Fletcher] History of Architecture on the Comparative Method | Gothic Architecture | Vault (Architecture)




" The

spirit of antiquity,


In sumptuous buildings, vocal in sweet song, In picture speaking with heroic tongue,


with devout solemnities entwined

Strikes to the seat of grace within the mind Hence forms that glide with swan-like ease along, Hence motions, even amid the vulgar throng,


an harmonious decency confined,

As if the streets were consecrated ground, The city one vast temple, dedicate To mutual respect in thought and deed."












- 15 CENTf






THE TREE OF ARCHITECTURE, main growth or evolution of the various


The Tree must be taken as suggestive only, for minor influences cannot be indicated in a diagram of this kind.















(Formerly Professor of Architecture in King's College, London)






(University Extension Lecturer on Architecture

Formerly Lecturer on Architecture,

King's College, London





Bursar, 1893,

Tite' Prize Medallist,

1895, Essay Medallist, 1896, Architectural Association Medallist for Design, 1888, Lecturer at the Architectural Association ; Hon. Corr.

Member of the American Institute of Architects ; Author of " Andrea Palladia, his Life and Works,"














IN the Preface to the Fourth Edition

explained the


important additions

publication of this the present Edition the nature of the revision has been on an even more extensive scale, amounting to the rewriting of the greater While much new matter has been introportion of the work.

which had been made since the original book in 1896, and I desire to point out that in

duced, the importance of a thorough revision of that already existing has not been overlooked, the utmost care having been

taken to verify all important statements and dates, and to amplify such descriptions where this appeared desirable. These remarks
as to the text, apply equally to the illustrations, which have been increased by the addition of some 700, bringing their total up to

about 2,000. Many of the subjects shown in the previous have been re-drawn and corrected in the light of the

most recent discoveries.

The sale of four large editions in the space of a few years affords strong evidence that the book has been of service not only
to the strictly professional student and those connected with design in its application to the minor arts and crafts, but also to that

body of amateurs to by year becoming a matter


Architectural History






It is gratifying to of lively interest. has been adopted as a text-book in Art Schools

in the leading Colleges

and Technical Institutions of Great

Britain, the United States of America, and Australia, for it is upon these centres we must depend for the formation of a cultivated

and the future growth of interest in the Arts. causes have combined in helping towards the proper appreciation and enthusiasm for architecture and the arts of design, among which the greatly increased facilities for travel, the conducted educational tours now so popular, and the general


interest in

The History

photography are undoubtedly important factors. of Architecture has, however, until recent years



been a sealed book to many who have wandered amongst the most beautiful creations of the building art without being able to understand their meaning or appreciate their quality a Grecian temple, a Roman amphitheatre, or a Gothic cathedral recalling to them none of the evidences which render each a reflection of its own period in history, and which give to each ancient building
a special attraction, besides adding greatty to the interest and enjoyment of its examination.
of all ages,

Architecture has been described very truly as the printing press and it appears probable that in these days of enlightenof Architectural History will soon take its proper

ment the study

It is surely remarkable that place as part of a liberal education. it should for so long have been neglected, for is it not the art with

which everyone is brought into daily contact, which shelters us from the elements and gives us " Home," which enshrines and illuminates the most sacred of our thoughts, which is the outcome

bound up with the history of the human not the mother of all other arts, since race, and, finally, from it sprang sculpture, painting, and the decorative crafts
of conditions intimately

of the succeeding ages


The time


in the

study of the architecture of the past


therefore, never be regretted, for every ruin tells of the history of other days, and enables the character and conditions of men


past periods to be conjured up, thus opening wide to all students and lovers of old buildings the enjoyment of contem-

plating forms which will then have for

them a meaning and a






for helpful criticism in this edition,

lisher for his care in

Mr. H. Phillips Fletcher, and to my pubthe revision of the bibliography and in the



general production of the book. It should, perhaps, be mentioned that, owing to the death of Professor Banister Fletcher, the revision of the fourth and of the
present edition has been carried out by me.




LUDGATE CIRCUS, E.G. New Year's Day, 1905.

in clear

Authors' aim in writing this book has been, not only to give and brief form the characteristic features of the archi-

tecture of each people and country, but also to consider those influences which have contributed to the formation of each
special style. They are of opinion that in published works upon the subject, Architecture has often been too much isolated from its surround-

and that the main points of the physical geography, social progress, and historical development of each country require to be understood by those who would study and comprehend its

particular style.

In order to bring out the effects of these influences, and also
the qualities of the styles themselves, a comparative and analytical method has been adopted, so that by the contrast of qualities the
differences may be more easily grasped. For instance, the special character of Gothic architecture becomes manifest when put in comparison with the Classic and Renaissance styles and, further;

more, the shades of difference in the local or national phases of each, can also be equally drawn out by a similar comparative


styles themselves are then analysed

and the parts conthe analysis being carried out on the basis of the essential

As this system pervades parts which every building possesses. the whole book, either the influences, character, examples, or comparative features of each style, can be contrasted with those
in any other style. This then is the scheme of the book, which has been divided into five sections in each period, as follows



Geological, Climate.







v. Social




A. Plan, or general distribution of the building. B. Walls, their construction and treatment.



C. Openings, their character and shape. Roofs, their treatment and development.

E. Columns, their position, structure, and decoration. F. Mouldings, their form and decoration. G. Ornament, as applied in general to any building.




divided into the six leading influences that



expected to shape the architecture of any country or people, the first three being structural, the next two the civilizing

and the


containing those external historical events



alter or

vary the foregoing.
is, its


2 describes the character of the architecture, that

special quality,

and the general


produced by the buildings

as a whole.


the chief buildings in each described, being the corpus, which the style, briefly influences affect and from which the subsequent preceding

3 contains the

named and

comparative analysis is deduced. SECTION 4 is this comparative analysis,



in which every style of regarded as the solution of certain fundamental each building must have all or most of the parts



G, and consequently there is both interest and instruction be gained in learning and comparing how each style has
5 gives authorities and more especially directs the reader wishes to pursue the study of any style in further detail.

solved these points of the problem.



In treating of the buildings themselves under Section 3 the authors have endeavoured to avoid long descriptions, which are



necessarily technical and intolerably dry, and difficult to follow, even by those who have had the technical training, and have
either the building or complete

drawings of it before them. They have therefore provided the largest possible number of illustrations, and have confined the text to brief, but it is hoped vivid, notes of the special qualities and characteristics of the building referred to. It is hoped that the book will appeal not only to students who require an outline of architectural history as part of their artistic and professional education, but also to the increasing number of art workers who are interested in architecture in its relation to it is those accessory arts in which they are engaged. Lastly believed that a work in which architecture is treated as a result and record of civilization, will prove attractive to that increasing public which interests itself in artistic development.




LUDGATE CIRCUS, E.G. New Year's Day, 1896.


List of Illustrations

Prehistoric Architecture

General Introduction

Egyptian Architecture

Western Asiatic Architecture Greek Architecture



Early Christian Architecture Byzantine Architecture

Romanesque Architecture in Europe (General Introduction) Italian Romanesque French Romanesque German Romanesque Gothic Architecture in Europe (General Introduction)
English Architecture

.......... PART THE HISTORICAL ........... .......... ..... .... ........... .......... .......... .......... .......... ....






1 1 1






















228 246
258 267
3.2 7



.....>...... ......... ....
. . . .




Early English Gothic Decorated Gothic
Perpendicular Gothic













. .








35 6

Scottish Architecture


. .

Irish Architecture







French Gothic Architecture Belgian and Dutch Gothic German Gothic Italian Gothic Spanish Gothic















424 437
^446 "446 45 6



Renaissance Architecture (General Introduction) Italian Renaissance Architecture
. .






The Florentine School The Roman School The Venetian School
Vicenza and Verona









623 628 . .671 Terms . . . . . General Introduction Indian Architecture 1. . .. \ . 578 . . .. .. . . .... . . . .. . . .. ... .. . 605 612 . . . . \... . . . .. . 634 653 657 659 659 663 667 669 . . . . . A . .. 561 \ .. . PART II. .. . . V German Renaissance . . . . . \ .. Chinese and Japanese Architecture Ancient American Architecture . . . ..XIV Italian Renaissance Architecture \s CONTENTS.. . \ .. 2. ... . British Colonial Architecture .. .... 3. .. . Architecture in the United States . .\ /"A .... PAGE 495 496 497 5^7 . . . .... .. . \. .. .. Saracenic Architecture Arabian Syrian . continued. . .. (b) (c) Chalukyan Dravidian . Belgian and Dutch Renaissance Spanish Renaissance English Renaissance Architecture The Elizabethan Style .. . .. THE NON-HISTORICAL STYLES. .. . . . The Jacobean Style The Anglo-Classic (Seventeenth Century) Style The Queen Anne (Eighteenth Century) Style/ The Nineteenth Century Style (1800-1851) . 614 618 618 \. .. 603 ... . U Milan and Genoa The Rococo Style French Renaissance Architecture i- . . 567 .. .. .... ....652 . . ... '.. . .. .687 697 Index . . .. 1851 to present time ... .. . Egyptian Spanish Persian Turkish Indian Glossary of Architectural . . The Buddhist Style The Jaina Style The Hindu Style (a) Northern Hindu . . 589 593 597 598 . .. . .. . . . . .. . .. . . .527 533 545 551 f ./... .. .

. . Island A B c Stuart and Revett. 18. plan I Gailhabaud. . Greek Examples IV. View of lower Acroterion . Panhellenius) at JEgina. No. Name... Mycenae Acropolis at Tiryns.R.. Lions. .. 20... ... W. plan . Restoration of a Doric entablature . . ..A. of Parthenon as at present at . Cockerell. Temple of Aphaia (Jupiter . transverse section longitudinal section ^y. Penrose. K. west pediment east elevation . ... . j f ( . .. Greek Construction Portico of Parthenon. S... E. part plan angle of Parthenon as restored . half elevation half transverse section . . . H.. .. Capital of a column D E F Perrot and { The Gate of 16. section .. Map of Greece.. Greek Examples III. ^5.^ " ...LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 14. . I Comparative plans of various forms of Temples. . A B c Gailhabaud. 19. . Authorities.. Chipiez. .. Antefixse F..... .. plan Portion of shaft of column ' . L f Plan of the Acropolis Greek Examples II. of (The Theseion).. . Perrot and Chipiez. of upper Acroterion Acroterion ridge tile... A B c D. view >C. Penrose. on the .. The Doric OrderTemple of Ceres at Paestum Temple of Neptune (the Great Temple) at Paestum Temple ^Egina of Aphaia of Temple Theseus Athens The Parthenon (Temple of Athena). Athens . D K F . XV11 GREEK ARCHITECTURE. .. Athens Penrose and others. Cockerell. F G. f . . S. . angle 17. .. .. Greek Examples I." Temple of Apollo. . ... . . Treasury of Athens.. ^Cockerell. at Delos . ... I .. Pelasgic System of Construction.W.

. The so-called Theseion. . Greek Examples VII... method columns . 23. ... . cornice looking up ... Order i. . 25. . longitudinal section . . . . . View of angle Comparative Restorations of the Methods of Lighting the Interiors of Greek Temples Method of lighting by Method of lighting by 26.. : J Photo. half se Opist . Name. . . view fror sectional .. .. . The Parthenon. The Propylaea... . . south sides setting out of flutes section of entablature frieze of west cella wall plan of cornice looking . end view of angle plan . east fa9ade . The Theseion. Athens . The Parthenon. transverse section half south elevation.. . ambulatory . Athens.. . . . .. west . up . Athens. . Greek Examples VIII.. .XV111 No. . . fa9ade longitudinal section details of Interior .. Authorities. Greek Examples VI... Stuart and Revett. . Greek Examples V. .. . statue of Parthenos 24.. . half longitudinal section of . . Naos . .. .. >n through (half se Michaelis. .. | detail elevation of enta- blature 22. . or Temple ' ? of Hephaestos east elevation . .. .... Athens ... plan of existing Lacunaria north and Metopes. clerestory skylight . LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.... plan (.../ .. . 21. .

. N j Greek Examples X. . of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae. sketch from N. P Q. mouldings 28.. L.. elevation section . . . . .. section detail of Interior .. . 26.w. . Gailhabaud.. Greek Examples XI. elevation Durand. . Athens. The Temple of Neptune. Temple of Jupiter Olympius at Agrigentum.. . ..LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. . . . Temple tum.. . .. of Jupiter Olympius at AgrigenSicily... . w /.. .... . J . Order . . . B. . section . . plan 27. Name. M. ... . .. XIX Authorities. . plan long.. section Temple of Jupiter Olympius at Agrigentum. . Sicily. The Propylaea. . IV. . Stuart ' (and Revett's Athens.. . ' ) . Ephesus Temple of Minerva Polias at Priene Temple of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae ~ -\. details of capital Corinthian column .. I (Vol. . Psestum. east portico The Archaic Temple of Diana. continued. Temple of Apollo Epicurius. . . Mauch. Athens Plan. plan. at Bassae north elevation transverse section . Temple Temple at . Mauch. G of H.. Cockerell. plan . . . F.. A B L ) east elevation S--'} - **<"' . Athens... setting out of flutes details of large K L. Greek Examples VIII. H. elevation. transverse section G J Greek Examples IX. N.E. and section Tower of the Winds. elevation . detail of single Corin- thian column .. section elevation . Order ..') 29... Middleton and others. The Ionic OrderTemple on the Ilissus The Erechtheion. plan . . K M R Murray.. section through mutule ' . Cockerell. The Erechtheion. . 30. E Interior plan of . plan elevation . D ) G J Stuart and Revett. Choragic monument of Lysicrates.. . . .. Stuart and Revett.. plan long.. Paestum (the Basilica). Inwood. Cockerell. A. .. F > Cockerell.. Temple at Eleusis Greek Examples XII. . c. .. .. E F \ Penrose. No. . o. j. .

plan Heraion . looking up Typical example of Greek Acanthus leaf 34. . . 30. . E .. end . Stuart Rome. . Choragic Monument of Athens 33- Comparative Examples of Greek and The A * B C D. Inwood. at Olympia. Greek Examples XIII. Lysicrates. plan section .. Orange Typical Greek theatre Roman 35. the Stoa. west fa?ade enlarged capital. ... ... . Lion Tomb. Diagram Capital of Corinthian Capitals... . . XIV. side elevation 1 .XX No. and Revett. Stoa. ... Roman Pantheon. column to portico. "Tomb of the Weepers' . Greek Examples The Erechtheion.. .... .. . .... Typical Roman Acanthus leaf Plans of capital (A) looking up of relative sizes of Pantheon.. . Photo. view front fa9ade . Halicarnassos. Temple of Diana at Ephesus. [ 31. Greek Examples XV. . Rome . Cnidus. plan through base Sarcophagus from a tomb at Cnidus. continued. enlarged elevation of Caryatid Porch 6? \. west . XII. . and > Society of Dilettanti.. . .. elevation section west elevation half plans of peristyle roof '. G.. .. elevation section north elevation pl an .. Athens of capital from the . 32. .. G H Comparative Examples of Greek and Roman Theatres.. . Cockerell. .. . LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. Murray... and Angle view Athens . transverse section half plans of basement and peristyle .. elevation . . Name.. . Newton and Pullan. . Middleton and others.. Taylor and Cresy. south . base and entablature south fa9ade three other restorations: D E F. . H 36. . F Plans of capital. . theatre at Greek Examples Mausoleum at ... Authorities. .

.. side view front view .. . Stuart and Revett.. Greek Ornament Scroll II. at } | Stuart and Revett. . . by Scamozzi Mauch.. Name. ..LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.. Rome. . . . Athens Stuart and Revett.... elevation of the Pantheon.. Rome. Volute from Cyprian tomb Capital from Egyptian wall painting Bronze armour plate from Tamassos. ... Ward. . Pantheon..... D E to H 38.. Chambers.. No. Greek Doric Athens Roman Doric. } j Greek Corinthian Corinthian Choragic Monument of Lysicrates.. ) M j" to V Taylor and Cresy. . Mauch. Stuart and Revett and Cockerell. Ionic.. Dr. .. Erechtheion.. side view .. portico of Erechtheion. 37. .. Temple of Theseus the .. . Athens Sanctuary of the Bulls. Athens. 41. Stuart and Revett. Doorway of the Pantheon. enlarged capital. Doorway.. . Mauch. Comparative Examples of Greek and Roman Doorways. looking up Temple of Nike Apteros. .-. . A B. half section half front view . Comparative diagrams of the Greek and Roman Orders of Architecture. Rome .. key plan Monument J.. Taylor and Cresy. . Doorway . XXI Authorities. .... .. Durand. . elevation of piers . \ J Temple on Ilissus... Volute Ionic Volute described by a whelk-shell Angle capital. Canephora ... elevation details .. . .. Comparison of Greek Mouldings I Comparison of Greek Mouldings II Greek Ornament The Ionic Volute I. details c Mauch and Donaldson.. plan of piers .. ornament from roof of choragic of Lysicrates. Richter. and and Roman Roman A N to Various. by Vignola Greek Ionic Athens Roman Roman 39- . Cyprus . plan. N. . Delos enlarged triglyphs.. sketch of angle 42... Capital from Neandria Capital from the Heraion at Olympia Ionic Lycian tomb Goldman's method of describing Ionic .. .. 1 40.. side view front view . .

Cockerell.. f 48. . . D. plan . plan elevation . . \ II. Map of the Roman Empire. of Jupiter Olympius. Crowning ornament. choragic Monument of Lysic rates. . . Caryatid figure from Erechtheion Greek Funeral Stele Typical with | Anthemion 43- Stuart and Revett. Arch of Goldsmith's or Cresy. 42. L Portion of caryatid figure Antefixa ornnment M N C.. . Titus. H j \ j Stuart and Revett. . Virilis. j Henry Middleton. from . . A B c J. 4546. .... C. . Athens Half elevation of Stele Head 44- . Roman Examples I..../ Capital. F Greek Ornament IV.. D E F Anta capital from Erechtheion Portion of frieze from Parthenon G Metope from the Parthenon Acanthus ornament Console from Erechtheion . Roman System of Roman walling Construction of concrete with brick . Temple Athens of the Winds. K. Roman Examples . Name. E . Watt. ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. Rome. view from the south-west . Rome. A B I Athens Sculptures. of the Winds. front fa9ade flank facade Arch of . J. . . . . c Tower . Authorities.. section . . Rome. Choisy... Roman 47- facing and methods of heating vaulting and domes of concrete A I to H 1J. Temple of Fortuna .Watt.. Honeysuckle ornament Lion's head. . .. The Forum Romanum restored Joseph Gatteschi. .. Stuart and Revett. j Greek Ornament Capital... Athens . continued. choragic Monument of Lysicrates Stele head . . . Taylor and Cresy and others.. . Taylor and Silversmith's. Greek Ornament II... . front side .. . . plan section elevation . Capital. to M Plan of the Roman Fora 1 A. III.XX11 No. 49.. Stuart and Revett. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. Tower . . .

E F Sketches. .. ... A B c plan part front elevation long. plan . front fa9ade details of entablature . . M N Palladio. .. Antoninus . .. Rome. half . { j half-plan Bronze mouldings round the " eye r .. Temple of Diana . .. . D H.section . Temple .. Great Temple .... . plan of Jupiter. . Asia Minor. . . . No. at Rome. . .. . J. part . .. .. J Taylor and Cresy. L . . plan front facade . plan and view . . part long.. Roman Examples The Pantheon . Roman Examples Temple . Rome. N o P . plan 53. .. VI. . cross section . . G Maison Carree. .. 54. Rome. section front elevation part side elevation . North Africa Tomb at Dugga. Society of Dilettanti.. Remi in the Temple of . ment style and .. cross section ... . c | Durand. .. . Great Temple .. \\. Roman Examples Temples . . . . . .. J^Dawkins. detail of to cornice corbel. Roman Examples . at Nimes. Nimes. peri- D . H j '. . V. 50. . fa9ade . Authorities. . Temple of Venus and Rome. . III. j view of remains . . . .. South of France and Faustina. K L ^ Temple of Mars flank facade Ultor. Taylor and Cresy... .. and D E F Wood. . plan ..LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. elevation half section A B c . XX111 Name. . . 49. perspective view half plans of base... H I Rome. .. IV. Middleton. plan . of Saturn. . . . . . fa?ade section through . Rome Tomb at Wadi-Tagije. Tomb of Caecilia Metella. .-contimted. . 52. . Nimes . 51. G Tomb at S. enclosing wall detail of main cornice .. half section A B half long. section . D E F Palladio. entrance .. . transverse section.. Syria. near Tunis. . . . ... K Photo.... . section . at Baalbec. Maison Carree. G A B c.. at Mylassa.. Roman Examples Tomb .

K A c 58. . arch the order and key plan . Basilica of Maxentius. Roman Examples Spalato IX. . Rome Plan (restored) Palace of Diocletian at . Arch of Septimius Severus. Nlmes . H J detail of capital to coffer peristyle . Pont du Card. the order and key plan .. . Interior view . long.. ... section elevation . Taylor and Cresy. . .. half plan details of capital . elevation . section .. detail of capital keystone of arch coffer .. 61.. Rome.. Authorities The Pantheon.. ceiling .. section . . Rome. .. X. ' .xxiv No. . Temple . elevation .. part elevation section. Amphitheatre.. 59- .. . A B c . D E F . plan 63. Photo. .. Rome. .. . Baths of Caracalla. . . . .. .. from central / B C The Pantheon. the order and G key plan .. of Vesta.. Baths of Diocletian. . near Rome. . . . Rome. . plan Circular Temple of Baalbec. Tivoli.. . .. Nimes.. The Pantheon.. Roman Examples VIII.. XI. Roman Examples The Colosseum.. .. capital. . . plan ... A . VII. . 57- Roman Examples . plan Trajan's Column.. Piranesi. plan interior view .. H.. . . . . . .. ... 5556...... elevation .. 62. Pont du Gard... % . The Colosseum .. .. D B E J. Verona .. .. Basilica Ulpia. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. section . A B 60 Roman Examples . .. elevation Circus of Maxentius. Name. plan . . . and .. . section transverse section .... 64. Middleton.. .

and octastyle form of Temple A. at Pompeii . . panel ... G H J Gwilt. Rome Figures : Pompeian candelabrum .. F Durand. Chapter House at Wells S. Taylor and [ Temple Rome.. J.. . M . C. D F . 67.... M Durand. C D'Agincourt. . Rome Roman altar Pilaster capitals ... Tetrastyle. j) section. . . S.. A B I Arch of Septimius Severus. II. Mosaic pavement. Roman gladiator's helmets Roman arm chair Roman Ornament III. Windsor Section of King's College Chapel K L .. Arch of Septimius Severus Roman Ornament I. N M drels of main arch Baths of Titus. .... Arch of Titus.- XXV Authorities. A. A. details of cornice . looking up of Antoninus and Faustina... C Arch of Trajan. . George's Chapel.. B D.. F G ) H Taylor Tatham. . Roman console.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. Name.. ) Taylor C.. Wall fresco . 65. F G . C D. Pan- theon. > i\ plan Gailhabaud.. Temple of Jupiter at Rome. Corinthian pilaster capital. Rome. Pantheon. B. . Pompeii chariot Typical Roman tomb . cornice .. . . hexastyle. key elevation . of Mars Ultor. . elevations Gailhabaud. Rome . 69. Beneventum Arch of Septimius Severus. portion .. Pisa Proportions of mediaeval cathedrals Section of Henry VII.. . 's Chapel . ... [ plans .. v E G. of frieze '. Jupiter Stator. F 66. C B D. >.. Watt. Forum of Nerva. . H... J. . Roman Ornament Temple of .. .. * . plan of coffer . j Pilaster Villa Medici. J Durand. H J Etruscan candelabrum ...:. F. keystone. .. Rome u section . . Rome Baptistery. E . capital .. H K L C. Meyer. and E Cresy. .. Rome Bronze candelabra Typical Roman tripod altar Typical Roman baths Rostral column Roman 70. Photo.. and j Cresy.. Watt.. Roman Examples House of Pansa ? XII. Rome. Temple 68. No.. capital Arch of Titus. . Principles of Proportion. in span: K L.. Cresy..

XXVI No. . when diawn to parallel straight lines in relation H. prevent appearance of sagging Optical illusions caused by convex and . LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. J EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE. concave curves. Name. Correction of apparent proportions Effect of color on proportions Pennethorne. E. F. The Parthenon Inclination of columns Method of drawing entasis of column The Parthenon Optical corrections to : : ViolleMe-Duc. Authorities. 72. Optical Corrections in Architecture. 71. Choisy. G A. Pennethorne.

