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waste water treatment

waste water treatment

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Published by Ir. feizzsal kent
civil engineering department
civil engineering department

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Published by: Ir. feizzsal kent on May 31, 2012
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10/19/2013

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GROUP MEMBERS

01PKA10F2032 01PKA10F2028
01PKA10F2002 01PKA10F2004 01PKA10F2033 01PKA10F2017
• MOHAMAD SAIFUDIN • LOO WAI HONG • MOHAMAD FIRDAUS • MOHAMAD FAISAL • YUVANESHWARAN • NURUL JANNAH BT CHE HASSAN

INDIVIDUAL WASTE WATER TREATMENT UNIT
SEPTIC TANK

INDIVIDUAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT
IMHOFF TANK
‘SUPER SEPTIC’ SYSTEM

INTRODUCTION

To provide a more efficient and cost-effective management system in the handling of domestic wastewater and to reduce the discharge of inadequately treated wastewater into the rivers, multipoint sewerage systems were constructed and upgraded, while existing ones were refurbished. By the end of 1998, Indah Water Konsortium took over the running of sewerage facilities in 84 out of the145 local authorities and managed 5,373 treatment plants and 770,570 septic tanks, of which 266 treatment plants were refurbished and 352,090 septic tanks desludged. Consequently, there was an improvement in the quality of raw water in some states as shown from the overall decline in the total coliform count in raw water from 28.1 per cent in 1995 to 15.7 per cent in 1998.

1. SEPTIC TANK

HOW SEPTIC SYSTEM WORKS?
DRAINFIELD SEPTIC TANK 1. Trench 2. Seepage Pit (Dry Well) 3. Sand Mound System

MAJOR COMPONENTS

SEPTIC TANK

A septic tank is a key component of the septic system. Function – a settlement tank in which the sewage sludge is retained for sufficient time for the organic matter to undergo anaerobic decomposition. The final effluent from the septic tank should then be drained to an underground soak away system.

TYPE OF SEPTIC TANKS
Concrete Tanks Plastic Tanks • precast and transported to the site with trucks fitted with lifting equipment. • quite heavy • very durable (if it have been made right to begin with) Fiberglass Tanks • durable and much lighter than concrete

• inexpensive • much lighter than concrete • fairly durable

2nd Step
i. These solids are partially decomposed by bacteria to form sludge. Grease and light particles float, forming a layer of scum on top of the waste water

ii.

1st Step
Waste water flows from the house to the septic tank
 The tank is designed to retain waste water and allow heavy solids to settle to the bottom

3rd Step Treated waste water will goes to the drainfield

Household Septic Tank, Cross Section

HOME SEPTIC TANK

DRAWING OF SEPTIC TANK

Video maintenance

DRAINFIELD
The water slowly infiltrates into the underlying soil.
Dissolved wastes and bacteria in the water are trapped or adsorbed to soil particles or decomposed by microorganisms. • This process removes disease-causing organisms, organic matter, and most nutrients (except nitrogen and some salts).

Trench  A solid pipe leads from the septic tank to a distribution box where the waste water is channeled into one or more perforated pipes set in trenches of gravel.  Most common type of system used in new home construction.

The purified wastewater then either moves to the ground water or evaporates from the soil.

The purified wastewater then either moves to the ground water or evaporates from the soil.

SEEPAGE PIT (DRY WELL)
Liquid flows to a precast tank with sidewall holes, surrounded by gravel.

Liquid infiltrates through the holes or joints to the surrounding soil.

SAND MOUND SYSTEM
The waste water flows from the septic tank to a storage tank

Then pumped it from the tank to perforated plastic pipes buried in a mound of sand built on the original soil surface.
•This system provides a layer of suitable soil thick enough to ensure adequate time and distance for proper treatment of the waste water.

 Used in areas where the soil may have too much clay  or the water table may be too close to the ground surface.

Vegetation growing on the mound helps to evaporate some of the liquid.
• particularly important in areas with shallow water tables.

SEPTIC SYSTEM LOCATION
1.

Note where your drain pipe leaves the house this will point you in the direction of the septic tank. Once you locate an unmarked tank, place a marker in the ground above the inspection ports and clean out manhole cover. Measure their exact distances from at least two reference points (such as a tree and the corner of the house) so you can easily find them again.

2.

3.

SIGNS OF TROUBLE
1
POLLUTION OF GROUNDWATER / CLOGGING OF THE DRAINFIELD
The septic tank has not been pumped out in the past five years. Even if the system appears to be working well, sludge may have built up to the point where waste water is released without sufficient time in the tank for treatment and settling of particles.

