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Manufacture of Alkyd Resin from Castor Oil
Nway Nay Hlaing1, Mya Mya Oo2
Abstract— Oil-modified alkyd resin was prepared from crude castor oil. The experiment started with investigating the optimum conditions for neutralization of crude castor oil and bleaching of neutralized oil. Then the characteristics (iodine value, viscosity, acid value, refractive index and color) of oils were determined. Refined oil has iodine value of 90, kinemetic viscosity of 4 St, free fatty acid value of 1, refractive index of 1.474 and color number of 8. These results showed that the refined oil was qualified to prepare dehydrated castor oil. Dehydration of refined oil was carried out at 210-220˚C under 600-640mmHg with the help of 1% (wt%) NaHSO4 catalyst. The dehydrated castor oils were analyzed for iodine value, viscosity and its set to touch time and drying time were also investigated. Dehydrated castor oil has iodine value of 140, kinemetic viscosity of 1.6 St, set to touch time of 4 hr and drying time of 5 days. And then , oil modified alkyd resin (acid value 6.6) was prepared from dehydrated castor oil by alcoholysis method in excess of glycerol and phthalic anhydride in the presence of 0.3% (wt%) NaOH catalyst. The obtained resin was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR) and the properties were determined.
Keywords— Alcoholysis method, Alkyd resin, Castor oil, Dehydrated castor oil, Polymerization
Polymerization is one of the most important industrial processes. Resins and emulsion are two main classes of polymer. Alkyd resins are by far the most important class of coating resins. It is estimated that alkyd resins contribute about 70% to the conventional binders used in surface coating today. The popularity of alky resins as vehicle for coatings is largely due to their unique properties such as film hardness, durability gloss and gloss retention, resistance to abrasion, etc. impacted on them through modification with drying oil . Alkyd resins are used in both clear and pigmented, industrial and trade coating to protect and decorate a wide variety of substances. The industrial coatings or finishes generally are applied during the manufacturing process of the item which they cover. Often they are specifically formulated to meet both conditions desired for their application and the
1.Department of Chemical Engineering, Mandalay technological University, Patheingyi Township, Mandalay, Myanmar, Myanmar 11011, email: email@example.com 2.Yangon Technological University, Gyongone, Insein, Yangon, Myanmar 11011, e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org
endless use of the article of manufacture. The industrial finishes include primers and top coats for refrigerators, furniture, and electrical equipment. In view of the development of these items and sectors, the positive growth is expected for paint industry . Further the paint industry envisages a future expansion in view of development in Automobile Industry, utility in Nuclear Power Station, development in Corrosion Resistant Coatings, expansion in housing activity and other industry uses. The demand of alkyd resin being an ingredient in Paint, Varnish and Printing ink industry would be linked with the Paint industry. There are many significant efforts that have been made to increase alkyd resin production. Many researchers have attempted to search the different sources for alkyd resin preparation. Airegumen I Aigbodion et al  studied enhancing the quality of alkyd resins using methyl esters of rubber seed oil in 2004. A lot of alkyd resins were imported to Myanmar Paint Industries every year. In order to save foreign currency outflow, it is needed to produce alkyd resin in Myanmar. The oils that are mostly employed for alkyd resin synthesis are linseed oil, soybean oil, dehydrated castor oil, fish oil and tall oil. Myanmar being rich in aquatic and terrestrial resources, every state and division is pursuing the target of putting 500,000 acres under physic nut (castor oil) in three years. Rural development tasks are included in the national development endeavors that are being carried out by the Nation target. Castor oil is useful directly in protective coatings as a plasticizer in alkyd systems, and blown castor oil is an important nitrocellulose plasticizer. In commercial manufacture of dehydrated castor oil, the aim is to produce the most valuable material for use as a drying oil. By far the most important coatings use of castor oil is in the form of dehydrated castor. Dehydrated castor oil is now recognized as an individual drying oil with its own characteristic properties and advantages. The drying oils owe their value as raw materials for decorative and protective coatings to their ability to polymerize or “dry” after they have been applied to a surface to form tough, adherent, impervious, and abrasion resistance films. The advantages claimed in surface coating applications include excellent odor and heat bleachability, good drying properties, more uniform polymer structure, and lack of after-yellowing. The dehydrated castor oil is nonyellowing oil and so this can give requirements of coating industries [2,4,5,6,7]. 2. Materials and Methods 2.1. Neutralization of Crude Castor Oil
