988b: yields a 131). forcesthat canbe foldedback'into' themselves produce The first twofoldsinvolvethe utilof newmodalities beingandexpression. or indeed the style of a work of art.counteracts and natureof both language and inherentlycreative intensive the affective. This is the practically unlimiteddiversityof combinations' 1988b: differenceand repetition of Deleuze. atypicaland a-signifying ing of a 'strangelanguage As that existsat the limits of language. relationswith an outside. Donna Harraway's'cyborgs'orMichael Hardt and Antonio Negri's'New Barbarians'for example. or what we might term his 'fractal ontology'. Connectives Foucault Leibniz Nietzsche Subjectivity FOLD+ART+TECHNOLOGY Simon O'Sullitsan In his appendix his bookon Michel FoucaultDeleuze to continues naedhis itation on the fold. However.In fact.but in a different A minor literatureutilisesthe way (it producesmovement from within the major). Put differently. and communication. well asin the emergence new prosthetic as of technologies. or stammering. of the tick. or the This new kind of fold involves openingup of the closed an chamberof the upper floor and the concomitantaffirmation of difference. be first twofolds must themselves life. fold. labourand language to of (thc tirrnrrrtion of'thcninctccnth ccntury).that being a fold in which a 'finite number of components (D 13l). sameterms asa major one. In Deleuze and Guattari's book on Franz Kafka this attention to of stuttering or stammeringis seenas characteristic a minor literature.the rocks(the realmof the inorganic). an within language'. The supermanis in chargeof animals(the capturing of codes). the uncoverand information technology. It is a fold that breaksdown. This is not the tick's representation the world but the world's expression. or deviates the order-wordsor simply foregrounds dominant signification.Dada or the Situationists(from collageto d'6tournemcnt). This new kind of fold no longerfiguresthe humanbeingasa limiting factoron thc infinite (the classical historicalformation).ftrr example. is in this from. tion of some of the more radical avant-gardegroups of the twentieth ccntury. folding of or in. cybernetics of with carbon. for example.If the fold is the operation proper to man. sense third fold is we might say that thesenew foldingsare simply the namefor thosenew kinds of subjectivity that emergedin the 1960s. of subjectivity. the later parts of his Leibniz book attendto future foldings.understood as that which 'frees life' from within man. It is in this sensethat the upper chamber paradoxically 'contains' the Whole world folded within itself. As with Deleuze'sbook on Foucault. This fold is like one's sryle in the world. or at least a stammering in and of them to This might be a descripproducenew kinds of 'stuttering' subjectivities.r04 FO LD+ ART+ TECHNO LO G Y FOL D +AR T+TEC H N OL OGY 105 two floors.or the emergence third generation or and the folding of language. between two floorsof our subjectivity.or military assemblages. This amountsto sayingthat the by stammered the third. productionof new kinds of life and new kinds in isationof technology the politicallyradicalsubjects: They might producedissenting. but looksto the future.Deleuzecallsattentionro rhe possibilityof a new kind of harmony. of language? for example. with the other form of expression nontwo this is a fold that openshumansout to that which is specifically to human.That is. Echoing his book on Foucault.suchas lifc.and the very beingof language (the realmof affect'below' signification). superfoldwill be the result of three future folds: the fold the code.the'superfold' still involves for Deleuze.this might involve turning awayfrom dominthe visual arts. ant regimes of signification. It might irls<lnamc thttsc 'cxpandcd prrrcticcs'thitt p<lsition . the discovery the genetic or of molecular machines.

Ir'orl)clcuzc. thereareon this view no 'things-in-themselves'. perhaps a fold at all. lly grrrspit'lg thcm withoutrcf'crcncc To of understanding existence. Of course there may still be other foldings. though. patternofinteractionsbetween then.No force can with other forcesand. for example.for Deleuze.but in special doma quality of the difference forces. as an sidered having independent and Kant.ffirent way. artistic.Every force exertsitself upon others. Neither Deleuzenor Nietzscheprovidesa clear definition of 'force'. This enigmatic characterisationof forces is developed in Deleuze's accountof their activity. 'Things'aremerelya temporary Contraryto Immanuel or existence essence. might add that many of thesepracices are also We often specifically collectivein nature.and which nevercomes to rest at a terminal or equilibrium state. for Deleuze. hereand now. of The relationof art to this non-fold might be one of ritual.psycholegal social. implicit throughouthis corpus. Every event.this dichotomousunderstanding the perceiver In and the perceivedis also groundless. 'force' means any capacity to produce a change or 'becoming'. physical copies. Which is not to saythe productionof possible worlds. forceis'active'if it seeks inance by self-affirmation.In all thesecases doesnot transart port us to an elsewhere utilisesthe stuff of the world (we might say but the stuff of capitalism) albeit in a d.regardless the complexthat derives at finds the origin of both quantitative Nietzsche his reading. Art here is the discovery of new combinations and new waysof folding the world 'into' the sel{ or put more simply. so that.although the way in which he usesthe notion to theorise differenceand becoming is Deleuzets own. principal(andeternal)characteristic the the of world of forcesis differencefrom whateverhasgone beforeand from that which it will become.and a kind of genealogy should be usedto tracequalitativeattributesof forcesto particular culturesand typesofpeople. Generally. wc ctn only tr:ulylrerlirrccs intuitilg thcrrr. There is an unfoldingthen that always accompaniesthe fold that. or body that forces.106 F ORCE FOR C E t07 themselves outsidethe galleryor simply stutter the dominant languages of sculpture and painting. nor are there. logical. Examples would be art practices. or indeed typical notions of political engagement.Theseforcesinteractceaselessly. FORCE CliffStagoll Deleuze'sconceptionof force is clearest his interpretative in readings of Friedrich Nietzsche. to suchasthe void from which theseworlds and subjects haveemerged. the particularity of a pcncil. betweenthem might result in an apparentlysubstantial the interactions and outcome.forces are alwaysin the of so out process becomingdifferentor passing of existence. economic.The world is always the process becoming in of something thar it is not.whetherthis capacityand its productsare physical.body or other phenomenonis. from them. in turn.the Oriental fold.First. in Second. asserting itself over and above another. and 'reactive'ifit startsits struggleby first denyingor negatingthe other force. rrizrc lty thirtis. Deleuzeusesit to refer insteadto between resultsfrom interactions of tendencies the origin of kinds of subjectivity. Whereas'quality' usually refers to a particular complex. I forcescan act only upon other forces.mystical. of and All or whatever. of Indeed. Deleuze states overtlythat he doesnot meanby it'aggression'or'pressure' (rrltlrotrgh Nictzschcis not so clclr).Much of what he but writes on the subject is borrowed directly from Nietzsche. Deleuze holds that types of forcesare defined in both quantitativeand in ways.that of turn away from typical definitions of art. try and capturein a few to a conceptual words or sentenceswhat is learned through intuition is impossible. sincesuch exist apart from its inter-relationships associations struggle are alwaystemporary.with eachinteractionrevealed an 'event' (in Deleuze's of specificsense the term).ffirence quantity li the qualitative terms. that asDeleuzeremarks.eYenthough Having no substance. sooughtnot to be conreality.perfect originalsof which all things are but as a world cannotbe considered an inevitable Furthermore. of or permanentconsequence the cognitiveequipmentof a perceiveror of the natureof whateveris beingperceived.but l complcx sct of circumstantialinteractionsinvolving a whole 'plane' of principlcsrtnging from thc biologyof sightto the cvcntslncl orgiurising {l . the d. produces new foldswhilst alsoopeningus up to that which is yet to be folded. from performanceand installation art to the relational aesthetics today. conceptual. On of and qualitative characteristics forcesin the Will to Power. For Nietzsche. of realityis an expression consequence interactions as betweenforces. for example. contrary to Plato. and consequently is not not a process so far as they allow access something. that no parof ticular forcecanbe repeated.rather it is both of these. his view.philosophical. constituting a dynamic world-in-flux rather than a collection of stable eptities.involves not simply one'gazingupon' an object.or eventhe productionof subjectivity. forces. the netresultofa hierarchical colliding in someparticular and unpredictableway. world comprises chaoticweb of natural and biothe a logicalforceswithout anyparticularorigin or goal.

but another part does not. Dclcuzcsccs Foucault a writcr <lfgrcat'passion'.irucault uscsit to attcmptto think throughdifficultprobof'powcr.the theory of forceschallenges traditional As the philosophical dualism between essence and appearance. as an act of 'doubling'.Deleuzealsorejectsthe simplisticnotion that Foucault'sformulation of the 'deathof man' might precludepolitical action. lcmsrclatingto his own undcrstirncling . a way of bringing out and working with minor differences between himselfand Foucault. One of his main aims in Foucault to clear up someof the misunderstandings is surrounding the transitionsin Foucault'swork. well asthe waysin which Foucault'swork expresses as a commitment to life. of However. and it is in this way that a composite human form is constructed. of Deleuzeperceives Foucaultasan individuation. accompanying thinker on the it a journey.rulfdiugorrol of line that Deleuze attempts to trace betweenhimself and Foucault. 'strident' and 'dry' in the gestures Foucault. It is in this way that he hopesto bring out what Foucaultwasstriving to do in his work.asopposedto a rational system.and this is what Deleuzeseeks do with Foucault's to work.for his part. is aboutbeingwilling to It 'friendship'is the same a personal be carriedalongby the entiretyof the work. The subjectthat Foucaulttalksaboutin his final work is not a retreator a shelter. the term 'desire' problematic. Deleuze finds this concept particularly resonant and respondsto its urgcncgsinccl. Deleuzeexplainsthat it is a matter of perceivingsomethingabout somebody and his wayof thinking almostbeforehis thoughtis formulatedat the level of signification. Connectives Active/Reactive Body Event Nietzsche FOUCAULT. Deleuzeperceives that which is 'vital' in Foucault's work.since for him desire would alwaysentail some notion of 'lack' or repression.He preferred the term 'pleasure'. nor is it necessary look for cona to tradictions and blind alleysin a thinker's \Mork:to saythat one part works. and it is in this spirit that Deleuzeoccasionally focuses one of on Foucault's apparently minor concepts. For example. to the point that the work becomes little 'crazy'.Deleuzeemphasises it is not necessary demonstrate that to greatfidelity to the work of a thinker. MrcHnr.because seems be to a transcendent category that interrupts the immanence desire. and much of Deleuze'swriting on Foucaultmight be locatedwithin the tradition of the 'laudatory essay'that characterised certain strand of a intellectual activityin post-warFrance.from Foucault's work. MT c H E L (r gz6-8a) FoucAULr. asonemight a person. In a doublesense.a singularity. they areactuallyconstitutive the 'tranv".108 F o u c AU L r.It is for this reasonthat Deleuzetalks of remembering something'metallic'.Talking abouthis writing on Foucault. As with his other readings other writers.For thesereasons. Foucault may appearto be preoccupiedwith death. John Marks MICHEL (1926-84\ philosophical Michel Foucaultand Deleuzeenjoyedan intense friendship. is aboutfollowingthe work. pleasure which wasequallyproblematicfor Deleuze.(r gz6-84) 109 circumstances the pencil's being positionedhere.That is not to say that Deleuzeand Foucaultdid not feel there were points of real tension Foucault. That is to say. as and hc is prrrticulrrrly struck lly thc distiltctionthnt I'irucrrult drawsbctwccn love and passion. Suchan essay not a work of critiis cism.he concentrates what Foucault thought out of on absolute necessity. and also draws attention to the contingent and infinitely complex nature of lived reality. but rather a gesture affective of intensity.The figure of 'man'is simply one historicallydistinct form of the human.Deleuzeextractsa dynamic of logic. imprisonmentand torture. Deleuzerejects the notion that Foucault's late work constitutes somesort of return to the subject.Love is a relationshipbetween individuals. found Deleuze'suse of betweentheir approaches. rather than a subject. rather than thesedifferences beingthe basisfor a critical interpretationof Foucault's work. but this is because is concernedwith the he waysin which life might be freed from imprisonment. such. Insteadhe sees this later work asaddingthe dimensionof subjectification to the analyses power and knowledgethat Foucault had previof ouslycarriedout. Approaching a writer's work in the spirit of as friendship.whereit breaks a down or comesup againstapparentlyinsurmountableproblems. whereas passion a statein which the individualsdissolve is into an impersonal field Deleuzeregardshis own book on Foucault of intensities. suchasthat of the 'infamousman'. and the physicsof of carbonstructures.Sometimes.Abovcall.It is almostasif Deleuzeresponds Foucault's to thinking at the levelof his bodily materiality much as a set of philosophical proposas itions. making visiblerather than of of interpreting. ratherthat one shares modeof perception but a with them.Friendship in this doesnot meanthat one necessarily the sameideasor opinionsas has sense somebody else.Human forces confront various other forcesat different times in history. ratherone that is producedby a folding of the but outside.Both Deleuzeand Foucaulthad a similar conception the art of 'surfaces'.

intending subjectswho would be speakers the the At this juncturethe fold becomes very fabricof ontology. The first is the fold of the body.which are independentof as speakingand seeing. Subjectivity becomesan ongoing negotiarionof things perceived. Michel Foucualt. in meaningat once a lining stitchedinto a pieceof clothing. last chapterof Deleuze's the Foucauhthat examines Foucault'sthree-volumestudy of the history of sexuality.a doublure French.took sexualityto be a mirror of subjectivityand subjectivation. Whether forgotten or remembered. simply any of a number but of possibleforces.and so on' (D 1988b:105). a form said to obsess betweenthings stated or said. of Therein beginsDeleuze's rhapsody foldsandfoldings. Deleuzeasserts four rivers of Hell' (D 1988b:104). individualised to right to have access struggle for subjectivity is a battle to win the variationand metamorphosis.a collection of subiectivationsand becomes a mental map charted on the basisof the past and drawn from eventsand that four folds. a not singleor commanding'other' or Doppelgringer. the act of doubling in sewing: or twist.but alsomirrored or folded into a diagram.a new relation with 'being' is born. fold. The and isolated.By that he meanrthar what was pastor in an archivewasalsopassed asmight a speeding overtaken car or doubled by another on a highway .the second or conflict. Foucault. even though knowledgeor knowing is 'irremediablydouble'.Every human being thinks as a result of an ongoingprocess living in the world and by gainingconof sciousness agencythrough a constantgive-and-take perception. the 'I'. Deleuze notes that intentionality to be collapsedin the gap between 'the Foucault causes Thus. hasa variable rhythm of its own.the fourth is the fold of 'the outsideitself.'but To ology is convertedinto epistemology.the third is the 'fold of knowledge. is a crucial one) of the fold and through the filters of knowledge.power and affect.a stand-inin a procluction. it will be shown. Each of these folds refers to (material.formal and final) of subjectivityand Aristoteliancauses Deleuzereminds ourselves.The folds of being (as a gcruncl)and of bcing (as a noun) are found in Foucault's .or social is'the fold ofthe relationbetween porealfolds. is alwaysdefinedby the waysit is doubledby another. discursive formations is put forward in order to be drawn away from intentionality (as understood in Martin Heidegger and Maurice Merleau-Ponty) that would ally subjectivity with phenomenology.history wasthe (D 'doublingof an emergence' 1988b: 98). language and seers. history is one of the formativedoubles othersvital to the or process subjectivation. 'like the elementsin the ambientworld. the ultimate' (D 1988b: 104) fold of the limit of life and death. Things spokendo not refer to an original or individual subjectbut to a and things visiblepoint to a 'being-light'that illumin'being-language'. ateaof philosophywith which Deleuze claims staunchaffiliation.'It is I who live my life as the double of the orher.For Foucault. seeand of we don't seewhat we are speaking and we don't speakof what we are seeing'. The human subjectcan only be understoodunder the condition (the formula.affectthe subject'srelation to itself. and of affect and cognition.ll0 Connectives Desire Transversality FoucAULr f n ' ol n FoUcAULT * r 'oln 111 FOUCAULT Tom Conley + FOLD The most terseand telling formulation of the fold is found in 'Foldings. principally from TheHistory of Sexuality: Volume (1984). Nothing can precede or antedate knowledge (saaoir). or the Inside of Thought (Subfectivation)'. perspectives' tional gaze. difference. both consciously unconsciously. Anticipating his work on Leibniz. to inquire of the natureof the four foldsbeforewe reflecton how subjectivityin our time is highly internalised. An insideand an outsideand a past(memory)and a present(subjectivity) A are two sidesof a singlesurface. Deleuzebroadens scopeby subsumthe ing sexualityin a matrix of subjectivity.hencefolded as and.what is surroundedor takenwithin corforces'. to speakis to know. The fold. proportions.and viceversa.He builds a diagram. We behoove us. the fold of truth in so far as it constitutesa relation of truth to our being' (D 1988b:104).' and when I find the other in myself the discovery'resemblesexactly the invaginationof a tissuein embryology.When a doubof ling producesan inner and an outer surface.saysDeleuze. stop.History wasshownto be what sumsup the pastbut that can be marshalledfor the shapingof configurationsthat will determine how people live and act in the present and future. that would be free of any intenates'forms. phenomentwo monads' (D 1988b:109)of seeingand speaking. cvena douhleasAntonin Artaud had uscdthc cincmatic and term in his writings on theatre .Foucault had contendedthat the of 'self'. efficient. and within and outside the body. is shown as somethingcreased The distinction openedbetweenvisible and and things visible or seen.on the foundation of One (1976) and The Useof Pleasure the earlier writings to sketch a taxonomy and a history of the project.light. person'srelation with his or her body both an archive anda diagram. In TheArchaeology Knowledge (1972).

He calls it the torsion of the 'line of the Outside' that Melville described. and moving at molecular Ultimately. At that point.shown to be a processor the places wherethe fold of the self passes through. of Whcn wc think wc causc lightningboltsto flash ancl flickcr'in the midstof words. to To demonstratehow the fold is a figure of subjectivationDeleuzecalls history into the philosophical arena.From such a division of knowledge dividedinto pieces 'tracks'and thus canneverbe recuperis or atedin anyintentional form (D 1988b: 111). or modesof occupying line space.followinga line of 1. In what concerns power.Deleuzeadvances. It is no wonder that in his studiesof differenceand resemblance Foucault begins at the end of the sixteenth century. of power. to a gambler'sact of tossinga pair of dice onto a table. for their referentsand to be autonomousdoubles in with respect what they represent.'l'hc primrrcy lincs of'flight in this ontol(.They brought forward thoughtsabouturopia. 'with a thousand FREEDOM Paul Patton often in Deleuze's writings. or Thinking makes seeingand speakingreach their own limits. soi).yet there 'Freedom'is not a term that appears is a distinctiveconceptof freedomimplicit throughouthis ethico-political texts written with Guattari.thinking takesplacein the inrerstices visibility and discoursc. To makethe (D point clearDeleuzealludesindirectly to'A New Cartographer' 1988b: 2347).Created a topologyby is which inner and outerspaces in contactwith eachother. Followinga fissurein order to reach. In a historicalconfiguration'being' is chartedalongan axis of knowing. The form of the line was 1968. The events am I of May 1968rehearsed questions inquiring of the limits of visibility. other in words.The dividednatureof communication has as its common metaphor the creaseor fold between visibility and orality.Surely.. or of a diagramrepletewith strategies. think is to see in ro and to speak.These the ideasarch back to how Deleuze once describedthe history of forms or an archiveas 'doubled' (passed folded over) by a becomingof forceswhere or any number of diagrams or folded surfaces thought . by visibleand utterable. molecular lines which correspond the fluid or overlapping to forms of division characteristic 'primitive' territoriality.asthe poet Herman Melville callsit. the doublethat hauntsthe archaeologist knowledge. thinking is equivalent to 'emitting singularities'. Foucault finds theoreticalinspiration in the themesof the fold. powerand subjectivity: termsof knowledge.itself determined by relation of force and singularitiesat a given moment in .plied overeach of other. molar lines which correspondto the forms of rigid segmentation found in bureaucratic and hierarchicalinstitutions. a doublingor a of As lining the fold separates speech from sightandkeeps eachregisterin a state of isolationfrom the other. secondly. an earlier chapter that anticipatesmuch of the spatialdynamicsof The Fold.cry in thc nridstof'visiblcthings'(l) lgtlttb:ll(r).n2 F o U c AU L T * nolo FR EED OM ll3 Heideggerand that of an outside is twisted. terms of subjectivation In thinking means'to fold to doublethe Outsidewith a coextensive inside'(D 1988b: 118). and and henceaboutmodesof beingthat would enable resistance repressive in politicalconditions and fosterthe birth of ideasvital for new subjectivities. are History is takento be an archioe series stratafrom which thinking. or when wordsareno longeranalogous the thingsthey seem embodyor resemto to ble. these by of language. unlcisht. asa fold. Foucault. the exer'Being' is determined what is deemed by cise of power.For example.When we 'think' we cross all kinds of thresholds and strata. drawsits force and virtue. Deleuze observes. a 'centralroom' where we fear no one will be and where 'man's soul will reveal nothing but an immense and terrifying void' (D 1988b: l2l).lines of flight which of or into arcthc pathsalongwhichthingschangc bccomc transformcd somcof' systcnrilticillly thing clsc. The lastis conceived andsubjectivity Frenchassauoir. and finally. Thesedescribe individual and collective subjectsin terms of differentkinds of assemblage.the line aberrations'(D1988b: 44). at the moment when writing evacuates force of visual analogyfrom its printed its form. oceanic an line without beginningor end.they suggestthat we are composedof three kinds of line: firstly. when print-culture becomesstandardisedand schematicreasoningreplaces memory in manualsof rhetoric.or to a personengaging relationsof forceor evenconflict in order to preparenew mutationsand singularities. and by subjectivity. The gap finds an analogue the hermetic in difference the soundand imagetrack of cinema. doesnot divide a history of institutionsorof subjectivationsbutof conditionsandof their theirprlcesseswithin creases foldingsthat operate both ontological social and in and fields. signsbegin to stand.knowof (in ledge pouaoir. folded and doubled by an inside in the philosopher'sreading of Merleau-Ponty.000aberrations speedleadslife into the folds and a centralroom wherethere is no longer any needto fearemptiness because self (a fold) is found inside.A grid or a new diagram makesclearthe oppositionby settingforward variations power. an oceanic line that turns and bumpsaboutdiagrams. Historical formations are doubledand thus defineassuchthe epistemictraits of knowledge. asksin bold and simplelanguage: He 'What canI do?WhatdoI know? Vl/hat 1? (D 1988b: l5). There is opened dramaticreflection rhe characrer thinking which a on of belongs as much to Deleuze as to Foucault.

It is the spacein which movements or or processes liberation are possible. The type of freedomthat is manifest a breakof this in kind cannotbe captured liberalor humanistconcepts negative posiin of or tive freedom.ofa subject's capacity to act without hindrancein the pursuit of its endsor in terms of its capacity to satisfy its most significant desires.or the one that it would awaitit hasnot yet arrived'(D&G 1987:198-9).the Self that awaited is alreadydead. ol'Morals.ll4 FREEDO M GEN EAL OGY ll5 privileges processesof creative transformation and metamorphosis through which assemblages may be transformed.y thc tcrm dcrivcsfrom . authorsuseE ScottFitzgerald's novella.It is not clearby what standardssuch freedom could be evaluatedas good or bad. In contrastto the traditional conceptsof negative and positive freedom. This kind of suddenshift towardsanotherquality of life or towardsa life which is livedat another degree intensityis onepossible of outcome what of Deleuzeand Guattaricall 'a line of flight'.Fitzgerald's characterno longer has the sameinterestsnor the samedesiresand showhow this kind of transformation a personmight be in definedin terms of the differentkinds of 'line' which characterise indian (D&G 1987:198-200). Never believethat a smooth spacewill sufficeto save switchesadversaries.Fitzgerald distinguishesthree different vidual life kinds oftransition from one stateor stagein life to another:firstly. arethe values nor which wouldunderpinhis strongevaluations.Similar comments with of In of flight or smoothspace. ln A Thousand.'ficcdonr'in this | )clcuzirrn scnsc morcitnrbivirlcnt. Fricdrich Nictzschc's On the Genculog. Plateaus. the large breakssuch as those betweenyouth and adulthood. evenif they are condemned Connectives Deterritorialisation Lines of flight Molar Molecular Space FREUD. This is an impersonaland non-voluntaristicconceptof freedom which refers to the capacityfor changeor transformationwithin or between assemblages. the conclusion the discussion smoothasopposed Deleuze and Guattari Plateaus. the relevant In sense the term. lead. Freedom is manifest in the critical points at which somestateor condition of things passes over into a different stateor condition. its and life reconstitutes stakes. of He seeks effectwhat he calls'a cleanbreak'with his pastself (F 1956: to 69-84). betweenillness and good health.and finally the abrupt and irreversible transitions through which the individual becomes different personand eventually.the almost imperceptible cracks or subtle chosen shiftsof feelingor attitudewhich involvemolecular in changes the affective constitutionofa person. (1856_1939) refer to the entry on 'psycho- GENEALOGY Bruce Baugh Deleuze's of use or 'Genealogy'refersto tracing linesof descent ancestry. of A Thousand to striated spaceat the end reaffirm the normative ambiguity of freedom: 'smooth spacesare not in liberatory.smooth us'(D&G 1987:500). is Frccdonr this irr preferences goalsof the subjectin and is sense indifferentto the desires. betweensuccess failure in a or profession. betweenpoverty and wealth.evenif thesedo not alwayssucceed of of to the reappearance new forms of capture. any that it may threatenasmuch asadvance of these.' The subjectof the novellaundergoes particularly severe a breakdowninvolving lossof faith in his former values and the dissipation all his convictions.Sucha breakamounts a redistributionof desiresuchthat 'when to somethingoccurs. 'the new personfinds new things to care about. themselves inventsnewpaces' confrontsnewobstacles.The presupposition spaceis the spaceof freedom. and it is on this kind of line that freedomis manifest. secondly. the texts written with Guattari. Whcrclsthc normativc stiltus libcralfrccdom unambiguously of posiis tivc. freedom for Deleuze concerns those momentsin a life after which one is no longer the samepersonasbefore. 'deterritorialisation'or'smooth space'. a Fitzgeraldwrites. prima facie. the absence productiveconnections other forces.lines of flight may turn destructiveor simply lead to new of of In forms of capture. SIGMUND analysis'.But the struggleis changedor displacedin them. There is no of telling in advancewhere such processes mutation and change might Iines may alsobe madeaboutdeterritorialisation. he is no longer the samesubject:his goalsare not the of same. this concept of freedom In appears only in the guiseof other concepts suchas 'line of flight'. hereis that.sincethesedefinefreedomin terms.The the Cracb-Up.

or whether it negateswhat differs from it and suffers from that difference (often in the form of resentmen$. activeor reactive 1983:59-60). aswhen he finds 'the being of the sensible' in 'differencein intensity as the reasonbehind qualitativediversity' (D 1994: 57). through it one as forcedominates commands or anorher that obeys is dominated l9g3: or (D 49-51).anotheris that 'slaves'.ln Antiusinghis he Oedipus. reason. a rather than beingmerelya givenfaculty of the mind. D&G 1983:144-5. wills that it be obeyed. For example.their 'internal gcncsis'by conditionsimmanentto the conditioncd(D 1983: 9l).one key precept of the genealogical method is that effecrsneed not resembletheir causes. prERRn-r'f. such that the 'past' from which a phenomenonis descended a set of forces immanent in the is phenomenon that expresses those forces. In Deleuze's hands. developer founderof Cliniquede la Borde.a religion of love canariseout of resentment). 332-3.throughJean's pcdagogy France. traces memory and morality to the debtor-creditor relation and the primitive practice of inflicting physical pain for unpaid debts. expresses nihilistic and negative will which negates the sensesand the sensory world to (D produce 91. Deleuze remains a genealogist.125.only a subordinate will can obey by converting 'actions' into reactionsto an external forcg and this becoming-reactive is the expression a negative of will.rroducts phenomena the forcesthey express(symptomology). PIERRE-FELIX Garjt Genosko ( 1930-92) Pierre-F6lixGuattari was fifteen when he met psychoanalyst JeanOury. and evaluating the origin of forces in a quality of will that is either affirmativeor negative. or to the analyst as cure for the condition the analystproduces(D&G 1983:108-12. to fo thc principlc of' thcir llroduction.Jcanconvinccd . brotherFernand. Even at the basicontologicallevel. Genealogythus interprets and evaluates the hierarchicaldifference betweenactiveand reactiveforcesby referring theseto the hierarchical 'geneticelbment' of a 'will to Power' that is either affirmativeor negative.t-rx ( r g 3o-92) tL7 which traces the descentof our moral conceptsand practices.269. nothingbut the difference quantitybetween superis in a ior and an inferior force(D 1983:43).by scckingthc scnscof . a'True world'beyondappearances 1983: genealogical Deleuzecontinues methodin laterworks. will to Powerdifferentiates forcesasactiveand reactive.Nietzscheangenealogy allied with the philosophiesof immais nence (Henri Bergsonand Baruch spinoza). Connectives Active/Reactive Immanence Nietzsche GUATTARI.but is an immancnt principle of forcesand the relationsof forces. an inferior forcecan defeata superior one by 'decomposing'it and making it reactive.1+5). The sovereign promises himself by powerover himself is and defines can makeand keep thus the product of punishment: how culture trains and selectsits members(D 1983:l34J. whetherthat be to a God createguilt out of an infinite and unpayable who sacrificeshimself for us.The that the genealogist must evaluatewhether the forcesthat prevailedwere inferior or superior. Deleuzealsouses genealogyto show that the reactiveforcesand negativewill expressed by priest type are also expressed the figure of the psychoanalyst. living reminders that produce the capacity to remember the future individualwho momentat which the promisemust be kept.for whom 'good' is merely the negationof 'evil'). the forcesthat producea phenomenon as may disguise themselves (for example. memoryis the product of marksinscribedon the body for a debt not paid. However. activeor reactive.Poweror the will is eitheraffirmative (D or negative.ll6 G ENEALO G Y cuArrARr. the time he reached By twentyyears in of institutional Guttttri to abtndon GurrttrriwastnkcnundcrJcrn'swing.190-2).interpreting forces in as active or reactiye (typology). the of between creditor's Originally justiceis the assertion an equivalence pleasure paininflictedon the debtorand the injury caused the unpaid by in debt.and designates differentialrelation of forceswhich either the dominate(active)or aredominated(reactive)accordingto whether the will affirms its difference from that difference it dominates and enjoys.will to Poweris not externalto the forcesit qualifies or conditions. in affirming itsel{. D&G 1987:154). and thus coexistent with the present. Gcncakrgy thusconnccts conscqucnccs premisses. both in the debt. interpreting phenomena through the hidden relations of forcesimmanent in them.

Kafha.l 18 cuArrARr. producing and extracting singularitiesby undoing impasses. modified from Hjelmslevian and Peircean for in to roots.detailed semiotics well asa politicallyprogressive provisional as and transformation of situational powerrelations.Psychanalyse tra. arienatingand dcadcning rcdundancies: 'Ratherthan indcfinitcly tracingthe samccomplcxcs thc samc <lr univcrsirl "milthcmcs". Jacques It wasnot until 1962that Guattari graduated a didactictraining ar\alyto siswith Lacan. interfaces. structural matheme and part object.s. analysis larity entailsa sociopolitical professional neutrality.Emergentassemblages in of enunciationare ontologicallycomplex because a given situation a schizoanalyst to bridgethe virtual and actualby discerningthe former tries and attending to how they actually work themselvesout relationally processually expressively subas and and betwixt manifestation possibility. schizoanalysis requiresa practical.nsci'us luuality'(G l97t):190). existentialterritoriesand incorporealuniverses. with Gilles for Guattari is internationallyrecognised his collaborations and What is Plateau.s d. ent parts. l)cleuze on Anti-Oedipus. Lacan. from dominant overcodings.For Guattarithe subject wasa group or collective assemblage heterogeneous of componentswhose formation. universal determinationslike the oedipus myth. precursor La Borde. molecular faciality traits loosened schizzeson the run from molar bureaucracies.through four ontological functions of the unconscious. (1977and 1980) contained The two editionsof La riaolutionmoliculaire advancedsemiotic methods. -"-u!. in a way specific to each Micropolitical schizoanalysis passage. The foundation of what Guattari called schizoanalysis was laid in L'inconscient machinique.itcitn l)sychornirlysis 'l i'ansvcrsrlity . and new machinic connectionsand breaks. yet statements l'hilosoph. Guattari's writings on developments Italy in the potential for new molecular forms of collective 1970sunderlined their revolution'.e Fernandoury wasinstrumentalin gettingGuattari involvedin the summercaravans organised the paris suburb of La he in Garenne-colombes for working-class suburban youth like Guattari himself. in Guattari assistedin the foundationalwork at La Borde where he helpedwrite its constitution lAn 1 the yearit opened 1953. Guattari's career was also shapedby the friendly tutelage of another master.saumerywasGuattari'sinia of tiation into the psychiatricmilieu. schizoirnllytic a cirrt<lgraphy will cxpkrrc cxpcrinrcnt lnd wirhan unc.y?.joiningthe Ecolefreudienne parisasan analyst de in 1969. By the mid-1960s Guattari had developeda formidable battery of conceptsorganised around the problem of deliveringtherapyin institutional settings. in the early 1950s. in will map.e in next task was to organise intra-hospitalrherapeutic clubs for patients. d. delinguistifiedand mixed semiotic lines flush with matters of expression. delinked from monadic individuals and abstract. action. Guattari'sinvolvement increased after 1955. the latter former are actual and discursiveon the plane of expression. This emphasis molecuthe new terms of reference oppositional that privilegescreative.nsaersaliti et exposed limits of the psythe choanalytic unconscious arguingthat it wasnot a concernof specialists by treating individualsbut rather perfusedthe socialfield and history. pTERRE-FfLrx ( r g3o_ gz) cuArrARI. The analyst's micropolitical taskis to discern in a particularassemblage mutationalpotentialof a given component the and explorethe effects its passages and between of in assemblages. visitedJean he at clinique saumery.who grew up in the same departmenr nearbyVilleneuve. of A Sartrean-inflected theory of groups emerged distinguishing nonabsolutelybetweensubject-groups (activelyexploring self-defined projects) and subjugated groups (passively receiving directions). could be seenthrough critical analyses the of actual vicissitudes collectivelife in which patientsfound themselves. whom he had met when he wasjust twenty-three.Guartari'sformativeintellectual milieu wasLacanian. A Thousand' remainvirtually unknown. on virtual and non-discursive the planeof content. of tationalmapsof the self-engendering to the specific ways in which singularitiescome matically attending their together. with a less woodenlydichotomoussenseof super ego on one side and in sociuson the other.adequate the 'semioticpolycentrism'necessary engaging a genuinetransversal analysisof the expandedfields of the unconscious.Guatari. and the characterof their components:material fluxes and The machinicphylums. elaboratingtheir becomingsand of on across socialfield. regardless their level of formation. jcctivity everemerges.what he called'generalized and elaboratednonrepresenCartographies schizoanolytiques Chaosmose pragprocesses subjectification. his key theoretical (lonnectives l.Guattari introduced so-called flight and eschews the machineasa productiveconnectivityirreducibleboth to technologies of machinesform assemblages componand to foundationalsubstances. pTERRE-r'6ltx (r93o-92) l19 his study of commercial pharmacyand. while a teenagerGuattari had met Fernandoury through the youth hostellingmovement(Fidiration (Jniedes Auberges Jeunesse). each affecting relations their members social the of processes shaping to and the potentialfor subjectformation. rhizomes released from arborescent structures.

typically one either encounters naturalist a extendingand radicalising work of Locke and/or Berkeley(or Ren6 the Descartes and NicolasMalebranche).'phenomenology Husserl'and. Deleuze in of and nomicimperatives. tnonbeingt.sub'Foucault+ foldt.immanencet.make ethical judgements.. . and 'percept * literature'. HEIDEGGER. this reading. historian. and human life involvesethical. cannotproperly understandHume's philosophywithout referring to his work in other disciplines.Deleuzeconsiders of of in variousstages the development a 'science human nature'. feeling and sympathy. treating them as contingentexplanatory out of the reality of too it involveseconomic. tcapture'. Hume begins his philosophicalinvestigations posit about the world: humansseeobiects. remainaware themselves somesense. Sinceideas is third emphasis upon Hume's'associationism'. mid.nothing transcends On them arein no sense between of the ideas the mind.Deleuzereturns time and again accountof it is to Hume's empiricism. Perhaps best-knownphilohis sophical theoryis that ideas clearlyoriginatingfrom sense not impressions ought to bc'committcdto flames'.120 HAECCEI TY HUM E. assertions dent epistemological of and ciplesof association. HUME. Hume's entire corpus to comprise out of frustration.In a chapteron Hume.epistemological aesthetic religiousand historicalones.refer to the entries on 'experience'.sociology. DAVI o ( r 7r t . Rather sional circumstances. stance' and 'thought'.His most detailedand sustained first full late-twentieth-century historiesof philosophyplacedthem togetherroutinely.tphenomenology. On as reappears a key tenet of Deleuze's'transcendental with Deleuze'sreading. HARDY. observations straightforward plan work to meet ecoof the existence gods. 'phenomenology'and'Spinoza'. tBergson'. is ideasso that experience given ro the mind.. Hume holds that the mind just ls theseradicallydisparate ideas. or be toolsthat canalways replaced supplemented..Although Hume's grouping with such thinkers as John Locke'and George Berkeleyis questionable. theoryabout he develops andpassocial to the regular'movement'of the mind according observable than building some philosophicaledifice. Deleuze's thereareany number of waysthat they can lrc not inherently structured. finding himself unableto counter his scepticalepistemoreligion and economics turned to history.Hume The secondof Deleuze's eachwith a distinct origin of conceives the mind asa set of singularideas. Whereasit is commonly shift in emphasis Deleuze's held that Hume.refer to the entries on . initially to find in thought any element Hume is unable arguesthat. In his publishedworks and interviews. . tdifference'.economistand religious theorist. only in thc latc 1960s early 1970s and did the focusof Anglo-AmericanHume studiesmoveawayfrom such striprinof towardshis analysis the passions. and sothe connections 'pre-programmed'. MARTIN (1889-1976) refer ro the entries on tontology'. THOMAS (1840-1928). DAVID (l7tt-76\ CIiffStagoll David Hume was a Scottish * politics'.76) t21 HAECCEITY .art.For Deleuze. because (constancy per or universality'to which he might refer a psychology se' of a of insteada 'psychology the mind's affections'.his of aspects Hume's philosophyin particular.Just as so dimensions. is emphases upon Hume's 'atomism'.. position that empiricism'. to needed explainsuchdynamicsfrom Hume readsthe concepts however.and perhapsthe best known of the philosopherscommonly designated'empiricisrs'.refer to the entries on tarborescent schema'.The first is Hume's commita ment to a philosophy founded upon direct experience.. logical conclusions. Deleuze focuseson three Empiricismand. tcapitalism * universal history'. * 'percept+ literature'. GEORG WILHELM FRIEDRICH (1770-1831) .Subjectitsity. extendedfurther.focusingmainly upon the naturalismevident in Hume's principlesof human nature.propensity. imagination. Ratherthan arguingthat the mind precedes or setof originsin experience. HEGEL. suchfeatures the mind asinstinct.Deleuze had adopted this in emphasis 1952and 1953.socius. a scepticwhosecontributionsto or philosophyare largelyor wholly critical.individuation'. belief. 'cinema * Werner Herzog'.

new behavioursand so on. and transient.that we call is 'I'.While all art. offering freerin concretely opportunity to frcc up the BwQ and therebyto become 'l'his proviclcs link bctwcen ptlliticsand irrt that occathc the mind or soul.and the attempt of these bodies to escapetheir For example.This is the hystericalaspectof Baconts art. encounterwith the forceof painting.For Deleuzeand it and applies to the art of the Irish Guattari.derivedfrom nineteenth-century painterFrancisBacon. depicting the struggleof bodily or fleshlylife with the shapesthat it is forced to assume.without any a person.Deleuzethinks that Bacon'sfamouspainting organisation. contingent and changingrelationships and tendencies the human subject. it socialand habitualactswhich makeup is the set of politically acceptable. Although Deleuzeis usually faithful ro Hume's writings. pressures arisingfrom economicand legalstructures. Deleuzeclaims. that the the friction between body itself and the organisations it undergoes sociallyand politically. Ratheq such creativepotentialis realisedunder the influenceof the life of practice (that is. This Humean subject is understood by Deleuze as a fiction.the as from one's own body which is experienced a trap. but 'containing' elementsof dynamism with the capacityto transcend hierarchicalthinking of a human being in favour of rhizomatic thinking of non-humanbecoming. Nonetheless.Hume discountsthe possibility of any universalprinciple or capacityto govern such connections. :r gcncrirl in work. him asa painterof life. but rather than trulestin the usualsense. The epiphenomenonarising from such complex.which in thc case Baconis particularlymanifestin his useof colour. it expresses imperceptibleforce of life. For Deleuze. in this context.that would be a very traditional philosophical Hysteria is a namefor that the organisationof the body itself is oppressive. So. he insists. Stud. 'Body without Organs' (BwO). his Baconcan be seenasa painter of hystericsbecause figuresexpress (the pressureand strucboth the senseof strain that bodies are under ture of organisation). artifice.otherwise Pope. languagepatterns. His focus upon generalrules. wise.122 HYSTERI A H Y S TE R IA 123 be brought together to generatenew patterns of is not that the hystericis trying to liberatehis soul from the notion .showsa body trying to leavethrough referredto asthe Screaming the mouth of the figure.Deieuzeargues in mustbe understood termsof how paintingitself.but rather body .In other words. painting hasa certain privileged the itself to the relation to the body. attempt to escape However. The tendencies evident in human responses such influencesmight be called 'general to rules'. habit and stabilisingfictions carry an inordinate weight in Deleuze's early theorisation of the human individual.yAfter Wldzquez'sPortrait of PopeInnocentX (1953) . the link betweenbodies and meat or fleshshowshow life doesnot take placebeyondthe body.rsc tlrcnrin srrcial irrrrlysis. the body is malleable fixed organisation. siorrally cnrcrgcs l)clcuzc's .returns the of the cyc to the fleshlybody. Whilst porrionsof the model become targetsfor Deleuze'ssubsequent attackson the ontology of identity and being. theseare contingentand impermanent. but in the body itself. whilst his interpretationof Hume is unusual. the term 'hysteria'.On the one hand. family.However. In contrast is the social and politically organ-ised body.othersprovide him with meansof escape a radicalmetaphysics to of becoming. is in thisscnsc lt thlt l)clcuzctrkcs psychiatricthought. of being-otherwise.the forceof painting dissolves the spectatoran rnind/body hierarchy of the organisedbody. his readings are idiosyncraticand go well beyond the original texts. body the Plateaus this malleable call Deleuzeand Guattariin A Thousand. Rather than seeing Bacon as a painter of Deleuze proposes that we see horror and existential meaninglessness.rather than placingthe eyeon the side the mind of the spectator. where Deleuzeand Guattari generalisc and altcr psychoanalytic cortrrin (particularly conccpts schizophrcnia parrrnoia) and in ordcr to r. sufficiently stable to have identity posited of it and ro exist in a social is far less radicalthan his versions Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz and Friedrich of Nietzsche. hysteriadescribes in this generalphilosophicalsense. physical requirementsand so on). Connective Transcendental empiricism HYSTERIA Jonathan Roffe A frequent method to be found in Deleuze'sphilosophyis the use of non-philosophicalterms and perspectives a philosophicalmanner.Pictorial art.the body is two things at once. that the term 'hysteria'can be usedto describe Finally.On the other.It is in a certain sensethe reality of living life otherDrawing on the writings of Antonin Artaud. Likewise.addresses of the disembodied cye. in Particularly good examplesof this are availablein Anti-Oediltusand A Thousand Plateaus.

if any concept is definedasa seriesofidentifiable predicates properties. he Identity is opposedto multiplicity. something that could be checkedempirically or through reason with certainty.that truths and goodscan be representedin thought and most properly by thought.So is is as though we represent what we think and talk about. The effects<lfthcseprocesses become all thc morc clillicult to work with. on But what is identity accordingto Deleuzel ln Dffirence and.often dependon showinghow this imageof thought is operatingunconsciously and damaginglyin their works. are at There canbe no identity without pure differences standingin the backgroundasa condition for the illusory appearance a pure. or But this showsthe extremedifficulty of Deleuze's position. Thus. Identity works against and covers deeper pure differences.the commitmentto identity in representationfurthers an illusion that leadsus to repress processes becomof ing at work in our own existence. certain unexamined premissesare at work. Accordingto Deleuzenothing canbe checked this way. Repetition he gives an account of it in terms of concepts (though in lMhat is Philosophy? and Guattari usethe term in a different sense). Objects.rather than existingasfixed beings unidentifiable of with identifiable and limited predicates essences. When thought is by associatedby right with truth and with the good. That criticism takesmany forms and dependson many different argumentsand aesthetic expressions. In termsof identity. For this representation takeplacethey must be identified.t2+ Connectives Bacon Body without Organs Schizoanalysis I DENTI TY IMMA N E N C E 125 IDENTITY James Williams In Deleuze's work.Deleuze's philosophycanbe seenasa critical attempt to cure us of the self-destructive dependence identity. identity is perhaps most heavilycriticisedconcept the from the philosophicaltradition. alsothe belief that thought is dependent repbut on resentation and on identity for its path to the good and the true. So what concernsDeleuze is not only the claim that truths and goods must be represented. to There is a strong descriptionof this historicaldominance Dffirence in and. charactcriscs opposition mony importantto I)clcuzc's It his to .then to saythat or all things must be representedthrough conceptsis to further a falseimage of reality.This is because do all things are connectedto multiplicities. that is.feelings.not only in terms of communicability.An identifiablepredicatewould itself be simple.Concepts in and representations not correspondto anythingin reality. By turning us awayfrom reality.It does so because the dominance the demandto represent the historyof philof of in osophy. faculties. Do we not needto be ableto representsomethingin order to be ableto talk aboutit in an open and effectivemanner?Do we not needto be ableto identify something order to be ableto understand truthfully? in it His answer that communication expressive well asidentifying.a seriesof unidentifiableprocesses always work behindthat representation. Most notably.ideasand thoughtsmust be represented them to become legitimatepart of philosophical for a debate. The damage caused is because reality is a process becoming.where Deleuzecharacterises according a series 'posit to of tulates' presupposed a certain 'image of thought'. However. Connectives Difference Multiplicity Representation Thoueht IMMANENCE James Williams 'Ihe distinction drawn between immanenceand transcendence allis phikrsophy. of which involves pure differences that cannotbe represented. His critiquesof other philosophers. well-determined of and welldetermined. oncc that rcprcssion has takcn placc. Repetition. in that multiplicity is both uncountable and not open to a reductive logical or mathematicalanalysis. these can be simplified through the claim that Deleuze's opposition to identity is directed at the falsifying power of identity in representation.subjects.but alsoin terms of how it can be understood. to uncountableand processes becoming.

onc of which concernsthe tensions.God is independto ent of his creation. where a lower realm is related to a higher one: ('Everything downhereis related andacquires to values throughits relation to God. of through Spinoza. it is 'in' If then it is immanence.Deleuze turns on one of the main targetsof his philosophyof immanencethrough a critique of Hegelian dialectics. of on For example. The objectionto relationsof transcendence that they involve founding is (for negations example. According to Deleuze. then definitionsof humanessence be turned towards may that higherrealmand awayfrom a purely humanone. A creativerelation of of affirmationdoesnot dependon negatingthings. But this is to missthe necessary inter-relation of virtual and actual through a reciprocal determination. notablyby Alain Badiou. are positedas completeonly through their relation to an immanent (virtual'). and in the sense the lowerrealmdepending the higherone for its definition.physicalqualities. whether identifiableor all not.This is because an external principle would be neededto ground those identitics (for cxample. of. relations transcendence be tracedback of can to theologicalroots. His critical claim restson the idea that the virtual itself is a transcendent realm. in relations transcendence of hold from bodyto mind andfrom created substance God.yet the creationmust be referred to God.thcrebysettingit up irs on trrnsccnclcnt). For example. a transcendent in of soul. that mind is completely separate from body).Deleuze characterisesthe distinction made by the Stoicsbetweenmixtures of bodiesor statesof affairsand incorporcal entities that 'frolic' on the surface of occurrences(D 1990: 5).because things. Nietzsche's idea of affirmation emergesout of processes negationbut frees itself from them. In his Nietzscheand. of a relation 'in' or somethinglIf it is 'to' then it is philosophyof transcendence.actionsand passionsof bodics.This leadsto an interesting concernin Deleuzewith notionsof eternity that resistdefinitionsin termsof transcendence. Deleuze's philosophy of immanence emphasises connectionsover forms of separation.But this connectionmust itself be a connectivity betweenrelationsand not between differentidentities. Ren6Descartes.Such negations the groundsfor negativevaluations.Philosophy. for instance. Neither is independentofthe other and cannotthereforebe said to enter into a relation of transcendence.In these arguments. Mind is independent to of body and yet body is secondary mind and in its grasp. and thc othcr of which concerns cntiticsor 'incorporeal' cvcntsthrt do not cxist. doctrineof the eternalreturn of pure differences Only Nietzsche's allows for a full immanentontology. this distinction refers to two planes of being. to Nietzsche. In eternalreturn.if the human realm is seenas transcendedby God. in This explains Deleuze's appeals anddeepinterpretation Friedrich to. of In Dffirence and Repetitioz. Are the privileged relationsin a philosophyof the form of a relation 'to' something. where a principle of negationitself becomes that which transcends. but in the way we participate eternalprocesses. his philosophyis to be thought strictly in terms of relations'in'. In thehistoryof philosophy. Eternal return is an immanent process that brings differentiatingand identifying processes together.lrut rrthcr 'subsist inlrcrc'in stirtcs or of'rrllirirs.most notably Baruch Spinoza. also of It aligns his philosophy with philosophiesof immanence. Deleuzeis radical about immanence. wherehe actsa guarantorfor the validity of clearand distinct perception. that is.In contrast. for example. philosophyof immanence set out in the is ontologicalterms through a succession argumentsfrom Duns Scotus.the difficulties in developing philosophyof pure immanence a becomeapparent. . This is why Deleuzealways insiststhat only difference returnsandnot the sarne. are both in the sense a of 'lower'realm finding its valueor redemptionin a'higher'one. Immanence and transcendence terms about the relationsthat hold are at the heart of different Scotus then Spinozaare shownstill to dependon someforms of transcendence. identitydcpcnded the humtn mind . Connectives Nietzsche Spinoza Virtual/Virtuality TNCORPOREAL TamsinLorraine In The Logic of Sense. (Deleuze's field of pure differences transcendental It is important to note that theseclaims on immanenceand the distinction betweenactual and virtual are a key place for criticisms of Deleuze.The humanbody and mind will be turned awayfrom itself and devalued the light. arenot immortal We in the way we can rise to a differentrealm (of God or of PlatonicIdeas).though it may emerge out pastnegations. difference retufns to transformidentities(the same). Nietzsche'sdoctrine of eternal return (in Nietzsche and Philosophy and Dffirence and.Repetition)amongothers).').t26 IM M ANENCE IN C OR P OR E A L t2t metaphysical positions criticisedasphilosophies transcendence.

thereis a set of incorporeal or transformationscurrent in a given societythat are attributed to the bodiesof that society(for example.In additionto bodies theactions passions and and affecting thosebodies(the'machinicassemblage'. the incorporeal eventsof senseare infinitives (to shine.a form of time independentof matter that always eludesthe present.they attemptto 'represent'a pure instantat thc point at whichit divides into futurcandpast. singularities a differentiated realm of bodies.but a justicethat hasalways effectof justicethat is nevermadefully and hasyet to be . Deleuzeand Guattari characterise socialfield a in terms of a 'machinicassemblage' a 'collective and assemblage enunof ciation'(D&G 1987: 88).as Deleuze'sconceptof individuation' is a geneticaccountof individuals.thuscmbodying thcir performirncc in an intintittiontlf'virtual rclations bcyondthoscirctunliscd thc situirtion in one wills portrayed.Deleuze's aroundnot iust the non-fixityof dcvelopcd sustains crcativccvolution a as spccics tlrrttof inclividuirls wcll.Suchactorsdo more than merelyportray a character's hopesor regrets. The processof individuation is called 'differentiation' with respectto the continuum. Given that Deleuze'sconcept of becoming is basedon the co-imbrication of the of virtual real and the actualreal.ln TheLogic of Sense.t28 INCORPOREAL IN D IVID U ATION r29 Although incorporealentitiescan neverbe actuallypresent. transformation the accused the of into a convict by the judge'ssentence) (D&G 1987:cf. 8l). but . The movementof new connectionsamongthesevariables (D&G becoming-other to language its limits and bodiesto a metamorphic 1987: 108).erland.When the incorporealeffectsof sense and terarereducedto order-words.the senseof 'The sun is shining' is not exhausted.Deleuze Wond.the of apparentlycontradictory co-existence the continuum and the discrete.this critique alsorepudiates idea that an his individual is mouldedin a specificway. Substitutingthe imageof 'the mould' for a processthe friendly idea of modulation. describes actor or the stoic sage someone as ableto evokean instantwith a taut intensityexpressiveof an unlimited future and past. l9).the incorporeal manifestin any concretesituation.and therebyembodythe incorporeal effects a stateof affairsratherthan merelyits spatio-temporal of actualisation (D 1990:147).they are the effectof mixtures of bodiesand canenter into quasi-causal relationswith other incorporeals. example. Connective Becoming INDIVIDUATION Constantin V Bound. no matter how manytimesthe stateof affairsof a shining sun is actualised. Deleuze claims that while srares affairs have rhe remof porality of the living present.If one wills to be just in the mannerof a Stoic sage. evenorder-wordsbecomea passage pushes the limit.Actualisationdoesnot meanthe deathof the virtual. Deleuzeborrows and transformsanalyses Wilhelm von Leibniz and Gilbert Simondon.the and intensities. and 'differenciation' with respectto the discrete. a ontologygenerates robusttheoryof individuationthat Hence. is but is rather an incorporealeffectof a stateof affairs that entersinto relations of quasicausality with other incorporeal eventsof sense.the conception the virtual is in terms of Meanwhile. but is neverreducible to the stateofaffairs ofeither one specific or even an endless series of specific instances of a shining sun (D 1990:cf. is this 'frontier of sense'betweenwhat words express It and the attributes of bodies that allows languageto be distinguishedfrom physicalbodies. is of it because that sense not itself either an action or a passion. Plateaus. to be the sun) that constitute pure becomingswith the temporality of aion . actualis understoodasthe differenciated of and states affairs. propA osition like 'The sun is shining' expresses sensethat 'inheres' in the a proposition. flow of events.If the actionsand passions bodiesmake sense. Deleuze's continuous(intensive)multiplicities becoming(extended)discrete.As he develops theory of indimade by Gottfried viduation. been not the repetitionof pastactsof justice. of theory of individuation addresses in the process virtual. The virtual relations of the events of senseconstitute the condition of any given speech-act.we ignore the pure becomingsof sense ritorialise the infinite variability of meaning into stale repetitions of the past.their mixtures. When we allow the variablesof corporealbodiesand eventsof sense to to be placedinto constantvariation. rn A Thousand. We can view the incorporeal effectsof statesof affairs in terms of either the 'order-words' that designate fixed relations between statementsand the incorporeal transformations they express. the from a critique of hylomorphismthat exposes The conceptemerges specifierror in thinking of an individual asthe end point of a progressive cationof the species. body of for the the accused the body of the prison). Thus.or the deterritorialisingplay of carroll's Alice in (1865). The clearest exampleof the incorporealis an eventof sense. Deleuze refers to the work of Lewis carroll asa revealingexampleof how these quasi-causalrelations can form a 'nonsense' that subsists in tcommonsense' language.