. . section .. plan D .. The Minerva Medica. c Gailhabaud. S. S... 82. S. D Gailhabaud. 84- Byzantine Examples S. plan . section . section .. ground plan Photo.. Gailhabaud. elevations section of Theotokos. B ) Lethaby and Swainson. Sophia. north-east A \ Salzenberg. .. Constantinople. . Cathedral at Athens. Rome....' _ H .. Sophia. Constantinople. .. W. III. . . Rome. . exterior Mark. Giovanni. Ravenna. Constantinople. elevations ..: r .. Venice. Front.. . B c S. .... Tomb S.. . S. . Early Christian Ornament continued.. Choisy. mosaic floor . plan . Photo. Dome Method S. . S. A c B \ . Perigueux. . . . . exterior S. . J ... ... .. view S. in Digby Wyatt. S... 79- Byzantine Examples Byzantine System of Construction..". . view view 80. section Sophia..LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.. . A... . plan . W.. BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE. Rome... mosaic frieze cloister S. Cattaneo. Front. No.. . plan . S... Digby Wyatt. . . . Byzantine Examples Sophia. II. I. . . . . 85- 86.. . Comparative Examples of Early Domed Structures. . longitudinal 81. o plan .. S. longitudinal section '.. S... B Isabelle. section S. . Vitale. S. Constantinople.. Perigueux.. Sophia. sketch . Venice. A B C.. j. c. Sergius. Name. and S...... Von Bezold. . Clemente. . Church and E. D E F Dehio and Cathedral at Aix-la-Chapelle. D'Agincourt. Constantinople. Mark. 87... D j E F exterior G H y A. mosaic.. Constantinople.. Constantinople. interior Photo.. [ E F. exterior K Constantinople.. Constantinople... elevation section Sophia. parapet and pilaster S. Rome. section Mark. Maria Maggiore. .. plan of Galla Placidia. . Photo.. XXV11 Authorities. construction to find outline of pendentive interior Sergius. . . . . plan A . sectional . S. Giovanni.. Constantinople. Sophia. S. view Sergius. Mark. Gailhabaud. Constantinople. 78. interior Byzantine Examples IV. . 83.

f- Salzenberg. . window from the section . Ionic capital .. Texier and Pullan.. Authorities Byzantine Capitals Venice Byzantine Ornament.. capital from S.. Sophia. bird and basket capital . S. S. 89.. Mark.. Cathedral and Leaning . Photo.. Sophia. .. S. Gynaeceum. Byzantine Corinthian j capital S.. Gynaeceum. Name. Thessalonica. Sophia.XXV111 No: 88. Texier and Pullan. window from the elevation S. ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE 90. Map The of Europe at the Death of Charles the Great. Demetrius. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. Bowl and tile capital S. Demetrius. Sophia.. .. Baptistery. Bird Corinthian capital J ( Salzenberg. 91.. f { Lethaby and Swainson.

... ... . capitals . Trophime. Church of the Apostles.. archivolt frieze .. S.... A. . Caen French Romanesque Examples.. capitals Church of S..'.. . . Abbaye-de-Montmajour.. .. capital Pontorson.. German Romanesque Ornament. D E F Worms Gereon. Limburg Cathedral. Angouleme Cathedral.. column . capital . B c Gereon.. . Aries .. part section transverse section . towers Worms Cathedral. . corbel Angouleme Cathedral. part . . plan . . A B Paul-Trois-Chateau.. S. XXIX Authorities. plan Worms . Abbaye-aux-Hommes. doorway . . . Cologne. Caen Porch of S. Laach Abbey Church. corbel . Church of the Apostles.. . 100. . capital and base G H J Limburg Cathedral. Pantaleon. . Cologne. French Romanesque Ornament. Trophhne. capital and base Cathedral.... . dome 101. .. capitals .. elevation part section . section through Sharpe. . The Abbaye-aux-Hommes. cornice .. capital Plans of piers 104. 106. Worms Cathedral . . Photo. . part elevation .. Name The Abbaye-aux-Dames.. 102. frieze S. .. Photo. D'Ouezy. 99... plan 107. section . Fleac. German Romanesque Examples. capital S.. Cologne 105. Ilsenburg Cathedral. exterior transverse section interior Pugin....LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.. .. double capital Limburg Cathedral. window Worms Cathedral. corbel table Vaison. Cologne. plan . . Photo. No. Cathedral..... K . 103.'.

. ... Perpendicular fan vaulting .. Parker. N. showing progress of Gothic Vaulting. . Norman . .... . p.. collar... Milan Evreux Cologne Vienna .. 108.. E English Gothic Examples I. . Types of Mediaeval Open Timber Roofs. .. Bristol Cathedral. .. mediate ribs . .. English Gothic Examples II. Stowe Bardolph Church. . . . Mary Magdalen. Comparative Examples. .. Authorities.. . R.. . setting out of groined vault A. . . diagonal . Saviour. with inter- L others.. Cirencester. .LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.. .. Notes. trussed rafter roof Trinity roof S. K. . .. Perpendicular stellar vault interior view . Cathedral.. . . . Map of Mediaeval Europe.. Comparative Views of Models of Continental Cathedrals. .. hammer-beam roof D . GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE. u .. E F Peterborough.. Chartres in.. .. Redcliffe. Amiens Cathedral S. Waggon . M o Q Gloucester. braced roof . . R. .. W. - B Brandon. .... vault . . ... Principles of Gothic Construction. C. .. Mary.. . . . Comparative Diagrams and A B c Domes.. .. G plan .. . vaulting compartment . . D 1 10. Thatcher. of Vaults A B C Photos- by D E T. 109. . Early English groined vaulting Westminster Abbey. . . . . . plan . A B c stilted showing and transverse groins D sexpartite vaulting external view Abbaye-aux-Hommes.. .. Thirteenth Century. Purchase..-. Roman cross Romanesque vault cross vault Byzantine and Renaissance domes Gothic vault Renaissance cross vault 112. .. s 113. A. . c Trunch Church. H j. groined. A Chapel. Pulham..-. No.. and f Salisbury. Decorated Lierne vault S.. A B ( Viollet-le-Duc. vaulting . Southwark. tie-beam .. Name.

.. . E F Weale... aisle roof Westminster Hall.. .. ....... .. No.. double hammer- beam roof . I IV. XXXI Authorities. . 2.. . . . Loftie... A 1 I Builder Cathedral Series.. III.... ..... . ... .. Middle Temple Hall..... hammer-beam roof Evolution of hammer-beam 114. continued.. H J Thomas Morris... .. Durham Ely Worcester Rochester Oxford ... .. Comparative Views of Models of English Cathedrals Chichester I....... . E F i. ...... Brit on.. Thatcher. Willis.... .. ... Britton.. G Brandon...... ... . Thatcher. ... . Norwich Durham .. A B c 1 'Builder Cathedral \ I D E Series. .. . . . .... Name.. Photos by T.. D E F Photos by T. .. J Murray. .. ' Murray.. . . .. III. ... ... Ixworth Church... G H 115 Comparative Views of Models of English Cathedrals York Chester Peterborough Exeter Winchester Hereford Wells . II. aisle roof New Walsingham... ... . .... Gloucester 116..... .. English Gothic Examples II..... .. Carlisle Bristol . English Gothic Examples Comparative Plans of English Cathedrals Worcester Canterbury 7 Gloucester .... .LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.. ... Thatcher... . . . Types of Mediaeval Open Timber Roofs continued..... E F G H Comparative Views Cathedrals Salisbury of Models of English A B C * i> Lincoln Canterbury Norwich Ripon 117... Storer. . Lichfield English Gothic Examples Comparative Plans of English Cathedrals Ely York Winchester Salisbury Peterborough Lincoln 118.... Storer. ........ A B C L> Photos by T. Loftie. Willis... c . 113..


127. . Henry VII. plans H. Kent. : Neale.. George's Chapel. plan elevation section . Chevening House. y Parker and Bloxam. .. Lambeth .. E F ) Gotch and Brown... ..A. .. Heckington. 134. Kerr. Earls Barton. Kerr.. chimney stack section of hall roof C.. Fan Vaulting English Gothic Examples X.. D. 130. : English Gothic Examples English Gothic Domestic Examples Penshurst Place. D -Dollman.. Name. [-J.. Henry VII. L M. .. N Photo. I Bowman and Crowther.. J K Chiddingstone. F. Earls Barton. .. .. XXX111 Authorities. .. tower . G ( " Vitruvius Britannicus.. . cross sections . Cambridge. K XII.... Andrew.. window Corhampton.. . Rickman. . Mary's Hospital. Photo. general plan Palace.. Comparative Plans of English Domestic Tower of London Oxburgh Hall Kenilworth Castle Hat field House. window . capital .. timber houses S. Windsor. Westminster Abbey. sections 133. plans Longford Castle Stoke Park ... doorway Repton. . Saxon Architecture. Exterior Section Interior Plan 128. Westminster Abbey. ' .. .. view interior . ..... . Chapel. Chapel........ elevation of great hall section of roof . h j 131.. Deershurst. Lines.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. English Gothic Examples Buildings : XI. . No.. . E F .. Photo. capital Wickham. impost Sompting. . J ( Holkham Hall 32. . Chichester. .. plan and longitudinal section G H. plan .. 129... Benets. Kerr.. capital S... English Gothic Examples Westminster Abbey : IX. Typical English Parish Church S.. ... ... S. . .. ..

S. : . Grantham. Salisbury Cathedral S. Southwell Minster Decorated. E F [ . Winchester. Lincolnshire. . Coventry. Warwickshire H 141. S. . billet . embattled 140. .rker. . Sharpe. Amiens and Kheims Constructive principle of the Mediaeval . n Sketches E F. S. North Hinksey Abbaye aux-Dames.. . A B c Caen. Ely. . Lines. Oxon. 139. Mary. . Fountains Abbey . Tower of London XIII... John's Chapel. zigzag S. nebule H J man. . . D E F } C. . . Comparative Examples showing progress of English Gothic Cathedral Architecture Ely Cathedral.. Contest. James. Mary Magdalen. Oxon. Northants. Chapter Ho. . Wickes.. S. Lichfield Cathedral. .. . 136. Oxon Norman Mouldings. presbytery 137. John. Oxford Perpendicular.. . The Evolution of Gothic Spires in England S. nave. flower North Hinksey.. The Evolution of the Gothic Buttress Norman. G . . Rick- billet G Stoneleigh. Peterborough Ripon.. . Church G . . Michael. interior and exterior 138. Bloxham. double cone S. Peter. . Kettering. . Divinity School. Wulfran. Authorities. chevron D E F Pr. . choir. . exterior Ely choir. . . Comparative Examples showing progress of Engh'sh Gothic Cathedral Architecture (continued). Raunds.. Lincoln .. beaks head Iffley. . Northants Keystone. .. .. L Lincoln. interior and exterior Iffley G Photo. S. / D English Gothic Examples XIV.B E. K . Church. S. A . M : English Gothic Examples XV.. interior and . Canterbury Westminster. Louth. Name.. English Gothic Examples XVI. Bloxam and others... interior and exterior . . nave. 135- LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. . chevron . . . English Gothic Examples A B c hSharpe. c Flying Buttresses.XXXIV No.. nave. Lines. . Winchester. Hunts. .. Peter. .. A B c .. . Oxford Detached Flying Buttress. S. . English. interior and exterior : Photo.. Peters-at-Gowts.

. .. Oxford. Norman A B c Parker. ' D E F Braddon. Cowling. Bedwin. Mary Magdalen. Warwickshire E. .. Merton. elevation capital . . and base jamb moulding John. Flamboyant example 143. .. E.. plate tracery Wimborne Minster. grouped lancet lights Warmington. Cley half exterior and interior capital and base . .. Dorchester. bar tracery Minster Lovel... Bowman and Crowther . Colling. . Northants Decorated Sedilia. elevation . H j Parker. S. H j . Font. grouped lancet lights . Sussex Norman Piscina. Kent E. Leicester Decorated Tabernacle.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. jamb mould . ... Sedilia. K. K. . Offley. - A B c J. . A B c . . English Gothic Examples XIX. bar tracery . . S. D E F Headington. . .. 142.. L . . English Font.. Suffolk Decorated Piscina. English Sedilia. No. S. Suffolk Decorated Font. Mary. .. S. . . XXXV Authorities. Warmington.. Mary. ClympingCh. . plate tracery Woodstock . Dinan... D E F . . Northants Norman . shire . . . G . . clerestory windows Great Milton. and base jamb and arch moulds capital . Coleshill. . New Duston. arch mould jamb and arch mould capital and base . curvilinear tracery . G Perpendicular Piscina. . .. Oxon K L M N o C 2 . English Gothic Examples Doorways XVIII. Wiltshire . rectilinear tracery. . Parker. I. ... Cobham. geometrical tracery S.. . Oxford. K Pugin. Rushden.. M 144. Oxon Perpendicular Sedilia. English Tabernacle. : . . M N o p College Chapel. Exeter Cathedral E. Mary. Lackford. King's College Chapel . Comparative Examples showing progress of Gothic Tracery Development Lynchmere. H j Merton Colle e Chapel. Crowmarsh. curvilinear tracery . Comparative Examples of English Gothic : Clare Church. Gt. . English Piscina. G Long Wittenham. . Name. English Gothic Examples XVII. Herts Perpendicular Font.

Geddington Parker. 39 to 54 English Gothic Ornament in Different Periods : II. Ch. . . 141025 . . F G. "Decorated" "Perpendicular 147. . c i " and spandrel ornament . H. Prince Arthur's Cathedral 146. L . . English Gothic Ornament Gable Crosses . I A. . K. j A. . J. .. Oxon. Parker. Authorities. Handborough. English Gothic Ornament : Comparative Examples of Gothic Capitals and Carved Foliage " Norman " " " . . Pugin. K. Comparative Mouldings of the Periods of Gothic Architecture " Norman" " capitals.. English Gothic Examples XX..XXXVI No. Worcester English Gothic Ornament : I. and Colling. spandrels M.. tablet flower . Decorated Haslingfield ) Church . B.. . Parker and Paley. N. Oxfordshire Parclose Screen. . Pulpit (External)... . Tudor Tudor flower. . Oxon. bases. D K N E F ) R.. . o. . -Brandon. . piers '" . [ Northants J. parapet o 148. Lectern. Roodloft.. parapet " " Perpendicular vine leaf and grapes cornice flower ... . Early English Ferrers Higham j. Wolvercot. I to 13 Early English . Parker. . Sketch Book. ' .P 149. K L. typical crocket . Bloxam. Norfolk Coll... cresting rose . D. . A j Parker. Peter.. 145. III.. Colling. Glazier... crocket parapet " Decorated " four-leaved flower ball flower . I Perpendicular capitals. . . H L - Bloxam. Parker.. capitals " capitals Early English " 'jDecorated capitals and A.261038 .. Pew. \ M B c . Colling. Eagle Upwell S. Perpendicular Ferry Church Stoke . Magdalene Oxford Pulpit. * Parker. E. Chantry. . Comparative Selection of Gothic Ornaments Early English dog-tooth ornament. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.. : IV. [ Parker. Steeple Aston. Name. . . .. . . G crocket . . .

. Warwickshire Examples of Scottish Architecture. .. .. . Beauvais Cathedral.. wheel window . 153. Devenish Kilree. dral . 149. . Perpendicular Mary's Church. ... Paris. . : . section through nave . ... section section through . Finials : Early English dral . Cormac's Chapel. Compton Wynyates. plan Doune Castle. . . plan .the Grangepans.. E.. K.. .. S. Fergusson.... : ... Alban's Abbey Early English Poppy-heads Paston Church.. Edmunds bracket: S. Drum . .. continued.. ... Arthur Hill. P>om a Photo. Lincoln Cathe- Winchester Cathe- Saints.. } Arthur Hill.E. Lincoln Cathe- Westminster Abbey . .. Fergusson... . English Gothic Ornament IV. Decorated . 151. Examples of Irish Architecture. Evesham Early English . 150.. plan view from the south-east ... FRENCH GOTHIC. .. plan Glamis Castle.. F ) Notre Dame. Oxon. K Gailhabaud. 152. j- plans of buttress D. Cashel.. Colling..E. sanctuary N. Bury St...... ^ f MacGibbon and Ross. . Sanctus Bell Bloxham Church. George Heriot's Hospital. . No.. porch Tower. XXXV11 Authorities.. \ Bulges. . Norfolk Winchester Cathedral .. plan Nash.. Cowane's Hospital.. sketch from S. .. section plan ... plan Castle Frazer. Decorated dral . A c . ground plan view from the . }]. way . S. entrance gate. . : Pendant Perpendicular York Minster All Perpendicular. . French Gothic Examples I. Name. Kilkenny . plan Castle. Rothesay Castle.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. .. plan of crofts. Stone Bosses . . . . . Southwell Minster. long.

View of west front III..... 156. Comparative Plans of English and French Types of Cathedrals. 161. .. French Gothic Examples Rouen S. . . . .. capital .... \ *'_ Semur.. plan Interior .. . Rouen . Notre Dame. .. Michel. 158.. Chapelle. .... . : Comparative plans of cathedrals Evreux Oaen. fleche . Paris .. . Paris.. Chalons sur-Marne Piers in Northern and Southern France . ... 157. Amiens. II. Mont S.. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.. Notre Dame. . figure sculpture .. . Authorities.. Coutances Cathedral. . . .. /F 155. open parapet stone pulpit . Rheims Cathedral. .. Paris . .... Amiens Cathedral.... Rouen Chartres Rheims S.... .. . 154. .. .. 166. . French Gothic Examples Notre Dame. View of west front of west front .... foliage . Chartres. Notre Dame. Comparative Views Amiens Rouen Antwerp Notre Dame. Notre Dame. 163.. Bourges 164.. exterior . Interior ... . 162.. . A B C D E . . . . Palais de Justice..... 165.XXXV111 No.... .. Salisbury Cathedral Amiens 160.. Name.. . ... grotesque figure Paris.. capital and crocket Exterior Antwerp Cathedral.. . Paris.. cross section interior bay . View House of Jacques Cceur..... Paris... bay . 159. Strasbourg Beauvais of Models of Continental Cathedrals.. . French Gothic Ornament.

... .. L F Boisseree. . C Norman Shaw.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. Photo. 167. Milan Cathedral. 169. No. section.. J E G... fa?ade Palazzo Pisani. fa9ade Siena Cathedral. A... . Moller. elevation . . ) '- corbel capital J gargoyles doorway K. elevation . Gelnhausen. 177. .. The Doge's Palace.. . . Exterior. exterior section interior . S. Doge's Palace.. II.. . Ghent . German Gothic Examples S.. Moller.. A B C D. Maria-dei-Fiori. . ... Bruges Hall.. interior elevation - plan . Florence. S. 174. plan long. Name. Cicognara. Venice Italian Gothic Palazzo della Examples Ca d'Oro. Venice... Antwerp . King. Venice. 176. German Gothic Ornament. Cologne.. . Stephen. . XXXIX Authorities. S. Brussels. Belgian Gothic Examples.. plan . tomb Milan Cathedral. Marburg.... Paul. Examples Milan Cathedral. Interior . King. section . 178. Photo. G. 170. canopy capitals S. section transverse section Gailhabaud and others. \ . 173. . plan . Cathedral. plan . S. H Norman Shaw.. 172. German Gothic Examples Cologne Cathedral. plan . M Photo. Vienna. plan 171. 179. Marburg. long... Stephen. Photo. I. Photo. parapet . Town Town Hall. capitals . section . Gailhabaud. plan I. . . Gudule.... miserere 175. . .. . Boisseree. Photo. doorway Bruges.. II. section interior . . Eliz heth... section interior . . E. Worms. . piers H Photo.. exterior ... F Ratisbon Cathedral. . .. Vienna Freibourg Cathedral.. . B I) M oiler. 168. Exterior Italian Gothic .

Interior Spanish Gothic Examples... . 180.. . 183. . A B c . 182.. de . . Photo.. . campanile 185.. Valladolid Spanish Gothic Ornament. . Infante's tomb base of Infante's . . 88. c . . Venice. plan . Exterior cloisters . et court . LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.. Reyes. capital . Venice. Norman ") Shaw. Juan de los . pulpit Florence.... . [ I Rohault Fleury. S. Gerona Toledo Lerida 1 . Verona.. Pisa.. Ca d'Oro Palace.. Photo. . .. plan of pulpit . Venice Exterior ... angle window Palazzo Scaligeri.. 1 86. . .. Siena Cathedral.xl No. plan Barcelona Cathedral. 184.. Photo. 191. ... The Italian Gothic Ornament. Name. ... main cornice section and elevation of . L Street. . detail of capital from pulpit .. . 181.. portion of pulpit lion and base of column . capital Cicognara. . . canopy . Barcelona.. ornament from tomb Gonzalo . Photo. tomb .. A \- Raschdorff. Las pier of Huelgas. Naples.. . 187. Monreale Cathedral. 189. Gil.. Gregorio. Burgos Cathedral. ) Ducal Palace... Palazzo Strozzi. N -Waring. . Photo.. Photo.. Exterior Burgos Cathedral. . candelabra Campo Snnto. keystone . .... . Florentine Renaissance Examples I. H L J K D G M. . Photo. capitals S.. . E F RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE.... balcony sculptured pier plan window of dome elbows of sedilia Miraflores. . Rohault de Fleury... 190. Authorities.. Florence Cathedral... window Pisa Cathedral.. plan E F ( (Grandjean Famin. Raschdorff. Burgos Cathedral. S. Photo. Maria del Mar. . . Baptistery at Pisa. Toledo S.

niche Banner bracket Piazzo Annunziata. bronze fountain Palazzo Guadagni. long.. . 191. .. . Xli Name. . I. Roman Renaissance Examples Farnese Palace. Duomo of Fiesole.. 193. Mantua. plan elevation . Rome . ... Santa Croce. Farnese Palace. . .. continued. plan . . . 198.. lamp bracket 195. Details of main cornice Front fa?ade Elevation of cortile Plan Section and plan through loggia Upper plan . I. plan .. . Lorenzo. . . .. Florentine Renaissance Examples Palazzo Riccardi. Photo. . . S. et j D'Agincourt. . window pilaster .. Rome II. . . I section S. Roman Renaissance Examples . . . Rome . elevation .. console from tomb Palazzo Vecchio. corbel Palazzo Strozzi... II... Cancellaria Palace. main cornice . A B porch .. . Andrea. plan Massimi Palace.. 196. long. Authorities. D G / ( Grandjean et Famin. . No. Grandjean et Famin. J H .. D'Agincoiirt. . section 194... .. .. . Palazzo Riccardi.. Gondi. Florentine Renaissance Ornament.. Florence Florentine Renaissance Examples Pazzi Chapel. elevation . . Waring and Macquoid.. Pandolfini.. B C D E F G... plan .. Spirito. Mercato Nuovo..LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.. . A. B / ( elevation ... capital Medici Chapel. section. J ( 192. capital .. ... plan 197. Grandjean Famin. Palazzo Giraud. window . plan ... S. .


. pedestal of flagstaff Equestrian statue of Colleoni. Venetian Renaissance Examples Mark's Library.... xliii Name. .. long.. . cornice.. Mark... elevation of half fa9ade . to ditto ditto .. .. plan Giorgio dei Greci. fa9ade . 210. . ... fa?ade . elevation Half plan.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.... Palazzo Vendramini. . plan 5 j . Marco.. Maria della Salute ... Palazzo Zorzi. .section plan . 208. Peter.. plan Palazzo Vendramini. .. Venetian Renaissance Ornament.. doorway . plinth . . half fa?ade . doorhead cornice . . .. Scuola di S. .. Venice II. . pers . section long. S. Venice Palazzo Grimani.. Various Cathedrals.. Paul.. .. . .. I. campanile 215. 214. . Entablature and capital .. capital M. .... III.. section S.. 207. . Palace.. . London Rome Pantheon.. 213. cornices Doge's Palace. The Pesaro S. facade .. Giorgio Maggiore. . . . . cornices .. cornices and capital 209... S. . Window S.. . . section S.. fa?ade .. . No. Maria dei Miracoli..... Maria della Salute. capitals .. Paris Cologne Cathedral S. Venetian Renaissance Examples . . Venice Plans of Comparative S. The Basilica at Vicenza . .. . . capital and pilaster Greci. . S. Venetian Renaissance Examples S. panel and balustrade . dei Miracoli..

. . . doorway . elevation section . Name.. Examples Les Invalides. pilaster . Paris.. . . Paris. . D E F Durand. .. Waring and Macquoid. . coffered ceiling . part elevation . . D E F Palladio... dome plan . .. .. F ( Luxembourg . . plans Ornament in . E f plan . H and . Escalier Francois Premier French Renaissance Examples I. . \ Reinhardt. . . G / ' ... .. II. .. Chambord. . Chateau de Blois.. The Louvre. ... . Palazzo del Capitanio. section . . section through . dome plan Paris.. Villa Cambiaso. H J ) j" Kinross.. A B C .. J...xliv No. elevation Palazzo Porto Barbarano.. D c E F - Reinhardt.... . .. The Pantheon. angle of cornice to doorway plan of cornice . section long. A B c f Waring and Macquoid. . Carega. F Genoa and A B Palazzo Gambaro. G K. Chateau De Chambord S. 216. section through . elevation . . . H Durand.. . . . . Paris French Renaissance. A B Gailhabaud. . . plan Villa Capra. . . angle cornice key sketch Old Convent. elevation . Paris. fa9ade . lavabo . Verona.. Verona. .. elevation . Genoa. section . . . Typical cap Doorway 219. Eustache. Palazzo Pompeii. 218. L Reinhardt. key sketch . . . Renaissance Examples in Genoa . . block plan 221. G plan . Municipio. Photo. plan . . . . M 220.. .. . 217. . . .. .. A B C . .. .. . .. D E. fa9ade .. Sanmicheli's house. Sauvageot.. Genoa. . . 223.. . . Verona. Palace. . . Vicenza. - Kinross... Photo. by Palladio. . D . . Chateau de Maisons. .. elevation . Chateau de Bury. plan .. J. 222. .. . .. .. Sauvageot and Durand. Photo... C \ Durand. Authorities Renaissance Examples The Basilica at Vicenza. ... fa9ade . LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. . Renaissance Verona. Reinhardt. plan ... . .. . } ..