Alcoholysis of oil was carried out with different percentages of (0. The neutralized oils were weighed to calculate oil loss and then their free fatty acid content (FFA) were determined . In this method. glycerol and phthalic anhydride using NaOH catalyst.1%) (by weight) PbO catalyst and (0.1. Completion of neutralization reaction was determined by testing the mixture with phenolphthalein indicator. The upper layer or oil layer was washed with hot water. The sparging rate of N2 was increased to (0. The drying time and set to touch time were also determined by ASTM D 195370 . Fig.935 Glycerol (G) 31. After alcoholysis reaction was completed. When the indicator color of the sample mixture turned to pink. neutralization was completed. a thermometer pocked and a hold for sampling. Dehydration was also carried out under 600-640 mmHg (vacuum) as described in the above process. Figure 2.4. After complete washing. Preparation of Alkyd Resin Oil modified alkyd resin was prepared with dehydrated castor oil. 0. Washing was carried out until color of phenolphthalein indicator did not change to pink. Then the process was carried out above procedure.06ft3/sec) to 230-240˚C. 550nm.05%.3. 0. Then NaCl solution was heated to 90˚C and 20ml of hot NaCl solution was added to the mixture to ensure adequate salting or graining out of soapstock.2%. Photometric color = 1. The system was heated to 210-220˚C for dehydration time were taken for 15. The temperature was maintained at the range of 230-240˚C and maintained at this temperature. 45. Glycerol and selected catalyst was added and alcoholysis reaction was carried out at 230-240˚C. In this process. Engineering and Technology 48 2008 Oil (100g) was heated to 55˚C. 60.7D550 + 41.World Academy of Science. The preparation was done in a 4-neck round bottom flask fitted with a motorized stirrer. Dehydration of Castor Oil Bleached oil (50g) and 2% (wt%) of NaHSO4 catalyst were placed into round bottom flask and the apparatus was set up as shown in figure (1). 2. In alcoholysis reaction. The prepared resin was standardized by FTIR [12.Alkyd Resin Preparation 156 . 75 minutes.03%. Then.2.437 (DCO) Phthalic anhydride (PA) 43.27 60. optical densities were measured at the wavelength of 460nm. Then the photometric colors were calculated by the following equation. 0. Then the lower layer or soap layer was drain out. After that the mixture was poured into separating funnel.1ft3/sec).1%.3. the oil was heated with agitation speed of (700 rpm) and N2 sparging rate of about (0. a nitrogen inlet.3. Then. The reaction was continued until a sample of the reaction mixture became soluble in two to four volumes of anhydrous methanol. 620nm and 670nm.4D670 2. The reaction was monitored by periodic determination of the acid value of the mixture until acid value dropped to nearly 5.074 100 Stage 1 (alcoholysis): In this stage. the iodine values of dehydrated castor oil were determined by ASTM D1541-86 and viscosities were determined by ASTM D 1545-63 method. the calculated amount of strong (45˚Be. 13]. The acid value of alkyd resin was determined by ASTM D 1639-90 and the chemical resistances also determined. the effect of NaHSO4 catalyst amount on the properties of dehydrated castor oil was also investigated. Raw material Weight (g) Weight (%) Dehydrate castor oil 114.Dehydration of Castor Oil 2.29D460 + 69. The system was shown in Fig. two stages were involved. Drying and cooling was carried out until the weight of dried oil remained unchanged. The characteristics of crude oil and neutralized oil were determined by American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard methods.63 Total 189. 2. In the preparation of alkyd resin.2D650 –  56. The first stage was alcoholysis stage and the second stage was esterification stage. the reaction mixture was cooled to 140˚C.3%)(by weight) NaOH catalysts. Three hours later. 2N NaOH) lye was added to neutralize the free fatty acids exactly. with constant stirring. the oil was dried at 100˚C in oven to evaporate the moisture. Bleaching of Neutralized Oil The neutralized oils were heated to 100˚C and different amounts of activated charcoal were added. The neutralized oils were also bleached with different amounts of bentonite and a mixture of activated charcoal and bentonite (1:1 ratio). Stage 2 (esterification): In this stage. The colors of bleached oil samples were determined by a spectrophotometric method . 0. After the mixture was stirred for 45 minutes.44 16.364 22. monoglyceride was first prepared by reacting the oil with glycerol. the mixture was separated into two distinct layers. phthalic anhydride was added to the monoglyceride mixture. 30. the mixture was cooled to room temperature and activated charcoal was removed by filtering with filter paper.