The modulatingprocess of (Simondon's individuationis the transduction term) of the virtual continuum of intensitiesto the discreteextendedactual.and asthe guarantor a theoryof difference of Deleuze's ontology of becoming denouncesthe error we commit when we think exclusivelyin terms of things and their qualities.they are virtual yet real eventswhosemode of in existence to actualise is themselves statesof affairs.first.Deleuze understands'haecceities'as of degrees intensity (a degreeof heat.a promiseof becomings disallowingpredictionsof what an individuation is capable of Individuals are not subjects. accentuatetheir'.Intensity can be the desireof his ethicsand politics. eachone of which is compossiblewith.In otder to for. (. one that consistsof proper names. to to the Leibnizian method of vice-dictionthat understands individual as an the product of the law of a seriesand the internal differencethat distinguishesone moment of its becoming from another.a certaintime of the day) that. Thus.First. that is not conDcleuze's ontologyis built arounda notion of difference trincclin thc 'from' of thc 'x is differentfrom y'. Finding fresh inspiration in Simondon's theory of individuation Deleuzeconsiders of 'modulation'(instead the mould of the old imageof (virtual/real) systems thought) as the process which metastable by explicatethe potentialenergyimplicatedwithin them.all the while remembering that the actual is never totally devoid of the dynamism of the pre-individual virtual. they havethe capacity to affect and be affected(latitude).and indefinitearticlesand pronouns.the imperativesthat help us grasp intensity no longer circumscribe the of deontology pure reason of alone. Intensitiesarenot entities. Intensity is what makes the passage from the virtual to the actual possible. The following caveatsthat punctuate Deleuze's writings must be heeded.asthe affectof his aesthetic empirimotivationfor his methodological decision opt for transcendental to (different/ciation). force refers to the relation between forces. Despitethe fact that it is not identicalwith the extended. and responsible the generationof the others. l Connectives Actuality y'| I )if}'crcntiatiorr)iff'crcnciltion Leibniz Virtual/Virtuality INTENSITY Corustantin V Boundas philosophical project: it manifests 'Intensity' is a key notion in Deleuze's and creative itself asthe intensive virtual of his ontology.being the taskof sensthe .verbs in the infinitive. thought and said.onscrlucntly. intensityis not to generate differentiated the or out false anldea/paradigm for particular instantiations for screening pretenders.demandsthat the intensitiesthat constitutean extensive It be sensed the famousDeleuzian'sentiend.Third.Rather the differentiatedvirtual is differenceitself .First. Second. to of to Leibniz'sconcepts. bnt rather he aimsat l)clcuzc givcs wcight to intcnsity ditl'crcnccin itsclf. though.second.differencedifferenciating itself.The of individuals they bring about retain the anonymityof the pre-individual realm. As in Baruch Spinoza'sessences. a virtual intensity does not entail ontological separation.130 I NDI VI DUATI O N IN TE N S ITY 131 For the elaboration his theory. Populated singularby ities and eventsthesesystems bring about new (acual/real) metastable in systems the process their explication.Their metastability due to of is the fact that the virtual does not consist only of elementsand flows differentiatedfrom one another.bring aboutindividuals. in combinationwith other degrees intensity. encounterof intensity . In an ontology of sive genesis the extended(transcendental of forces like Deleuze's. Forces are experiencedonly through the results they render.imagined.asthe affirmative theory. of none of which will evercometo resemble it. a virtual intensity existsnowhereelsebut in the extended that it constitutes. Transcendental empiricism. Ultimately. being therefore.Deleuzeappeals Leibniz . the first necessary in the interactionof all facultiesstriving ibility link virtual within thought. . needsto be noted that this sensingcannot be achievedthrough the ordinary exerciseof our sensibility.Second.because by privileging extensionand extendedmagnitudeswe bypassthe intenillusion). to memory.Deleuze arguesthat we need a new languageby which to refer to them. and to all thought. Deleuze movesbeyond Leibniz's theory of individuation because the of latter's relianceon a priori harmony the compossibilityof the series. eachof which corresponds an individual. haecceities co-exist on a plane of consistency. the actual is capableof being reabsorbed by the virtual. and the results of forcefields are extensive and qualitative.and the bestpossible world. Nevertheless.they enlarge scope this deontology the so that it encompasses faculties: from sensibility. Intensity is a singularity capable generatingactual cases.The modulation is in a stateof permanentvariation. haecceities consistentirelyof movement and rest (longitude) non-formedmolecules between and particles.

is temporal:ongoingmental activity constitutConsciousness essentially ing the kind of time internal to one'sself.self-help our type of psychology it werenot for the intensityof the virtual. Placedin the context of the two sides the Deleuzian of ontology. virtual.and asa result. of Deleuze usesintuition to refer to a kind of More frequently. philosophical As reality is no longertheorised its own terms. generating extension.Similarly.The second the Spinozist is admonition live a life of joy andto multiply powerto enhancing'good encounters'.materialimageupon which we'gazd and which we then theoriseabstractly. a it At hc dctlchmcntlrom rcrrlity. Deleuze'sethics revolvesaround two axes.intensitiescatalyse actualisation the ofthe virtual. arguesthat one must enter into an experience directly. our participationin the intensive.however.132 I NTERI O RI TY IN TU ITION 133 because unlike extendedmagnitudeswhose partesextra. intensity is what is given priority. The relation of reversibilitythat obtainsbetween virtual and actualguarantees the intensitieswill not suffer the fate of negentropicdeath. successive time.oes meansa modified version of Bergson'sphilosophicalintuition (intuition philosophique). intensities cannot be subdividedwithout a correspondingchangein their nature.Deleuze's politicswould be a banalcelebration of multitudes. is notoriously difficult to as commentaries. The role of intensity in Deleuze'sethics. the of revolution that never comesand yet never ceases passis graspedas the to untimely. For Bergson. intensive event.Oncewe turn our analytical instantsand ence. and The mind is not decisions inquiriesinto the dynamics of so well adapted conductingmetaphysical to one's life. asto'coincide' and'sympathise'withit.we tend to think insteadin terms of successive precisionis lost because imagessituatedin space.however. Guattari). pertespermit their division without any correspondingchangein their nature.when Deleuzed. Connectives Differentiation/Differenciation Nietzsche Spinoza Transcendental empiricism INTERIORITY : rcf'cr thc cntryon 'cxrcrioritv/intcrioritv'.our lived reality comprisesa flow of consciousstates. on methodthat Bergson champions avoidthe to Intuition is the philosophical He analytical mind's tendencyto abstraction. Indeed. Sensation intimatelyrelatedto the intensity is of the forcesthat it doesnot represent. Sensation the affect. politics and aesthetics also is pivotal. of He would oppose consistent adoptionof a methodbecause the tendency for anysingleapproach limit perspectives a problemand soto hinder to on refer to method. linear. definethe pointsof intensityon a plane. it werenot for the fact that the multipleis not the same 'the if as many'. According to Bergson. conscious experiindividuality. What the artist aims towardsis indeedsensation. insteadthey average. As such.In someof his the which he co-authoredwith later works (for example. virtual event. intuitions can be considered ideasor even 'lines of thinking' in a general sense.Becoming if worthy ofthe event. nor ratherit is both at once:we become senin sationand at the same time something happens because it.the virtual and the actual.immanent to a particular problemand the circumstances its consideration. This is not to suggestthat Deleuzechampionsany particular philosophicaltechnique. philosophical method borrowed from Henri Bergson.efforts to turn our analyticalintellect to philosophical problemsresult inevitablyin our considering lived reality in terms of somestatic. extendedbodies and their qualities. he often creativethinking.What is Philosophy?. Someclcscribe.which is is neithersubjective objective. Intensive magnitudesdo not add up. for Bergson. evolution has resulted in the human mind and make consequent becomingable to conduct rational investigations pertainingto the worldsof science practice. othcr tinrcs lssociatcs with purcinstinct. Finally. with as manycharacterisations scholarly and or timcs llcrgsondigns intuition with artisticsensibility awareness.The continuity and persistence and its particularity definesour of this flow makesup our personhood. of INTUITION CliffStagoll Deleuzeuses conceptof intuition' in two distinct ways. Therefore.intensities incommensurable their (distance' are and from one another makeseachone of them a veritable differencein itself. The ethicsofjoy and the preference good for encounters increasing powercouldbelongto a'feel good'. to . the affirmation of which renders us worthy of our fate.The first is the Stoic/ Nietzschean imperativethat we become worthy of the virtual event. it refers to one of the elementsof a plane of immanence.intuition refers Whereas concepts as to movements upon it. when in his aesthetics Deleuzesubstitutessensation for form. requiresthe ascesis ofthe counter-actualisation ofthe accidents that fill our lives. In the counter-actualisation the revolutionthat befallsus. though. though. However. such. The so rranner in which one achieves this. mind to lived.

he argues that we shouldusemetaphorand suggestiveness point towardswhat is to otherwiseinexpressible. and This machinehasmultiple connections machine'. TheTrial (1925) is lessa question presenting of law.If he wereto consider reality in termsof concepts supposed makeit (or experience it) possible.'andthus to abstract. Interestingly.134 I NTUI TI O N KAFKA.but rather one component a 'bachelor with the socialfield.continuingits as normal functionsyet somehow discerningsimultaneously natureof its the workings. and if he is fixated on an world rather than extract impressions notionsof liberty. Ratherthan interpretation sayingthat this meansthat .This depictionalignswith Bergson's account the intuof ition of consciousness the attentionthat mind givesitself.Deleuzeand Guattari claim.'Kafka machines' of Many interpretations Kafka haveconcenand 'Kafka experimentation'.wishes. Kafka was. Accordingly.Deleuzeand Guattaripreferto look at what they call 'Kafka politics'. the means doing soremain but of mysterious.intuition is somewhat lessmysterious but no less problematic. thc fhthcrirncl .jokes.Kafka's or psychoanalytic of incestuous homosexual categories the strategyin 'Letter to his Father'is to inflatethe fatherfigureto absurdand so comicproportions. or three passions intensities: show how the Kafka machinegenerates of it ln flight and dismantling. and at can take us beyond the human condition to 'sympathise'and 'coincide' with animals andeveninanimate objects. of existence an unmarriedwriter . He remindshis readers that to express language resultsof an intuitive in the study of consciousness to conceptualise is and symbolise.Bergson'sintuition enableshim to achievethis by creating conceptsaccordingto natural articulationsof experience. The effectis to a providcr wily out of thc psychoanalytical impasse. dreams. Bergson sometimes seems hold morereservations to about the precision and generalapplicability of intuition than Deleuze.Deleuze'sintuition revealssuch articulationsas memory.such an effort must be extremelydifficult to achieve.) Deleuzeis particularlyattractedto intuition because desireto move his from experience the contingentconditions of experience order to to in rediscover differencedemandsa meansfor accessing particularityof the consciousness without metaphysical illusions. and to graspconscious and materialaspects life of without recourseto abstract or general concepts. communicate to aboutintuition.shouldnot be viewedas evidence a as of withdrawalinto an ivory tower . to life to be grotesque oppose and writing in Kafka. Kafka seeks graspthe from it. FRANz ( r 88: . such. althoughhis language hints at his havingfollowed use Bergson's suggestion.which reducesKafka's particularly intenseattachment with his own father. they claim. ratherthan abstract problem. The tendency towardsdeterritorialisation evidentin his useof animalsin his short stories. FRANZ (1883-1924) John Marks In KaJba: Towarda Minor Literature. From the lived reality of a flow of consciousness.In Deleuzeand Guattari'shandshe becomes a politicalauthor. Deleuze As maintainsthat there is a resemblance betweenintuition as a method for division and asa meansfor transcendental analysis. who is positivelyengaged the world. It is that of escape essential is in Kafka'swork.In contrastto this. whilst othershave relatingto religionand psychoanalysis. tratedon themes his of seenin Kafka'swork the expression his own acutehuman suffering: cuur.and the prophetof a future world. Deleuze and Guattari seekto overcritical wisdomon Franz Kafka'swork by preturn much of the received in sentinghim asa joyful and comic writer. (Deleuze and Bergsonboth suggest varioustimesthat intuition hasno limits.Deleuzeinstead for needsto dissociate aspects the whole that is called 'I' accordingto of natural articulations. for example.faculties.He conceives intuition as a deliberatereflective of awareness willed selfconsciousness) or a concentrated direct attention and to the operationsof consciousness contrastwith mediated'observa(in tions of'consciousness consciousness a quest for transparency by in of thoughtto itself). Connective Ilcrgson KAFKA. than that is muchmoreintense to allows bachelor existin a stateof desire the desire. and an imageof a transcendental unknowable andmorea question an of investigation the functioning of a machine. to of then he would substituteone kind of abstraction another. irritated when peoplesaw him asa writer of intimacy'. perceptionsand calculations. he means Yet intuition to be freefrom formalconceptual symand bolic constraints. that he coversthe map of the world. Deleuzeand Guattari a work becomes tragiccri d.e fear. linc of flight awayfrom into thc wrlrkl:iI llcw scto1'conncctitlns.his Kafka'sapparently havepositivelibidinal motiyations. to the world to a neuroticsymptomof his relationship with writing and obsession they showhow Kafka'sinaptitudefor marriage solitarynature.If our naturaltendencyis to graspthingsin terms of space and quantity. Deleuzeexpresses such reservations few overtly.r 924) r35 On Deleuze's interpretation.In contrastto the psychoanalyticalapproach.

since it is born out of necessityin restricted conditions. In short. paradoxically one of continuous contiguity. Sovietbureaucracy European and Fascism that are knockingon the door of his study. and individual concerns abound. only collective assemblages enunciation.They alsoclaim that the Kafka-machine. The tendencyof Kafka's work towardsproliferation opensup a field of immanence takes social that his and politicalanalysis out of thc domainof the actual and into the virrual. Kafka the perceivesthe 'diabolical powers of the future' bachelor-machine Americancapitalism.the truly critical philosopher. allegory.and evenprophetic. but rather like a watch it that is running fast.Againstboth the excesses rationalism. in Kant's importancefor Deleuzecanbe described terms of the way he of altersKant's language the 'faculties'to caterfor the primacy of affect.composition or song.Kafka'swork is a'minor'literature par excellence. Since major literature is essentiallyrepresentational in symbolism and metaphor. tion of rcason . there is no subjectin a minor literature. Instead. Such a machinic reading of Kafka is called for by Kafka's own approach.The literary machine enables vision this because functionsnot like a mirror of the world.movesin the direction of the unlimited rather than the fragmentary. continuum of of a reversible intensities.and it is Friedrich Nietzsche'spursuit of the critique againstmoral idealsthat makeshim.The evolution of Kafka's work is towards a sober 'hyper-realism'that dispenseswith impressions which no entranceis more privilegedthan another. of revisionof the language the 'faculties'callsinto questionthe Deleuze's to dualiststructureof Kant's thought according which a iuridical concepthc rcgulatcs ficld ofexperience. of losophy is the 'critique' of the faculties of the moves from contentto expression. of In a 'major' literature there are forms of individuated enunciation' that belongto literary masters.This commitment to expression evidentin Kafka's interis est in 'musical' soundsthat escape any form of signification. FRANZ ( r 88: . and Ratherthan metaphor. practiceof philosophyunderminesKant's claim his rationalismand empiricismto history.stories as and novels. as his own pantheonof selected philosophyindicates. second. Deleuze and Guattari show how he works with the components reality: objects. composed it is of letters. whereas minor a literatureexpresses itself out of absolute necessity only later concepand tualises itself.which confuses to sibleto think with what it is possible know.characters of and events. The Kafka machine is. in Deleuze'seyes.It the is also a form of literature in which everyrhing is expressed collective in terms and everything takes on a collective value. minor literature'deterritorialises'language provides intimA and an ate and immediateconnectionbetween individual and the political. TMMANUEL (1724-1804) Alison Ross Immanuel Kant's critical philosophymarks a turning point in modern the thought.and empiricism.At the same time that Deleuze rejects the false limits on that Kant places 'critique' he alsoadaptsthe Kantian project of a crifacultiesof the subjectfor his own proiectof 'transcendental tique of the empiricism'.Kafka'sceuvre completeyet heterogeneous: is constructed is it from components that do not connectbut are alwaysin communicationwith each other.Kant's self-described followsa language 'moderation'. Kant distinguishes 'critical' inquiry he conductsinto reason from the 'fanaticism'that afflicts the 'dogmatic' philosophyof his competiwhat it is posof tors. IMMANUEL (rZz4-r8o4) Connectives Desire Deterritorialisation/Reterritorialisation Intensity Lines of flight Minoritarian Psychoanalysis Rhizome 137 The book on Kafka constitutesDeleuzeand Guattari's most detailed readingof literatureasmachine.he disto haveconsigned putes the style of Kant's philosophyin which thinking is guided by the The centraltaskof Kantian phimoderating influence 'commonsense'. For Deleuzeand Guattari. For Deleuze. Kafka'shyper-reality constructsan immanentassemblage metamorphosis. Kantian 'critique' does not extend to the orientating moral valuesof the Kantian philosophy. which goes against representation. They claim that Kafka'swork is a rhizome or a burrow. Deleuzeand Guattari repeatedly emphasise fact that Kafka's solithe tude giveshim an acutelypolitical. KANT.Minor literature can afford no such luxuries.136 KAFKA.t g z 4 ) KANr.which scuttle the possibility of systematicknowledgealtogether. Expression breaks establishedforms and encourages new directions. of revolutionin philosophy Copernican of Kantian philosophy on two Deleuze rejects the self-conception influences the history of in fronts: first.

Although Deleuze's transcendental empiricism adapts elementsof Kant's thought. Deleuzeusesthe language the facultiesto demolishthe positionof the of subjectas the pivot between natureand experience to overturn philand osophy'srole as a court that adjudicates the proper limits of reason.It is important to point out that Deleuze'sreadingof Kant's appendixon the sublimeis an idiosyncratic account.Kant's peculiar position needsto be seenas a consequence Deleuze'sdescription of of his own proiect as 'transcendental empiricism'.138 KA N T . clcliningsuch irction:rs r strict adhcrcncc thc principlcsof rcas<ln.the conditionof possibilityfor thecognition objects of is the mind's own activity. conis cluctcdthrough thc Kantian language 'faculties'and 'transcendental' of thinking. and is as any arguablythe jewelof Kant's metaphysics. I M M ANUEL ( t lz+. Aside from these points of direct influence over Deleuze's project. Deleuze returns to the very rationalist and empiricist thinkers that Kant believedhis critical philosophyhad consignedto the past. the CritiqueofJudgement. specifically conceptionof the faculties.Hence Kant's famousdictum that'the conditions of the possibilityof experience generalare alsothe conditionsof in the possibilityof the objectsof experience. 1984. taskof critical philosophyis to the restrainreasonfrom the illusory usethat consists confusingwhat it is in possible think with what may be known according the sensible to to conditions of thought (K 1996:8). formalismof the moral the law guardsthe possibility of a moral acrion in the world of sensibility. faculties D D and D 1994). to Whether it is reason's tendencyto fanaticism. Further.It is in this work that Kant's positive influence over Deleuze is strongest. like Kant. The Deleuzian force of affect drives the facultiesconstantly to surpass their accepted limits. well as of as againstthe claim of circumstance action. Kant's position within Deleuze'stopography of philosophersis highly unusual. The juridical conceptionof the facultiesand the legislative role it gives philosophy establish limits of reason to the unravels.' if Kant viewsexperience But as a compoundof the dataof impressions and what our faculty of knowledgesuppliesitself. critical restraintin either case follows a juridical model.The final work of the critical on trilogy.locates dangerin the influenceon a moral action of circumstance. The subiect's categories understanding of constitute organising the structurefor sensation form the conditionof and possibilityfor experience.r 8o4) 139 In Kantian philosophythe subjectoccupies positionof an interface the between natureand experience. on Instead of a subject with predeterminedfacultiesordering the field of much asthreatento leadit astray. The adjunct of this critique is the revivalof the pursuit of knowledge outsideof sensibilityand the field of possible their nth power Deleuze's accountof this appendixargues that in the caseof the sublime the facultiesenter into unregulatedrelationsand this is what drives the (see 1983. . he alsoconceives the task of philosophyas a criof tique of the categoriesthat redeem experiencefrom the irreducible particularity of sensible perceptions. according Deleuze. Kant's textsreinforcethe sense renunciation of desires of errant of or speculation in the recurrent references 'the court of reason'which to legislates proper use and safeextensionof reason's the ideas. Deleuzeusesthe language the faculties describe regisof to a ter of affect. tries to mediatethis split betweenexperienceand freedomthrough the faculty of judgement. the very limits that Kant had so carefully laid down in the worksof his prime' (D&G 1994:2). critical philosophyaimsto secure ground of this the extensionby its investigationinto the faculty of reason. ofJudgement . The risk of sucha confusionof ideasand objectsof possibleexperienceis that a fabrication of reasonmay be confusedfor somethingthat existsin the domainof experience. Within Kant's thought the sublime is used to confirm the subject's facultyof reason that which surpasses naturalform. Deleuze describeshis Kant book as an attempt to know his 'enemy'and this book is the only book that Deleuzedevotesto a thinker who is not part of his pantheon of selectedinfluences.In Deleuze and Guattari'sWhatis Philosophy? arguethat Kant's final Critique marks they a significant departure from the termsof the first and second Critiques:the Critique is'. In the critique of PureReason. Kant's first two critiques establish division berween a freedomand the sensible world. error that follows the hubris of limitlessness or the claim circumstances make upon it and constrainit under a falselimitation. Here the sensible world and the subject's feelingsdo not provide a necessary orientation for ideas of reason. This is a transcendental projectbecause.In stark contrasr. however.Deleuze'sreturn. to in Kant's conceptionof the sublime. an unrestrained work of old agewhich [Kant's] successors havestill not caughtup with: all the mind's facultiesovercome their doesso in his order to critique the implacable dualism of Kantian philosophy. Arguing againstKant's attempt to confine the faculties to their proper limits . T M M AN U E L ( r7 24- r 8o4) KANr . Deleuzethinks that philosophyshouldcreateconcepts that do not merely trace the 'givens' of sensible experience. . Accordingto Kant. The critique of PracticalRea'son)onthe other hand. the coherence form of and experience the work of the mind rather than the 'givens'of sensible are experience.Hence the by 'revolution' that proceeds pleasfor moderation is fought on two fronts: againstthe illusionsof a reason'independent all experience'.

140 Connectives KLEE. PAUL (1879-1940) refer ro the entrieson . Demandis the alienation 'need'in language. be brokenby the secondary this connectionis described an assemblage desirein which 'mouth' as of and 'breast'replace terms'infant' and 'mother'. this respectthe imporIn tant features of Lacan's thought include his uneven verdicts on the differentlayersof the subject(RSI) and his interestin psychoticspeech.the subjectand its sexual identity arenot given. thc child foundsits sense integratedidentity through a visual percepof it of fragmentation of unity thrrtdivides from its 'real'state physiological 'l'his pcrccptionof unity. JACqUES (1901-81 ) Alison Ross Lacan wasa French psychoanalyst most famousfor his structuralJacques ist interpretationof Freudian dcsignrrtcd Lacrrnirs thc 'imlginary'. Freudianpsychoanalysis. includingan early fascination with surrealismand the avant-garde.utopia'.similarly. despitecontestingthe way it earnsthis statusonly on accountof its definitionasa 'lack' regulated the law of the symbolic. . is the failureof language of It (demand) an adequately represent to 'need'that produces impotentdesire figuredaround'lack'. JACeuEs (r9or-8t) l+l Desire Transcendental empiricism KLEE. strain tegicalliance with aspects Lacaniantheorycanbe discerned their use of of this concept. in the two volumes of capitalisrn and.In particular. by tion. sis conccrning rhc crrorsrrf'clcsirc.lirck'. (the Accordingto Lacanthe infant'sstateof physiological fragmentation real)is sealed Here into an illusory formation of unity in the mirror stage. Despite rhis essay's critique of the Freudiancategoryof 'sado-masochism'. conceptaims to explain and to maximisepossibleconnectionsbetweenthe differentparts of the body and its 'outside'.Although Deleuzeand Guattaricriticise'lack'as one of the errors of desire they applaud the fact that desire is continuous in Lacan. thc is For Lacan desireis the product of the split betweendemandand need. Despitethe genesis the of a this concept in Anti-Oedipusin a polemic against psychoanalysis. eAUL (t8lg-rg+o) LAcAN. well ashis late as preoccupation with Borromeanknots and his attemptto mathematise his ideas. on the other hand. In psychoanalytic doctrine in the development the individual is described the normativeterms of a of gradual shift awayfrom the polymorphous perversity of the infant's body zonesin an to the hierarchical orderingor codingof the body'serogenous (such as kissing)to endascending scalefrom pathwaysof fore-pleasure (genital).schizophrenia. There are placesin Deleuze's oeuvre.It is only in this final 'phase'that Lacanposes the first time the for questionof what the hitherto distinct elementsof the system. Deleuzeuseselements Lacanianpsychoanalysis of as an operative framework for his own analysisof 'masochism'. by The complexityof Lacan'splacein the thoughtof Deleuzeand Guattari and explanatory can be described relation to the genesis in scopeof their conceptof the Body without Organs (BwO). interestin the 1950s an and 1960s with saussurian linguisticsand srructuralism. and . (organs of In contrastto the without a body' that precedes process the acquisition socio-sexual identity in Lacan.the BwQ a t€rm that Deleuze of the and Guattari take from Antonin Artaud.In the paper Lacan wrote on the 'mirror stage'. is deployedto denaturalise process development Against the codingof of definedby psychoanalysis. to the (tenuous and fictional) hold of socio-sexual identity. of the body'spartsaccording 'natural' functionsand the conception the to this organismas a functioning hierarchyof parts on which it depends. pleasure Accordingto this model.but theseemerge orderingthe drivesthat arein turn by regulatedby Oedipal relations.the authorsuse in this conceptto de-Oedipalise descriptionof such connections clasthe psychoanalysis. in sical Instead of framing breast-feeding terms of a primary anacliticrelationshipbetween mother and infant that will needto identificationwith the authority of the father. Deleuze's relationshipwith Lacan is complex. Despite his .Lacanianpsychoanalysis givesa superbillustration of thc gcncralcomplaintirgainst psychoanaly in Anti-oerlipus. - LACAN. Lacirn cxcnrplifics 'crror' thrt clcsirc . on which demonstrate experr familiarity with the labyrinthinedetail of Lacanian psychoanalysis.structuralist' famehis work canbedividedinto manydifferentphases.this processis describedas the movementfrom organswithout a clearly defined senseof a body.but he can alsobe cited as an influenceon their own attempt to liberatedesirefrom its oedipal ordering in classical.reallimaginarylsymbolic (RSI) havein common. suchashis essay Leopoldvon sacher-Masoch.Lacan is occasionally a target of the authors' anti-psychiatric polemics.

Leibniz insistedin Monad. the mind is enclosed as can responddirectlyto the outsideworld.belongsto the same sible. Leibniz thus guarantees that this and not that is the best possible claimedto havearrived at a solution to the problem of evil. . is alsointeresring norethar by It to Lacan occasionally sideswith the imaginaryfield of connections prior to symboliclaw and sometimes emphasises unsurpassable the forceof the real in psychiclife. an interior that doesnot Unlike the body. expounded it is via Leibniz'sinsistence Deleuzeto think the order of things in waysnot enables one substance. the Baroque. JEAN-BAPTISTE 'creativetransformationt. of Monads are simple substances. the relationof an inner and outer world into and 33). writing within a mined rather the Christiancosmology.governed the possible world'. Thus. for I_.eibniz. of of the signals impossibility thc co-existence worlds Incompossibility in I ) His interestis in what he callsan'animal monadology'(D 1993a: is lessopposedto the alter ego (as in Edmund which the 'animal in me' that monads. is for instance. Enfoldingbrings ceive.He held by God. GOTTFRIED WILHELM VON (1646_1716\ Brett Nicholls Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz is drawn into Deleuze's engagement with the history of philosophy with a book length study. of and Husserlt1859-1938]) rather. a limited point but in reflected everyindividual asa virtual predicate. than determining. or areorganised folded in variousways. This enclosure be understood a form of in which thinking. determinedby dualism. totality of monadsthat provide the substance haustibleand unknowable and objectsin their multifariousmannersemerge'It from which subjects Leibniz to to would not be remiss. is of Deleuzethe 'pure emission singularities' an organicfield of life forces.the principle of sufficientreasoneffectively world. a the Connectives Desire Freud LAMARCK. This position is outlined in Leibniz's Theodicy of that the subjectis determinedin the convergence what he callsa 'comby that is bound by the samelaw. unity only becomes functionalwhen the subjectrelinquishes relation its with the (M)Other in order ro occupya placein the symbolicorder as a speaking subject.TheFrjld: Leibniz and. Any series this view. as'Fold afterfold'(D 1993a: music. as a point upon which seriescon(pure is emissionof singularities' thus the universeas verge.ology (written 1714.published 1867)that the universeconsists discreteentities:monads. dividedin the subjecr's is secondary identification with the Law of the Father.s wider thinking. other worlds would simply be incompossible. essence. all of thrrtdivcrgcfrom thc hw of'non-contrrdiction.For Lacan. work of the Lacan differs from his precursorsin classical psychoanalysis that he proin poses porousrelationbetween body and its 'outside'. varying scricsconvcrgciu ir hrrrnonious unity thrrtis prccstirblishcd G<td. It is not posprinciple of non-contradiction. with no windows through which anythingcanpass. matter. J EA N -B Ap rrs rE (r744-t8zg) LErBNrz) corrFRIED wILHELM voN (r7 44-t8zg) 143 establishes basisof socio-sexual the identity asa unity. This unity is paradoxicalhowever. and he is presentat strategicmomentsin Deleuze. imaginingand reflectingoccur. 109). Deleuzelinks the form of this theatre to baroquearchitecture. despitethe limitationsof his framework. indivisible and indestructible. stabilityof the determinedsubiectis guaranteed (1890). ln The Fold Deleuze reinvigorates Leibniz's concept of the monad with the notion that the world is 'a pure emission singularities' of (D 1993a:60). (1744-1829) refer to the enrry on - LEIBNIZ.For Leibniz ultimatelyconsidered from idealism.Deleuzeand Guattari disengage oedipal narrative the that regulates organisation socio-sexual the of unity in psychoanalysis. And while we can imagine other realities' say a world in which Adam is not a sinner. The world that we inhabitis constituted by monadsthat convcrgcin serics.which he admires The subject emergesin Deleuze's work upon Leibniz not as an but an attribute of aggregate vital forces.At one level.The primary sense unity developed the subjectin of by the mirror stage. Yet in many respects Lacanis an ambiguous resourcefor the hold of the organisedBwo is described him asrenuous. saythat Deleuzeseeks rescue as substance immaterial. by Existencefor Leibniz and Deleuzebursts forth in its variousforms from This plane can be understoodas the inexone plane of singularities. producedby a kind of matter that hasthe capacityto fold Matter outsidethe mind doesnot perin upon itself in order to perceive. upon as The conceptof the fold. giventhat the agencyof its unity is external.The distinction betweenthe mind and the body. with in of view (D 1993a:53). And. An identity emerges and through the converThis meansthat the subject is detergenceof a seriesof singularities.t+2 LA MAR C K . and for Leibniz.however.htlwcvcr. for Adam to be both a sinner and not a sinner in the sameworld.


L 6 v rN A S,







his engagements with Leibniz, goesto work upon this solutionand alters the trajectoryof Leibniz'sthought.He proposes that incompossibility a is conditionof compossibility. Ratherthan governed the metaphysical by law of non-contradiction, world is multiple and the subjectcanbe defined the in relation to foldable, polychronic temporalities, where incompossibles and compossibles co-exist.we might think, therefore,of the divergence of series asnegationor oppositionbut aspossibility. not This emphasisupon divergenceas possibility is sustainedin Dffirence andRepetition 1994:123) (D whereDeleuzereadsagainst Leibniz'sinsistenceupon compossibility with the notion that'basic series divergent' are sincethey are (constanrly displacedwithin . . . chaos'.rn TheLogicofsense (D 1990:109-17),incompossibility becomes ground for the overlapthe ping of senseand non-sense. And in Cinema2: The TimeImage(D 1989: 130-l), Leibniz figuresas a thinker who has unwittingly openedup the problemof time and truth. In eachof theseworks,DeleuzedrawsLeibniz into his rejectionof dualismand his critique of the order of things.He is concernedwith pushing Leibniz beyond the limits of the principle of sufficientreasonto affirm that incompossibles belongto the sameworld. Living involves,after Deleuze'sLeibniz, not the relation of truth and falsity but the affirmarion of possibilities,the work of unfoldins and folding compossible incompossible and series. Connectives Fold Force Substance

LEVINAS, EMMANUEL and 'phenomenology'.

(1906-95) referto rheentrieson ,ontology' -

LINES OF FLIGHT Tamsin Lorraine ThroughoutA Thousand Plateaus,Deleuze Guattaridevelop vocabuand a lary that emphasises how things connectrather than how they ,are',and tendencics that could evolvein creative mutations ratherthan a 'rcality' thlt is an invcrsion.of'thc pllst.IJc lncl(iuattrriprcf'cr to consiclcr thirrgs

or not as substances, asassemblages multiplicities,focusingon things but in terms of unfolding forces- bodiesand their powersto affectand be A affected ratherthan staticessences. 'line of flight' is a path of mutation precipitatedthrough the actualisation connections among bodiesthat of new powersin the werepreviously only implicit (or'virtual') that releases capacities thosebodiesto aq and respond. of Every assemblage territorial in that it sustains is connections that define is of it, but everyassemblage also composed lines of deterritorialisation that run through it and carry it awayfrom its current form (D&G 1987: in assemblages terms of three 503+). Deleuze and Guattari characterise kinds of lines that inform their interactionswith the world. There is the 'molar line' that forms a binary, arborescentsystem of segments,the and 'molecularline'that is morefluid althoughstill segmentary, the line of While the supple flight that rupturesthe other two lines(D&G 1987:205). that of by segmentarity the molecularline operates deterritorialisations may permit reterritorialisations that turn backinto rigid lines,the line of and of flight can evolveinto creativemetamorphoses the assemblage the it In assemblages affects. what they admit is a 'summary' example(since they suggest into oneanother), that the threelinesco-existand canchange the the Roman Empire could be said to exemplify rigid segmentarity; migrant barbarians who come and go acrossfrontiers pillaging, but also into indigenous communities, reterritorialising integratingthemselves by who escape such all supplesegmentarity; and the nomadsof the steppes everywhere they go,a line of territorialisation and sow deterritorialisation flight (D&G 1987 222-3). : (for of On the one hand an assemblage example,an assemblage the book, assemblage' actions, A Thousand, Plateous, and a reader)is a 'machinic of passions bodiesreactingto one another(paper,print, binding, words, and feelingsand the turning of pages).On the other hand it is a 'collective and incorporealtransformations assemblage enunciation',of statements of (the meaningof the book'swords emerges a reading in attributed to bodies extant in the social assemblage terms of the implicit presuppositions in (D&G 1987: in field concerningpragmaticvariables the useof language) producevariouseffectsin 88). Both aspects ofthe book-readerassemblage (for the of their engagement with other assemblages example, assemblage of bookand handripping out pages feeda fire or the assemblage a reader to pluggedinto aesthetic inspired by the notion of 'becomingassemblages imperceptible' createa work of art). Deleuzeand Guattari deliberately to designedA Thousand. Plateausto foster lines of flight in thinking thought-movements that would creativelyevolvein connectionwith the producing new waysof thinklincsof flightof othcr thought-movcmcnts, of into thc rccognisitblc ing rathcr thnn tcrritorirrlising [4r(x)vcs what


L rN E s





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for thought. Interpretations, accordingto Deleuze 'passes' philosophical and Guattari,tracealready patternsof meaning;mapspursue established connections lines of flight not readily perceptibleto the majoritarian or subjectsof dominant reality.Deleuzeand Guattari wrote their book as sucha map,hoping to elicit further maps,rather than interpretations,from their readers. Although Deleuzeand Guattari clearly value lines of flight that can connectwith other linesin creatively productivewaysthat leadto enlivening transformationsof the social field, they also caution againsttheir dangers.A line of flight can becomeineffectual,lead to regressivetransformations, and evenreconstruct (D&G 1987:205). highly rigid segments And evenif it manages crossthe wall and getout of the blackhole,it can to presentthe dangerof becoming more than a line of destruction(D&G no 1987:229).Deleuzeand Guattari advocate extending lines of flight to rhe point where they bring variablesof machinic assemblages continuity into with assemblages enunciation, of transformingsociallife in the process; but they neverminimisethe risks the pursuit of suchlinesentails. Connectives Deterritorialisation /Reterritorialisation Majoritarian Molar



understandingthe politicalpotentialof art hasbeena concernthat goes as far backasthe Middle Agesand Renaissance, wherepoliticaland religious influenceoften definedthe content of art commissions inscribingpublic space, this beingthe key concernshapingRichardC. Trexler'sPublicLife (1980).During the early twentieth century,Bertolt in Renaissance Florence Brecht,GeorgLuk6s,and Ernst Bloch examined GermanExpressionism, boldly denouncingthe aestheticisation politics;this was a debatethat of carried enormous influence for both Theodor Adorno and Walter Benjamin'sexamination the industriesof culture and their subsequent of critique of bourgeois culture. In the latter part of the twentieth century Edward Said, and postcolonial theory in general,insistedin Oriantalism (1978)that the representation colonised peoplcby thcir coloniscrs of is inhcrcntly political: rcprcscnting an-<lthcr's culturc on thcirowntcrms not

but on the basisof what the occupyingculture believesis relevantand discusimportant.So what might Deleuzecontributeto this longstanding politicsand art? between the sion concerning connection proTo begin with, art at its most creativemutatesas it experiments, paradigmsof subjectivity.What this meansis that art has the ducing new and combinpotentialto createthe conditionswhereinnew connections economically, linguistically,perceptually, ations can be drawn - socially, Antonin Artaud, a favouriteof For and conceptually historically. example, executed during his drawings animated both Deleuzeand Guattari,whose confinement in a mental institution, captures a senseof physical and psychicexhaustion, exhaustion that is intensifiedby the anarchiclanan of guage develops through the combination colours,words,soundsand he both document and constitute a processof forms. Artaud's drawings In of the sensory overload, linesof which strip awaysystems signification. this way we could useDeleuzeand Guattari'sconceptof a 'line of flight' to considerhow Artaud's work prompts us to think,differently,to sense anew and be exposedto affectsin unpredictableways.Hence, by gdneratsystem' as and affects, could be described an 'affective art ing new percepts of change. When consideringthe political potential of art, we often look to the way are in which certainpractices immanentto the socialfield and the changes theseinvoke.A practice that dismantlesconventionalways of thinking by upheaval looseningup someof the and acting,or one that stimulates rules and ordersthat organiseindividualsand socialbodiesis inherently political. This prompts two key questionsto bubble to the surface.First, how can politics condition art? Second,and more pertinently,how do we gaugethe politicalforceof art? the desiring production that organises Art at its most socialexposes to desirein its most productive sense bring to life the affective space, using out dimensionof art. To this extent,the linesof flight emanating of certain can practices, suchasArtaud's,resultnot so much from what an audience seebut more from what they cannotsee.That is to say,the movementof primary points of subjectivity curator,critic, client, artist, linesbetween - and signification- exotica,erotica, insanity,conmadmanand spectator sumerism,history and value - can locatethe majoritarianlines striating space order to extractthe minoritarianforcesimmanentto a particular in space. The reality of such art work is qualitativelydifferent from art that the 'represents real' or eventhe real of 'reality TV', as this kind of art is This is an nor determinedneitherdialectically purely assymbolicgesture. and rigidity of socialspace art practicethat simply makesthe coherency the lcak.In thc spirit of l)clcuzc and Guattarithc politicsof art cxposcs 'l'housurul of tlight arc put firrwitrtlin tI l)lutcu'tls:'l,incs vcry proposition









sur cr DE


realities;they are very dangerous societies, for althoughthey can get by without them, and sometimes manage keepthem to a minimum'(D&G to 1987:.204). From this viewpoint, art functions asa line of flight, traversing individual and collectivesubjectivities and pushingcentralised organisations to the limit; it combines varietyof affects a in and percepts waysthat conjugate one another. In many respects connective, the expansive deterritorialising and character of lines of flight, when consideredin terms of art, draws our attention to the ethical dimensionof art. Here the questionof ethics in relation to art is primarily takento be a problemof organisation. makesposArt sible,it enables to broadenour horizonsand understanding, us sensitising us to our own affective dimensionin relationto the world asa whole.It is, therefore, no accident that art often becomesthe primary target once repressionsinksin, usually setting off alarm bells,and warning us that the socialsphereis on the vergeof becomingfascistic. As Deleuzeand Guattari insist in A Thousand, Plateaus, when desire in turns repressive finds investment fascistic it socialorganisations; this at point the activelines of flight indicativeof the political undercurrents of art aresusceptible blockage. to This is not to suggestthat art is immune to fascistic investment. too,canbe turned against It, itself;that is whenart is radicalityof art. consumed the blackholethat annihilates innovative by the For example, althoughmanyof the GermanExpressionists wereexemplified asproducers degenerate by the GermanNazisin the 1937 of art exhib(in Reflections Decad,ence DresdenTown Hall), Luk6s insistedthat ition, of the artists in question in fact participated in the selfsame irrational impulsesmotivating Nazism. In other words, when positive lines of flight arewithdrawnor usedto prop up the regulative natureof negative linesof flight, what we are left with is an ethicaldistinctionformed between'the politics of art' or 'the art of politics'. In effect,then, the politics of art politicalsubjectivitysustaining impersonal from how art engages comes an reality that allowspre-individual singularitiesto structure and collectively to orient subjectivity.The politics of art survivesalong the mutative dimensionspositive and creative'lines of flight' expose;it is not fully (yet apparent and still it existsasa to come'.

LINES OF FLIGHT RosiBraid,otti


Thc Dcleuzian subject a singular is onc complexity, that enacts irndrrctu'l'his 'subjcct'simultrncously rrliscs radicrrl a cthics of transf<rrmltion.

In rejectsindividualismand the nihilism of self-destruction. an ecosophione that Deleuzethinks of the subjectin terms of a connection, cal sense, takes place between self and others, pushing the subject beyond selfor centredindividualismalsoto includenon-humans the earth itself. On the issueof suicide,Deleuze is as clear as Baruch Spinoza:the is choice for self-destruction not positive,nor can it be said to be free, because deathis the destructionof the conatus definedas the desireto actualiseone's power of becoming. Self-preservation,in the senseof a cannotfreely the desirefor self-expression, constitutes subject.A conatus if somephysicalor wish its own self-destruction; it does,this is because psychical compulsionnegates subject'sfreedom.As connectivityand the of mutual implicationare the distinguishingfeatures an intensiveunderceasing partakein this vital to dying assuchmeans standing the subject, of flow of life. Hence. the inter-connectedness entities means that selfof preservation a commonlysharedconcern. is one's enjoymentof life is Joining forceswith others so as to enhance the key to Deleuzianethics;it is alsothe definition of a joyouslylived life. The greatest ethical flaw is to succumbto externalforcesthat diminish one's capacityto endure. From this viewpoint, suicide is an unproductive 'blackhole'. from the metaphysics finitude. of Deleuze's view of deathis far removed nor the Death is neithera matter of absolute closure, a borderthat defines the subject is existingor not existing. Instead, Deleuzian difference between producedthrougha multiplicity of connections that unfold in a process of philosophicalnomadicismin becoming. This affirmativeview of life situates economycommonto the logic of positivity,rather than in the redemptive classical metaphysics. What is more is that this vision of death-as-process, out or a Nietzschean vision of the 'eternalreturn', emerges of Deleuze's philosophy time: endurance sustainability. and of Life is the affirmation of radical immanence.What gets affirmed is the characteristic ofdesireor the intensityandacceleration ofexistentialspeed potentia. nomadicsubjects asserts positivthe expression of The ethicsof ity of potentiaitself. That is to say,the singularity of the forces that grid of immanence composes one's compose specificspatio-temporal the life. Life is an assemblage, montage,not a given;it is a set of points in a spaceand time; a quilt of retrievedmaterial. Put simply, for Deleuzewhat essence. makes one'slife unique is the life project,not a deep-seated of Commentingon the suicides Primo Levi andVirginia Woolf,Deleuze - who alsochoseto end his own life - stressed that life can be affirmedby your own life. This he felt wasespecially true in the caseof supprcssing both of social conditions, failinghcalthor whcn lif'cis spcntin dcgrading which scriously cripplc orrc'spowcr to itflirnr lnd cnclurclil'c with ioy.

of namely the power to express the pre-individualor impersonalpower of potentia.The operativestatements of various regionsof the socialfield (statements concerning.death is the ultimate manifestation the activeprinciple that drivesall living matter. Deleuzeand Guattaricharacterise suchsetsas'multiplicitiesof escape and flux'(D&G 1987:470). a single substance expression produced through the subjectionof is of bodiesto disciplineby the abstract machine faciality(a'blackhole/white of wall system').circulationand consumption(D&G of 1987:461). D&G 1987: 295). and subjectification (systems that distributesubjects enunciation of and subjects the stateof ment . Minorities thus constitute 'fuzzy' sets that are nondenumerable and nonaxiomisable. Death is the becoming-imperceptible the nomadic subjectand of Yet. of but by tlrc svstcms 'signifiancc' thtt clctcrnrinc what nrlkcs scnscin a givensituation. Consequently.that is..for example. into the on the strataof the organism(various corporeal systems organised functioning wholesof biological organisms).lay-out and behaviours relatedto the court room) are the condition of the subjects they produce.Whether you are in the workeror businessman consumer or depends moreon the function you are performingand the relationsinto which you etc. very few axiomsregulate dominantflows. The eternalreturn of death is 'virtual' in that it has the generativecapacity to engender the actual. Deleuzeand Guattari insist it is the 'axioms'of capitalistsocietythat constitute majorities (D&G 1987: 469). 'l'hc nrnjoritlrirn strndrrcl is thus this 'irvcnrgc' . ttrational. schooland the student. The majoritarian standardconstituted through thesestatementsspecifies positionson points of the arborescent. From the polyvocalsemioticsof the body and its corporealcoordinates. structural systemsof territorialisation and reterritorialisationthrough which subjectsare sorted and significations make sense(cf. Systems signifiance of and subjectification sort socialmeaningand individual subjects into binary categories that remainrelativelystableand render 'minor' fluctuations invisible or derivative. on MAJORITARIAN Tamsin Lorraine like 'white-man'or Deleuzeand Guattaridescribe majority asa standard a in comparison to which other quantities can be said to be 'adult-male' Human life in a capitalistsocietyoperates minoritarian(D&G 1987:291).or the political system and the citizen)constitutethe majoritarian elements a denumerable of set. speech dictated by an individual is not What counts mcaningful as subjcct.150 M AJ O RI TARI AN M AJOR ITAR IAN t5l somecautionhere. examplelegal dis(thesecould be compared Foucault's to course) and machinicassemblages for nondiscursive short the average Europeant the tcentral'point is by referenceto which binary distributions are organised.Deleuzeand Guattari take the Foucaultianstance that collectivesystems enunciation(thesecould be of for comparedto Michel Foucault'sdiscursivesystems. allowingthem to be simultaneously realised a wide variety of domains(D&G 1987:454).Death is the empty form of time.givingotherflows the only a derivativestatus)(D&G 1987:462). Rather than assumethat the subject is somehowprior to the a societyof which it becomes member.deathis still interconnected assuchit is part of the cycleof becoming. the perpetual impersonal becomin ing that canbe actualised the present flowsbackto the pastandseeps but into the future.the prison and the convict. with the 'outside'and always the frontiersof incorporeality. examplethe bodies.The functional elementsand relationsof capitalismare less specified thanin otherforms of society.Minorities are defined by the gaps that separate them from the axiomsconstituting majorities (D&G 1987:469).These gapsfluctuatein keepingwith shifting lines of flight andthe metamorphoses the assemblages of involved. recognisable mnemonic. male.the fluxesof the organicstrataare superseded the strata by (D&G 1987: 18l). Deleuze introduces a fundamental distinction between personal and death.'signifiance'(systemsof signifiers and signifieds that interpreters interpret).What countsasa recognisable subject(to oneselfaswell as others) is dictated by systemsof subjectificationthat determine a subject'sposition vis-i-vis others. The 'white. of signifiance and subjectification adult. subjects who are speakers.All the lines definedby pointsreproducingor resonating with the centralpoint arepart of thc arbrlrcsccnt systcmthat constitutes 'Man' as ir 'giganticmcmory' (l)&G lt)li7: 293)..because Deleuzeis not We do needto exercise proposinga Christian affirmation of life gearedtoward a transcendent enterprise. molar. rather he is suggestinglife is not marked by any signifier or proper noun: Deleuze's vision is of a radicallyimmanentfleshed existence intensively lived. This gives capitalism a peculiar fluidity. subjects what is spoken and of about).than who or what you are. The axioms of capitalismare primary statements that arenot derivablefrom other statements and which enterinto assemblages production. Deterritorialising flows canbe mastered throughthe multiplicationor withdrawalof axioms(in the latter case.though.

and the mode (of production) emergesfrom this amalgam. is and .152 M AR X) KA R I. not'Marxist': this metatheoretical is specification tells us in virtue of what conditionsand principlesthisfield (capitalism) is governedby this axioma. But preciselybecause labour is inscrtcclinto cvery componentof society.Schizophrenia.eology (1932)that 'the nature of individuals dependson the materialconditions determiningtheir production'. as the questionof the compliance this field with the axiomsthat constitute of Marxism.traditional Marxist concepproduction to take place tions are reversed:it is not the mode that enables (the gist of these accounts). and so forth). Schizophrenia this ontology of desiring-production. a matter of urgency. and so on. of and of Connectives Arborescent schema Black hole Deterritorialisation Foucault MARX. Productive crogeneous elements(commerce.and so on. for Marx maintainedthat it is necessary societyand the State to exist Deleuze beforesurplus value is realisedand capitalcan be accumulated. art. Capitalism and. necessarily. markedin particularby the eventsthat led to the collapse the SovietUnion in 1989(it should. Deleuze and Guattari provide this metatheoretical elaborationby resorting to a constitutive ontology of power and political practice. Deleuze and that is. chizophrenia S are'post-Marxist'. Ccntral for the authors of Caltitalism and Schizophrenia thc dclinis cirti<ln thc moclc procluction. links the mosthetand religion.businessstrategies. a matter of as philosophical is of As exigency. or sport. Capitalis now omnipresent.of course. of The mode of production is on the samelevel asany other expressions the modesof desire.tic (Marxism). First. and so inevitablyensues a disavowal multiplicity. To know that capitalism its current manifestation congruin is ent with the Marxist axiomaticresort has to be made to a higher-order principle that.( r 8 r 8.For Deleuzeand Guattari the modesof proof duction are thereforeexpressions desire. which perhaps accounts the charge for that the authorsof Capitalism and. organisationthat link attractions. they seeit. and so forth (asthe case may be). or of hunting.interprets this dictum in a distinctive and even 'postMarxist' fashion. they eschew dialectics. Deleuzeand Guattari give this notion a novel twist.and so for Deleuze and Guattari there is neither base nor superstructure in society but only stratifications. it is desiring-production itself that is makesthe mode what it is. though it is clear that the Marxist paradigm is a crucial if tacit framework for many of the conceptionsdevelopedin the two volumes of Capitalismand. of of which is of'coursc crucialnotion filr r as of Marx.This ontology is influencedby Baruch Spinoza. Instead. noted of be that for Deleuze and Guattari this crisis had its beginningsin 1968). but the analysis which had fallen somewhatinto abeyance a promoted by the Frankfurt result of the emphasison the commodity But Schooland cultural studiesin recentdecades.forces and powers.What enableseach mode of production to be createdis a specific amalgam of desires.production is in of not simply understoodby them in terms of such items as investment.83) 153 European constituted throughout the social field in its myriad forms through the systems signifiance subjectification variousdomains. Desire has this generativeprimacy this ceaselessly because is desire.politics has to politicsis achieved an apparatus by exist. as hirsa prior socialc<xtpcrrtion its cnrrbling capitrrl ubiquitous. manufacturing.Today capitalhas reacheda stagebeyond the one prevailingat Marx's time. Secondly. Friedrich Nietzsche. and so the crisisof utopia poses. Deleuze. the modes of Guattari accordprimacy to 'machinic processes'.The linkagebetween capitaland proThis transcoding that transcodes particularspace accumulation.and Henri Bergson more than Marx. Before anything can be generated capital. that makesthe it gun (say)into an instrument of war.however. Marxism is depictedby them asa set of axiomsthat governsthe field that is capitalism.The necessityfor this (Deleuzian)reconsrirutionof the Marxist project stemsfrom the crisis of utopia represented the demise by of 'actuallyexistingsocialism'.so that it is desirewhich is productive. accumulations or concatenationsof ordered functions which are expressionsof desire. which is alwayssocial and collective. Especially significant is Marx's dictum in The Germanld.expressions. that is.and the modesof production aremerelythe outcomeof truly generativedesire. which affectthe humanbody. KARL (1818-83) Kenneth Surin Karl Marx doesnot receive dealof explicit attention in the writings ^great of Deleuze and Guattari.repulsions. KARI .In the process. dialectics a species the logic of identity which collapses'difference' into the rational 'same'. and Guattari alsosaythat it is the Statewhich givescapitalits 'modelsof by realisation'. a of of or expenditure labourpowerand it is videsa prior realisation regulated its the function of the Stateto organise membersinto a particularkind of productiveforce.rather.(r8 r 8-83) M ARx.

controlrrrclcxpklit thcm. pointsinstead the tensions to openedup at the heartof Spinoza's ontology by the emergence capitalismin seventeenth-century of Holland and the formulationof a notion of absolute Though their methodolodemocracy.y rcgard thc kcy problcms rrs fircing contcmprlrrrry phikr- sophical and politicalthought. multitude)confronted of thc with it pitritsiticll ilgcncytlut scckst() cilpturc.driven by the constiof and tution of a thoroughgoing immanentphilosophy. work of Mario Tronti and Negri's uptakeof it is the identified asan important precursorfor an understanding contemporary of capitalism that acknowledges paradoxical the centralityof 'marginal'forms of subjectivity(students. taking into account the Spinoziststudiesof Deleuze.Pierre Machereyand AlexandreMatheron. linked to the liberation of forces capableof entering into compositionwithout the aid of supplementary (for dimensions example Their concurrentattemptsto move sovereignty).This is encapsulated Deleuze in by the conceptof the axiomaticand in Negri by that of Empire. no longer and one thinkablein terms of a dialectical totality. in of Marx. Deleuze came his defence to with a publicletter. deterritorialisationand smooth space featureprominently in the attemptto schematise changes the structures sovereignty the the in of and dynamics resistance. it hasits unavoidable limits. new regimesof capitalaccumulation and new strategies commandand control. to Connectives Capitalism Stratification MARX + ANTONIO NEGRI Alberto Toscano Deleuze encountered work of Antonio Negri andthe traditionof Italian the workeristMarxism (operaismo) Guattari.Among the questions they sharearethe following:How canwe be faithful to the legacyof Baruch Spinoza? What are the stakes contemporarymaterialism? of How can the thought of Marx be rescuedfrom both structuralismand humanism? what sense In can contemporarycapitalism considered both immanentand transcendentl be as How canwe articulate newmodelsof subjectivation light of the critiques in of Cartesianand Kantian imagesof the subject? Deleuzeand Negri repeatedly situatetheir work in terms of a continuation of Spinoza's ontology. is most evidentin Empire(with MichaelHardt). and who met Negri when rhe latter was invited by Louis Althusser to lecture on Karl Marx's Grundrisse the Ecole Normale at Sup6rieure.Both locatein Spinozaa singularbreakwith the philosophies transcendence legitimation. in and it followsfrom this that collectivesubjectshavea potential powerthat capitalismitself cannotcapture. and so on). The questionof revolutionis thus the questionof finding a politics that will usethis collective subjectivity that the productiveforceof society so is subjected nothing but the desireof its members. Whereas Deleuze's writingson Spinoza highlight the mannerin which Spinoza's thoughtprovides us with a practical and affirmative extension Duns Scotus'thesisof uniof vocity.and to appropriate and recast number a of their concepts in his own attempt to transform the vocabulary of Marxism in light of new modesof political subjectivity.who waspersonally via involved with the free radio movemenr and other politicalinitiativesin the Italy of the late 1970s. unemployment. might be preferable consider of it to therelationship Dcleuze (andGuattari) Negri in termsof a significant of to ovcrhpin whrt thc.Negri and Deleuzeconsiderthe critique of transcendence as an eminently political matter.It hasbeen Negri's greatmerit to emphasise persistence Marxist themesin the the of writings of Deleuzeand Guattari. one that can be seento combat the attemptsto legislateover the contingencyof being through variousforms of representational thought. wherenotionsof it virtuality. . Ratherthan speaking influences. capital needsthis prior organisation of cooperation order to succeed. Their programmes rcsearch converge the notion of contemporary on capitalasa vcry particularadmixtureof immanence transcendence.understoodas centresof force and composition out on a planeof immanence. giesdiverge. In both cirscs dialecticalantagonismis transformedinto a figure of conflict that sccsfirrms of subjcctivityirreducibleto the figuresof peopleor citizenry (thrrtis collcctivc irsscmblagcs cnunciirtion. is on the basis a directly laid It of politicalunderstanding ontologyasinextricable of from practice(whether as communist revolution or ethology) that Negri and Deleuze wish to extracta materialistlineagein the history of philosophy.Deleuzepreferring a far more internalistreadingto Negri's historical materialist approach. In this respect.domesticwork. whilst of Deleuzeand Guattari'sinfluence already felt in Negri's textsof the can be 1980s. During Negri'simprisonment his politicalactivities Italy in rhe'years for in of lead'(1970s). influqnce by no means of The is unilateral: already in A Thousond' Plateaus. a series lectureslater publishedasMarx Beyond.154 M ARX * eNToNr o NEGR r M AR X + AN TON IO N EGR I 155 condition. with andbeyondMarx in an analysis contemporary of capitalism politand graspedas passaBes ical subjectivity can thus be from a transcendental or dialectical mode of thought to an immanentor constructivistone. women.both concur on the need to think the flattening of substance onto its modes. Negri's The Sazsage Anomaly (1981).