. H J L'Eglise des Capucins. French Renaissance Ornament Keystone Balcony (Louis XV... Heidelberg Castle The Rathhaus.. Name.. Nuremberg German Renaissance Ornament. ..... doorway 232. 224. Renaissance A. c D E F.. . statue . S Paris. Paris . Antwerp.. . bench-ends Antwerp. I.. Photo. gable Freiburg.. J 226. E F G. Switzerland. capital Heilbron......... N. M 'rBerty. Photo. B E Pfnor.. doorway II. . . wellhead Weimar. A.. .. Lemgo Town Solothurn Town Hall. door .. G ' Lambert and Stahl.. . B D E F Lambert and Stahl. dormer window Paris. J The Pellerhaus. 225. . figures . J D. capital Erfurt. . capital ...... C . capital . Chenonceaux. D Lycee Napoleon. .. cornice and balustrade T.. doorway Gable end Enghien... capital Brussels. . Photo. B. gable Utrecht. .. H. E The Town Belgian Hall. L.. . lead fountain .. .LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. pilasters Leyden Town Hall. . arcade Nuremberg.. .. . .. elevation 233234- .F K. pinnacles Antwerp. window Heilbron. elevation Ober-Ehnheim. fountain (Louis XV. windows and niche ... Cesar Daly. 229.. A B.. .. Cologne German Renaissance Examples. . K R. Haarlem.. Belgian and Dutch Examples. C. Photo...) Versailles. U Photo. xlv Authorities. 227. . dormer window 231. panel Chateau de Chamborcl.. C D E F VEwerbeck. Heidelberg Castle.. A. French Renaissance Ornament Palace at Fontainebleau. dormer . style of decoration . door and window Palais Royal... staircase . .. Zalt Bommel.. Antwerp and Dutch Ornament.) . B Dordrecht. O.. cartouche Munich. . console Versailles. ornament Musee Plantin. C. The Pantheon... G H J Renaissance A. .. 228.... . Doorway ... ornament K . H } L J. Freiburg... P Q. C.. . G . . elevation Hall..

.. of the House of Photo. Prentice. Hatfield House. English Renaissance Examples Holland House. 243. Nash. . Long Gallery . Princess of Lichenstein. Vicenza The Escurial.. . . Staircase Haddon Hall. . Siguenza Cathedral.. Kent. Map of Western Elizabeth. Spanish Renaissance Ornament. Courtyard Miranda . Nash. Oxford . . Name. iron screen Alcala De Henares. door from cloisters A B. Toledo the Alcazar. 249. Cuenza Cathedral. F. Rome . The King's House.. Thompson... Cheshire of the old Schools. . Photo. . Hardwicke Hall. . side of drawing-room Blickling staircase Hall. N. N. . House .xlvi No. I. E 245. . E Campbell. 240... Nash. elevation . Greenwich The Rotunda. } A.. Authorities Town Hall. Robinson.. 247. Photo. the Casa Polentina courtyard ... 238.. C D E -A. Europe at the Time of 241. the II.. Seville Photo.. Prentice.. Palladio. Comparative Plans of Various Buildings.. Letarouilly. Spanish Renaissance Examples. \ P. 239. Kirby Hall.. . Norfolk. A B. Northants Little . iron pulpit . portion of facade Avila. elevation plan . Burgos. Knole. The Tower Hatfield Photo. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 236. 242. 248. Northamptonshire. Photo. Spain Villa of Pope Julius. ( A B C D. window Avila. The Hall . ground floor plans C f Richardson. 244. English Renaissance Examples Castle Ashby. Moreton Hall... . 235. 246.. Blenheim Palace . south elevation j i 1 it plan . D [ great Henry Shaw. F Kc rr. ( Stockton House.. 237. .

. English Renaissance Examples S. A B c }J. . '. . Kent Lead cistern. section . western fa$ade . .. M B j Duke's House. water L Richardson. . elevation . . balustrade . . Bride.. H j Aston Hall. .. . . A B 1-6 c J-Clayton. c . . Kent.Tanner. 254. 253. . section D .. . . . . plaster ceiling . Bradford.. .. Hinchingbrooke Hall Chapel screen. . Peterhouse College Chapel. London Bookcase. J. Claverton..... I. junr. D E .. ... . G H j Cambs. H.. .. A.. xlvii Authorities. No. .... junr... Tanner. . Cambridge Tomb of Lord Burghley.. Paul.. elevation . English Renaissance Examples IV. .... newel Blickling Hall. ground plan . arcade .. G I Henry Shaw.. Museum Tablet.. .. . Wren's original plan section through . . .. H. Victoria and Albert . . 252.. . . . S. chimney piece Church. . Tanner. Somersetshire. London.. S.. S. York Water-Gate. Pembroke College.A. . Convocation Room.. Hants... Norfolk.. rain . Whitehall.. . . Bramshill House.Richardson.. Triggs. .. A B c plan Banqueting House. transverse section . . Campbell. D E F . . . Richardson. J. 7-12 . plan sketch of peristyle . junr. stalls... . . head 251. Mary Le Bow. Gotch... balustrade Hatfield House. English Renaissance Examples III. D E F H. frieze . plan Whitehall Palace.. plans . English Renaissance Ornament . . Paul.. Charterhouse. London Photo. oriel . ... plans . elevation . S. H. elevation . V.. Gotch. Kent... Martin. London. 255. wall D K } All Hallow's at (Barking) frieze Henry Shaw~ tablet F House Yarmouth. Name.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. English Renaissance Ornament II. Stamford Throne and Pulpit. I.. 250. Campbell. A E .. .. Doorway in Broughton Castle Bay window. .. c . . . entrance . A Clayton and Gailhabaud dome . C. Oxford North Cray Church. ...

. English Renaissance Examples S. ... Somerset House.... with arcades and pedestals . London English Renaissance Ornament Doorway .. London ' Plan Elevation Cross section S. elevation section central portion Kedlestone Hall. ... English Renaissance Examples S. No. . - .. A. C Horse Guards.. . .. .... .... Pedimented gateway IX... typical window Aston. . section .. .. ....... ... section . ... with Venetian and arcades pedestals . Name. Walbrook. . I j Woolfe and Gandon. . A Venetian Doorway Casino at Doorway window . ..xlviii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. without pedestals ... or portion of Ionic colonnade without pedestals Marino.... .... . English Renaissance Examples Castle Howard... 258. London. wall tablet Wilton.. details . I Campbell. near Dublin Doorway or portion of Corinthian colonnade with pedestals Superimposed orders. j-Clayton. elevation cross section long.. . . A. section London. 257. monument . . plan D VII. window . James.. . . VIII... English Renaissance Examples Examples by Sir William Chambers. . London. plan . 260.. piece Westminster. elevation section .. plan 259. .. archway S.. Martin's Church. Photo. section B j- Clayton. VI... Long.. . C Stephen... Gate piers Chimney 261.. thorities. .... . 256.. III.. Bride. Piccadilly. . ..

Gwalior. . Ionic Corinthian Chambers. Garwan Hullabid. compound Stone ornaments 267. . .. gateway Indian roof construction A Kanaruc Sanchi. 262. Roman Doric . plan . Mandura. 271. ARCHITECTURE 264. Garrick (formerly Schiller) Chicago. Composite 263. 274. 270... . INDIAN ARCHITECTURE. . Sanchi. 269. The East door of the double Temple Ellora.. Elephanta. Karli... Entrance to the old Temple 279. 278... Umber. compound pillar Bindrabund... . The Houses of Parliament. pillar Baillur. The Hindu Temple . 265. . Palitana. 276. pillar . pagoda . Greek Temple. Name. Chambers.E. Comparative diagrams of the proportions of the Orders after Sir W. IN THE UNITED STATES. The Great Temple from the N. in Orissa. Map of India. 275. Theatre. 273. Agra. xlix Authorities. No.. of Tagat- Tanjore.. plan .LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. .. 272. rail Seringham.. Vellore. Greek Doric Tuscan ... 266. . Indian Examples and Ornament. Ajunta. The "rath" (Temple of Kailos) . Fa$ade of rock-cut cave Interior view of rock-cut cave Interior of Dilwana Temple The great Chawmukh Temple The great Sas Bahu Temple Mount Abu. 277. The West Gateway and Gopura Tarputry. London Photo. Interior of rock-cut cave 268. .. 280.



v. or general distribution of the building. - Roofs. building. and decoration. B. Examples. 4.DIAGRAM TABLE OF THE SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION FOR EACH STYLE. Plan. their position. SOCIAL AND POLITICAL. CLIMATE. Mouldings. A. n. Architectural Character. E. vi. F. RELIGION. i. their treatment D. their construction and treatment. Influences. Openings. 3. HISTORICAL. Walls. . 2. Ornament. in. Comparative Table. c. and shape. GEOLOGICAL. structure. Columns. iv. their form and decoration. as applied general to any 5. GEOGRAPHICAL. Reference Books. 1. in G. their character and development.

Exacts an architect." BROWNING. . It has been truly said that protection from the inclemency of the seasons was the mother of architecture. exacts an age. 2 c). now for him. A portico-contriver. The goodly growth Of brick and stone Our building-pelt was rough. then huts formed of branches of trees and covered with turf (No. The work marched Took each. and him Nay. F.A. . "When just the substituting osier lithe : ***** ! fit fit No For To brittle bulrush. ! . Other writers indicate three types of primitive dwellings the caves (No. . 2 H) or rocks or those occupied in hunting or fishing.A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE ON THE COMPARATIVE METHOD. must have been connected intimately with the endeavours THE origins of architecture. . According to Vitrtivius. further loam-and-rough-cast work a stage. man in his primitive savage state began to imitate the nests of birds and the lairs of beasts. although lost in the mists of antiquity. . sound wood for soft withe. PREHISTORIC ARCHITECTURE. of man to provide for his physical wants. dreams and shapes His dream into a door post. even the worst just house them Any cave Suffices . nor too a workman step by step to one task. throw out earth A loop hole ? Brave But here's our son excels At hurdle weaving any Scythian fells Oak and devises rafters . commencing with arbours B . one time leaping o'er the petty to the prime. ! ! . But that descendants' garb suits well enough . just escapes The mystery of hinges. of twigs covered with mud. " Study mere shelter.


2 G). and the tent (No. Ireland (No. and in Ancient Egypt. Dolmens (Daul. although interesting for archaeological reasons. Lake Dwellings. iv. Viollet-le-Duc (E. Lineham (R. 14 feet in diameter. and maen. the Channel Islands. 2 D. That at New Cornwall. "The Habitations of Man in all Ages. being at Carnac. or burial mounds. B 2 . a stone). also in Ireland. or single upright stones." Folio. etc. cloth. 2 A. owing to the fact that the oldest existing monuments of any pretension. E) for the agriculturist. as in Egypt." 8vo. 2 B). These foregoing primitive or prehistoric remains have little constructive sequence. Examples are to be found near Maidstone and other places in England. E) and elsewhere. B. 2 F) and India. in Prehistoric Times.. Italy and Ireland consisted of wooden huts supported on piles. consisting of a series of upright stones arranged in a circle and supporting horizontal slabs. Italy (No. Bucknall. or circles of stone. with Remarks on the Early Architecture of Ireland and Scotland. also in Brittany (No. and weighing 260 tons. REFERENCE BOOKS. as discovered in the lakes of Switzerland. Gamier and : Stone Monuments. and were so placed for protection against hostile attacks of all kinds. consisting of one large flat stone supported by upright stones. 4) and the beehive huts found in Wales. 1892. Japan.) Paris. v. 15). 8vo. classified under : Monoliths." 4to. E. as at Stonehenge (No. 1894. historique et Historique. also known as menhirs. The remains may be be lightly touched upon. " 1870.). Tumuli. Remote Ages.). Cromlechs. a table.). have little or no architectural value.PREHISTORIC ARCHITECTURE. " L' Habitation Humaine Pre(C. Grange (Ireland) resembles somewhat the Treasury of Atreus at Mycenae (No. Assyria. and Ornament of Waring (J. Customs. and elsewhere. iii. 2 j) for those such as shepherds leading a pastoral or nomadic life. and are merely mentioned here to show from what simple beginnings the noble art of architecture was evolved. a well-known example 63 feet high. belong to a high state of civilization. Northern France. Structures of the prehistoric period. India. D. 3 the hut (No. Tumuli. ii. etc. Avebury (Wilts). although unfortunately the stages of the evolution cannot be traced. and will only i. were probably prototypes of the Pyramids of Egypt (No. S.). Ammann (A." Translated from the French by B.. Brittany. Persia. 1876. " The Street of Human Habitations An Account of Man's Dwelling-places. Another example is at Locmariaker.

. Architecture raised may be said to include every building or structure human hands. " Deal worthily \vith the History of Architecture and it is worthy to take FREEMAN. GENERAL INTRODUCTION. / v THE HISTORICAL STYLES. architecture on that of Greece is apparent in many directions. The first nature afforded. at once into Historic times. ment of brick construction with the consequent evolution of the arch and vault was due to the absence of more permanent The influence of Egyptian and Assyrian building materials. As soon as man rose above the state of rude nature. a general this that development. he naturally began to build more commodious habitations for himSuch early forms are self. and massive carried lintels.PART I. To pass. and also in those countries. the greater habitations of man were undoubtedly those that such as caves (No. the developsupported the flat beamed roof. and some form of temple for his god. which in their turn In Babylonia. and is here denned as construction with by : the more the latter artistic motive being the value of the result. in which the latter closely spaced. an is developed. and attacks from his fellows or wild animals. such as Egypt and Assyria. place with the History of Law and of Language. however. there prevailed in Egypt a system of architecture which consisted of a massive construction of walls and columns. given under the heading of Prehistoric Architecture. short. which have influenced introducing IN tecture." its Comparative treatment of Historical Archioutline sketch is given of the course which the art has taken up to the present time in Europe. which demanded little labour on his part to convert into shelters against the fury of the elements. 2 H) or grottoes.

As civilization and technical skill. when the permanence and value of stone aided in the growth of the art. that is to say. throughout the entire constructive system of the building.. they added the use of the arch. however. Ionic. the ancient inhabitants of Central Italy. Columns were. While borrowing this trabeated architecture. and the artistic and mathematical skill with which they were constructed. good examples being the Colosseum at Rome (Nos. connected together by semicircular arches. 65 and 66). This dualism is a very important fact to remember. whole of the then known world. the actual work of support being performed by the piers of the wall behind. because. and covered with transverse beams and rafters. 62 and the Triumphal Arches (Nos.GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORICAL STYLES. This timber architecture. become merely a decorative feature. so the column as a decorative feature disappeared. the entablature. The above "orders" are characteristic of Greek architecture. As time went on. 38) came into existence. and Corinthian (No. was naturally at first very simple and rude the influence of the material. and the different orders of architecture Doric. and the beauty and grace with which they were treated. so this feature of the semicircular arch was introduced in every part. used constructively. 45). Greece eventually succumbed to the conquering Romans who. was soon felt. however. It should be noted. as will be seen. in which the semicircular arches spring As the Romans conquered the directly from their capitals. The column and arch were used conjointly by the Romans for is some time. which they had probably already learnt to construct from the Etruscans. most of what is now known as Europe (No. the qualities of refinement in detail and proportion were perceived. moreover. however. however. however. advanced. it eventually ended in the exclusion of the beam altogether. and the part it supports. by its use in the settlements . By the word " order " . as in many of the great basilicas. In the numerous buildings which the Romans erected. and in many cases employed Greek artists in the erection of their buildings.e. copied in marble or stone. i. Grecian architecture 5 is considered by many to have had its origin in the wooden hut or cabin formed of posts set in the earth. and the arcuated system it had masked was exposed. it will be noticed that the column has. such practical people as the Romans could not but discard a feature which was no longer utilitarian. meant certain methods of proportioning and decorating a column. and this was the type which was developed in the early Mycenaean period into the pyodomus of the Greek house. and in the employment of the arch alone. adopted their architecture. and 63). illustrate the keen artistic temperament of the Greeks. that many writers hold that Greek architecture is developed from an early stone type. in the generality of cases.

or the architecture Each of these types depends on an important conof the arch.6 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. and twelfth centuries. during which period were erected those magnificent cathedrals and churches. the formation of separate European states. whether in architecture or in civilization regarded as a whole. led to many variations of this semicircular arched style. perhaps. to the introduction of the pointed arch. when the later Romanesque. It was left to the Gothic style to formulate a complete system of arcuated construction. fourteenth. would seem to have been the combination of the round arch and dome that are seen in the great examples of the Byzantine style. so called as being derived from the Roman style. structive principle. including the Greek. both uniting to reflect a more intense expression of its age than had. (i) Classic. for the Gothic system. The early styles. The gradual breaking up of the Roman Empire. The transition commenced. may fairly be said to have culminated. both in construction and decoration. and fifteenth centuries. Constructive necessity. in the tenth. moreover. Roman architecture is a composite transition style. which form the most emphatic record of the religious feeling and character of the Middle Ages. belong to the former. or showed signs of becoming stereotyped by the mechanical repetition of architectural features. the working out of which was marvellously alike in all countries. or the architecture of the beam. which prevailed throughout Europe during the thirteenth. in the latter part of the twelfth century. aided largely by inventive genius. The pointed arch is the keynote of what is known as the Gothic or pointed style. Europe in a more or less debased form up to the tenth century of our era. was in vogue. viz. It was a style. Its latest works were tinged by the coming change. The condition of Europe at that period was one of ripeness for a great change. whether of art or literature. and is the basis on which European architecture is founded. The past styles of European architecture may be broadly summarized as being divided into two great types. if unchecked. in which a decorative system was closely welded to the constructive. and any style may be placed under one or other of these types. and other causes which we shall enumerate separately. and the result was the earnest study of every Roman fragment. : . ancf (2) Gothic. led. whose goal. that had been preserved or could be recovered. The revival of the arts and letters in the fifteenth century was a fresh factor in the history of architecture. eleventh. hitherto been achieved in previous architecture. Roman architecture was prevalent in which they founded. The new force was the belief that the old Romans had been wiser and more experienced than the medievalists.

whether A architectural expression. however. . till by the opening up of Greece to travel and study towards the end of the eighteenth century. art. in the church. he may feel that few of the diverse elements of our complex civilization.GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORICAL STYLES. 7 For some three centuries this belief held good. This second phase had not. at the beginning of the twentieth century. an equal success for a reaction was at' hand in favour of mediaeval divers reasons . conscious effort was then made the most earnestly in England to modify the current that had been flowing since the year 1500. In acquainting himself with the buildings therein mentioned. and some of the results of this attempt may be traced by the student wise enough to follow up the clues indicated in the concluding pages of the English Renaissance style. or the State. beside or even above those of Rome. have failed to find some ideals. the tradition was modified by the admission of Grecian remains to an equal or supreme place.

" With Detached Essays and Illustrations. " Glossary of Terms used in Architecture. An edition by J. 1901. etc. Paris.).-"History of Art by its Monuments." Svo. " Planat. " Parallele des Edifices de tout genre. Folio. 410. Sculptors and Architects. Merovingiens jusqu'a la Renaissance. 1893.) and Chipiez (C. 6 vols. ." 1 1 vols. Paris. C. 18921893.).. 1863. Abendlandes.). 1899." Edited by Blashfield. Architecture Religieux." 2 vols.)." 1850. 1847. York.). 8vo." " Folio." 5 vols. L' Architecture du V. from the Italian by Owen Jones. Paris. siecle. Svo.)." There is an English translation by B. Histoire de 1'Architecture." 2 vols. Translated by i3?6. Parker 3 "A 4to.COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. (B.. 1877-1881.. au XVII. Svo. N. Dictionary of Architecture and Building. Encyclopedic d'Architecture et de la Construction." 7 3 vols.). Cummings (C. A. GENERAL REFERENCE BOOKS. 1791." 2 vols." Comprising a number of volumes upon the History and Practice of Architecture. 4to.). " 12 vols. 1901. v. Vitruvius (Marcus Pollio). Gwilt " (J.). L." 5 vols. 1869-1872." 2 vols.." and 410. Svo." 3 vols. Sturgis. N.. Brault (E. Lists of Reference Books for special periods throughout the book. Gailhabaud (J. New Vasari (G. Paris. History of Ancient Art.. 410. " Royal Institute of British Architects' Transactions. 1900. (J. etc.' 1853 ct scq. Paris.). Lives of Celebrated Architects. 1859. " Fergusson (J.). Stuttgart. 4 vols.B. The Influence of Material on Architecture. History of Architecture in all Countries. Fletcher " 1897.. Svo. Gailhabaud (J. Viollet-le-Duc. " Lives of the most Eminent Painters. Dehio (G. Bosc (E. Paris. " Dictionnaire raisonne d'Archi lecture." 3 vols. " Entretiens sur 1'Architecture." Svo. Dictionary of Architecture. Darmstadt." 10 vols. Svo. 1848-1892. 1902. i. "The Architecture of. 1867-1904. " Manuel d'Archeologie Fran9aise depuis les temps Eulart (C. 1800.. folio Imperial Svo.). "Die Kirchliche Baukunst des Choisy " (A. 1884. "Encyclopaedia of Architecture. "A History of Architecture in Italy from the Time of Constantine to the Dawn of the Renaissance.). 8vo. " Les Architects par leurs ceuvres. Paris.). 1877-1880.. 2. Svo. " Viollet-le-Duc (E. D'Agincourt (S. 1897. Architecture Civile.. Milizia (F. Handbuch der " 1826." Folio. folio. 1850." Translated Folio. Dictionnaire de 1'Architecture.).).). Durand (J. Architektur. issued by the Architectural Publication Society.) and Bezold (G.." 2 vols. "Monuments Anciens et Modernes. Gwilt. " entitled Lectures on Architecture.. and styles are given "Architectural Association Sketch Book. 3 vols." W. 1883-1894.." 4 vols. Paris. F. Perrot (G. Bucknall.Newton.)." Paris.

.EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE. or Mediterranean Sea. The consequence was that Egypt had outlets for her own productions and inlets for those of foreign nations." INFLUENCES. 3) it will be seen that Egypt consists of a sandy desert with a strip of fertile country on the banks of the Nile. " Those works where man has Those Pyramids. largely determined by its geographical conditions. moreover. On referring to the map (No. as well as to the Eastern. for the characteristic features of the land in which any race dwells shape their mode of life and thus influence their intellectual culture. as will be shown. Egypt was the only nation of the ancient world which had at once easy access to the Northern. or Arabian Sea for by way of the Red Sea. i. Egypt always commanded an access to both these highways. Than waves inflict upon the rockiest coast. Geographical. not only on . Or winds on mountain steeps. The possession pf the Nile. -The civilization of every country has been. and like endurance i. that fear rivalled nature most. was of immense advantage. no more decay boast.

Geological. and is called Syenite. or stone. therefore. fog. and as a means of communication. written on paper made In theory the religion was monofrom the pith of the papyrus. were also employed. In this section throughout the volume an endeavour will be made to trace that influence on architectural style which the materials at hand in each/country had in its The natural products of /a country such as development. This hard and lasting building material largely influenced the architecture of the country. tecture Religion. and even rain are rare. J iii. The Egyptians were strong believers in a future state hence their care in the preservation of their dead. as well as the brute creation. account of its value as a trade route. possessed of almost unlimited authority. were traditional. and of granite in the south. A tinge of mystery is one of the great characteristics of the Egyptian archiThe Egyptians tecture as well in its tombs as in its temples. . The climate is equable and of warm temperature. I The latter is principally found near Assuan (Syene). unchangeable. . snow and frost being wholly unknown.! of sandstone in the central region. and philosophy preserved to us in the papyri. Climate. spring and summer./ only small forests of palm and acacia existing. The priesthood was powerful. such as the sun. In Egypt there existed an abundance of limestone in the north. and to its durable Bricks qualities is due the fact that there are so many remains. and Pyramids.etween religion and archiis everywhere manifest at this epoch. wood. a multiplicity of theistic. . but in practice it became polytheistic gods was created by personifying natural phenomena. and the erection of such Herodotus mentions everlasting monuments as the Pyramids. .IO COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. attained to a very high degree of learning in astronomy. It was on the banks of this ancient river that from time immemorial the cities of the Egyptians were naturally placed here. ii. but also because its waters were the fertilizing agents that made desert sands into fruitful fields. which accounts to a large extent for the good preservation of the temples. and stars. A close_^ojonectioji_h. brick. for though it demanded some protection against heat there was no necessity to provide against I inclement weather. and The religious rites equipped with all the learning of the age. The climate was thus of importance in developing the qualities of the architecture. Wood of a kind suitable for building was not available. iv. mathethe remains of their literature have been matics. moon. . admitting of simplicity in construction. while storm. but were generally faced with some harder material. determine to a large extent its style of art. Temples. or MSS. Egypt has been said to have but two seasons. and mysterious. are found the chief remains of the Tombs.