of no.1. Results and Discussion 3. photometric Refractive index Specific gravity Viscosity(Stroke) Iodine value. Neutralization of Crude Castor Oil Table 3. wiji’s 19 0.448 65.4D670 .1.2.118 B2 (B) 5 3.5.1 and Fig. Results 3. The changes of iodine value and viscosity by dehydration of castor oil at different dehydration conditions are shown in Fig. 3.4.405 C2 charcoal 5 3. Bleaching of Neutralized Castor Oil Effect of bleaching on color and yield of neutralized castor oil is shown in Table 3.961 6.474 0. Initial weight of crude castor oil = 100g FFA (%) of crude oil = 19% Neutralization temperature = 55˚C 20% NaCL solution = 40ml Sr.32 57.476 to 1.1.29D460 + 69. wiji’s Refined castor oil 1 8 1.988 51.World Academy of Science.386 B3 7 4. Effect of Bleaching On Color and Yield of Neutralized Castor Oil Initial weight of neutralized oil = 100 g Bleaching temperature = 100˚C 157 .80 58. 2N Neutralization FFA (%) Weight of no NaOH time(minutes) of Neutralized Neutralized oil (g) oil 1 15. Oil was bleached with 0-11% of activated carbon. Table 3.342 C3 and 7 4.09 2 30 10 0. 3. Characterization of Refined Castor Oil The characteristics of refined castor are described in Table 3.3.254 A5 11 9.40 57.2 show the FFA content of neutralized oil.35 57.0 57.0 57.3 by comparing with ASTM standard castor oil.00 1.4778 0.3.43 3 30 10 0. The Characteristics of Crude Castor Oil Characteristics Crude castor oil Free fatty acid value Color.Characteristics of Refined Castor Oil Characteristics Free fatty acid value Color.9633 4.1.400 A3 (A) 7 7.5 present the yield of dehydrated castor oil at different dehydration conditions.217 B1 Bentonite 3 3.36 A4 9 8. Engineering and Technology 48 2008 3.437 A2 charcoal 5 6. agents bleachin color Refined oil g agent number (g) A1 Activated 3 7.7D620 + 41. 0-9% of bentonite and 0-7% of 1:1 mixture of activated charcoal and bentonite Table 3.1.311 C1 Activated 3 4. Yield of Dehydrated Castor Oil at Different Dehydration Conditions Initial weight of sample C2 = 50g 4. photometric Refractive index Specific gravity Viscosity(Stroke) Iodine value.5 3.3 to 8.5 89. 3. Dehydration of Refined Castor Oil Table 3.40 57.957 to 0. Characterization of Crude Castor Oil The characteristics of crude castor oil are shown in Table 3.2 5 8.46 57.2D650 Sample Bleaching (wt%) of Photometric Wt.1.254 bentonite (1:1 ratio) (C) 56.4.380 B4 9 4.9 83 to 88 Source  3.1. Table 3.16 57.79 Bleaching time = 45 minutes *Photometric color = 1.2.47 184.108.40.206 57.987 60.1.25 57. Table 3.5.9614 4 90 Castor oil (ASTM D 960-79) 1.