In contrastto this.the brain and the computer will take part in the constructionof an abstractmachine. and experiencingthe potential thinking takes rrmplification its powersby 'artificial'brains.weigheddown by the pastandmodernneuroses. of The fact that cinemaand painting are capable actingdirectly upon the languages rather nervoussystemmeansthat they function as analogical than digital codes. considers. in this way constructing what Deleuze calls 'machines'.but ratherinfinitelyfolded. Bergson Leibniz.They showthatthoughtshouldno longerbeconstrained theconby sciousness have it. Computer technologymay well transform the world of the future.Spinozaand Nietzschechallenge devaluation the body in the of favourof consciousness. this materialin but ism must be considered the light of the vitalismand empiricismthat also in characterises work. He conceives the humanbrain asmerelyone cerebral crystallisation amongstothers:a cerebral fold in matter.In 'and materialan sunrmary. )clcuzc thinks in tcrms <>f expressiae intensiac | nriltcriillisnr.all processes reducing them down to the most basic components .In his work on cinema.he alsoeschews reductivemolecularmaterithe alism upon which artificial intelligenceis based. to and the necessity of exploring the potential of these connections. in this way propose materialist and a readingof thought.The machineis insteada function of what might be thought of as the 'vital' principle of this planeof consistand ency.but ratherin terms of modulationsthat produce singularities. MATERIALISM John Marks Deleuze's work is undoubtedly materialist orientation. Deleuzedrawsinspirationfor his materialismfrom a this varietyof sources.accordingto which the organic and the mechanical share a common informational language.In his bookon Michel Foucaulr.r . isnrirsrrlrlroscd rtil. but FriedrichNiezsche.In common with the sort of materialismfavouredby cyberneticsand theories of artificial intelligence.In this manner. Deleuze claimsthat matteris in continuous variation.15 6 M AT ERIAL ISM MA TE R IA LIS M t57 It should be noted that Negri's abiding preoccupation with the Marxian concept of real subsumption and his refashioningof class struggle differentiate approach his from the definitionof capitalism an axiomatic as (which still demands modelsof realisation) and of resistance terms of in minority (which seems hostileto norionsof class composition).For Deleuze. but it will not be by meansof the development a computational of language that is common to the brain and the computer. and strivingto create conthe ncctions with the new world around it.which is that of makingnew connections.uc'liztr n'/cflsiz. Antonioni drawsa contrastbetween worn-out body. theychallenge hierthe archyof form andmatterby conceiving animmanent'plane consistency' of of on which eyerything laid out. BaruchSpinoza.Deleuzedevelops notion of the brain as a fold of the outside the Michelangelo Antonioni'sfilms to or a'screen'. so that we shouldnot think in termsof formsasmoulds.Deleuze rejects the notion that there is brain behind the brain: an organisingconsciousness of that harnesses and directs the power of the brain. this statement shouldnot necessarily read be in termsof the humanbody beingsupplemented alteredby means or of 'l'hc rnrrtcrillprosthcscs. sort of nrlchinc thirt I)clcuzcconccivcs is ln <lf abstractphenomenonthat does not depend entirely upon physicaland mechanical of modifications matter. example. The elements this planearedistinguishis of ableonly in termsof movement and velocity. of pl:rccwhcn thc brain asa stratum comesinto contactwith other strata. that painting and film can act directly upon the nervoussystemto create new neuralpathways indicates that he is not a reductivematerialist. Deleuze and Guattarialsotalk of the planebeingpopulated inifinite 'bits' of impalpable anonymous by and matterthat enterinto varyingconnections.Henri Bergson and Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz are all extremely important in this respect. the brain is itself an image.However. Nor should Deleuze's machinic materialismbe seen as a form of cybernetics.However.It will insteadbe for the resultof computers expandingthe possibilities thought in new and perhapsunpredictable ways. Ultimately. and FollowingSpinoza.the fact that he insists molecules from which they areconstructed.c :tnd l<t'. Deleuze's particular formulation of materialism depends upon the counterintuitive Bergsoniannotion that matter is it already'image': beforeit is perceived is 'luminous' in itself. Deleuze and Guattari talk of destratified and deterritorialised 'marrermovement' (matter-energy'.Deleuze alsoinfluenced we of and is by challenge the matter-formmodel pur forwardby Gilbert Simondonto influence Deleuzein the way he develops challenge the hylomorphic a to model: the metaphysical doctrine that distinguishes betweenmatter and form. He for be an explorationof the way in which the brain is connected the world.In A Thousand Platenus.According to such a and realities can be explainedby reductive materialism.atoms and Again. speculates rhe possibilon ities for new human forms openedup by the combinationof the forcesof carbonand silicon.Deleuzeis unwilling to reduceall matter to a singlestratum of syntax. a tcreative'brain. In order to graspthe originalityof Deleuze's materialism is necessary it to understandwhat he meanswhen he usesthe terms 'machine' and he 'machinic'. Deleuze's later work on Leibniz develops theme. this again emphasising matteris not organised a series that as of solidand discrete forms.

that is setentirelyapartfrom noology. The creationof theselinesof flight constitutes events and. sinceit will be rootedin percepts affects. in objectification.philosophy that hasleft behindthe codifications the Statewill be aboutbodiesand forces.This 'transmission' will eschewthe drama of interiority that traditional philosophy had perforce to invest in as a condition of being what it is.while functions are immaterialbut can only be embodiedin All in thingsevenasthey canonly be expressed concepts. and will instead involve the creation of conceptsthat can registerand delineatethe transmissionof forcesto bodies. Deleuzeis emphaticthat abstractions explainnothing. objects. place themultiplc in of we have multiplication. the time a radical For Deleuze the materialismof philosophyis is immanence preserved. the thinking of a pure exteriority. not antithetical reveals 'unthought' in thought. and these functions in turn involve (immaterial)concepts in (unlessone has the conceptof stairsbeing able to provide access this as rather than that way. ('rr is irnd that philosophy is the task of arranging theseinto assemblages constitute Plateaus Deleuzeoncesaidthat eachplateauof A Thousand. multiplicities. as and This materialism that is philosophywill bring somerhing life.allowsthe material and dynamism. The imageof presupposition philosophical that philosophyhasto satisfy. philosophy. and put in their placethe processes culminate the productionof the abstracthat in tionsin question. Philosophyis not so much a form of of wasan example suchan assemblage. properties mutuallyincompatible and so forth). multiples. of mentalontological with an Body. thc can In cnd ir conccpt only rr singulrrrity child'.subjects.traditionalphilosophy always has functionedon the basisof codesthat haveeffectively turned it into a bureaucracy the of consciousness. insistson the primacyof thought.The taskof philosophy now is to controvertthis traditionalphilosophy a waythat canbe in revolutionary only if the new or next philosophyseeks 'transmit someto thing that doesnot and will not allowitself to be codified'. institutedon the planeof immanence. soon. sincecxpcrimentation only takeplaceimmancntly. as unities. in this way saddlingthemselves Mind and Body are saidto possess impasse that cannotbe resolvedbecause ('inert'vs'active'. Theseprocesses place the plancof and take on immanence. and so on).and 'thought' with Mind.and things are integratedwith concepts functions. kept on the same MEMORY CliffStagoll as for memoryconceived a means summoning l)clcuzchnslittlc time f<rr rrndimplicsthat an Suchir modcl hcks crcltivc p<ttcntill olclpcrccptiorts. it will create and lines of flight from thesestases. The ontology of events. For contrast.'material'vs'spiritual'.158 Connectives Foucault Spinoza MATERTALTsM+ pHrr-osopHy M EM O R Y 159 MATERIALISM Kenneth Surin + PHILOSOPHY For Deleuze and Guattari.a ladder. of and the concepts designed bring theseto thought.immanence and madeto interactproductively.and its the alism. reflection a kind of constructionism as insisting At the sametime.So the newphilosophy that will experiment with the real.Thus.It will therefore to havean essential relation to nonphilosophy well. Baruch Spinozaand Friedrich Nietzsche. the mannerof Deleuze's in two greatprecursors.but rather are themselves needof explanin ation.that is. . it will to extricate from theplaces life whereit hasbeen trapped. it will be a physicsof thought. For Deleuzeand Guattari.will eschew suchabStractions universals. thus is inextricably and and constitutesa preon of thought operates the plane of immanence. in place universals have So of processes universalisawe of place of subjects and objects we have subjectificationand tion.the image of thought is a kind of preThe image bound up with philosophy.and in particularthe asan immaterialism image of thought. 'a thinkcr'. immaterialto be interrelatedand integratedin a ceaseless the eventof 'a housebeingbuilt' requiresmanymaterialthingsto be given functions (windows let in light. and as such will be irreducibly materialist. place unitieswehave in of unification.evenif it is an immaterialism.'a musiciirn').The planeof immanence aboutwhen philosoonly comes incompatibilitywith materialism absolute phers forget that thought and the constitutionof matter havethe fundaand insteadidentify 'matter' with character events. philosophyis not just a kind of physicalism. doors protect privacy stairs enableaccess. to compromised only when the immaterialis harnessed the transcendent: can be immaterialism and materialism without resortto the transcendent. Traditional philosophyhasneverbeenableto abandonits originsin the codifications the despotic of imperialState. a strict materiis to thought. plane.lift or hoist could servejust effectively to stairsin enablingaccess an upper floor). they arequite distantfrom the abstractions conthat stitute the staplediet of traditionalphilosophy.asevents. So conceptsare returned to via materialthings via functions. which of on the substantiality Being.

such.such that the past might be lived anew and differently. Deleuze arguesthe opposite:memory helps to give rise to the it that memory.Deleuze invokesBergson's theory of pure memory on a 'line of pure subjectivity'. Deleuze'sBergsoniantheoriesof consciousness outline two kinds of operation. psychology interacts with kind of synthea ontologyin the constitutionof the lived present.understood a purely theoras eticaldemarcation pastand future.Po N TY. MAURICE (l90tt-61). Bergsonbelieves that pure memorystores everyconscious eventin its particularity and detail. memory hasno psychological As a collectionof purely airtual images. of Deleuzemoved beyond such 'habit memory' to theorisehow 'blocksof history' might be brought into productiveassociations with the present.Thus everylived moment is both actualand virtual.The perceptions acrualexistence duplicatedin of are a virtual existence imageswith the potentialfor becomingconscious. shows of and the ratherthan merelyredrawingthe past.'lioucrult fillcl' .How this potcntirrl of might be realisedwill be determinedby the precisecircumstances its actualisation. Despite proclaiming his lack of enthusiasm for memory as a topic. Taking his lead from Bergson. Being distinct from consciousness.but without'pure recollection'. Ratherthan merelysimulating the real (as in 'virtual reality' media).can be re-presented and re-cognised the se.constitutes pastasa new present Thus conceived. M AU R IcE (rgo8-6r) l6l object. transcendent subject'owning' memory in order for recollectionto occur.In early work on David Hume. On this line. Connectives Bergson Virtual/Virtuality MERLEAU-PONTY.Second.One is the 'line of materiality'. theoriseaway or To such differencesis to discount the productive potential that Deleuze considers inherentin the operationof memory in favourof tying oneself to the past.Such actualisation the processof recollectionin which the virtual differentiatesitself by becoming somethingnew .memory relative to presentinterestsand circumstances. an ever-growingmassof recollections.say.) patternsthat might be conceived 'planes'or'sheets'. and in his own philosophies difference. the form of memory at work is As 'habit memory'. memory is brought to presence and givena new'life'or contextin terms In of current circumstances. this moment. the virtual might bc mlclc tctual irnds()hirvcsomcconscqucnt ncw cffcct. theory of memory are critical to Two aspects Deleuze'sBergsonian of of First. matter rarely mentionedin Bergson'stexts but is central to Deleuze.Consequently.upon which he theorises relationshipsbetween mind and the materialworld (including the body).a memoryimagerelevantto someactionor circumstance and thus recalled Deleuze'senigmatic descriptionof assumingpsychological significance.Deleuze contendsthat the virtual is definedby its potentialfor becoming conscious. with everyplane as past distributed relative to some containing the totality of the experienced particularvirtual image. as actualones. Second. 'crystnl'.lossof memoryought not to be conceived a lossof 'contents'from pure memory. our relationship between with matteris wholly materialandunmediated: world of consciousness the is reconciled with the world of matterby means differentkindsof moveof ment. with perception on one side and memory on the other.though. such. being insteada purely ontological'past in general'that is pre(As served neitherin time nor space. by the process two parts. Deleuzedealt with how the reproductiveand representational effects memoryarecritical to the fiction of personal of identity because their role in establishing of relations of resemblance and causation.In his writings on Henri Bergson. special to to sisthat Deleuzeconsiders be essential the flow of lived time. enabling the most relevant plane to be located. Indeed. the Such activity always occursin the present.but merely a breakas The virtual imagesare arrangedin various down of recall mechanisms.160 M EM O RY M ER L EAU . existence.First. memory is accessed meansof a 'leap has into the past'.the line of materiality cannot account for the temporality of lived experience.rcficrto the cntricson * rnd'phcnomcnology'. impression a consistent unifying self.lne as that as one experienced the past. is a creative power for producing the new rather than a mechanismfor reproducingthe same. it showsthat one need not conceive a his anti-foundationalism. Such activity is alwaysorientedrowardsthe practicallife of action rather than pure knowledge.the one from which all otherson the planederive their meaningand history. Deleuzenonetheless reworkedhis conception it several of times.But such a view ignoresthe fact that today'srecin ollectionis quite a differentexperience temporallyand contextuallyfrom either the original experience previousrecollections. reflex determination of appropriatebodily responses conditionedby whateverhasprovedusefulin the past. virtual whenthe relevant to Purememorywill be revealed consciousness a imagesare actualised.

In this conjuncture. Micropolitics. incorporealities. and is then reterritorialised a the or foldedbackinto the socialfield. On the other hand. the scopeof labour hasbeen amplified exponentially. Where the molar (or'arborescent'.as the traditional dividing line between 'right' and 'left' in politicsbecomes blurred.churches.and capitalism'snegative. a repetition of nonbeing. parties. as what is repeated is regulated by logics of human consciousness all that was hitherto considered(private' is and relentlesslyincorporated into the latest structures of accumulation.In this ethos. Hence. on Connectives Affect Becoming Control society Desire lioucault Molar Molccuhr S<rcius .the arts. this ethoswill createnew collective ities not based theseold 'loves'.clans. a molar politics with its emphasis standon ardisationand homogeneity becomes increasingly irrelevant. and such notions as 'the radical centre' gain credencedespite being patentlyoxymoronic. to use their equivalentterm) designates structuresand principlesthat arebased rigid stratifications on or codingswhich leaveno room for all that is flexibleand contingent. In a situationof this this way launchinga thought and practice capableof expressingand instantiating a desire to undo the prevailingworld order. and perhapseverythingdone up to now in the nameof solidarcommunity.The heart of micropoliticsis the construction of thesenew desiring machinesas well as the creationof new linkagesbetweendesiring machines:without a politics to facilitatethis constructionthere can be no productivedesire.At the sametime.only the endlessrepetition of the non-different. The necessityof micropolitics for Deleuze and Guattari stemsfrom the current conjuncture of capitalistproduction and accumulation. of undertakenprimarily by the service and informational industries in the advanced economies. this conof [n iuncture.leisure. therefore.asthe desireconstrained the ordersofcapital is supplantedby the polytopia of a micropolitics that brings together the strata of minorities.162 MICROPOLITICS Kenneth Surin M ICROPOL IT ICS MIC R OP OLITIC S 163 Deleuze and Guattari opposemicropolitics to rhe politics of molarisation. our criteria of belonging and affiliation will alwaysbe subject to a kind of chaotic motion. upslrot thrrtthc orchcstrttion is muchmoresignificant determining for has of affectanddesire now become politics. tribes.with their lovefor nation-states.ascapital permeatesevery interstice of society:the ubiquity of capital coincides with the expansionof everything capableof creating surplus-value. and all capital has becomesocial capital.and so forth). the generation socialcooperation. has become a crucial one for capitalism. equivalence and intersubstitutability(this being the underlying logic of the commodity principle as analysed Karl Marx). Thc cnablingconditions micrupolitics of 'l'hc clcrivc from this sctilf'dcvclopnlcnts. rather the rigid demarcationbetweenState and society is no longer tenable.and as traditional classaffiliationsdissolve and the social divisionof labouris radicallyrransformed theemergencc inforby of mation and service industrics.capitalhasbecomethe ever-present condition that ensures harmonisationof eventhe most disparateforms the (business and finance. When this happens liberateddesire integratesinto itself the flows and componentsof the Socius or social field to form a 'desiringmachine'. Capitalism has always had as its 'utopia' the capacity to function without the State and in the current coniuncture this disposition has become more profoundly entrenched. This is the agethat Deleuzetitles 'the societies control' and it contrasts of with the disciplinary societies the nineteenthand early twentieth centuries. In micropby that is only an apparentdifference olitics the fateof repeatinga difference is avoided.the molecular which is the basis of micropolitics allows for connections that are local and singular.A molecular logic of production is basically self-organisingor auto-poetic. ethosnot constrained a politicspredicated the now an by on defunct forms of Soviet bureaucraticsocialismand a liberal or social democracy.wasteful and ultimately nonproductive repetition.Society and State now constitute one allencompassing reality.createsan 'ethos of permanent becomingrevolutionary'. linesof affiliationin contemporary The orchestrationof desire in micropolitics will have an oscillating logic. concepts.whereasits molar counterpart finds its generating principle in some feature or entity that is external to what is being produced.'peoples'. for Deleuze and Guattari this is not becauseState apparatuses have disappeared (clearly they havenot). becomings. by so that it becomes desire exterior to capital. and a new political knowledgeis created lie which dissipates enabling told us by thosewho now the political havepoliticalpower.

It is the becomingof everybody. 2: Deleuzeinvokeshis writing (with Guattari) on Franz Kafka and minor literatures to describea 'minor cinema'firundedin the Third World and its minorities . Minorities. A minority is not defined the paucityof its numbers by its capacity by but to becomeor. majoritarian modelor a becoming everybody of The modeis a constantwhile its minoritariancounterpartis a subsystem. Minoritarian authorsarethosewho areforeignersin their own tongue. No homogeneous systemremainsunaffected immanent processes by of variation. In because deals it with the art of the possible.Jews. minority is a The nodenumerable. Blacks. is. The term is developed connectionwith lanin guageand the 'order-word'.that connectsimmediirtclyto the qucstionof politics. of The problemis not the distinctionbetween major and minor language but one of contrast. is creation. majorityis linkedto a stateof poweranddomination.constantsdo not existsideby sidewith variables.In mrthcmatical rr tcrmsl)clcuzc remarksthat the axiomaticworld of the majority manipulatesonly denu(or merable sets. draw for itself lines of fluctuto ation that openup a gapand separate from the axiomconstitutinga redunit dantmajority. this relationconstitutes setthat is denumerable. masses multiplicitiesof escape flux. . It is produced between andbclongs ncithcr. minority is a deviation in A from the (toutle monde). or and The morea language or acquires characteristics a major form. power a Qpuissance) variables. sets to It cludcs thcmrnclcunsritutcslincof flight.For the majority. person(a subject.there alsoinheresin its form a 'minor' elementthat doesnot exist independently outsideof its expression statements. . determination that differs from the constant is considered A minoritarian. neverthrough womencan only createby a but Deleuze ownership.In order to cope with this condition Deleuzestates that we needto distinguishbetween major and minor lana guage. A what defines majoritiesandminoritiesarethe relationsinternal to number.Domination alwaystranslates hegemony.A minor languageopensa passage the order-word in that constitutes any of the operative redundancies the major language.'. that the Minorities aredefinednot by numberbut by becomingand by their lines of fluctuation.r64 MINORITARIAN VerenaConley M INORIT ARIAN MIN OR ITA R IA N + C IN E MA 165 'Minoritarian' is often used in relation to postcolonial theory and the conceptof minor literature. a represented the integral integer. Becoming asDeleuzestates time and againin his work on politics. the additiveconjuncby of that tion 'and' or the mathematical ' * ': a minoritarian sign language .literature and the arts.that is. Minorities areobjectively definable states. Minoritarian is seenaspotential(puissance).an by into armedwhite maleor thoseactinglike one. betweena power (pouaoir)of constants and.but alsoa creativeand activeindiA vidual) has to deterritorialise the major languagerather than reterritorialiseherself within an inherited dialect. creativeand in becoming.the figureof death(nobody) Connectives Becoming Deterritorialisation Maioritarian Order-word Power MINORITARIAN + CINEMA Constantine Verezsis ln Cinerna Thetirne-image. Deleuze observes our ageis becoming ageof minorities. The majority or and assumes standardmeasure. a min<lr cincnu docs not rcplcscnt (or lcldrcss)ln olrprcsscdiurcl subjcctccl . has the of the more likely it is to be affectedby continuousvariationsthat can transposeit into a minor language. but The non-denumerable is characterised the presence connections. a pass-word that both compelsobedience and opens passages.The scientific undertaking of extracting constantsis alwayscoupled with the politicalenterprise social of control that worksby imposingthem on speakers and transmitting order-words. Major and minor aretwo different usages of the samelanguage. theyaredrawn from the variables themselves. Majority is an abstract standard that canbe saidto includeno oneandthusspeak the nameof nobody. Arabsor makingpossible becoming.say.x t y and is b f traitsa * a and. it may havemany elements. minor language a major language the process A is in of becoming minoq and a minority a majority in the processof change. the political spherewhere a 'maior' languageis seen of In and heard.that is. fundamentally is political. First.that is. the process In of giveswayto life (everybody). One canalsothink of them asseeds of becomingwhosevalueis to trigger uncontrollable fluctuationsand deterritorialisations. Sucha (modern)politicalcinemais char(rnd oppuscd clirssicirl to rctcriscd cincma)in thrcc wirys. language A alwayshas internal minorities. in its subjectivegeography. states clearlythat a majorityis nevera becoming. constitute non-axiomatic axiomisable)sets. this senseDeleuze arguesthat language. becoming minor.Recourse a minor language to puts the maior language into flight.

unfinished. betweenthe First. Himatsuri(Mitsuo Yanagimatchi. and incomplete'. not to represent conthis the ditions of an oppressed minority.That is. but rather crosses borders.a minor cinemais situated affections. which no towering with collectivesocialand figuresdominateand the life of lettersis consumed politicalconcerns.Deleuze a describes minor cinemaasone that setsout.On the other hand. though initially adapted conditionsprevailingin Latin America. Deleuze and Guattariargue that Kafka'scharacterisation of minor literaturesactuallymapsKafka's own conceptionof literature's properfunctionand guides practice a Prague his as Jew writing in German. . . 'Third Cinema'. This is evident in Cyclo. 'l'hc csscncc Kafka'sminor literatureDeleuzeand Guattarifind in three of of of thc f'caturcs: clctcrritorillizittion langulgc.the blue (of the cyclo) ond. with life-experimentation the creationand exhibition but of localdifference. Tran would sharewith Deleuze'sfavouredexamples Vietnamese as Godard).as an objective and representational cinema. shtpcclby complcxrrncl but nrultiplc localand internationalforcesand condiestablished between connections tions. and For Third Cinema (as opposedto Third World cinema) was broadly concernedwith the expression new culturesand of socialchange: of Third Cinemais . Third Cinema.anopen category. of in a logic and an aesthetics the 'and'. as vocabulary. rnd thc collcctivc tull to ir . the local (or intraunderstands of national)multi-layeredness Cyclais evidentin its useof variousregional for instance. Glauber Rocha.the authorialcinemaof the petty bourgeoisie was describedas a subjectiveand symbolic cinema.but rather anticipates peopleyet to be created. merging the personalwith the social to make it immediately political. .between living reality. The manifesto described 'First Cinema'. later writing.r66 M I NO RI TARI AN + CINEMA M IN OR ITAR IAN + L ITER ATU R E t67 people. By contrasr. It is a creativestammering(and .betweencinemas. nor evento a particularcategoryof cultural objects.a type of creativeunderstanding people. betweenperceptions.a minor cinemadoesnot maintain a boundary betweenthe private and the public. and the Second. a minor cincma (a nrrtional cincml) is not singulirr.Jean-Luc betweencolours. on relations.a politicalor minoritariancinema. but rather to invent new valuesand facilitatethe creationof a peoplewho havehitherto been missing. cyclo-driver of the film's title and his sisterspeak the dialects: of in the vernacular the North and of the South of Vietnam.The focusof this movementis on becomand evendangerous a research categoryone that recognisesthe contingencyand multiplicity .the yellow (of the fish-boy). And third. 'SecondCinema' .Fernando Solanasand Octavio Getino a calledfor a cinemathat wasmilitant in its politicsand experimental its in approach. A film such as Tran Anh Hung's Cyclo (France-Vietnam. conncction thc individ'thc ol'ctttnciation' p<llitical itsscmblitgc inrnrcdilcy. Kafta reflectson the advantages in writers enioy as contributorsto minor literatures. their founding maniIn festo .the so-called imperial cinema of big capital . but rather creates(and recreates) multiplicity of conditions.minor cinema.On the one hand.but in experimentation: is a creativeact of it becoming.advanced by Latin Americanfilmmakersin the late 1960s.but rather recognised the multiplicity or 'many-layeredness of their own cultural-historical frrrmarions'. 1948). political cinemadoesnot identify a new union (a singularity). Cyclocanbeapproached a kind of SamuelBeckett.between For Deleuze. Radiohead. and .of all cultural objects.the hybridisationof global(or international)forcesis evidentin the RollinsBand) and its expresfilm's useof music(Tranh Lam.and the Third. soon takesthe viewer.could to not be limited to that continent. situated in the streetsof neorealism. a minoritarian use of languagethat the French(Kafta.wasan attitude. Chahine Nasserism) and in doing so implicitly recallsthe notion of 'Third Cinema'.one concerned neither with representation being-whole)nor subjectification (a (a being-one). that drawsupon influences diverseas TheBicycle one sive 1976). Solanas In explained that Third Cinema.on what happensbetween:betweenactions. Solanas.where the beginning of the film.a consciousness a to be brought into existence. recognisingthat the people exist only in the condition of a minority.Like Kafka's minor literature. resentational and moves instead towards its limits.nor evento the Third unpredictable directions.through its wayward and itinerant movements.Paul Willemen.a minor cinemais interestedneither in representationor interpretation. and). Second. to minoritariancinemaceases be repAs in the minor useof language. Deleuzerelates account minoritariancinemato the work of Third his of World filmmakers (Lino Brocka.but rather constituteda kind of virtual geography conditionalobiecthood. explainsthat practitionersof rhird cinema refusedro opposeessentialist notions of 'national identity and cultural authenticity' to the values of imperial powers. 1985). . and Thid(Yittorio De Sica.Towards Third Cinema. MINORITARIAN Ronald.the hybridity .Bogue + LITERATURE Czech and Yiddish In a l9l2 diary entry. Taxi Drizser(Martin Scorsese.betweenthe red (of the poet) end.1995) this type of approach. in 'The Third Cinema Q3restion'.and in the daily toil and routine of a cyclo driver.

open to a major or a minor is usage. formations. lowing:bhes.but their positionwithin asymmetrical that are reinforcedby and implementedthrough linguistic codesand binary oppositions. the Caribbean or South London. jazz(traditional. possible inventionof a peopleto come.That is to saythat minor cultheir transformative foregrounding This the English language. organises.considerthe work of the African-American His writing distorts and l']araka and his nsc of thc English language. minor literature is less a product than a processof is becomingminor.whereas minor usage a language a of inducesdisequilibrium in its components.electric.white/non-white. For writer-activistAmiri cxamplc.which may in actualitybe greaterthan that of the power relationships majority.Among theseone might number the folas P-funk. linguisticmaterials supportof a domcontrolsand regulates in inant social order.A major usage a language of limits.Every lanin of guage. be-bop. langttitgc opcrltionsot'thc donrinitnt cxpklitirtivc cxposcs nrlrnrntivc. lexicaland its semanticcodes.Such a processof becomingother is central to and of minor literatureand its minor usage language this minor becoming minority into an activeforceof transotheris that which turns a dominated formation.yet thoserelationsare inherently unstable. childrenandnon-humanlife forms.In order to developa minor useof this language.And though he necessarily writes asa solitaryindividual. the Where it is a questionof language. through which language deterritorialisedimmediately of and a collectiveassemblage enunare socialand political issues engaged. women.168 M I NO RI TARI AN + LI T E R A T U R E M IN OR ITAR IAN + M U SIC 169 (D&G 1986:l8). Only by becoming'other'.hiphop. techno.What constitutes minoritiesis not their statistical number. minor literature is defined by a minor treatment of the variablesof language. adult/child. and that privilege informs the linguistic oppositionsthat define. all largely developed as part of AfroCaribbeanculture. the ciationmakes MINORITARIAN Marcel Spibod. functioningcollectivity precisely is what Kafka findslacking).a + MUSIC African-Americanand Afro-Caribbeancultures.Nor is minor literature simply literaturewritten by minorities. have been a substantialnumber of cultural formations that one could describe being'minoritarian'. tlrc .Throughout his storiesand novelsKafta directly links psychological family conflicts and to extendedsocialand political relations. under certain circumthere of constituteinstances tminort culture.To the extent often collectively can be said to constitute instances that any of thesecultural developments it is largelyowing to the followingreasons.Everylanguage power imposes relationsthrough its grammatical and syntactic regularities. and in his writings he further destabilises that alreadydeterritorialised German in an asceticimpoverishmentof diction and syntax. and ska. Only by the that undoing such oppositions as western/non-western. variousmusicaldevelopments that listed aboveare subjectto linguistic mediationas part of a language reinforcesdominant culture.and whateverits linguistic medium.whetherdominant or marginalised. all largely developedaspart of African-American culture. is not necessarily written in the language one of an oppressed minority. roots.he treatslanguage a collective as assemblage enunof ciationandthereby attempts articulate voiceof a people come(since to the to a positive. passing by between polcs binary of thc oppositions anclhlurring clcirrcirtcgorics ncw possibilitics social crrn filr interaction be created. and in both cases stances. In each and every case. A minor literature. reggae and dub.pressures conspireto exploit or limit this potential. male/female.then. Kafka discovers PragueGerman the instabilities in of government a deracinated language subtlydeformedthroughCzechusage. situateand help control non-western and non-whitepopulations. free. or human/animalcanminoritieschangcpower relations.this languageis minor cultural English.avant-garde). a meansto potential.andit is not exclusively literatureof a minorthe ity engaged the deformationof the language a majority. linguistic for constants and invariantsare merely enforcedrestrictionsof speech-acts that in fact are in perpetualvariation.Western white male adult humans may be outnumbered worldwide. Sometimesthe creativeand transformativepotential of these of or formationsgivesway to the pressures capitalism of appropriationas which part of the dominant(usuallywhite) cultural formations. They constitute instancesof minor culture 'under is their certaincircumstances'because historicaldevelopment complexand one cannot locate every developmentexclusivelywithin minoritarian instances. Hence.Minorities merelyreinforcedominant powerrelationswhen they accept categories definethem. taking advantage the potentialfor diverseand of practices divergentdiscursive alreadypresentwithin the language. haveall had to find waysof altering or recombiningelementsfrom as in the dominant language order to render them sonorous. In the conceptof minor literature Deleuzeand Guattari connectthe political struggles minoritiesto the formal experimentations of typical of the modernist avant-garde. of the 'minor'. but they remain the majority through their position of privilege. tural formationshavehad to deterritorialise indeed is the first characteristicof a minor cultural formation. such as those of Black America. What makespossiblethis rapprochementof politics and formal innovation is Deleuzeand Guattari's view of language asa modeof actionin continuous variation.

the groovesof a or record. in In his work on cinema.To the extent of that these bodiesproduceutterances enunciations is via the MC whose or it rappin' skillsostensibly mark her out asan individual. Theseinscriptions and their interactingsurfaces least at partiallyconstitutethe machinicassemblage earlyhiphop.When written.and yet their function remainscompletelytied into the hiphop collectiae. In a geological sense. disaggregation. the the skin and its markings. notesthat the signature poeticrealism in directors ranging from Ren6 Clair to Jean Vigo and Jean Renoir is of markedby emphasising 'molar' (and not moral) aspect the physical the world: social contradiction is conveyedthrough imposing and massive monuments Paristhat humblethe lost citizensin TheCrazyRay Q924). also pertainsto mass. written as it is performed with the word 'revolutionary'phonetically renderedin Creole-English 'revalueas shanary' and therebyconnotingnot only revolution. or sonorous in its expressions. or 'molar' is understood It ground. Linton Kwesi Johnson. Mi Johnson's poem Mi Reztalueshanary Repalueshanary Fren: Selected. majoritarian. the incrt piles of old editions and lithographs cluttering the walls in the Drortning(1932)attestto a b<xrkscllcr's apartmentin BouduSuaed. What all these differentbodieshavein commonis that they operatethrough the inscription of surfaces: layersof rock beneaththe surfaceof the earth. The third and final criterion for assessing how thesemusically-derived or orientedcultural formationsbecome minor is the extent to which they movebeyondthe positionsof individual subjects personstowardscolor lectiveutterance enunciation. his poetry deploys portmanteau combinations wordsor partsof wordsin order to politicise of the language.Deleuzetendsto jettisonthe psychological with his differentwaysof describingthe world. and thus the term can describe trait of personalityor the character inflectionsin order of the ego. Poems). to an aesthetic derivedfrom consider work of the the Jamaican-British dub poet.rrbirn ils culturirlfirrnrltiorr.This is minor culture'spoliticalfunction. the dominantuseof the Englishlanguage rendered is minor in relationto the musics the writers' of respective culturalmilieus. order to examine or In this aspect. . Soviet. of Furthermore. both these In instances. eventhe bodiesof or breakdancers whosemovesare only legiblein relation to the surfaces on which they dance. .geologyand aesthetics.and its characteristics such as 'bombing' (graffiti) or the isolation of a musical passage ('break'or 'breakdown') scratching by vinyl records.the striation of the muscles. comprisingall thc other aspects the hiphop assemblage. or be what patternsofbehaviourtakenby an organor anorganpertainsto the general a ism.In a strict sense of relateto aggregates matter and not to either their molecularor atomic to properties. molar form caneitherriseup and commanda greatdealof earthly A spaceor be seeneither afloat or drifting in great bodies of water (a point of and Reasons the developed a very early pieceof writing called'Causes in DesertIsland'). The manipulation of the relation between the sound.Alternatively.but alsore-evaluation.combining elements from Jamaican Creoleand British English in the productionof an oral poetry performedover dub music. in of both humanand non-human.vibration. is necit essary recall that .for example geological technological or bodies.clrizzlc.the dyad of molar/molecularis usedto discern When contrastingthe four great effectsof convectionand atmosphere. phosisin terms of molecularactivitiestaking place in and about molar in him in studying Perceqtion its range from masses.American. continence telluric substance. gcrrcritl of'thc(ircat l)cprcssion. the word and its of written inscription is purposely developedto challengethe alienation of ethnic groupsasembodiedin a dominant language. their motion. Considerearlyhiphop culture or 'wildstyle'.for Deleuzeand Guattari . MOLAR Tom Conley The adjective 'molar' belongsto a chemicalidiolect that Deleuzeusesto things molar and inform his work on aesthetics politics.and in eachcase language the becomes musical.t70 M I NO RI TARI AN + MUSIC MOLA R t7l throughthe wayin which he recombines elements.Deleuze conceiveslandscapesas massesof greater or lesser molarity. or ot r tttrxxl stiltc thingsirr thc tintc . He draws Lucretian and pre-Socratic philosophy through the human sciencesand into an aesthetic domain such that he can detect and metamordeterritorialisation difference. schools montage. Consider the title of Linton Kwesi Fren (Linton Kwesi Johirson.fiom mist . Broadeningthe biologicaldefinitions to include philosophy.enunciationfunctions to collectively relationto a machinicassemblage bodies.French. this to correlatemolarity is especially casein his treatmentof 'wholes' (Tout and touts)thathe the describes being composedof a compact and firm terrestrial oceanic as mass. its structuredaccording jazzmusic. German.clcfincs nrolirrityrtgitinst arrcl with whiclr irtrnosphcrc firg. The term assists to 'macro' or totalisingprocess 'micro' or keendetectionof infinitesimal differences the physicaland biologicalworld. and to address spethe cific concerns of these groups in ways that provoke or challenge the oppressionexpressed the language's in dominating operations. rappin' providcs anotherinstancc r stratcgic minor dcploymcnt<lf thc (Anrcricln) of or l')nglish lirrrguirgc plrrtof an r. of streetson the edgesof the in Vigo's L'Atalante (1934)the cobblestone Scine makeobdurateand unyielding stonethe antithesisof fluidity.that grew in of of he of the first thirty years cinema.

'to spiritualize dust' (D 1993a: The microscopic are hasa politicaldimension well. same blow. rarefieddivisions'that operatedifferentlyfrom Molecularityis tied to a 'micropolitics'of percepcivic and politicalarenas. of and He dropsa cubeof sugarinto the brown liquid.seeminglyheavyand unwieldy . watches. hardness. is the sequence Jean-Luc Godard's2 or 3 Things Knop AboutHer (1965). a life of its behaviour. Beforea puff of cigarette momentof pure duration is felt in the smokewaftsoverthe cup. stirsit with a teaspoon. (D&G 1987:220). contemplates cup of coffee. an extremeclose-upgalaxies In seemto grow from the swirl of in bubblesjust as Godard'sown voice-offspeaks the name of the man's thoughtsabout the end of the world and time.and evenerrantconversation 'l'hc molcculirr of cnrblcsDelcuzeto movc from philosophy relation(or of difl'crcncc rcpctition)to chcnristrics bcing. masses with territories. on the earth. The shifting to of and from molar and molecularforms canbe associated only with deternot ritorialisation alsothe very substance effectof eoents beginand but and that end with swarmsand masses micro-perceptions. Plateaus Deleuzeand Guattari apply the 'molar' and 'molecular'to political bodies. The processentails graspinga 'chaosmos' becomes that discerniblethrough the categories the of molar andmolecular. of 'coherence. are politicsthat transpirein areas wherethey arerarelyperceived: the perin ceptionof affectivity. and vibrations waves or with the tion asa whole. Thus.anclthcn on to dclicittc rnd . the twists in and turns of conversationhavingnothing to do with the stateof the world the tiny perceptions inclinationsthat destabilise or to'pulverize the world' and. wherebeingsshareineffable sensations.unconscious affects. affcct.organicor inorganic. doesnot dismolecular orders. 'a whole world of unconscious of cepts.In a psychoanalytical sensemolecularityrclnrcsto (rs indiviclurrl opp<rsccl collcctivc) to rcsponscs phcnomcna typcsof' to or has Henceanyperceived object. The molecularsensibilityis found in Deleuze's appreciation microof percepscopicthings.'the actionof fire. Deleuzestudiesobjectsnot asthey seemto be beforethe nakedeyebut as dynamic masses molecules. They areinterrelated the degree political if politics are understood be of both molar and is conceivably to superstructure.too.Molar entiriesbelong to the State or the civic world. They are well defined. in the manner.Deleuze uses molecularity to counter the orthogonal and pensive. Molecularity goes with the perception of wholes (such as molar in masses) areopenand disperse themselves a continuumof duration.thoseof watersand winds (D 9). a the zinc surface the bar in the background.he says. Their molecularcounterparts micro-entities. by way of Leibniz. The former. at a sensibilitytouching on the chemical animismof all endless sight of a cosmos becomingmolecular.They function.systemof Cartesian massive philosophyto arrive. TheFoldDeleuze In suggests eaents) very productof that the philosophy and determining features perception. menSurelythe most compellingcorrelative the Bergsonian in tioned in either of the books on cinema.a film in which a man in I in the midst of the clatter of porcelainand glasses striking a Parisiancaf6. tion. on Deleuze uses molecularity to illustrate how wholes (worlds or spatial of aggregates) relatedto duration. of The chemicaldefinition is broadened to include subjectivity.172 M O LECULAR MOLE C U LA R 173 ln A Thousand.often massive. Informedby atomistic philosophy and biology that runs from Lucretius to Gabriel Tarde. own and is felt through the tensionof its moral massand molecularparts and pieces. with the 'molar' the philosopher correlates surfaces with structures.At a decisive the of his presentation Bergson's of theses movementin relation to cinema. that a pedestrianin a city park seeshow the leaves a linden tree might flicker in the afternoon light. of Molecules often aggregate swarminto activemasses molar aspect and of and viceversa. perspective 87). that not to thesis. and are affiliatedwith a governingapparatus.a governmental microperallow the presence the latter. Connectives Body Deterritorialisation/Reterritorialisation Event Molecular MOLECULAR Tom Conlejr Deleuzepairsthe adjective'molecular' with'molar'. the distinction onto the body in sofar asit canbe appreciated its elasticityand in fluidity.'in varioussystems complexinteractions' 1993a: 'of Molecular action becomesa vital element in what Deleuze uses to moment in describe processes things and of creation. All societies rent throughby molarand as to that all action molecular segmentarities.When a teaspoon sugaris dissolved are glass waterthe 'whole' is not the containerand its contentsbut the in a of of actionof creationtaking placein the ionisationof the molecules sugar. of dependon the prehension of the textures elements termsof their wholesand the partsthat of in swirl and toss within them or on their very surfaces. through states'(D 1986: a sort of 'pure ceaseless becomingwhich passes 10). and (D cohesion' 1993a: He projects 6). Deleuzeis in turn enabled study matterasa function to of mass.

Thc cvcnt of thc moving imagethus owcsto a 'distributionof thc pointsof' il sl)ilcc 0f'thc nrr)t'ncnts irncvcnt.andcanbe felt in the panoramic trackingshots that confer motion upon the field of the image. losesits definition as either action. The two components the movement-image partsor objects.Finally.Cinema is a surface on which viewers reflect their thinking. Characterised a hold-up or a heist. and in itself it is a mediumor a machine that thinkswith autonomy with respect its viewers to and creators. A studyof genres that define on thc rchtion of'movcmcnt :rncl timc and thc typesof imagcs thcir trrrits qualitics. and it alsoindicates mannerin which he the usesconcepts the contextofphilosophy.The 'action-image'.for five reasons. The cinema most characteristicof the movement-imageis based on of action and its intervals.but alsoin the molecular agitationof wind. of movement-image constitutes'a point of view on the Whole of the film.the one term is beginsto mark cinema.'il momcntsccnili a 'trtnslitti0nin rlr <lf of are space'(D 1986:7-8). the relation-image.derive from thesethree principal categories. generallyat the end of World War Movement-images reflexesof the viewer who is drawn to them. narrativesare driven by a needto denounce Realityitself becomes'lacunary disperand conspiracy. that of molar and molecularforms bears privilegedterm. no longerrefersto a totalisIt War II.As in the of dyad of the 'root' and the 'rhizome'. organises and distributes movement in space and time. Connectives Deterritorialisation/ Reterritorialisation Leibniz Molar Rhizome Sensation MOVEMENT-IMAGE Tom Conlejt The mooement-imagethe title of the first panelof a historicaldiptych. sive'. 'it immediatelygivesus a movement-image' 1986:2).The Timelrnage. it abounds in film noir. dust tend to attach or smokein the films of Louis Lumidre. the time-image dyads.which becomes affective the close-up. thatis. The to the sensori-motor is movement-image made of momentsin a given whole. is Cinema andCinema I 2. such as a single it or shotor aplan-siquence. perthe visibleand invisible'within the stagingof action.replaces storyline.that classifies modesof perception and production of film from its beginnings 1895up to 1985. The molecular atteststo a creative processat work in Deleuze's concepts. (D 1986:70).The latter is gainedby a sucan cession of staticphotographic not poses of instants any kind whatbut of soever'(D1986: 7-8). mental-image.I M AG E M OVEM EN T. amiricain. a in active way of grasping this whole. At a crucial point in his treatment Deleuze delineatesand redefines the three kinds of movement-images renew and energise traditional that generally medium shotor a plan a lexiconof cinema.In this work and irs comin plement. The by a often a long shot and a long take.At this point. In Deleuze's no readingof subjectivation prediand cation in Leibniz.IM AGE 175 issues perceptionin cinema.An art of the wandering the camera seems moveon its own .It is seenin the comedies Charlie Chaplin and be sure.The'affection-image'isbest seenin close-ups which Eachof thesetypesof faces tend to occupythe greaterarea the screen. and in what expresses the found in what happens between duration of a wholeor a sum.conveys 'dramaof 'perception-image'. concludes one. By way of Henri Bergson Deleuze shows that cinema does not furnish the spectator with 'an image to which it adds movement'. Other in the medium shot.Characters beginto multiing or syntheticsituation. The movement-image reaches end of its tenure at the time of World the Deleuze.and thus a temporalgapthat allows the eye to perceive effectof movement. It affectionor perceptionwhen it cannotbe affiliatedwith a genre. asin most of Deleuze's tend to always function of the other that is tied to it. A cut (D between two shotsis part of the image. that which might be indeedthe world in the field of the image.Yet.r74 M O VEM ENT.of instants equidistant from in and aesthetics. Each is usedheuristically to test and to determine sensarion beyond and within the limits of perception and cognition.Motion was at that time the essence of cinema.The spectator ceivesthe origins and limits of visibility in imagesthat are common to the in classical western. both terms arein and of eachother. literatureand painting. to and plots becomesaturatedwith clich6s. ancl .the memory-image. The movement-image definesand describes quality of the cinematic images that prevailin the mediumoverits first fifty years. From 1895to 1945cinemabecame seventh by embodyingimages the art not in movement but as movement. Movement-images a be the substance narrative cinema while time-imagesare especially of and styles couldbe based cvidentin cxpcrimental film.but a dispersive ply and becomeinterchangeable.Deleuze usescinemato showhow philosophy is not constrainedto a canonor an academic world but to life at large. and perceptive the long shot' in the typesof imagesthat he takesup . but rather.

they cannotbeconsidered and manifoldexpressionsof a singleconceptor transcendent unity. The difference between extensive and intensiveis perhapsthe most important point here. multiplicity that and it is in connection with the themeof virtual intensive Frequentlywhen discussing Deleuzemost palpablyremainsa Bergsonian.anyalterationto an intensivemultiplicity meansa total change in its nature.Further. Deleuze opposes dyadOne/Many. The realmof the conceptof multiplicity makesno reference a transcendent to world that contains the structures or laws of existence.Virtual multi'Real is simply a patchwork.a change its intensive in state. And. rather than expressing virtual multiplicabstractalternativepossibilities.Deleuzetakesthe idea that any situationis composed different multiplicities that form a kind of of patchworkor ensemble without becominga totality or whole. 'concept' all of its forms. the in the actualare interrelated. Deleuze'sdebt to Bergsonhere is more profound. a houseis a patchworkofconcretestructuresand habits.and effectchanges eachother. So.assemblage.then. elaboration Bergson's in Deleuze notesfirst of all that thereare two kinds of multiplicity in Bergson:extensive numericalmultiplicities and continuousintensivemultiplicities.therearesomeessential traits to be noted. while the in also virtual is embodied actualsituations.with multiplicity. doctrineof This is perhaps most difficult point to graspin Deleuze's the virtual multiplicities. for and the second. in the most basicsense.a multiplicity . is a combination of actual multiplicities .The virtual counterphy and human existence eminently are parts of our actualmultiplicities alsomakepossible continuedmovement most and change.they must not be consideredto be somehowtranscendent or essentiallyimmutable. time. DeleuzequotesMarcel Proust'sadage relation to memory: without being actual.The first of thesecharacterises space Bergson.On thesegrounds. Yet. ity forms something like the real openness change to that inheresin every particularsituation. Existence.Eventhoughwe can list thesethings.It is found throughouthis work. Connectives Bergson Concepts Rhizome Virtual/Virtualitv . in then. is realwithout beingnecessarily in embodied the world.For example. there is finally no way of determining what the essence of a particular houseis. The two peoplewhom Deleuzeregularlyassociates the development with of the conceptof multiplicity arethe mathematician GeorgRiemann. the he insiststhat the crucialpoint is to consider multiplicity in its substantive form . whichcanbedividedup into pnrts(thisis why it is called numerical).In other words. It is alsoone of Deleuze's and most difficult conceptsto graspbecause the many different waysand contexts of in which he puts it to work. In contrast to spacc.This canalso be takenasa gooddescriptionof multiplicities themselves.While virtual multiplicitiesareembodiedin particular statesof affairs.ideal without being abstract'.From Riemann.ratherthan asan adjective asmultipliciry of something. Deleuze also makes the important link betweenthe concept of the virtual and that of multiplicity in the context of his readingof Bergson. Since we live among actual multiplicities (and are ourselvesmultiplicities).they offer Deleuze groundsupon which to developa very practicalpicture of the world. and is the basisfor other important concepts suchas rhizome. complexstructurethat does a not reference prior unity.states of affairs . This is important for Deleuze it of because means that thereis no essence particularmultiplicitieswhich can remain unaffectedby encounterswith others. Multiplicities are not parts of a greaterwhole a that have beenfragmented. even at the points where the world of actualityseems rigid and oppressive. we are both philosoalwayselements and actorswithin the world.176 Connectives Cinema Faciality Time-image M UL T IPL ICIT Y MU LTIP LIC ITY t77 MULTIPLICITY Jonathan Roffe 'Multiplicity' is arguablyDeleuze'smost important concept. While these conceptsseemparticularly abstract. because cannot point to anything outside of the we house itself to explainor to sumit up . practical.and virtual multiplicities particular intensivemovementsof change. intensive multiplicity cannotbe dividedup without changingin nature. in the virtual. In this sense. It is in Bergson'ism (1966)that Deleuzefirst discusses multiplicity. As Deleuze shows in his discussionof Repetitioa.and the French philosopherHenri Bergson. changes actualsituations in the effectchanges the virtual multiplicity. A multiplicity is. which receives exrended an philosophy. Everythingfor Deleuzeis a multiplicity in this fashion. virtual and Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz in Dffirence and.

ffirentforms constituted.Dclcuzc alsoclcvclops . conscience the ascetic bad modesof subjectivity and formsof life on the otherhad a profoundimpresidentification politicalthought.Nietzschealsopresented vision of life seenas a conflict between forces. Deleuze's of the conceptof 'life' in his use singularand antagonistic readingof Nietzscheis neither biologicalnor humanist. FRI EDRI cH ( r 8 44. duction and legitimationof divisionsbetween striving is constitutedby a commonand inexhaustible in Nietzsche's view.The apprehensionof immanent and univocal from existence being demands that we accountfor the eventsof existence condition(suchasGod. Deleuze sought to move beyond the human beyondlife that deterinvestment transcendence: ascriptionof ideas in the mine the goalandvalueof life. philosophy.t goo) 179 NIETZSCHE. approach the philosophical his to tradition is markedfundamentally by the Nietzscheangoal of an affirmative philosophy. or There is no prior ground. particular. identity and difference. Life.ffirence someoriginal unity.Deleuze's stress Nietzsche aphilosopher on lies in the tradition of univocity differs from the dominant Angloas Americaninterpretation Nietzsche a moreliterarywriter who avoided of arguments and principles. Deleuzearguesthat Nietzsche the first philosopher is actuallyto consider world composed a of these'pre-personal singularities'. judgements and for power. FRIEDRICH (1844-1900) Lee Spinks . and thesequalitiesor eventsdo not needto be related back to someneutral ground or substance. of One of his mostinfluentialcontributionsto the understanding life. followsthat thereis no dualist on it distinctionbetween beingand becoming. human life (with its regulativenorms. remained of lasting importance to Deleuze's own philosophyof life. While Deleuze is carefulto locatethe ideaof a practical philosophyin the work of Spinoza.then differences primary and themselves become constitutiveforces. nor do we needto seeeventsas effectsor as having a pre-existingcause. and of difference firrms. unity or substance which then differentiates itself and becomes. moral This Nietzschean socialtruths) is merely a form through which life passes. The importanceof Deleuze'sreadingof Friedrich Nietzschecannot be over-estimated. differences. These ideasprovided Deleuze with a way of developing philosophyof immanence a and an understanding of beingasunivocity. or a substance which thentakes qualities. the subject itself without positinga transcendental as whosesignificance or being). David Hume and Henri Bergson (and wrote books on all these philosophersand what they enabled). insteadthere is only a univocalfield of differences. Following Nietzsche.the positiveeffectsof the questions they ask and how their philosophies respond to life. Life is a power of singularisation. of of nothing other than the expression particular configurations forces.Nietzsche's sion upon Deleuze's of Will to Power as the basis for a positive vision of life influenced modeof philosoof Deleuze's elaboration an immanentand anti-humanist phy. F R T E D R T c H (r8 44-tgoo) Nr Er zscHE.historicalcvcntsand so on) that bring the imageof the human into rcintcrprctationof Nictzschc'sgcncalogicrrl fircus. follows Nietzschein examiningwhat their work he enables. Similarly. genetic social developments mutations.178 NIE T Z s c H E . power to create phenomena. thereis not a substance If which thenbecomes. The postulationof such an immanent principle .enablesthought to focus upon the prodifferentforms of life. Nietzsche. His work is markedby the attemptto engage of with the broadermovements becomingfrom which our idea of life is upon a numberof d.and by differential element between forces. Although Deleuzeengages continuallywith the work of Baruch Spinoza. societies States and are For organisms. conof sciousness moral thought wasto conceive eachof them asthe effect and of a primary distinction between actioe and reactiaeforces. Nietzscheargues. he glimpses radicalpotentialof this tradition for modern thought in the Nietzsche's development a numberof Spinozistideas. Difference conceivedin this way is not d. On the contrary. Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz. if there is from only one univocalbeing. This led him to concentrate (suchaslanguage. a which envisaged plurality of forcesacting upon and being in which the quantityof powerconstitutedthe affected eachother.a principle that acceptsnothing other than life . Alongsidethe development the conceptof immanent and univocal of a being. there is not a matter or uniform substancewhich thenbecomes takeson a form or quality. There is not a hierarchyin which an original unity or bcingthcnbccomes. of One way in which Nietzsche'swork becomes central to Deleuze is through Nietzsche'sreworking of the Spinozist idea of expressivism.and and suchasressentiment. thcrcis an original bccoming whichexpresscs itsclfin the multiplicity of events. what conceptsthey create. Life is neither matter(asin biologism) the properform or end of matter(asin humannor a ism or vitalism). Expressivism demands that we no longerconceive an eventasa prediof cateattachedto a prior substance. Nietzsche's diagnosis. or expressivism suggests thereis nothingotherthanthe becoming spethat of cific and singularqualities. do not needto As we relateactionsback to a subjector tdoer'.of the connectionbetweenreactiveformations in idealon onehand.When Deleuze readsa philosopher.