"What availeth thee thy other buildings? Of thy tomb alone thou art sure. the tombs of this period : 3. . 2821-1738. The Pyramids are thought to be a thousand years older than any building which has yet been discovered in Western Asia. The capital being at Memphis. Sakkara. are at Abydos. The Middle Empire (Dynasties XI. A . by which it can be traced back for more than 4. The Ancient Empire (Dynasties I. 332. Gizeh and Abusir. the workmen probably receiving no other pay than their food. the captives and foreigners. -XVI. who had largely increased. Thus a state of cheap labour existed which was eminently favourable to the execution of large and important structures. 300. This period had Thebes as the capital.C. perhaps more than any other. During the reign of Rameses II.C. that the dwelling-house II was looked upon by them as a mere temporary lodging. and elsewhere. the subject of the next " division." for Social and Political. B.C. an Egyptian priest who lived about B. vi. "great house ") have been arranged in thirty dynasties.-X. the earth thou hast nought beside Nought of thee else is remaining. the tomb being the permanent abode. . favoured the execution of monumental works. despotic In addition there existed a centralized government which. Historical.).000 years B. B. and many imposing buildings were erected at Karnac. These have been based on the list of Manetho.EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE. It is assumed by some that the spare time which occurs during the annual floods enabled the population to be employed on these state buildings. and in the first chapter of the book of Exodus the natives are said to have viewed with alarm the growing numbers and power of these strangers. It is also possible that the transport of stone required for the great buildings was effected by means of rafts floated down at this season. Prehistoric Period. On v. out. Egyptian civilization is the most ancient of any of which there is a clear knowledge its history is partly derived from Holy Scripture and from Greek and Roman authors. The New Empire (Dynasties XVII. 23000 (?)-47772. Nakadeh. Memphis. prosperous period in which much building was carried This period includes the dynasties of the " Hyskos" or shepherd kings. and compiled a history of Egypt in the Greek language. but more particularly from the Egyptian buildings.-XX.). and may be divided down into the following periods 1. B. 4. 4777-2821. .C. A vast population was available employment on public works. The Kings or Pharaohs (from the title " Peraa = . extending to B.C.).C.C. Luxor. B. 1738-950.were put to enforced labour upon the public works.

332-30. 10 j).C.12 5. 31. is to be seen in the Temples of Thebes and elsewhere. In A. a primitive architecture of mud or puddled clay and bundles of reeds changed in later times to a style of stone and granite. B. the land which is the gift of a great and the seat of the most ancient civilization. In the valley of the Nile. time. r The nineteenth dynasty. 640-1517. one of Alexander's generals.C. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER.D. 'COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. After the wars which ended in the death of Cleopatra. of which the primitive roofs were constructed. were laid horizontally other bundles.D. slightly projecting cornice. the reeds keeping the rammed clay in a projecting position and allowing the curve to be terminated by a flat fillet which gave the level of the terrace. as did nearly the whole of the then known world. (B. in A. 638.C. 527. This section of the book deals with the architecture comprised For periods 8 and 9 see pages 653. The Grace-Roman Period. 395-640. page 659). The primitive structure was composed of bundles of reeds river. B.D. who left important monuments (see Saracenic Architecture. and became a Roman province. -XXV. Alexander the Great and Ptolemaic Period. is held to be due to the pressure of the clay.). Egypt passed to Ptolemy. Modem Egypt (Turkish Domination). 1400-1366).C. The Byzantine Period. from whom it was wrested in B.D. 332 by the Grecian general. A. A. Medieval Egypt (Mahometan Period). Rameses II. on the upright reeds. and that of his grandson. 395. The Roman Period. founded by Rameses I.C. 1333-1300). 1517 it became a part of the Turkish dominions. cornice (No.C. 640: i. 7. Alexander the Great.). Joining these reeds. 332. who founded a dynasty that ruled from B. 3O-A.C. into the hands of the conquering On the spread of Romans. bound together and placed vertically in the ground at intervals. On Alexander's death and the division of his empire. Mahometanism. A^. B. 332-A.C. pay be taken as the most brilliant epoch of Egyptian aft. This formed the which formed the framework of the walls. ii.D. the angle bundles being of greater strength. at the top. of Foreign 950-663. Egypt was conquered by the Arabs. 6.C. which bound the The origin of the characteristic heads of the uprights together.D. in Periods 1-7. 1517 to the present Penod B. During the twenty-sixth dynasty the country was conquered by the Persians in B. 2. Thie evidence of his greatness. Domination (Dynasties XXI. 663This period includes the Persian Domination. as builders. iii.C. 659. (B. The Late Egyptian Period (Dynasties XXVL--XXX. 9. B.C. Egypt passed. 8. The jambs and . 323 to B.

C. more reasonable to attribute it to a mud origin. c. apparently came from the sgraffito" (incised plaster) work on the earlier mud walls. Proceeding to the internal architectural features of the style. an important point remains the batter or slope which is invariably given to the walls. He infers the custom to have been derived from the Pyramids. Here. of which the earliest example appeared in the eighteenth dynasty. then. throughout.Hasan some pillars represent a bundle of four frequent. and crowned with the lotus bud. examples in stone of capitals and columns derived from timber and reed originals are At Beni. for nothing would be more natural. granite. 2100). which were found to remain undisturbed during earthquakes. 10 L). the forms of the early reed and clay construction were adhered to and the endeavour of the conservative Egyptian was to reproduce in stone . lintels 13 of the doors and windows were made of reeds in the humbler dwellings and of palm trunks in those of more pretension. a very distinct reminiscence of the primitive reeds tied together at intervals. In fact. when plastered. The surface decoration executed on the later granite buildings " (No. so as to form a capital. and in conjunction with the hollow-formed capital of the bell type (No. It seems. During the Theban kingdom especially (B.EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE. and this feature is alleged by him to have been introduced at a later stage. and . superimposed in layers. reeds or lotus stalks bound together near the top and bulging above the bud. is seen a fair and likely prototype of the construction of an Egyptian wall. 3000-3. The surfaces of such walls could not be modelled or carved with projections of high relief. Viollet-le-Duc's theories as to the origin of this batter do not point to the influence of material. forming as it were an arch. than to slightly tilt the bundles of reeds towards the interior. Still. 10 M). the appearance assumed in the early reed and mud type. but their flat surfaces. a treatment which in any other material scarcely seems to be feasible. 10 p). however. although materials changed. in only. 10 L. represents a light wooden construction having the slight slope necessary in the dry Egyptian climate. in imitation of a lotus Such a pier must evidently have been originally employed in wooden architecture and the roof which it supports. this instance. in order to strengthen such buildings. is found in the later granite column and capital (No. having been promulgated by a royal decree. the form of which is more suitable to a structure of rushes overlaid with mud or puddled clay than to one consisting of large stones. M). This type of column was largely used in later Egyptian times in a more substantial lithic form (No. ligature. provided an admirable field for decoraThe tion and for instruction through the use of hieroglyphics. while straight-sided houses were upset. owing to their walls being more easily overturned.


where the palaces of the kings are the chief remains. The Egyptian wali-paintings. which never presented a projecting outline. page 30) has produced many probable theories. character of the tombs consists in the planning of their mysterious chambers and corridors. although M. 5. which. or in the materials. is even now uncertain. The Pyramids (Nos. and which is distinctly. are at least 20 feet long by 6 feet wide. one building. which have been unearthed from their temples or tombs. expense. but in clothing it with a kind of drapery more or less rich. . but was perpetuated in spite of novel conditions. Egyptian art proceeded on an uninterrupted line or course of tradition. produce an effect of gloom and solemnity on the spectator. The principal remains of ancient Egyptian architecture are the Pyramids. 4 and 5) are the most extravagant of all ancient buildings in many The relative return in ways. and thus forming a direct contrast to the harmonious whole of a Greek temple. and the temples. jewellery. sculptures. The buildings decrease in height from front to back. polished and fitted. The Architectural Character of the temples is striking and characteristic (Nos. covered with paintings and hieroglyphics. for many of the blocks. or royal tombs of the kings. which is all comprised within one "order" of columns. often built at different times. it is clear that the and that spirit of criticism and logical method were wanting traditional forms. 7 and 8). and the raising of these blocks of stone into position. the impression given to the mind of the spectator is that these buildings were erected for eternity. perfectly squared. and material used in their erection. The . all the remains having a character of immense solidity. were clung to and reproduced when the method of building which suggested them had been replaced by other systems. hallowed by long use. both in appearance and reality. and when necessity dictated a change in the methods of construction. Choisy in his latest work (see Reference Books.EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE. 15 Egyptian system of decoration consisted in not contravening the form adopted. The method of quarrying and of transportation for long distances by land and water. and usually of grand uniformity. the immutable form was not thereby affected. impressiveness and the higher beauties of the art is small when compared with the amount of labour. Remarkable then as were the arts of Egypt. a contrast in this respect with Assyria. bronze implements and utensils. The finishing and fitting of such large masses of granite is remarkable. As regards the architecture. show that the race had attained to a high degree in art. or a diapered covering. contenting itself with enveloping the geometric form as would an embroidered stuff. presenting a disconnected collection of various sized structures.


i. as it has been throughout the ages. all erected during the fourth dynasty (B. 4). The Great Pyramid each way. or more rarely a woman. THE SPHINX (No. the governing idea being to secure immortality by the preservation of the mummy. east and west. it is. a mystery. twice the extent of S. Greatly mutilated. The dimensions of the Great Sphinx. which is on the northern side. The original height was 482 feet. on the body of a lion. in the centre of an ancient stone quarry. who found a temple between the paws.Aryan. The symbol for an insoluble problem. with rough masonry added in parts. is situated near the great pyramids. 17 EXAMPLES. The passage to which it known examples. 3666-6. 3721).e. including Herodotus. and they make an angle with the ground of 51 degrees 50 minutes. 760 feet area being about 13 acres. London. D). It was excavated in 1816 by Captain Caviglia. its (Nos. till that time should have passed. are as follows it is 65 feet high by 188 feet long. 5 c). 3. by Cheops (Khufu) the Second Pyramid (No. a ram.c. 3633) the Third Pyramid by Mycerinos (Menkhara) (B. the soul would once more return to the body.C. and Dashur. An Egyptian Sphinx (No. sloping and meeting in a point. is 47 feet 6 inches above the base.c. and rank among the oldest monuments of Egyptian architecture. when. Abusir. The faces of the pyramid are equilateral triangles laid The sides face directly north. it is still a marvel. These were built by the kings as their future tombs. of Cheops is square on plan. and probably ever will be.C.C. 3600).. and is now reached by means of an earthen embankment. 3998-B. c . of Gizeh. Rome. The other groups are those of Abu-Roash. a hawk. south. and it has since been examined by Mariette and Maspero. 4). and the mouth 8 feet 6 inches long. 4 and 5 c. are the best (B. and is a natural rock cut to resemble a Sphinx. by 3733-B. form one of several groups within the necropolis of the ancient capital city of Memphis. Zawiyet-el. Sakkara. which represents a recumbent lion with the head of a man. as in all the pyramids. c.A. 10 o) had the head of a king. . whose date is unknown. according to their belief. . The Great Pyramid F. The entrance (No. 3700) Cephron (Khafra) (B.C. Peter. c.EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE. 3633-6. or equal to the size of Lincoln's Inn Fields. : THE PYRAMIDS near Cairo. Their construction has been described by many writers. the face is 13 feet 6 inches wide.

5 D). scenes representing the arts and crafts of the . beyond which is a large court where offerings to the deceased took place. each about 8 inches by 6 inches. known as the serdabs. " ii. The Mastaba of Thy. but this has now disappeared. and was erected to Thy. and 19 feet high. leading to the chamber containing the sarcophagus with its mummy. structed with stones one above the other (No. fitting into a rebate or recess. : which were placed the offerings to double. and having flat roofs. afterwards re-ascends gives access first slopes downwards. and the entrance is protected by a massive stone acting as a portcullis. exterior of this pyramid was originally cased with a sloping face of limestone. 'showing the original stepped surface in tiers of 4 feet. with sides sloping at an angle of 75 degrees. who in his day held the position of royal architect and manager of pyramids. and members of his family. and from which a mummy shaft led through a passage to a tomb the " outer chamber. ~? The TOMBS. and which still exists in the Pyramid of Mycerinos." having its walls decorated with representations of festal and other scenes. The masonry of this tomb is carefully jointed and covered with flat reliefs. shipbuilding scenes.) In the from rude heaps of stones piled up over earlier mummy holes. and towards the heart of the pyramid. These reliefs represent harvest operations. one known as the Queen's Chamber. was placed the sarcophagus of the king containThe upper part is elaborately coning his embalmed body. probably derived (a. led to the outer face of the pyramid for ventilation. from 50 to 60 tons.l8 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 22 feet 9 inches by 23 feet 9 inches and 12 feet 6 inches high. It consists of a small vestibule. in " " The Ka or chamber. where the King's Chamber is In this chamber. and the other below the ground. were rectangular structures. on which the casing was placed." containing statues of the deceased. which are generally considered the best specimens of their kind. There were two other chambers in the Great Pyramid. The principal reliefs are in a second tomb chamber. Sakkara. Inner secret chambers. iii. which are valuable from an historical standpoint. A well of great depth. They were divided into three parts i. connected with a passage leading off that to the King's Chamber. It dates from the fifth dynasty. is well preserved and has been restored. Besides the Pyramids or royal tombs are others for private individuals. which is 34 feet 6 inches by 17 feet situated. and weighing Two air channels. Ancient Empire the Mastabas.

o - O Ll 6 o C 2 .

known as Tomb No. TEMPLES. were utilized for offerings and other funereal rights for the dead. the Ramesseum. These are slightly and have an entasis.tombs were rock-cut and structural. and mostly representing him sailing through the under-world accompanied by the sun god. indicating a derivation from a The Tombs wooden origin. and the deeply projecting cornice has stone beams carved out of the solid rock. of chambers connected with passages hewn in the rock.. form a remarkThere are 39 in all. 2778-^565). The mortuary or sepulchral temples. bounding the Nile valley (No. They differ. at Beni-Hasan. in a row in the rocks as shown (No. were sculptured with hieroglyphics of pictures and texts necessary to the deceased in the future life. and that of Sethos L. sometimes considered to be a fluted prototype of the Greek Doric order. where the granite sarcophagus was placed in a hollow in the floor. IV. the slaughtering of the marshes in a boat with a surrounding papyrus sailing through thicket. from the entrance to the sarcophagus chamber.20 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. (c. The purposes for which they were used and their component They were sanctuaries where only the king parts are important. 3. 6). They were arranged made during the twelfth dynasty (B. The texts were mostly taken from various books relating to the ceremonies which were essential for insuring the immortality of the departed. usually known as Belzoni's tomb from its discoverer in 1817. the New Empire. such as those of Der-elbahri. 6).in Upper Egypt. and were intended only for the reception of the sarcophagi. and others. which for a time was the necropolis of the Egyptian kings.C. The walls. The structure of all is very similar.. has two sixteen-sided columns. and Thy himself period. sacrificial animals.) During and in many cases accompanied by sepulchral temples. beyond which is the sepulchral chamber.. . able group of these rock-cut examples. has a large number of tombs dating mostly from the New Empire. and IX. The entrance to the Tomb of Khnemhotep. and priests penetrated. and forming a contrast to the pyramids which formed These tombs consist of a series the graves of the earlier kings. and in which mysteries and processions formed a great part of the religious services. a period which was particularly remarkable for the progress of the arts of peace. as in the vertical cliffs form. consisting of three corridors cut in the rock leading into an ante-room. Amongst the most important of these are those of Rameses III. as at Abydos. Medinet-Habou. In the Middle Empire tombs \vere either of the Pyramidal (b.) or were rock-cut. Thebes.


and halls." or massive In sloping towers. therefore. and in front of these an avenue of sphinxes. the Ramesseum. meaning "under the air "). and also the Temple of Khons (twentieth dynasty). 7). the Greek temples. formed by the different height of the columns (No. was a kind of royal oratory reared by the king in token of his own piety and in order to purchase the favour of the gods.). imperfectly lighted. was another Temple of Ammon (eighteenth and nineteenth dynasties). However. The whole collection of buildings forming the temple was surrounded by a great wall as high as the buildings themselves. In this form they are generally considered to be the prototypes of The more usual type of temple. the Christian church. The priests and king only were admitted beyond the hypostyle hall. On the western bank lay the Necropolis or Tombs of the Kings and Queens. which may be taken as a fair example of the ordinary type of plan. which was open to the sky in the centre. This courtyard was surrounded by a double colonnade on three sides. and led up to the hypostyle hall. The entrance to the temple was between "pylons. at Karnac (No. and the temple. on each side of the central gateway (No. and no public ritual was celebrated within them. on the eastern bank. the site of w'hich occupied a large area on the east and west banks of the Nile. a plan is here given of the Temple of Khons. which included those of Der-el-bahri. near the Great Temple of Ammon. and a large number of mortuary temples. was the capital of Egypt during the New Empire (Dynasties XVII. surrounded by a passage. forming a splendid approach to the temple. COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 5). with courts. The eastern bank had an important group of Temples at Karnac. The " mammeisi " were temples (dedicated to the mysterious accouchement of I sis) each consisting of one small chamber with statue and altar as at Elephantine. The student is referred to Lockyer's theories as to the orientation of temples with regard to the particular stars. all surrounded by a high wall. 5 B). front of the entrance were placed obelisks. in which light was admitted by means of a clerestory above. and Medinet Habou. -XX. on the eastern bank of the Nile. and the for they were not places for the meeting of the faithful or the recital of common prayers. Beyond this is the sanctuary. This entrance gave access to the large outer courtyard. and at the rear is a smaller hall both the last chambers must have been dark or only Mahometan mosque. ' I . . and therefore called "hypaethral" (from two Greek words. approached by a flight of steps. including the Great Temple of Ammon. At Luxor. / ( . colonnades. from the Greek temple. Thebes.22 therefore. In order that the student may understand the general distribution of the parts of an Egyptian temple. consisted of chambers for the priests.

CO .

giving an idea of unlimited size. a form of The walls of lighting more fully developed in the Gothic period. 1333-1300). and the architraves are covered with incised inscriptions. on which the clerestory light would fall. built by Rameses II. is one of the most stupendous creations of . from the first monarchs of the twelfth dynasty down to the Ptolemaic period. \ The Great Temple of Ammon. still retaining their original colored decorations relating to the gods and personages concerned in the erection of the structure. It further differs from others in having a wing at right angles to the main structure in consequence of a hill immediately behind the temple. dedicated to six deities and a deified king hence the front of this temple was divided into seven parts. the column shafts. and other halls. to the larger columns of the central avenues lighted by the clerestory. and originally was connected with the Temple of Luxor by an avenue of It was not built on an original plan. about 46 feet high and have columns 42 feet 6 inches in height and 9 feet in diameter. each with its separate gateway and portal.24 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. extending over an area of 1. The central avenues are about 134 columns in sixteen rows. is the grandest. Karnac. the capitals of which are of the lotus blossom type (No. walls are of fine grained limestone. a great court measuring 338 feet by 275 feet. Paris.200 feet by 360 feet. It has six pylons added in successive generations. and completed by Rameses II. 1366-1333). and the eye is led from the smaller columns of the side avenues. The impression produced on the spectator by the forest of columns is most aweinspiring. 10 L) so as The side avenues are to receive the light from the" clerestory. (B.<J type. the great The hypostyle hall. and magnificence to the additions of many later kings. Abydos. disposition \ 80 feet in height as compared with 140 feet at Amiens Cathedral. a first and second fore-court and two hypostyle halls. courts and/ a sanctuary. which gradually vanish into semi-darkness. the Capitals being of the lojus t>u. Hypostyle hall measures 338 feet by 170 /feet. The Temple of Sethos I. covering about The roof is supported by the same area as Notre Dame. The . and the undersides afterwards rounded off in the form of a vault by the chisel. and the reliefs on them are among the finest Egyptian sculptures.C. The seven sanctuaries are each roofed by means of horizontal courses. which is formed in the difference of height between the central and side avenues.C. every course projecting beyond that immediately below. 1333-1300). but instead of one sanctuary it has seven arranged side by side. but owes its size. sphinxes. and have columns 69 feet high and nf feet in diameter. It was built by Sethos I. was dedicated to Osiris and other deities of Abydos. (B. (B. The Great Temple of Abu-Simbel. the hall.. In common with other temples it has pylons.C.

A (No.EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE. having low screen walls between them on either side of the central entrance. consisting of courts. but has a great vestibule with twenty-four columns. which is supported by eight pillars. like earlier examples. 119 feet wide and over 100 feet high. a small colonnaded temple dedicated to Hathor-Isis and to the memory of the birth of her son Horus. all nearly in total darkness. is an interesting example of the Ptolemaic period. was the work of several generations. of which the Temple of Edfou. the ceiling 65 feet in height. including the second pylon. 8). the walls having vividly colored reliefs. This group. Beyond is the temple proper. massive pylon. with an altar and four seated figures of the deities worshipped. which is 105 feet broad and 40 feet high. each over solid rock. Eight smaller chambers. fore-court. is the best preserved example. and. The fore-court. treasury. three apartments. adjoin this vestibule. gave access to a great court. and in the rear is a small hypos tyle hall. On the fourth side of the court is the second pylon. formed as a pylon. having four Behind this is a long narrow chamber out of which are pillars. 36 feet by 25 feet. a sanctuary. During the Graeco. having six columns with elaborate Hathor-headed capitals. 25 Egyptian architecture. Twelve larger columns with elaborate capitals support .D. faced with reliefs and inscriptions. The Temple of Isis. both inside and out. The entrance leads to a vestibule. the centre and largest one being the sanctuary. covered with of inscriptions. Staircases on either side lead to the roof of the temple. It has no pylons. 237). 150 feet broad and 60 feet high. Behind this is the hypostyle hall. and was entirely excavated out of the It has a fore-court. commenced by Ptolemy III. The Temple of Hathor. and on the east a colonnaded building used by the priests. Dendera (A. and having four seated colossi of Rameses II. entered through a massive pylon. Island of Philse.Roman period many temples were erected. has on the west side the Birth House. six of which form the fa9ade. The back of this court was formed by the front of the great hypostyle hall.C. surrounded by a colonnade. probably used to store the temple utensils and furniture. and other adjoining chambers. a hypostyle hall with eight columns. used as lavatory. has its axis at an angle to that of the first pylon and courtyard. (B. or enclosing outer walls.. the portal of which was the centre intercolumniation of a row of six columns. the narrower spaces between the side columns having low screen walls . but was not completed till the reign of Augustus. is another Ptolemaic example. store-rooms and behind are two ante-chambers with a sanctuary beyond. first century). at the back of which is the imposing facade. two small vestibules. The entire structure has the walls. On each side of this hall and beyond are chambers.

a 2 n ^ .p i-H O s w c/j rt oo oo Is" 3 w <. 8 w .

from which they appear to have had one. and the four faces were cut with hieroglyphics. The whole wooden columns blue. although originally erected at Heliopolis (B. originally employed in pairs before the principal entrances of temples. beyond which was a smaller hypostyle the roof of which was carried by twelve columns. and the long external flat roof. Houses are shown on paintings and sculptures which have come down to us. single upright stones. hall. John Lateran is the largest in existence. Cleopatra's Needle on the Thames Embankment. 1500). and the sanctuary. The capping was of metal. the upper part of the house being painted a bright yellow. being only built of wood or of sun-dried bricks. . 9 feet square at the base. Charles Gamier. and also to in front. an illustration of the Egyptian House is given (No. It is of red granite from Syene. Many obelisks were removed from Egypt by the Roman DWELLINGS. 8 feet square at the base. and at least twelve are in Rome itself. 27 the roof over this hall. square on plan with slightly rounded faces. conjecturally restored. 6 feet 2 inches at the top. The quarrying and transport of such a mass of stone without the power of a steam-engine was" an engineering feat of are considerable skill. and altogether weighs about 600 tons. about nine to ten times as great as the diameter. brought to London from Alexandria. In the absence of any authentic remains. That in the centre of the Piazza of S. two.e. The staircase at the back led to a verandah. with a pyramidal summit. and weighs 180 tons.. or with the pedestal 153 feet. laid out in a a extending over the whole length of the structure. is 68 feet 6 inches high. and erected at the Paris Exhibition. giving access to the rooms. They are monoliths. building was treated with color. having rich floral capitals. and is 104 feet high. 9). All these have disappeared. or three stories. by M.EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE. emperors. smaller chambers. OBELISKS monumental pillars. Behind this were vestibules. embellished by so-called heads of Hathor. for the groove into which it was fitted is in some cases still visible. The house was divided by a corridor in the centre.C. and had a garden formal style. 1889. and The height is usually tapering sides. with fish-ponds. i. The design was founded on an ancient painting. another example.