5.Characteristics of Typical Dehydrated Castor Oils Vacuum pressure = 600-640 mmHg Characteristics Dehydrated Dehydrated Standard castor oil 2 dehydrated castor oil1 castor oil (ASTM D961-86) Iodine value 140.6 2% Na HS O 4 (w it h ou tv ac uu m ) 3 .1 4 Not complete NaOH 0.4.3.3 2 complete *It was determined by testing the solubility of alcoholysis mixture in anhydrous methanol.6 4 .2.2 3 .56 89. Acid Value Control of Esterification Reaction Table 3. Hg va Iodine Value 125 120 115 110 105 100 10 20 1% Na H (60 SO 4 0 0 -6 4 mm Hg .600 4 5 1.4 3 .6 by comparing with ASTM standard dehydrated castor oil.6. Fig.11 90. 3.v ac ) 50 uu m ) 60 70 80 20 30 40 D e h y d r a t io n T im e ( m in ) Fig.2 2 . Yield of dehydrated castor oil-modified alkyd resin and the calculation for percentage of reaction complection are presented in Table 3. 3.88 89. Table 3. 2 1 Viscosity(Stroke) 100 acid value 10 1 30 60 90 120 150 reaction time (minutes) Fig. Yield of Dehydrated Castor Oil-Modified Alkyd Resin 158 .3 shows the acid value control of esterification reaction.2 30 90.8 2.v u acu 1 2 ho S O 4(w it % N aH uu ut vac m) 30 40 50 60 70 80 Dehydration Time(min) Fig.2 4 .4 10 2% N aH SO 4 1% Na (6 HS 00 O -6 40 m m 4 (6 00 -6 Hg 40 m .67 60 89. Engineering and Technology 48 2008 NaHSO4 catalyst (%) cu um ) V.approxi mately - dehydration with 1% NaHSO4 catalyst for 60 minutes dehydration with 2% NaHSO4 catalyst for 45 minutes 3.6 1 .8.13 5 89.03 4 Not complete 0.P (mm Hg) 760 600640 600640 Dehydration time (minutes)/Yield (%) 15 0. 1st Stage Alcoholysis Reaction Conditions Reaction temperature = 230-240˚C Agitation speed = 500 rpm = 0.8 3 .55 89. The appearances of gel type resin.0 1 .9 90.01 139.5-1. dehydrated castor oil-modified alkyd resin are shown in Fig.7.4 4 .39 75 89.06 89.5 90.1 4 Not complete 0.5 89.4 2 .1.1.5 5 1.8.3. Change of Viscosity with Reaction Time for Dehydration Temperature at 210-220˚C 4.Change of Iodine Value with Reaction Time for Dehydration Temperature at 210-220˚C 4 . Table 3.06 ft3/minutes N2 sparging rate Alcoholysi Catalyst Reaction Completion of s catalysts % (wt%) time (hr) alcoholysis reaction* PbO 0.7.37 90. Characterization of Dehydrated Castor Oils The characteristics of typical dehydrated castor were presented in Table 220.127.116.11 2 .7.05 4 Not complete 0.0 3 .686 3.v a m cu Hg um .8 1 .6.0 2 .035 45 89.2 4 Not complete 0. Preparation of Alkyd Resin Reaction condition of alcoholysis reaction condition in alkyd resin preparation is described in Table 3.28 2 2 m) 140 135 130 2% Na HS O 4 0 (60 -6 4 0m m .World Academy of Science.8 2 .05 125-145 Viscosity (Stroke) Set to touch time (hour) Drying time (hour) 1. 3.
Characterization of Alkyd Resin The physico-chemical properties of alkyd resin are presented in Table 3. the average yield of oil was 64%.72 189. The two layers can be easily separated when NaCL solution was added to the neutralized mixture because NaCL can help to ensure adequate salting or graining out of the soapstock.99 Near 3030 =C-H 2926. the specific gravity and iodine value of crude oil were in the range of ASTM specification limit.6 12. Engineering and Technology 48 2008 I. Table 3.21 Near 1100 O-H 3 2855.10.6 P (%) 97.21 3570-3200 O-H 1169.8.W (g) 140 Y (%) 73.43 1485-1440 CH2 CH3COOCH3 4 1738.7 4-11 Iodine 80.2. Although the neutralization technique reduced significantly FFA content in 159 .477 1. Other impurities in oil were removed by washing with hot water.W(g) F.W-final weight Y-yield IAV-initial acid value FVA-final acid value P-degree of reaction complection DCO alkyd resin (100% solid) 5 I. The chemical resistances of alkyd resin film are shown in Table 3. and gummy or mucilaginous substances were also removed by neutralization process.74 2 3514..9. Therefore.9614.3 value Color Yellow Brown Refractive 1. In washing step.rubber seed oil Source [1.10. Discussion on Neutralization of Crude Castor Oil In neutralization process. Table 3. proteins or protein fragments.24 66.58 8 1150-1060 O=C-O-C3. These results were nearly the same as that of the crude oil. there has a little loss of oil.World Academy of Science.2.30 1730-1717 COO 3. neutralization process can offer great effect on FFA content. The color and refractive index of crude oil can not be determined because the transparency of crude oil was very poor.1 FFA content of crude