You do not which is primary and then varying havesomeideal'whiteness'oressence. thesecanbe regarded two ways. rather by the power of the prinnot determinedby a separate philosophy.logic or voice (logos) distributed. The secondpoint of view of noTnos nomadiclaw hasits principle of or but theseare distribution within itself. Where Nietzsche exposed originsof morality in the manipulationof affectby regimes the of cruelty and force.not if it could be placedpithin a specificand logic)but if delimitedterritory of reason(suchasa correctand consistent it maximisedwhat philosophycould dq and createda territory: creating and pathsfor concepts and stylesof thought that openednew differences thinking. Immanuel Kant lamented that whereasdogmatistshad maintaineda certaindespotism reason givingreason of fixed but unjustifiable rules . then no law outside thinking. evenin this earlywork of Deleuze's.distributedand hierritoriesand the agrarian is that is outside or abovewhat is archisedby somelaw.Deleuzeis anythingbut a Kantian philosopher. while others what remains same).If. life to judging art accordingto whether it will makeus more moral ."r of white. Deleuze developedthe concept of affect to rethink the meaningand functionof ideologyand politics. should be limited by somenotion of common sense and sound distribution. Deleuze ciple itself. .this is the because beingis univocal.Deleuze explored the production of 'politics' and 'ideology' througha series pre-subiective 'inhuman' stylesand intensities. to question. of or Beforethere is a political or ideological decision.say. but that eachof its differenceshasas much being as any other.there is first an unconscious and affectiveinvestment an imageof life and a in style of morality that is subsequently reconceived the moral ground of as life itself.which doesnot meanthat it is always same. for degrees. worksby analogy: somebeingsare (the actual.but he or doesnot want to get rid of distribution and hierarchyaltogether. tribution from the opposition between nomos logos. but if it took the power for creating bcauty. or actualityover potentiality. phy according whetherit will help us to acquiretransferable skills. a tendency think beyond for has to (trying to know the unknowable) oughtto bc contnincd its own domain it within its prirtciplC it should only actaccording whatit canckrin rcrms to Reason a properdomain. rejectsthe idea that a principle. relatedto terdifferences othersis. A philosophy would be a great philosophy.a space divided.just asthe power has of goodand commonsense.Workingagainst visionof a the 'political' that conferred privilege upon the ideologicaldetermination of social codes. the truly real And this subordinationof some are only real in relation. That is.thc powcr to prompt us to bathein the sensible and produced ncw nncl rliffcrcntwaysof confiontingscnsibility.or the presentover the future .a law that is fixed and determines space advance is in wardedoffin the Critique PureReasonby appeal the properdomain of an to of anyprinciple.butthe conceptdoeshavea significant philosophical heritage.Nevertheless.'nomadology' of and 'nomadicism'arespelledout most explicitly inA Thousand Plateaus. Connectives Active/Reactive Becoming Difference Eternalreturn Plato Will to Power NOMADICISM Claire Colebrook The concepts 'nomad'.180 NOM ADICISM N OMA D IC IS M l8l moral ideaswhile taking it in a wholly new direction. differences intensities all there are still individreal.Deleuzeclaimed. Repetition. 1781. Kant's aim of limiting the principlesof reason for to a legitimateand harmonious is countered Deleuze's use by nomadicaim of allowingprinciplesto be pushedto their maximumpower(D 1984).while reason. or by analogy. thinking'spower In Dffirenceand. Kant's dismissalof the nomadicismthat would be precipitatedby a loss of dogmaticlaw .if somethingcan be thought. of in uationsand hierarchies. and are derivative t"gt. Nomadicism allows the maximum extensionof principlesand powers. or a power or tendencyto think. there are still hierarchies principle.This is extremelyimportant for Deleuze's judgingphilosoand wantsto getrid of transcendent the preface the Critiqueof Pure In to Reason. the point of view of logos.a certainbarbarismhad allowedfor 'a kind of nomadswho abhor all permanent cultivationof the soil'(K 1998: 99).what is contrast. Deleuze. Nomadic distribution judgesimmanently(D 1994:37). An artwork would be greatnot if it fulfilled alreadyexistingcritcria for what counts as beautiful. example.Deleuze beginsa definitionof nomadicdisas insists. are all differences one being. no containment thought within the mind of man shouldlimit of (D 1994:37). but The first. to feel has a proper domain (art) which should not be carried over into morality. Deleuze and we cannothavea hierarchyof beings such asthe dominanceof mind over matter.

gnum opus. Connectives Desire Kant Nomos Smoothspace Space NOMADICISM + CITIZENSHIP EugeneHolland. for then the original spacewould alreadyhave been transformed. asa space not with intrinsic properties that then determinerelations(in the way chess pieces determinehow movements might be enacted).has to be carved out from a radical exteriority of war. smooth. in conarises trast with a symphonyorchestra:in the former. Plateaus. if the tribe moved on. is imposedfrom aboveby a conductorperforming a it pre-established composer's score.making State citizenshipliterally a matter of life and death.its use. So we canconsider nomadicspace. This 'vertical' of master-allegiance the Statetranscends other'horizontal'allegiances to all within the State.would be different from (and dependentupon) virtual. But Statecitizenship kind.a certain distribution occursin and through the act.citizenshiphas been thought and practisedmostly in on haveof relationto the nation-state.which is here tied far more explicitly to the 'war machine'. in A Thousand. life asland would be distributedaccording someexternallaw (say. the space would be traversed differentmaps.r82 NOM ADICISM N OMA D IC IS M f C ITIZE N S H IP 183 Even as early as Dffirence and RepetitionDeleuze's referenceto the the 'agrarianquestion'marksa politicsof nomadicism: difference between immanentand transcendent criteria.for the the State's sovereigntyand law. this and In by sense. whereas the symphony orchestra. is producedin the traversal space. for example. so on. now part of a whole new seriesof desires.then enter into relation. Nomadic space.or its history of ownershipaccordingto a general law of property). groups whoseorganisation is to itinerant tribes-people than to immanent to the relations composingthem. Nomad citizenship is a utopian concept createdto re-articulateand suggestsolutionsto the problem posedby the lethal nature of modcrn . most to its efficienteconomicuse. asa space but with extrinsicproperties.that there are masterswho then dominateand govern the slaves or slavish. Everythingbeginswith forcesor'the war machine. And if other tribes crossed that first space.This is sedentary space. Until recently.crosses dances A and upon a space and in so doing fills the space from within. The idea of the war machine does have a clear relation to Deleuze'searlierreiectionof logos.involvingvaryingdegrees allegiance families. commands allegiance a qualitativelydifferent and homogenising of it largelybecause candeclare war and therebylegitimatekilling in its name and demandthe sacrifice citizens'lives for its own sake(asformulated of in Carl Schmitt's rna. nomadicdistributionthere by On is not one law that stands outsideand determines law space. differences positionsand linesthrough the create movement.The distribution of land or territory .one becomes masterthrough an exercise force and a of in so doing the master-slave relation is effected. SocialBroupsconsidered this scale groupingsof includeda rich entanglement heterogeneous of coursealways of to varioussizes and kinds. of With Guattari. war machineis not somethingexercised the State. eachwith their identity. or the power to distribute space. tribe dreamsabout. the is space producedfrom the movements that then givethat space pecuits liar quality (just asin the gameof Go the pieces not codedaskings or are queens but enter into relations that produce a field of hierarchies). group coherence in immanentlyfrom the activity of improvisingitself.Itis not that there are proper beings. nomadic space. the organization of a nomadic group is not imposedfrom aboveby a transcendent command. It is not.religiousdenominations. professionalorganisations. the actualspace the materialextension ownedby this tribe that might then be measured and quantifiedby a Statestructure. occupation and measurcrnenf produces distinct hierarchies identitics. rather. it but because differences not thoseofa chessboard up in advance. is.given a different depth and extension.Statesdo not havean existence power outsidetheir warring or power. dancedand dreamedelsewhere. Nomadicspace in this sense. space the remainswhat it is and is then divided and distributed. movements and relations. Put differently.TheConcept thePolitical). its (cut are with prescribed moves). and that.not because is undifferentiated. ethnic. refersless The concept 'nomadicism' of that Deleuzeand Guattaridevelop placeless. If we subjectdifferenceto a logical just distribution then we havea principle that determines in advance.seizure. and other neighbourhoods. and affinity groups.that must then be distributedaccordingto their essence and definition.Deleuze writes a manifesto for 'nomadology'. sexual. of forces and dominations as which the Statemay or may not harness its own.An improvisationaljazzbandforms a n6madicgroup.howeveqis produced through its distribution.

that it is apost-capitalist market. it means 'word' or treasont. is howcvcr. doesnot proceed It from universals. While as difficult to translate well. This is because picture of the the world indicatedby logos one in which everythinghasits right place: is Logosalso implies. they do not form fixed references which divide up the movement of life into discreteelements(inside/ outside. this way. or rather than structuredorganisation. is alsoa scientific methodthat naturallyleadsto truth. simply as temporarypartnersin exchange. that it is derivedfrom the root word nem. Plateaus. In tion to discussopposingmodels of science. thereis another. of the logos.However. Terrorisedcitizens. cultural (and many other) differences available everyone. thoughtsor space sendout the animals Greekmeantto to an unboundedpastureaccording no particularpattern or structure.the citylthe wilds). Of course.which in ancient (pasture livestock' in otherwords. but rather keepscloseto the movementof eventsthemselves it 'follows' rirther than 'copies'. mighr in We call this the economic market componentof nomad citizenship.citizensterrorisedin large part by their own Stategovernments the hypedspectre someenemy by of or that it enriches livesof the nomad citizens by making an ambulantor minor science. onc of' thc fbw instanccs in of'ctymol<lgicrrl considcrttion his in work. He givesthe exampleof the related canalsobe understood as'law'. to regardless who or wherethey are. this context. of Thc Greck w<trdnomos normally translatedas law. some whichwerelistedabove.that doesnot rely upon an organisation permanentstructure. As Deleuzegoeson to suggest with Guattari in A Thousand. then. in fact. mosr of these Yer groupsinvolveor require somedegreeof face-to-face contactand are hence understoodto take place among space. Here.At the sametime.nem6.the concept In of nomadcitizenshipis createdin order to breakthe monopolyexercised by the Stateover conceptions and practices citizenship. to Deleuzeopposes n0/n0s distribution to anotherGreek work.Only the practiceof science nomos be said to as can presumes havc nttaincda truc cxpcrimcntal method.areall too easily mobilisedto givetheir livesand takeothers'lives in war.which means'to distribute'. war wagedin the nameof the Stategives capitalisma longer and longer leaseon life by forestallingits perennial crises ofoverproduction: nothingaddresses over-production keeps and the wheelsof industry turning like a good war .For the virtue ofmarket exchange provided ofcoursethat it is voluntary and fair.such as we find in Plato and Aristotle. the other of on hand. elements termsof science. a conception of distribution. in Repetition.Ratherthan existingwithin a hierarchical structurelike a city.In this context. this well-organised To legal distribution Deleuzewill oppose anarchic distribution of the nomos. Deleuzefirst employsthe figure of nomos Dffirence and. Anrbuhntscicncc rcsults ldvlncc in thc firrmof'glollrrl in .take in placeinA Thousand. while there may be points of significancein nomadic life. contrast to logos. of and to add or substitute alternative forms of belongingand itself is nomadic. kindsof heterogeneous groups all andallegiances already exist. certainelements. the degree these of to groups that self-organise moreor lessspontaneously immanently ratherthanundercommand or from above. Deleuzeand Guattari usethe distincmathematics and space. but one that is founded on a previous structureand is well-organised. logos. ethnic.Deleuzemakesa link between logos polis. Iogos the structuredand'good'distributionof as leadsto what they call'royal' science. It indicatesa free distribution. example). it is a matter of consideringthe nature of Being itself in terms of non-ordereddistribution rather than the fixed coordinates a logically of and hierarchicallystructured universe. it or for depends the capacity marketexchange link far-flunggroupsor indion of to viduals togetherin a socialbond that definesthem neitherasfriendsnor as enemies.s the plcsuppositions. religious. nomadic life takesplace in a non-structuredenvironmentwhere movementis primary. it is a structured and ordered conception of existence. for Deleuze. Scienceundertakenin the nameof nomos. based It one upon universalvalues. sincc thc /ogo.especially today'shigh-tech wars in which eachguided missile strike or smart bomb explosionmeans instantmillionsof dollarsin replacement costs. In other words. Plateaus-Here. the The sense nomos anarchic of in as distribution canbe understood referenceto the nomad. But friendsin a shared properlyplaceless dimensionto nomadcitizenshipwhich is linked to the burgeoning world marketandexemplified the fair trademovement. they could imply nomadicforms of citizenship.Fixed points like dwellingsare subordinatedto this for fundamental and lawlessmovement. Dclcuzc notcs.wherethe political orderingof states and drawsits main coordinates (this is Plato'sprocedurein the from a prior structuredidea of existence Republic. of NOMOS Jonathan Roffe 'Nomos' is the namethat Deleuzegivesto the wayof arranging elements whetherthey arepeople. the but In marketis ableto capitalise differences on without turning them into enmities. and is at oncebased on the valuesof the State and supposed be unrelatedto the concrete to practices life. little elseStatesdo inspire in citizensthe kind of devotion that war does. The most elaboratedevelopmentsof nomos.184 NOM OS N OM OS r85 nation-state citizenship.

refersto '?being'. Nictzscheand Henri Bergsonin his criticism of nonbeing.not or alwaysfully present. nothing. we try to speakof nonbeing. or what we can sayai.variationand production in excess what we (or alreadyknow to haveexistence beingin its traditionalsense).but must come to presence come into being.In this context.The questionof nonbeinggoesback to the very originsof westernphilosophy in Parmenides andthe twentieth-century critique of westernmetaphysics. being cannotbe reducedto the world of presentbeingsor things.asMartin Heidegger we and Plato.that inarticulable fullness. and one which is continuedin different Heidegger ways by JacquesDerrida and JacquesLacan. existthat what cannotbe namedor givenextended andculture.then this is only because a structure of desire (such as the beyond.but this doesnot meanwe shouldposit somenegative is beyondbeing or nonbeing. The two conceptions mathematics closelyrelatedto this.On indicatethat space doesnot haveanyintrinsicorganisation.or nonbeing.we assume being Againstthis paltry oppositionbetween enceis nothing.but this is only because havea far too misermate structure of ableand limited conception being. And for Lacan. In keepingwith the two polesof distribution indicatedby nomos logos. if or then we havealreadysaidthat nonbeingri. This space termed is the contrary. Deleuze. being is never fully and finally revealedfor there are always only as we something something by further experiences. mustbe considered be open. not only bccausc to but in speaking attributebeingto nonbeing. Now Deleuzewill havenone of this death. these ation for all his philosophy.Rather. experience bringing it into the open. productions from the fullness of life. in effectthis is the main affirmativethrust of his work and the inspirbut are of There may be effects nonbeing. only does not nomos 'striated'. The politicalradicalityof nomos.being (as?being) life understoodas of the potentialfor creation. two Logos.without presupposinggeneral structures. say what is not.18 6 NONBEING N ON BEIN G 187 is thus profoundly engagedwith life rather than examiningit from a supposed neutraloutside.we passover nonbeing insistedin his readings Parmenides of we begunthinking from the simplebeingsbeforeus.while we live and desirein of oriented we a world of structuredand meaningfulbeings.but he drawsparticularlyupon Friedrich For Nietzsche. the other hand. because havealways The challenge which thosethings which arepresentand remainthe same. of offersa pictureof space that is primordiallycut up in various ways.and beforewe seenonbeingas the simpleabsence being. . On the of are onehand. Negativit$ negationand nonbcing havebeensubordinatcd the thought of what is.This mathematics is underwrittenby the ordereddistribution of the logos.from all the beings life we imaginesomeultidesired we nonbeingor beyond.and this is the problem openedby Parmenides.thereis the geometric conception that presumes universal structures: straightline. the possibilityfor experience. Deleuze also privileges differential calculus in so far as it takes the local operationof numericalvalues and determines their movement. uniform field and parallellines. is that it proposes dissolutionof the imposedstructuresof the logos lawful structure. it was. that includes one intrinsicboundaries.or negativityin life. ncccls trc undcrstood to as all philosophgcvcn the most morirland flricetic. Second.Tbelrssa. in and nonbeing is. the as Deleuzetendsto readthe historyof philosophy thoughit is always productionandaffirmationof life. and therebydisclosingit. one that is unboundedby any one point and cannot be understoodin terms of the absolute fixity presumed geometric by mathematics. On nltvtzssupportsmathematics the form of arithmeticsproceedingby local in operations. and Deleuze andGuattarialsodistinguish typesof space.First.thereis a nonbeingat the heartof being.nonbeing. of can Connectives Event Plato Space NONBEING Claire Colebrook Perhapsthe most profound challengeof Deleuze'swork today is its rejectionof nonbeing. and a creationof smooth spacein which encounas ters outsideof the orderedconception existence become possible. not a thing.nce or plenitude that is not a being. this space but itself is something that must be created.therefore.From the ordersof speech. arenevertheless desired towardsthat which is otherthan or beyondbeing.or what and to Deleuzeand Guattaricall 'smoothspace'. depends a on that presence.the ordered conception existence.And Deleuze Oedipalfantasy)which hasproducedthis negative and Guattari spend much time in showing how this nonbeing beyond of thingsis produced. any of or experience somethingthat rs must come into presence be revealed of through time. also. of nomadicdisand tribution. Dffirence and.This is on emphasis the nonbeingin being or presence intensifiedby Derrida. That Repeition. If I experiencemy life as governed by 'lack' . Traditionally.that I am forced to decide among things but never arrive at the of thing .things that are or are not . put to this tradition. or who argues process tracingwhich is not. is that before we can have beings.

Insteadofarguing that we. or evenchange is and development. Ideology. of history of variousimages thought. they posit someultimategood or being.thcn. Deleuze's early work The Logic of Sense. and it is definedinA Thousand The of study of images thought. or just what fail and notionsof commonsense goodsense to question everyday of it is to think. pole. but like that has we arereallyperceivingmore ratherthanlesslife.while critical of phenomenology nevertheless drew upon Edmund Husserl's 'noeisis/noema' distinction: the noeisisis the act or subjectiveaspect. assertion the that something not.nonbeingis formed from a failure to think life in due order. suchaswhen we saythat something missingor lackingor not is the case. some proper image of thought being the ultimate aim. additionto of in ducedand hasits genesis previous of that assumes if images thoughthave therefore its criticalfunction.toitmy expectof ation of how it ought to be. On nonbeingis not the lackof presence.are subiectedto ideasthat are false and that might be that it is the ideaof a proper'we' and assumpDeleuzeargues demystified. the imageof a mind that canthink only throughan imposed is or externalstructure. Deleuzealsowantsto affirm a positivenonbeing. Deleuzewantsto rejectthe strong idea of negativityor nonbeing. imagining.noology with the ideal of liberation from beencreatedthey can alwaysbe recreated.the absence. as proper subjects. lack or negationof values.desiredand perceived. it alsostrives beyondthe human.phenomenology the imageof a mind that forms its are ideas and experiences structuredby a subjectoriented whose world and towardstruth. in proccsscs individurrtion constflnt of . therearepure noema or 'thinkables' we canalsoimagine but approachinglife. In Dffirence and. to say 'no' to the commonsensical. or This nonbeingis fully realand positive.Deleuzerejects negative the ideaof nonbeingwhich hasbeenat the heart of westernmetaphysics.the is remembered.r88 NO O LO G Y OE D IP A LIS A TION 189 flowing from life.for example. In this regard.who insistedon the fullness and positivity of life (and who arguedthat negationwassecondary and illusory). to imaginethoughtcarriedto its infinite power. prois of to modern subjectwho is subjected a system signifiers therefore In relations destruction.imagined. because that we havefailedto think truly precisely argues Repetition.similarly. Connective Bergson (ideology) (phenomenology) ideas nor not a studyor science ofappearances If but noology.Following Bergson.bc Thought OEDIPALISATION Tamsin Lorraine humirnbcingsasunfolding I)clcuzc nnd Guattrrridcscribc ln Anti-Ocdip. not only the potential.remembering. But which he alsowritesas?being.If I go into an untidy room I do not seeanabsence order.and when this cannot be found their piety merely directs itself to nonbeing. our us tion of the good self or 'mind' which precludes from actualising is Plateaus.Deleuze but an we assume presuppose 'imageof thought'. he doesnot attributea lacb ofbeing or realityto so error.Noology.Even in TheLogic of Sense DeleuzecriticisedHusserlfor restrictingthe noemato being an object of consciousness argued that there were pure noematicpredicates and colouritself. Nonbeing(as?being) the positivepowerof life to pose is problems. this understanding. intcrrctionwith thcir surrttltntlings.We may perceive absence an or 'lack'andassume something nonbeing torn a holein Greek. the groundor ing of thought in what appears consciousness.For Bergson.but alsoclaimsa 'historicity' for images. to not only studywhat it might meanfor humansubjects think. as a asthinking. Not only philosophy.nous)hasbeen postulate our thinking. Those philosopherswho attendto nonbeingaresuffering from reactive nihilism.or what counts is for example. noologycanbe opposed ideology. to In general.Noologydoes of implicit andrestrictive an unargued. which is still a relation.between light and cyc but a relation libcratcd from anyspccific obscrvcr. not as grounded in personalconsciousness. Nookrgy would. ideologyor the idea to and that thereare systems structuresof ideasthat areimposedupon thinkor ing.the concept mind (or. self-evident universallyaccepted. Connective NOOLOGY Claire Colebrook The conceptof 'noology' canbe setagainstphenomenology. perceiving while the noema the obiective desiring.I seethe room.

for mouth and breast). prcsupposcs.exclusivedisjunctions(thus relegatingthe subjectro a chronologicalseries momentsthat can be givena coherentnarrativeaccount). anoedipaldesire must mutate and field unfoldingimplicatedwith the social transformin a self-differentiating of forcesof which it is a part.the goal of anoedipal it not desireis immanentto its process: seeks what it lacksbut what allows it to continue to flow. Whereas Oedipaldesire conductionsothat desire create stitutes the subjectas lacking the object desired. Oedipalisationconstitutesan illegitimate restriction on the productive syntheses the unconscious of because emphasises it global persons(thus excluding all parrial objectsof desire).190 OEDIPAL ISAT ION ON TOL OGY 19l and they characterise three syntheses the unconscious: of connective syntheses join elements that into series ('desiring-machines'. In order to flow. thus reducingthe multiple forms in desirecantaketo thoseforms that canbe referredto the personal identities of the Oedipaltriangle. a conas is temporaryform of socialrepression that reduces forms desiretakesthe and thus the connections desiremakes.producing partial he For Deleuze. of and a segregative and biunivocaluse of the conjunctivesyntheses (thus reducingthe identity of the subjectto a coherentor staticset of one side of a set of oppositions).Oedipalisation a form of socialrepressionthat funnels the productive capacityof the unconscious of back into the constrictingchannels Oedipal desire. example. Productive desire that would fragmentpersonal identity is reduced to the desireof a personwho wants to fill in a lack.'Oedipalisation.lnd ot'(trrrnsvcrsrl) firr . for example. waysof approachingits 'symptoms' that point to possibilitiesfor creBests inevitablylinked with socialchange.not as a transitionor transformationfrom one substancc anotheror a movement from onepoint to anothcr.creating breaksand flows. if left to themselves. is one of only two (the otherbeingEmmanuel philosophers L6vinas)of the generation call we not 'poststructuralists' to demur in the faceof ontologyand metaphysics.philosophyis ontology. Oedipalisation reduces anarchicproductivity of unconscious the desireto familial forms of desire. Capitalism'semphasison the abstractquantificationof money and labour(what mattersis how capitaland labourcirculates not the specific form wealth takesor who in particular doeswhat) encourages desireto permute acrossthe social field in thosethat sustainthe social formationof capitalism. Oedipalisation thus ensures that the innovations deterritorialising of capitalareconstrained by the tightly bound parameters personal of identity and familial life (or the triangulatedauthority relationshipsrhar mimic Oedipus in the public realm).It passes from one body to another. ratherasan but to It thcrcforc.In this sense. According to Deleuze and Guattari. Deleuze's and ontologyis a rigorousattemptto think of process metamorphosis. The subjectionof desireto a phallic paradigm results a subject in who experiences himselfas'having'an idcntitythat is fixedon cithcr onc sidcor the othcr of various oppositional dividcs(mrrlc or fcmitlc. and making connections that destroythe unity of a 'possessive or proprietary' ego (D&G 1983:72). o1' lnd lincs substitution firrccs substirnccs things. ativetransformation Connectives Body without Organs Capitalism Desire Deterritorialisation/Reterritorialisation Psychoanalysis Subjectivity ONTOLOGY Constantin I1 Bound. is the latter would evolveinto somethingelse.On the BwQ desireis the only subject. The syntheses they describe haveanoedipal well asOedipalforms.becoming. states mouth and breastor head and arm or milk and stomachresonatingin a state of bliss). disjunctive syntheses resonate that series metastable in ('Bodieswithout Organs'(BwO). fundamentally unchanging innovatingflows drive for ever-new sources profit fosters of Capitalism's could so altercapitalistformationsthat of desirethat. They propose that Oedipalsubjectivity is but one form that human sentience can take. Oedipalisation makesit appearthat partial objectsare possessed a person and that it is the person who by desires. rrndwho dcsignltcs virrious thc plcnsurlblc lncl painful statesthrough which he passes terms of the attributes of a in identity.Following Oedipal prosubjectivityto its limits and beyond entailsliberating unconscious can new realities. and conjunctivesyntheses that gather metastable statesinto the continuous experience conscious of awareness. whitc or hlack).Productivedesirethat flows accordingto immanentprinciples becomes organised terms of 'lack'. initial an attcmptt<lthink of'thcrcirlilsa proccss. Deleuzeand Guattari rejectthe psychoanalytic contentionthat the only alternativeto Oedipal subjectivityis psyflowsof desireand the schizowho is chosisand insteadexploreanoedipal Their notion of the unconscious suga functioningsubjectof suchdesire.

the actual carriesthe trace of the virtual differencethat brought it about. the Deleuzeclaimsthe virtual is in the actual.second. unlike the 'many' of traditionalmetaphysics. Seenthus. the time of habit.Being is the d. they tell people Newspapers use redundancyto order their statements. It is one of is conserved the pastin itself. but apply to boclics arc.In the Deleuzian ontology multiplicities. actualisation differsfrom the 'originary' difference.192 O NTO LO G Y ORDER-WORD Connectives Actuality Becoming Differentiation/Differenciation Force Post-structuralism Virtual/Virtuality I93 for points. Hence. the and third. multiplicities have no need for a superimposed unity to be what they become. attributethat takesthe form suspect into the convict is a pure incorporeal Order-words are thus alwaysdated. Second. converge conjoinonly in the deterritorialisation themselves and of and other series. Information is only the minimal conditionfor the transmission of order-words.urrle. actualisation is pregnantwith all the differences the never-before-actualised that virtual is capable precipitatingat any (and all) time(s). bodieswith their qualitiesand mixtures. First. that and speech-acts of every statementwith implicit presuppositions The relation between a statement are realisedin statementsthemselves.Transformations . to a sign in so far asit is understood contain They arealsothe relation are Order-words not restrictedto commands. Repetition. that qunlifythcm to bc assuch. of a or giveslife-orders. Deleuze erects his ontology of Dffirence and.Meditating on in temporality. seriesand time subsist.or afterwards penalty)are actionsand passions affectingbodies(that of victim. assemblage are that a collective statements individuatedonly to the degree requiresthem to be transmittedasthey are.Meanwhile. of content in a judge's sentence. of This bifurcationof the realdoes enshrine not transcendence univocity:becoming saidin oneandthe same and is sense both of the virtual andthe actual.This is difference itsel{ not a difference in post established quo between two identities.Deleuzeretrievesthe Bergsoniand. Presentstates affairs. not opposed the one because are to they (they are not multiplicitiesof discrete are not discrete units or elemenrs). and speech-actis internal. shouldbe notedherethat thereis no separation It or ontological difference between virtual andactual. working it into three interrelated syntheses.the ontologyof Deleuzeis firmly anchored difference.It is the virtual that is differentiated terms of its intensive in the differential relation between forces. the empty time of the future. or analogy or the labour of the negative.Time. time of memory. All language expressed indirect disto is of of course. Yet. is the judge'ssentence transforms It Order-words (the alleged crime into a convict. It is in the virtual that intensivemultiplicities of singularities. An expression always contains collective assemblages. history also transmits order-words from one generationto Performative statements nothingoutsideof the circumstances are anothcr.they do not needtranscendent forcesin order to function.As the virtual actualises differenciates and itself the series generates it become discrete.the redundancy the order-wordis its mostperof tinent trait. by rather than being.but the command. Language and asa resulthumansonly transmit what has is in been communicated them.As such.In the spaceinscribedby Martin Heidegger with his Being and.The real bifurcates two inextricablyinterlinkedprocesses in the virtual and the actual.thus the transmission order-words not the communication information.This is because force exists only in the plural .ffirent/ ciation at work in the dynamic relationship between virtual and the actual. of ORDER-WORD VerenaConley that compelsobediThe 'order-word'is a function immanentto language of ence. incorporeal events constitute virtual real.The ontological primacyDeleuzegivesdifference can no longerbe sublated eliminatedby either resemblance. with divisionsand subdivisions leavingtheir naturesunaffected. the The natureof the latteris to actualise itself without everbecoming depleted in actualstates affairs. They are intensivemultiplicitieswith subdivisions affectingrheir nature.Actualisation the occursin a presence that can neverbe sufficientunto itself for three reasons. Series diverge. what to think.make of or up the actualreal. that transformbodies. Forces determiningtheir becoming operate from within .neitherone of which canbe without the other. convict from the The instantaneous transformation or prison)in the largestsense. requiresan ontology of multiplicities. thinking of processes terms of and in series.not of identity. Substitutingforce for substance. History recounts actionsand passions bodiesthat developin a social the of field. Third.The fundamentalform of speechis not the statement(6noncd) judgement the expression(inonciation) afeeling.What takesplacebeforehand the accused (the enactment the of is the accused saidto havecommitted).without evererasing traces the ofthe virtual insidethe actual. First.

Beneathorder-words. of which part is siphoned off to flow in the economyof the body.that is.a 'One' addedto the multiplicity of organising : in dimension'(D&G 1987 21. is capable accountingfor a doubledirection: it is a 'little' (or it of simulated)death. what he otherwisedescribes words that passand are componentsof as passage. by onto normalfunctioningasdetermined species-wide itself the organism deadens creativityof life.W O RD OR GA N IS M 195 themselves.such as language and speech. an organismis lockedinto a basinof attraction. Order-words function as explicit commandsor implicit presuppositions. As the only metalanguage. of Connectives Body Death ORGANISM tohn Proteoi An 'organism' in the way that Deleuze and Guattari intend it is a self-directed body.they are arrestive.that is.but it is alsoa warning cry or a message takeflight.alternative. of It is thus imperative that life answerthe order-word of death not by fleeing but by making flight.194 O RDER. order-words mark stoppages. of consistcncy . in order to accentuateactive and creative attributes.Also importorgans a'supplementary that is. series virtual singularities 'exclusive patterns. it God' (He who providesthe model of such self-sufficiency). centralised. As set or stereotyped of such basins. in order to limit itself' (D&G 1987:503). Languageconsistsof a major and a minor mode. its habitualconnections organs). the organismhasa certainvalue:'stayingstratified subjected is not the worst that can happen'(D&G 1987:16l). containsome probabilitystructureto the passage flowsamongtheir organs(only the of virtual BwQ at 'intensity = 0'. or Constructingan organismout of a body (centralising molarisingthe humansfrom the plane body)is oneof the threeprinciplestrataseparating (abng with signifiancc As and subicctivity).The questionis lesshow to elude to the order-word than how to avoid its impact as a death-sentence and.Deleuze adds. signified. the benefitoflife and flight it is order and to inspirecreative For necessary extract the one from the other. They lead to immanent actsand the incorporealtransformations expressed their form. centralised in actualised of disjunctions'. in powerof escape turn. The order-word is the variable that defines the usageof language according to one of these two treatments.It is akin to the'judgementof hierarchised. to developa from within the scope(expression and statement) the order-word. The organismis an emergenteffectof organsin a particular way.In strong contrast.Organsare a body'sway of negotiatingwith the exteriormilieu.Incorporealtransformationsare again attributed to bodies.and thereforea constraintimposedon the They've wrongBwO: 'The BwO howls:"They've mademe an organism! my bodyl"' (D&G 1987:159). The species-wide organism as unifying emergent effect is a stratum on the Body without from the virtual (BwO). The scientific enterprise that claims to extract constants is coupledwith a politicalenterprise that transmitsorder-words.New order-words ariseand modify the variableswithout being part of a known r6gime. a stratum. an emitter and ant to note is that an organis a 'desiring-machine'. of sucha wayasto precludethe actualisation other.there exist pass-words. and in massive shape they organise stratifiedcompositions.competence and performancebecomeinapplicable. Constants. They alsoleadto assemblages expressions. but now in a passage a limit-degree. complexitytheory is'that which life setsagainst however. to transform the comto positionsof order into components passage.are alwaysdrawn from variablesso that certain linguistic categories. however. henceDeleuzeand Guattari'ssense 'molar'). breakerof flows. All of a suddenvariables find themselves a new stateand in continuousmetain morphosis. and regulatinga bit of matter-energy appropriating effectof interlocking homeostatic The organismis the unifying emergent fluctuationsbelow for mechanisms quickly compensate anynon-average that by to certainthresholds return a bodyto its 'normal'condition(asmeasured of norms.265). The former extractsconstantswhile the latter placesthem in continuous variation. causingvocabularyand sentences vary and changeas also to do the order-words. that is. certainselection a a Organs multiplicity of what a body canbe.a capacityto impose is hence construction. such a fixed habitualpattern locked the average values. has removed all patterning among its are that is. flow. The organsof an organismare patternedby and hierarchical. although this utility is primarily asa restingpoint for further experimentation. incorporeal.the organismis 'organised'.Like all stratification. . in of At a certain moment thesevariablescombine into a regime of signs. fully foldedme! They'vestolen While all actualor intensivebodiesare 'ordered'. to Through death the body reachescompletion in time and space.As a warning cry or harbingerof deaththe order-wordproducesflight.In the political spherelanguagemobilisesthe order-word.organized. is also a molarisedand stratifiedlife form. every singlething or word has this twofold nature.

Freud and his followersconstruedsuccessful psychicdevelopment. of (cell. an The positions takenby Deleuze andGuattarion psychoanalysis belongto this deviantor post-Freudiantradition. to shc still locatcdthc tirskof intcrprctingthcsc objccts rt cotrtritctull irr rchtion bctwccnirnirlyst anclgrllicnt.t96 ORGANISM PAR TIAL OBJEC TS t97 we canusethe terminology of form-substance content-expression and with regard to organisms. the fundamental point remained: the psychic object is a result of the drive. the endocrine and digestivesystems). emergentfuncof the tional unit.tissues. of flows. though.These that mechanisms. Contemporarytreatmentof Deleuze'sbiophilosophybeginswith Keith Ansell Pearson's Germinal Life. A Thousand.though we must remember that on the organic stratum. and. of is conceivedas a process binding the functionsof a body into a whole through coordination multiple systems homeostatic of of well as the valorisation of species 'naturalkinds' found in the complexitytheorybiologyof Stuart as Kauffmanand Brian Goodwin. then. Klein differedfrom Freud in her insistence that the drivesare not merestreams energy. where the substance content is composedof of organsand the form of contentis codingor regulationof flowswithin the body andbetween body and the outside.are highly flexible in their operation. of on and the role of genesin interveningin the self-organising processes morphogenesis. organs. Freud himself was not alwaysclear or consistent on the relationbetween drive and object.the dependence genes cellularmetabolism.the psychiceconomywaspopulated a plethoraof suchobjects. Skipping over several scales we arrive at the levelof organicsystems (for example nervous. we recall. by with the objectsin questionbeingrelatedto the 'discharge' an underlyof ing drive. Yet. Connectedwith the conceptof drive was the notion of an object. Perhapsthe most significantfigure in this post-FreudianmovementwasKlein.introjection and proiection .'l'hc rrrrrrlyst .and charged Freud with de-emphasising social relations and group ties.species. as well as decomposing objectsinto 'partial' or'part' objects. asthe capacity individual psychehasto an form relationswith wholeobjects. the levelof genes At and proteinsthe substanceof content consistsof amino acids. sothe form as of expression this scaleis composed nucleotide at of basesequences that specifyamino acids. the The form of expression this at levelis homeostatic regulation(overcoding the regulationof flowsproof vided by organs). anrl Taboo and Moses Monotheism. a that is. possess of but from the beginning directionand structure. and blend objects with each other. while resonatingwith the 'molecularrevolution'in twentieth-century biology. Subsequent thinkersin the psychoanalytical tradition criticised this emphasison the individual psyche. Years NonlinearHistory and.cells. While Delanda interprets Deleuzeand complexity theorysideby side. Klein remainedwithin the psychoanalytic tradition: while Klein acknowledged centrality and power of partial the objccts.Mark Hansensees Deleuzeand Guamari's biophilosophy as incompatible with complexity theory.Expression.Totem in.Meanwhile. that was a it invokedthe concepts ofenergy and structureto showthat everyhuman action has its basisin a fundamentaland irreducibleinstinctualground. Freud wassaidto havefailedto consider adequately the mechanisms link objectsto drivesand objectsto eachother. biosphere. with thcir changes intensity. Interestingly.which determinesprotein shapeand function. tissueand organ)for simplicity's the putting of contentto work.and changed positionin subhis sequentwritings or sometimes said incompatiblethings about objectsin differentparts of the sametext. is the gene.contentand expression must be specified manydifferentscales: at genes and proteins. while the substance expression the organism. systems. they areobject-focused. Deleuze and Guattari's devalorisationof the organism. It is importantto notethat in this treatmentwe areoverlooking DNA/RNA the relation.reproductive community. the form of content or codingof theseacidscanbe understood aminoacidsequences proas or teins.while the substance expression.despite his attemptsto dealwith suchissues for example. Other treatments include Manuel Delanda. of Intensizse Science and Virtual in markedcontrast to the treatmentof the organismasirreduciblein the autopoietic theoryof Humberto Maturana and FranciscoVarela.and havingthe their variable capacity cbb or cxplodc. Two drives were pre-eminent:the sexualdrive and the drive for selfpreservation. and the relation to an object is the function of a drive'sdischarge. Objectcreationcanalsobe enhanced by the particulardealings individual haswith the externalworld. For Hansen. For Deleuzeand Guattari. Connectives Body without Organs Molar Stratification Virtull/Virtuulity' PARTIAL OBJECTS Kenneth Surin SigmundFreud'smetapsychology in essence theoryof drives.

Essentially. E. It has the capacity to explore our existenceas haecceities are on the planeof consistency. as doesthe steppefor Anton Chekhovand the desert It then. that cithcr mirrors.with all the forceof his or her in desire'(D&G 1987:13).mocksor firrmsthc scapc no longcran cnvironmcnt is pcrccivcs lrrndscitpc tlrc by chirrirctcr.The perceptalsohassomething childhoodperception in it.however. pain.literaturebecomes a wayof exploringnot how we existin the attainingpsychic maturity. The'percept' suchasHeinrich von Kleist andFranzKafka write in affects.wassaidby Deleuzeto have remained paradigm. that the perceptimpliesa particufor T.198 PARTI AL O BJ EC T S PER C EPT + L ITER ATU R E r99 providedan interpretation these psychic of objects the contextof the conin tract that existed between and the patient. Deleuze. canbe seen.Only in this way can the patient (and the analyst)experimentwith the real. alsohasa political significance. but.impasses 'entryways the child livesout politically.For parts follow a specific coursewhen they are detachedfrom a whole or from other parts. given that small children are unableto distinguishbetweenthemselves and the outsideworld.asphenomena movepeople or hold them that on.a compoundof sensations. tranquillising. who talksof 'momentsof the world'. into the landscape. painful. or Partialobjectsare invariablysomething'menacing. By meansof the percept. that it enables to explore an impersonaland pre-individualcollectivitythat might be the basisfor a particularsort of ethicalcommunity. a stage that onewentthough. therebyconsigning partial objects (the mother'sbreast. penis. Ahab passes form.whereby is at the heart of Deleuze'simpersonal conventional literary categorieslike character. and soon) to a necessarily inferior or prolepticpositionin the psychoanalyticscheme things. point is Virginia Woolf.and sothe question the of specific processesthat underlie this detachment or reattachment is absolutelycrucial: is a particular attachment. refrain from relegatingpartial objects to to a merelysecondary provisionalstatusin relationto wholeobjects. in T E. and the ocean Another important as emerges a pure percept. pleasurable. conceptionof literature. partialobjects (andevendrives)are not mere structural phenomena stages a developmental or on trajectory. psychoanalysis. bursting.reassuring. toxic.partialobjectswerealways of something thar one movedon from.or evenBartleby's of of to be 'particular'. of the world. This might manifestitself in the capto acity of Virginia Woolf's characters merge with the world. landthe lar relationshipbetweencharacterand landscape.Psychoanalysis forces desire the patientinto the of a grid that can then be traced by the analyst. a pieceof the a cake. alluring and so on? What makesit any one (or more) of thesethings?For Deleuzeand processes their meanGuattariit is absolutely essential weseethese that and ingsasinherentlypolitical.In order to explore how the percept works in literature with all that leads it is necessary understand to how Deleuzeis preoccupied to the dissolutionof the ego in art. in reference into'the town. asthey put itinA Thousand. other words. But to underrake this experimentation is necessary treat psychicobjectsas political it to optionsand just as significantly. For Deleuzeand Guattari. and it is the literary expression the things that the writer has it seenand heardthat overwhelmher or him. Similarly.or when they are collectedinto other wholes alongwith one or more otherparts. back. Ahab that escapes which in turn becomes planeof pure expression a enters into a relationshipof becoming with the whale.As they seeit. but ratherhow webecome with the world.who moved her further from Freudianism than Klein because dispensed he with the contractualrelationbetween analystand patient. Through his perceptions of the whale. Moby Dicb is a particularly important referencepoint for Deleuze. is it thc cirsc Nrlr tlut tlrc clritrirctcr .in the courses takenby their lives.whereasthis desireneedsto be kept awayfrom any pre-tracedidentity or destiny. The authors that Deleuze initially refers to in order to illustrate the function of the percept in literature are Herman Melville and Virgina Woolf.contractor institution. explosive.But the primary disagreement that Deleuze and Guattari had with the psychoanalytic tradition arose from the latter's insistencethat psychic well-being residesultimately in a relationshipwith a wholeobject. remind us that we ourselves part of these to The percept makesvisible the invisible forcesof compoundsof sensation.EvenWinnicott. persistent refusal Lawrence's devastation his own ego. Lawrence. and exits.detachmentor reattachment menacing. such asMrs Dalloway'passes which a character Deleuze alludesto the way in which the moor functions as a percept for Thomas Hardy.a whisper. Plateaus.milieu and landscapeare read in new ways. Connectives Psychoanalysis Rcrrl PERCEPT + LITERATURE John Marks Deleuzeis particularlystruck by the way in which the great English and claimingby comparison that authors Americannovelists write in percepts. analyst within the psychoanalytic For the and patienthaveto share something beyondlaw. by privilegingthe wholepsychicobject. Consequentl$ hasa visionnotions of forms and conventional ary potential. and it is this flexibleand plasticquality which makes them inherentlypolitical.The perceptchallenges in It us subjects.canneverdo justiceto politics.or poisonous'.

to turn our own perceptions and affections into a novel. every bomb that T E. that what liesoutsideof conTo it is always conscious o/something.and an obviousexample from popular literature would be the openness experienceof Jack to Kerouac'snarratorin On theRoad. the 'natural attitude' experiences.Deleuzefeelsthat the perceptin literature showsus how the mind is a sort of membrane that is both in contactwith. It is not embarkupon a journey in search the father who ultimatelyturns out to of be oneself.and Maurice EmmanuelL6vinas. in turn. The conscious experiences an individual are the emergent virtual.that is. shouldinvestigate structureandconwe is sciousness fruitless. and is actuallypart of. the assumption is by that our experience caused something'out the'eidetic and we there')with its reifyingprejudices. As Deleuze puts it.There is no suchthing asa pure or'savage'experiwhat we sayand The gap between enceprior to or underlyingknowledge. Rather. and of challengingthe individualisingand infantilising tendencyof much contemporaryculture.pragmaticnotion of democracyis expressed the way the soul in Americanliterature seeks in fulfilment. of as by emphasise notion (created Heidegger)of 'being-in-the-world'and the of direct their attentiontoward the lived experience an embodiedsubiect always already immersed in a world from which she cannot separate insistenceon describingphenomenaas they herself. In Foucault.It wasembraced manyasa revitphilosophicalthought such as positivism alising alternativeto forms of (anotherimportant philosophical movementprominentin the earlytwentieth century) that took the methodsof natural scienceas their paradigm.phenomenology's On Deleuze's philosophyonto habitualforms of perceptionand conception ritorialises (perception formed from the point of view of the selfor thoughtin keeping and with the form of the 'I'). The selfis not a thing that is distinct from the externalworld. (as gap Deleuzecharacwhat we feel and perceive well asthe Bergsonian terisesin his Cinemabooks that can open up betweenperceptionand or action)indicates implicit tendencies forcesthat insistin what we sayand effects of of do. Lawrence).at once modest but also crazy. ficld thrrtmayncvcrbc rctuitlisccl constitutc trirnsccndcntrrl of'thc virturrl a . as well asactuallyunfolding. Lawrenceexplodesis a bomb that explodesin himself. phenomena they appearto us. investigate the Instead.Deleuze lauds Michel There is a gap into Foucaultfor convertingphenomenology epistemology. The intimate contact between the outside and inside means that literature can explore the 'private desert' (T E. forcesof which the individual is. teremphasis lived experience on view. but something morelike a 'fold' of the external world. suspending By tents of our conscious (that is. of not yet beenpositedfrom the Sartre.Jean-Paul Martin Heidegger. for Thc singularitics cvcntsdcfiningtheseforccs or thc most part.Ren6Descartes.This sort of character closelyrelatedto what Deleuzecallsthe 'seer' (le aoyeur)in his books on cinema. tnd instctd filcuscsolr phenomenological itself. the externalworld. Given this emphasis impersonalityand the dissolutionof the egq it on is not surprisingthat the literary hero of the perceptis the 'man without qualities'. experience that has knowledge our'pre-predicative in experience' perspective the naturalattitude). Merleau-Ponty weresomeof thoseinspiredby Husserlto developvarious But Husserlthought of responses versions phenomenology. Deleuzetalks about how a particular.200 PHENO M ENO LO G Y P H E N OME N OLOGY 201 directing a gazeat it.with the resultthat theseimagestakeon a life of their own. Phenomenology's reflectionthe realm of experience appearthus openedup to philosophical life by asit is experienced ordinaryindividualsin everyday prior to the theby oreticalattitudeof 'objective'thought.He might be a character who is literally 'on the road'. ImmanuelKant and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegelarbimportantprecursors this movement to that insistsupon returning to 'the things themselves'.ultimately has the tendency. Husserl took from descriptionsof experience is Franz Brentanothe notion that consciousness intentional. Deleuzesoughtto determinean 'impersonal pre-individualtranscendental field' that is the conditionof anyactualconscious experience(D 1990: 102).ln 'taking to the road' and beingopen to all contacts. will revealhow our essences' structureconsciousness.Deleuzeand Guattari argue. a membranethat capturesother things.or the 'private ocean'(Melville) that results from this contact. In simple terms.but it has somethingto contribute to politics. that knowledgeis constitutedand will give us a new method for grounding (that is. The perceptis primarily a literary form of experimentation.ab<lut whrrt is 'out thcrc'. unawarc. rather than salvation. He cannot stop himself from projecting intenseimagesof himself and others into the desert. whereas to of thesephilosophers phenomenology a rigorousscience consciousness. Husscrl institutcda methodof 'bracketing' that suspcnds mctirphysicrrl qucstions. the percepthasthe effectof drawing us out of ourselvesand into the world. PHENOMENOLOGY Tamsin Lorraine Phenomenology a philosophical as movementwas founded by Edmund Husserl. candiscover describe This. and between what we perceive what we say'asthoughintentionalitydenied itself' (D 1988b:109). to'become' everyoneand everything. in or as order to ground knowledgein the apodictic certainty of self-evidcnt truth.

proposcthnl rr distinctionltctwccntwo typcsof'nrultiplicitics clln ()pcn .like Bergson.he is criticised for having shirked and falling from drawing the ultimate conclusionsof his (re)discovery.The notion of a world 'teaming'with from experience anonymous. manif'cstirtion clcmonstrati<ln. Following the arguments put forward by Jean-Paul Sartre in the Transcendence the Ego (1937). Philosophyas 'genuine thinking' does not attempt to representor describe.while Husserl is ical causalityand to the logic of propositions. EDMUND (1859-1938) Deleuze's relationship to the philosophy of Edmund Husserl is split between a critical hostility toward the methodologicalprinciples and overall aims of his phenomenologyand the isolation. this rcspcct[-Iusscrl irncl ln is linked to the key Stoic insight. (for example.Deleuze finds support for his discussion sensein Husserl'sdelineationof thc of nocm:rta his scparation a logicof cxprcssion and of (scnsc) from thc logics of'dcnotirtion. and to delineate on of transformation. ED M U N D 203 in individualbodies. neutralisingit in a Kantian rather than transcendentally of recourseto an object = x. EDMUND PH EN OM EN OL OGY + H U SSER L . prolonged by mediaevalnominalism and with regardboth to physby Meinong. What distinguishes Whilc llcrgsonandDclcuzc towitrdmultiplicitics? lncl phcnomcnologicirl. incidentally.Phenomenology's invocationof the 'primordial lived'renders immanence termsof whatis immanent a subject's in to experiencerather than processes unfolding at levelsbelow as well as abovethe threshold consciousness. ratherto makethingshappen creating but by concepts response in to the problems life that actualise virrual relations rhe transcendof the of ental field in novel ways. commendedfor having identified the paradoxical statusas both impassiveand genetic. on the requirementsof generalityand of recognitionthat define the image of thought as a convergence good and common sense. moreimpersonal treatmentof the phenomenological because pre-individual singularities the at to such that it would allow access the heartof genesis sense. is mined for the notions of anexactitude ( of thus in Deleuzeand Guattari'sview.where phenomenologist's the useof HusserlinA Thousand in and morphologicalessences. as well aseventsof physicalprocesses example.nomad from royal science processes (via Husserl'sintimation of a protogeometry). via his notion of Urdoxa. biophilosophical terms in Dffirence and Repetition.whether or not they actually unfold in specificspeech-acts physor ical states. Otherwise sensebecomesa mere shadowor to doubleof the proposition and is subordinated the genericdemandof unificationprovidedby the concept. distortion. nomadic. its characterof sense. Deleuze demands a more radical of reduction. opinions that are alreadyclich6sextracted (D&G 1994:150). asan eventand not an attribute or predicate.and the form ofthe person.on the other. groundingits investigations whatare.rather than in terms of the synthetic and analyticunitiesofconscious (D experience 1990:103). back.tried to draw the philof osophicaland methodologicalconsequences the work of Bernhard vitalist thesetwo standpoints.202 PHE NO M ENO LO G Y + HUSS E R L . regardingthe autonomyof sense However. The situationis much instance legislation(in this case. Onceagain. impersonal pre-individual and singularities opens up the field of the transcendental allowsthinkingof individuals termsof and in the singularities that are their condition. commitment to transcendental philosophy forces him instead to becomings matterto an of the of and subordinate events sense the anexact royal science).the capacityto (for fall. of the samefor the notion of passivesynthesis. Ricmannon topology. to run.Husserlis criticisedfor a certainKantian inspiration a that doesnot allowhim to determineindependently dimensionof events Husserl's and becomings that would be neither objectivenor subjective.borrowed from Husserl and translated into empiricist. This canstill be regardedasthe contextfor his and work Plateaus. well asmaintain the paradox sense. concepts philosEventsof sense rhe of ophy). The most significant among these of Husserlianinsertionsoccur with regardto the elucidationof (the genesis of) sensein The Logic of Sensa and in the discussionof the machinic phylum in A Thousand Plateaus inspiredby Gilbert Simondon. to sweat) and their virtual relations'insist' in concrete states of affairs.on the one hand. extraction and transformationof certain moments in Husserl'soeuvreto sustainconceptual developments his own. all from his Deleuzedevelops ontologyof multiplicity against dialectics. ablationand augmentation the machinic phylum. resortfrom bodies order to distinguishorganisms ing to Husserl'sown Leib/ Korperdistinction). Connectives Bergson Experience Foucault Singularity PHENOMENOLOGY Alberto Toscano + HUSSERL. the work of Henri Bergson. Deleuzeargues that to be faithful to the inaugsense ural Stoic insight one must conceivethe nucleusof the noemaas verbas like.

'spircc' a containing of rhc possibilitics all inhcrcntin firrccs. a new imageof thought provida and For ing theoretical consistency how life is experienced understood. instance. concept. In the former instance. for preconditionupon example. providingthe temporaryconsistency thinkimmanence constructed. On this plane. cogitoof Ren6Descartes the essential the was and which the Cartesian understanding the world could be developed of its concepts usedas explanatory tools. interconnection events)occursat a of involved. thesecan be linked to the autonomyof sense. First.Such thinking is alwaysa response some particular set of circumstances. However.unextended space in and imperceptible. it represents thc field of bccoming. of Respectively.Deleuzeholds that.The concepts like 'coordinates' act at for thinking. and ignoring new and potentiallycreative inquiries. to which might be as complex as a philosophicalinquiry or as seemingly simple as feeling hungry. As such.Fourth.permir us to identify rhreealternative notions punctuatingDeleuze'sphilosophical of phenomenology itinerary: a phenomenologyof events(or rigorous science surfaceeffects). new conceptcreates new plane.the key characteristics ascribedto a planeare alwaysconsistent.Third.and new connecTo tionsbetween them madeandcontinuously dissolved. no one longertied to the teleological programme makingimmanence of immanent to consciousness subjectivity.a phenomenof ology of material fluxes.forces work on the plane. 'l'hc implicrrtions of'thisconrplcx wrotcitbout"l'l lli plrtnc immirncncc'.though. proposes He that the lasttypifieshow we dealwith suchchaos: by imposingstructures. where eventsare understoodas chance. conceiving things as (the of same'from one moment to the next.and a phenomenology the concept.that is. the latter. which the mathematical for conceptof multiplicity could serveas the commonformal term.but is constructed a thcsccharactcristics comprise plane's 'immanence'.and A Thousand.20+ PL ANE P LA N E 205 onto an understanding becoming of that would not be subjected extrinto sic measurement. machinic of the phylum and multiplicities.aroundthe ideas sense. thereby constructing a temporary and virtual arrangementaccordingto causal. or PLANE CliffStagoll Deleuzeusesthe imageof the 'plane'in numerous contexts.all possible eventsare brought together. for of memories. his Bergsonian Deleuzerefersto 'planes'and 'sheets' model of recollection.The imageof a'plane of consistency' 'plane of immanence'both explainsthe relationship or between these two ways of thinking and revealsmore fully the creative potentialevidentin thinking aboutthe world. by thinking in its new waysand proposingnew concepts. In this regardhis interestonceagainis with thosequestions of foundationand legitimationthat Deleuze'sformulation of an immanent and intensive logic of multiplicitiesis designed undermineor evade. production upon a plane (that is. Typically. A plane of immanence can be conceived a surfaceupon which all as eventsoccur. In either case. becomingand the difference. think of this field of possibilities means arrangingit according someconcept(in Deleuze's to specificsenseof the word). it might involve no more than acting to in satisfy hunger. a plane doesnot precede connections and syntheses brought aboutbetween events a by the preciselyas they are created. Husserl adopts the notion of multiplicity to formulate a universalisticand homogeneous theoreticalscienceof theory (or metascience). Second. and the concept canonly havemeaningrelative to the. of . Taken together. The planecan only be definedin terms of the concepts operatingupon it.productive interactions betweenforcesof all kinds.Thesearelike the threemomentsof is employed explaina type of thinking that mediates to berween chaos the of (and the complexityof their ever-shifting chancehappenings origins and outcomes) the one hand.providingpointsof focusfor realisingthe potentialof chance eventsoccurring upon the plane. one's world is organisedanew suchthat a new planeof aroundsomerelevantconceptor setof concepts. philosophyis all aboutthe creationof new concepts. Husserlexplicitly usesmultiplicitiesto distinguish object-fields theoriesand to ground the unity of explanationin of eachfield. breaks and assemblages phenomenologyof (or production). creatinghierarchies. of is ing upon which meaningdepends. to Theseencounters with Husserl. everygreatphilosophycreates own planeof immanence. In Deleuzeusesthe imageof the planequite variously. Nothing is superior to the plane'smovement. using definitionsto limit meanings. a 'speed'specificto the particular terms of the changes plane is not the theoreticalfield of some pre-existing subject or self.orderlythinking on the other. Plateausis structured around a range of planesthat seemto ground life and thinking. on Deleuzereveals former in his theoriesof multiplicity. one might constructa complexmodel to which one returns time and again over the courseof one's life whereas.His explorationsof art refer to a 'plane of percepts'. autonomyof a nomad science the of (or haecceities of the practiceof the artisan)and the autonomyof philosophy. when he Delcuzcraiscda rangcof new issues Vcry latc in his carccr.and structured. a planeis always virtual construction a ratherthan an actualone.logical and temporal relations. Each For Deleuze.

in the Galileoabstract machine)emerges when variables actionsand pasof sions (the telescope. An abstractmachine 'placesvariables of contentand expression continuity'(D&G 1987:5l l).he and Guattari createphilosophicalconceptsthat they do not want to pin down to any one meaning. until all the arguthe mentscanbe gathered togetherinto the culminatingargumentof the bookas a whole. planomenon' of the 35).continuous. 'living abstract Connectives Actuality lllack hole Rhizomc Wholc . There are variouswaysin which an assemblage's capacityto increase its number of connectionsinto a plane of consistencycan be impeded. actualising varying capacities affcct to and be affected thc process. and Copernican heliocentrism). art or memory.lsly 'insistcd' ir concrctc <lr only in stirtc of affairsareput into play through the actualisation connections of that defy (for practices the impositionof externalconstraints example. Plateaus. Connectives Art Becoming Concept Event Immanence Memory PLATEAU Tamsin Lorraine Rather than plotting points or fixing an order. they characterise as suchconcepts fragmentarywholes that canresonate a powerful.In in A Thousand. but only the immanentitself conceived the transcendentally as necessary conditionfor all life: everythingis unified in so far aseverythingis becomingand flux. a rhizome composedof (plateaus'. such. microsensations a sexual of the of practice or the micreperceptions a mannerof attending)arenot subjected an of to externalplan of organisation. externalplan imposesthe selection An of someconnections rather than othersfrom the virtual relationsamongthe elementsthat could be actualised.for example)are inscribed.Rather. Deleuzeand Guattari deliberately avoidedwriting I Thousand. creating effects that reverberate throughoutthe social field (D&G 1987: 5l l). THE planeis the field of all events.Insteadthey presentfifteen plateaus that aremeantto instigateproThroughout ductive connections with a world they refuseto represent. 'black holes'. Insteadthey let their concepts reverberate. movementof a pendulum. It (for example. the desireto underthe stand) are put into continuous variation with incorporeal eventsof sense (Aristotelianmechanics cosmology.This planethey call a 'planeof consistency' 'the one and the same or (D&G 1987: planeof immanence concepts. self-vibratingregion of intensities'that doesnot developin terms of a point of culminationor an externalgoal.Deleuzeand Guattari wrote their book. Deleuze and Guattari cite Gregory Bateson'suse of the word 'plateau' to designatea .The plateaus meantto be readin any order and each are plateau can be related to any other plateau. such that eachplaneis merelyone centreof activity or perspective. tantric sexual in which orgasmis not the goal or meditativestatesthat deliberatelyavoid goal-oriented thinking). Deleuze and Guattari advocate constructinga Body without Organs (BwO) and 'abstractmachines'(with a 'diagrammatic'function D&G 1987:cf. plateau in A emergcs when the singularitics of an indiviclurrl a phnc thrt prcvior. A BwO is a plateauconstructed terms of intensities in in that reverberate keepingwith a logic immanentto their own unfoldingrather than conventional boundariesof self and other. Deleuze's work and his work with Guattari. whilst this notion is certainlynor new in itself.only for laughs' (D&G 1987:22).the unity of rhe cosmos As ought not to be thought assometranscendent containingthe immanent. or approaches the that 'lines of death'.206 PLATEAU PL ATEAU 207 variantof the model are debatable.Plateaus constituted are whenthe elements a region(for example. Deleuzeclearlydoesnot meansome superiorplaneupon which particular planes(of conceptual consistency. someofthe variations expressing in their sense throughthe shiftingcontexts which they areput to use. Plateaus in a stylethat moves readerfrom oneargumentto the next.the modelof the planedoes provide a new imagefor thinking about the universalityof immanent production and becoming.openWholethat includes the concepts in all on plane.An assemblage multipliesconnections machine'(D&G 1987: 513). cf. 189-90)that put into play forcesthat are not constrained the by habitual forms of a personalself or other 'molar' forms of existence. A Thousand Plateaus. as They claim that the circular form they gave it was . strata. creative connectionscan be replacedwith blockages.he seems be pointing to out that there is a planeof immanence immanentto all thinkableplanes.