qualities obtained by broad masses of unbroken walling. Walls. Dendera. the pylons. as at Luxor.28 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. the chief pylons ornamented with incised decorations formed facade. in which were executed low reliefs. and other features are placed on instance. Roofs. with Greek examples (pages 15 and 22). The temples have already been slightly compared A. periods. crowded with pillars. while in the less important they were of brick faced with granite. the arch appears to have been but little used. for the style being essentially trabeated. Openings. hall seemingly unlimited in size. This may be seen in many of the later temples erected under the Ptolemys. realized the grandest Externally the massive ceptions of Egyptian planning (No. These were all square-headed and covered with c. and conmysteriously illuminated from above. consisting of a large hollow and roll moulding (No. For the purposes of decoration. the walls. 7 and 10 P). different axes. or over the low dwarf walls between the columns of the front row. . resemble the growth of English cathedrals as also in the disregard for symmetry in the planning of one part in relation to another. Plans. are the chief characteristics of the style. and as already noticed The hypostyle they were especially planned for internal effect. treated with bright color (Nos. massive lintels. 10 j. 4. Edfou (No. These were composed of massive blocks of stone supported by the enclosing walls and the closely spaced columns . Greek external architecture are not found on the exterior of Egyptian buildings. while the approach was through avenue of innumerable sphinxes. giving them a massive appearance (No. Simplicity. The faces of the temple walls slope inwards or batter towards the top. and in important buildings were of granite. or Philae. impressive The erection of these temples was in progress during many In this respect they centuries by means of continual additions. These were immensely thick. 8). B. were generally covered with a fine plaster. solidity. a contrast being obtained by the /slender obelisks which an usually stood in front of them. Viollet-leDuc traces this inclination to the employment of mud for the walls Columns which form the leading features of of early buildings. even when of granite. COMPARATIVE. The freedom and picturesqueness of grouping thus obtained is remarkable. and grandeur. which have normally a massive blank wall crowned with a characteristic cornice. light being admitted by the clerestories in the earlier examples at Thebes. Window openings are seldom found in temples. the temple on the island of Philae being a notable The walls. a method peculiar to the Ptolemaic and Roman D. 7). free from any pretence of regularity. 5). M).

and the feather ornament (No. offered many suggesThe columns. The Egyptians were masters in the use of color. 7 G.) The capital. invariably crowned j. a tall.EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE. spirals (No. Columns. Ornament M). supporting the model of a pylon (No. smooth reed. 9) as a pleasant rendezvous for the family in the evening for the enjoyment of the view and the fresh breezes which spring up at sunset. The blue. The scarab. if protected from The flat roofs of the temples the sun by temporary awnings. Being flat. These were few. Mouldings. as a symbol of protection. The capitals_wej^_mostly derived from the_Jptus plant (No. and at intervals appear to be tied by bands (No. In addition. 10 M). the hollow and bead generally used in conjunction. red. conventionalized. 10 G). to whose protection he ascribed all his warlike successes. The papyrus. 10 L). chiefly using the primary ones It was first wall to be decorated was prepared as follows (a) chiselled smooth and covered with a thin layer of plaster or cement. 10). is formed of heads of the goddess Isis. The " palm" capital. the roofing is made to represent timber construction (No. and as at the tombs at Beni. and at certain seasons may have been used for repose. seem to have been used in the priestly processions. 6). but the bead was also used by itself. F). was considered by the Egyptians as the sign of their religion. : . were tions. 10 K).Hasan. tied round by stalks ~"~(^-) (No. or sacred beetle. viz. It probably attained its sacred character as the emblem of resurrection because of its habit of allowing the sun to hatch its eggs from a pellet of refuse. and was an important element in the style. fully-grown lotus flower. 2Q (No. F. which formed a bell-shaped ornamented with color decoration (No. much in the same way as the cross became the symbol of Christianity. 10 c) were largely used. E. sculptured or The two combined pylons (Nos. It must be remembered that the decoration of the walls of a temple consisted largely in acts of adoration on the part of the monarch to his gods. they could be used in dwelling-houses (No. In the rockcut temples the ceilings are sometimes slightly arched in form. (b. including such features as the solar disc or globe and the vulture with outspread wings (No. 10 D. B) 10)."as follows: The lotus bud.. E. the main outline of the palms being (c. 5 F). a large white water-lily of exquisite beauty.) painted or sculptured (No. made to represent the stalks. This was symbolical. the upper part of the and 10 (No. the Isis or Hathor-headed capital. as at Dendera and Philae. and yellow. and walls. and the lotus. 10 N). seldom over sijL-dia TTlf^ PT -ip hejgbj-. 10 A. while diaper patterns. They may also have been used in the daytime.

10 p). (See the Egyptian Court at the Crystal Palace. 1849-1859. folio. Edinburgh. "An Egyptian Princess.) the British Museum give a good idea of the Architecture and decoration of the style. thus passed by a process of figures or hieroglyphics ." 8vo.).).. the symbol of fertility and abundance.). Paris.). F. "Mosqueedu Sultan Hassan au Caire. The distinguishing.). produced by the overflowing Nile. 1904.3O after COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. feature of the natural object. (A.)." (Historical Novel. Piazzi). Herz(M.).. Egyptian Decorative Art. 1845. They are instructive as well as decorative. 1809-1822. and from then! is learnt most of what is known of Egyptian history (No. (b) The were then drawn on with a red line by an artist." Demy 8vo. N. Maspero (G. Perrot and Chipiez.) The hieroglyphics were often." 12 vols. " The Sacred Beetle. 1883.). 23 vols." Folio. REFERENCE BOOKS. The Egyptians possessed great power of conventionalizing natural objects such as the lotus plant. 1894. 1879. incised direct on the granite and then colored." Archaeological Survey of Egypt " and the " Egypt Ebers (G. " The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh. 5. the papyrus." 8vo. the palm. 1865. . The Egyptian Court at the Crystal Palace and the Egyptian Rooms at . which a colored wash was put over the whole. Prisse d'Avennes (E. 1899. Paris." 8vo. which will give the student a better knowledge of the style than can be gleaned merely from books. Paris. F. Paris. Monuments de l'gypte et de la "L'art debatir chezles Egyptians. or its class. le Champollion (J. The latter place contains a most complete collection of Egyptian antiquities. 1 892. Petrie.. however. text. Petrie (W. Pyramid. " Life and Work at the Great Smyth (C. folio. Cairo. being treated by the artists in a way suitable to the material in which they were working. 8vo. and others. History of Art in Ancient Egypt. or essential. 8vo." 8vo.). Lepsius (R." Ward (T. Rawlinson (G. 1867. 1897. and i vol. Choisy large folio." 6 vols. idealizing into forms adapted for ornamentation. " Denkmaeler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien." 410." Cleopatra." 8vo. as may be seen on the sculptures at the British Museum." Imp. " Description de l'gypte" (known as Napoleon's Egypt ").Svo. 1883." 3 vols." 1895. "The" Dawn of 'Civilization. large Erman (A. and text in 4to. large folio." Petrie. " in Egypt. Berlin.. " Life in Ancient Egypt. Haggard (H. " 1881. each being copied as the motif for a design. Publications of the Exploration Fund. " Ten Years Digging 2 vols.. "Histoire de 1'Art gyptien." 2 vols. Nubie.. " " jeune)..). Rider). rounding slightly the inclosed form towards its boundaries (d) the painter then executed his work in the strong hues of the primary colors. 1902. " History of Ancient Egypt. being corrected with a black line by the chief artist (c) the sculptor next incised the outline.


being celebrated for its great fertility. once the seat of a high civilization. INFLUENCES.<r\ \JO tffit \ BflCTRlfr II. Nor leaves her speech one word to aid the sigh That would lament her. On referring to the map (No. hath perished utterly. where the . The district was one of the earliest seats of civilization. Geographical. and was highly culti- vated. The plain of Mesopotamia. The earliest known buildings appear to have been erected at the mouth of the great rivers draining the country. Learned and wise. n) it will be seen that the principal ancient cities of Western Asia were situated in the valley of the twin-rivers Tigris and Euphrates. i. was irrigated by numerous canals between the above-mentioned rivers. supporting an immense population round Nineveh and Babylon. 3). WESTERN ASIATIC ARCHI TECTURE. " Babylon. i." WORDSWORTH. and has been styled the cradle and tomb of nations and empires. and in this respect can be compared with Egypt (No.

Geological. iii. bitumen or pitch. could be made into The bricks. and even images. but in both cases it developed from the sea inland. from their history. wards from Babylon (the Gate of God) to Nineveh. and bear witness to the extreme superstition which existed. the god of light and of good. the floods during only desirable. the man-headed bulls. seems to have been used. Numbers of omen tablets have survived. On the other hand. Mortar. D . as at Is. placed at the entrances of temples and palaces. as opposed to Ahriman. gardens. 33 Pyramids and other early structures were near the delta of the In Western Asia the march of civilization spread northNile. but almost essential. containing no stone and bearing no trees. v. In Assyria. the Judging F. Social and Political. applied in a heated state. being obtained from bitumen springs found in the district. which thus became the usual building material. such as the sun and the moon. while in Egypt it spread southwards from Memphis to Philse. and deserts. made of calcareous earth. the god of darkness and evil. on the Euphrates. and the swarms of aggressive and venomous insects infesting the entire region during the long summer. soil. when torrents fell for weeks at a time. internally and externally. the rainy season. was used in the latest periods. the walls were also faced. iv. such as the wind and thunder. and appear to belong to the class of beneficent genii or to that of the great deities of the Chaldaean pantheon. further demanded the need for such structures. with a climate ranging from the extremes of heat and cold. Temples. Climate. on which were carved the bas-reliefs or inscriptions. Mesopotamia is alluvial. Ormuzd. being formed of the thick mud or clay The deposited by the two great rivers Tigris and Euphrates.WESTERN ASIATIC ARCHITECTURE. which are so important from an historical point of view.A. The whole district of Chaldaea or Lower ii. Religion. rendered the construction of elevated platforms for the towns and palaces not Moreover. Persia is for the most part a high tableland and has been described as a country of sunshine. The people were worshippers of the heavenly bodies. general body of the walls was "constructed of the ordinary sundried bricks. while " kiln-burnt and sometimes glazed or vitrified bricks of different colors were used as a facing. and thus the essential stimulus was wanting for the rise and development of religious art. and of the powers of nature. do not seem to have been necessary. where stone was not scarce. probably had a mythical meaning. was worshipped with fire as his symbol. as sacrifices and the worship of fire and sun appear to have been conducted in the open air. As a cementing material. with alabaster or limestone slabs. The unhealthy exhalations from the vast swamps in Chaldaea.

or metal. gleaned certain facts which considerably assist in forming the The earliest Babylonian king mentioned divisions of the periods.C. a combination of forces which he defeated. Of the Assyrian kings. 666 but the Egyptians finally shook themselves free from the Assyrian yoke. 539. the upon which the buildplat orm or mound of Koyunjik great of ings of Nineveh stood would require the united exertions 10. who erected the great palace at Khorsabad was the first Assyrian king who came in contact with the Egyptian army.C. under Cyrus. a hardy race from the mountainous district north of the Persian Gulf. 722-705).C. From the study of Assyrian history can be vi. Assyria being handed over to the Medes. The cuneiform or wedge-shaped characters which form the inscriptions consist of groups of strokes placed in different positions.C. in their Assyrians were a sturdy. who reigned B. In B. The Assyrian sculptures give in a very /ninute way the social conditions of the period. the sculptor thus explaining the political events of the period in a lasting manner. in his writings.C. but cruel people. 4500. the most celebrated was Sargon he (B. and the great Assyrian kingdom was then divided among its conquerors. who were employed in raising the enormous mounds mentioned hereIt has been calculated by-Rawlinson that the erection of after. the northern part of the early Babylonian empire. sacking the ancient city of Thebes in B.C.C. . then in alliance with the Philistines. indicates the national love of beauty and the influence exerted by environment and climate. and battles the conquering monarchs took thousands of prisoners. Libraries of these strange MSS. and by the translation of these inscriptions much knowledge of the social condition has been acquired.34 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 521-485. The Persian astronomer-poet. asserted her independence and became the great power of Western Asia. and show us the" costumes of the time and the military character of the period. 485.C. Omar Khayyam.000 men for twelve years. with a triangular ended instrument of wood. The Assyrians conquered and occupied Egypt in B. and Xerxes (B. Historical. warlike. . in the cuneiform inscriptions was Eannadu. These characters were impressed on clay tablets or cylinders. 1700 Assyria. for'the long inscriptions and series of pictures with which the palace walls were covered form an illustrated history of the battles and sieges of succeeding monarchs. while still moist. 609. 672. following the course of the great river Tigris. and the empire he founded was gradually extended northwards.465) are important as being . The reigns of Darius (B. a large scale. after which the palaces would have to be built.C. in B. were formed on bone. Babylon then took the leading place until it was finally conquered by the Persians. The destruction of Nineveh took place in B.

The country.WESTERN ASIATIC ARCHITECTURE. similar in principle to the mats and hangings spread over floors 'or -walls as a covering. 333. Towards the close of the tenth century. and subsequently with kiln-burnt bricks. and the dazzling impression left by the marvellous buildings of Memphis and Thebes. in the absence of piers. that the arch was earliest discovered and most invariably employed by those builders who found themselves condemned by the geological formation of their country to the employment of the smallest units. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. In the seventh century A. possessed an abundance of clay. It will be perceived how the salient characteristics of the architecture may be explained by the nature of the materials at hand. rested on thick and . B. settled in the country. when it became a possession of the Greeks. the Persians until the time of Alexander the Great. the Arabs overran the country and settled there Bagdad becoming a new capital of great magnificence. The true arch however The arch was was also practised. the Turks. a barbarous people pouring in from the east. therefore. B. 35 those in which some of the most interesting palaces were erected The country remained under the rule of at Susa and Persepolis.. but one formed by corbelling or projecting horizontal courses. In some cases it was not a true arch. caused the development of the use of the column amongst the Persians. in general. however. for the walls being of brick. It is a general law. 525.C. or in the later Assyrian period with stone slabs from the mountains that separate Assyria from Media. D. 12) and also to vaults. Arches. The banks where wood which temples and palaces were forms were at first faced with built. 2. The buildings thus constructed could only be decorated by attached ornament. being compressed in flat square moulds and dried in the sun. they had to devise some other means for doing so. D 2 . which. of the Tigris and Euphrates presented only alluvial suitable for building was rare. was the material of which were formed the huge platforms upon plains. applied to important openings (No. and rarely of special shape.C. was a repetition of its neighbour. which is at the present moment in a desolate state owing to Turkish misrule. for the Assyrians either cased their walls with alabaster or with a skin of glazed brickwork of many colors. owing to the lack of these materials in suitable forms. These immense plat- sun-dried bricks. being probably accidentally hit upon through the use of small units for as the Chaldaeans were unable to support walls over openings upon beams of stone or timber. each unit. which study and comparison will confirm. The conquest of Egypt by Cambyses.

who later borrowed much from Egypt and Asiatic Greece. of sculptured slabs. for the want of suitable stone rendered any such arrangement impossible." The palaces would differ principally from the description of this mosque owing to the rules of the to the prohibition in sculpture and decoration of the copying of natural objects (page 654). The bracket and scroll capitals of the columns at Persepolis and Susa retain much of the form of their wooden prototypes. 13 A. One can hardly imagine the effect produced by such a building on an European accustomed to the dull uniformity of our colorless buildings. c. held a space of extreme importance in the style. is natural and inoffensive. and approached from the plains by broad stairways. This apartment had a dado. 12 B. The appearance of the monuments must. 13 F. Texier's description of the great mosque at Ispahan might. applied to wood. be entirely left to the imagination. for the effect of the towering masses of Koran as the palaces. In Chaldaea. if the power of a Merlin could bring them back to our view " Every part of the building. F. 12 feet high. COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. At Khorsabad an ornamentation of semi-cylinders in juxtaposition was employed externally. . The portal. flanked by colossal winged bulls (Nos. and 13 D. The Chaldaeans and Assyrians scarcely ever used stone constructively except as the/envelope for a brick wall but on the other hand as stone was abundant in the rocky country of Persia. 12 B). Assyria undoubtedly gave many of her architectural forms to Persia. and whether used for the formation of vaulted drains under the immense platforms. were not used. can only be imagined. without exception. G). and was surmounted by a frieze containing figures of men and animals in glazed and brightly colored brickwork a beamed roof of cedar. or to form imposing entrances of colored and glazed brickwork in elaborate fasades. through which small openings gave a sufficient illumination. upon which elegant flowers and sentences taken from the Koran are traced in white. the Persians used it for walls and columns at Susa and Persepolis. however. : is covered with enamelled bricks. a style of decoration which . H. it is believed. such as are found in the hypostyle halls of Egypt and Persia. with representations of battles and hunting scenes (No. probably covered the apartment (No. planted on the great platforms. G.36 solid walls . becomes inappropriate when applied to . isolated supports. E). H). and demonstrate very clearly that a form which. The cupola is blue decorated with shields and arabesques. stone (No. be applied with general accuracy to the palaces of Nineveh and Persepolis. led to an audience-chamber paved with carved slabs of alabaster. Their ground is blue. or in Greek temples and Latin basilicas.

12 A. It was only.C. be admitted that a material from which a style is evolved continues for a period to have its influence even when another material is substituted. 538-333). the incongruities of such forms applied to stone structures were by degrees abandoned. Birs-Nimroud was dedicated to the seven heavenly " In Chaldaea every city had its " ziggurat (holy mountain). In Lycia many rock-cut tombs present flat and sloping roofs. The third or Persian period (B. .WESTERN is ASIATIC ARCHITECTURE. therefore. and in Greece somewhat earlier than in Lycia. THE FIRST OR BABYLONIAN PERIOD was of a temple-biiilding epoch. in the seventh century B. 41 F). being copied from a wooden form. 1290-538). 3. . constructed in .) (c. . Glossary) upon which is placed a chest or sarcophagus crowned with a roof of pointed-arch form. The copying of timber forms in stone has also been traced in Egypt in India.) The second or Assyrian period (B. An example of one of these at the British Museum has a double podium (cf. and the influence of this tradition is better seen in the tombs of Lycia than in any other remains. 4000 (?)- 1290). in the infancy of stone architecture that timber forms were adhered to for as soon as habit gave familiarity with the new material.. and features suitable to the new material were evolved.C.C. and the temple at Khorsabad. In Asia Minor many of the buildings present stone forms borrowed from a timber type.) : The first or Babylonian (Chaldaean) period (B. into three tolerably Western Asiatic Architecture can be divided distinct periods (a. the principal remains being the temple Birs-Nimroud near Babylon. including the pins. It may. between the second and third century B. 37 a last reminiscence of the timber stockading which had originally served to keep up the tempered earth before the regular use of sun-dried bricks. which served as a shrine and observatory from which astrological studies could be made (No. D). however. Colonel Rawlinson has shown by 'his investigations that the of Temple spheres. c. where it was introduced by the Bactrian Greeks.C. in which unhewn timbers were copied and the last stage shows an Ionic facade certainly developed from these carpentry forms (No. These temples were several stories in height.C. (b. EXAMPLES. surmounted by a richly decorated temple chamber. the mortises and framing.


whose sides were so placed. It was erected about nine miles north. H).WESTERN ASIATIC ARCHITECTURE. 4). There was also a temple observatory on the western side of the platform. the men's apartments. in all containing 10 courts. which seems to have been sometimes treated with color. G. arranged round family an immense courtyard. . chiefly by Place. and no less than 60 rooms or passages his (&. examples of which are now preserved in the British Museum. 39 receding terraces. The Palace of Sargon. corresponding to the divisions of any palatial residence of modern Persia. B.C. and were rendered imposing by no fewer than ten human-headed winged bulls. Conjectural restorations have been made by various authorities (No. chambers. and it is a fact worth noting that in Western Asia and Egypt. As in all Assyrian palaces. man should have attempted his highest flights of audacity in the way of artificial elevations. and with its various courts. or India.) the Khan or service chambers. countries both remarkable for their dulness and sameness of aspect. . from which it was reached by means of broad stairways and sloping planes or ramps. 19 feet in height (No. may be referred to here. 722-705). Khorsabad (B. THE SECOND OR ASSYRIAN PERIOD was a palace -biiUding epoch. These portals formed probably the most impressive creations of Assyrian Architecture. The attempts of the Babylonians to build a tower which should " reach to heaven " (Gen. (a. 12 F.C. and corridors is supposed to have occupied an area of 25 acres. The principal remains are the palaces at Nineveh (or Koyunjik). with the private apartments of the prince and and (c. and Khorsabad. xi. Nimroud. Turkey. lined the lower portions of the walls. above which was a continuous frieze of colored and glazed brickwork.) The Seraglio. and each of different colored glazed bricks. is the best example of the general type. having an area of about 2| acres.) the Harem. 539. In the principal apartments a sculptured dado of alabaster about 10 feet high. ajid the reception rooms for visitors. and terminated with the destruction of Babylon by Cyrus. in contrast to the Egyptian pyramids. and forming the principal court of the palace. The palace contained three distinct groups of apartments. A walled inclosure surrounded the whole structure. 46 feet above the plain.north-east of the ancient city of Nineveh. : . and has been the most completely studied by means of systematic excavations. it was raised upon a terrace or platform of brickwork faced with stone. 12 B). including the palace proper. The angles of these temples were made to face the cardinal points. viz. The great entrance portals on the south-east facade led into the great court already mentioned.

resting upon the summits of the walls. have revealed a large amount of information concerning Assyrian Palaces. and the Palace of Ashur-nasir-pal. rities hold that the arch. representing the king surrounded by the arms of subject states. which was used largely in the drains and water channels of the great platforms and in the city gates (No. 12 F). similar to that of a Roman atrium. which would indicate that the architect had to provide solid abutments for arched vaults which supported a heavy roof. B. proceeded to adapt that of the conquered Assyrians. Susa and Persepolis. was reached by a wide stairway on the western side. was probably used as an audience and throne-hall. 705-681. 225 feet square. Persians having no architecture of their own. 885-860. specially in view of the thickness of the walls. are still extant. one of the important capitals of Persia. THE THIRD OR PERSIAN PERIOD. from the time of Cyrus to that of Alexander the Great. of which only one is still in situ. tombs and temples. and many of the sculptures with which the walls were lined are now in the British Museum. 10 feet 8 inches thick. which are wanting in the earlier periods.four stone doorways and windows. Nineveh. had capitals of curious vertical Persepolis.C. The Hall of the Hundred Columns. as a consequence. It was surrounded by a brick wall. as later the Romans assimilated that of the Greeks. The excavations B. Some authorities hold that the long and narrow rooms were roofed with beams of poplar or palm. The . receiving ambassadors. In the neighbourhood of their new cities. rows of warriors and other subjects. with Other authoporticos around. the Hypostyle Hall and a famous palace.000 feet wide. of the Palace of Sennacherib. it would appear that domed roofs both spherical and elliptical were also employed. many architectural features. has inteThese resting remains of no less than eight different buildings.C. The method of roofing is still much in dispute. 1. at Susa. also played an important part in the construction of the palaces themselves. From a bas-relief found by Layard. good stone was to be found.40 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Nimroud. partly cut out of the solid rock and It was from 20 to 50 feet above the plain and partly built up. and. of four different levels. The bas-reliefs are on a magnificent scale. The columns. Persepolis. and that the large halls would have a central portion open to the sky. The most important buildings erected by Darius are his Palace and the Hall of the Hundred Columns. while his son Xerxes built the Propylsea. and Passagardae. in which were forty. has important remains of palaces.500 feet long by 1. were erected on a great platform.