castor oil was high and it was not within the ASTM specification limit.2.2. FTIR Absorption Band of Dehydrated Castor OilModified Alkyd Resin Remark Band Experimental Literature frequency No. The neutralization time of 10 minutes was sufficient to reduce FFA content from 19% to 1%. Even though.58 2 1125. free fatty acid content of oil was converted in oil soluble soaps. The only reason to reduce the FFA content of oil was to neutralize the crude oil. it can be seen that the neutralization process can reduce the FFA content of crude oil from 19% to 1%.85 IAV FAV 6. Therefore.5050 index Gouge HB HB hardness Scratch F H hardness RSO.1. The viscosity of crude oil was slightly lower than that of ASTM standard oil . it can give the refined oil color of 8 and refractive index of 1. there was a difficulty to separate the soap and oil layer because FFA content in crude oil was very high. Small amount of impurities such as phosphotides.474.9. In neutralization of oil.W-initial weight F.26 298. it was found that 30 ml of 2 N NaOH per 100g of oil was required to obtain neutralized oil with an acceptable FFA content and to be a minimum of oil loss. In neutralization process.67 2926-2850 C-H 1460. Table 3.3..11.1. Discussion on Characteristics of Crude Castor Oil According to Table 4.11 show FTIR absorption band of dehydrated castor oil-modified alkyd resin. the refined oil has specific gravity of 0. 4. So.2.3. viscosity of 4 and iodine value of 90.64 1750-1735 1730. Chemical Resistances of Alkyd Resin Films Media Immersion Appearance of time (hours) film* Distilled water 18 Not effect 8 Whitening 3 N NaOH 16 Blistering 24 Removal *It was examined after the films were air dried for 30 minutes. color and refractive index of oil. Characteristics of Dehydrated Castor Oil-modified Alkyd Resin Properties DCO RSO alkyd DCO alkyd resin* alkyd resin resin Acid value 6. 3. the initial weight of oil was decreased as well as the yield of oil was decreased. Moreover. the FFA content of crude oil was differed from ASTM standard. Discussion on Characteristic of Neutralized Castor Oil From Table 3. Then. Discussion 3. 14] Table 3. frequency (cm-1) (cm-1) 1 3008.
010.World Academy of Science. By this means.2% (wt%) NaOH catalyst. It was undesirable effect. it was observed that the dehydrated castor oil with a maximum iodine value and a minimum viscosity could be obtained at the proper reaction time. 3. When dehydration of oil was done by using 1% of NaHSO4 catalyst and vacuum pressure of 600-640 mmHg and the optimum reaction time is 60 minutes. it can be seen that the highest color removal efficiency was obtained by bleaching with 5% of bleaching agents. The oil yield was decreased during the bleaching process due to the adsorption of oil on the surface of adsorbents and the filtration of oil with filter paper. In alcoholysis of oil with 0.1 and 18.104.22.168. Unless adequate mixing was supplied in this stage. Therefore. it was found that the samples of the alcoholysis mixture did not completely soluble in anhydrous methanol although the alcoholysis reactions were carried out for 4hr by using different amount of litharge catalysts (0.6. dehydration of refined castor oil was carried out under vacuum system.1%. In this process. Then. it was observed that 97. it can be chosen as bleaching agents in bleaching of neutralized oil. Then. Table 4. Although the dehydration time was decreased with increasing the amount of catalyst percent.1 in literature.05%. according to literature [1. Engineering and Technology 48 2008 oil. 3.2.2. these dehydrated castor oils were acceptable to prepare drying oil-modified alkyd resin. Bleaching with (1:1) mixture of activated charcoal and bentonite can offer better result. the refractive index of the dehydrated oil was increased.5.8.9. the alcoholysis reaction is usually completed within an hr or two hrs after the batch had reached operating temperature.2. it gave slightly effect on specific gravity. The degree of alcoholysis has an important bearing on the properties of the resulting resin. After bleaching process. the N2 sparging rate was increased in order to remove liberated reaction product and to increase the heat and mass transfer of chemical reaction. 