Dramatic poetry. simulacra those Platonismis not model-copy the of falsecopies that place'in question verynotations copyandmodel'and philosophy transcribed Deleuze therepresas is by the'motivation'ofPlato's (D are in sionof the simulacra favourof the copies 1990:256-7).but also refines the 'abstract' Nietzschean formula of this task by askingabout the motivationof Platonism.a particularheight. Deleuze'sreversalof Platonismis also better equippedto critique the dualistontologyof Platonismthat continues operate Kant.that comprisethe sensible world. Thus.As suchtheyundermine and grades betweenIdea and imagein Platonicthought. +28-c.For Platothis dissimulation or 'is' to of its statusasa copyrendersdramaticpoetry dangerous the proper order for a it of of the Statebecause trainsin the souls its citizens disregard the disThis distinctionin Platobetween a tinctionbetween true and falsecopy. mimetic mechanism In the of art leadsto Plato'shostility to art as a 'copy of a copy' and to the dramatic arts in particularwhich dissimulate their statusasa copyof a copy. is the key to Deleuze'sproject of a 'reversalof Platonism'.in a particularsetting).348 nc) Alison Ross Plato's philosophy exerts a profound influenceover modern thought.208 PLAro (c. the to their merely externalresemblance the Idea. wherean actor playingthe areinductedinto the world of the performance roleof a statesman a philosopher this role. 428-c. Plato. sensible A 'copy'of this ldeanecessarily placescertainlimitationson this form by makingit a certainheight and colour. of Connectives Kant Nietzsche Thought POLITICS + ECOLOGY RosiBraidotti of Adlpting llaruch Spinoza'smonism to an ccosophy transccndcnttl of''inrnrlncncc': incorpornting thc cmpiricism. the a harmlesscopy and the malevolentcopy. This dcgradltion ltsclncl knowlcdgc thc fabricrrtccl ofi in objcctnrlkcsrrt I futilc.definedthe task of the philosophyof the furure as the'reversal Platonism'inwhich the distinctionbetween realandthe of the apparent worldswouldbe abolished. and contestthe conceptionof the world in which differenceis regulatedaccording to a prior similitude (D 1990: 261).He argues a Platonism' asserts rightsof the simulacra the pop art ableto 'be pushed the point whereit changes nature'asa copy its to (anti-Platonism) into the simulacrum' to of a copy(Platonism) be 'reversed (D 1990:265).In his (exteranalysis this motivationDeleuze of findsin Plato.that itself becomes model. is termsaccording a presupposed to because simulacraare not modelled on the Idea that their pretension. the Republic.however. to in The motive of Plato'stheory of the Ideasneedsto 'be soughtin a will to selectand to choose'lineages and 'to distinguishpretenders'(D 1990: 2534). mark a gradeddescent away from therealmof theIdeas themerely'apparent' to world of the senses. ImmanuelKant's 'Copernicanrevolution'in philosophywas styledas an invertedPlatonismin which the dependence a finite consciousness of on sensible forms to think ideasreversed Platonichierarchybetween the the intelligible and the sensible.that thc artist of for producesthings whose internal mechanisms they arc ignorant of. 348 nc) POL ITIC S + EC OL OGY 209 PLATO (c. DeleuzefollowsNietzsche this task in of a reversalof Platonism.unlikeNietzsche's nal' critique.However.But it suggest that is alsobecause this merelyexternalresemblance the simulacra of a conceptionof the world in which identity follows 'deep disparity'.In Plato.the essence-appearance distincor model-copy to tions usedby modern philosophers tacklePlatoare shownby Deleuze's genealogy Plato to be ineffectivein reversingPlatonism. According to Deleuze the pertinent distinction for the reversal of The are but copy-simulacra. of For this reason.In this way. Friedrich Nietzsche. to the sensible world is derivedfrom and modelled a 'copy' on the realmof the as Ideas. which regulates It to relationof resemblance the Ideas.'Copies'.The restrictionof paintingto the copyingof the mereappearance the objectshows. is without foundation.the conditionsfor the reversal Platonism.the hierarchythat distinguishes Ideasfrom modelsand copies describes degradation a ofuse andknowledge.the painterwho paintsa copy of this bed copiesall the things about the bed that are inessential its use (that it is a particular to colour. is unableto copyany but of thosefeatures the bed that relateto its function(that it hasa structure of ableto supportthe weightof a person). Deleuze's'reversalof for overthe copy.The Idea of 'a bed' is a modeluntrammelledby sensibilityand containsonly thosefeaturesthat are the necessary conditionsfor any bed (that it is a structureable to supportthe weightof a person). According Plato. is because proit but harmless activity. The copyingof these copies art marksa further declinein ontology(use) in and epistemology (knowledge). dangerous poetry The spectators dramatic of duces spectacle to suspend a able disbelief. l)clcuzcconstructs conccpt .Simulacra thedualism images to withoutresemblance theIdea.who found Kanr's critical philosophy inadequatefor such a reversalon account of the primacy in Kant of the moral idea.

a Second. the The selection composite positivepassions.Deleuze'secosophy rejects liberal individualismas much as it does the holism of 'deep ecology'. that probablyis bestunderone stoodin reference viral contamination intensive to or interconnection. valuc cspccially conjunctivc frrrms(suchils'and' and 'plus')that irugmcnt whichtlrcylrc firund. as emphasising a commitmentto others(includingthe non-human. Deleuze'secosophy radical immanenceand intensivesubjectsresof ponds to the unsustainable logic and internal contradictions advanced of capitalism. Being environmentally-bound it and territorially-based is immersed in fieldsthat constantly flow and transform. worksasa matterof affective corporeal and affinity.This environmentally-bound intensive subject a collective is entity. this body is environmentallyinterdependent.of underminingthe power and words.non-organic and 'earth' others). 'becoming' and their variants. We are thereforeinvited ro think about the problemof ecosophy terms of affectivity:How is affectivityenhanced impoverin or joy ished? this way. is inherently ethical. Choosingto move beyond the dualism of human/non-human. it when Deleuzeimbues ethical agencywith an anti-essenrialist vision of displaces anthropocentric 'commitment'he accordingly the bias of communitarianism. POSTCOLONIAL THEORY VerenaConlejt Postcolonial theory is derived from terms such as 'minoritarian'.he opensup the possibilityof as conceptualising post-humanity. new sense globalintercona of nectionis established the ethicsfor non-unitarysubjects. of that constituteprocesses of becoming. it Thus. The ecosophical ethicsof Deleuzeincorporares physics the and biology of bodiesthat together produceethological forces. a temporalsequence. This Deleuzianbody is in fact an ecological unit. potentia. Capitalism inducesa perverse logic of desirebased on the deferral of pleasurefulfilment. andunderstanding In are implied. of negative suchasresentment. affective inteland ligent entity that captures. they in turn producethe affective possibilityof the world asa whole. 'nomadism'. Primarily. asks: He 'What cana body candol'and'How much can a body can take?'. inducing dependencywithout any senseof responsibility. more specifically capitalist consumerism the over-indulgent and consumption of resources.Deleuzeprefersto inflect his questions slightlydifferently. The subject's mind is 'part of nature'. However. Insteadof the essentialist question-'What is a body?'. l')vcry nujor hnguirgc ridcllcd is to thc tcrmsbctwccn .an act of understandingdoes not merely entail the mental acquisitionof certain ideas.First. it immobilises it saturates social as the space with commodities.In this manner. A worldwide becomingminoritarian bearsa potential Qpuissancevirtuality) that can affectbodies or politics. by affirming biocentredand transspecies egalitarianism an ethicalprinciple. as they produceconnections.An ethical relation is conduciveto joyful and empoweringencounters that express one'spotentiaand increase subject'scapacityto enter into further relathe tions.210 PO LI TTCS + ECO L O G Y POSTC OL ON IAL TH EOR Y 2tl strainsof vitalismand yet still bypassing essentialism. Deleuzeexpands notion of universalism be more incluthe to sive.empowerment. it is an embodied. The temporal disjunction induced by the speedyrurnover of available commodities is not different from the jet-lag one suffers after flying from London to Sydney.By removingthe obstacle self-centred of individualism. that is to saythe desireto becomeand to increase intensityof one'sbecoming.As the structureof the Deleuziansubjectis interactive. deferring the gratificationonto thc of 'next generation' tcchnological commoditics gadgcts: picccmcal and thc instalmcnts popillarculturcin thc filrm of''infirtirinmcnt'thirtbccomc of obsolete at the speed of light. This mixture of dependencyand dissatisfactionconstitutespower as a nucleus passions.envyand bitterness. frustration.processes and transforms energiesand forces. is thus an activity that actualises It what is goodfor the subject. In other words. but it also coincideswith bodily processes. Of importancc are the connectionsbetween bodies and words.Deleuze insists that it is the task of philosophyto create that respondto forms of ethicaland politicalactivities the complex and multilayered nature of 'belonging'. These legal addictions titillate without release. Through a structureof mutual flowsand data-transfer.He doesthis in two ways.nomadicbecomings By engenderpossible futures in that.ethicalvirtue. philosophyin the handsof Deleuzebecomes nomadicecosophy mula of tiple beings. for example Mind and body act in unisonand are synchronised by what Spinozacallsconatus.This expansion boundboth spatially is (environmental) remporand ally (endurance). Vitalist ecosophy also functionsto critique advanced capitalism. entering into ethical relations.the ecosophy Deleuzeaspires express rhizomaticstrucof to the ture of subjectivity.embedded and embodied that is to sayimmanentand dynamic. As capitalism engenders schizophrenic the simultaneity opposite of effects and therefore short-circuitsthe present.Minorities havenothing to do with numbersbut with internalrelations. All in all.the politics of Deleuzianecosophy implies a new way of combininginterests with an enlargedsenseof community.The contextis oneof sexual (pouaoir givenforce)of the white malewho hasorder-words his disat or posal.

If minoritiesdo not constitute viableStates a cultural.utteranceto utterance.argues Deleuze. Nomadic space markedonly by'traits'that areeffaced displaced the moveis and by ment of trajectories.and that as to a resulttwo idiomsarereallyonly two treatments the same of language. Ratherthanoperating between something and something seen said. The processof becoming-minoritarian can be accelerated what by Deleuzecallsthe'war machine'.A minor literature works the maior languagefrom the inside. That is. Contrary to the migrants who reterritorialisethemselves.toq it is affected continuousvariations the by that transform it into a 'minor' language. especiallyhis formulation of the fundamental criteria for structuralism in 'How do we Recognize (1967. Connectives Creativetransformation Deterritorialisation/Reterritorialisation Minoritarian POST.the accidents structure (or spatio-temporal of dynamisms) and pcrhaps kcy issuc irn instirncc subjcctivity.or password. In a postcolonial context. that it replaces with passages.The more a language the characterishas tics of a major language. only by sisof capitalism. Literature is a privileged field for a becoming-minoritarian.the idioms of everybody(tout le monde). Postcolonial theory. in of Becoming-minoritarian linked to physicaland mental nomrdism. Devolving upon minorities is the task of countering the worldwide war machine by meansothor than thoseits juggernaughtimposesupon them.contrirryto migrirntswho g<lfr<tmonc point to irnothcr. To becoming-minoritarianis tantamountto undoing closuresand transforming striatedspaces into smoothand unimpededspaces where words and bodiesmoveat top speed an ongoingproc€ss deterritorialisation.bodiesenter into a process metamorphosis.minor literaturedeals with the undoingof the majorlanguage. Capitalismmaintainsand organises nonviable States for the precise purpose of crushing minorities. Nomadism is inventedasa response this challenge. of They losetheir identities and becomecommon and totalised. Insteadof criticising the worldwide imperialism of English in our time by denouncingthe corruption it introducesinto other languages.The nomad doesnot want to leavethe smooth space left by the receding forest where the desert advances.English-speaking maleand the worldwideinstitutionof capitalism needsto be challenged. Minoritarian masses at the sametime engaged a worldwideprocess are in of becomingand in a creative transformation the order-words of imposed in the nameof democratic capitalism. language a to losesits fixed meaning. but by consideringhis earlier appropriation of structuralist themes. speedwhich is intensive.STRUCTURALISM Alberto Toscano + POLITICS The post-structuralist.political. are Vorticalor swirlingmovement an essential is featureof the war machineof the nomad. is only by leaving.Postcolonial theory does not deal with the 'look' of phenomenology with the transmission language. or character Deleuzeand of Guattari can be said to rest on four elements: theory of subjectivation.and from aphorism to aphorism. a form that mocksits lawsandstrictures reterritorialises for newends. not by reterritorialisingby mere usage of a dialect but by transforming imposedor inheritedorder-words that giveit meaningand direction.seeStivale1998). in In an era of global capitalismorder-wordsare the sameeverywhere. cvcry point they reach is a relay. that is. rrs . nomadsfind themselves ongoingdeterritorialisation.languagegoesfrom sayingto saying.monoof inclicatcs of Rlr thc of thc politiurl. It and by neverceasing leave. practice assumes Its different forms and shapes according the natureofgeography. When. I'br is nomtds. evenanti-structuralist. Nomads and migrants can mix. to historyand the inheritedconditions of conflict. to Nomadshaveabsolute movement.STR U C TU R AL ISM + POL ITIC S 213 with minor languages that transform order-wordsand deterritorialise or dispersetheir mortifying effects. and it It is clearthat two languages neverexistadjacent eachother.2r2 PO STCO LO NI AL THEORY POST. a a critique of the notion of ideology.undcrstood thc problcmof novclty(or bccoming). Deleuze's is not his attack on structuralismin the 1970s. one can say that the idiom is necessarily workedupon by all the minorities of the world that imposediverseprocedures of variation:in the handsof minoritarians English becomes-pidgin.the axiomaticrule of capitaland their corresponding culture may not be appropriatefor them. the axiomatic the white.or economic in sense. yet their conditions are not the same. Sedentaryor dominant spaceis striated with walls and roads. to the plan(e) capitalthat masses of from the Third World and the ex-colonies shift the forcesin the dominantequilibrium. The migrants' movements extensive. Structuralism?' This essay stands for its attenout tion to how structuralismarticulatesthe empty placeat the heart of the symbolic. more.The nomads' trajectory distributes people. in passage the limit. Dclcuzc. is because it the State-form. ontologyof control and an analythe post-structuralism bestgauged. is built from these processes. dealsespecially but of It with the order-word. The becoming-minoritarianof bodiesand language linked to creativis ity.

yof human life is the cxpansion power. ical subjectivityand systemic (or is wherebydesiringsubjectivity prothe typesof operations syntheses) duced and an outline of how capitalismand its Statesare able to axiomatise and capture subjectivity. libidinal dimensionto socialand psychic(re)production or to movefrom a focuson structures what might be calleda constructivist at ethologicalapproach.aimed at discerningthe modalitiesof synthesis work in the collectiveproduction of subjectivity. Deleuze'santecedents this tradition are in BaruchSpinoza and FriedrichNietzsche.STRUCTURALI SM + POLITICS POWER 215 By portraying the structuralist subject (or hero) as comprising affectedby impersonalindividuations and pre-individual singularities. is This is what differentiates combat from war.Deleuze. Whence Deleuze'spreferencefor notionsof combator guerrillawarfareover thoseof antagonism (class) or struggle: for Delduze. which takesthe confrontationof subjects primary.Rather than identifying the subject with an instancethat the it accompanies structureand appropriates heroically. rather than asa theatreof representation.In their are between formulations of the conceptsof 'minority' and of the 'war machine'. The emphasis a sub-representaon with institutionsand heralded a tional. as POWER Claire Colebrook Although the conceptof powerin Frenchphilosophyis usuallyassociated with Michel Foucault. . the preconditionof the combatagainstor resistance.but is closerto by the positiveidea of plver t0. minoritarian the subject(or the subjectof the war machine)is definedby a line of flight. Spinoza beingis defined For a by its power. all life is the striving ro express if substance all its differentpotentials in then the fulfilment or jo.It is not only from the sideof commandthat Deleuzeand the systemiccorrelation(whetherstructural or dialectical) poweror dominationand subjectivation undermined.Deleuze's definition of the society of therefore diffcrcntfrom thc moral opposition grxrdirncl of cvil. few. Burroughs and Michel Foucault.we could speakof a correlation or transitivity betweenthe system and its individual subjects. as becoming. an oppositirlrr that powcrby constririningwithinsomc im.Deleuzelays structuralismbehind. Deleuzebreakswith the desire. This attackon symbolicand dialectical is both ir milttcrof principlctnd of conittnctttrc. Deleuzeand Guattari'sphilosophyis determinedby an anti-dialectical impetus:to think the independence becoming.Accompanyingthis shift and of wasone from an earlierconcernwith problems organisation genesis to (seethe discussion the ideaof revolutionin DffirenceandRepetition) of populatinga planeof immafocuson formsof individuation(haecceities) a and differences. Spinoza regards potentialityas creativeand expressive. not their placement a structurethrough ideological interpellation that areat stake. Deleuzeand Guattarievade dialectical prefer an inventoryof Insteadthey change. autonomyor exterthe Deleuzeand Guattari alsodelineate constructive mechanisms control and of nality of certain forms of subiectivationto the the realisation power.In conjuncturalterms. consistentdefinition of post-structuralism. that so potential wouldbe properlyorientedtowards actualisation. of of Joy. as a factory driven by flows of Treating the unconscious.This is not power in the political sense a powerexercised one body overanotherbody .rcdcs it rlrcirdy givcnnrlrnr. nencethat cannotbe capturedby any structureof places By shifting the focusof an analysisof capitalismfrom value and labour to codificationand desire. Consider their separationof becoming and history. immanentto the 1967 formulatedone of the events . politicsis more and more a matter by of of 'dividuality'.evenat the formal level. (or of Now it is the materialeffects the axiomatic of capitalistsubjectivin and ity) on subjects.and althoughDeleuzeand Guattari in A makes greatdealof sense locateDeleuzewithin a to a tradition of the philosophyof power. the combat betweenand within individuals.but alsoof minoritariansubjectivation the and constructionof effectivealternatives. Plateaus explicitlycriticalof Foucault's of the word 'power' (rather are use than their own 'desire' which they seeas creatingrelations through which powermight operate). creativityand ontological which signals both its capacityfor independent seeks capture to the the mannerin which it affects societythat perpetually <tf undcrstandings or idcntify it.By emphasising the importanceof praxis in the mutation of order to bend it to the imperativesof surplusvalue.214 P O ST. mechanisms disciplinecometo be As of superseded technologies control. whole thematic of ideology (and its critique) that defined the Freudo(and thus continuedhis earlierempiricistconcern Marxism of the 1960s jurisprudence). Rather than seeing human life ashavinga proper form which it then ought to realise. llolitics On the one hand.if not the only.and of the possibilityof an ethicsoutsideany frameworkof legitimationor regulation. argues that we areno longerin a situationwhere. such that becoming-revolutionaryis a trans-temporal event that can detach itself from the fateof an actualrevolution. the ground for a conceptionof politics that leaves with Guattari. following William S. such that the impersonaland the pre-individualbecome the very materialof control.its striving or its potential to maintain itself.whilst retaining many elementsof the Marxian correlationof polita problematic.

and any power has the potential to be actualised importirnt remember. Deleuze does not begin from beings that then enter into relations. pushes itself to its limit and affirms the life of which it is but one expression. rather. power is positive. Deleuze makesan ethical distinction between active and reactive powers. by contrast. what we already are .oncc wc rcaliscthis thcn wc nright of think of politics ts thc rccrcafion<lrrc:tctiv:rti<ln p<lwcr. and'thought'. Rather.its The 'family' hasa pivotalconceptual primacy in psychoanalysis neither limited to the bourgeoisnuclear is that dealswith it. it is also possible for different relations to produce different worlds. a being is its power or what it can do. what we might be.zl6 PO W ER P S Y C H OA N A LY S IS 217 Nietzsche. where force has a strict metaphysical function. family nor the therapeuticpracticeof analysis given by Sigmund Freud to the Oedipus through the organisingrole model for the organisation of complex. or fall from. s:rtisflaction. But there can only be a polity or individual beings ifthere has already been an active power that has crcirtcclsnch a community or assemblagc pcrsons. rather.ltrrcot' corrrlllcx bc lirrrttctl t'rrrr wilh it llitlct'ttitl rrrrd llrrrsrrrr . A master does not have power because he is a master.'semiotics' PSYCHOANALYSIS _ FAMILY. An active power maximises its potential. turns back upon itself. Second.Deleuze's reading of Nietzsche is concerned primarily with Nietzsche as a philosopher of power and forces. this is becausewe rest too easily with the effects of power its manifestations. then. from which beings are effected. Nietzsche begins with powers or forces. the virtual precedes the actual.but extends desirein the individual. it is the exercise of a certain power which produces masters and slaves. powers might be actualised through other relations. some passivestate). AND UNCONSCIOUS Alison Ross Farnily role within psychoanalytic theory. First.that we then need to form some form of political relation or system (so power in this senseis power between or among beings). Instead of there being bodies or enrities that have a certain power or potential. which Freud describes standingin a relationof psychical as oppositionto unrestrained the Oedipus expenditureand which appearto be internally generated.without intuiting power's force how points of power emerge. through the particular relations that have been effected. complex is that unlike the other forcesshapingthe libido.asseenin his therapeutic aswell to the historicalforcesinvolvedin the shapingof instinct described writings on civilisation. powers that are actualised only in their relation to other powers. Rather. but nothing in the power itself determines how it will be actualised.We imagine .from the image of individuals who exist together in a possible community . and what we can do. there are not beings who then have the power to act. in line with a philosophy of power. 'faciality'. why does power seem to be repressive? For Deleuze. There are powers (or quanta of force) that in their encounter or connection with other powers produce relations. rrl Connectives Active/Reactive Force on PROUST. The libidinal relationswithin the family havea crucialrole to play asthe prototypcfor adult relations. which an externalprohibitionorganises in however. actualisedin a certain way. in his meta-psychological The Oedipuscomplexintroducesthe sense an externalprohibition of The significance this of under which infantilelibido is definitivelyshaped. the complextakes form of an externalprohibition and presupposes trithe The universality this of the angularrelationbetween child and its parents. power posesa problem: How is it that beings can be separated from their power? Why does power appear to be something from which we suffer.the 'family' actsasan explanatory practice. MARCEL (1871-1922) referto theentries 'art'. 'multiplicity'. and following Nietzsche.A reactive power. agencyagainstincestthat setsup complexis usedby Freud to explainthe wishesand the law Its unithe necessary division for civilisationbetween versalityis alsoindicativeof the primacyof the family unit asan explanain tory category psychoanalysis. For Deleuze. extended Spinoza's expressivephilosophy. or who then suffer from power (where power would be the corruption of. if powers are. of' n<ltirst hc rcclisI lillr r t ion r lr nrrrn rrg trrrc o l ' l )o w c t' . Deleuze's repeated insistence that relations are external to terms has a twofold significance. there are powers to be. FREUD. More importantly. whose 'Will to Power' for Deleuze is also an affirmation of life (and not the assertion or imposition of power). For Deleuze. The usual concept of political power is reactive. So what a power ej is secondaryto its potential. in this world. It to rttcmptsirt instinctual nuclcurf'anrily upon arrirctuirl tlut lhcsclillidinrrltics rrrcnot clcpcnclcnt ()ctlillrrs li.

attacks the use of the he model of the Oedipal family because sees as justifying a particular he it for conceptionof desire. however. Asidefrom rejectingthe impotent. which held that religious belief was an infantile desire for an irreproachablefather figure and that the products of high culture were financed by. The writings on the topic of phylogenesisexamine a similar theme in the prohibitive force of the 'primal father' over the'primal horde'.Even here. in the work of Jacques criticisedasone of the paradigmatic movementsby which the family is reiteratedand the logic of deterritorialising flowsis capturedby a function of reterritorialisation. Capital operatesaccording to a logic of deterritorialisation in which the flowsofcapital areno longerextractedfrom agricultural labour.In the Anti-Oed.218 PSYCHOANAL YSIS P S Y C H OA N A LY S IS 219 structureof authority. familof ial and sogial it defersthis limit by reiteratingartificialterritorialities.studiesin the Sigmund Freud wrote conventional narcisresearch: unconscious.Schizophrenia.Freud's approachto art and religion was. Freud does.involvesa recuthe perationof someof the elements Freudianthought.They argueagainst confusing. this project. and legible as. also underpinned its counter-cultural tural and therapeutic a status. This critique of the psychoanalytic accountof the family derivesits force from Deleuzeand Guattari'sanalysis the reterritorialising of function of capitalism in the two volumes of Capitalismand. rather than being tied to the produceof the land. so that some psychoanalysts locate the figure of the 'primal father' in Neo. can be found in Freud's thought.but in so doing they developand radicalisethe Freudian insight that wrests desire from pre-ordainedfunctions such asreproduction. they propose a those writers. pathokrgiscs rcnders impotcntconnectivc rncl . who write against the trap of familialism. His postulate of a repressed of infantile sexualityat the core of the pathologies civilisedlife led to his This postulate. phrenic who is rendered ill and autistic with the connective practice of assemand produces states segregated desire. of alsoprovidesan important point of departurefor their defence schizoas the'clinical'schizophrenia.which formed isolationfrom the medicalestablishment. Freud. radically demystifying one. on their view. of the confinement scepticalof the radical statusclaimed by Freudian psychoHis analysis.or. dreamsand infantile sexuality. Against the 'daddy-mummy-me' formation of desire described in Freud's case study of little Flans.This project.but.which fusesconventionally In are that they believe modelledin schizophrenia. towardculposturetakenby psychoanalysis the basis the interpretative for material. In particular.Deleuze Guattari try to marry Freud's conceptionof of libidinal flowswith Karl Marx's conception capital.ipu. defamilialisationof desire and consecrate Lawrence. rather than an actualfather.they blages follow the practicein someof Freud's writing in which literary and culsource ableto correctand develop become diagnostic the tural productions of 'clinical' terms. as in Freud's writings on phylogenesis. instance. an institutional force such as language. In this contextpsychoanalysis.evendespitethe questions of evidence and the researches other psychoanalysts. H. particularlyits useof the family asan but explanatory unit for desire.Hence.s. Deleuze and Guattari are critical of the interpretativelicencegiven to psychoanalysis its postulate of the familial organisationof desire: by through this postulate.for instance. ratherthan the clinicalcontextthat dcsircs.however. In Deleuze's writing on psychoanalysis. These relations do not simply constitute desirein relation to the shapingforce of an externalprohibition but also mark out intellectual. but alsq that the psychoanalytic use of a familial structure containsdesire to sexual relations within the family. justifies the misinterpretation of desireas a libidinal force capturedwithin and shaped by familial dynamics. ties.political and cultural formationsassubstitutes that compensatefor the prohibition placed on desire by the incest taboo. ideas important pointsof departurefor someof Deleuze's Nonetheless.which refuses dualismbetweenpsychicand materialreality.he and Guattari complainnot only aboutthe unhistoricalprojectionof the familial structure acrosscultures and history. In the two volumes of Capitalismand and Schizophrenia.the evidence the schizopole of desireis found in Antonin Artaud and Henry Miller. criticismsof Freud relateto the way he insistson the Oedipal raisedagainstit by clinical orderingof desire. or Although capitaltendstowarda deterritorialisation geographical. Hence they reject in the way desire'sproductivity is confinedto a psychicalreality. such as D. Sigmund ( I 856-1939) medicalcasehistories. or the explanation of Leonardo da Vinci's curiosity in terms of his infantile memories.and Paleolithic times.psychical his constant complaintof the authorsin this studyagainstFreud concerns accountof schizophrenics EugeneBleuler'snegative to willingness accept Freud asautisticfigureswho are cut off from reality. are transnational global.aswell asanalyses cultural institutions and practicessuch as art and religion. important themein the negotiation libidthe of inousrelations of within the family is the credence the threatof the prohibition placed on incestuous relations. the particularcategories psychoanalytic of of sism.Here. Deleuze. displacedlibidinal drives. psychoanalysisneither explains desire nor renders cultural formations legible but.

to fathom . ego. fractal.dynamic conception of is the psyche(id. but as processes lawsbelongingto a system. these drives remain active forces the psyche andbehaviour individuals.'tIVli . the psychoanalyst 'origins' play as a role in two distinct senses: an explanatorymodel that the analyst. Connectives Desire Lacan PartialObjects Schizoanalysis REA(. of Dreams. IJnconscious The'unconscious'inpsychoanalytic terminologyrefersto the accretion of instinctual drives that are repressedby the individual in the processof adaptationto social demands.therefor fore. psychicalapparatus.phenomenologicalapproach the 'facts'of psychiclife.for instance. dynamicrole of the unconscious In the the or instincts takes psychoanalysis away from a descriptive. Anti-Oedipus the 'desiringmachine'is modelledon a conceptionof the unconscious. refutedby Deleuze's as in of the writing of Leopold von Sacher-Masoch which he showssadism and masochismto be completelydistinct.It is it this teleological orientation and its installation of a dualism between 'nature' and 'civilisation'that Deleuzerejectsand that underpinshis critical reworkingof key Freudianideas.parapraxis and on instincts in casesof hysteria provide Freud somatic displacements of with the proof of the unconscious not as a sealedoff locality.pre-conscious. affects. the to are desiringmachines definedin termsof their capacity forgelinks to an the outsideand thereforein terms of their capacityto surpass regulating principle (such as the superego)or natural limit. force of a higher Reinterpreted theseterms. and designates activerole the to of the analyst in the interpretation of the work of systematisation pcrftrrmcd thc unconscious.the unconscious not an interior localeonly in is ableto be interpretedin its impotent and distortedformations. callsinto Freud's conception of 'sadoegories of Freudian psychoanalysis. In his second. This is because unconscious or left overin the process the construction shift from onemachine/assemof however.heuses aspects this psychoanalytic to unconscious argueagainstboth the conceptionof desireasconfiguredin principleof'lack'. which formed the basisfor Deleuze's questionsomeof the central diagnosticcatand clinical' project. are givea positiveaccountof the psychoanalytic Although desiringmachines the is category the unconscious. to of acceptability dovetail operates withoutconceding the demands social with the features that Deleuze and Guattari ascribe to the desiring that form. is examination masochism' a couplet. of operate according an expansive to sense possibility.but is the or logicaccording which anarchic to connections assembled made.the repression from the unconscious designates thosecontentsbanishedby pre-conscious--conscious system. superego) unconscious replacedby the id or the Here instinctshavethe statusof agencies in instinctualpoleof the psyche.the interpretative to the eventsthat had becomepathogensin an individuals' life. in Finally. for instance.220 PSYCHOANAL YSIS R EAC TIVE 22r unfinished'critique This strategy. term 'unconscious' not directly transof posable that of the 'desiringmachine'. conjunctivesyntheses machines thesemachines instead an of However.rcf'crto thc cntrv on 'itctivc/rcilctivc'.or the term 'assemblage' usedin to the designates what gets A Thousand Plateaus. .of the differentcourses waspossible psychiclife to follow. rather than inverseand complementarydisorders. his meta-psychology practice. impotent manifestationof unrealisablewishes. both cases. But Freud's frame he usedto locate mode of access theseorigins.Nonetheless. suchuses. ought not to obscurethe fact that the interpretative force he gaveto theseoriginating and events cameto be usedasa predictorfor development a theory. finding the origin had blockedfrom direct access. interpretable by psychoanalysisin the form of their distorted manifestationin consciouslife.In Freud'sfirst topographyof and the psychical apparatus(unconscious. conscious). unconscious not reconcilable is In the blageto this sense for the symptomsof neurosisalso has a curativefunction.Deleuze's criticalrelationto Freud canbe summarised terms In and therapeutic of the Freudian drive to teleology. andthe interpsychoanalysis relationto a transcendent in pretative In relationto psychiclife that this relationlicenses. it functionof a limit that contains to an indiwhich is without the regulating The processes ascribed Freud to the unconscious that it by vidualsubject. refersto but of to the Freudianconception a registerof submerged prior. by of account the of In Deleuze's thought.materialcomponentsof desiringmachines/assemblages.what was of interest to Freud was an accountof the 'origins' For underpinningcurrent circumstances.

222 REAL
James Williams




Deleuzesubyerts concept'real' throughhis distinctiondrawnbetween the the 'actual'andthe'virtual'. For him, the actualis morelike what we would ordinarilyunderstand the real,that is, a realmof thingsthat existindeas pendently of our ways of thinking about them and perceivingthem. Whereas virtual is the realmof transcendental the conditions the actual, for that is, thingsthat we haveto presuppose thereto be actualthingsat all. for More seriously, with respectto any discussion his work in terms of of realism,Deleuzedeniesany priority accorded human subjects, their to to minds, ideas,perceptualapparatuses linguistic capacities. we trador If itionally frame the oppositionbetweenreal and unreal through the distinction drawn between thing that is dependent us (the chair I dream a on of, or imagine)and an independenr existenr(the real chair),then we shall havestartedwith a conceptualframework that doesnot fit Deleuze'sphilosophywell at all. Rather, Deleuze provides us with critical angles against traditional realismand a new metaphysical framework for developinga conceptof the real. Accordingto this conceprthe real is the virtual and the actual.It is hence betterto think of realthingsin termsmoreof complete thingsrather than independentones.Note that this commits Deleuze to degreesof realityand unrealityor illusion.We shouldnot sayrealor unreal,bur more or lessreal,meaninga more or lesscompleteexpression the thing. of It is questionable whetherwe can saythat a thing is completelyreal,in Deleuze'swork, other than the metaphysical statement that the real is all of the actualand of the virtual. Wheneverwe givean expression a thing of it will be under an individual form of expression that allowsfor further completion.More importantly,that completionwill involve a synthetic alterationof the components any earlierreality,to the point whereno of componentcanbe claimedto be finally realor complete. For example, Deleuze, mountainexists realwith all the waysit has for a as beenpainted,sensed, written aboutand walkedover.It alsoexistswith all the virtual conditionsfor them, such asideasand different intensitiesof sensations. The real mountain changes completelywhen it is paintedand sensed anew:whenits namechanges, whenit is mined,or movedthroughdifferently. This means that traditionalformsof realismarecomplerely oddswith at philosophy, Deleuze's sincethe notion that the realstands oppositionto in somethingunrealor imaginaryalreadysetsthe real as somethingincomplete.So to speak thc realchairasif it couldbe identified of inclcpcndcntly of onr idcrslbout'it is rr mistarkc conccrning significirncc thc of'things,

Reality goeshand in hand with ideal and emotional effects,rather than being free of them. Does this mean that Deleuze is an idealist, denying the existenceof an independentexternal reality and bringing all things into the mind? philosophyis beyondthe idealistand realistdistinction.There Deleuze's are actualthings and we should pay attention to them. Without them it But, reciprodoesnot makesense speakof virtual ideasor intensities. to cally,it makesno sense speakof real or actualthings asif they could be to from the idealand emotionalfieldsthat makethem live for us. abstracted

Connectives Actuality Virtual/Virtuality


(1897-1957) referto the entry on 'schizoanalysis'. -

REPETITION Ad,rian Parr The conceptof 'repetition',asit appears the Deleuziancorpus,encomin passes variety of other conceptssuch as 'difference','differentiation', a and 'becoming'.To begin with, it should be noted 'deterritorialisation', repetitionis not a matterof the same that for Deleuze, thing occurringover and over again. That is to say,repetition is connectedto the power of variationin and difference terms of a productiveprocess in that produces through every repetition. In this way, repetition is best understoodin terms of discovery and experimentation; allowsnew experiences, it affects and expressions emerge.To repeatis to begin again;to affirm the power to of the new and the unforeseeable. so far as life itself is described a In as dynamic and active force of repetition producing difference,the force of which Deleuze encourages to think of in terms of 'becoming', forces us incorporate differenceas they repeatgiving rise to mutation. The first question that arises is: How is repetition produced?For Deleuze, repetition is produced via difference, not mimesis. It is a process ungrounding that resists of turning into an inert systemof replication.In fact,thc wholePlatonistideaof rcpcatingin ordcr to producc copicsis complctcly unclcrminccl l)clcuzc. lior l)clcuzc maintirins by







this approachis deeplyflawedbecause subsumes creativenature of it the differenceunder an immobile systemof resemblance. Deleuze refusesto seekan originary point out of which repetition can cyclically reproduce itself. He insists that the processdoes not depend upon a subject or object that repeats, rather it is self-sustainable.Whilst repetition is potentially infinite, consistingof new beginnings,it is crucial we do not mistake this to be a linear sequence: end of one cycle marking the the beginningof the next. In his innovativediscussions Friedrich Nietzsche's of conceptof the eternalreturn, Deleuzeturns his backon a teleological understanding of repetition condemning such interpretations to be flawed. Instead, he insiststhat the process Nietzscheoutlines is considerably more complicated than that: the return is an activeaffirmation that intensifiesas it returns. Put differently, heterogeneityarisesout of intensity. In addition, the return pointsto a wholethat emerges throughdifference variation: and one and the multiple in combination. his readingof Nietzsche, In Deleuze explains his 1968work Dffirenceand, in Repetitionthat is the'power of this beginningand beginningagain'(D 1994:136). question: This now leads on to the second us What is repeated? First, it is important to notethat repetitionis not unidirectional, thereis no object of repetition,no final goaltowardwhich everything that repeats be said can to direct itself. What repeats, then, is not models,stylesor identitiesbut the full force of difference and of itself, thosepre-individualsingularin ities that radicallymaximisedifferenceon a plane of immanence. an In earlyessay from 1956 Henri Bergson, on Deleuze insistsrepetitionis more a matterof coexistence succession, than repetitionis virtual which is to say, more than it is actual.It is this innovativeunderstanding the process of of difference and differentiation that mutates the context through which repetitionoccurs. Thus, in a very real sense, repetitionis a creative activityof transformation. When Deleuzespeaks the 'new' that repetition invokes,he is likeof wise pointing to creativity, whereby habit and convention are both destabilised. The'new', for Deleuze, filled with innovationand actually is preventsthe trap of routines and clich6s; the latter characterise habitual waysof living. As a power of the new,repetition callsforth a terr&incognita filled with a sense noveltyandunfamiliarity. instance, is a far cry of For this from Sigrqund Freud who posited that we compulsivelyrepeat the past, pushes to reiterate whereall the materialof our repressed unconscious us the pastin all its discomfortand pain.Actually,psychoanalysis limits repetition to representation, what therapyaims to do is stop the process and entirelyalongwith the disorders givesriseto. Deleuze, the othcr hirnd, it on cncourirgcs to rcpcirt us hccausc sccs it thc possibility rcinvcntion, hc in of

repetitiondissolves identitiesasit changes them, giving rise that is to say, and productive. It is for this reasonthat he to somethingunrecognisable repetitionis a positivepower(puissance) transformation. of maintains

Connectives Active/Reactive Becoming Difference Eternalreturn Psychoanalysis

REPETITION + CINEMA Constantine Vereois and Deleuze'sbookson cinema- CinemaI: Themooement-image Cinema 2: Thetime-imoge are about the possibility of 'repeating' a film (or films) As within the institution of cinemastudies. in RolandBarthes'accountof re-reading, this repetition would not be the re-presentation of identity (a re-discovery the same), but the re-production- the creationand the of exhibition- of the differencethat lies at the heart of repetition (B 1974). bookscanbe seenasan attempt to negoFor film studies,Deleuze'sCinema (film) theory and history via a non-totalising tiate the tension between one which canattendto the heterogeneity the local conceptofdifference, repetitions- of historicalmaterial. and specific In Dffirence and,Repetition, Delettze puts forward two alternative theoriesof repetition. The first, a 'Platonic' theory of repetition, posits a world of difference based upon some pre-established similitude or The second,a identity; it definesa world of copies (representations). that similitude and identity theory of repetition suggests 'Nietzschean' is the product of some fundamental disparity or difference; it defines Taking theseformulations as distinct a world of simulacra(phantasms). interpretationsof the world, Deleuze describessimulacraas intensive systems constituted by the placing together of disparate elements. Within these differential series,a third virtual object (dark precursor, eternal return, abstract machine) plays the role of differenciator,the in-itself of difference which relates different to different, and allows divergcntscricsto rcturn asdivcrsityand its rc-production.As systcms point of vicw,sinrultcrit this diff'crcntial thrrtincluclcwithin thcnrsclvcs


R EP ET T T T o N *

c l Nrtre



(the model of recognition)to effectthe evadethe limit of representation intensity of an encounter with difference and its repetition, a pure becoming-in-the-world. The idea of the intensivesystem,and its frustration of any attempt to a establish order of succession, hierarchyof identity and resemblance an moreevidentthan in the serialrepebetween originaland copy is nowhere the tition of new Hollywood cinema,especially film remake.The majority remaking understand it as a one-way of critical accountsof cinematic process: movement from authenticity imitation,from the superiorselfto a resemblance the remake.For of identity of the original to the debased release Gus Van Sant's of instance, much of the discussion aroundthe 1998 (1960)wasan expresremake('replica') of Alfred Hitchcock'sPsycho close sion of outrage and confusion at the defilementof a revered classic. that Reviewers 'Hitchcockians'agreed VanSantmadetwo fundamental and mistakes:the first, to haveundertakento remakea landmark of cinematic history; and the second,to have followed the Hitchcock original (almost) differed shotby shot,line by line.Evenfor thosewho notedthat the rpmake addednothing to what in its detail from the Hitchcockfilm, the revisions fixity (identity) against a remainedan intact and undeniable classic, semantic as which the new versionwasevaluated and dismissed a degradedcopy. Deleuze'saccountof Rather than follow theseessentialist trajectories, application that remakingin its most general repetitionsuggests cinematic aspect a broader of as might - more productively- be regarded a specific has been and more open-endedintertextuality. A modern classic,Psycho moviesinitiretrospectively codedas the forerunnerto a cycleof slasher (1978)andcelebrated the sequels series that folin and atedby Hallopeen movie sub-genre interestin the slasher lowed.More particularly,the 1970s sequels sawthe characterof Norman Batesrevivedfor a number of Psycho quoted in a host of homages, notably QI-I\, and the Hitchcock original the films of Brian De Palma.Eachof theserepetitionscan be understood as a limited form of remaking,suggestingthat the precursor text is never singular, and that Van Sant's Psychoremake differs textually from these not but other examples in bind,, only in degree. a While the aboveapproachestablishes largecircuit betweenPsycho-60 is there is anotherposition: namely,that Van Sant'sPsycho andPsycho-98, not close enough to the Hitchcock version.This suggestion that an playssimultaneously between mostmechanical the of irreduciblg difference Douglas by of repetitions is bestdemonstrated an earlierremake Psycho, (1993).So namedbecause takestwenty-four it Gordon's24 Hour Psycho that re-runs hoursto run its course, Gordon'sversionis a videoinstallation just per second, fastenoughfor cach Ps.ycho-60 ntapproximately frames two strltcgy clcmonstratcs imagcto bc pullcclforwardinto thc ncxt. Gordon's

that eachand every film is remade- dispersed and transformed- in its every new context or configuration.Gordon doesnot set out to imitate Psycho to repeatit - to changenothing, but at the sametime allow an but absolutedifferenceto emerge.Understood in this way,Psycho-98 not a is perversion an original identity,but the productionof a new event,one of that addsto (ratherthan corrupts)the serialityof the former version.

REPRESENTATION lohn Marks for moral view of the 'Representation', Deleuze, entails an essentially world, explicitly or implicitly drawingon what'everybodyknows',and he conceives ofphilosophy asan antidoteto this view.Representation cannot help us to encounter world asit appears the flow of time andbecomthe in ing. It constitutesa particularly restrictedform of thinking and acting, working accordingto fixed norms, and which is unableto acknowledge difference 'in itself'. ln Dffirence and RepetitionDeleuze challengesthe representational conception philosophy. of Here, he contrasts 'poet' to the the 'politician'.The poet speaks the nameof a creative power,and seeks in to affirm difference a stateof permanentrevolution:he is willing to be as destructive in the searchfor the 'new'. The new, in this sense,remains forever new, since it has the power of beginning anew every time. It enables forcesin thought which are not the forcesof recognition,but the powersof an unrecognisable terra incognita. The politician, on the other hand, seeksto deny that which differs in order to establishor maintain a particularhistoricalorder.In philosophical terms, Deleuzeproposes to between original- the thing the 'overturn'Platonism,which distinguishes that most resembles itself, characterised exemplaryself-identity- and by the copy,which is alwaysdeficient in relation to the original. Platonism is incapable thinking difference itself,preferringto conceive it in relaof in of tion to'the thing itself'. In order to go beyondrepresentation, is necesit sary,therefore, underminethe primacyof the originaloverthe copyand to to promote the simulacrum, the copy for which there is no original. A key influenceon Deleuzeas far as the anti-representational orientation of his thought is concerned,is Friedrich Nietzsche.Nietzsche's speculations metaphorshowthat thereis no 'truth' behindthe maskof on appearances, rather only more masks,more metaphors. but Deleuzeelevatesthis insight into something like a general principle.For metaphysical him, thc world is composecl simulircra: is a 'swarm'<lfirppcirranccs. of it l)clcuzc'slicrgsonism, which cnrphirsiscsrirclical ir of'linrc, is iur irnrrlysis

bucault (in T'hc Ilistor. we prefer the comfortsand conventions representation. the pure form of time. with Guattari he arguesthat thereareOedipalstructuresof repression.a domain of diversity. then.Deleuzeaccepts is its this Lacanirn/Freudian picture up ro a point. materialityin terms of images perception.tlrc rcPrcssivc . reducingit to elementsand reconfiguretheseelementsin a duration into dissociated spatial form organisedaround the conventionsof 'public' homogeneous language that conveys widely recognised notions' We like 'simple thoughts" Bergsonremarks.Deleuzemight appear be a philosopher against to set the dominantimageof repression. For psychoanalysis. it is not the self who is repressed. ieopardise sense thought arethreateningand potenSuch forms of anti-representational on tially disorientaring.Deleuze of images. springsfrom the rather than time. then imaginethat there we must have been a moment of plenitude and. which can no longer be conceivedof as for ant consequences and All that is rootedin consciousness. replacing This of In-short. painting and an effect of the idea of repression.foregoing noveltyof new situations. that we imaginethat theremust havebeena real .Following Bergson's materialisi ontology.with creating 'sensibleaggregates'. Connectives Affect Art Becoming Difference Sensation REPRESSION Claire Colebrooh On the one hand.\t. and so to a certain extent he acceptsthe productive nature of repression it was put forward by Sigmund Freud and then as Lacan. only differences degree.human beingschoose the basis the of what is the most useful. and with potentiallyanarchic selfhood' the that associations. This alternative. its most generalthe concept At of 'repression'would seemto imply a natural self or subjectwho precedes the operationof power of socialisation that all we would haveto do is (so lift the strictures repression arriveat who we reallyare).These are artistic forcesthat havebeenfreed from the organising thcy givcus Instcad' is not a way of repreand memoriesthat we might 'recognise':it doesnot ser. Repression primary and produces own' before'.y: l4tlumt Olr.non-psychological world is 'luminous in itself'. and that we must thereforehavedesiredthe maternalincest prohibited by the structures of the family.. non-psychological memory."*.accordingto which our body is merely an image among images. his books on very particular draws on Henri Bergson's cinem" in particular. the diversitywith simplicity.It is only because our existence of within a symbolicorder. Deleuze talks of 'affects'and 'perviews of lenge representational cepts'. of urrr"ry u"t.As is the case human consciousness that the world is 'luminous' in itself. and matter and thought. Jacques or perceived system.) rcf'crrcd to rrs . that being repression its everyday in sense and in its technicalpsychoanalytic sense. and to counter this Bergson conceives This hasimportthat transmitmovement. to I prc-indiiidualworlclof singularitics' this way.Deleuze opens the self to the outside. and Dclcuzc ancl Gurttirri's mnin rttack on whirt Michcl I.dffirence. . jouissanceprior to Oedipal repression.and we prefer to rely on customand habit.The concept of to of repressionseems. As such they tend to spa'tialise fluidity of public form. life perceives is necesknowledge and volautomatism sarilyopen to the 'outside'and distinctionsbetween in rather than differences kind. a showus what the world ri. But Deleuze and Guattari regardrepression or the internalisation subjection asa modernpheof nomenon that nevcrtheless drawsupon archaic structures imagcs.we are indeedsubmittedto a systemof signification. The self comes into contact with a virtual. Similarly. at the heart of Deleuze's non-representational and is exploredat length in his books on cinema.. Living in a modern age.t'uulit. is consciousness. This tenclaim that we tend to think in terms of space of dency immobilisesintuition..literature. but rather imagines possible art is concernedwith 'sensation'. Bergson'scritique of the problematics of perceptionand action. accordingto which the' prior to the net of repression. order to chalart. to be associated with the ideaof a pre-socialself who must then undergosocialisation structuration.ting experiences world. such an helps to explain why art .I)clcuzcsccs art asa wayof challenging interpretative the tendencyof representation to tracebecomings backto origins. rather than being illuminatedby a beamof proiect. For Deleuze.228 REPRESENTATI O N R E P R E S S ION 229 In important elementof his challengeto representation. of framcwgrk pcrceiving rcprcscntational In .Deleuzewants to or avoid this naivety. In rather than making the world intelligible and recognisable.relationsand sociality. we separate a staticand impersonal duration.plays important patt itt Deleuze'swork.Rather than materialismin order to claim that life is composed illuminating the world like a searchlight. the self .r.yol' . then.the fantasyof that which exists before for speech.

Guattari'sconceptof the 'rhizome' drawsfrom its etymological where 'rhizo'means combining form and the biologicalterm 'rhizome' describes form of plant that can extenditself through its underground a horizontaltuber-likeroot systemand developnew plants. Colman the that the 'Rhizome'describes connections occurbetween mostdisparate placesand people. a desirethat we must necessarily repress. engagedin negotiation and the management our drives. Psychoanalysis supposedlyexplains our repressionby arguing that we all desired our mothers but had to abandonincestfor the sakeof socialand cultural development.all life is positive desire.Deleuze and Guattari arguethat we sufferfrom the ideaof repression itself.connection.Such a reconceptualof isationconstitutes revolutionaryphilosophyfor the reassessment any a form of hierarchical thought. subjected repressive to Connectives Desire Foucault Freud Oedipalisation Psychoanalysis Woman RETERRITORIALISATION tion. the case In of.the idea of incest. the ideathat thereis someultimate object that we haveabandoned. is not the desirefor someforbidden object. Deleuze and to the systemof the Guattari aim to revealthe positivedesirebehindrepression.that we are inevitablyfamilial and desireonly the impossible maternalobject.all aspects how and virtual entities and activities . composed organicand non-organic of partsforming symbioticand aparallel according transitory to connections.can be seenas multiple in their interrelationalmovementswith other things and bodies. the of events that link people:the feelingof'six degrees separation'. the rhizomeis a conceptthat 'maps' a process of networked. impersonal.but by the imagethat our desires'naturally' take the form of Oedipal and familial images. It is not that we must repress our desirefor incest.creation. and a way of being without'tracing' the constructionof that map asa fixed entity (D&G 1987: 12). is the desire of the father . The latemodernunderstanding the selfor subjectasnecessarily of subjectedto law is the outcomeof a history of politicaldevelopment that has coveredover the originally expansive. ofconcrete. art.chaoticand singularconfigurations life.represses the desire for non-familial. . Oedipal repression.abstract conceives everything andeverybody.the strangechainsof and the most similar of objects. To imagine ourselvesas rational individuals.but the impersonality of desire or the intense germinal influx.the bourgeois individual who hassubmittedhis desires polity and the market. Desire. they insist.Rather. Deleuzeand Guattari stagedthe entire book as a seriesof networkcd rhizomatic'plateaus'that operateto counter historicaland philpositions pitchccl that towardthc systcm rcprcscntntion Iix thc of osophicol . sense of of 'having been here before' and assemblages bodies.that lies at the heartof the ideaof all selves as necessarily power.Rather. of as selfgoverning. mathematics. invoked by Deleuze and torical frames and homogeneous Guattari to describe everythingthat rhizomaticthought is not.excessive and constructive movements of desire.He and Guattari arguethat such structuresconstraincreativity and position things and people into regulatory orders.politics. In A Thousand Plateaus. Ordered lineages bodiesand ideasthat trace their originary and of as thought'. including psychoanalysis. ecomany abstractentities in the world.The nature of the rhizomeis that of a moving matrix. Deleuze and Guattari arguethat this repressive idea of renunciationand submission is a historical and political development.A number of philosophical movements.referto the entry on'deterritorialsa- RHIZOME Felicity J./reterritorialisation'. WhereasFreud's Oedipus complex seeks explainwhy and how we arerepressed how it is that we submit to to law and renounceour enjoyment. bourgeois man .Deleuzeand Guattari describe rhizomeasan actionof including music.this idea of ourselves bourgeois.relational and transversalthought. have explainedlife from the point of view of the already repressed subject. is What it represses not a personal desire. not by a socialorder that prohibits the natural desire for incest.Deleuze and meaning. Against this. and this individual bases considered forms of 'aborescent are and metaphorof a tree-likestructurethat ordersepistemologies forms hisis schemata. Deleuze responds by reconsideringhow bodies are constructed.In Deleuzeand Guattari'suseof the term. commonsensicalagents . then. In a world that builds structuresfrom economiccircuits of difference and desire. The rhizome itself repressive. the ecologyand the cosmos. science.expansion. the In addition.230 REPRESSION R H IZOME 231 hypothesis'occurs in Anti-Oedipzs. and as yet undeterminedroutes(D & G 1987:10). We of arerepressed.the desireof white. it modern. history or activity.