cedar woodwork. about 7 feet high. with his arm uplifted towards an image of the god Ormuzd. This was commenced by Solomon (B.. In this fa9ade the columns are of the double-bull type with cornice over.C. and the isolated brazen columns Jachin and Boaz. by raising them on terraces or platforms some 30 feet to 50 feet in height (No. 13 ASIATIC ARCHITECTURE. c). Jewish Architecture. and the palaces of the later period.C. about 5 feet high. Naksh-i-Rustam. and by grouping the buildings round quadrangles. from which splendid examples of colored and glazed brickwork have been excavated. The Hypostyle Hall of Xerxes (B. Paris. are now in the Louvre. 41 Ionic-like scrolls (No. The Temple was afterwards added to by Herod (B. of Darius. or formed of a pair of unicorns or bulls the bases are bell-shaped (No.) 4. Plan. c. COMPARATIVE. Greek and Roman sources. arranged in a somewhat novel manner supporting a flat roof. upon which stood a statue of the king. and have capitals either of brackets and volutes. occupied an area larger than the Hypostyle Hall at Karnac.) is interesting. It originally had seventy-two black marble columns. probably used as a throne room.C. G) and the shafts are fluted with fifty-two flutes. being raised on the platforms mentioned above. Remains are unimportant. . The only great attempt at a monumental structure was the Temple at Jerusalem. biblical description (i iii. Egyptian temples were designed mainly for internal effect. Susa has important remains in the palaces of Xerxes and Artaxerxes. A. courts. the angles of the Assyrian ziggurats were so placed. 13 G). and the iv. (Page 659. or any Gothic cathedral except Milan.WESTERN types (No. above which are two rows of figures supporting a prayer platform. 485). near Persepolis. 1012). metal work. Of these only seventeen colored work of the Persians. their architectural Kings vi. 13 A.. and having no enclosing walls. and give a good idea of the glazed and . 67 feet in height. especially the frieze of lions and the frieze of archers in which the figures. has a rock cut fa9ade. Whereas the sides of the Egyptian pyramids face the cardinal points of the compass. The Tomb The Hebrews apparently borrowed forms from Egyptian. reproducing the Palace of f)arius. A. vii. consisting principally of tombs in the valleys near Jerusalem.. and forming one of four rock-hewn sepulchres of the Akhaemenian kings. and the site is now occupied by the Mosque of Omar. 18). Assyrian. while Assyrian palaces were designed so as to be effective internally and externally. or of the double-bull or double-horse now exist. 2 Chronicles portraying entrance pylons. A special character was given to the temples of the early. 12 G).


forming a contrast with the solid marble work of the Greeks. The capitals were characteristic. but in many cases the roof of considerable thickness was flat. They were not so massive as in Egypt. the columns being of wood having perished. 12 B). " double-horse or " double-griffen type double-unicorn. formed of very tough but plastic clay and debris. are of opinion that Assyrian builders made use of domes in addition to barrel vaults. and the Ionic scroll occurs in some examples. which were of cased brickwork. Perrot and Chipiez. but in the later at Persepolis." " " sufficient " . immense columns. D. as in modern eastern houses. Columns. and of M. and openings may also have been formed in the upper parts of the walls. Mouldings. as is proved by the discoveries of Sir Henry Layard at Nimroud. however. These were primarily of wood. In Persia. Walls. and kept in condition by being occasionally rolled. The lighting to the temples is conjectural. period built them of the natural stone which had been wanting in Chaldsea. which were of great size. in Western Asia . The slabs of alabaster with which the walls of the palaces were faced reveal much of the social history of the people. but to have been effected by means of a "clerestory" it appears (No. E. i. Roofs. however. 5) also mentions expressly that all the houses of Babylon were vaulted. was practised by the Assyrians. on their return from Egypt. F. 13 A. only remain. where semi-circular arches spring from the backs of winged bulls with human heads. Place at Khorsabad (No.WESTERN ASIATIC ARCHITECTURE. As in the case of Egypt. c)." (No. 13). and many of the slabs are now in the British Museum (No. and with the constructive use of stone and granite by the Egyptians. It is believed that the Assyrian architects counted chiefly on the doorways. c. the massive walls. as a facing to their brick walls. 12 B). The roofing appears to have been effected by means of timber beams reaching from one column to the next. and resting on the backs of the "double-bull" capitals (No. to give their buildings a supply of light and air. H). the walls which were thin have disappeared. G. the Persians. being of the "double-bull. Some authorities consider that the halls of the palaces were covered with brick tunnel vaults. and broad stairways which alone have survived the ravages of time. where stone roofs had to be supported. both circular and pointed. somewhat similar to that in use in the Egyptian temples. leaving the massive stone or marble blocks forming the door and window openings. 43 The Assyrians in the early period used stone only B. In Assyria. The use of the arch. because of the discovery of a bas-relief at Koyunjik in which groups of buildings roofed with spherical or elliptical domes are shown. I2F. Openings. Strabo (xvi.

Persia. which are thus of extreme interest in enabling the evolution of architectural forms from the earlier periods to be traced. Layard (A..).) 1844-1854. can be traced much of the peculiar and characteristic detail used by the Greeks.). (Z. large folio. F. Whyte-Melville. 5. and the honeysuckle (No. Chaldea.. shields. are represented buildings with columns and capitals of Ionic and Corinthian form in embryo.. the colored decorations. A). Ornament. 13 B. while the repousse pattern work on bronze bowls." 5 vols. while the volutes of the capital were treated with plain sinkings. la Perse." 2 vols. "L'Art Antique de folio. 1884-1889. Layard. colored surfaces took their place. History of Art in Chaldasa and Assyria.) L'Armenie. 1849. Place (Victor). " Perrot and Chipiez. " Ninive et L'Assyrie. Flandin (E. In the next chapter it will be seen that Greece adopted much of her decorative art from the preceding styles of Egypt and Western Asia. REFERENCE BOOKS. large of the people (C. now in the British Museum. 1888. Phrygia.. considerable technical skill and refinement. la Perse. that Greece took from Assyria the idea of the sculptured friezes.." " 3 vols. and Judaea. et la (A most interesting account Mesopotamie." 5 vols.44 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE." 2 vols. it may be said. 1884-1892. the latter being seen in a pavement slab from the palace at Nineveh (Koyunjik). Paris. 12 j) and guilloche ornaments. 8vo. much . the use of mouldings does not appear to have advanced to any In the Assyrian palaces the sculptured slabs and great extent. Ragozin Texier folio. folio. Further. 1867-1870. "Sarchedon" (Historical Novel). Paris. 1853. Paris. and on the sculptured slabs (No. A him visit to will afford the Assyrian galleries and basement of the British Museum interest and information to the student and will impress with the dignity and importance of the style. hollow and ogee mouldings may be noticed in the bases. At Persepolis the bead. Monuments of Nineveh." 2 vols.. " Nineveh and its Palaces. Paris." " 6 vols. already mentioned at Nimroud and Nineveh. Dieulafoy (M. and " their history." 8vo.)-" Voyage en Perse. et Coste (P. H). H.. folio. The Assyrian sculptures in alabaster exhibit G. and gate fittings is also From the decorative treatment of Assyrian architecture notable.). 1842-1852. 8vo.

who might be expected to make good ii. colonists.g.the Phoenician merchants in early times carried on commerce with the country. though no more . In Greece the principal mineral product was marble. the mountainous character of the country. a few miles . The wildernesses there begin To blossom with the Grecian rose. 14) shows a country surrounded on three sides by the sea. though fallen. e. great " AnH downward thence to ! ! ! BYRON. with scarcely a road until Roman times. and convenient for the development of trade. was calculated to isolate the inhabitants into small groups. and one which favours purity of line and refinement in detail. possessed of many natural harbours. Again. in the mountains of Hymettus and Pentelicus. The influence i. This material is found in great abundance in various parts of Greece. " Fair Greece sad relic of departed worth " Immortal. LORD HOUGHTON. By means of these havens . A reference to the map of Greece (No. latest days heritage of beauty fell . and together with the tempting proximity of a whole multitude of islands.. was instrumental in producing a hardy and adventurous people. their humanising spell. the most monumental building material in existence. of the sea in fostering national activity should not be forgotten an influence to which Great Britain owes her present position. Geological. Geographical." i. Till when new worlds for man to win The And The Atlantic riven waves disclose.14. GREEK ARCHITECTURE. Grecian forms and Grecian lays Prolonged. INFLUENCES.

fetishism. and other primitive forms of religion. each town or district having its own divinities. revelry Neptune. as at Paestum and elsewhere. The climate of Greece /s remarkable for the hot sun and the heavy rains.46 effort to obtain COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Climate. The principal deities of the Greeks with their Roman names also rich in silver. of the the ^ Apollo. j . The god who pun. however. yEsculapius. Religion. and iron. In the in the islands of Paros and Naxo's. t ( Hestia Heracles Athena . are as follows Greek. Bacchus. iv.. while marble itself was often treated in the same way. Victoria. I Poseidon Dionysos ^> - - Minerva. : Roman. The country was from Athens. Hearth (sacred fire) Strength. and often served only for a Both men and period. Ceres. It should be borne in mind that Greek cults were always local. iii. of which There are. ceremonies. and . god sun. but were not an exclusive class.. they were in many cases coated with a where stone was fine cement formed of marble dust and lime employed. therefore eloquent with winged feet Beauty Victory Diana. copper. / . Hercules. power P ower P eace and P ros Sea Wine. The Greek religion was in the main a worship of natural phenomena (nature-worship. major and minor). traces of ancestor-worship. Vesta. numerous the gods were personifications. activity of the North with the passivity of the East in a way that conduced to the growth of a unique civilization.. Chief of the gods and supreme ruler Wife of Zeus and goddess of marriage son of Zeus and father ot ] Zeus Hera Jupiter (Jove). agriculture ( iermes 1 Aphrodite Nike Hunting (goddess of the chase) Herald or messenger of the gods. Mercur y Venus. Also (The of song and music. feasting. ) . retiring afterwards into private life. Demeter Artemis TT-.. refinement of line and smoothness of surface where crude bricks were used. Earth. The priests had to perform their appointed rites. and traditions. women officiated. factors probably answerable for the porticos which were important features of the temples. Greece enjoyed a position intermediate between the rigorous surroundings of the Northern nations and the relaxing condiHence the Greek character combined the tions of Eastern life. heals and helps. Juno. it appears also to have been coated with this marble cement. and a small bright "cella" took the place of the mysterious halls of the priest-ridden Egyptians (page 20). and founder of cities./ ishes. the cement being susceptible of a higher polish than the uncemented surface.

one of the earliest Doric temples known. The war against Troy affords proof of an early connection of the inhabitants of Greece with Asia. . depict the gloomy prospects and sordid life of the Boeotian peasantry at a time when art was almost in abeyance. vi. emigration. 700. and that this connection with the East had some influence upon their architecture. B.e. as is evident from the remains of it found at different points round the ^Egean sea. at Mycenae. descendants of the Achaeans). 650). ^Eolians (i. Whether or no the war with many Troy be an actual fact.C. apparently a Pelasgic bard who sang for Achaean masters. Dorian Sparta and Ionian (Pelasgian) Athens are the two It was not till some principal factors in the drama of Greece. but also to reduce the superfluous population. undertaken not only to establish trade. and to provide an outlet for party strife. was a government measure dating from about B. the old Pelasgic population). It thus came about that the colonies were often peopled with citizens of a more energetic and go-ahead character than those of the mother country and it will therefore be found that The Greeks.C.. Historical. at Hissarlik in the Troad. As regards the people themselves. viz. to the ancients under the name of Pelasgi. and gave them that love for music. and elsewhere. 500 years after the fall of Troy that the new Hellenic civilization was evinced in the construction of the Temple of Corinth (B. it is clear that the national games and religious festivals united them in reverence for their religion. for the public ceremonies and in many cases the administration of justice were carried on in the the open air. the land was peopled by lonians (i. It fell before the iron weapons and greater courage of invaders from North. The Achaeans in their turn succumbed to a fresh influx of invaders from the North.e. Tiryns. and the fine arts. and the tale probably arose out of the early conflicts of the Greeks in north-west Asia. viz. especially in the Ionic style. of the important buildings of Greek architecture. in Crete.C. Their civilization belonged to the bronze age. the incidents related have a substratum of truth. circ.' Social and Political. The Hesiodic poems. and that emulation in manly sports and contests for which they were distinguished. For the .. The poems of Homer. and especially to the coast of Asia Minor and the Mediterranean. the Achaeans or Homeric Greeks. 47 The early inhabitants were known v. give a picture of Greek life about the twelfth century B. and Dorians. are in their colonies of Asia Minor.. as already indicated.. the drama. hardy mountaineers called Dorians.GREEK ARCHITECTURE. who established themselves at In classical times Sparta and elsewhere in the Peloponnese.C. 750. It should be remembered that the people led an open-air life. were great colonists.

His conquests extended to Northern India.48 fourth and fifth COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. En revanche. Egypt falling to the share of Ptolemy.C.C. B. 499-493 which led to the . In Greece itself the formation of leagues. but thanks to the ability of Philip King of Macedonia and of his son Alexander the Great. 431 to 404. 334 Alexander set out on his great expedition. or democratic and The Persians under most of their colonies had been founded. . for Hellenic civilization was thus introduced far and wide throughout Asia. overthrew the kingdom of Lydia whereupon the Greeks of Asia Minor became subject to Persia. The had hitherto been considered a half-barbarian state. 444-429) marks the climax of Athenian prosperity. which followed. who founded a dynasty (page 12). 146 Greece became a Roman The isolation and mutual animosity of the Greek province. Xenophon. 323. It was the revolt of these lonians in B. National exaltation caused by the defeats of the Persians is largely responsible for the fact that all the " important temples now found in Greece were built in the fifty " which succeeded the battles of Salamis and Plataea.C. between cities was but the Roman interference had commenced. The rule of Pericles (B. the empire he had created was split up among his Generals. and the effect of these was most important. as the Achaean and ^Etolian.C. Persian wars. there are the more or less critical The histories of Herodotus. centuries B. communities afforded all too good an opportunity for the intrusion of the better-centralized and more united power of Rome. and attempted gradually increased until in B. and the . latter . it rose to a leading position in Greece. Thucydides.C. where arts not arms were concerned.C. and others. lasted from B.C. On his death at Babylon in B. cities of Greece had by this time settled down in their several forms of government tyrannic. where he founded and gave his name to the famous city of Alexandria. The Peloponnesian war left Sparta the chief power in Greece but her arbitrary and high-handed conduct roused other states against her. aristocratic. 490 the second invasion by Xerxes terminated in the naval victory of Salamis (B." et artes . The years wonderfully rapid growth of Athens excited the jealousy of the slower Spartans. In B.C. The first great Persian invasion resulted in the and victory of the Greeks at the battle of Marathon. having besieged and taken Tyre en route and received the submission of Egypt. having captured Sardis. " Graecia capta ferum victorem cepit Intulit agresti Latio. Cyrus. and the Peloponnesian war. and in six years he subdued the Persian Empire.C. 480). supremacy passed successively to Thebes and Macedonia.

28). and the character was largely influenced by the use of finely-dressed marble.GREEK ARCHITECTURE. that the stones were laid on their natural bed or otherwise. 20. Cyclopean or Primitive period. were placed with the planes of their beds vertically. is very different from the later or Hellenic period. as mentioned on page 53. hold of beauty. Further. half is hers. Roman. the columns or supporting members had to be placed comparatively close together. In this period the Greeks often had recourse to the corbel system. Stability was achieved solely by the judicious observance of the laws of gravity the weights acting only vertically. as they were then better able to withstand a cross-strain. and even to the true arch.A. inspiration. was unnecessary because it would have been of no use for distributing the pressure between the stone or marble blocks of which the walls and columns were constructed. which had to support a cross pressure. also known as the Pelasgic. and as being an obligatory study for students of otherwise very different principles. 49 ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. / \ Trabeated and Arcuated. 2. The following diagram emphasizes the main facts': we Greeks. to inclined blocks over openings. The character of the early or Mycenaean period. consists of rough walling of large blocks of stone. Arcuated. for Choisy found . The Hellenic Period which followed the Mycenaean is dealt with specially here because it is notable for the development of the trabeated style which the Greeks approved and developed. a method of design which called for a Mortar certain simplicity of treatment characteristic of the style. Stone or marble lintels being difficult to obtain of any great length. often unworked. This style was essentially columnar and trabeated (trabs = a beam). puts it. made. E . Trabeated. Gothic. as the beds of these were rubbed to a very fine surface and united with iron ." Greek architecture stands alone in being accepted as beyond criticism. and. according to the pressures they had to bear thus the architraves. Etruscans. and a wider intercolumniation could also be obtained. cramps. Greek. F. careful study of the materials at hand was in the temples at ^Egina and Paestum (Nos. Greek still culture owed to the preceding Oriental the change effected by the Greeks has so profoundly influenced the development of European progress that Greece must be regarded as the veritable source of literary " Whate'er As a recent writer and artistic Much as civilizations. and which is recognised as the special Grecian type. and consequently needing but vertical resistances.


E 2 . The shafts usually have an entasis which. close spacing of the angle columns has been already referred to. comprised in a typical Egyptian temple. forming a contrast with the number of courts. stylobate. the influence of the Mycenaean period being apparent but a gradual change towards refinement and beauty took place. 51 The general architectural character of the early works of the Hellenic period is heavy and severe. c) were also given an inward inclination.. in the Parthenon the axes of the outer columns lean inwards 2*65 inches. fine-grained marble employed. the letters at the top of the inscription were increased in size. vi. chap. 71. and is shown on No. Many refinements in design were practised in the best period of Greek art. especially in the Parthenon. and would meet if produced at a distance of a mile above ground. pediments and other features. which. 2. in order to correct optical illusions. Greek buildings have the qualities of harmony. halls. and chambers. and the letters at the lower part decreased so that they might all appear of one size when seen from the point of sight. would appear to sag or drop in the middle of their length. A). principle. which rendered possible the delicate adjustment and refined treatment characteristic of this period. and the employment of one constructive . because of the excellence of their proportions. Penrose in many temples. 71. if built straight in reality. as has been discovered by the late Mr. Parthenon the stylobate has an upward curvature towards its centre of 2-61 inches on the east and west fronts. According to Pennethorne a further correction is pointed out in an inscription from the Temple of Priene (No. decreasing in size from the entrance pylons. 71. in the were formed with slight convex lines. For instance. Thus.6) they would appear thinner than those seen against the darker background formed by the cella wall. and these were increased in thickness as it was found The that seen against the sky owing to irradiation (No. The vertical features were made to incline inwards in order to correct the tendency which such features have of appearing to fall outwards at the top. and in the later periods the proportions of the columns were more slender. The faces of the architrave (No. Unity of effect in the larger temples was obtained by the colonnade surrounding the shrine-cell. in the case of the Parthenon column. and these were influenced very largely by the hard. their truthful and apparent construction.GREEK ARCHITECTURE. Sculpture and carving of the highest class completed the effectiveness of their most important buildings. simplicity and unity. and the mouldings more refined. amounts to about three-quarters of an inch in a height of 34 feet. Bk. and of 4-39 inches on the flanks. where according to Vitruvius. and The long lines of the architrave. 710..


EXAMPLES. 38). and a Praxiteles.g. The proportions of these parts vary in the different orders. . The Greeks developed the so-called " Orders of Architecture. To these. so lessen' d oft" By fine proportion. thus completing the " five orders of architecture. Crete. and some of the remains which have been lately excavated at Athens. and elsewhere still exhibit traces of their original coloring. .GREEK ARCHITECTURE. light as fabrics look That from the wand aerial rise. the Romans added the Tuscan and Composite. portion the frieze. : unadorn'd. the exquisite symmetry of Sophocles. and the entablature. it lasted on till the eighth century B. And nobly plain. Cyprus. Form'd to repel the still or stormy waste Of rolling ages. and the brilliant innovations of Euripides. The Mycense-an Period has already been defined as extending to shortly after the war with Troy." An " order " in Greek and Roman architecture consists of the column or support. or middle member. dating . and Delos). in poetry the rugged grandeur of ^Eschylus. but the characteristics are well expressed in the following lines . . and the florid detail of the Corinthian. the clear-cut beauty of the Ionic. in later times. the manly Doric rose Th' Ionic. as do the mouldings and decorations applied (No. In architecture. a Pheidias." the Doric. The rich Corinthian spread her wanton wreath. Ionic and Corinthian being used by them." THOMSON. or part The latter is divided into the architrave or lowest supported. but remains of a pre-Mycensean period called Min6an. Addington Symonds well observed that Art is commonly evolved through three stages: (i) The ardent and this gives strength and inspired embodiment of a great idea grandeur (2) the original inspiration tempered by increasing knowledge and a clearer appreciation of limits the result being symmetry (3) ebbing inspiration. there is the solid strength of the Doric capital. .C. and in sculpture. and novelties introduced to make up for its loss this occasions a brilliant but somewhat disproportioned style. that the marble piles. and the cornice or uppermost part. including base and capital. The whole so measured. The origin and evolution of the different parts of the three Greek orders are dealt with later under their respective headings. an Ageladas. though in the Islands (e.. . with decent matron grace. The late J. 53 Color and gilding were applied very largely by the Greeks both to their buildings and sculpture. details being elaborated. " Her airy pillar heaved luxuriant last. then. 3. First. Delphi. This progress can be traced in all departments of Greek life.

or an apparent arch as at CEniades in Acarnania. masses of rock roughly quarried and piled on each other.Dr. the interstices between the larger being filled with smaller blocks. Knossos in Crete. Examples at Mycenae in the entrances and towers. (2) Rectangular. without cramp-irons. producing either a triangular opening as is found above the doorways of the tholos-tombs (No. and the gallery at Tiryns. At Mycenae the tholoi are confined to the lower city as opposed to the shaft-graves of the upper city. the tunnel leading to the (partially CEniades. is partly arcuated and partly roofed with advancing corbels. Inclined Blocks. town-walls. but the/ joints between stones in the same course are not always vertical. ii. seemingly the parent of the other two but the common assumption that polygonal is later than rectangular masonry cannot be proved with regard to the Pelasgic period. and the entrance passage in "tholos" or beehive-tombs. i. accurately worked so as to fit together. Thus all three styles " occur in structures of " Mycenaean age. (3) Polyzonal. wall of Acropolis at Athens.. which crosses the town from east to west. E). Arches. sanctuary on Mount Ocha in Eubcea. carefully hewn rectangular blocks arranged in regular courses. and Cnidus. of which the Minoan Palace at Knossos in Crete is an The architectural remains of these periods include example. and also in the vaulted passages at the theatre of Sicyon. Tiryns. Arthur Evans.. 3000. have been discovered by. and Amyclae were originally modelled on underground huts for the living (Vitruv. and an arched gateway at A water-channel or drain at Athens.e. 15 A. but with clay mortar. 15).. A few examples of Greek arcuated work are extant. although in out-of-theThe first is as in Caria.e. or a dome-shaped roof as in the Treasury of Atreus at Mycenae (No.C. i). Adler in Phrygia. i. and the ancient shrine of Apollo on Mount Cynthus (Delos).54 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. The largest and " best preserved is the so-called " Treasury of Atreus (No. Sometimes horizontal courses were employed projecting one beyond the other till the apex was reached. way places. back to about B. perhaps prehistoric. viz. palaces. " tholos " or beehive-tombs at Mycenae. many sided blocks Examples at Mycenae.. and Athens. Assos. In addition various characteristic features were used Corbels. 15 A. an arch with a key-stone : : dropped) in Acarnania. at Olympia and other places.e. they survived for centuries..vault ("kamara") occurs in subterranean funeral chambers in Macedonia. Sometimes inclined blocks forming triangular headed openings were employed as in the early. Orchomenos. the precise shape being found by Prof. The barrel. Mycenae. B). The walls are of three kinds of masonry: (i) "Cyclopean" i. It " consists of a long entrance passage or dromos. a Cyclopean arch at Cnidus. Examples at Argos. and tombs." 2oJfeetJ>road by Stadium The .