7. In Fig. it cannot also give complete alcoholysis mixture after reaction was carried out for 2 hrs. Such a product is worthless. In Fig. the unqualify alkyd resin would be resulted.5. Discussion on bleaching of neutralized oil In Table 3. the dehydration of oil without vacuum system could not give acceptable iodine value to qualify as drying oil because the iodine value of oil was below 125 (the lower limit of ASTM dehydrated castor oil) . Beside decoloring.1% (wt%) and 0. this system could give dehydrated castor oil with iodine value of 140. From Fig. it was observed that the longer the reaction time.03%. Then the drying time and set to touch time also gave satisfactory result. When dehydration of oil was done by using 2% of catalyst and vacuum pressure of 600-640 mmHg and the optimum reaction time is 45 minutes. In this stage. In Table 3. it is required to use a current of inert gas such as carbon dioxide or nitrogen in order to remove the decomposition products.4. The minimum viscosity occurs at or near the point of maximum iodine value. Discussion on Dehydration of Castor Oil According to the Table 3. 0. The latter reaction leads to glyceryl phthalate which is insoluble in the oil-acid-glyceryl phthalate and unreacted glyceride oil.2.0 respectively. Therefore. The alkyd resin that has acid number of less than 15 is suitable for application of paint. Each alkyd resin has its own properties. 4. 5% of bentonite and 5% of (1:1) mixture of activated charcoal and bentonite can give the oil with photometric color of 6. there is no common standard to compare alkyds resins. 3.35.05.8. esterification of the free hydroxyl groups of the monoglyceride must compete with any unreacted or excess glycerol. In esterification reaction.1% (wt%) because the preferred PbO catalyst percent for alcoholysis reaction is 0. 3. the more viscous the mixture is.4 and 3. the problem of condensing the fume into the dehydrated oil was largely avoided.1.7. 8]. The scratch hardness of alkyd resin was F and gouge hardness was 160 .6 was obtained after the esterification reaction was carried out for 150 minutes.7 described that the iodine value and viscosity of dehydrated castor oils were in the limit of ASTM standard dehydrated castor oil. a lot of fumes were evolved during dehydration of oil and these fumes were condensed and dripped back into the dehydrated oil.1%) and NaOH catalysts (0. the oil-modified alkyd resin with acid number of 6. 5% of activated carbon. Discussion on Characteristics of Alkyd Resin In Table 3. 3. 4. Unless sufficient monoglyceride is present prior to the addition of the phthalic anhydride. it decreased because prolong heating leads to polymerization with a consequence drop in iodine value and a step rise in viscosity. The most effective way of removing of fume is by using the vacuum pressure. Discussion on Preparation of Alkyd Resin According to the literature . viscosity and iodine value of oil. 3. the reaction product will be unsoluble gel of glyceryl phthalate suspended in oily mixed glycerides.6. It should not try to proceed the reaction after the acid number of alkyd resin had dropped to 6. 4. the average oil yield was 69%. Then. It should not be tried to use the amount of PbO catalyst more than 0. In Table 4.6 because the reaction was closed to gel point.2%). bleaching of neutralized oil served the important function of largely removal of trace amount of soap.2. this system could give the dehydrated castor oil with iodine value of 139. During the final reaction with phthalic anhydride. So. The iodine values of dehydrated castor oil increased with the reaction time and reached a maximum value. the yield of dehydrated castor oil decreased with increasing the dehydration time. Then.2. Discussion on Characteristics of Dehydrated Castor Oils The iodine value and viscosity control the extent of reaction and set to touch time and drying time show the drying properties of dehydrated castor oil.87%. Therefore. large quantities of catalyst lead to dark the color of alkyd resin and detract from the water and alkali resistances of alkyd resin. 0. adequate agitation was necessary for complete mixing of monoglyceride mixture and phthalic anhydride. 0. So. the yield of alkyd resin was 73.72 % of reaction was completed when the final acid number of alkyd resin was 6. there was a slightly different in yield of dehydrated castor oil although the dehydration process was carried out different dehydration conditions.