Variationsto any given systemcan occur because interventionswithin cyclical.can be communicated through the rhizomatic operations of things . and/or randomlinks.points form assemblages. overturn and transform structuresof rigid.or a concept. rhizomeshaveno hierarchicalorder to their compoundingnetworks. turn. new concepts.As Deleuzedescribes his in work on David Hume. A rhizomaticplateauof thought.functioning as an assemblage machine for new affects. being. modesof thought)that form a'synthesis'ofdifference through the repetition of elements(D 1983: 46). rather it is a milieu of perpetualtransformation.Rhizomaticconnections between bodiesand forcesproducean affective energyor entropy.Repetition. intensitiesand polymorphousformations. fixed or binary thought and judgement. Deleuzeand Guattari propose./ immobilise bodies. then. which Deleuzediscussed his booksNietzsche in and. As the rhizome may be constitutedwith an existingbody . or culturally determinedforceand any givenbody both produces and usesassociations of ideas(D l99l: ix. forming a milieu that is decentred.what you always bring with you are the many and various ways of entering any body.and multiply throughdisparateand complexencounters and gestures. or Deleuzeand Guattari insist bodiesand things ceaselessly on new take dimensions through their contact with different and divergent entities over time. Rather than reality being thought of and wrimen as an ordered series structuralwholes.mevements.The discontinuous chain is the medium for the rhizome'sexpanding network. divide.andlor becoming not simply a process is that assimilates things. where random associations and connectionspropel.Instead. with no distinctiveend or entry point. sidetrack and abstract relations between components.through a virtuoso demonstrationof the relational energiesable to be configured through often disparate forms and systemsof knowledge.There is no stabilising function produced by the rhizomatic parts. Deleuzeand Guattari suggest.As a non-homogeneous sequence. of wheresemioticconnections taxonomies or can be compiled from complete root to tree-like structure.thereis no creationof a wholeout of virtual and dispersed Rather. may be reachedthrough the consideration the potentialof multiple and relaof tional ideas andbodies.just asit is alsothe contextualcircumstance for the chain'sproduction. Deleuze viewed every operation in the world asthe affectiveexchangeof rhizomatically-produced intensities that create bodies: systems. Philosophyand Dffirence and. which form aggregate connections.including existing thoughts one might bring to bear upon anotherbody .Any part within a rhizome may be connected to anotherpart. The rhizomeis anynetworkof thingsbroughtinto contact with one another.systematic of repetition. Instead. Connectives Affect Becoming Desire Hume Intensity Lincs of Flight . into or in suchassemblages typologies and thoughts.Deleuzianrhizomaticthinking functions as an open-ended productive configuration.In opposition to descendent evolutionary modelsof classification. chance. economies. Rhizomaticwriting. medium. the rhizome describesa seriesthat may be composedof causal. The rhizome is a powerful way of thinking without recourseto analogyor binary constructions.only connected points which form connections betweenthings. Deleuze'sapparatusfor describingaffectivechangeis the 'rhizome'. machinesand thoughts. elusionsand relations of rhizomes that form bodies (desiring machines) through composite chains of previously unattached links (D&G 1983:39.they offer the reader an open systemof thought.The relationalmilieu that the rhizome createsgivesform to evolutionaryenvironmentswhererelations alter the courseof how flowsand collective desire develop. in this way the conceptof the 'rhizome' marksa divergentway of conceptualising world that is indicativeof Deleuzianphilosophyas the a whole. Deleuze acknowledges Friedrich Nietzsche'sconcept of the eternal return as the constitutionof things through repeatedelements(existing bodies. multiple journey systems associate possiblydisconnected brokentopologies. 103).the rhizomaticnetwork is a mapping of the forcesthat move and. 327).the rhizome is nccessarilysubject to thc principlcs of divcrsity and cliffercncc through repetition.232 RHI ZO M E R H IZOME 233 flow of thought.through the rhizome. the interaction of a socially. 'Synthesis' is also describedby Deleuzeand Guattari as an assemblage variablerelationsproducedby of the movement. activity. To think in termsof the rhizomeis to reveal multiple waysthat you might the approach any thought. new bodies.There are no singular positions on the networkedlines of a rhizome. of assembling thought and actionthrough the world.the rhizome (D&G 1987:ll). A rhizomecontribures rhe formais 'anti-genealogy' ro tion of a plateau throughits linesof becoming. Rhizomaticformations can serveto overcome. the story of the world and its components.surfaces. Each and every body is propelled and perpetuated by innumerable levels of the affective forces of desire and its resonatingmaterialisations.politically.

of pliable grasses.r gr 3) 235 RHIZOME + TECHNOLOGY VerenaConley The'rhizome' replaces arborescent an structurethat hasbeendominating the west and the world for centuries. in Deleuze'spractical utopia. The'rhizome createsa web or a network. weightlessness. brain The fires electronsthat move along the capitalist war machine is always being threatenedby mobile nomadic war machinesthat use technolosiesto form new rhizomesand open up to becoming. it increases its valences and is alwaysin a stateof becoming. the rhizome makes a map and not a tracing of lines (that would belongto a representation an obiect). Bateson argues that a person is not limited to her or his visible body.234 RHI ZO M E + TECHNOL O G Y sAUssuRE.productive or nefariousbecomings. a In rhizome.Clearly. tpsychoanalysis'. computers do offer possibilities. making alliancesthat form a temporary plateau. JEAN PAUL (1905-80). Through computerassisted Deleuze and subjectivity. The proximity of the rhizometo digital technology and the computeris evident.The rhizome operates a spacewithout boundaries in and defiesestablished categories suchasbinaries pointsthat would mark-offand be usedto fix positions or in extensive It space. Not only the brain.The connectionwith Donna Haraway'scyborg has often been made. no graph or regulation.referto theentries on SAUSSURE. They connect with the anthropologist's pronouncements in which biology and information theory are conjoined. It is horizontal and flat. Unlike graphic arts. The way they are being capturedby capitalism. The rhizome doesnot imitate or represent.deterritorialising reterritorialising and itself at once. The scienceof technologytakesover with its order-words.It workstoward abstract machines and produces linesof flight.Yet.but alwaystemporary. but humans and the world consist of circuits in which differencesare transmitted along pathways. Deleuze and Guattari see the potential in Bateson'swork for rhizomatic thinking.that deploys order-words. The terminology is the sameas for computersthough it does not pertain to them exclusively. movement is more intensive than extensive. is always multiplicity. DeleuzeandGuattarido not write muchaboutcomputers. ceaselessly connects and reconnects overfissures and gaps. through capture of code. the person connects and reconnectswith other humans. SACHER-MASOCH. The rhizome carriesimagesof the natural world. FERDINAND DE (18. Guattari write about a 'becoming-radio' or 'becoming-television' that yield good or bad connections. it could be takenfrom different contexts(including Freudian psychoanalysis).It is a war machine:rhizomatic of or nomadic writing operates a mobile war machinethat movesat top as speed to form lines. augments valences with It its throughhybrid connections that consistby virtue of addition. Good or bad ideas. can leadto good or bad connections. Yet They derive someof their ideason rhizomesfrom Bateson's S/epsto an Ecolog..Models are both in constructionand collapse. animalsand the world.The rhizome doesaway hierarchies.humans can increasetheir valences. it hasno genealIt a ogy. and is neither genesis nor childhood. The nervous system is said to be a rhizome. The rhizome is in a constantprocessof making active. significcl'. and their multifarious redundancies makesthem too often becomeendsin and for themselves.Of importanceis the pcrson's brainthattransmits infurmation discrcte as diffcrcnces. consumer codes. LEOPOLD VON (1835-95) refer to the tart'. of landscapes of and of the east. web or network. can Computers and the internet have great potential as rhizomatic war machines.y of Mind.57-1913) rrncl'significr. bearing what the mathematician in Deleuzecalls'n-l dimensions'. a sphereof in what Deleuze calls a generalised'techno-narcissism'. 'phenomenology' . Through the transmissionof differences. 'scmiotics' . entrieson 'Lacantand SARTRE. FERDI NAND DE ( r 852. * and'phenomenology Husserl'. The selections be goodor bad. can stat'es Deleuzein consortwith Gregory Bateson.refer to the entrieson 'Guattari'.It creates and recreates the world through connections. iust as every major languageis worked through by minor languages.selections. of one thing 'and' another.A rhizome has no structure or centre. rather it connectsthrough middle and inventshybrids with virusesthat becomepart of the cells the that scramblethe dominant lines of genealogical trees.

the concept'schizoanalysis' indicates.are thus revealed be strictly capitalistinstitutions. Internally. father to the illegitimate metaphysicsof the psyche. The critique of Oedipusis mounted on two fronts.Yet at the sametime that the to nuclear family is capturing and programming desire in the Oedipus complex. the the nuclcar family programmespeople from birth for asceticismancl sclf'-clcnirrl. Just as capital denies (through primitive accumulation) direct accessto the means of production and the means of the father denies(through the threat of castrationenforcing the incest taboo) direct access the mother (the means of life). schizoanalysis models the psyche on schizophreniarather than neurosis. Furthermore. which relayssocialoppressioninto the heart of the nuclear family. denyin"g child all the peopleclosestto her. consumergoodsand eventualretirement. though perhapsleast obviously. transformspsychoanalysis asto includethe full scope socialand hisso of Yet torical factorsin its explanations cognitionand behaviour.Ultimately. universalhistory for schizoanalysis offers the hope and the chancethat the developmentof productive forcesbeyond capitalismand the expansionof Will to Powerbeyond nihilism will lead to greaterfreedomrather than enduringservitude. a rhimetonymy. arefor schizoanalysis sides reversesthe direction of of the same coin. asthe psychoanalytic not the child who is saying rather it is the bosswho is father to the man. and of which inform both the libidinal and the socialeconomies mappedby schizoanalysis.through the privatisationof reproductionin the nuclear family: the nuclearfamily. work.but alsoOedipalpsychoanalysis itself.236 s c H rz o A N A L YS Ts S C H IZOP H R E N IA 237 SCHIZOANALYSIS EugeneHolland. Refusingto interpret desireassymptomaticof 'lack' or to usea linguistic paradigm that interprets desire through the system of metaphor and as they insistwe understand desirein termsof affectivity. is goes. Schizoanalysis the revolutionary 'materialist psychiatry' derived priis As marily from the critiqueof psychoanalysis. making psychic repressiondepend on socialoppression. thereby revealingthe immanent operationsof the unconscious work at beneaththe levelof representation. The basic question posed by schizoanalysis(following Baruch Spinozaand Wilhelm Reich)is: Why do peoplefight for their own serviThe answeris that people tude asstubbornly asif it weretheir salvation? have been trained since birth in asceticismby the Oedipus complex.But it is a metaphysics that derivesdirectly from the realityof capitalistsociety. other family members and eventualmarriage with By a mother-substitute. The Oedipuscomplexis shownto be a systematic betrayal of unconscious processes. and mediates betweenthe worker. AlthoughSigmundFrcud rccogniscs structurc affcctivity of and thc thc pcrvcrsity'. For through a comparison the capitalistmodeof production with two other of libidinal modesof production.hc of' hctcrogcncorrs conrplcxplcrstrrcs 'polyrnor'phous urcl . except that schizoanalysis It causality. and mediates to betweenthe child.both structuralistpsychoanalysis historical and materialism transformed Friedrich Nietzsche's are by critique of nihilism and asceticism his transvaluation difference. in the externalcritique of the Oedipus. Guattari's conceptualcritique of psychoanalysisis their emphasison the positivity of schizophreniclanguage. zomicmodcof interconnection. this is the only social formation where socialreproduction is isolated from socialproduction at large. schizoanalysis showscapitalismto be the quantitativerather than qualitative only social formation organisedby relations. Social two oppression and psychicrepression. Ultimately.the market is subvertingcodesand freeingdesirefrom capture in representationthroughout society at large. who is in turn father to the child: the nuclearfamily imprints capitalistsocialrelationson the infant psyche. psychoof analysis not rejectedwholesale: is also schizoanalysis drawssubstantially on Freud and especiallyon JacquesLacan to transform historical materialism so as to include the full scopeof libidinal and semiotic factors in its explanationsof social structure and development. Connectives Desire Freud Marx Oedipalisation SCHIZOPHRENIA RosiBraidotti The touchstoneof Deleuze and. on object of critique: schizoanalysis. thereby producing schizophrenia as the radically free form of semiosisand the potential hope of universal history. Capitalism organisesthe socialby the cashnexus of the market rather than by codes and representation. SigmundFreud'stheoryof the Oedipuscomplexis the principle drawing substantially Karl Marx. thus.





endsup policing desirewhen he captures in a normativetheory of the it drives. The Freudian theory of drives codesand concentrates desiring affectsinto erotogeneous zones.Thus, psychoanalysis implementsa functional vision of the body that simply turns schizoidlanguage and expression into a disorder.This is in stark contrastto the schizoanalytic vision both Deleuzeand Guattarioffer us. Building on GeorgesCanguilhemand Michel Foucault,Deleuzeand Guattari blur the distinctiondrawn between normal/pathological and all the negativeconnotations that this model of desireimplies. Castingaffectivity, the passions sexuality and alongthe axes eithernormative pathological of or behaviour, they say,is complicit with thoseselfsame political forcesof biopowerthat disciplineand control the expressive potentialities a body.The of doubleburden that comesfrom medicalisingemotionsand affects,in conjunction with reducingsexual expression genitalia, to leaves bodily affects and intensities animpoverished in state. Their theoryof the Bodywithout Organs (BwO) not only critiquespsychoanalysis' complicityin repression the but functionalist approach human affectivityas well. Instead,Deleuzeand to Guattariassert positive the natureof unruly desire termsof schizoid in flows. For Deleuze, distinctionbetween properand abjectobjects desire the of is implementedasa normative index to police and civilise behaviour.The more unmanageable aspects affectivityhaveeither to come under the of disciplinary mechanism of representationor be swiftly discarded. Deviance, insanityand transgression commonlyregarded unacceptare as ablefor they point to an uncontrollable forceof wild intensity. Thesetend to be negatively represented: impersonal, uncaringand dangerous forces. Concomitantly such forces are both criminalisedand renderedpathological.The schizophrenic body is emblematic this violent'outside',one of that is beyondproprietyand normality. Deleuze's effortsto depathologise mentaland somatic deviancy, unconventional sexualbehaviourand clinical conditions - like anorexia,depression, suicide,and so forth - is not a celebrationof transgression its own for Instead, is integralto his intensive sake. it readingofthe subjectasa structure of affectivity. That is, Deleuzemapsout alternative modesof experimentationon the levelof sensation, perceptionand affects. The intensity of thesestatesand their criminalisedand pathological socialstatusoften makesthem implode into the black hole of ego-indexednegative forces. Deleuzeis interested experimenting in with the positivepotentialof these practices. What is at stake this reappraisal schizophrenia how other in of is modesof assemblage variationsof intensityfor non-unitary subjects and are gestured to. A subject a gcnealogical is entity,possessing a minoritaritn,or countcrmcnrory, which in turn is irn cxprcssion<lf clcgrccsof' rrll'ccrivity.

Genealogical createa discontinuous ties sense time, closerto Friedrich of Nietzsche's Dionysiacmode.Hence, spatially,a subjectmay seemfragmented and disunited; temporally, however,a subject developsa certain amountof consistency that comesfrom the continuingpowerof recollection. Here Deleuzeborrows the distinction betweenthe molar senseof linear,recordedtime (chronos) the molecularsense cyclical,disconand of tinuoustime (aion)that the Greeksoncedescribed. Simply put, the former is relatedto being/the molar/the masculine; the latter to becoming/the molecular/thefeminine.The co-occurrence past and future in a conof tinuouspresentmay appearschizophrenic thosewho uphold a vision of to the subjectasrationaland self-contained, however, needto havesome we caution here as Deleuze'sphilosophyof immanence restson the idea of a transformative dynamicsubjectwho inhabitsthe activepresent and tense of continuous conceptof 'duration' to 'becoming'.Using Henri Bergson's guide him, Deleuze proposes subjectas an enduring entity, one that a changes much as it is changedthrough the connections forms with as it a collectivity. Also important to note is that Deleuze disengages the notion of it 'endurance'from the metaphysicaltradition that associates with an essence permanence. or Hence, the potency of the Deleuzian subject comesfrom how it displaces phallogocentric the vision of consciousness, one that hingeson the sovereignty the 'I'. It can no longer be safely of assumedthat consciousness coincideswith subjectivity,or that either consciousness subjectivity chargesthe course of events.Thus, the or image of thought implied by liberal individualism and classicalhumanism is disrupted in favour of a multi-layered dynamic subject.On this level, schizophrenia actsas an alternativeto how the art of thinking can be practised. Together with paranoia,schizoid loops and double-bindsmark the political economy of affectivity in advancedcapitalism. These enact the doubleimperativeof consumerconsumptionand its inherent deferralof pleasure. With capitalismthe deferral of pleasure concomitantlyturned into a commodity.The saturationof socialspace, fast-changing by commodities,short-circuitsthe presentinducing a disjunctionin time. Like the insatiable appetiteof the vampire,the capitalisttheft of 'the present' expresses system that not only immobilises in the processof a commodity over-accumulation,but also suspends active desiringproduction in favour of an addictive pursuit of commodity goods.In response, Deleuzeposits'becoming'as an antidote:flows of empowering dcsircthat introduce mobility and thus destabilise sedentary gravitathe 'l'his involvcs pull of molar formations. tionrrl cxpcrimcnting with nonunititryor sclrizoid nrodcs ot'bcconring.

Connectives Becoming Bergson Black hole Body Body without Organs Duration Molar Nietzsche Representation




Kjtlie Message 'Segmentation' is a fundamental structuring principle that contributes to organisingthe individual and sociallife of all humans.While Deleuze and Guattari explore the superficially dichotomous relationship of the dominant segments primitive, suppleor molecular,that aredifferentiated againstthe rigid or molar statesegment they do so in order to contend that each of these dominant segments can themselves be subcompartmentalised binary,circularand linearforms.More important into than the distinctionsexistingwithin eachof the terms of the dichotomy, however, is the idea that yet another - far less discernible and easily defined- spaceexistsin betweenthesetwo segments. This liminal third spaceis producedby one or severallines of flight that binds the binary terms into dialogue with eachother at the same time asit worksto enforce procedurefor eachof the segmented a kind of decoding forms. In other words,it both binds and separates terms,but ensures the that a continual mutability carrieson existingbetween two. the Although Deleuze and Guattari acknowledge that binary couplings appearat the basisof their approachto the conceptof segmentation,this mode of differentiation is consciouslyand cautiouslyinvoked in order to show that even the most formalised of dichotomous stateshave a relationship that is in fact more pliable or porous than would first appear. In this senseeverything is political: every politics is alwaysboth macropolitics and micropolitics.Illustrating the inter-relationship the binary of term that is alwaystied into dialoguewith its contrastingfigure (via the third, liminal space that tendsto be occupiedby deterritorialising lincs of flight) whilc rrt tho sirmctimc bcing dift'crcntiatcd agrrinst indiviclurrls it,

and societies are understood as being organised according to two dominant and interwoven modes of segmentation:one molar, the other molecular. These terms are alwaysclosely related becausethey co-exist and crossover into eachother. Exploring the dominant forms of segmentation, Deleuzeand Guattari contrastthe ideaof a primitive or supplekind of segmentarity againstthe notion of modern statehood, exist without dediwhereprimitive societies catedpolitical institutions.Considerable manoeuvrability and communicability aremaintained between differentiated, heterogeneous fieldsof the primarily because the segmented thesesocieties, relationshipthat each of of thesefieldsor units shares with the other.Operatingaccording disto crete,localised forms of management, Deleuzeand Guattari characterise this primitive segmentarity functioning through polyvocalcodesthat as emerge a resultof variousrelationships lineages, asan itinerant as and and territoriality that is basedon local divisionsthat overlaprather than exist in any discretestate.Communication,codificationand territorialisation occur in thesesocieties a process shifting relationships via of and interpower. sections,rather than any centrally organising While these systems of organisation are perhaps more molecular (focusedon small-scale trajectoriesand local environments)than thoseof modern societies, would not be true to claim that they are more organic it or lesssystematic, in accordwith their contentionthat the molar exists and within the molecularand vice versa,Deleuze and Guattari explainthat it is a mistakesimply to contrastthis primitive, suppleor molecularsegmentarity againstthe more rigid global organisations that characterise the modern Statesociety. Acknowledgingthat the modern political systemis a unified and unifying globalapparatus, they maintainthat it is organised in a formationof clearlyorderedsubsystems. However,despitethe reaching agendathat motivatesthis inclusive process,it cannot be entirely differentiatedfrom the primitive system out of which it has evolved. Accordingly, overarching the system neverfreefrom gaps, is displacements and partial processes that interconnectwith eachother and yet it never attainsproper signifi cation. To ignore thesespaces slippagethat exist in betweenthe privileged of or State-sanctifiedunits is a mistake, Deleuze and Guattari counsel, because theseoften indiscernible spaces may contain either - or perhaps both in somecases the rumblings of popular massdissatisfaction with the dominantand determining Statebody (asin the socialupheavals May of 1968),or the quotidian embodiment of extreme State power whereby cvcryday citizens adopta self-regulating attitudeor beliefthat is based on thcir inclividual intcrnalisation a particularpoliticirlcodcor idcalproof motcdby thc Statc(irsin Nnzi (icrmany).In hothcilscs, rupturcsilrc tlrcsc





micro-fascismsthat threaten to disorganiseor destabilisethe dominant within which they exist. segments can as neither molecularnor molar segments resistbeing entirely Just differentiated from the other, Deleuze and Guattari explain that rather is fascism of than beinga distinctcharacteristic the rigid or Statesegment, of because its molecularor micropoliticalpower; as a mass dangerous As it than a totalitarianorganisation. such, movement is more threatening of not attainsmolar (State)significance because the public profile fascism posters), it but because is by of its leader(evidenced the larger-than-life imbricated and interiorised throughout the molecular level of everyday experience. Connectives Lines of flight Molar Molecular

SEMIOTICS Inna Semetsky 'semiotics' is, in general, the study of signs and their signification. presenta conceptual mix of CharlesS. Deleuzeand Guattari'ssemiotics Peirce'slogic of relativesand Louis Hielmslev'slinguistics;both framePlateaus, ln semiology. A Thousand works are taken to opposeSaussurean Deleuze and Guattari assertthat content is not a signified, neither is in a expression signifier:insteadboth are variables common assemblage. An a-signifying rupture ensurestransfer from the form of expressionto the form of content.Dyadic, or binary significationgivesway to triadic, a-signifying semiotics,and the authors employ the Peirceannotion of part of sign-dynamics. diagramis a bridge, A a'diagram'as a constructive a diagonalconnectionthat, by meansof double articulations,connects of planesof expression and contentleadingto the emergence new forms. in give way to the productionof new meanings Fixed and rigid signifieds (D accordwith the logic of sense 1990).Conceptsthat exist in a triadic relationshipwith both perceptsand affectsexpresseventsrather than and should be understood not in the traditional representaessences which would submit a line to a point, tional mannerof analyticphilosophy, but as a pluralistic, a-signifying distribution of lincs and phncs. 'l'hc (l) Ontokrgically,''bciirg-its-firkl' l9tltla; l9t)3t) dclicssigniticittion.

pragmatics or transformational consists destratification, openingup to of function. Accordingto the logic of mula neq diagrammatic and creative symbol,'a third'(D tiplicities,a diagramserves a mediatoryin-between as 1987: 131)that disturbs the fatal binarity of the signifier/signifieddisapproach, which is Deleuzeand tinction. It forms part of the cartographic par logicalcopulaswith the that replaces Guattari'ssemiotics excellence, radicalconjunction'and'. without the relation For Deleuze,the theory of signs is meaningless in signsand the corresponding apprenticeship practice.Reading between Deleuze notices the MarcelProustfrom the perspective triadicsemiotics, of intimate' dynamiccharacter signs,that is, their havingan 'increasingly of (D 2000:88) relation with their enfoldedand involutedmeanings that so interpretation. Meaningsare truth becomes contingentand subordinate to which organization not givenbut dependon signsentering'intothe surface (D on ensures resonance two series' 1990:104),the latterconverging the of a paradoxical differentiator, which becomes 'both word and objectat once' (D 1990: There to cannotbe reduced just linguisticsigns. 51).Yet,semiotics imagesor are extra-linguistic semioticcategories too, such as memories, which areapprehended termsof neitherobjectin immaterial artisticsigns, probin in ivenor subjective criteriabut learned practice termsof immanent a lematic instances and their practicaleffects.Analogously, formal abstract philosophyof language; machineexceeds applicationto (Chomskian) its insteadsemioticsis applied to psychological, biological,social,technological, aesthetic and incorporeal codings. Semiotically, discursive and formationsareconnected virtue of transversal by communinon-discursive psychic, and social cation,'transversality' beinga conceptthat encompasses transversality exceeds evenontologicaldimensions.As a semioticcategory, regimes signs;by the same of verbalcommunication appliesto diverse and and cartographies the of token, Deleuze and Guattari's schizoanalysis presuppose different semiotictheory from the one appropriunconscious a process, psychoanalysis. semiotic The based the logicof on atedin Lacanian The line of includedmiddle,is the basisfor the productionof subjectivity. flight or becoming a third between is subjectand objectand is to be understood 'not so much . . . in their oppositionas in their complementarity' (D 1987:13l). The relationship between subjectand objectis of the nature presupposition. of reciprocal Brian Massumipoints out that Deleuzereinventsthe conceptof semiotics in his various books: in Proustand Signs,Deleuze refers to four differently organised semioticworlds (M 1992).In Cinema-1he presents sixtecn diffcrent types of cinematic signs. Rlr Deleuze, philosophers, scmioticilns rrndsymptomirt<tlwritcrs and artistsarc first and forcmost ot' ogists: thcy rcitd,intcrprct itnd crcittcsigns,wltich itrc 'lhc synrplonrs

The tick is a creature are that feels rhythmic sensations that inspire it to fall onro the skin of the animal it covets.The dog that is it eatingat its food bowl senses arrivalof the masterthat will flog it. animaland vegetal Of character.The task of philosophyis the creationof concepts. endlessly emanating sensation in its designthan in its process.before naming of 'Carmen'. the momentsprior to when a subjectdiscovers meaningof somethingor takesplacebefore cognition.A map. that or the of into pain'. filrccand intcnsity through the body in waves and rhythms that meld its perceptible sitesor organisation partsinto vibrationsand spasms. one writing sensations.the paintingsexuderhythms thar are tied to what Baconcalls 'figures'. very mattercommonto philat opensat the thresholdofsense. themselves in beings that existautonomously. to rrncl thcyconstitutc'thc prrr lninrll condition cxccllcncc'(l) l993rr: 87).perceptionin turn being the what bringsaboutthe creationof events.has no reference. As percepts. in Jean-LucGodard'stitle. . There is a profound link betweensigns. are as placebeforewordsand images Prinorn: Carmen. hasthe capacity it of turning inward and outward.which areneitherfigurativenor beyondfigurationbut accumulations and coagulations sensation. to extractfrom a'block is of sensations.or a diagram. prior the to the is which Deleuzetakesup through his study of FrancisBacon In aesthetics. a textureand elasticity cqual passcs tlvcrand Scnsati<tn ovcr thc cntircty<tfits mass. Theseelements within sensation are prior to becoming or visualised. makingpalpable what otherwisecould be sensed sensation in itself. in accord with a-signifying semiotics. the own creation. with thousands sensations anticipate eventitself: of that the a and vitalism' and a (D 1995:143). the readerof a poem beforemeaningis discernedin figuration or a thematic design.Sensations mixed with 'subtend conversion pleasure arc that are'thc passagc 'tiny pcrccptions' from onc perccption an<lthcr'. what causes 'appleness' the painter Paul C6zanne's applesto be felt as the geometricand painterly in that they become the field of his still lifes. his unique galleryof naturalhistory two of Deleuze's in totemsof sensation the tick and the dog. The taskof the artist. positingitself togetherwith its obiectat the momentof its autoreferential. the mostfamous One of Deleuze's of of of as is conceived a surface sensations. anothercontexthe links composite of In units of percepts and affectsto blocksof sensation.a staticrepresentation the order of references of dynamics the order of meanings. and science. When seenin series(many are diptychs and triptychs). sensations not perceptions are referringto an object'(D&G 1994: 166)but somethingthat inheresin its beingand its duration. that is 'sculpting. It is alsowhat vibrates the threshthat of the old of a given form. abstractions figures.composing. The artist finds in the areabetween perceiver the and the work a field of sensation.pure beingof sensation' (D&G 1994:167). in other words. . in what is felt and experiencedbefore the name is understoodin a common way (D 1989:154). much in paintingsasin the spectators as who look at them. felt Deleuzeuses Bacon's distinctionbetween two typesof violence refine to his 'logic' of sensation. film it is grasped what takes grasped.2+4 SENSAT ION S E N S A TION 245 life . the sight of a raisedstick. less The line is continually becoming itself.Deleuzeand of Guattari'sconceptof BwO is in continuousand autonomous movement. into the body and along different trajectories. Many of the paintingsplacedeformedbodiesin arenas so that their abstractioncan embody invisible forces.the sound of footsteps.engenders territory to which it is giving of to supposed refer. violence public spectacle. those Sensation art.exudingforce. . a In this respect. Deleuze explainsthe point through C6zanne. osophy. whom he championsfor having made visiblethe folding character the Mont-Saint-Victoire. of Borrowingfrom Wilhelm Wiirringer'swritings on the generativity 'gothic' linearity.Sensation of entersinto a process reasoned in In to cognitionand thus pertains signifiance.the germinating of forceswithin seeds. way to a relational Connectives Lacan Schizoanalysis Signifier/Signified SENSATION Tom Conlejt in philosophyespecially the domainof Biology infusesmuch of Deleuze's It sensation. is sensation what strikesa viewer of a painting or in TheLogic of Sensation.ashe showswith Baconand C6zanne. remainsat the basisof perception. A of seenin athleticand political arenas and in traditional 'theatresof torture' must be refusedin orderto reacha kind of sensation the British paintercallsa'declaration that of faith in life'. melodyor 'block' of sensation A causes to leap. the convection or and heat transpiringin a landscape.whatDeleuze of callsthe 'condition of sensation'.forcesthat accordingly condition the uncannysensation spectatorfeelsin view of both familiar the and monstroushuman forms.It has the productivelydeformativepower of defacingthe at it representations cause to be felt. Body without Organs(BwO).in which the field of sensationinheres in what comes the prior to the name.

is reproduced by multiplied and intensified.Citing or to relatedto sensation.I become in sensation.the momentwhererepetitionis the eternalreturn: difference repeating. be it Sensation representational abstract.willemen links cinephiliatoJeanEpstein'snotion of photoginie. for the painting.and internationalart cinema(PedroAlmodovar. Takeshi Kitano. influenced still activeresidues surrealism post-warFrenchculture. but also Hollywood's delayednouaelle aague(Francis Ford Coppola.that developed the front rows of the Pariscinimathiques the 1950s in in and can find this potential dislocationin the films of David Lynch: the anamorphicdeformity of the dream in The ElephantMan (1980). an obsessive passion cinema.In rhe caseof cinema. btdics. Sensation Deleuze's writing. Heart (1990).but a bodily sensation an unequal difference all betweenforces.246 SENSATI O N + CINEMA SEN SATION + C IN EM A 247 in increasing resonance acquires Readers Deleuzenotethat sensation of on It a workswritten after 1980. - becoming-intense that they bring about. fleeting moment of experience emotionalintensity a or a sensation that the viewercannotdescribe verballyor rationalise cognitively (W 1994). Connectives Art Bacon Bergson Body without Organs Faciality SENSATION + CINEMA Constantine Vereois Deleuzestatesthat the modern work of art ln Dffirence and Repetition.photlginie is a direct representation time. transcendental 'a sugDeleuze developsthis idea in FrancisBacon: TheLogic of Sensation. direct sensation a of or of presentpresence. This is the momentof the crystal. (figure)shifts attentionfrom the form of the artwork.can be seenas one of the many diverse readingstrategies encouraged recentcultural technologies.conceived a manner akin to thoseof his favourite conceptual painters.wherepastand future collide. biologyand philosophy the same ism and intuition of Henri Bergson'sformative work written from the early becomes decisiveelementin the style and texture of a 1950s. nor cerebral. something and happens throughsensation. throughthe other one and one in the other' (D 1993b:187).the lighting of a cigarettein Wild. in leaves domain of representation order to becomepure experience: the empiricism or scienceof the sensible'(D 1994: 56). who refusesboth straight abstraction and figurative illustration).like the figurativeartwork.which embraces not only the Hollywood films of classical cinephilia and the work of the nouoelle . is organised (represented) an activityof figuration. of the gestingthat modern paintingtranscends representation both illustrative and narrativefiguration by moving either toward a pure form of (as Piet Mondrian or WassilyKandinsky) by. whereasthe figure is the sensibleform systern to 'vital movement'.that overflowsand traverses domains. at Contemporarycinephilia . the neraous that is neither a Deleuze describes 'logic of the senses' Paul C6zanne. becomes commonterm of speculation the the time asit retrieves vitalat aesthetics. for in its rhythms. abstraction exemplified say. Leos Carax). latter describes in The a moment of attentiverecognition(of dis-figuration) which the object in does remainon the oneandthe same not plane. The first describes habitualrecognitionwherethe film is familiar and banalbecause a it is represented termsof its identity and sameness. by of in involvesa sublime moment of defamiliarisation. on the one hand. Ben'slip-syncingof 'In Dreams'in Blue ltelaet (1986).the writing exudesthe forcesthat it describes. mcrchandisc) irn irssociirtccl but incrcasc in film and nrcdialitcrrrcyrnd ir moclc<lf'vicwing imbricrrtcd with nn .to the nature of its encounterwith othcr or a creativefigure of sensation. Deleuze says: . by The developments include not only new storageand information technologies(television. internet)and agencies pr<lmotion commodiof and fication(rcvicws. newFrench new waye([ean-Jacques the Beineix. rational. Sensationcan be related to the concept of'cinephilia.Martin Scorsese).As in the caseof Deleuze'stime-image.Ina brief example. willemen describes encounter an a 'dangerous moment' that points to a'beyond of cinema'(241). the preferred option is the particularthe Hollywood films of 1940s for and 1950s . Abbas Kiarostami) . passes but throughdifferent planes.its 'blocks'of reflectionand its own in figures. Brian De Palma. video.and on the other.. a 'crystal-image'.)ague. For Deleuze (as for Bacon. encounterwith the an unpresentable ultimatelydirectedtoward abstract ordinary thought or to the brain.advcrtiscmcnts. lncl thc'-bccomings hccoming<lther. (followingJean-Frangois Lyotard) the purely or toward what Deleuzecalls figural. Luc Besson. Paul Willemen suggests that the phenomenonof cinephilia.narrariverepresentational canbe understood a machine film as assemblagea potentiality of intensitiesor sensations that. Focusingupon that aspectof cinephiliawhich escapes existingnetworksof critical discourse.

it is also possiblefor language be deterritorialisedthrough the to positivepower of difference. our r6gimeof visualsignsis overturned by an event in cinema. that there are r6gimes of signs beyond language.for this is vague. guarantees endless the to and also a point of resistance these forms of re-presentation the moment at which the founding principle (Idea)breaksdown to become a positive event. sucha case thinking would not be governedby a precedingsystem. proliferating. the signifier is yet one more way in which we fail to think differencepositively. of genceor genesis signs.but would be violated by the shockor encounterwith life. it concedes can be no knowledgeof pure presence. however.which then organiseor strucof but also the very conceptualisation our ture. structuralistlinguisticsis synchronic.but only signsas they form a system. the reproduction of the cinephile is a type of infinite representation. On the structuralistunderstanding of the signifier.are just examplesof the waysin which life is expressed or differentiated.smokebeing a sign of fire. all thought takes place in a system of signs and all differences mediatedthrough this systemsuch that nothing can be are consideredin itself. Deleuze's argumentfor positivedifference in direct conis trast with the ideathat there is a systemof relationsthat determineslife in advance.248 SIGNIF IER. crLBERr (1926-87) 249 Understoodin this way. positively. and the reproduction of the new both the confirmationof identity and the affirmationof become cinephile. on The revolutionof structuralistlinguisticslay in the insistence world. be described a momentof sensation. or like and love. differential Contemporary a glimpse over the edge of cinematic representation. only knowledgeof the world as mediated through signs. a universal un-founding. GILBERT (1926-87) referto the entries on'cinema* * itnd'phcnomcn<ll<lgy Wcrncr Hcrzog'. it is the case primacy of the signifierextended then thought depends that we think only within a systemof differences. the idea that we are submitted to a system of signsbeyondwhich we cannotthink. The serial repetition of the (global Hollywood) film product.'individuati<ln'. they also conduct a critique of the modern concept of signification.ranging from musicand the visualartsto the signsof the inhuman world . light being a sign for a heliotropeor a bird's refrain being the sign of its territory.'m:ltcrialism' I Iusscrl'. intertextualnetworkof masscultural discourses. . If. According to Deleuze and Guattari.'rationalise'.for we can speakabout other systemsof signs. Signifiers.he also (with Guattari) conducted an intensepolitical assaulton the ideology or despotismofthe signifier. Structuralism is often.Whereaslinguistics prior to strucby turalism might havestudieda word diachronically looking at the way to wordratio comes form a commonroot (andmeaningfulcause) the Latin trational'. therefore. One shouldnot study the emeron. If well beyondlinguistics. treason'. then we might be forced to think In differently and createnew concepts.Deleuzeand Guattari argue. return of the absolutely SIGNIFIER/SIGNIFIED Claire Colebrook a Accordingto the structuralistlinguist. not only our language. extensive niche markets.On the contrary. a life that emits signswell beyondthoseof the system of signification.for we without positivetcrms' of only know and think within a system differences Not only doesDeleuzefavour the linguisticsof Louis Hiclmslcv ovcr thilt or Sirussurc that ihcrc irrc irlrcndyf<rrms clift'crcntirrtions ilrc not so the effect of a languageor conceptualscheme. the resonancecreated within the the intensive experience as can series.How is it that we come to think of thought as reducible to a systemof linguisticsigns? Not only do Deleuzeand Guattari insist. one more way in which we mistakealreadystructuredexperience for the positivestructuring powerof life to differ. consideredto be a for that there 'break' in this history of westernmetaphysics./SIGNIF IED srMoNDoN.Ferdinandde Saussure.while anotherlanguage of The consequences this supposed would not mark out sucha difference. upon a prior structureand that structurecanonly be studiedor criticised asa whole. sumed within globalisedand/or specialised of cinephilia. 'irrational' and so for the modern serialproduct designedto be confunction of a standardised. and on the highly contingentproboth the arbitrarynatureof the signifier duction of the systemof signification. different. So it would be significantthat one languagemight mark a differencebetweengrey and blue. both a generaleconomyof viewing' one which cinephiliathus becomes of circulation (sameness) the cinematicinstitution. Deleuze saysthat while languagecan overcode other systemsof difference. the multiple sensation.There canbe no intuition of anyterm or thing in itself. language is madeup of signifiersor differential marks. Connectives Deterritorialisation/Reterritorialisation Difference SIMONDON.But equally. for example.

the conceptof 'simulacrum'wasneveran essential However. but the one who is able for is to createnew conceptsfrom the material availablein the world.mostrepresentations the world could Discovery and no long conform to the figure of the speculum mund.we must understandthe eternal return in terms of the return and affirmation of the different.The copy to of the copy.He usesthis hierarchy a numberof places. In the Middle Agesthe 'mirror of human salvation' (speculum humane salaationis) charteda typology of eventsin human and in divine time that madeclearthe order of the world on the basisof events The the Old Testamentthat alsohaveanalogues the New Testament. Deleuze also connectsthe thought of the simulacrum to that of the eternal return. and the stablereferenceto a model over This doesnot meanthat Deleuze movements simulacra.doesnot The rely upon something It to do thingsandnot merelyrepresent. the to philosopher not the one searching the Good.cut offfrom reference a model. As Deleuze frequently argues. and without reference a doesoffer one of the strongestforms of his critique of identity.The real concern for Plato is that. 'simulacrum'means'copy'. requiresthis other and thing (whatlinguistics would call the'referent')to giveit sense importance. is asa resultof this positivepower that simulacra can produceidentitiesfrom within the world. and the sophist(the simulacrumof the philosopher. the When.the copy.which funfor damentallyvaluesidentity.250 SIMULACRUM Jonathan Roffe SIM UL ACRUM S IN GU LA R ITY 251 that In his 1990'Preface'to Clet-Martin'sbookon his work. encounterpromptedcosmographers.who uses same the the Deleuzenotesthat while the distinctionbetween modelandthe copy seems mostimportantone for Plato.breaking on beyondit for its force. and the affirmation of a world populated by differences-in-themselves of which arenot copies any prior model.but is itself forceor power. This reveals.and confronts it with a world of pure simulacrum.often conflicting. a reflectivesurface. the in the Sophisf. the 'simulations'of a real itself It of world that hasnow vanished. Plateaus. order. So what is being underminedby and the understanding existence. that of the mirror.a copy standsin for something that is not present.who is in search the Good the (the model). As singularitics . Deleuze. in eachcase is a For example.this moralinterpretation existence goes For a understanding embodies certainnegativitythat is alsoproblematic.puts into questionthe modelcopy systemasa whole.Simulacrado not refer to anythingbehind or beyond the world . matterof distinguishing 'falsepretender'or simulacrum. concepts of which will do enteringinto concreterelations in this case. in mirror wasthat which assured reflectionof a totality and the presence a of registernew. the simulacrum is inaccurateand betrays the it in and model.they make up the world. and goodand bad copies. Connectives Difference Eternal return Plato Representation SINGULARITY Tom Conley In the historiesof cartographyand of the cognition of terrestrialspace. not of the Same. It is in Deleuze's Plato that simulacraare most closelydiscussed.the moral natureof Plato'ssystem. being a step removed from the model. Plato in TheLogic of Sense hierarchyof the model.andthe copyof the copy offersa three-level which is the simulacrum. of the groundless considers world to be madeup of appearances. Deleuzestates part of his philosophy. in the later fifteenth century. discussion of Simply put. can seehere a hint of the understanding We productive-machinethat will emergein Anti-Oedipusand the world as a A Thousand. It is first seenin the 'singularity'is a term that replaces earlymodern period. Ratherthan distinguishing between the eternal return rejects the whole model/copy picture .which is groundedon the valueof the Sameand infusesnegativityinto the world in favourof the productivepowerof the simulacra themselves. Furthermore.the bad in of skillsasthe philosopher search profit or fame. the otherhand. a copy to be a copy of any kind it must havereferenceto somethingit is not It .and sometimes unthinkablethings into works of opcn form.resemblingperhapsthe pupil of an eyeon which were gatheredand assembled variety and wealth of divine creation. copy). is the sense the word 'appearances' that is in question.oceanictravellersventured south and eastfrom Europe to the Indies by way of Africa or west to the Caribbean of of o!easterncoast SouthAmerica. with this picture. of Deleuze here is a representational of that alongwith is ratherthe distinctionbetween the the true and the falsecopieswhich is at the heartof Platonism.Socrates discusses meanswith which we might distinthe (the of guishbetween philosopher goodcopy).

water to drink. organicfunctions) and 'exterior milieus' (food to eat.they are alsopoints that can be seenin series.both an entity of its own perceptual dataand a groundfor the relationthat the monadholdswith its environs. They arethe places where the 'singularities belonging each.or evena topography. recordand copewith new shapes to ofalterity and difference comingfrom distantspaces.For a brief time. With vocabulary notesthat greatwriterspossess'singular the same he conditions of perception'(D 1997b:116). along infinite trajectoriesor lines of flight that lead the thinker anywhere about the world.identity and ideationin Dffirence and. for Deleuze and Guattari.Thus are born works such as Les (by singularitisde la Franceantarctique Andr6 Thevet) or isolarii ('islandbooks'. an organismemerges from chaos('the milieu of space-time.Deleuzenoteshow a 'singularity'is frequentlyassociated condensed with events.a seriesof singularitiesand differences that estrange common usages language of and make the world of both the writer and thosein which the readerlivesvibratein unforeseen compellingways. all milieus') as vibratory milieus or blocks of space-time that create rhythms within the organismas well as with the milieus exterior to the organism. in being awareof wavesof water striking the hull of a boat. Territorial animals(includinghumanbeings)arenaturalartists who establishrelations to imperceptibleas well as perceptibleforces through the refrainsof song (birds)or movements and markings(wolves.The world asa wholeis perceived infinitesimally in microperceptions and gigantically. areextended to the singularities to up of others'(D 1993a: 86).to movefrom a unique site of consciousness an oceanicone. is In Leibniz'sconceptof the monad. and Weresingularityassociated with the 'Causes Reasons the Desert and of Island'. a blocksof totalisedconstruct of spacethat emergesfrom heterogeneous 'I'hcy contrastthcir conccptof 'smrxlthspacc'to thc morc sprcc-timc. regularities from cosmic rabbits)that create rhythms of life-sustaining the The variousrhythms of the human subject's components and their chaos.They arethe eventsthat makeit both unique and common.Lessabstractly. Singularities the'zoneof clear are expression' the monad. TomassoPorcacchiand others). Connectives Event Leibniz Lines of flight SMOOTH SPACE Tarnsin Lorraine ln A Thousand. Singularity allows the subject to perceivethe world in both ways.subjectivity. blocksrather than one homomilieus operates terms of heterogeneous in geneous Thus.infinitesimally and infinitely.All the milieusof the organismhavetheir own patterns and thesepatternsinteract with the patternsof other milieus with which The rhythm of the interactions between thesedifferent they a decisive whereperception felt in movement. singularityshifts variation. singularityis A duration.As islands. a philosopher embraces idea of virtual As he the travel. The conventionalnotion of spaceas a homogeneous within which movement unfolds is thus.affectivity and creation.a regionaldepartment. They are conceived accountfor.rtthc convcntionirl 'snlrxrth . and a unique point but it is alsoa point of perpetualrecommencement of keywords his personal in other words.onc of thc bascs of'his wurk on Repetition. ground to walk on). inflexionsor emissions events. Such is what makesthe to writer changethe world at large through microperceptionsthat become translatedinto a style.Deleuze and Guattari characteriseliving orBanisms in terms of interior milieus' (cellularformation. insularshapes of that contained posa sibly infinite measureof singularities. aboutsingularityinflectDeleuze's work on styleand the creative imagination. notion of spilcc. but first and foremostamongand betweenconceptual islandsor points of singularity. the world itself wastakento be a mass islands of and continents. Milieus are vibratory blocks of space-timeconstituted by the periodic repetition of the configurations forcesthat makesthem what they are of (D&G 1987:313). . The singularitiesof the monad are what assure presence a body in the of or through which they macroperceptions.Indeed singularities allow greatwriters to percepts turn aesthetic into veritable visions. in hearing the whir of a familiar watermill.alsoinsuas of A point anda place larity. Plateaus. by BenedettoBordone. cancelling anomalous interactions amongmilieusin space social of out whole the process. singularity. spircc' hrunts itnd citn disru. or even in sensingmusic that accompanies a'danceof dust'(D 1993a: Theseformulations 86). termsof civic geography sinof in a gularity would be a county. . relations to interior and exterior blocks of space-timebecome territoriof alised into the sentient awareness one organism living in the 'striated' life.Like other and bearsdifferent inflections in different contextsbut is alwaysrelated to perception.indeedwhat Deleuze often calls'open totalities'.(oneof Deleuze's first pieces philosophical of writing)it wouldbc conncctcd with differcncc and rcpctition. WhereverDeleuzeinvokes singularityit can be understood against this historicalbackground.252 SINGUL ARIT Y S MOOTH SPACE 253 theseworks were subjectto changeand revision.

Theseshifts do not occur in space. desertor the forces and tactilequalities. out the undoing of the transcenGuattari seekwhat amountsto a comprehensive order.the act of covering' (D 1986: l). basis of traditional philosophy.though the sourceof subjecti la Kant.Deleuze and. but rather the is this organisation not a transcendental as very form in which real objectsareexperienced activeand dynamic. their reflection on the socius. with no fixed reference point (D&G 1987:479).254 SM OOT H SPACE SOC IU S 255 striations conventional of space. for example world of phenomena. Deleuze distinguishesmovement from space: 'space coveredis past. for and productionis coterminous with social so the latter to takeplacedesirehasto be codedand recoded. In the latter case.ipus.conducted throughIn two volumes of Copitalism and.Deleuzeand Guattari are interestednot in substitutingone conception ofspacewith another. travellingnot from onepoint to a predesignated destination. in which it is declaredthat the entire tradition extendsfrom Plato to yardstick of knowledgeis verisimilitude. of the steppes. Spaces covered movement divisibleand belongto a single. though. A subjectwho orients himself with respectto movements.Theseprinciplesare embodiedin what Deleuzeand Guattari call the 'socius'. experiences space in terms not (I of a totality to which it is connected walk across snowfive milesfrom the the centreof town).local movementsare charted with respect points(thusimposinga planeof organisation to already specified upon the movements that unfold). sociusis said to be necessary productionandreproduction. nomadof the desertin search food might orient A of himselfdifferently.homogeby are neous space while movement changesqualitatively when it is divided. . Schizophrenia.they adhere dentalbasis ofthe constitutionofthe social (transcendental empiricism'. desiringbecause the ln Anti-Oed. which subtendthe constitutionof the socialorder. In a discussion the conceptof the (movement-image' of inspired by Henri Bergson.In the former case.asfor Nietzsche.It is thus a space like that : polar landscapes occupiedby intensities. well scendental judgements. but rather travelling from one indication of food to the next as the need arises. was the the noumenal world.insistedthat the counterpartto of the 'noumenalabsolute'.In Plato's caseverisimilitude whereasfor derivesfrom an ideal 'world of Forms' (the transcendent).l)csirc is simultancously part it playsin consolidating capitalist thc its cntboclinrcnts by whiclrtrccsit fi'onr prcvious rrnd cnablcd lirrritccl which the basisfor the constitution to the (asopposed possible) is to experience sought. rather they establishdifferent configurationsof nomad and vegetation landscape unfold asthe smoothspace the search and that of for food. that subiects is The socius the terrain for rolesand functions. For Deleuze. could alsojump or run). of what Deleuze and Guattari in A Thousand Plateauscall are con'deterritorialization'.but rather through the tactile relations of any number of observers(D&G 1987 493).The well-known philosophical counter-tradition inaugurated by Friedrich undertooka dismantling Nietzsche. movementis present.In sodoing. rather than a retrospectively created constructof space. principles. also transcendental There are as moral aesthetic perhapslesswidely acknowledged than the onesthat underlie traditional philosophy. but rather in terms of pure relationsof speedand slowness(snowunder moving feet aswind lifts hair) that evokepowersto affect and be affected. constituted (or by the activity of the transcendental non-empiricallygiven)subjectof possibleexperience. Kant. actsofcoveringthat arenot referredto space ceivedasa uniform area measurable of units within which changes occur. ordcr. it unfoldsthrough 'an infinite succesand sion of linkages and changes direction' that creates in shifting mosaics of space-times of the heterogeneous out (D&G blocksof different milieus 1987: 494). and continuedby Martin Heidegger. canbe prepared their social for stemsfrom the Anotherrationale the socius of this codingand recoding. ratherin how forces but striatespace and how at the same time it developsother forces that emit smooth spaces (D&G 1987: 500). spaceshifts with eachmovement in keepingwith shifts in meetingthe needfor food. The smooth spacesharedwith othersemerges with reference not to an 'immobile outside observer'.This proiectis 'tranof real require a nonscendental' so far as the conditionsfor real experience in empirical organisationof the objectsof experience. both actualand potential (pushingfeet againstground. Connectives Deterritorialisation Rcterritorialisation / Nomadicism Space Subjectivity SOCIUS Kenneth Surin Traditional philosophyrelied overwhelminglyon the operationof tranas principleswhich wererequiredto makeclaimspossible. to was ImmanuelKant this world of the transcendent banished the realm Kant.and the work of of the transcendental an Deleuzeis to be locatedin this tradition. Movements. A personon a trip to anothercity might orient himself by followingthe roadmappedout through socialconvention from one point to another.

undertakenby a 'territorial machine'. Deleuzecallsthe apprehenof sion of space 'exhaustion' meaning.which functionsasa kind of transcendental r6gime for the investment socialdesire.aswell asthe needto createnew forms of collective(as opposed merelyindividual) liberation. Social machines organise flowsof powerand desireby codingthem.and is the primordial unity or ground of desireand production.homogeneity. that scatterswhat we take to be the reality in which we live. modernsocieties. and Deleuzeand Guattarirespond the crucialquestion the surface to of on which inscriptiontakes place invokingthe notion of the earth. singularities. fuel that drivesthis machine desire.Other principles. flows that involve bodily functions and organs. these to of forms being neededto link humansto their (technical) machines. is the is though desireis shapedand orchestrated its insertioninto this megaby machine.after this decodingby capital.y.Importantly. since capital requires intersubstitutibility.this kind of liberato tion cannotbe sponsored either by the Stateor capital. I)clcuzc and Guttttri opt firr onc that is markcclby rupturcs. The almost mystical tenor of Deleuze'swork on spaceand the event (cspecially "I'hc Exhaustcd'in . flows havehad to becomemore abstract.and sonothing canescape purview the of the socius. an of The artist dissipates meaningin order to makespacepalpableat the moment it is both createdand annihilated.called 'schizoanalysis' or 'nomadology'.A given image or concept. since an over-valuationof the individual is requiredto compensate the massive for collectivedisinvestment that takesplacein the socialas a result of the inexorable growth of the processes abstraction. For the philosopher. There areall kinds of flows:differentkindsof humans.For both Godard and Beckettit could be saidthat the stakes those are of 'exhausting space'(D 1997b:163). out of Once territorialisationhas occurred. Schizoanalysis nomadolor ogy provide a new conception of experienceand desiring-production.Only then can it be seenand felt in an event.The earth by precedes the constitution of the socius. relentlessquantification. If the socius a megamachine. facilitatethe has To functioning of capitalism. the Coding or 'inscription' are thus central to the constitution of the socius.ironies and contingencies.ra. are effective in this domain too. Guattari Psychoanalysis Schizoanalysis SPACE Tom Conlejt In a view of a port seenat night at the beginningof Jean-Luc Godard's Pierrotlefou (1965).which parcels the earthinto segments socialmeaning. an importantessay Samuel In on Beckett. but alsowith death and cruelty. Connectives Capitalism Desire Earth/Land. The first form of the socius has thereforeto involve a territorialisation.beginsby refusingany kind of transcendental principle purporting to serveas the ground of the socius.primarily concerned of with morality and punishment. The alternative. Hand in hand with this abstracto tion goes a privatisationof the social. Deleuzenotesthat spaceis rich in potentialitybecause makespossible it the realisationof events. The remark could apply to all of Deleuze'swritings.Whereverphilosophycreates events.s in Criticaland Clinical)is cxplained by whatthc historirrn rcligionMichcl clc(lcrtciruwritcsin a l9ll4 study of . non-humananimals. and desire.limits.In placeof the logic of necessityand continuity that characterised previous social ontologies.Space in is somethingthat is at the edges of Deleuze's modelfilms in his work on the timeimage. in a sudden disjunction. Dispensingwith psychoanalysis the ontology for how a sociusis conas stituted. a voice quotes a passage from Elie Faure on Velasquez: 'Space reigns'. it becomespossiblefor social (the coreof the socius) operate. natureof this insertionof desireinto the In the socialmegamachine been significantlyrransformed. creates and dissipates space the time of its perception. recoups it literatureandthe artsin general. vegetation.when it is seenor engaged.256 SO CI US SPAC E 257 or codingssothat it canbe placedat the disposal ofcapitalisr expansion. is space what is at oncecreatedand exhausted annihilated or in the creationof an event. Deleuze and Guattari find it necessary replace Freudianism to with a different ontology. machines to Socialmachines havehumans as their parts and are essential the generation cultural forms. is reined in or recodedso that it can subserve novel requirementsof capitalistproduction. and exchange mechanisms work. Traditional logic displacesdesire asthe motor driving the socialmegamachine.As suchthe earthis the preconditionof productionwhile alsobeingthe objectof desire. and soon. of The vehicles this privatisation ruled by of are the Oedipusprinciple. Nothing escapes coding.Es. emphasisingforms of experimentation not constrained by the ego or Oedipal structures. agricultural implements.

history or economicconflict.that canbe measured terms in of surface volume. indeedwhat is seen experienced the world at large. does belongto a prelapIt not sarianworld from which humanshavefallen (asRousseau might argue). or The taskof the filmmakeris to make visible these non-placesbefore fracturing and dispersing them through creative manipulation.digitalartists undo thc barriersusedto fix and definethe 'Self'. firing of electhe trons. smoothspaces. that is determined and given to be what it is without being inflected by a useror a traveller. space no longerbe When arborescence can separated from human actors.Thc nomacl. Smoothspace be perceived andthroughstriated can in space. A placeis a givenarea.Like philosophers.served asa passivebackground against which humans stagedtheir dramatic actions.itself a placethat canbe affectively spatialised infinite ways.measure. phiklsophcr. namedand mapped.Spaceendowedwith virtual qualitiesexists betweenrhizomatic lines and is more intensivethan extensive. areas that aretantamountto the folds and creases eventsthat vibrate of in the body. Digital artistsquestion the mrrrkcd and finitc body by disembodying by producing lloclywithout it. giveswayto rhizomaticthinking. space a drawn and riddled with lines of divide and demarcation that name. absence boundaries.many digital artists questionlimits in order to destabilise selfthat is definedby the position the it occupiesor owns in the world. the taskof the philosopher to turn'commonplaces' is into matterfor more exhaustivespeculation.The taskof the philosopherand artist is to takethe most innocuous or ineffectual of all placesand to fragment (even atomise or molecularise) strip them of their potenrial. in Paisan (1947) or Germany. Placein this senseis equivalent to Deleuze'sconceptof an espace quelconque.and creates new spaces.'an urban cancer. Deleuze's In lexiconthat pertains space place. an a wasteland'(D 1986:212) that haveas rheir counterparts clich6sof the everydaylife.human versusanimal. orderto deterritorialise and in in given places.It is definedby a flow of forcesand henceis perceived haptically instead optically. by thc and the scientist and artist alikeare capable creatingspaces of through the trajectories their passages movefrom one territory to anotherand of that from givenstriationson the surface the world to smoothand intensive of areas. indifferent surface.258 SPACE SPAC E + D IGITAL AR T 259 of the inventionof everyday life: Spaceis a discursive practiceof a place. Accordingly. Rhizomaticthinking makesits way into the virtual spaces computers of and digital art.Without boundariesor measure. rr Organs([]wO) :rnda machinic boclyof dcsirc.On their computers.rhizomatic connectivities and the creation of hybrids: all of thesedescriptivesabound in Deleuze's writings and asa result they makehim a favouriteof digital artists. of speed. to .Therein are engendered other spaces that can be hypotheticaland utopian or evenvirtual.nor is it utopian unlessit can be thought of in coniunctionwith irs 'srriated' counterpart. 'any-space-whatsoever'. blurrings of sexualor species boundaries. Working with Spinozist questions'What cana bodydo?'and'Wheredo the senses end?'. Striatedspace is one wherelinesand pointsdesignate itineraries and trajectories.A 'smoothspace' onethat is boundof and is lessand possibly oceanic.YearZero (1948)extendsbeforethe eyesof the spectatorproliferationsof any-spaces-whatsoever. appropriateand distribute spaceaccordingto inheritedpolitical designs. that his cameramakesuntenableand inhuman.It becomes or space only whenit becomes siteof exista entialengagemenr amongliving agents who mark it with their activities or affiliate with dialogueand acriveperception.A Body without Organs(BwO) bearsa surface smoothspace of that lackszones organs or that haveaffective privilegeoverothers.or human versus cyborg .nature versusculture. smoothspace frequently affiliatedwith the unconscious. in Connectives Body without Organs Deterritorialisation/Reterritorialisation Nomadicism Smoothspace Utopia Virtual/Virtuality SPACE + DIGITAL VerenaConlelt ART Open spaces. this respect nomadis the person thinkerwhoconstantly In the or creates spacc movingfrom placcto placc. to and deterritorialisation andreterritorialisation at thebasis mosrbiological philosophare of and icalactivity. Roberto Rossellini. It setsout to undo limits and collapsebinaries. and thus it is more a space affects sensations of or than properties (D&G 1987:479).Deleuze puts in question traditionalconcepts ofspacethat. is 'intensive' of It wherestriated space 'extenis sive'. human versusmachine. is Space elsewhere measured Deleuze's in politicalwritingsaccording to degrees smoothness striation. asreselctens&. space a that is without borderor distinctionthat would privilegeonesiteor place overanother. network digital artists experimentwith connections betweendifferent species to create hybrids and becomings. is It is 'occupiedby eventsor haecceities more than by formed and perceived things'.A wcb of'coltncctivity thrrt 'l'his wcb is pcrccivccl hc inlinitc opcnsonlo ncw lrrrdothcr spilccs.

it continuously createsand recreatesrrew virtual spaces through hybrid connections.It extracts constants helpsconsoliand datea society ofcontrol.for spinoza.The Statecannotcompel the individual as long as she is seento obey. makingpossible creationof virtual spaces. For Nietzsche.since it cannot be constrainedby the state or milieu from which it emerges. however.and especiallyNietzsche's doctrine of the eternal return. Computersand the internet are presently under the spellof finance capitalism. thc Eticnncllalibar.It canopento new virtual spaces infinite becomings. llrc irrrd birdcorrscicncc.the individual concerned will not want the terms undcr which shc lives life to be any diffcrcnt.can be liberating.260 s P rN o z A) B AR U C H (r632-77) sPr NozA) BARUcU ( r 6 32.Also important for thesethinkershasbeenthe useof spinoza asa resourceto reconceptualise some of Karl Marx's more important categoriesand principles. and generals whoseown livesare markedby an internal sado-masochism. llrc .coupled with this resurgence been a parallel has development the areaof more technicalcommentary Spinoza.the person who will not be a victim of the sad passions. the Digital art seems times to be an extension concepts at of that Deleuze developed with Guattariin the conrextof informationtheoryand art creates hybrids and opensto becomings. good and evil haveno reality exceprin so far as they stemfrom the dispositionto obeyor disobeythosein authority. accordingto Deleuze. lose Art. has the potential of escaping the capitalist economic sphere capitalism as consolidates throughcontrol. BARUCH (1632_7 7\ Kenneth Surin In the last few dccadcs writingsof Louis Arthusscr. they argue. Life for Spinoza. SPINOZA. whichis tttrttcdtowirlds olhrrr. In both cases. where experience mediatedthrough is the medium rather than narure. epistemology Ren6Descartes.including the textsco-written all with Guattari. Networks are in incessant circulation.Deleuzehimselfdealtwith Spinozain two texts:his 1968doctoralthesisSpinozaet leproblime l'expression 1992)and the (D d.the eternal return meansthat one will be willing to experience over and over againin exactlythe sameway.e 1970 shorter text Spinoza: Philosophie pratique (D 1988c). judges. notionsof moral culpability. they seepossias and If bilitiesof becoming throughconnections between humans and machines or the creationof new spaces) they also flatly condemnthe political abuses through the world of the digital mediaand the internet.whilst digitalart experimentsin and with virtual spaces and. life where Spinozais concerned.hrrtrcd. like everyother science. hrvc nrrrrkcd ir resurgenceof interest in the thought of Baruch Spinoza.Hence.77) 261 replaces stable. a rigorousinnocencewithout merir or culpability' (D 1988c: 4). alsoconstructed is aroundorder-words.iust as there are many Platos and Hegels.Technology. for therefore.though the thoughtof spinozapermeates his works.assoin on ciated primarily with the massive works of Martial Gueroult and Alexandre Matheron.tlrcrc ilrc two primirry kirrdsof'firrccs wlriclr dinrinish lifb . Picrrc Mrrchcrcy. Deleuzeviews Spinozaas the first thinker to make judgementsabout truth and virtue inescapably social.and so DeleuzecreditsSpinozawith beingthe first philosopherto placethought outsidethe purview of the Stateand its functions:Spinoza.'solicitsforces in thought that elude obedience well asblame.responsibility. Needless to say. Antonio Ncgri.Digital art emphasises permanentflux.It can help createand recreate world that no a longerexiststo be represented. magneticstreams and fluid desires.will be someonewhoseactions the cannot be an occasion regret. exracts It constantsand discourages true becomings.simulation replacesrepresentation.In virtual spaces. while unravelling boundaries verat tiginous speed. aspirant for beatitude. and They warn us that humansshouldnot deludethemselves: information science.Deleuze's use of Spinoza is inevitably selective. canbreakdown barriersbetween It human and machine.Similarly. lror spinozir. irreducibly positive:life cannotbe enhanced is if it is trammelled by the interdictions of priesrs. Emphasisis placed on constructionand not on finality. and Deleuze's Spinozais a Spinozaread through the eyesof Friedrich Nietzsche. Spaces their virtual qualities. the tranthe of and scendental rationalismof ImmanuelKant and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. a finite self and increases possibilities becomingfor the of human beings. I)clcuzc rncl rthcrs.and fashionsthe imageof a life beyond good as and evil.There are many Spinozas. latter deploysits orderthe words to build barriersand arrestmovements that it would otherwise be unableto channelfor its own ends.saysDeleuze in Spinoza: Practical Philosophy. The philosophers drawfrom GregoryBateson's notionof the world asa circulation of differencesalong circuits that function as forebearers comof philosophy much ascybernetics computerscreens. in which Spinoza'smaterialistontology has been used as a framework for constructing a matrix of thought and practice not regimented by the axioms of Platonicmetaphysics.