15 E). ii 5 55 feetkmg. viz. Mycenae also belongs to this period (No.. section of Great Pyramid. 323.e. Delphi.C. however. and the death of Alexander. Many of the Greek cities were upon or in the immediate an vicinity of a hill which was known as the Acropolis (Greek upper city).. 2 E). belong to the second stage in the evolution of the dwelling-house. IQO . The famous Gate of Lions on the Acropolis at . about 50 feet broad by 50 feet rn^7ali3~a~small square tomb-chamber adjoining. 146. B. a large vaulted chamber. and formed a citadel upon which the principal temples or treasure-houses were erected for safety. = tectural activity Sicily. the complete series being (a) natural cave (No. as also the plan No.C. were all erected in the short space of about 150 years. The masterpieces of Greek architecture. while another at Menidi in Attica has no less than five superposed lintels to support the mass of earth above it These tombs (cf. The Hellenic Period contains all the principal temples and monuments which were erected between the years B. were Olympia.GREEK ARCHITECTURE..C. Psestum and Asia Minor. in South Italy. Q 100 200 30O 400 500 . 17. B. between the defeat of the Persians. hut (No. i. 2 H) (b) artificial cave below ground (c) artificial cave above ground. 5 D).. . 700 and the Roman occupation B. A model of the Acropolis at Athens in the British Museum will give a good general idea of the disposition of the important buildings placed Other great centres of archithereon. A similar tomb at Orchomenos in Bceotia has a magnificently ornamented ceiling in its sepulchral chamber. No. 480.C.

behind the portico of columns. | . 16 A. Another theory by Herr Bdtticher is also shown (No. opening has been often refuted. In the larger temples were internal colonnades of columns placed over each other to support the roof (Nos. 54. terminated the simple span roof (Nos. The temple was the house of the local god. and consisted generally placed of a "naos" or cell. 28). 25 A). 16 D. and some hold that the opening in the centre of an ordinary house must have had some counterpart in that of the divinity. On the two end fagades above the columns a triangularshaped pediment. that at Agrigentum being the only exception (No. and were ornamented sculpture of the highest class in order to form fitting shrines for the deities in whose honour they were erected. 30. and frequently planned so that the sun might enter and light up the statue opposite. 21.. and 31). and in the Ionic Temple of Apollo-/ Didymaeus. Pantheon. with flanking colonnades. 20. can be seen practically in Sir Arthur Blomfield's restoration of S. with special regard to external effect. London. The general absence of windows in the temples. Both alike were developed out of the smokehole of the primitive hut the whole development being ably traced in an article on " domus" in Daremberg et Saglio. 23. 20. and 44 N). Fergusson (No. and a general description applicable to all is therefore given. 20 H. usually oblong in plan/ in which was placed the statue of the god or goddess a treasury or chamber beyond and a front and rear portico. The Temples formed the most important class of buildings erected during this period. lighting by a clerestory concealed in the roof which is favoured by Mr. . 18 H. but it appears to have been used in the larger temples as in that of Jupiter Olympius at Athens (No. there was an opening in the roof which admitted air and light to the The use of an hypaethral central portion of the naos or cell. . They were in a "temenos" or sacred enclosure. 55). xiv." An extant hypaethral opening is that of the . the whole generally raised on a stylobate of three steps. Eaton Square.56 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 1 8 j) (see Vitruvius). 28. 23. Their points of difference with Egyptian examples have been (Pages 15. 28 o). near Miletus. 28 A. des Antiquites. Rome (Nos. 25 B)." that is to say. They were built with already referred to. 23. being merely a glorified dwelling-house. j. 27. usually but not always filled with sculpture. 21. These roofs were constructed of timber and covered with marble slabs the ends of the overlapped joints being provided with ante-fixae at the eaves (Nos. as mentioned in Strabo (lib. The temple was occasionally " hypaethral. Peter. Many authorities hold that light was obtained solely through . 26. has given rise The method of to many theories as to how light was admitted.). " Diet. The door was almost always placed in the centre of the end wall. and 31 A). B.


having ranges of eight at each end). 39. and a sheet of plans (No. Temple temple. 18) is given in order to indicate the general distribution of parts. 18 iii. but with eight columns to each Ex. Doric Temple at Selinus. Ex. is shown in No. 12). The different kinds of temples are classified. having two columns between antae). tetrastyle (a front Prostyle portico of four columns). v. Sicily (No. 53 E). Amphi-prostyle tetrastyle (front and rear porticos of four columns). Artificial illumination by means of lamps may also have been employed. 31 B). Doric Temple at Eleusis (No. vi. B. viii. 18 K). 30 F). Sicily (No. Diana A Eleusis. (No. mention is made here that the Romans employed the circular .style (a temple surrounded by columns. In order to keep the descriptions of classic temples together. Pseudo-peripteral (having columns attached to cella walls.. R. Octagonal. Ex. c). 18 N). but with ten columns at ends). Irregular planning. Greek ex. Temple of Neptune. 18 N). xiii. 23 H). 27 c). See page ix. 18 F and 21 D). i8A). The Tholos at Epidauros cell). T. Athens (Nos 18 M. Athens (Nos. Teleskrion at x. xii. and also to show the evolution from the simple shrine-cell of the smaller The different methods of spacing the columns one examples. the doorways. Athens (No. s. 18 j). from the other i. Ionic Temple on the Ilissus (No. The Propylcea. vii. Peripteral octastyle (as last. and Temple of at Ephesus (No. Athens (No. xi. D). 28 M). The Theseion porticos at each end having six). Great Doric Temple of Selinus. 18 L). with the inner range left out). the Ex. and Temple of Nike-Apteros (No. Temple of Apollo at Bassae (No. Philipeion at Olympia. Temple of Apollo Didymaeus. the Parthenon Athens (Nos. 18 E). ii. of Jupiter Olympius. 18 H. Temple of Jupiter at Agrigentum (No. Dipteral octastyle (double rows of columns surrounding Exs. Temple of Rhamnus(No. portico). Ex Erechtheion. near Miletus. Ex. Di-style in antis at both ends. Peripteral circular (a ring of columns surrounding a circular Ex. 18 iv. Pseudo -dipteral octastyle (as last. B).58 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. others that the transparent Parian marble roofing slabs would admit sufficient light. Roman example is the Great Temple at Baalbec (No. Paestum (No. Ex. 28 A. Di-style in antis at one end (the simplest form. Ex. Peripteral hexa. a favourite form afterwards adopted by the Romans. v. Dipteral decastyle (as ix. 28 K. by the disposition of their columns./U. Tower of the Winds Athens (No. Ex. L). Ex.

and which would be vry difficult to flute across the grain of the wood but as original stone uprights. supported by (c. Viollet-le-Duc. without walls). in their monumental work on " Art in Primitive Greece. and decline to consider the derivation from the examples at Beni-Hasan in Egypt.) of Vesta. He likewise observed that " the form given to the entablature of the Doric order can be adapted with some unimportant variations to a structure in stone as well as of wood.g. They make various interesting suggestions. They themselves suggest no origin of the Capital. The Doric by many (No. form as in the 59 Pantheon (Nos. the theories put forward by several authorities. Rome of Vesta. and therefore treated in this respect in the same manner as the columns.) Peripteral. Illustrations showing these reconstructions are given in No. Ionic." discuss the question of the wooden origin of the Greek Doric column and its entablature. (No. form a consistent and attractive theory a theory. 6) of special interest. . Temple Temple (b. and he considered the triglyphs in the frieze. : 54. which will be referred to in detail now with their principal examples. are here stated. the earliest of the Greek orders. held a decided opinion that the orders He of Greek architecture involved an original stone treatment. not as the petrified ends of wooden beams which could not be seen on four sides of a building. plainest. fluted to express their function of vertical support. in neither case involving . 16. THE DORIC ORDER. and endeavour to show its derivation from the wooden-built prodomus or porch of the Mycenaean palace (No. was unable to conceive how the Greek Doric capital could have been derived from a timber form. The varieties of temples described were erected in either the Doric. and also planned smaller 18 c). and the explanation of the wooden types used decoratively in the later stone architecture. or Corinthian style. moreover.) Pseudo -peripteral (the cella wall having attached columns). e. the oldest.GREEK ARCHITECTURE. 47). and the restoration they give of the timber architecture of Mycenaean palaces.. Perrot and Chipiez. and circular temples as follows (a. 16). 57 E). however. is traced an Egyptian prototype as exemplified at Beni-Hasan is but as the origin of this. which were certainly fluted when in position. to order. and most sturdy. Tivoli (No. the derivation " of the " guttae from constructive wooden pegs. Monopteral (in which the roof was columns only. which is yearly gaining ground and is to many minds convincing.


It will be found that no other number of flutes between twelve and twenty-eight will enable this to be done. a from 4 to 6^ g stylpbate usually of three steps is. 16 (Sunium). A later writer. and one which it would not be at all easy to work in wood. and its angle being wholly independent of that of the roof. in a recent work on architecture. The circular "sEaft diminishing at the top t$ from f to f of this diameter is divided as a rule in 20 shallow flutes or channels separated by sharp arrfses.GREEK ARCHITECTURE. . Basilica at Paestum) where it is omitted altogether (e.. In early works this is often too obtrustraight sided columns. including the cap. H. No. but stands directly ori. however. or 24 '(Psestum. the inclination being observed on the fronts equally with the sides of the building. which has no base. rejects the wooden theory as far as the Doric column and capital are concerned. (page 67). .. 18 (Greek Temple at Pompeii).) That the greater the age of the known and approximately dated examples. echinus and annulets. Statham. the thicker the columns are. These opponents of the wooden theory might. The column is surmounted by The distinctive capital formed of abacus. The similarities between these proto-historic buildings and the later Greek styles of architecture are too numerous to be acci" " dental. and adds that its adherents have to explain these facts (i. times "the diameter at the base in height. back or sides. and at the same time a flute in the centre of the . sive (e. then. 6l the necessity of falsifying the form or the structure." He was not prepared to admit. that a wooden original suggested a stone structure in the composition of the Doric order indeed. Corinth) a in the Parthenon. Mr. The division into twenty flutes seems to have been selected in order that a projection or arris might come under each of the angles of the square abacus above. and Pelasgic or Mycenaean palaces undoubtedly had columns and entablatures of wood. thus following out one of the Greek constructive principles of placing projections over projections.g. the effect is lifeless but the happy mean may be seen . The column.g. while the reverse would probably have been the case had the and (ii. Occasionally the flutes number 12 (Assos). had they been familiar with the recentlydiscovered examples of Pelasgic or "Mycenaean" construction. : . Garbett goes so far as to call the wooden theory an " insolent libel. column as seen from the front. 19 B)." and asserts that in the case of the inclination of the soffit of the cornice this barbarous theory is at once disproved by two facts. have modified their views. he would rather suppose the converse. The shaft has normally an outward curvature of profile calledjhe lo counieiacl the hollow -appearance "6T "entagjgl' (No. H.) That the characteristic original forms been wooden moulding under the abacus of the Doric column is an essentially stone form. rj A).


such as the Temples at Paestum (No. . and in consequence the intercolumniation of the two outer columns in each front is less by about half a triglyph in width than that of the others.} The architrave is derived from its prototype. Olynipia (No. . and only one vertical face. Olvmpia (page 67) . DORIC EXAMPLES The The The The IN GREECE. consist(c. usually about one quarter of the height of order. Sicily. which is somewhat similar in outline to a human hand supporting a book. 700 Heraion.) The cornice consists of an upper or crowning part ing of cymatium and birdsbeak mouldings beneath which is a vertical face known as the corona. this is not so. The profile of the echinus varies according to the date of erection. The principal examples are found in Greece. and its underside has flat projecting blocks called mutuies. B). Island of Paros B. page 66) B. three channels. . The triglyphs are placed at equal distances apart. sometimes filled with sculpture of the highest quality (page 72). however. 19 E) the curve approaches a straight line (approximately hyperbolic Annulets or horizontal fillets varying from three to five section). 19 D). whereas in the Ionic and Corinthian orders the usual number is three. and has three main divisions (a. having six guttae.) The frieze has triglyphs.C. It has considerable depth.C. Libon. and South called the : Italy. Corinth B. and underneath this at intervals corresponding to the triglyphs is a narrow band called the regula. The entablature. Separating this from the frieze is a flat moulding called the tenia. Beneath the triglyphs are guttae or small conical drops. 19 A. D. is supported by columns. because the two triglyphs meet with a bevelled edge. 650 Temple of Athena. in number are placed beneath the echinus of the capital in order to form a stop or contrast to the long lines of the arrises between the flutes. being fuller in outline (approximately parabolic section). At the angles. and the Parthenon (No. Date. ornamented with and metopes or square spaces between them. Temple of Poseidon. Architect. . (b.C. 6th cent. the wooden beam. having beneath it the hypotrachelion formed of three groves in the older or archaic examples and one in the later. abacus is 63 a square slab under which is a large convex moulding echinus. B C. their soffits being ornamented with eighteen guttae in three TOWS of six each.GREEK ARCHITECTURE. Immediately below is the trachelion or necking. whereas in the later examples such as the Theseion (No. The soffit is inclined upwards and parallel with the slope of the roof. which recall the feet of sloping rafters. and come immediately over the centre of each column and intercolumniation. one over each triglyph and metope. 31 c. 472-469 Temple of Zeus. the earlier examples.


0) w w H F. .A.

480 Agrigentum (Girgenti). . 19 A). Rhamnus. 28 F. Sicily The Temple of Zeus (Jupiter) Olympitis. (Temple of Hera). The Parthenon. Italy . (continued)^ Architect. B. . Agrigentum r The l emple of Poseidon (Neptune). Pastuni (No.C. The Theseion (so called) or Temple of 465 Hephaestos. 19 n.C. 24./44O B. B.C. Olympia (B. 21. 435-310. Athens (Nos." Pastum (No 28 D. M. It stands on a stylobate of two steps. Epidaiiros (No. Pastum. E). N. 31 c. The cella (Nos.C. 6th cent. . Sunium 17. Basses.C. 27 A. C D. B. is very long in proportion to its width and has on either side a range of eight columns. It is generally held that the original columns were of wood replaced by stone columns as they decayed (see page 59. is believed to be the most ancient of all Greek Temples hitherto discovered.c B. 22. B. . l8 H. 5th cent. F. Eleusis. 430 of Apollo Epicurius (" The Ally"). Athens B. 20) (page 67). Polycleitos the younger. DORIC EXAMPLES The Great Temple. The Temple of Concord.C. 470-450 19 C. (Nos. measuring 168 feet by 64 feet 6 inches. 19 F). l8L).66 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 23. 19 B). B. The Tliolos. of the Mysteries. B.C. The Heraion D. Sicily. 28 M. The Propyl&a (Entrance Gateway). the alternate ones being connected to the cella wall by means of short transverse walls. B. 4th cent. which with the capitals measured 17 feet in height. The Temple of Ceres. Ictinus and Philon. B. The Temple of Athena. L. 610-509 550 The Temple kncnvn as the "Basilica. (?) Date. Island of Delos (No. c.C. The Temple of Apollo. N. 25. G.C. B. Syractise. 40 44 G. 17. The Temple of Egeita. on the . 26) (page 93). 454-438 Ictinus and Callicrates. AND SOUTH ITALY. Sicily B. 700) 41 E). Agrigentiun The Temple ofJuno. varied much in diameter and are both monolithic and built in drums. 550 550 550 500 (No. Sicily B. D. IN SICILY (No. S.B. 628-410 Temples {several} at Selinus. . Sicily (No. Architect.C. Ictinus.C. The Temple of Demeter (Ceres). B.C.C. . 437-432 Mnesicles. 16 A.C. . The Temple of Poseidon. o) (page 75). 1 8 A). B. Athens (No. 300. 18 N. 18 K) The Temples of Themis and Nemesis (No. Date. 19 E. A. B. (No. . H) (page 72).C.C. DORIC EXAMPLES IN GREECE B. . Selinus. . or the Hall B.C.C.C. . E. D. 38 A) (page 67). . Theron. The Temple of Aphaia (Jupiter Panhellenius) on the Island of sJLgina. The Temple . B. The peristyle columns. H) (page 67). . K. near Phigaleia in Arcadia (No.

as may be ssen by the marks of their basis on the marble paving. 62 feet 6 inches wide. measuring 100 attic in length. the principal doorway. 17. 470 450). 21. and being too steep to ascend with comfort..C. century A. is now on plan with thirteen columns on each flank. c). 19 D. This chamber is a peculiarity differentiating the temple from most others. on the Island of ^Egina is an interesting and wellOn preserved example of an early peripteral hexastyle temple. with seventeen columns on the flanks. 472 469) is peripteral hexastyle on plan. The temple is peripteral octastyle on plan.D. The cella and the Parthenon were F 2 . and. Three columns were placed at the western end. but are much The building was especially famous for its greater in diameter. the interior are two rows of five columns which help to support the roof. 20. equal those of the Parthenon in height.e. A general description is given on No. 19 c). It was entered from the opisthodomos by a large doorway corresponding to the eastern one. i. Ictinus and Callicrates were the architects and Phidias was the superintending sculptor. 67 Pausanias mentions that in the 2nd origin of the Doric Order). 22. On the east. The Parthenon (B. > v shown on No.e. and its roof was supported by four feet Ionic columns (No. the dimensions on the top step being 102 feet by 228 feet. The Temple of Zeus. from which the temple took its name. 465) (Nos. 24). 23 F). especially at the eastern end. being dedicated to Athena Parthenos (the virgin Athena). of which there are thirteen to the sides. was called the " Hecatompedon. still retain some of their The metopes and portions of the frieze are original coloring. The columns. to 9. The Temple of Aphaia (Jupiter Panhellenius). but although both pediments were ornamented with sculpture none of this now remains. To the west of the cella was the Parthenon proper (i. was erected in the time of Pericles.GREEK ARCHITECTURE. was divided into a nave and aisles by two rows of ten Doric columns. intermediate steps were provided at the centre of the -east and west ends (No.C. 16. sculptured pediments by Paeonias and Alcamenes. both It is peripteral date and name are a matter of doubt. 454 438) (Nos.C. (No. which. hexastyle The so-called 38 A)." The cella. 18 F. 23 A. and it appears to have been used as the Hieratic treasury. and having sixteen flutes. mentioned hereafter. 21. It is placed on a stylobate of three steps. 23.C. led into the cella. (B. two of the columns in the opisthodomos were of oak. Theseion (? B. Each of the steps measures about i foot 8 inches high and 2 feet 4 inches wide. virgin's chamber). Olympia (B. Near the western end of the cella was the famous statue of Athena. generally believed to be the Temple of Hephaestos. 3 feet 8 inches in diameter. a relation of breadth to length of about 4. so making the aisle continuous round three sides of the cella. The existing lacunaria. although the best preserved Doric example in Greece.


They were both used as treasure stores.C. 23 K). and was constructed on a wooden core. . hands and feet were of ivory. and precious stones were inserted for the eyes. The peristyle ceiling was " lacunaria " and marble beams. The pediments or low gables which terminated the roof at each end had at their lower angles an acroterion and a carved lion's head. the central and 33 intercolumniation having gates for means of access. The apex (59 feet above the stylobate) was also ornamented by a large sculptured acroterion of the anthernion ornament (No. segis and shield. an ambulatory 9 feet wide on the sides and Both the pronaos and opisthodomos 1 1 feet in the front and rear. with dedicatory The flanks of the building inscriptions between in bronze letters. and support an internal . including the (gold The gold plates pedestal. chryselephantine and ivory) statue. helmet. but the drapery. The manner of lighting the interiors of Greek temples has already been referred to (page 56). The face. some of richly ornamented with which at the western end are still in situ. Only thirtyforming the peristyle and resting on the stylobate. having six columns about 5! feet in diameter feet high. columns supported an upper row of smaller Doric columns carrying the roof timbers and forming the side aisles in two heights (an arrangement still to be seen in the Temple of Poseidon (Neptune) at Paestum).GREEK ARCHITECTURE. Near the western end of the cella stood the famous statue of Athena Partherios. being one of the most marvellous works of Phidias. 69 enclosed by walls about four feet thick. armour. lofty metal grilles extending from the floor to the roof were fixed between the columns. The former is three slabs in thickness. 334. The most prominent external features are the fluted marble columns. forming a prostyle portico on an upper stylobate of two steps. supporting a winged " " It wa*s a victory in her right hand (No. encircling the building. were enriched by the antefixae placed at the bottom of the rows of marble tiles which covered the roof. and accessories were of solid gold. and cornice. and was ornamented on its eastern and western fronts with bronze shields. about 40 feet in height. probably selected from those presented by Alexander the Great in B. as already described (page 59). 34 feet 3 inches high. and in order to render them secure. The entablature frieze 1 1 feet high with the usual divisions of architrave. (measuring about 60 feet by 12 feet) were planned in a somewhat unusual manner. representing Athena fully armed with spear. 16 A). The triangular enclosed portions (tympana) were filled with sculpture of the most perfect The eastern pediment represents the birth of Athena and type. of which it was partly composed were detachable and could be removed in case of national dangers. and the theories there set forth apply especially to the Parthenon. two are still standing they are 6 feet 3 inches in diameter at the base and 4 feet 7 inches under the echinus. having on the outside.



In the 6th century. It is a peripteral Doric. maidens with sacrificial vessels. G. the western the contest of Athena and Poseidon for the possession The celebrated Panathenaic frieze was carved along of Athens. being taken across the east and west ends above the six columns to pronaos and opisthodomos. 28 F. youths. through the instrumentality of Lord Flgin. Athens was restored to the Turks and the building suffered considerable injury at their hands. and is carefully sculptured so as to be effective by reflected light It represents the Panathenaic procession every (No. " " fourth year to the Acropolis in order to present the peplos or robe to the goddess Athena. is in its original the greater portion of that belonging to the northern. procession/of Athenian cavalry. 27. magistrates and gods. musicians. when it In 1687 during the capture of Athens by the Venetians. Ionic and Corinthian . H.72 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. between Greeks and Amazons. In 1688. near Phigaleia in Arcadia (B. the Parthenon was converted into a Christian Church. men with olive branches. a Latin church. sacrianimals. the remainder. \vas converted into a " Earth As the proudly wears the Parthenon best gem upon her zone. The Temple of Apollo EpicuriuS (The Ally or Helper). it was much damaged by a shell which fell into a portion of the building used as a powder magazine. From chariots. length of 525 feet only 335 feet are in existence. 430) (Nos. about 4 feet 4 inches square." when an apse was* formed at its eastern end. and on the northern. It is 3 feet 4 inches high. 29 N. are in high relief. scenes from the siege of Troy. excepting the three central figures. was an exceptional design in which all the three Grecian orders of architecture were employed. From 1206 1458 it was. o. under the Prankish Dukes of Athens. until 1460. and shows the preparations of the Athenian knights. 1458 it was again an orthodox Greek church mosque. until in 1801.C. The western frieze. on the western. ficial . P). in very slight relief (if inches). on the southern. of which Ictinus was architect. between centaurs (man-headed horses) and Lapithae. 23 F). numbering fourteen on each Those on the front and thirty-two on each side. The sculptured metopes. eastern fa9ade represent contests between the gods and giants. Bassse. position southern and eastern sides is in the British Museum. with the exception of eight fragments of the eastern frieze in the Louvre. terminating with a great central group at the eastern Out of a total end over the principal entrance to the temple. dedicated to the " Divine Wisdom. the top of the outside of the cella wall." Emerson. being in the Athens museum. many of the principal sculptures were removed to the British Museum.


D6NALD50N . m^-H mi m m mp 50 i i i riOHS 10 20 5O 4ofEC RBnON S!SMIittCam^M1tlM. '"'3 ^^ w " i i iMiurnn i? NECKIMG A5 DRAWN BY TL. IX.GREEK EXAMPLES.

represents the battles of the Centaurs and Lapithae. o). measuring 3 feet 6 inches by 2 feet. The Temple of Zeus Olympius. internal rows of columns were avoided. 27 G.GREEK ARCHITECTURE. light being admitted by an openOwing to the narrowness of the cella. The lighting of the interior is conjectural. p). 29 N. and is generally referred to as the earliest example known (No. of which Theron was the architect. Agrigentum (B. but instead of these a range of five fluted Ionic half-columns on each side forming the ends of short cross walls connected to the cella walls. and are represented interIt is The triple cella is of immense size. The two columns furthest from the entrance on each side are joined to walls placed diagonally with those of the cella. is a departure from Greek principles. all built up The principal fa9ade faces north. H. The architrave is supported not only by the half columns. but by the intervening screen wall to which they are attached. structural truth (usually so important in Greek buildings) had to be sacrificed. The building is constructed of a hard grey limestone. 27 B. and nally by flat pilasters. as is also the use of attached half columns. with angle volutes. an unusual arrangein drums. ment. has a very picturesque appearance. 28 M.C. which was orientated. the illustrations being from restorations by Professor Cockerell. of great size. The roof was covered with Parian marble slabs. The single column at the southern end was of the Corinthian order. which being covered with a beautiful pink lichen of the district. being 13 feet in diameter. and less than 2 inches in thickness. The building was never completed. and the Athenians and Amazons. j). o. D. N. 480) (No. These have a new and original treatment of the capital. and those to the pronaos and opisthodomos had marble beams in addition. the order being built up of small pieces. abacus and architrave. Owing to its immense size. The ceiling of the peristyle was very richly treated in marble panels or lacunaria. about 2 feet in height and 100 feet in length. on the front and fourteen on each pseudo-peripteral septastyle in plan. boldly moulded bases (No. and apparently due to its erection on the site of an earlier The statue of Apollo was placed to one side at the temple. is of exceptional design. ing in the eastern wall. having seven half columns These half columns are side. 75 hexastyle temple with fifteen columns on each flank. but the cella north of the more ancient sanctuary was probably hypaethral or had openings in order to admit top-light to the celebrated frieze above the internal half-columns (No. southern end of the cella forming the sanctuary of the earlier building. and ranks as second in size among Grecian examples. E). is believed to have been lighted by windows high in the wall. which in features like the echinus. . and have The sculptured frieze.


is an instance of all the volutes being thus placed. The volutes were either formed by hand or by various geometrical processes easily acquired. and these origins might be sufficient to account for its adoption in a later period. a band of (b) a frieze. connected at their sides by what is known as the cushion. what is known as the Attic base. and Cyprus. There is a moulded base (No. 41 B). but is usually about one-fifth of the whole order. but often ornamented by continuous sculpture (Nos. The capital consists of a pair of volutes or spirals. and on the front and back an echinus moulding carved with the egg and dart. It consists of (a) an architrave usually formed as a triple fascia. one of which is shown on No. making plinth. and having above it the corona and cyma-recta moulding. development was to make the angle capital with volutes facing the two fa9ades by joining the two adjacent volutes at an angle approximating 45 (No. having twenty-four flutes separated by fillets. and early Ionic capitals at Delos and Athens form a link between these and later types. seems to have been derived from the lotus bud of the shallow flutes separated by arrises. The earlier examples. and not sharp edges as in the Doric order. 77 THE IONIC ORDER. and a bead moulding under. The . The spiral is also found in early Mycenaean jewellery and domestic articles as early as B. and the flutes number forty in the shafts in the Archaic Temple at Ephesus (No. . 29. about two-thirds the diameter in height. probably representing superimposed beams. Neandra.C. The Ionic order (No. sometimes plain. sometimes plain and sometimes ornamented. The earliest extant Ionic capitals at Lesbos. 800. The principal examples of the Ionic order are found in Greece and Asia Minor. The columns have shafts usually about nine times the lower diameter in height. 29 K) and at Naukratis. The entablature varies in height. like so many other decorative motifs. 27. 29 c) a cornice. but no square In the later examples a lower torus was added. however. 27.GREEK ARCHITECTURE. exhibit volutes of a distinctly vegetable type with a palmette interposed. o. 38 c) is especially remarkable for its scroll or volute capital. 41 G. with no (c) mutules. but usually with dentil ornament reminiscent of squared timbers. Egyptians undergoing sundry modifications on its way from Egypt by way of Assyria to Asia Minor. but to what influence these modifications should be attributed is not at present clear. P). including the capital and base. The Temple at Bassae (Nos. and forty -four at Naxos. have (No. on the front and back of the column. This. N. 40 H) usually consisting of a torus and scotia. The Doric order provided a setting for sculptor's work. where it will be seen it can also be formed by twisting a A further string round an inverted cone or common whelk shell. 41 P).