2

SEPTIC ODOR

Septic odors occur in the house, above the tank and drainfield, or escape from the vent pipe. If the system is operating properly, there should be no odors. If there are odors, it can be an early warning sign that the system is failing

3
HEALTH RISK AND ODOR
A wet area occurs above the drainfield. This situation can develop when sludge particles clog the drainfield or when broken pipes keep the waste water from dispersing through the entire drainfield. Waste water does not move through the soil as it should but it rises to the surface and creating a serious health risk and odor.

4
TOILETS RUN SLOWLY
The basement is flooded with sewage. This can be the result of plugged sewer lines to the tank, a plugged inlet or outlet pipe, a full septic tank, or a failed drainfield.

11. IMHOFF TANK

INTRODUCTION

Imhoff tanks are anaerobic sewage settling tanks.
They are actually modification of the septic tank. It is differing from septic tank in physical design and larger size.

• •

The tank is divided into two sections.
The upper section acts as a settling tank. Lower section allow digestion to occur and its condition are more anaerobic. Gaseous products are removed by a gas pipe at the top.

Stabilized solids are removed from the bottom of the tank.

FUNCTION
An Imhoff tank is a two-stage septic system where the sludge is digested in a separate tank. It avoids digested sludge mixing with sewage. Its designs have a second stage where the effluent from the anaerobic first stage is aerated before it drains into the seepage field.

PROCESS OF IMHOFF TANK

The tank consists of a settling compartment above the digestion chamber
The Sedimented solids flow from the upper chamber through a slot in the bottom into the lower one, where they accumulate and are digested Anaerobically The fresh influent is separated firmly from the bottom sludge The effluent remains fresh and odorless. Sludge removal should be done right from the reactor bottom to ensure that only fully digested substrate is discharged

EXAMPLE OF IMHOFF TANK

ADVANTAGES
Quite economical in operation There is no difficulty in sludge removal. Require only preliminary treatment

Do not require skilled attention during operation.

The sludge volume and weight are less

It does not have moving parts

The results obtained are good, with 60% to 70% removal of solids and 30% to 40% removal of BOD

DISADVANTAGES

Because the greater depth, cost of construction is higher

They have tendency to foam or boil, due to which the sludge particles may enter the sedimentation zone through the slots, thus affecting the quality of the effluent.

Unsuitable for acidic influents

It gives offensive odors, when improperly operated

TANK DIMENSION

Diameter < 100 feet

Depth < 20 feet Side-wall water depths will be a minimum of 20 feet and a maximum of 30 feet.

COVERS OF IMHOFF TANK
Floating covers Fixed covers
Fixed and floating covers * Fixed cover will be used for the primary stage of a two-digestion process * Floating cover will be used for the secondary stage

TYPES OF COVERS

111. ‘ SUPER SEPTIC’ SYST

INTRODUCTION
1.

The super septic systems are prefabricated FRP tanks Currently used to replace individual conventional septic tanks. It adopts the anaerobic up-flow filter system. Specially selected synthetic porous bio-media to provide optimum bed for the growth of bacteria for organic substrate decomposition. The bio-media also acts as filter for removal of suspended solids from the effluent before discharging. Septic tanks can be coupled with other on-site wastewater treatment units such as bio-filters . 4000 and 7500 liters (1,000 and 2,000 gallons) in size

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

ADVANTAGES
flexibility for the site  aesthetic value  Waterproofing  easy to install  resistant to corrosion  good thermal insulation  odor-free  effluents quality improvement  light

PROBLEMS
Unsupervised septic tanks may cause serious injury or death to children playing nearby.

Excessive dumping of cooking oils and grease can cause the inlet drains to block.

The use of garbage disposers for disposal of waste food can cause a rapid overload of the system and early failure.

PROBLEMS

SOLUTION
Recommended that covers be checked twice per years.

Use of a product that contains natural bacteria that eat the toxic waste.

Installed in either the inlet or outlet T and protects the septic system.

SOLUTION

CONCLUSION

Individual septic system (ISTs) are suitable for single dwellings or individual buildings with a population equivalent (PE) up to 150 and installed where there is no central sewerage systems and where effluent discharges will not adversely effect the environment. It is a cheap solution to disposing of sewage. However, ISTs only partially treat sewage and concentrated groups of tanks can overload the capacity of the receiving environment creating health and odour problems. There are currently over one million ISTs in Malaysia, making it by far the most common type of sewage treatment system.

TYPICAL FIGURES FOR ISTS

EXAMPLES OF SUPER SEPTIC SYSTEM

THANK YOU…..

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