Spinoza recognises order of fortuitous encounters:bodies an encounter otherbodiesand in somecases singulararrangements one the of body are suchthat they 'fit' the singulararrangements the bodiesthey of encounter. The appropriationof Spinoza'sthought by Deleuze(and Guattari) is undeniably selective. but not every arrangementis compatiblewith the others.The nodal point that representsthe linkageof this commitmentis the Nietzschean affirmationof the 'eternalreturn' .Actions themselves constitutea person'saffirmationof life and his will to exist. But Deleuzehas of alsolaid claim to an ethic of joy.On this plane.labyrinths. capableof sustaining experimentation and a new appetitefor living.he cannoteasilybe madeto sharethe same premisses theoretical as the anarcho-Marxism Deleuzeand Guattari. together they increase each other's power of affectivity.the lynchpin of Deleuze'sontology and the indispensableimperativeof his ethics. this order helpshim articulate the virtual/real.a czna. Knowledge understood in this way is essentiallymaterial and contingent. Deleuzeand Guattari'skinship with Spinozastemsfrom their perception that philosophy todayhasto cometo termswith the emergence new of knowledgesthat havebeen accompanied the explosiverise of a whole by rangeof new sciences. the extentthat desireis not phantasmatic.Spinoza's works.262 s PrN o z A . Sometimes somebodiesare incompatiblewith others' arrangements. is it neithera 'want' nor 'lack' but the effort of an individualentity to persevere in its own existence. eachconnection or set of connectionsproceedingwith its own speedand slowness. the structural but textures. since no individual knows aheadof time what their bodily affectsare and what they are likely to involve in relation ro other individuals and forces.Providedthat we do not separate as from essence action. of Spinoza'srigorous immanentismand Deleuzehasoften beenpraisedfor his (Stoic)commitmentto the ethicsof the event . difficult to think of czna.But in Spinoza. producingconnections real in their function and revolutionaryin their multiplicity. however. Deleuze's allegiancc Spinozapermits him to arguethat the questionof to the effort of thc individualto maintainand prokrnghis cxistcncc tlso is . There is a rationalismin Spinozathatisdownplayed in Deleuze's interpretationof him. Connectives Eternal return Immanence Materialism sPrNozA + ETHTCS JOY OF Constantin Il Bound. thereis alsoan orderof organisation. the articulationof which is the result of his many encounters with Baruch Spinoza. To of desire is the power that one is not.are very much in evidence in Deleuze's oeuvre.In Deleuze's work. as it was in the age-old not Aristotelianmetaphysics that dominatedphilosophyuntil the Enlightenment.Deleuzeborrowsfrom Spinoza's schema intensities.knots.All this notwithstanding.intensitiesand becomings. alsowith surfaces. all of which can be analysed in terms of suchnotionsasthoseof strings. Deleuze thinks of desire as an affirmative. basedon the creationof'nonstandard' logicsand topologies change of and relation. of that within which all singularessences cohereand aremutually responsible for eachother'sproduction. mediatedin complex waysby the thought of several other thinkers. with its own lawseternallydeterminingthe conditionsfor the cominginto being and the enduranceof singularentities. rhythms.tus be understood the essence can as ofan entity or its degree of power.Here the distinctionbetween progressive and regressive annexationbecomesthe urgent task of the ethicist. and while Spinozawascriticalof State power. which allows one to go as far as this power pgrmits: the powerto annexbeing. its forms and functions. the In an effort to think aboutdesireasjoy.'schizoanalysis'). Spinozaspeaks an order of essences. In this new ontology. of an order of intensities.Only a new kind of life. Also important in this ontology are the linkagesbetweendifferent bodies.and typically devised dealwith situto ations that have the characterof the irregular or the arbitrary (what Deleuzeand Guattaricall'nomad thought'. connections and so on. primarily the Ethics.culminating in the forming of a nexusof connections. thinks of conatus beingdetermined as Spinozaalways by its capacityto affect and to be affected.tus desire.our becomingworthy of the event through the processof counter-actualisation that which is happeningto us.'rhizomatics'.a body is definedby its speeds and slownesses. Deleuze'sdesire is modelled after Spinoza'sconatus. delineatean intellectualframework(going under the name of an 'ethics') for leadingthis new life. is. therefore. These new logicsand topologies concernthemselves only with not principlesofchangeand process.thus when they meet they decrease powerof one another.arrangements are made ad infinitum.non-intentionalintensity. BA R U C H ( t6 3z-77) SPIN OZA + ETH IC S OF IOY 263 which is turned inwards. Spinozais viewedby Deleuzeasthe pre-eminentprecursorof this'nomadthought'.flows. Nietzsche and Bergsonarealsoexemplary predecessors. can overcome thesenegative and reactive passions.thoughclearlyfor them Leibniz.

Clastres arguedthe Stateis the condition for undertakingsignificanteconomic and political projectsand the division of labour that ensues from theseprojects. It is no longerthe generality the commonnotion that standsfor the of cogitandum practicalreason.Clastreshad arguedagainstthe conventional evolutionistaccountof the emergence of the Stateas a form of political and socialorganisation. filling us with new capacities be affected.and so logically and empirically the division of labour does not condition economicand political projects. the countervailing Capital/State hasa negative relationship the forcesand forms that opposcit. and Instead. evenan inadequate ideacauses affect. to In thc prcscntcapitalistc<tnjuncturc.Active desire/joy accompanies common the notionsasour powerto act increases. Passive affectionsare turned into activeonesthat are capable transvaluof ing and transformingstates affairs. especiallysince the State supplies capital with its models realisation. Accordingto this traditional account.and as we developa better understandingof theseaffections activejoy increases. then. is Nevertheless.In turn our capacity understand ro sadness and contrariety is enhanced. Finally.whoseadequate an cause are we not. in In Capitalism andSchizophrenia. sothereis alsonecessarily antagonism of and an itselfby organbetween capitaland labour. sry is worklwidcirxiolrrirtic . An entire geneticphenomenology the becoming-active human of of beingscanbe found in Spinoza's Ethics. our At this time. in the age of a globalised and worldintegrated capitalism.the Statecan developonly when a socictyrcnchcs ir ccrtaindcgrccof complcxity. of The sadness the stateof affairspasin sively affecting us is transformed into a ioyful affirmation of the event.capitaland the Stateareunder unceasing As internal pressure neutraliseand containthe antagonism to that. We begin with passive desires/joysthat increase power ro our act despite the fact that they are at the mercy of inadequateideas. paradoxically. an an affectwhoseadequate cause our own powerto think and is.the State is still neededto regulate the flows of productionand to reproduce forms of accumulation.industrialcapitalism usedthe figureof the mass workerand disciplinary socialformations. Against this view. the function of the State/capitalin the current phase capitalist of accumulation is to engagein the work of disaggregation. surplus-value by sodoingmakeproductionandaccumulation and goes (State's) power Along with the formationof collective subjectivity the of subjection. wasthe case as with the previouseconomic dispensations.But.Conversely. and this is what inspiresDeleuze's ethicsof joy. is a passion. of STATE Kenneth Surin Deleuzeand Guattarihavea conception the Statethat is indebtedto the of work of the anthropologistand anarchistPierre Clastres. The State's capacity engage the formationof a collective to in subjectivity.264 STATE STATE 265 a questionof how to enable maximumexperience activeaffects. is the eventthat must be grasped of it through the process counter-actualisation. authorsof Cupitulism thc untt Sthizophrcnia thitt crrpitnlisnr an indcpcndcnt. begin to form common we notions. enabling the creation of surplus-value.Deleuzeand Guattari follow Clastres repudiatingthis evolutionisttheory. a result. neededto constitute labour as a productive force. the influenceof Friedrich Nietzsche Deleuze's in ethicsof joy is revealed:the pedagogyfor the formulation of adequateideas becomes process the counter-actualisation that which happens the of of to us. no longercount on accidental we encounters multito ply joyful passions. therefore. a result. this powerof the But dominationis no longermediatory. or adequate ideas.Capitalexistsand perpetuates ising itself to orchestrate and contain this proletarianantagonism.and an affect. The assemblages it createdand maintained by the Stateand capital createa collectivesubiectivity which establishes the material aspects of the productive forces that generate possible. doesnot remain the samethroughout history. is the very thing that enables to exist. thanks to thesedesiresand passions. The necessary concomitant the State's of apparatuses'capacity engage this to in task of organisationis the production of surplus-valueand facilitating inadequare idea being the idea whosecause not in our own powerto understand. as much asthe State is no longer neededto create in and maintain classes other socialand economicsubgroupings. adequate an idea finds its formal causein our power to think and to understand.Deleuze Guattari view the Stateas and powerthat bringstogetherlabourpowerand the prior conan overarching ditions for the constitution of labour power. The despoticState in early historical times used slaveryand serfdomwith their accompanying forms of subjectivity for this task. primrrrily its capacity crciltc cvidcnccd by to and sustaina more sophisticated division of labour.and today.In this case. segment. the of The order of fortuitousencounters doesnot giveus an edgebecause leadsto it the formation of inadequate ideas. to this combinationconsrirutes the activelife of the individual. there is a constitutive antagonisticrelation As between the State and labour.and also generates affectin us.activeioy replaces passions. administrative and powerthat the proletariathasdeveloped.through to procedures the useof mediaand informationalsystems. is an action.

As paradoxicalmeta-narrativeforms. the signifier comes ro adopt instead a kind of physical or distinct independenceand objecthood. Plateaus.v. language(and semiotics as the scienceof language)can clearly be seenas an organising principle that presumes to make senseof our experienceof these components that.Deleuze and Guattari also show that linguistic terms or signifiers rend ro be used in such generalisingand structural ways that they ceaseto function linguistically in relation to a specific idea or field of content. and all capital has become social capital. Connective Capitalism STRATIFICATION K1lie Message Deleuze and Guattari explain 'stratification' is an ongoing. Deleuze and Guattari show that language.1 'l'httusttntl to irctivcly ilpply. as human subiectivity' leisure and play. In what is perhaps the most useful and accessible paradox of Plateau 3 of A Thousand. languageaffects every aspectof the universe by contextualisingthem within a singlc sphere of interaction. and embraceinsteadthe forever-formative to also 'stratification' refers whatis cssentially the However. while acknowledging that they need to invoke the system they aim to critique (languagemust be used for generalcommunication to occur between writers and readers). artistic. as well as the subject matter or content contained by that form. principle an organising l)ltrlcttrts (. Hence the production of social cooperation. rhizomatic or processthat contributes to the line of emergence becoming. the age of the societies of control (as opposed to thc disciplinary societies of the previous epoch). Deleuze and Guattari contend that all articulations are always already a double articulation becausethey are consrituted by the dual components of content and expression.However. undertaken primarily by the service and informational industries in developed countries' has become crucial for capitalism. when combined. Deleuze and Guattari insist that the deterritorialising effect of State/Capital merely produces an even more powerful reterritorialisation. for its own purposes: subjugating minorities through forced integration and extermination. but rather because the separation between State and society can now no longer be maintained. every articulation (or stratum) consists of abstract and discrete components.low't 'r cr '.Straddling these fields.within these systems. As such. In the present conjuncture. Towards this end. State/Capital only breacheslimits in order to impose its own limits.This reiectionof a unifying subiectivity process may (or may not) lead to our Body without Organs(BwO).$t 266 ST RAT IF ICAT ION S TR A TIFIC A TION 267 i l that is like a single City. capitalism will cven create States that are not viable.all processesof becoming occur at lcast initially . and so forth). However. process/term writersin thcir rrttcmpt it whercby assists of sorts. Society and State now constitute a single and unified nexus. In this milieu. In accord with this. or 'megamachine' of which the States are parts. These often forgotten journeys and the non-cognitive decisions that accompany our movements are precisely where a potential line of flight or becoming may be located. and in evoking largely taken-for-granted State systems. cllr c .S i tttssttri rttt ( 'cl) ls 'sigr r ilict '' r nt l'sigr r iliet l')I.a primary point of discussionemergesas the relationship betweenthe production and reception of language(via theoriesof semiotics). religious. For Deleuze and Guattari. are incorporated into the latest regimes of accumulation. and in its current phasethis propensity has become more marked than ever. like Somalia and Rwanda. the chaotic principles motivaring maintenanceof the conccptsof the carth and God function to destabilisethe claims for truth or universality that are often associated with somehowmore seamless semiotic theorics that attempt to provide a generalisingexplanation for all aspectsof reality.<lr which wc miry lltcrnativcly consiclcr throttgh tl rc lcr r r r s of ''cxlt r cssior r 'r r ncl 'cr ) nlcnl'( t lr csc r clllr r r . whereby the relationship betweensignifier and signified is further obliterated. We can understand this to mean that strata come in pairs and are themselves made up of a double articulation that can then be recognisedas molar and molecular (and bound by the third evcn more varirblc tcrm/linc <lf nomaclic). produce realit. The processes(rather than just the effects) of everyday experience are invoked by Deleuze and Guattari in order to show interweaving journeys between statesofconsciousnessand unconsciousness that we both take and make routinely and repetitively. for Deleuze and Guattari this is not because the State itself has been abolished. the term provides both an organising form for discussion. that is. megalopolis. Instead.or put iuto prircticc thcir iclcas r rirls t1 p rrt tillt h ir s c lic s of ' ' 1' r r : t gt t t r t lit ' s 't r t l l t c t 'l l t r t t t r t b s t t 'i t c t t h c o l i e s ) . that is. productive labour is inserted into every section of society: the universality of capital is simultaneous with the omnipresence of everything that createssurplus-value. : rir r t lit 'ir t cr l r ol cor) r s lr l .organic or anthropomorphic catcgories. is constituted by a seriesof strata that have been traditionally contained by physiochemical. capital has become the ubiquitous milieu that secures the isomorphism of even the most disparate forms (commercial. like all systemsand all aspectsof life. and so on. or neighbourhoods. As such. Capitalism has always striven to create an economic order that is able to function without the State.

a third in the stomach.thc f<llcling firrcc. It is not the point of view that varies within the subject. another in the liver.variation and metamorphosis' (D 1988b: 106). despite the fact that the layers may cooperate with each other or bleed into one another in order to produce new strata or lines of deterritorialisation. in Empiricism Subjectialry reconciliation.. make the organisation of subjectivity possible. the subject is the tensive arrangement of many larval subjects. It also reproduces patriarchy by producing hicrarchically gendered subiects in accordance with specific values and imperatives that thrive within the nuclear family. nd f ir ur t lr . functions somewhere. and an organising as well as organised principle through which our subiectivity is only ever provisionally contained. ln Empiricismand Subjectioity. Meanwhile. ll' t . (a that subject he outlines and. Capitalism and the isolation of the nuclear family from society that capitalism facilitates provide a perfect rraining ground for the ascetic subjectivity that capitalism requires.the entire World obscurely. rhe subject is the result of a processof subjectivationin accordance with four foldings. or cause-and-effect relationship regulating their production or existence. these fictions act as the horizons of all possiblebeliefs. t hc f ir lclir r g 't hc or r t sidc.rte withoutsubjects. posit iotts I rl t ltc c:rlrt in Foucault he writes that 'the struggle for [modern] subjectivity presents itself.The reconciliationof thesepositions hinges on our ability to read each one of them as a separateanswer to a distinct question.wit lr or r tt hc or r t sit lt .Far from establishingthe seamless identity of the subiect. These are as foll<lws: first. it is important to note that the layers. becauseneither God nor World can evcr be objects of knowledge. N<lthing (). planes or discrete strata of content or expression are arbitrary. blirgcs . The concept of 'stratification' is an attempt to promote a new kind of thinking about the way language produces an image of reality (and is itself reframed as a product of this same activity). It emerges not as the agent of selection but as an after-effect of desiring-production.Schizophrenia. in The Fold a subject is that which comes ro a poinr of view. it sr . Deleuze and Guattari propose in Foucault that the inside is an operation ol the outside or a doubling up of the outside. the Dialogues explains ilsscmcollcctivc whichconstitr. (D throughwhichit is developed' l99l: 85' 86).moral sympathy over those who are not our kin). for the subject is an entity out of joint (cracked).268 s u BJ Ec rIVIrY SU BJEC TIVITY 269 the more generally acceptedbreakdown in referential relations between the signifier and signified. First. For Deleuze in Dffirence and Reltetition. Language is an important point of focus becauseit is both a grand and minor narrative. together with the associativerules of our speculative interest.rrst ) l ()fl7: l s' rtttd ivc tll'rtott-strbicct powcrs cll'cct (l . Connectives Becoming Body without Organs Lines of flight Rhizome Semiotics Signifier/signified Subjectivity SUBJECTIVITY Constantin V Boundas or as the Deleuzeabandons old imageof the subiect a fixedsubstance foundation the right to difference.A it of g l )ct' sol docs tt ol lir lt l t hc lilr ccscor r r posir rlht 'r r r . interiority of the traditional whosesourceis not the elements erogeneous is imageof thought. to seem defy aboutsubiectivity shiftingattitudes Deleuze's At first glance. by is defined themovement but that thereare 'no more subiccts. by expressing clearly only a small region of the world. capableof drawing a difference from repetition.Deleuzeinsiststhat subiectivity not given. he Second. Deleuze outlines that the inrensive. Yet. thc ti rlcling o1'knowlcdgc. sccond. the subject's recognition of itself as subject is described by Deleuze and Guattari as 'retrospective'. Here.1). this organisation shows us that the subiect's constitution is a fiction. on the contrary it is the condition through which an eventual subject apprehendsvariation.There would be no belief in the subject without the (illegitimate and fictitious) belief in God and the World . There is a self lurking in the eye. in favour of a subject that is the provisionaloutcomeof of subiectis an assemblage hetThe Deleuzian of a process subjectivation. individuations dynamic rtccording f:tkc but subjcctivc haccccitics shapc bccomcs . provided that the point of view is one of variation. In Cultitalism and. inregrative act of our practical interesr (extension of an initially intensive . or rather that which remains at the point of view. thc mrrtcriirlpirrt of <lursclvcs. signifier-signified.illegitimate.yet narrow . There is no is always underconstruction.A subject is the inclusive disjunction borne from the contracrion of all these selves. of thi rcl . . including the (illegitimate and fictitious) belief in the subject and its unity. A subject is a monad that includes in itself and also conveys . A self exists as long as a contracting machine.

asfor Deleuze. his uscof'llcnri In of'hcsitation . intensive and The bracketing of 'the other'. in of This rupture canand doesproducepossibilities resingularisation. aesto thetics can operateas a rupture in otherwisedominant r6gimesof signifi(the cationand expression clich6sof our beingand indeedof our consumer culture). encouraged It new relationships At and new experiences.l'autrement qu' both the individual and collectivesense.but an encouragement becomeinvolved. in the presence of others. Here is the 'habit' is takento meannot just our daily routinesbut alsoour dominant refrainsand typical reactionsto the world. What emerges after the bracketingof the other as structure all possible of worldsis the 'otherwise other'. with groups and individuals. for Anothcrwayof thinkingthis 'immancnt acsthctic' asinvolving kind is a or gilp bctwccnstimulusrnd rcsponsc. forms the backgroundfrom which forms and it riseup. and the otherspatialises temporalises. ethics involvesexploring what a body. Connectives Capitalism Desire Fold Memory SUBJECTIVITY Simon O'Sullizsan + ART Deleuzehasbeenportrayedasa philosopher dissolution. Involving the coming togetherof two 'bodies'that essentially agreewith oneanother. beinginvolvedin the parallelprojectof in as This is evenmore the case the construction.that is joltful . In this sense aesthetics becomes important. The ideology of 'lack' and negationthat kept the subject'sdesirecaptiveis now shownto be the result of socio-historical processes one'sown processual self-creation.rather than the irreducible of datum of subjectivity.and in fact a ately it an of certainovercoming one'sseparation from the world. havethe concomitant resultof increasing our suchencounters capacityto act in the world. but of finding creatioe linesof flight that leadsomewhere from which one can and 'return'. Further. of but ultimproduces understanding one'sself and world . the human.Folding is the memoryof the outside. Through involvement with certain materialsof expression.encounters.270 suBJEcrrvrry + ARr suBJEcrrvrtv * Rnr 271 also being folded. which wasalwaysinvolved in thinking through what Guattaricalled'resingularisation': potentialityfor.and alwayswith an toutside'we can open up new universes reference: of new waysof seeing and beingin the world.Aesthetics hereneednot be a transcendent a particular configuration).For Spinoza. For Guattari La Borde clinic operatedasjust sucha siteof transformation.for it is nevera questionof wildly destratifying of dosages. understood as a srrategythat helps free us from the strata that constitutesus aJ human (that is to say.this For is a pragmaticand specifically materialistproject. It is in this sense that Deleuzemight alsobe understood a construcas (lcrtainlyhc is involvcd thc prodigions tivephilosophcr.Indeed a cursoryreadingof A Thousand. perhapsmost infamouslyin the notion of the Body without Organs (BwO).it relativisesdistances differences.or production. subjectivity.we might alsoseehim. The familiarworld and the subjects that inhabitit. of with Guattari's own work. Whateverthe successes or failuresof the clinic. in This practice. Indeed Baruch Spinoza's ethicsinvolvesa similar mappingto the above: organisation the of one'sworld so as to produce productive. to parto ticipate. henceforming a self within a person. Plateaus might leadone to suppose that Deleuzeand Guattari are interesred 'escaping' in lived life. Certainlythis trajectory is there. Deterritorialisation always endsin a reterritorialisation in fact and needsa territory from which to operate. However Deleuze's philosophy is also very much one of caution. the latter understood in its broadest sense. 'relationalaesthetics' it hasbecome field of expanded or as known doesnot requirespectators such. concepts. We might call this a 'rhizomaticsof friendship'. evidenced this dictionary. a thinker of of as flowsand intensities somehow'outside'ofi or'beyond'. Guattari.but participants as who are'transformed' through their interactionwith the practice. in consrruction of However. and practicalthe ities o( reconfiguring our subjectivities. stakehere wasnot the reintegrationof a 'cured' individual into society. of Perhaps key factor preventingthesetransformations habit. we havehere an interestingframeworkfor thinking thosecollaborative collective practices todaythat might be seen and of art as producingcommunitiesand subjectivities preciselythis sense. as by specifically his collaborations. The other is the structureof all posof sible worlds: it inhabits the transitionsfrom one object to another. release molecularise elements singularities werepreand the and that viously sedimented and stratified inside them. ratherwe can think of it simplyasthe generation unexpected affects andon thebody. tantamountto the intensive is bracketing 'the of Self'.For namingasit doesa'disinterested'response the world. therefore. is capable that beginswith ethical principlesor guidelines. We might recognise Deleuze's Spinozism here. the 'other' asit is discussed TheLogicof Sense in makespossible the categories 'subject'and 'object'.

real difference is only possible on such an account. Substance.but he does not seesubstanceas some ultimate bcing or entity. th i tl ttl l o tt w l ti c h rrl lo th c r p ropcrti cstl cpcrrtl . In traditional metaphysics.the relations unfolded from substance. So there is iust one substancethat is then expressedboth in thought and in body.effects or accidents. following Baruch Spinoza. each is a different mode of the one attribute. or vice versa. Indeed. In some sensessuch an 'aesthetic' is 'beyond' subjectivity. it is not only in his early works on the history of philosophy but also in his later work with Guattari that Deleuze cngageswith the concept of 'substance'. at the same time as he overturns this debate. think of a substanccthat thenhas variousaccidental 'l'lrc lrist<lry<lf mctlphysics has thcrcfilrc clcbltccl just whrrt cor.all the different minds in the world . Deleuze attends to those experiences that are atypical and 'non-ordinary'. Deleuze attends to this: the pause between action and reaction is what constitutes the human as a particularly complex brain-body assemblage. For example. l) clcuzc's phikr sophy is conccr r r cd wit h t hc o ol ' st t bslit t t cc. in today's world it is important to change speed.function of art that always accompaniesthe latter's ethical or indeed political character. This pause allows a certain amount of freedom and the possibility for a more creative responseto the world. For Deleuze. Dcleuze argues that substance cannot be numerically several. If there were more than one substance. the metaphysical function of substance. the concept of susbstancegoes back to the Greek term. Art.Certainly.l )cl crrzcti rkcs part in.u'lts ils ( rr it s t t bs liur c c . Philosophically. to slow down sometimes and even at times to remain still. in fact the contemplation art. In this sense. substirnccis thc bcarcr of prccl i ci ttcs r pr opcr t ics. and through itself.' but a power 'to green'. but as a power of creation and expression. In Dffirence and Repetition. and to the concept of or ousia.Deleuze repeatedly refers to Heidegger's project of re-activating thinking.something that is . and part of this reactivation depends upon avoiding the logic of a certain understanding of substance. and cannot be reduced to any of its expressions.not as a noun .unfolds in two modes: the mode of extension (or spatial matter) and the mode of thought or mind. part of this overturning is to think of substance. avowedly creating concepts and vocabularieswhile rejecting the constraints of already formed metaphysical systcms.there cannot be whitcncss without somc thing that is whitc. This is because Spinoza adoptsthe traditional definition of somethingthat exists iz itself.for relations between substance. then this has two resonances in Deleuze's philosophy. requiring no other being in order to be. all dualisms arc invalid and arise from mistaking the expressionsof substance . what happens to an individual in a 'world without others'? Here the interaction with the world takes on an idiosyncratic and perverted character. Becausethere is only one substance we cannot say that mind is the origin or author of matter. think of different minds as different substances. Throughout his work.rlcclicittcs. might have a role to play of here (this is also the sensein which meditation can be understood as a creative technology of self production). We can qualitics or . but also saysthat substanceis conceived through itself. 'The tree li green.ritualistic .272 SUBSTANCE SU BSTAN C E 273 Bergson. For instance. Substancemust then be one. This allows Deleuze to think of substance in terms of powers or potentials. We cannot reduce life to already effected relations.then. There are two reasons for the importance of this concept. So. If we think of substance(as it is traditionally defined) as what exisrs in itself before all relations. Put differently. hypoheimenon. there is just one univocal substance that expressesitself infinitely.We do not need more than one substance.that from which differentiated beings are expressed.a substanceis whatever can exist without requiring :rny other being in order to be. forms a vital role in Deleuze's work. each mind is an expression of the one power of life to express itself in the arrribute of mind.or what is . and to everyday consciousness. that which underlies.say.the substanceof mind that will represent or know the substanceof matter.then we would have to explain a relation between the two. Again this might be a name for certain art practices from prehistory to today. But it is the very nature of substanceto be independent of its relation to anything else.and. Deleuze acceptsthe function of substantially univocal. No substanceis the causeor ground of any other. The individual harnesses cosmic forces and 'becomesworld'as it were. he would seemto be a far cry from the project of Martin Heidegger that approached Being through its philosophical history. S UB S T A NC E Claire Colebrook Deleuze might appear to be a purely inventive philosopher..We might say.say mind and body (which is the Cartesian answer) . but it must also expressitself differently.What is numerically several . for there is alsoa power or potential to produce relations. that which exists in itself before relations. Central to Heidegger's destruction of the history of philosophy was the way in which the concept and grammar of 'substance' had dominated thinking. those that allow accessto a kind of immanent beyond to the everyday.However. lir t 't hc t t st r t l cor r r r r r it nr cr rlo sr r llslir r r cc llows t lr fnthl utt .but as an infinitive: not. We should not. that this is the aesthetic . for example. or that which remains present through a series of changcs. then.

It is neither symbolicnor is a conterm stantaccompaniment (andevenproponentfacilitating)the linesof flight to proposes. from the refrain of the birdcall of expressionthat both draws a territory and envelopsinto territorial motifs and landscapes) the role played by the artist's signature. image. as while all other beingswere God wasestablished the only true substance. A territory doesnot simply hold backthe process deterritorialisation. their geological it the constitutionof space.that to equates with placing a flag on a pieceof alsomaintainsan internal organisation.As an assemand blage.Even in history (here they can be distinguished historyis presented beingsubsirmed as within discussions.Deleuzeargues full that all beingspossess realityasa preceding whiteness. atus.These. asa necessary paniesthe conceptof 'nomadology'. are truly different only and beingin relathereis only one substance sonothing is a lesser because tion to anyother). nobfor its institutionalised but Rather than denying the affectivityof history Deleuzeand Guattari grand narrativestrategies that are reject the universalising chronological frequently associated with it.this centre(that may be more correctly calleda 'vector' because can resideoutsideof the assemblage/territory) it expresses experiential an conceptthat hasno fixed subjector object.what really is to an before its different expressionsor perceptions. Deleuzeand Guattari privilege ideasof spatiality ln A Thousand. an assemblage. these and accompanies concepts 'deterritothe of of a 'territory' that concomitantly rialisation'and'reterritorialisation'. of that comprisehistory as a lived. is significantfor the role that time plays in movement acrossfields (in.they frequently return to the relationshipbetween territory and the earth in order to show from maintainingits own organising that the territory does not escape principleand the sensethat one term can be differentiated a straightforwardmanncr from the othcr. ground.Through this.27+ TERRI TO RY TE R R ITOR Y 275 philosophers establish ultimate reality or ground . they critique history for beinga tool of the unitary Stateapparimpulse. in a stateof processwhereby it continually passes A However.linesare understoodnot only as a deterritorialising materialandpsychological compon-' but they alsocontributeto the spatial. being a sedentary As it the territory itself is a malleable of passage.instead.and are equally real and are formally distinct while numericallyone (that is.presentingtheseas an informal antidoteto of from Michel Foucault).A territory is necessarily lived and produced by asa vagueentity because this desireto avoidcategorisation language of or other Stateapparatuses.Instead. (home)from which deterritorialisation may occur. for example.Although a territory establishes subject. It doesnot privilegeor maintain the nostalgicor xenophobicprotectionof any particularhomeland. experientialassemblage apparatuses All components hclp producethe concept events circumstances). In their preferencefor lines of flight and becoming. of nor doesit provideit with an opposingor dichotomous term (Deleuzeand Guattari contendthat there is no needto leavethe territory to follow a line Neither doesa territory providea baseor originary of deterritorialisation). ratherthan The concept easy categorisation because of'territory' evades placemaintainingfirm bordersagainstoutsidethreat. Deleuzeand Guattari discuss the (which they describe a mode as examples. doesnot signify. signification or subjectivity. lnstead.conceptand being.takcn in . Againstontologyand the notion of substance saidto 'be' only by analogy.a territory manifests series constantlychangingheterogeneous of a at elements and circumstances cometogetherfor variousreasons parthat from the areas connections ticular is closelyconnectedto molecularcognitiveand non-cognitive modesof movement.A territory refers to a mobile and shifting centre that is localisableas a specific point in spaceand time. a potentiality . ness). group. exists site into somethingelse. we can seethat a territory is primarily marked by the ways movementoccurs over the earth.Even more importantly. (evidenced the privilegedterm of'plateau') and the geographies and by cartographies movement.This example usedto illustratethat sucha relais tionship is not dichotomoussimply. territory is alsoan componentof deterritorialisation. Connectives Memory Real Spinoza TERRITORY Kylie Message Plateaus.a memory.its relations of speedand slowmodeof categorical dating.a smile. rather than by Stateborders. accomassemblage that. or individual (those a ents that constituteor deconstitute society. However. Hence. it is distinct from a fixed of representation. deterritorialisation o many In addressing idea of territory.

a 'rclay' to but applicationof universal walls to a 'more or lessdistant field of practice'in response 'obstrcles. . even though the earth embraces all territories (as a seriesof molecular or nomadic moments collected bytheconjoining'.who'could Iay claim to universality' in virtue of the writer's social position being on a par with jurists and lawyers who represent the universality of law.276 THEO RY TH EOR Y 2t7 together.rtr ol'discotrlsc'withdill'crcrrl lyllc rr rl<lrrrairr. 'producing effectsnot of universalitybut of transversality. then. work.a move that is simultaneously theoretical and practical. theory is something to A that we must constructasa response to then 'we haveno choicebut to cona problem. Rather than being universal. and a system of coordinatesthat dynamically relatesthoughts and problems to one another. the earth offers up an alternative complex assemblage(and various productive lines of becoming or fligh$ . As Foucault puts it in the same dialogue. Deleuze's pragmatic conception of theory also extends to his explanation of Foucault'sdistinction betweenthe'classic'intellectual. 'Theory does not express. ways of thinking.y rrsc:s l)rrlcticc I practice as a way of overcoming its internal difficulties. territories cannot contain or encompass the earth. thought-experimentation through the creation of concepts. it is also the force of deterritorialisation and reterritorialisation since its continuous movements of development and variation unfold new relations of materials and forces (predicated on a relationship of speed and slowness).'A concept lacks meaning to the extent that it is not connected to other concepts and is not linked to a problem that it resolves or helps resolve' (D&G 1994:79). and the singular theoretical points are concepts in the caseof philosophy. Thought is a practical activity.where he puts forward the following idea: 'A theory is exactlylike a box of tools . but neither can the earth be fixed to a single territory. On the other hand. . and functions in the caseof science. Thought. and the 'specific intellectual' who 'tends to move from one specific place or point to anothcr'. Problems necessarilychangealong with the changing conditions of thought and action. Connectives Body without Organs Deterritorialisation/Reterritorialisation Earth/Land Lines of flight Nomadicism THEORY Bruce Baugh Deleuze's most interestingthoughtson theory comein a discussion with Michel Foucault. making practice serye as 'a set of relays between one theoretical point and another' (D&F 1977: 206). and f r.although Deleuzedistinguishes betweentheoreticaland practicalactivity while at that the same time arguingthat theoryis neithera foundationfor practices to nor would merelyapply universal theories particularcases) the resultof norms from para reflectionon particularpractices that extractuniversal ticular cases.So. . any more than practice 'applies' theory: 'there's only action . theory can serve as a relay from one practice to another. affectsand percepts in the caseof art. Conversely. It must be useful. each concept being a responseto a problem whose conditions and scopethe concept helps define. which he usually downgrades in contrast with thought: 'Thinking's never just a theoreticalmatter. As an example. or serve to apply practice: it is practice' (D&F 1977:208).rt thc in l corl tcxt of' . Extendingtheory to practiceis not merely the rules or theorems particularcases. in contrast to the specific or localisabletime and place offered by territories. philosophy. :rn br. these terms show the magnetic pull that often works toward accumulating a synthesisof apparently disjunctive terms. On this conception. is a strategy in the face of problems. In the latter case. . .rr r t ct icr t r ur t l polit ic: r l st lugglcs ( l) l9f ilib: 9l) . lhcrlr'. .Yet many characteristics thought shares with what he said about'theory'in the dialogue with Foucault. connecting one practical field to a different one in order to overcome a practical impasse.theory does not represent or 'speak for' practice. 'xllr cssir r g li'ir gr r r cnlur y s lot t ir . .the Body without Organs. translate. and.a 'theory is alwayslocal and relatedto a limited field'. and each concept being created in the midst ofalready existing concepts which encounter impassesor blockagesthat require new conceptsas'bridgesor crossroads'enabling them to join up with other conproblems subject to the same conditions (D&G 1994: cepts responding to 27). 'l'hc syr ccif ic i nl cl l ccl rrrtl ' cxpcr t isc or llt cot 'yis ir lwr r ys : ir l. and. As such.rl. 'rclirying' to irs'ruroll. and seekssolutions through creating concepts. and' logic that motivatesit). .and if it ceases be usefr. the 'practice' that serves as a relay between one theoretical point and another is thought itself. This approachto theory is inherently practical.It must function' (D&F 1977:208).theoretical and practical action' connected in networks and relays. to lly ancl bkrckrrgcs' within thc thcory's own immirncnt cl<lmirin. It has to do with vital problems' (D 1995:105). Deleuze refers to his and Foucault's work with prisoners as a way of connecting 'official discoursesof confinement' to the discourse of the confined themselves.rnctioning:rs cxchangcr'betwccn cliffcrcntthcorcticirlficlcls. struct others'. Nowhere else does Deleuze offer such a positivc appreciation of theory.

Ren6 of Descartes.ipus (D&G 1983: 190-l). This would be a history of thought as the uncovering or construction of this way. or 'noology' as Deleuzecalls it. As far asnoologyis concerned.Deleuze talksof a dominant'Imageof thought'that he sets to challenge. In this sense. Genuinethinking is necessarily antagonistictowards the combinationof good sense and common sense that form the d. no theory cantotalisethe entirefield and of knowledgeand action. Works such as The Logic of Plateausall contribute to the Sense. in that it presupposes that 'everyoneknows. So. out exploring the possibilityof a 'thought without image'. morcovcr'itblcto bring out thc 'ncw'. For Deleuze. and that the only prerequisite for'thought'is an individual in possession goodwill and a 'natural capacity'for thought. or else it loses its efficacy(D&F 1977: 212). Immanuel Kant seemedequipped to overturn the Image of thought. what it meansto think. This 'undergroundman' haswhat Deleuzecallsin a characteristically wry statement. Drawing on Friedrich Nietzsche'sconcept of the 'untimely'. He is the in everyman who must orientatehimself within the imageof thought. Transversalconnections betweentheory and practiceon the part of specificintellectualswould include nuclearphysicists using their expertiseto speakagainstnuclear weapons. and follow the In 'line of flight' on the horizontalaxis. hnvca prophctic rolc in anticipatingthc forcesof thc futurc. entailsa further choiceto be made this betweenthree types of 'universal': contemplation. or disagreements are eventuallyturned into consensus. scntationfll Thought may not havcrr history. who is later replacedby the Russian 'idiot'. this image of thought as cognito natura is extraordinarilycomplacent. study of imagesof thought.or should we erect vertical axes? immanence and transcendother words. general In terms.Repethion. Thought may. Connectives Concepts Foucault THOUGHT John Marks In his earlier work. ilsopposcd cstablishccl to valucs.oxa of received be on a path that one must clearfor oneself. A theory multiplies and eruprs in a totally different areaby finding 'lateral affiliationsand entire systemof networks'.The imagethat Deleuze challenges essentially is dogmaticand moral. must initially makea decisionasto our orientationin relation we to the verticaland horizontalaxes.but it drrcs hirvcir drrnrttis pcrsonnc. thinking and being.he claims that we think rarelyand more often under the impulseof a shockthan in the excitement of a tastefor thinking. It is. imageof thoughtis a system coordan of inates or dynamics:a sort of map that showshow we orientate ourselves within thought.If we choose transcendence. in that it does not subscribe to the notion that there is a narrative developmentin thought.278 THO UG HT TH OU GH T 279 totality that is necessarily limited and necessarily runs up against impasses or 'walls' that can be breachedby a strategicrelay or detour through other theoretical fields.reflection and communication.Deleuzechallenges the assumption that thought hasa natural affinity with the (true'. and in particular Dffirence and.Deleuze talks instead in terms of 'geophilosophy'.Proust and Signsand A Thousand. is represenit tational in nature. rnstead. .Deleuze shows how the 'rational' man of scholasticthought is replacedby the Cartesian'idiot'. For Deleuze. example. transversal a relayfrom one theoretical domainto anotherwould be Deleuzeand Guattari'sstrategic shift of FriedrichNietzsche from philosophyto ethnologyin their own theoretical-politicalAnti-oed. who claimsthat to think is to be under way. personae' Deleuzeclaimsthat philosophers tend to invent 'conceptual who will help the philosopher questionto negotiate in and establish new a image of thought that springs from a seriesof intuitions.No intellectual.Should we stretchout.this constitutes choicebetween a ence. for presumes that everybody knowswhat is meantby self. Noology is different from a history of thought. Deleuze suggests that what is new in a philosopher'swork remainsneq and the reactivationof theseuntimely elementsis an important component of Deleuze'swork.He is like a character a Russian in novel. One of Deleuze'sinfluenceshere is Martin Heidegger.Instead.althoughone canhaveno certain destinationin mind. Deleuze also arguesthat there is something that he calls an 'image of thought' that changesthrough history.he claimsthat thoughtis an actof problematisation. The conceptual persona functionssomethinglike the detective crime fiction.the 'necessary modesty' not to manageto know what everybody knows. It is not the casethat there is a sort of long-term debatein the courseof which either some ideas and concepts win the day.paralysed and stupefied the coordinates by ofproblems that do not correspond repreto prcsuppositions.and it frequentlyrequiressomething more than the formulationsof commonlanguage. but ultimately he was committed to an orientation in which thought would havean upright nature.the superimposition of layers of thought.for example.

Thc time-image dernonstrates cinemais a new practhat ticeof imagcs rrndsignsfirr which phikrsophy summoncd construct is to ir prrcticc. asopposed the'public professor'. intervals are vital to the perception of motion. This classical devicegivesway.Time is bereft of dates. Yet it acquires legibility in Godard's cinema. In Alain Resnais'Hiroshirna. in order to make use of it in the future when the presentwill be past' (D 1989:52). rnon &mour(1959) the past is a matte surfaceon which traumatic memoryimagesare reflectedand meld into one another.Ratherthan a modelof opinion and consensus. the model par excellence for Renoir and Welles. nor Seenlessasmatter than felt aspure duration time-images relatea changein the configurationof the world.a way of being that is discovered a time insideof the eventthat allowsit in to be perceived.y om Shang ai (1946).may pick up the arrow and fire it in turn. somethingundecidedor undecidable. Deleuzecallsthe effectthat of a 'time-crystal'. The model for this sort of thinker is Baruch Spinoza. It designatesimages that Henri Bergsonqualifiedas imbued with duration: a componentof time that is neither successive chronological. What this means that whenmontage.280 T IM E_ IM AGE TIM E. such as Pierrot le fou (1965) in which a 'depth of surface'is createdby patterns of writing or abstract forms paintedon wallsagainst which humanplayers seem flattened. It is a power of the irrational or unthought that is essential all thinking: somethingincomto municable. foundationof is the classical cinema. losesits hold time beginsto bc increasingly spntirrliscd.nor metaphysical. for whom montage is folded into the spatial dynamics given in a single take.ln La rigle d.It prompts the spectator rhink through the signs to with which it articulates narrativemarter.who pursuesa frugal and itinerant lifestyle.'l'hus. In Welles'film or in are it would be the hall of mirrors in which the characters shatterthe narrative to pieces.ujeuthe time-crystal might be the illuminated greenhouse the chateau which the characters held. a perpetualduration that to cannotbe locatedin one moment or another.perceptionbecomes 'perceptionof perception'. Timeimagesare seenin nappes 'sheets'in what Deleuzecalls 'mental caror tographies'of cinema (D 1989: l2l).somethingthat cannot be uttered.Memory elidestemporal distinction in wayssuch that only 'is it in the presentthat we h ggestthat fr subjectivitycan only be felt through the perceptionof time: the era of the time-image. the time-image Where the movement-image time. is "transcendental" the sense it in that Kant givesthe word: time is out of joint and presents itself in the pure state' (D 1989: 271). Certainfilms.cinemabecomes site wherethought itself acquires a a force of becoming unknown to historical time. suchasJean Renoir'sLa rigle duj eu (1939)or Orson Welles'TheL ad. They draw attention to the qualitiesof their own oprical and aural properties asmuch asthe signsor matter they represent. Thought is fired like an arroq in the hope thar another thinker a 'friend'.be they spectators characters film aredetermined the environs time or in by of in which they are held.rill ol' corrccpt . The time-image(and its crystals) often discerned deepfocusphois in tography. and is in this way ableto avoidthe pitfall of confusinghis purpose with that of the Stateor religion. is'no longerempirical. The only form of 'communication' that is suitable ro the contemporaryworld is the Nietzschean arrow or Adorno's 'message in a bottle'. In the r6gime of the movement-image.lilmrutirthc pastor nirrrativcs that tcll il pcrson'slif'c-strlry through his or her point of view is shown in flashbacks. in.For Deleuze to the time imageis apt to be read. Connectives Lines of flight Nomadicism Noology Spinoza TIME-IMAGE Tom Conley The time-imageis what tends to govern cinemafrom the end of World War II until the present.The time-imagefrequentlybecomes siteof amnesia a where waves actionturn the world at largeinto a matrix in which personages of seemto float indiscriminately.offeringa shift of emphasis a that is witnessedin the image itself rather than the linkages(or cuts) between images. In this continuum. It is the title of the secondor dexter panel of Deleuze's historical taxonomy of film.They tend not to favour narrativeor beg the spectator identify with their content.asmuch asit is seen or given to visibility. li<rrinst:rncc.IM AGE 281 This approachto thought leads Deleuze to value and promote the to 'private thinker'. represented. Through the concept of the time-image Deleuze (with Guattari) notes that the questionat the basisof all film theory turns into the question 'What is cinema?'-that Andr6Bazinposed 'What is philosophy?'.itis a legible image.with thc crlrrcsponcling thcoryitndlt concc.) the time-image. sensation. Deleuzepreferswhat he callsa 'nomadic'or 'clandestine' form of thinking. affectionand change. thus inheringin the body and soulof the two loversestranged the places in wherethey happento meet.

tial Deleuze'sdescription of his philosophy as a transcendental empiricism In is a challenge thesepositionsrather than a unified counter-theory. who argued that ideasof consciousness are just from sensory derived impressions. soughtto identify all of the conHe ditions of the possibilityof attaining distinctively human knowledge. humanspossess he only because that we experience world aswe do andareableto makeclaimsaboutthe the world as it appears priori.On Kant's account. and then employedas the essenare and precondition for any human experiencewhatsoever. This set of capabilities the 'forms' of sensa for ibility.ImmanuelKant developed bestknown form of transcendentalism. he preDeleuzefinds that the'I' only sumesno beingor subjectrohoexperiences.chancehappenings. causes. are to and. philosophy must begin with the immediategiven.ental empiricism becauseit is an attempt to deducethe conditions of the possibility of consciousexperience (such as the apparentconsciousimmediacy to which one refers when saying'I').and so on that togethermake up a life. By taking a philosophers movingbeyond differentapproach the transcendental to and a view of empiricism based upon just the epistemologicalrelationship between ideas and senseimpressions.quantity and quality). On this the view. conceptsor axioms.The Kantian it transcendental subject.transcendental deduction reproducesthe empirical in form and then shields from further critique. because they necessitate transcendental. memory functions. Therefore.First. and the dissimilarityand varietyof each individual life. Connectives Actuality FIunrc . economic conditions. but as contingent tendencies As beyond the reach of empirical consciousness. such. Accordingto Deleuze. As such.without time and space.282 T RANSCENDENT AL EMP IR IC IS M TR A N S C E N D E N TA L E MP IR IC IS M 283 the movement-image enduringinquiry into the natureof cinemais set an in place.ideas concepts neverfound or logicallyprecede and philosophical can perceptions.Kant conin ceives experience of only in terms of re-presentation consistencies and functioningfrom timc to timc irnclpcrsonto pcrson. belief systems. there would be no knowledgeof the kind of and evidentin the humanexperience the world. anyofa rangeofpsychological physiological or relations evident or in consciousness. is preciselythe actualityof the empiricaland the priIt ority accorded experience real that. it does not accountfor differences between whatever oneknowsofa phenomenon in advance and what one learnsabout it a posteriori. argues.this argumentfails on two counts.Unlike of tions as abstract or necessaryphilosophical entities.It is particularcognitivecapabilities. Deleuzedoesnot conceive theseunthought conditions.As such. everrefersto contingenteffects interactions of between events. that any test of soundreasonand ing shouldrefer to the natureof the connection between two. Second. sense perhapsthe In theorisingthe human subject. rangeof a (suchasmodality.real conscious awareness without presupposing any categories. scendentalism's Deleuze's approach is a transcend.the categories by conditionsuncovered Kant areclaimedto be true of all selves. Realityasit is experienced doesnot revealthe preconditions of experience such elements inaccessible consciousness. deductivestudy of their implicit condiKant. to contrastto transcendentalism. Connectives Becoming Cinema Duration Event Memory Movement-image TRANSCENDENTAL CIiffStagoll EMPIRICISM Empiricism refers to the view that the intelligible derivesalwaysfrom must rest the sensible. for Deleuze as for Hume. These conditions are not logically necessar$ but contingent upon the nature of experienceas it is lived. whilst transcendentalism assumes that experience upon somelogically necessary constructedas an explanationfor how diverse experiences synthesised unified.Deleuze shifts the philosophical focus from determining a foundation of likenessamongst humans to revealing celebrating contingency. responses. for Deleuze. mcntll Deleuze argues. understanding reason is universal and and logicallynecessary human knowledge.for instance. Deleuzeseeks after the conditionsof actaal rather than all possibleexperience. waysof avoidingtranare imprecisionand universalising abstractions.Only then should it begin to developconperceptions and their ceptsthat might refer to objectsand their relations. The former position is typified by the work of David Hume.socialforces. and 'Ideas' basicconcepts reason of founding a kind of rational faith.

thus asthemselves Classical empiricism (fohn Locke. Although Deleuzeagrees individuals. Transcendental empiricismwould be the basisof a politics of positive individuality and difference. critical conceptfor literary criticism. be aparty.pnlike in Plato.Rather of and than the rights and libertiesof individuals. liberalism(ThomasHobbes. 'black'.but needsto be explained. Marxismalsoargues that social relations particularly economic relations condition individual experience agency. universals have no independent standing. Thc conccptconcerns the kind of communicationpropcr to thc trnnsvcrsirl dimcnsion of' machinic litcrlry . transcendennecessary universals and structuresas all tal empiricismsees supposedly and on or beingeithercausally logicallydependent contingentparticulars. contingent.forms of thought.power or agencyis the prime concernof Deleuzianpolitics.Ratherthan universalprinciplesbeing the criteriaby which practices evaluated. social biological structures. holds that universalclassterms. forcesand circumstances. Like Deleuze. rather than an a priori necessary condition.Deleuzedoesnot believe that'classes' basicunits of are analysis. on liberal theory is the basisof its demandfor indiindividuals in classical vidual rights and liberty.and are all part of an assemblage which each in elementis conditionedby all the others. Liberalism's'individual' is superseded what Deleuzecalls an 'assemby blage'(agencement): a conjunctionof a numberof persons.284 T RAN s c EN D E N T A L E M p rR IcrsM + poLITIC S TR AN SVER SAL ITY 285 Kant Real Virtual/Virtuality TRANSCENDENTAL Bruce Baugh EMPIRICISM + POLITICS dictum that the abstract Deleuzeoften quotedAlfred North Whitehead's doesnot explain. pracrices judgedentirelywith are are respectto whether their effectsincrease decrease or someone's someor thing's power of acting.but of concreteparticulars (individuals. Stateor history.'l'rlnsvcrsalitydcfincsir nrodcrn wiry of' .classical To Marxism retains the precedence abstractuniversalsover singular assemblages of that whethertheuniversal a class. TRANSVERSALITY Ad. unlike classical Bryx and.suppresses the creativity and blocksthe emergence the new.groups)definedby the history of their contingentand actual relationswith other beings. that the economicbaseis more fundamentalthan the ideological or superstructure. capable its own collectiveexperiences actions. on that the universaldepends the particular.'Classes' abstractin relation to are assemblages are not just subdivisions that within classes. (constant basedon the and linked together through habits of association conjunction' of those experiences. insistingon the situatedand historicalnatureof the conditionsof experience. Yet. Principlesemergeas a reflectionon how much certain practicesincreaseor decrease an a. understoodas freedom from the coercionof societyor the State. Socialand economicstructures.but by factorscommon to all ofthem (language. predicates 'next to') are derived through abstractionfrom particular experiences. are all producedthrough particular and contingentconjunctionsof desires. someextent. and Yet. George Berkeley.Againstidealismand Marxism. transcendental empirical is not composedof discrete givens.rather than the reverse. technology). actionsand affects. musthc cxplaincd crtnditittns a complexand mostly unconscious of relationsamongdifferentbodies' set powersof acting and reacting. 'transversality'is introducedby Deleuzein the secondedition of Proustand Signs.valorisingagencyand creativepower.Empiricismwantsto hold onto by and to resistabstractuniversals the concreterichnessof experience.rather than merely seeingtheseas either instancesof some universalrule or exceptionsto the rule. but mindful of the oppressive conditioning of individualsand our voluntary servitudeto universalnorms. of his politics. can cut across but differentsocio-economic classes.Subjectionto higher universals of cuts offassemblages from their powerand is alwaysreactive.rrrxluction.Gary Genosho A.Deleuzianpolitics likewiseinsistson the singularityof experiences and practices. and particulars do not depend on universals. and he rejcctsthc 'atomism'of experiences of involving by but itrc scnsntions not 'givcns'. and so are The'independence'of dependent individuals. David Hume) and relations('dog'. in contrast with classical empiricism holds that the empiricism and liberalism. For Deleuze.individualsare conditionednor just by other individualswith whom they interact.posteriorigeneralisation. relations. norms of action.Similarly. Classical John Stuart Mill andJohn Locke) such as 'society' and 'the State' are similarly holds that aggregates nothing over and abovethe individuals which composethem.This thought standsat the for empiricism that searches the real basisof both Deleuze'stranscendental conditions of actual experiencerather than for the abstractconditions of and any possible experience.

flavoursand drafts of particular settingsare swept along at various rhythms and velocitiesin the creation of the nondimensionof fiction that is not reproductive.But the pollinating insectis not simply natural or organic. and Melanie Klein) is undersrood through critical analyses of the organisational texturesof actualgroups. of thought with the characteristics the world of signsand symptoms.clearingfrom its path the blind socialdemandof a certain castrative procedurero the exclusionof all else'(G 1972:75).286 T RANSVERSAL IT Y TRANSvERSALTTy + cuATTARr . heterogeneous assembles style'.understoodasa group or collective assemblage heterogeneous of componentsfreed from abstract determinationssuchasthe archaicinheritances Freudiananalysis.that productivelytransverses. The conceptof 'transversality' usedas a therapeuticand is political tool by Guattari in his analyticalcritique of experimentationwith institutional formarions of subjectivity at clinique de la Borde in courChevernyFrance. Unlike undera unifyingviewpoint.The dialectic and dialecticmodel. that have wholeotherthanstyle. a corecriticalconceptintroducedby Guattari in a conis ferencepaper 'Transversality'in 1964and published. or eventhe narra/agas.analytic expression.the transversaldimension or the never-viewed pieces viewpoint drawsa line of communicationthrough the heterogeneous and fragmentsthat refuseto belongto a whole. for despitetheir actualinfluence)as constantsources of anxiety in advancedindustrial societies(capitalist and socialist) led Guattari provisionally to 'arrive at a modification of the superego's "accommodation" of databy transmuting this data in a kind of new.imitative totalisingtransversal solelyon its functioning.wherehe workedfrom 1955to his deathin 1992.for that is a trope of the transversal superior to the partitioned obiects. FELIX 'Transversality'. r f . The desireof a de-individuatedsubject.yet not beyond them. shaping their potentialfor subjectformation. depends aberrantlybetween Deleuzefinds third partiesthat will communicate partial objects of hermaphroditic bodies and plants. Guattari's therapeutic focus shifted awayfrom the dual analysis psychotherapy onto'real patientswhere of and they actuallyfind themselves' clinicalsetrings. logos.that are parts of different images. W. The fore-mentioned between singularity.initiatic" reception.The literary machineproduces as viewpoint. and how they can usesuch groups.rrnd .and rational pathos. winnicott. it is a line ofpassage.Whereorderhascollapsed ideograms and hieroglyphs. Such a beginning is necessarily singularising.which components to that strives imitatethe Ideaand thus reproduce the Platoniccounterpart departsfrom Proust'sreminiscence what is both stableand transcendent.. for literary machineworks in and upon itself. The crisubjective where before. the viewpointprovidesa formulaby which fiction can constitute and reconstitutea beginning to the world. linguistic structure and oedipal myth. the self-engendering Connectives Guattari Psvchoanalvsis TRANSVERSALITY Gary Genosko + GUATTARI.vcirrhibitions. lt x 287 and dialecticpresuppositions writing that departsfrom the transcendent an and of the Platonicmodelof reminiscence. The problemof socialreproductions superegos of (political leaders. Guattari reintroducedsocialdemands.the amountof risk they can tolerate. primarily by establishing new demands and setting up innovative points of reference within existing attachmentsto institutions.The ephemeral ories and signsof the odours.'l'hc moclilication of alicnatingfirntnsics would pcrmit crcativit$ rcnr(. but or representative. The partitioned famous apiarianbestiaryof Deleuze showsitself here. immanentprinciple where intelligencealwayscomes The transversaldimension of fiction fundamentallycountersthe principles of the world of attributes. of states the world. in This directly challenged innumerable inheritedanalyticmethods. the official of or objectsthat supportthe symbolicorder (definedby Jacques Lacan. tique of Platocentreson the issueof intelligencealwayscoming the disjunctive useof facultiesmerely servesas a prelude for the unifying in use disiunctive of faculties Proustis found in a singlelogos. Transversality tion of involuntarymemory. Guattari foregrounds institutional attachmentsby analysing groups. envisions immanentandsingularisingversion instead. and associations culminatesin an originatingviewpoint. problemsand realitiesinto the analyticencounter. each affecting the relations of their members to social processes.D.azig-zaggingflight. and works on an unhinged from this transcendent after.understood an essential them. Guattari consideredthe object of institutional analysisto be outside both family. Guattari distinguishednon-absolutelybetweensubject(activelyexploring self-definedprojects) and subjugatedgroups (passivelyreceiving directions). memno or wholes. Guided by sigmund Freud's remarkson the fundamentally socialbeing of individualsin the survivalof sources anxiety of beyond the stagesof psychogenesis. in phoneticwriting. example. psychanalyse in et transaersaliti.The goalis to bring aboutacceptance new data. partialobjectsand resonances is machinic. transversality Also termed an' anti-logos is far from totalising.rather than interminablecastration of anxietyprecipitated everysuperego by figurehead.