1964. Alkyd Resins. . 13].J.26 cm-1.  Sanler. 1980. Application of Infraced and Ultraviolet Spectra to Organic Chemistry: Practical Organic Chemistry. 1950. Dr. Part 27.  Branch.67 cm-1. Ltd.F. Alkyd Resin: Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology. Resins-Synthetic.. Proskauer. Analysis of Polymers by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. California. 1965. and Mooney.  Formo. New York: Interscience Publishers.T. Volume 1. New York: Interscience Publishers. The appearance of CH2. set to touch time 3.U.R.64 cm-1 and aromatic ring ester band at 1730. glycerol and phthalic anhydride with a help of 0. Plastics Yearbook. The physico-chemical properties and high chemical resistance of alkyd resin film showed that they were promising in formulating of paint. these results show that the prepared alkyd resin has high chemical resistance. John Wiley and Sons. The immersion of alkyd film in water for 18 hours was sufficient time to examine the water resistance. V. 4. 1946. M. Official and Tentative Methods for the American Oil Chemists’ Society.6 stroke.. The adsorption band at 3008.. S. E.28. “Enhancing the quality of Alkyd Resins Using Methyl Esters of Rubber Seed Oil”. USA. A. D. Second Edition. Aigbodion.447 and color was yellow.World Academy of Science.43 cm-1 and 2856..2.10 described that there was no effect on alkyd film after immersion in distilled water for 18 hours. the film got whitening after immersion time for 8 hours. Rubbers. Inc.G. Alkyd Resin Technology. Inc.F and Othmer. Inc. and Okieimen.9. J. Chicago: 35 East Wacker Drive.W.F. Alkyd Resin: Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Second Edition. 3 (No. R.  Waters. Inc. Annual Book of American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). 29. Table 3. New York: John Wiley and Sons. New York: Interscience Publishers. H. S.. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. Polymer Synthesis and Characterization. H.  Kirk. -CH.09 cm-1. Inc. T. The author wishs to extend her gratitude to Prof. Dehydration under vacuum pressure system was effective processing method and this pressure influenced the quality of dehydrated castor oil. Inc. Resins. When the alkyd film was immersed in strong alkali solution. Bailey’s Industrial Fats and Oils Products. Inc. Inc.L. et al.C. 311-317. Engineering and Technology 48 2008 HB. Inc.2. A Division of Harcourt Brace and Company. Mya Mya Oo for stimulating discussion. So. J.. USA: Academic Press. 1975.E. Discussion on Chemical Resistance of Alkyd Resin Film The resistance of alkyd film was determined in two media. Vol 9.6) was prepared by alcoholysis method from dehydrated castor oil. Discussion on FTIR Adsorption of Dehydrated Castor Oil-Modified Alkyd Resin The FTIR spectrum of prepared alkyd resin exhibits a characteristic of straight chain ester band at 1738. 1947. The present of O=CO-C. 1998.  Grasselli.R.  Mark. R. A Division of John Wiley and Sons.confirms the present of methyl group at 1460. Vol.S. 4.10. 4.3% NaOH catalyst. New York: John Wiley and Sons. distilled water and NaOH solution.  Mark. R. Dehydrated castor oil-modified alkyd resin (acid value 6. 2.  Mehlenbacher. A typical dehydrated castor oil (iodine value 140. 1954.5 hr and drying time 5 day) was prepared with 1% NaHSO4 catalyst under vacuum of 600-640 mmHg at 210-220˚C. V.99 cm-1 is characteristic of alkene carbon (=C-H) according to literature [12. 161 . R. F. 1962. New York: Oxford University Press. viscosity 1.  Ikhuoria. A Laboratory Manual.E.1): 2004. it gave complete alcoholohysis mixture to preceed the esterification reaction after reaction time for 2 hrs. The refractive index of alkyd resin was 1. et al. 1955. Vol 1. London: Wyman and Sons. A Division of John Wiley and Sons.C. Applied Polymer Analysis and Characterization. American Oil Chemists’ Society (AOCS).also exhibit a characteristic ester band at 1125. A Division of John Wiley and Sons. E. The refined castor oil was done by using NaHSO4 catalyst to carry out the dehydration process. Dehydrated castor oil has been used in the preparation alkyd resin. In alcoholysis of oil by using 0. Section 2. Mocadlo. blistering after immersion time for 16 hours and removal after immersion time for 24 hours.3% (wt%) NaOH catalyst. and Frilette.  Pecsok. NewYork: Interscience Publishers. 4th Edition. REFERENCES Patton.  Anonymous. Conclusion The characteristics of refined castor oils were found to be standardized with ASTM standard castor oils and it was suitable to carry out the next step.F.I. Acknowledgements The financial support of Ministry of Science and Technology is gratefully acknowledged. Methods of Chemical Analysis. 3N NaOH.
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