That is. A pocrr itbout l it W l rl cl W u' I t hlr tr r r ukcs scr 'r sc ir r r dlivc t hlough r r r r rwit lt it ir r it dillcr cr r t us is t t ol r t ct r r t r r pr r t r itlt y 't l w i ry i s trrrtlr lir l. We create truth in complex constructions of propositions and sensationsthat express the conditions for the genesis and development of events. Deleuze is apt to mock philosophical theories based on simple propositions that say little of the world. objectively weak interns may engage in intimate and authentic relations among themselves or with nurses which have therapeutic effects for patients. But this is the task of institutional analysis:to locate the group's unconscious desirc in relation to every member's attempt to negotiateit. If rransference is the artificial relation in which the unconscious becomes conscious.288 TRANSVERSALI TY + GUATTARI. It is a mistake to think that the truth of such works depends on the truth of their components becausethe significanceof the components only appears when they are in context. So a proposition is either true due to certain logical relations or due to a relation to things in the world. The second claims that the truth of a proposition depends on its correspondence to some objective facts. This carrying is itself a matter of the transference of significance and intensity in the event. So. Their high level of transversality would remain latent to the extent that its the group's institutional effects would be extremely limited. expresses and the more a work creates with that inter-relation in order to be able to expressit. It is rather that truth is a matter of degrees. a complex. To abstract from these processes caught in endlessprocesses is to give a false irnage of reality.The more a work. Guattari placed rapport in a collective clinical context beyond the dual analytical situation. is the objecttowardwhich a subject-group It moves. The first claims that the truth of a proposition depends on its coherence with some other propositions. the more truth it will carry. A slr t t ist iclt llor t l llt c wiu'lllill . becausereal things are limitless and always ofbecoming. it is a mistake to begin an enquiry about truth with abstracted propositions such as 'The cat is on the mat'. For Deleuze. propositions are false simplifications of reality and cannot be bearers of truth in any significant sense.but to sirysomcthing that vivifics irnd nltcrs it situation. tansversality in an institution is thus uneven. osition in a work. transversality is the measure of an institution's influence on all its denizens. He accomplished this through an institutional technique called 'the grid'. As a group. It is the group's unconscious. medical and non-medical staff. This is an unconscious that perfuses the social field and history. interns and nurses.LIX TR U TH 289 encourage the self-engendering of group-subjects. It would be a property of a seriesof them through a work as it captured and changed our relation to the events expressedin the'work. It is not an easy task to find the group rhat actually holds the key to 'regulating the latent transversality of the entire institution'. Instead. which entails that a descriptive analytics of overt power relations and objective laws inscribed in either verrical (pyramid) or horizonral (field of distribution) terms is insufficient. rotaring system of tasks and responsibilities that he developed with colleague Jean Oury ('La grille'[1987] 1998). Ff. According to him. truth only appears in more complex works such as a series of paintings or literary and philosophical works. in contrast to the two traditional and dominant theories of truth. thawing frozen hierarchies. or a propabout reality and the inter-relation of all things. interns normally have little real power. nurses and patients. work long hours. This role redefinirion scrambled existing relations of power between doctors and nurses. and opening hitherto closed blinkers. our hypothesis this: it is possible modify the differentcoefficients is to of unconscious transversality differentlevelsofan institution. tansversality replaced the psychoanalytic concept of transference (movement of positive and negative affect back and forth from patient and doctor). 'The grid' madc it possiblcto :rnalysc actualrclationsof firrcc by proviclirrg:lcorltcxt irr whiclr t hc t lir r r s v cl s ad i n rc rrs i o n f' fh c i n s ti tu l i o n coukl l l c l crrctrcd. bureaucrats and unions. It is not so much that simple propositions have no relation to truth at all. (G 1972:80) at Among a group of interns there may exist great potential for transversal relations. Deleuze defines truth in terms of creativity and construction. Truth then would not be a property of single propositions in a book or in a paper. and so on. to say something is true is not to say somethingverifiablcin somc way.Objective facts do not exist and cannot be identified or shown. l o TRUTH James Williams Deleuze's work is opposed to the coherence theory of truth and to the correspondencetheory of truth. Transversality: 'tends to be realised when communication maximised is betweendifferentlevels and aboveall in differentdirections. are dangerously tired. Thus. whereas a subjectgroup could decay into a subjugated group through bureaucratic automutilation by reversing its transversal potentiality. rather than a representation of it. hospital bureaucraciesand State funding bodies. both theories are wrong-headed from their very premisses. Guattari set about experimenting with ways to heighten and maximise an institution's 'therapeutic coefficient' by unfixing rigid roles.

There is only onc bcing:perccpis mcmorics and fictionsarcasrcll ts iltoms.secondary. vocity' Deleuzedescribes alternativehistory of philosophycoman Repetition. while other beingsare or either not truly substances different types of dependent. in Cinema2. In Cinema 2.transformation transvaluation) over identity and sameness.where the false can have an affirmative power and where the deep opponentof both the rrue and the false(and life) is stupidity . and he noteshow truth and the searchfor truth fixes worlds. this is because being has been deemedto be equivocal:only one being truly is. rather than a matter of projectingourselves into an identifiabletruthful future. a temperaturereading has some importance but a film capturing the is of significance the crackingice-caps more truthful.definedasthe desirefor simpleoppositions.'uniAccordingto one of Deleuze's is the central concept of Deleuze's proiect. phikrsophcrs. It could be objectedthat when Deleuzemovesawayfrom truth as an arbiter of propositions.Dele:uze extends this view of truth asbecoming and part of the complex struggle for life. The lessstatistics and is transform and giveus signsof the deeperideasand intensesensations work in the at war. is as if he doesnot careabout factsand logical it necessity. original is elevated substance. thrccrcvrlluIirlttitt'y cnrphlsiscs . in the sense of settingdown truths that become immutableand settledrepresentations of statesof things.but theseare secondary a much highcr voclltionfor to truth.Instead. commonsense for and for transcendent life-denying values. That is not the case.referto the entry on'psychoanalysis'. UNIVOCAL Claire Colebrooh most important critics. the actualis the privilegedand properlocusofthe potential.but truths from a different one). Again followingFriedrich Nietzsche. l)clcuzc of'univocrrl l"rom his lristury or conccpts bodics.truth should be a destructive and transforming process. idcits. us. by pointing out rhar there are no simple oppositionsof the true and of the false.whereDeleuze and Nietzsche seek thosethat affirm becoming (or overbeing. Falsehoods. In Nietzsche Philosophy.Deleuzearguesfor univocity: no eventor phenomenon morerealthananyother. believes He that factsand logicalnecessity haverolesto play. Deleuze emphasises variationof truth over time and hencethe powerof falsethe hoodsto vary thosetruths (anygivensettledseries truths must be chalof lengedby falsehoods from their angle.goodand evil. Truth is associated with the morally goodand it is assumed that throughtruth we arriveat the moral good.the goodand the true arerelativeto differentattitudesto life . traditional conceptsof truth turn us away from the world.univcrsitls. which is to rcvcaldccpconnections hctwccn thingsanclto:rlklw all us to livc rrp to thc cvcntsthirtnukc:rnd trirnsfilrrrr In llris rcsllcct.while the potentialcannotbe saidto be in the same sense. UNCONSCIOUS . Mind is elevated abovematter.only the actual is realor proper being. Instead.290 TRUTH U N IVOC AL 29r sensations transformations not truthful.Thus. but without beingableto saythat we cansomehow of move beyondtruth or stop usingthe conceptat all.If philosophy has been dominated by Platonism.havethe power to reveal for differentand more affirmativeviewsof life.Alain Badiou. Similarly. Deleuzesees truth asnecessarily involvedin moral presuppositions.This is alreadyan idea from his Dffirence and. examplein cinematicnarration.Repetition. ln Dffirence and.truths are always for latentand it is a matter of dramatising them. tions. abovecopy. of bringing them out and allowing them to transform us. of for whereas.For Deleuzethis cannotbe the case because both the moral goodand truth are part of a strugglebetween differentvalueswith no externalway of dividing them into true and false. in the sense searching truths that are not here or missing.anticipirtions. Connectives Difference Nietzsche UEXKULL. JACOB VON (1864-1944) refer to the entrieson 'becoming* music' and'deterritorialisation/reterritorialisation'. Deleuze.Baruch Spinozaand Friedrich Nietzsche. Against this equivocity. This meansthat Deleuzeis caught in a difficult position of opposing concepts truth. prising thosephilosophers daring enoughto think of being as univocal: John Duns Scotus. the lesstruthful they are.

But because principle that governsor grounds life. 'a Shakespeare' would have had to life is univocal. and which then hassecondary lessreal or qualities.a beingwhich is.asdifferencesa/some grounding neutral being. if it were repeated. And this is because the original life was not an actuality . not merely a different way in which someother subtendingbeing is grasped. Connectives Eternal return Immanence Nietzsche Spinoza UTOPIA Jonathan Roffe The term 'utopia' designates Deleuzethe political vocationof philfor osophy:the attempt to bring about different ways of existihg and new contextsfor our existencethrough the creation of concepts. If.If there is only one substancethen there cannot be a creating God outside creation.say.On the one hand. for example. which in all its virtual power can continually create and differentiatenew experiences. if this were so then futures.beingsthat can be said to be only by analogy. however. one where life in all its becoming and difference was submitted to pre-given forms. indeed really to repeatlife is to repeatcreation. We should neither wait nor hope for a better world. we graspeachrepetition of the world's virtual power asthoroughly new we will recognisethat univocity . material being that already exists . There is not some transcendentbeing which then createsor grounds different beings.Deleuzearticulates conceptof the immanence. The potential that produced Shakespeare would.On the contrary. life Deleuzerefers By not to what actuallyis. There are two ways in which this one immanent life can be affirmed univocally. Why? Becausethis would only be possiblein an equivocal life.eternalreturn and univocity precludethe idea that a stateof completion or rest will ever comeabout. all we have is the potential for difference and variation. eventually. however. If there is only one being then all life. which is nothing outsideits expressions. But this is where Deleuze's conception of life differs from a grounding on actual life. Deleuze's favoured philosopher of univocity. Immanence followsfrom univocity preciselybecause commitment to one substance the precludes any point outside being.On thc othcr.something that simply was. If there is only one being then we cannot relate differences. a power of variation that is singularbecause is radically it different from the life. events and becomings would already exist in potential and would then unfold. because there is no form.differencesof colour . there is only one life.Deleuzeinsiststhat only with univocity can there be real difference.nature as it is commonly understood.wherebylife could be identifiedwith the actual. After all. nor should we imagine an apocalyptic break with this world in order to achievea radical future.accordingly. as the (u-topia. beenassociated political thought and actionin ways that would seemantitheticalto the philosophyof Deleuze. iclcn utopia$ccms rcfcr word itself indicntcs thc of trl L . produceanotherShakespeare.such as a human body .and then had to go through time and alteration. but the virtual power from which life is unfolded.all events. definable and general forms it word has with manydifferent conceptions of 'utopia'.292 UNI VO CAL U TOPIA 293 From Duns Scotus.The first would be a biologistor vitalist also difference and futuritv.but a 'pre-personal singularity'. There is only one being but this does not mean that there cannot be radically new events and futures. and all potential would eventually be repeated. Mind and matter are. Imagine that we were to find someof Shakespeare's DNA and were to we would not have a Renaissance bard who would clone Shakespeare. all futures. (eternal Deleuzeaffirms the conceptof return'. each fleck of light.difference. So we could say. idea or emerge. From Nietzsche.Only if we seerepetition as a pale copy or resemblance we need to think of do the radically new as other than this already full life. that the potential that createdWilliam Shakespeare would.Cloning would not producelife's effects. each sound or affect is fully real and therefore different in itself. there is the real naivety with which doctrines of utopia are often propounded. possessing full reality. then write Hamlet. does not nor one depend on or derive from the other. From Spinoza'sunivocity. Eternal return describes future that is a positive becauseit repeats and affirms this life.eachdifferenceis fully real: eachshadeofa colour. produce as much differenceand variation as the 'original'. Mind and matter are attributes of the one divine substance and eachbody .the divine is nothing outside irs expression. everything that is rs equally.Each being is fully real and is so because just is the expression the divine subit of stance. two distinct substances. one being yielding infinite difference just one expression mode of the attribute of mind and the attribute of or matter. will be actualisations this of immanent life.

In that we find beingis becoming.Deleuze often brings up the artist Paul Klee's claim that the audiencefor a work of art doesnot preexist the artwork itself . These decisionscan only be made on the difficult path of practical. and therefore against it. for the benefit of a time to come.we must considerthesestructures be secondary relationto the movement sound to in of There is.uturefor us. While engaging with the concrete present situation as it in fact is. sees politicsasthoseactsthat offer resistance but to the norms and valuesof the present. it Guattari.the peopleare lacking. the creation of concepts.empiric4l learning and'" carefulattention. Utopia namesthe point of contact between the present state of affairs and the activiry of philosophy.concepts true creations. The primary locationof the useof utopia in his philosophyis in l[/hat is Philosophy. Deleuzeoffersa numberof examples the conceptof 'variation'in his for on work.a pure movement difference of without identity. turn.which hasno intrinsic notesor scales. This conception of politics clearly doesnot concernstatements (unlikemany aboutthe idealnatureof social existence utopianphilosophies). accordingto Deleuze and. for Deleuze. So utopia is what links philosophywith its own time. Rather. westernmusic. only itself.there is alsothe conceptof the octavethat In dividessoundup into repeatable scalarunits.itations. philosophy'saim ought to be the breakingwith or resistingof the presentfor the future. VINCENT (1853-90) referto the entry on 'art'.Music is traditionallyunderstood the basis of scales that are fixed moments of pitch extracted from the whole range of frequencies. oneof which is music.we do not find the fixed categoriesof a logicaFgpmmar or innate structure. Likewise. Unlike many other ideasof philosophy. For Deleuze. occasion.ashe says. The fact that language use does not remain itself. Deleuze makes pivotal use of the concept (while noting thesepotential problems). No ideal future is involved. that existenceis not characterised primarily by unities. the continuous variationof pitch . for Deleuze. but rather by a continual senseof movementand That is. but rather the view that the present can always be negotiated with philosophically order to bring aboutmore freedom.asif we could leapoutsideof our concrete life existenceinto a fundamentally different kind of society. For Deleuze. Rather. and not the other way around.In the context of discussionsabout the creation of concepts.depending the context.We can alsoconsider fixed but is fluid is the very natureof language the importantexample space. written with Guattari. that philosophy actson the present.z.we cannotclaim in advancethat certain conceptswill necessarilylead to a better future. Connectives Art Concepts Freedom VAN GOGH. on useof wordsis always In A Thousand. in Philosophy therefore has two temporal loci: the present and the future. Despite these concerns. VARIATION Jonathan Roffe Deleuzemobilisesthe conceptof variation in order to insist on what is perhapshis most fundamental theme. of Deleuzeand Guattariofferthe opposition . Deleuzeand Guattari describe this as the inherent variability of language.of use. Art and science also undertake the same creative task.Finally. are and philosophyasthe creation of conceptsmakespossible new waysof existingthrough them. but through their own waysof thinking that do not include the concept. the its shifting around. fundamentally. to recall the philosopherHeraclitusas Deleuzedoeson change. This task is undertaken by philosophybecause of any kind of strife.conceptsare not to be thought of as representationsof reality or tools for uncovering the truth.if we examinelanguage use.29+ UTO PI A VAR IATION 295 to a world totally disconnected from the real social engagementsthat characterise hereand now. While reSistingthe present and opening up the f.even if theseusesare few in number. but is alsothat which givesit the forum for its criticalpoliticalactivitythat hasits focusin the future (D&G 1994:99).all creativethought calls for a new people and a new earth. the unitiesand structures in life are thereforethe result of organisingthis fundamentalmovement. We can think here of Friedrich Nietzsche's statement in his UntimefuMed. there is no guaranteethat the world thus opened will be freer. Plateaus.but is called into being by it.

The given the virtual by Deleuzeraisesthe quesvariety of characterisations tion of how the virtual ought to be understood and the extentto which each is characterisation complicit in the next. virtrrirl/rcirl belongare incorporealeventsand singularitieson a plane of consistency. can As thereis a sense a resultthat the natureandconstruction certainspaces as of formsoneof the primary concerns politics. characrerisations the real.and this includesthe past in the that hasneverbeenpresent(the virtual). ing to the pure past ./rcirl of irrc 'l'hc strttcs itfthirs. a morefundamental of on level.The actuirl. influences for insiststhat the virtual is not a potential.Even animalspecies must be understood in termsof a movement life which hasbeenstructuredinto localised of patterns of stability. there for is onething that they havein common:anyphilosophy that puts a premium of on the de-actualisation the present.Without has the beingor resembling actual.but each works best when placedalongside his other texts and concepts. Any actualpresentpasses all presents constitutedboth aspresentand aspast.This schema relations. in which movementis and uninhibited. preventthis To tion) and the future (asin someapocalyptic future reification.and finally Friedrich Nietzsche'sconcept of the teternalreturn'. In contrast. Perhapsthe fundamentalpoint with regard to variation in Deleuze's work comesin connectionto the theme of difference-in-itself.In smoothspace.No one on its own canbe consideredto be definitive. What sucha diagrampointsto is from one actualto another. As a result.rals.difference continuous is variation.In all are only because pastpresents entirepastis conserved itself. movement therefore is continuous variation.urde 6lan oital stemsfrom the basicagreementbetweenDeleuzeand Bergsonregardingthe structureof temporality.bodilymixturcsand incliviclr. Deleuzehascharacterised virtual as Meanwhilein differentcontexts the the d. in Baruch Spinoza'sidea of one substance that is differentiated its infinite attributesand alwaysin the processof being further differenciatedin its modes.creating fixed pointsand limits between what movements be undertaken.Deleuze's booksand concepts must alsobe considered according to the principleof continuous variation. that vary from eachother.This is in contrastto the bulk of the westerntradition of philosophysinceParmenid.the virtual nonetheless the capacityto and or bring aboutactualisation yet the virtual nevercoincides canbe idenDeleuze leansupon Duns Scotus when he tified with its actualisation. the continualvariation of like of a soundrising and loweringin pitch without stoppingat notesin a scale.rarding idcirof ir proccss in thc 'l'hcpitst citllcd non-tlctcrrttittirtg tcndcncics./V IN TU A LITY 297 betweensmooth and striated space. canalso foundin the writingsofJacques be but The reasons its postulationvary from one thinker to another. striated spaceis structured and organised.sincesmoothspace by defof is inition the space freedom.the past that can never be fully present. That the virtual is the Bergsonian and d. Connectives Difference Freedom Space VIRTUAL/VIRTUALITY Constantin 11 Boundas In Deleuze's ontology.The wholeof Deleuze's a thought is in this sense basedupon the primary valuehe givesto continuousvariation.rather it that becomingis not a linear process is the movement from an actualised stateof affairs. pursued most systematicallyin Dffirence and Repetition.the virtual and the actualare two mutually exclusive.the notions of the immemorialpast and the messianic (Deleuzcprcfersto talk of the purc pastirndof thc ctcrnalrcpctitionof the thirl prcsupposcs diffcrcnt)succcccl safcgr.296 v IR T U A T -/v rn ru A Lrry V IR TU A I-.Other philosophical his conceptof the virtual include Henri Bergsonand his critique of the order to tap the resources the of pastor the future.Rather than seeing difference a difference as betweentwo things. through a dynamicfield of virtual./real tendencies.natureitself for Deleuzeis continuous variation.difference must be thought of asthe continualmovement self-differing.Smooth spaceis the type of spacein which thereare no fixed points or boundaries. In other words. of brrlics. a result. is 'pttrc'itt ordcrlo cntphitsisc . runs the risk of reifying the past(asin Plato'srecolleceschatologies). and finally throughout many of his texts he referredto the virtual as an event.outlining the movement of his thought rather than the doctrinesthat he espouses along the way.urieand ilan oital in his studiesof Ideas/structures and the realm of problems in Dffirence and Repetitiozwhereby the diverse of actualisations the virtual are understood as solutions. The idea of a past that has never been present(the immemorialpast) DerridaandEmmanuel L6vinas. the actualisation this field in a new stateof to of safeguards reversible the natureof virtual and actual from the that outsetpostulates primary identity.yet jointly sufficient. One way of characterising becoming is with the following schema: virtual/real<+actual/real<+virtual/real.

Second. yet they also introduce the strange combination: the impassive and dynamic aspectsof multiplicities in the processof actualisation. ln later work. the cogitandum)but he moves beyond pure Kantianism when he multiplies Ideas by making them the gerundives of all faculties (the memlrandum. unlike the virtual past.tlrcscthrcc gcncsisand thc nririntcnirncc its c<lnsistcncy. M W H OLE jonattan Roffe As early as his first book. Deleuze rejects the idea of total unities. to be surrounded by unities of many kinds: human subjectivity. The most substantial treatment of the concept of the 'whole' in this senseis given in the discussion of Stoic philosophy in The Logic of Sense. They are the product of certain habitual ways of thinking common to western culture and the metaphysical tradition Deleuze calls 'dogmatic image of thought'.urtie is not empty. is the very real and concrete result of the kinds of social experience that we have. or the idea of the world as a whole.I 298 VI RTUAL/ VI RTUAL I T Y WH OL E 299 that it is the site of problems and the source of actualisations. nor should it be taken to mean transcendence.Repetition.come to be so. The claim that Ideas are structures in and large part comes from the prevailing structuralist vocabulary Deleuze uses throughout Dffirence and Repetition. and works to analysehow things which are practically speaking unified . For Deleuze. As such. Boldly transforming Kantianism in Dffirence and.we would reduce the notion of repetition that Deleuze advancessimply to a repetition of the human beings. it is rich in extention and poor in intensity. The most significant discussion of the illusory nature of such totalities is undertaken in Dffirence and Repetition. in fact.t lt solt t lt ' rrrri ti es. a unified and coherent basis for thinking. for Immanuel Kanr. unlike a noun or an adjective. occasionally. has no instantiations in the empirical world. the appropriate name 'dlan aital . produced wholes are subject to the variations in the social context that is theirs.This point is closely connected to Deleuze's concept of 'multiplicity' that describesunique things in terms of their own complex constitutive relations. The unity of human experience. unities but that these are produced by and in very particular social contexts. Deleuze goes on to argue that there are. yet at the same time it must be thought. he maintains that there are no pre-existent wholes. and so on. of ol'l) clcr r zt 'r 'or t ccr t t it t r t ill lcl lhc consllr r ct ivistnr ct hodologv 1' l oi nts cs clilr c r is r r t on( 'c non cxist cr r t( r r r t he lr iuls( : ( 'll( l( 'nl.Simply put.urn. An ldea. the unity of natural languages.Deleuze begins to identify the virtual with Ideas. We simply do not have any grounds for taking the unique things which make up existenceas members of a species which could ground a unifying perspective. Empiricism and Subjectiuity. for example. since it has no tranof scendentalprinciple of unity but only the support of thc sociirlfrrrccs its 'l'irkcn togcfhcr. Deleuze retains this imperative when he thinks of the virtual (for example. To the extent that both Deleuze and Bergson agreed. verbs best introduce the untimely nature of the virtual. Finally.Most important for Deleuze is that the virtual is not to be understood as duplicating or resembling the actual. in fact. Not only does nature itself not make a whole. t ot r r lit v A I l! t 1 Connectives Becoming Bergson Differentiation /Differenciation Duration Eternal return Event Spinozir L . Hence. and that. In their infinitival modes. is better suited for an ontology of becoming). so on). these kinds of transcendent totalities are fundamentally illusory. but things themselves exist only one by one. it is important to note we seem.that the realm of solutions is limited in numbers and. They do not fit into an overarching structure and cannot be 'added up' to make a total picture of existence becauseeverything is unique. Their wholeness cannot be guaranteed. the loquend. societies and ideas of God and the world . Were we to understand the relationship between virtual singularities and actual individuals in terms of resemblanceor analogy. rather it is an immanently differentiated dynamic processof the real whose nature is always to actualiseitself in novel differenciations. and the absenceof subjects or objects.To understand how the virtual may be characterisedas an event we need to recall Deleuze's theory of sense. Deleuze elaborates upon this claim that Ideas are structures when he describes the nature of the virtual in terms of a plane of consistency.a great artist may assist something past to reveal its real being as if in a time that has been nobody's present. which is given in the infinitive of verbs (a verb. Deleuze's procedure for coming to grips with the thought of unity throughout his philosophy is threefold. First of all. problems do not resemble or represent their solutions.

I I I I N I 'f Connectives Multiplicity Singularity W I LL T O POW E R Lee Spinks Friedrich Nietzsche's famous formulation of the 'Will to Power' represents the culmination of his attempt to develop an immanent and inhuman vision of life. and concretely produced in a certain way by our social context. 'Force' in this senseis defined by the quantitative difference that obtains between different forces. Within this synthesis. Deleuze himself seems to be advocating a kind of primary oneness to existence. The conception of the Will to Power also afforded Nietzsche the opportunity to overcomethe 'metaphysical' distinction between being and becoming or appearanceand reality by conceiving of a principle of life immanent and interior to life rather than elevatedabove and beyond it in the form of transcendentalreason. Deleuze emphasises.Subjectiaity. The difference between a dominant and dominated force is determined by a quantitative difference. the distinction between active and reactive forces manifests a difference in quality. nature is unique . The vision of life as Will to Power revealsthat there is no other form of causality than the movement of domination between one will and another.a certain thought of general interconnectednessand proximity that would allow us to consider Deleuze's ontology as a kind of ecology of being. In shorr. The Will to Power is therefore both the genetic and differential element of force: the element that produces the quality accorded to each force within a particular relation. \.300 W I LL TO P O WE R WIL L TO POWER 30r sense). not just human life. Life at a primordial level 'is' this struggle between appropriation and resistance. It is this element that Nietzsche and Deleuze describe as the Will to Power. illusory (with regard to thinking). of ' lilc is t lc t c rn ti n c tlb y th c c o n l l i c l b c tw c c nthc w i l l to l hc rrccrrrrrrrl rrti on ol ' force and everything that resists subordination to stronger will. Univocity disqualifies in advance any thought of a transcendent ordering realm that is higher or more pure than the world of events. particularly concerning his thesis of ontological univocity. but thc corrsti ftrti vcqur r lit yot 't lr c Will t <ll) owcr llr ir t dct cr r r r ir r csir r ccis cxpr csscrbv f l iot ivc l hc tl i sti rtct t llclwccn ir llir r r r lr t ir r r t lr r t 'gr r t ' t .but this does not mean that it is unified.Univocity must be understood rather as the emphasis on the common world of relations for everything that exists . . The Will to Power is not a secondary effect of force nor is it separablefrom a determined configuration of forces. Will to Power is internal to force becauseit interpretsrelative levels of force by establishing the extent to which one has successfully incorporated another into its domain. we know this quantitative difference as a force's quality. The Will to Power is the genealogical element of force: it is both an expression of the constitutive conflict between forces and the differential element internal to force itself. or the univocity of being.the issue at stake in every event of life is the quantity of superior power it expresses and the quantity of resistancethat opposesit. 'Will' must therefore be rigorously detached from anthropomorphic psychologicalcategories like'desiring'and 'demanding'which posit an ideaor subjectivity behind and before the expression of forces. languagc :rncl nrorirl 'l-hc cntirc gcncsislncl clcvcklpnrcnl iclcits scctlnclary its irnclrcuctivccft'ccts. this is the position that claims all existing things are within a single world . The concept of 'force' names what is triumphant in the struggle between forces. is united by a common striving for power. it divides force into its active and reactive components.Ontological univocity is closely related to the thesis of monism that claims there is a single substancefrom which individual things are formed. Its image of existenceas a ceaseless struggle for power and dominion is 'inhuman' becauseit claims that alllife.everything rhat exists is 'said' in the same way ('uni-vocalised'). Because the Will to Power determines the relation between forces. with force. The Will to Power. forces contend continually over the differential relation that defines them. At certain points. the whole of life is a single field of forces expressingan inhuman Will to Power that produces forms such as consciousncss. but the outcome of this struggle remains perpetually indeterminate unless another element is introduced to gauge the quantitative difference between forces that determines their relative difference in quality.should be understood as the principle of the synthesis of forces: it names the element that establishes the quantitative difference between forccs and the element of quality that this difference expresses. the eternal return is therefore the mode of synthesis that expressesthe genetic and differential element of the Will to Power. we cannot consider him to be a 'holist' in any direct sense. The clistinction bctwccn qu:rliticsof firrcc is dcfincd by thc tcrms':rctivc'irncl'rcrctivc'.According to this principle. Yet if Will to Power cannot 6e separatedfrom force neither should itbe confused. Whilst this emphasis in Deleuze's work involves a certain thought of unity. t r r r lit Allir r r r ir t ion: r r r r l ivt v. As he states in Empiricism and. The quantitative difference between forces is exprcsscd by their relative difference in quality.

The role of 'woman' in Deleuze'stheory of becomingis noteworthy. Thus 'woman'is not the sexualised sex'of the phallicsystem. hasgenerated this a lively andoftencriticaldebate philosophers. and. centralised their unfolding. which is centralto Deleuze's emphasis radicalimmanence: the on on one hand it givespriority to affectivity in his theory of the subject. ./animal/insect an affectthat flows. with feministpoststructuralist Moreover. that it is openand receptive encountering in to otheraffects.consequently genealogical immanentcritique seeks establish quality and ro the of Will to Powerat the origin of everyevaluativegesture. this sense In he positivefigurationssuch as the non-Oedipal empowers 'woman' through little girl of Alice in Wonderland. determinesthe relation of forces. is of 'Becoming-woman' both integralto the concept of and andprocess becoming alsouncomfortably written into it asa a much broaderphallogocentric historicalsystem'woman'is alsopositionedas'other'. Instead thc of r6gimcof'thc phrrllus <lfits spccuhrothcr. syslcrnirtic. Affirmation is the power to becomeother. constitutiveparadoxof Deleuze's The womanin question hereis not an empiricalreferent.The notion of 'forces'accomplishes double a aim. Processes becoming are not of predicated upon a stable. Womannot only can enactprocesses becoming-minoritarian also. or in the equally empowered fianc6e who expresses femininefaceof phithe of Ariadne. dynamic subject. Interpretation.Transcending negativepassions the that the Oedipalising economy the phallusinduces in effecta Deleuzian of is engineof the transformation. Connectives Active/Reactive Nietzsche WOMAN RosiBraidotti Like all formationsof identity in Deleuze's thought. asis to be expected. negationis the process becoming-reactive. 'becoming-woman' marks thc thresholdof pattcrnsof thirt 'bccoming-minoritariirn' crossthrough thc lnimrrl irnclgo into tlrc ltnd lincitror 'bccoming-irrtpcrccpriblc' llcyottd. Deleuzerejectsthe speculative self/other relationship dialectics of and arguesinstead that these terms are not linked by negation. a posi'second but tive term: as the other.Rather Deleuzeavoidsthe tropescommon to philosophical discourse the feminine. philosopher's the losophyand is alsothe source ethicaltransmutation. However. but are two positively different systemseach with its specificmode of activity.who hasnot yet beendispossessed her of position body by the phallic law of the father.tbecoming-woman' a moment. 'self' who supervises Rather. constitutesthe main bloc of becoming for all processes deterritorialisation. multilayered. The valueof value inheresin this differentialelement. Deleuze points out.or a location that needsto be constructedin the encounter with others.Deleuze also rejects psychoanalytic the emphasis negativity(lack)andthe equation on of bodily matcriality with the originarysite of rhe maternal. a passaBe. Deleuzeshowsgreatsensitivity his treatment in of 'woman'neithercasting asthe mistress alterity. evaluationdeterminesthe Will to Power that confers value upon a thing. what Deleuzeotherwise calls'becoming'.What is at stakein the distinctionbetween affirmationand negationand actionand reaction is nothing lessthan the distinctionbetween interpretationand evaluation.and on the other.which marksdegrees levels intensityandaffective imperand of states.A forceis a degreeof affectivity or of intensity. Becomingwoman.womiln |)clcuzcprcfcrs irncl - heterogeneous multiplicitiesand internal differentiation.choosingto on remain polymorphouson the topic of sexuality.'l'hcrc ru'cn(. of forces 'Becoming'is the actualisation the immanentencounterbetween partsof eachother in a crewhich areapt mutually to affectand exchange ativeand empathicmanner. racialised Yet becomings and/or naturalised 'others'). they rest on a non-unitary. the while performing all a doubledisplacement the levelof both Platonicrheories representaat of tion and psychoanalytic theoriesof desire.joyful affectsover and abovethe negativeones.302 W O M AN WOM AN 303 negationgo beyond action and reactionbecause they are interior to the movementof becomingitself.that is to saythey inevitably are and necessarily moveinto the directionof the 'others' of classical dualism (suchassexualised. It is the elementof Will to Powerthat determinesthe nature of values:the value of a value is established the quality of Will ro Power that it by expresses. line of flight is a which bypasses empirical women per se. 'woman' is a molar entity that pertainsto and sustainsthe political economyof a writing it is a is composition. expresses It sonaland ungendered forces. The transformationthat occurs in the processof becomingasserts the affirmative. do not stop there.but rather a topologicalposition.nor fetishising her of her as the privileged object of masculinedesire.All becomings minoritarian. they becomedisplacedand are reterritorialised the in process. but of especiallyfor Guattari. of These powersare interior to actionand reactionand bring thesequalitiesinto emphasises embodiedstructureof the subjectand the spethe cific temporalityof the embodiedhuman. of turning negative or reactivevaluesinto affirmativeones. Thus. she is a matrix of becoming.

we outsidelanguage unrepresentable. His ideathat true thinking must plungebackinto the life from which languageemerges. reducedto clock time. but aboutactualising new modesof affectiveinteraction:it assertsthe potency of expression.including James Joyce. is possible It that woolf 's concernwith pre-linguistic perception may well have emerged from the same Woolf's Bloomsburycircle intellectualmilieu to which Deleuzeappeals. vIRGINIA (r882-rg4r) 305 teleologicalstages becoming.or the idea that we can only think within a language and that language structures our perception. speed. Alternatively. not that which lies If negativeand undifferentiated. Connectives Becoming Expression Force Lines of flight Molar Psychoanalysis wooLR vrRGrNrA (1882-1941) Claire Colebrook One of the challenges Deleuzepresentsto late twentieth-century philosophyand theory is his critique of linguisticism. or 'blocksof becoming'. uniquely is of such as the fragmentation lanother modernistswho used techniques * guage. universalsubjectof the systemof Whereas'man' is the presupposed all becomingis represented.Woolf's writing is aboutperception. of Plateaus significant two is for reasons. profoundly modis ernist and continuesan early twentieth-century concernwith the genesis of systems signs.304 wooI-F. rather than remain within a language. becomingor perceptions emergesthen we need to move beyond 'man' as subject or ground to and creation.allusion.Rather.expression in women'sexperience language because is a womanwriter. signifyingnothing. womanis the speech and the being to whom key to all becomings. in On the one hand.eachplateaumarks a framed and sustainof ableblock or moment of transformation that is actualisedimmanently. soundand the the fury. Charactersreceiveimpressionsnot as extendedobjects in time but as intensities becoming.Internally of self-contradictory. the Deleuze and Guattari want to think about becoming. Expressionis the non-linguistically coded affirmation of an affectivity whose degree.his and Guattari's celebration virginia woolf inA Thousand.Woolf's style is becoming-woman.when writing.intellectualism the the expression. Or else. expressing she (for sheargues A Roomof One'sOwn(1929)that it is fatal. First.with many of her senstructure of tences complicating and subverting the subject-predicate speech and logic.punning and parataxis linguistictechniques beyondhumanintent.the process becomingis not about of signification. Womanis not the Other of man.Woolf's she also work is not just about perceptionand a world of impressions. they too haveto becomewoman. vrRGrNrA ( r 88z. in to think of one'ssex). patterns of becoming can be visualisedas an affirmative deconstruction dominant subject-positions of (masculine/ white/heterosexual/speaking standard a language/property-owning/urbanised so and on). Unlike Virginia Woolf 's response. tion of which Woolf 's styleis perhaps greatest is in the most explicit appealmade by Deleuze and Guattari to Woolf Plateaus. Woolf's own work is contemporaneous Henri Bergson with who wasso importantfor Deleuze.In this way. enacts becomingand intensity at the levelof style. wasconcernedwith the autonomy of the aestheticand its differencefrom appeal the undividedflow of creto the fixed categories logic. extension and intensitycanonly be measured materiallyand pragmatically. they turn to becoming-womanand Virginia Woolf.Bergson's of ativelife from which fixed terms emergewaspart of a broadermodernist rationalisaand technological reactionagainstreification. as from which the subject want to think the life.the womanand the turning of the waves. standard Connectives Becoming Bergson . by And it is therefore interestingto note that womenarenot a priori molecular. mathematical spaceand impoverished positive and affirmative. quotation. case case. when eratureto think and express extra-literary.Although Deleuzewrites positivelyabout a seriesof of modernist writers and artists.On the other hand. Woolf usedlitto showsignsoperatingasmachines This is perhaps why. 'becoming-woman'sectionof A Thousand If modernism in generalsharesthe Bergsoniandistastefor a world experience.Woolf is crucial here not woman as becoming. becomings be understood steppingstones a complex can as to and open-ended processof depersonalisation the subject. Second.her sentences (1931)createcharacters and whose who are their perceptions. The Watses so of world is not a setof staticobjects much asa perception others'worlds. becoming bestbe expressed figurations: wasp can by the and the orchid.rg4r) wooLF.

the is a tool that canbe used activityof writing playsa special to decodethe despoticpower of the linguistic signifier. or reducedto an economyof guilt. A rhizomic bond is thus established that.Creativity is underor stoodasa multiple and complexprocess transformation.At the heart of Deleuze's pleasure-prone machinecapableof all kinds of human as affirmative. The writer's eye capturesthe outside world by becomingreceptiveto minute and seeminglyirrelevant perceptions. is just a questionof establishing most positiveor It and resonances. makes passions Thus.more than the regressive. creativity affirms the positive structure of difference. highly receptive subjectwhich quite simply is not unified.not explainedwith reference psychoanalytic theories symbolic'lack'. Because the historicalbond that ties writing to r6gimesof power.Ultimately. Ambushed. Experimentation expresses differenttopological modes.dispersing into a myriad of datait concomitantly recomposes itself aroundthem.306 Power Woman Writing W R I TI NG WR ITIN G 307 WRITING RosiBraidotti philosophical Deleuze's monism makesno categorical difference between thinking and creating. of it is the skill that consistsin developinga compass the cognitive.a the empowering forces. the Deleuzeinsists writing is the structure of affectivity that animatesthe rhizomaticsis a positivereadingof the subject. it the questionof creationis ultimately technological: is one of 'how?'. openingit up to possible encounters with a number of affective outsides. alteredstates Connectives Black hole Creativetransformation Difference Immancncc Powcr Rcprcscltlitl iott . 'reality' vigorits ously rushesthrough the sensorial/perceptive appararus. Writing is therefore. The singularityof this rhizomic subjectivityrestson the spario-temporal coordinates that make it coincidewith nothing more than the degrees. But to holding or capturing affectivity does not happen dialecticallywithin a dominantmodeof consciousness. nor is it the of linguistic power of the mastersignifier. when rationalcontrol releases hold.they enacta creative process that is not configured by unfolding a fixed essence telos. is not the self-assertion a rationallyordainedimaginaof tive subject.In this way.light.expansions and extensions the 'outside' as it rusheshead-on.painting and writing.Our culture has mode of tendedto codethis as 'feminine'. Writing then. What are mobilisedare one'scapacitics to process sustain impactin c<lnjunction thc complcx feel. It is quite simply an apprenticeship the art of conperceptualcolouring. It has to do with emptying out the self. that stresses productive.sense.the intensivewriting style particularto Deleuzespellsthe end of the linguisthinkthe tic turn. ceptual and A new image.afftictin ive and ethicalkind. illuminatesa territory through It established it visible/thirikable/sayable/hearthe orientationof its coordinates. During such momentsof floatingawareness.rather its eviction.Writing is an intensiveapproach Put differently.information and affectivitysimultaneously propelsthe self out of the blackhole of its atomised isolation. experimentation an with intensities that foster patterns of becoming.It is alsogeological: is about'where?'and'in which territory?'.These areall variations experimentation.Put simply. Instead. ableforces. One needs be ableto sustainthe impactof affectivity:to'hold'it. and affectsthat were previouslyunperceived. Pure creativity is an aesthetic immersionalongwith the unfolding and enfoldingof one'ssensabsolute temibility in the field of forcesone inhabits. and the with mrrtcriality thcoutsiclc. peratureand intensity. conceptand percept. of otherwisethe flux of becoming.nor eventhe appropriationof a theme. levels. it it is ethical:it is concerned with wherelimits canbe setand how to sustain processes or ofchange. is it the cognitivepenetration an is an orientation. confirmsthe singularityof the subjectproducedon a particularplaneof immanence. This onslaught of data. through the singulargeometryof the affectsinvolvedand their specific planeof takes form of an affective. sort of fluid but sclflsustrrining ofl ir scnsibility.the of pragmaticrole. of moving inwardsand outwards. speed. evenjoyful connections For Deleuzewhat is at stakein writing is not the manipulationof a set of nor of linguisticor narrativeconventions. ashe releases subjectfrom the cageofrepresentational to ing. of an affectthat breaksthrough framesand representations.or philosophical concept.the self not only receives affects. rlr that stream-of-consciousness is porous to the outside.

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[Inderstand.aswell asof several (199+)andPatternsof Dissonance edited Subjects volumeson Continentalphilosophyand feminism. Guattari. Hume. H. W Leibniz: Philosophical Texts.y-Fioe Years the of N ewLatin American Cinema. Leibniz./s.trans. and Octavio Getino(1983). Newton Parkerand H. 175-20.and feminist practicesof visual and screen culture in the CinemaProgramat the University of Melbourne. Weismann.Selected l4/ritings.G. trans.Wilhelm (1961).ernism Literature at the University Ronald Bogue is Professor Comparative of and and Guattart(1989). Thus Spahe Zarathusra.Nomadic Utrecht University. Jakobvon (1957).Linton Kwesi (2002).irrrgrr:rgcs.GillesDeleuze (2002). in Claire H. ed.Paul(1994). Harmondsworth: Penguin..Harmondsworth:Penguin.Chaosmosis: Ethico-Aesthetic An Paradigm.trans. Cyborgs Women: Reinaention and The of N ature. Baudrillardand Paul Virilio. F6lix and Antonio Negri (1990). l7 -27 . N otes on C ontr i butor s Bruce Baugh is AssociateProfessorof Philosophyat the University Collegeof the Cariboo. Guattari. experimental.R. Friedrich (1969). Oxford UniversityPress. Communists Lihe {. Parkinson.'A Stroll through the Worlds of Animals and Men'. Irony in the Work of Philosophy (2003).Ethicsand Edinburgh.He with Gary Genosko. David (1985). theArts Wabe Constantin V. RosemarySheed. with rev. Uexkiill.). Felicity J. DearestFalher. Colrnan teaches contemporarytheoriesof commodity cultures) avant-garde.Oxford. Parkinson.A Treatiseof Human Nalure. (1999).Deleuze of Georgia. PaulWillemen. Reich. The Theory of Heredit. Hume. Straussand Cudahy. (l()()(r) ltiltu llirn44lyphs Mult Mup uxl . Eranst Kaiser and Ethne Wilkins. Fren: Selected Poems.314 BIBL IOGRAPHY Genosko. An Enquir.Mi Reaalueshanary New York and London: PenguinBooks.y Concerning Human Understand.Filix Guattari: An AberrantIntroduction.London: Continuum. Adarn Bryx is a graduatestudentin Englishat Lakehead University. Deleuze Representation Ironlt: The New Critical ld.He is the author of Deleuze (2003).She is the author of Metamorphoses (1991).iom (2003). New York: Farrar. Baruch(1989).G.interviews and articles by Jean has co-translated. Twent. Reich. Schillcr (ed.trans. London:J.Gary (2002). R. trans. Johnson. Woolhouse RichardFranks. in 'The Third Cinema Question'.y. to Postmod. Guattari. ed. ^Stll( l()()l). Michael Ryan. David (1993).aswell asseveral articleson Deleuze. pp. Paul BainsandJulianBefanis. Ronnfeldt. trans. llritishFilm Institutc. F6lix (1984). London:Dent. Dent. Looks undFriclions: Essu.:ttttltrr cditol ol' llrutitl. Spinoza. Willemen.August (1893).She is also the editor (with Ian Buchanan)of (2003) and Gender Deleuze and FeministTheory(1999). London:Penguin. New York: Schocken Books.Sydney:PowerPublications. Franz (1954). Simians. Gottfried (1973).TheSexualReoolution. is tlrc atttlrot' 'l'ht: llc It<rnrancc l. Leibniz. trans.and (with Dorothea Olkowski) of GillesDeleuze:The Theater of (1994). S. She is the author of New Literary Histories (2003).'Towards Third Cinema: a Notesand Experiences the Development a Cinemaof Liberation for of in the Third World'. Donna (1991). and Nietzfche. Boundas is ProfessorEmeritus in the Department of Reader Philosophyat Trent University.andDeleuze's (2004).ys CulturulStudics Itilrn'l-hutry.London: Routledge. M. trans.London: WalterScott.London: in untl. Philosophical Writings.London: British Film Institute. of in Torn Conlcy is l)rotcssor ltomitnccLitnguagcs thc Dcpartmcntof of llirrvirrdLJnivclsity.New York: International Universities.New York: Semiotext(e). Fernando Solanas. of Claire Colebrook is Professor Literary Theory at the University of (1997). Ethics. Gottfried (1988). Hollingdate.). W. London: Vision.Wilhelm (1969). G. R.He is the author of FrenchHegel: From Surrealism (2003). Molecular Reztolution. He is the editor of The Deleuze (1993). Harraway. Philosophy Rosi Braidotti is Professorof Gender Studies in the Humanities at (2002). F6lix (1995). pp.5. Indianapolis: Hackett. InstinctiaeBehaaior. in Michael Chanan(ed.

lrrrlrfislrcrf plrrlof'l)algrirvc Adrian Parr is Professorof Contemporary Art and Design at the Savannah Collegeof Art and Design.a Reynolds. to Tarnsin Lorraine is an associate professor Swarthmore at College.uction Schizoanalysis(1999).yof Continental Philosophy. PoliticalPh. and on a Deleuzianunderstanding cities. TheAesthetic Anomaly: Aesthetic Presentation Kant.She specialises in modern philosophy.y l4orldalsoforthcomingfrom EdinburghUniversity Press.316 NO TES ON CO NTRI B U T O R S N OTES ON C ON TR IBU TOR S 3r7 Papers(1996).and is the author of variousarticleson art.Shehaswritten a book that explores the notebooksof f.y (2004). on including a book on Baud. in subjectivityand globalisationin Frenchthought. DeleuzianSubjectiaitlt. Gary Genosko is Canada Research Chair in Technoculture Lakehead at University. He is the author of GillesDeleuze: Vitalismand Multiplicity (1998) and is the editor of a forthcomingissueof Paragraph Deleuzeand Science. Inna Sernetsky is an honorary researchassociate the School of in Philosophyand Bioethics. politics and digital technologies. Sheis the author of lrigara. He is the author of Fried.Jnivclsity Ncw Sorrtlr ol' Wrk's. scrics). Interactions:Gilles Deleuzeand the DeweyanLegacy'at ColumbiaUniversity. Discontinuities. Nancy. is forthcomingin 2006. with Ian Buchanan.ti l'hilosophl.ysics and (2001)andco-authorof Deleuze Geophilosoph.In 2002shedefendedher Ph. Jonathan Roffe is convcnor of the Melbourne School of Continental (2004)with Jack Philosophy. Her book. Cliff Stagoll complctccl Ph. The Verena Anderrnatt Conley teaches in Literature and Romance Languages and Literatures at Harvard University. of Deleuze and the Contemporar. Sheis currently interested space. is rrt'cscitt'clt Ilc ol'thc |)cprrrtrrrcrrl itssocirtlc ol'l)lrilosolllry tht: rrt [. on Kylie Message is ResearchFellow in the Centre for Cross-Cultural Research the AustralianNationalUniversity.edited.She won the KevelsonMemorial Award from the SemioticSocietyof America(1999). Heid.and Derrida'sHeidegger (forthcoming) with Simon Critchley.elaire and.D.He is the authorof Tirue Exterionty(1994). Iris.her work uses the interdisciplinary methodology cultural studiesto engage of critically with the new museummodelasit is emersinE across world. Discourse.tioz bc irs Mircnrilliur's llcurtt.D. She has written on Marxism in post-warFrance.y and Deleuze: Experiments VisceralPhilosophy in (1999)and is currently at work on a book tentativelytitled Feminism and. Eugene W.yond llcfrascnkt. in John Marks is Reader FrenchStudiesat NottinghamTrent University.including Gilles Deleuze's Foldandwritten on Deleuzein Le Cinimachez The Deleuze. is thc co-editorof Untlerstanding He Derrid.Publishedwidely.technologies the and environment. the Brett Nicholls lecturesin Film and Media Studies at the University of Otago. and is the editor. Holland haspublishedextensively Deleuzeand Guattari.He translatedDifibrence Deleuze:A Critical and. Lee Spinks is a senior lecturer in English Literature at Edinburgh University.eonardo through the philosophicallens of Deleuze (2003). He has publishedextensively the life and work of F6lix on Guattari.Hc is thc authorof thc forthconring of (lo Art Encountars Dclauzc urul()ualturi: 7'hought llc.egger in and. Paul Patton is Professor Philosophyat the University of New South of Wales. Sirnon O'Sullivan is a lecturerin Art History/VisualCultureat GolclsmithsCollege. in Philosophy thc Univcrsity of his at Warwick.Repetition. of Alison Ross teachesCritical Theory in the Centre for Comparative Literature and Cultural Studiesat Monash University.He has translateda number of books. dissertation'Continuities.Monash University. University London. Schizoanalyvs(1993) and an Introd. Rearler is the authorof Deleuze thePolitical(2000).theoriesof feminism. He is currently working on the relationbetween work of Alain Badiou the and Deleuze.irt.aesthetics and contemporaryFrench thought. with :rtlisscrlatiotr l)clcuzc's on of'tlrchrrnr:rn lhcorisatiorr irrclividtrrrl.Prior to this shewasPostat doctoral Research Fellow in the Department of English with Cultural Studiesat the University of Melbourne. is alsoeditor He and of the forthcoming (2003) andJames Nietzsche Joyce (2005) and is currently completing a study of Michael Ondaatje for Manchester University Press. and and Professor French Studiesat LouisianaState of John Protevi is Associate University. . SouthAtlantic Qrarterly and other journals.

Jamesis grateful for the support of the AHRB Research Trust for the UniversitiesScotland. LeaveScheme and the Carnegie .He is the editor of Alain Bad. Visual and is Performance Studies at Monash University. of Deleuze Music. Alain Badiou and Nietzsche. Guid. Constantine Verevis lectures in the School of Literary.Duke University.31 8 NO TES ON CO NTRTB U T O R S Kenneth Surin is based the Literature Program. His books include Gilles Deleuze'sDifferenceand Repetition:A Critical Introduction and. in his Marcel Swiboda received Ph. Jarnes Williams is Readerin Philosophy at the University of Dundee.iou:Theoretical Writingswith Ray with Brassier (forthcoming) and Antonio Negri: The Political Descartes Matteo Mandarini (forthcoming).He is the co-editor. from the Universityof Leedsin 2003 wherehe currently worksasan associate lecturerin the Schoolof Fine Art.D.publishedby Edinburgh University Press(2004). Alberto Toscano teaches the SociologyDepartment at Goldsmiths in He College.e(2003) and The TransaersalThought of Gilhs Deleuze(2005). History of Art and Culrural Studies. and. His book Film Remakes forthcomingfrom EdinburghUniversity Press.with Ian Buchanan. haspublishedarticleson Italian Marxism.

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