B. 420-393 .C.C.C. B. B. Date. 550 484 438 Callicrates. B. Ictinus. B. 79 Ionic incorporated it with the order itself.GREEK ARCHITECTURE. usually in the form of carved enrichments on its main lines.C.C. IONIC EXAMPLES.C. Architect. B. 437-32 430 Mnesicles.


the materials were recovered and reconstructed by the architects Ross. north of the Parthenon. and was erected on the site of an older temple burnt by the Persians in B. the olive wood Xoanon (primitive statue) of Athena Polias. and a southern Caryatid portico. It projects westward of the main building. 37). the golden lamp of Callimachus. F). 425-400. The Erechtheion. The northern portico gave access to the western cella it is on a level 10 feet lower than the eastern one. is in high relief.C. 30 G and 42 G). There are three porticos of different designs an eastern Ionic hexastyle portico. The eastern portico probably formed the principal entrance. The temple was regarded with special veneration by the Athenians. unusual and irregular planning. In 1836. and Hansen. which measures 61 feet 3 inches by 31 feet 6 inches. and other curiosiIt is an interesting example of ties and spoils from the Persians. enriched with very fine sculpture dating from B. It has no side colonnades. the salt well produced by the trident of Poseidon. is still a matter of conjecture. G. due to its sloping site and the fact The distribution of that it consisted of three distinct shrines. slabs (four are in the British Museum). The southern or Caryatid portico (as it is called) was probably not an entrance. similarly spaced to the columns of the northern portico." The eastern portion was appropriated to the shrine of Athena Polias (guardian of the city). reached by means of steps (No. the northern one being now in the British Museum. Schaubert. from which it is approached by a wide flight of steps on the north. hence it " is called apteral. 7 feet 9 inches high (Nos. The originally consisting of fourteen : : . as it contained the memorials of the religion of the State. It has six sculptured draped female figures. 18 M. three diameters apart (diastyle). 18 inches high. The marble balustrade mentioned above was 3 feet 2 inches high. of which Mnesicles was the architect. the Pandroseion being probably included within the precincts to the west of the temple proper. Athens (B. whence the lower level of the western cella was only 23 feet. is situated on the Acropolis. G . 420-393) (Nos. viz." as it had only a small entrance on its eastern side. on the destruction of the battery. They are 2 feet 9 inches in diameter. The columns are two diameters apart (systyle). are arranged in a manner unknown in other Greek buildings. 30 D. but a raised "tribune. the tomb of Cecrops. and 30). a northern Ionic tetrastyle portico.C. 480. the interior. with carved consoles and architrave enrichments. The doorway in this portico is of the finest workmanship (No. the western portion to those of Erechtheus and Poseidon. pediment is 8l sculptured frieze. The Temple was removed by the Turks in 1684 and built into a battery on the Acropolis. 29 E. but resting on a solid marble wall about 8 feet above the level of the F. and 25 feet high. 17.A.GREEK ARCHITECTURE. the sacred olive tree that Athena called forth in her contest with Poseidon. and its columns.C. F.

disposition of the/three porticos. and the upper torus of the bases have plaited enrichments. The capital has a plaited torus moulding between the volutes once inlaid with colored stones or glass. being replaced in the building by a terra-cotta copy. The shafts of the columns have an entasis. angle antae and three windows.was converted into a harem. with the usual triple division of architrave. frieze. constructed in marble from Mount Pentellicus. The west wall was provided in Roman times with four Ionic half-columns. The spiral of the volute appears to have been finished by hand and is enriched with intermediate fillets. N. is so as The angle columns in each portico have the volutes arranged to show on both faces. only three of the Caryatides remaining in position. the walls were partially rebuilt in their present state. 41. the north portico and coffered ceiling an entablature 5 feet high. o). of black Eleusinian marble. All the figures face southwards. The " anthemion " neckings . with water-leaf and egg-and-tongue and portions of the rest of the building were destroyed. portico was re-erected. thus correcting the same optical illusion as in the Parthenon and other temple fa9ades.82 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. overthrowing the upper half of the western wall and engaged Roman columns. (The second Caryatid from the west is in the British Museum. to which the sculptured figures of white marble were attached by metal cramps. The north portico is an example of a very rich treatment of the lonjc order. The main building is crowned with very similar although less enrichments. and cornice. The skyline was enriched by the acroterion ornaments of the pediments and the antefixae of the marble roofing The frieze to the porticos and main building was formed slabs. the three western leaning on their right (outer) legs. and after the Turkish annexation it . and in 1845 the Caryatid In 1852 a storm damaged the building. terrace and supporting an unusual entablature on which rests the marble coffered roof. The abacus is enriched with the egg and tongue ornament. In 1838. and carried round the entire building under the architrave. . devoid of sculpture.of the columns are carved with the which is also applied to the antae (No. a method of showing up the sculptured figures which in other temples was frequently The pediments appear to have been gained by the use of color. height. L. unlike in character. The order of the eastern portico rich. owes much of its character to the sloping site and unusual and irregular . and treatment. (palmette) ornament. during the Greek revolution. 44 F). It was transformed into a church in the time of Justinian.) The exterior. The Erechtheion ijas passed through various vicissitudes. and bronze embellishments were formerly affixed to other parts of the capital. M. while the cushions (sides) have hollows and projections carved with the bead and reel ornament (No. and the three eastern on their left. In 1827.


Conjecturally restored by the late Dr. In addition to the cella. sphinx are in the archaic room of the British Museum. owing to its size. occupied the site of two previous temples. K) erected from the designs of Ctesiphon (B. which were dedicatory (Ten of these seated figures and the lion and offerings to Apollo.C.) This archaic temple was destroyed by the Persians under Darius. 335320). at each end are eight of the columns with sculptured drums. and the sculpture on the above-mentioned square sub-pedestals and thirty-six circular drums. by the aid of Pliny's description. j. . Pliny mentioned that the temple had one hundred columns. both of the archaic and later posticum. thirty-six of which were sculptured on the lower drum. The new temple " In after is referred to by Strabo. The building rested on a lower stylobate of four steps. 330) temples are now in the British Museum.C. having beyond it an hypaethral. The Temple of Artemis (No.C.C. the plan is dipteral octastyle. The later temple. Ephesus (B. The cella is believed to have had super-imposed columns to carry the roof. The oldest archaic temple (No.84 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. but which on account of its vastness remains without a roof. The site of the temple was discovered by/tne architect Wood in 1869 74> an d many of the remains. B). on the suppression of the Ionic revolt in B. 31 A. which were probably suggested by the archaic temple. (Diana). thus making the thirty-six columns with sculptured drums mentioned by Pliny. of Ephesus. 356. the inhabitants of Miletus built a temple which is the largest of all. 550). 496. and Daphne of There was an archaic temple having seated figures Miletus. Murray.C.C. times. and there now exists inside and outside precious groves of laurel bushes. are distinctive of this building. placed between the first and second rows of columns. there were a pronaos. The building externally must have been one of the most impressive among Greek temples. two being placed in antis to the pronaos and posticum. was burnt in B. 29 H. on the night of Alexander's birth. was erected in B. but he does not mention the sixteen front and rear columns with square sculptured pedestals. 330 in the time of Alexander the Great. the cella being It has a very deep pronaos. The Temple of Apollo Didymaeus. on either side and a lion and sphinx. who says. which are shown on a lower level so that Behind these their top surface is level with the upper platform. regarded as one of the seven wonders of the world. but was again burnt in B. 400." The building is dipteral decastyle on plan. was by the architects Paeonius of Ephesus. having at each end an additional flight of steps. in order to reach the upper platform. It was either restored or rebuilt by the architects Paeonius and Demetrius. opisthodomos and staircases leading to the roof. having double ranges of twenty columns on each flank. treasury.C. near Miletus (B.

Athens as in the G). which were carved two tiers of eight acanthus leaves. 33 of Apollo at F. The abacus is moulded and curved on plan on each face. Callimachus of Corinth. was little used by the Greeks. and as the earlier examples appear to have been of this metal. iii. where bands of sculpture occur beneath the scrolls. six feet wide and three feet deep. Rayet and Thomas discovered the foundations of a shrine. having between them a sculptured band of griffins and lyres. or it may have been borrowed from the bell-shaped capitals of the Egyptians. which is more ornate than the The column. Olympius. 38 E. 43 A. ranging with the These pilasters were crowned with capitals of peristyle level. being octagonal with carved panels on each face. including the capital. a worker in Corinthian bronze. and the bases are of very varied design. at Miletus. Didymaeus. 43 A). 38 E). 33 F. Ionic. . with the addition of the Assyrian spiral. and between those of the upper row eight caulicoli (caulis=a stalk) surmounted by a curled leaf or calyx. and is placed on a stylobate in the same manner as the other orders. Temple of Jupiter Athens (No. and the Stoa or Portico. The distinctive capital is much deeper than the Ionic. c). chap. At the eastern (entrance) end on either side of the doorway were half columns having Corinthian capitals. At the western end of the cella. being about one to one-and-one-sixth diameters in height. The Corinthian Order still (Nos. and the small central volutes supporting a foliated ornament. for Pliny (xxxiv. varied design. the Ionic.) refers to a portico which was called Corinthian. the name may have been derived from the fact.GREEK ARCHITECTURE. B. resting on a continuous podium. Messrs. the base and shaft of which resemble those of is generally about ten times the diameter in height. or having their edges chamfered off Monument of Lysicrates (No. The peristyle columns of the Ionic order are fluted. the mouldings at the angles either being brought to a point as in the Temple (No. THE CORINTHIAN ORDER. from the bronze It consists normally of a deep bell on capitals of the pillars. from which spring the volutes (also known as caulicoli and helices by different authorities). such as the Erechtheion example. supporting the angles of the abacus. 85 ante-chamber with stone staircases on either side. The origin of the capital is still unknown. the acanthus leaves being unusually placed and the central volutes undeveloped. is sometimes referred to as the reputed author of the capital. It may have been derived from the Ionic. The cella walls were ornamented with Ionic pilaster's.


frieze and the mouldings of the latter having additional enrichments. B. of | columns) (page 84). (single Bassie G. B. L. and is 13 feet in height to the top of the cornice. j) H.GREEK ARCHITECTURE. 334-320 (Two attached internal (or Branchidae). The Temple of Apollo Epicurius.C. 174 The Olympieion (or Temple ofZeics-Olympius. Miletus B. 87 Another type of capital has one row of acanthus leaves with palm leaves over. supports a circular structure of 6 feet internal diameter. 32. and terminating in a floral ornament which formerly supported the bronze tripod. L. 27 (page 72). Between the columns are circular wall panels. 43 B. They are referred to in Virgils' ^Eneid (V. The Choragic Monument of Lysicrates. having the usual triple division of architrave. The Vestibule. (No.C. Arms on the ground. 18 K). and a moulded abacus square on plan. 28 j. Poeonius. verse.) podium or base of Piraeus stone. Athens (B. (Internal order) B. D." (Translation by Pitt. bears a general resemblance to the Ionic. Miletus. (Nos. to bind the Victor's brow. 43 c.C. as in the Tower of the Winds.C. 40 j. the prizes of the day. (No. and having Corinthian columns supporting an entablature crowned rusticated The by a marble dome. 9 feet 6 inches square.C. Cossutius (com- j pleted by Hadrian). 430 internal column). A. 335-34 Athens (Nos. The Choragic Monument of Lysicrates. The Temrle of Apollo Didymaeus. B. 43 A) (page 90). ^cormce. 100-35 28 K. 335-34).C. 338 (Internal order of half columns).C. Athens (Nos. The Tower of the Wind's. is a type of structure which was erected to support a tripod as a prize for athletic exercises or musical performances in the Grecian festivals. 38 E) (see below). 4th cent. 117 Athens (No. of the structure is 34 feet. B. 43 B). The Philipeion.C._ CORINTHIAN EXAMPLES. Athens (No. 28 j.D. 140) in the following lines : " In view amid the spacious circle lay The splendid gifts. Polycleitos the younger. but the interior was apparently never intended for use. of Ephesus and Daphne. ornamented with sculptured scrolls. Ictinus. E) (page 88). B. The Tholos. Eleusis. and sacred tripods glow With wreaths of palms.). 18 j. as there The total height was no provision for the admission of light. The circular colonnade has six Corinthian . Date. which is__usually about one-fifth of the JieighJLof the_ entire order. Epidauros. Olympia. The entablature. The basement is slightly rusticated. Architect. 32. by means of sinkings at the joints.

The foliage is different from the later type in unfinished. and the upper part is provided with small fluted Doric columns resting on a circular band of stone. and on the north-east and north-west sides are porticos having Corinthian columns.pollo-Didymaeus. foliated and moulded stalk or helix in conjunction with acanthus leaves branching in three directions. left L. where they could /not be seen they were Miletus. 42 A.) a sun-dial externally The building rests on a acted as a weathercock. the upper ends of which are generally supposed to have The central portion is carried up as a supported dolphins. also known as the Horologium of Andronikos Cyrrhestes.88 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 28 K. i foot 7 inches at the top in the form of leaves. as in Greek temples. the former bearing an inscription. having on their upper surfaces cavities in which the original tripod feet were placed. it also stylobate of three steps. From the south side projects a circular chamber. the upper part of each originally being sculptured in bas-relief. The cornice is crowned with a peculiar honeysuckle scroll. 43 B. at The On the inside. and a clepsydra or water-clock internally (&. The channel just above the foliated flutings of the shaft probably had a bronze collar. bear some resemblance to those of the half-columns of about high. and the latter being sculptured to represent the myth of Dionysos and the Tyrrhenian pirates. The Corinthian columns. They have no base and the capitals are of a plain unusual type. was erected by him for measuring time by means of (a. although the Greeks were accustomed to these sinkings under their Doric capitals. It measures 22 feet 4 inches internally. The Tower of the Winds. D. 9 inches. to the external porticos are fluted. and probably an imitation of ante-fixae terminating the joint tiles. feet 7 inches high. 1 1 columns their diameter. 44 D). each of its eight sides facing the more important points of the compass. 38 E. and is octagonal. The outside of the cupola is beautifully sculptured to imitate a covering of laurel leaves. the same date in the cella of the Temple of ^. flutings of the columns are peculiar in that they terminate The capitals. Between the columns are panels.C. the upper row of leaves resembling those of the palm. Athens (B. and from the upper part branch out three scrolls (Nos. 100-35) (Nos. used instead of a cyma-recta moulding. having a lower row of sixteen small lotus leaves.) . projecting rather more than half These rest on a secondary base encircling the whole building. . forming a sort of frilling. The wall of the octagonal structure is quite plain for a . The architrave and frieze are in one block of marble. as shown on No. then a single row of very beautiful acanthus leaves. probably used as a The interior has a height of 40 feet reservoir for the water-clock. 13 feet 6 inches high. E). without volutes. having between them an eight-petalled flower resembling an Egyptian lotus. and are complete in themselves.



height of 29 feet, with the exception of the incised lines forming the sun-dial, above which on each face are sculptured figures, boldly executed to represent the eight principal winds (Nos. 43 The roof is formed of twenty-four equal sized blocks of D, E).

marble, and was surmounted by a bronze Triton (see Vitruvius, I., chapter vi.). The Olympieion (Temple of Jupiter Olympius), Athens (No. 1 8 j), stands on the site of an earlier Doric temple commenced

by Pisistratus, in B.C. 530. It was commenced by Antiochus Epiphanes of Syria in B.C. 174, Cossutius/ a Roman architect, being employed hence it is often designated Roman architecture. It remained incompleted, and in B.C. 80 Sulla transported some of the columns to Rome for the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, as related by Pliny. The building was completed by Hadrian in A.D. 117, but only fifteen columns of the original one hundred and four forming the peristyle are standing. It was dipteral-octastyle on plan, having twenty columns on the flanks, and occupied an area of 354 feet by 154 feet (equalling the Hypostyle Hall at Karnac), and was placed in the centre of a magnificent peribolus or enclosure, measuring 680 feet by 424 feet, part of the retaining wall of which still remains at the south-east corner. It is described by Vitruvius as hypaethral, but it was unfinished in his time. The peristyle columns were 6 feet 4 inches in diameter, and had a height of 56 feet a proportion of about one to nine. The capitals (No. 43 A) are very fine specimens of the Corinthian order, and appear to date from both periods mentioned above.

The Greek

near the

place in

was generally hollowed out of the slope of and was unroofed, the performances taking the day time. In plan (No. 34) it was usually rather

more than a

semicircle, being

about two- thirds of a complete

consisted of tiers of marble seats, rising one above the other, often cut out of the solid rock. Those spectators who sat at the extremities of the two wings thus faced towards the orchestra, but away from the stage. The Greektheatre, which was constructed more for choral than dramatic performances, had a circular "orchestra" or dancing place (corresponding to the stalls and pit of a modern theatre) in which the chorus chanted and danced. The orchestra was the " germ " of the Greek theatre. The stage was known as the logeion or " speaking place," its back-wall being the skene ( = booth or tent for changing in), the latter name being preserved in the modern word " scene." The actors being few, the stage consisted of a long and narrow platform, with permanent background. To what height above the level of

The auditorium






the orchestra this platform was raised is a question that has been much debated in recent years. The most probable view seems to be the following: (i.) In pre-.'Eschylean drama, before regular theatres were made, an actor mounted on a table, probably the table-altar of the god Dionysos, and held a dialogue with the dancers or chorus. The rude table-stage illustrated on some vases from South Italy may represent a local retention of this primidirect evidence is tive custom. (2.) In the fifth century B.C. no available but a low wooden stage is practically certain, connected by means of a ladder with the orchestra. (3/) The fourth century is At the earliest period in which there is monumental evidence. Megalopolis a platform of wood from 3 feet 3 inches to 4 feet 6 inches high appears probable, with a stone colonnade behind it. At Epidauros there was a wooden floor supported by a wall 12 feet high. Vitruvius tells us, the Greek (4.) In Hellenistic and Roman times, stage was 10 to 12 feet high, and this statement is borne out by many extant examples. The Theatre of Dionysos, Athens,

(No. 17), completed B.C. 340, in which thirty thousand spectators could be accommodated, is the prototype of all Greek theatres, and was the one in which the plays of the great Athenian dramatists were produced. The Theatre, Epidauros, was constructed by the architect Polycleitos, and is the most beautiful as well as the best preserved example extant. The circle of the orchestra is complete, and is about 66 feet across, the entire theatre being 378 feet in diameter. Thirty-two rows of seats forming the lower division are separated by a broad passage (diazoma) from twenty rows above.


flights of steps diverge as radii

from bottom to top.

lately carried out by Dr. Arthur Evans at in Crete (page 54), and those by the Italians at Phaestos, in the same island, have revealed palaces more remote in date than the Mycenaean period, to which is given the name " Minoan." The

The excavations


excavations of the Palace of King Minos, Knossos, show the remains of a remarkable structure laid out on a plan afterwards used in the Roman palaces and camps. This building is believed Underneath to date from about B.C. 2000, and was unfortified. the upper palace were found the remains of an earlier one, which About five acres of this is believed to date from about B.C. 3000. remarkable structure have been uncovered. The apartments, round a central oblong courtyard '(about 180 feet by 90 feet), are constructed in several stories, which are reached by staircases. Some remarkable wall frescoes and colored plaster ceilings, an olive press with huge oil jars, and the remains of a system of drainage, with terra-cotta drain pipes, were discovered.



At Tiryns, situated by the sea coast to the south-west of Athens, and at Mycenae, remains have been discovered of recent years by Drs. Schliemann and Dorpfeld which are of the greatest interest in showing the general arrangement of other palaces (No. 15 F). At Mycenae, flights of steps lead to an outer courtyard, from which, by traversing a portico and vestibule, the megaron, or From this megaron, surprincipal men's apartment, is reached. rounded by a roof and open to the sky in the centre, were reached The women's other chambers, whose uses are not defined. chambers are considered by some authorities to be planned so as
to afford the greatest seclusion, while others, notably Prof. Ernest Gardner, hold that little or no attempt was made at seclusion, and bring strong evidence to bear from literary authorities,

The plans of domestic buildings principally from Homer. appear to have resembled, on a smaller scale, the general arrangement of the palaces as is seen in the remains at Athens, Delos, and Priene, dating from the Hellenic period. They appear to have been of one story only, and grouped around an internal
courtyard or peristyle. Vitruvius (Book VI., chapter x.) refers to their general arrangement, when he says there was no atrium but a peristylium with a portico on three sides, and chambers grouped around. It is generally held that the Graeco-Roman houses of Pompeii may be taken as typical examples (No. 65 A, B), and these may be referred to on page 162.

Propylaea were erected as entrance gateways to many of the principal cities of Greece, and those at Athens, Epidauros, Sunium, Eleusis, and Priene are the best known. The Propylaea, Athens (No. 26), were erected under Pericles by the architect Mnesicles in B.C. 437. It is at the west end of the
Acropolis (No. 17), being reached by a long flight of steps from the plain beneath. It has front and rear hexastyle Doric porticos at different levels, giving access to a great covered hall, having a wide central passage bounded by two rows of Ionic columns, and having at its eastern end a wall in which are five doorways of different heights. On either side of the western entrance portico are projecting wings having three smaller Doric columns, that to the north being used as a picture gallery, while that to the south was never completed. The general external appearance is well shown in the restored view (No. i).


The most important from an architectural point of view are in Asia Minor. The Harpy Tomb, Xanthos, in Lycia



(B.C. 550) is an early or archaic example, with sculptured reliefs, from which the tomb is named, and is now in the British Museum. (B.C. fifth century), Xanthos, is generally considered to have been erected as a trophy monument. Important fragments discovered by Sir Charles Fellows, and the model in the British Museum, indicate a building consisting of a central chamber or cella surrounded by a colonnade of fourteen Ionic columns, the whole elevated on a basement standing on two The sculptured figures of nereids or marine nymphs, from steps. which the building takes its name, originally stood between the

The Nereid Monument

columns and had under them marine
has important sculptured


This monument

and pediments. The Mausoleum, Halicarnassos (No. 35), was the most famous tomb. It was erected to the King Mausolos (B.C. 353) by his widow Artemisia, and consisted of a square plinth supporting a tomb-chamber, which was surrounded by Ionic columns and surmounted by a pyramidal roof with a marble quadriga and group of statuary at its apex (see page 108). The architects were Satyros and Pythios, and Scopas was the
friezes, acroteria

Portions of the frieze, the statue of superintendent sculptor. Mausolos and Artemisia, with the horses and chariots of the quadriga, and other fragments are in the British Museum.

The Lion Tomb, Cnidus (No. 36), also consists of a square basement surrounded by a Doric colonnade of engaged columns surmounted by a stepped roof, and crowned with a lion, now in the British Museum. The interior was circular and roofed with a dome in projecting horizontal courses. The Sarcophagus from a Tomb at Cnidus (No. 36 E, G), is an interesting and beautiful example of a smaller type, as is also the Tomb of the Weepers (B.C. fourth century) (No. 36 H), found at Sidon (now in the Museum at Constantinople), which is executed in the form of a miniature Ionic temple, The having sculptured female figures between the columns. so-called Alexander Sarcophagus (B.C. fourth century), found near Sidon, and now in the Constantinople Museum, is the
and best preserved of all. It is so-called which are of marble, represent battle and hunting scenes in which Alexander was engaged, and is especially remarkable for the colored work which is still preserved on the There are also important examples of rock-cut tombs sculpture. at Cyrene (North Africa) and Asia Minor (No. 41 F), and reference has also been made to the Lycian Tombs (page 37), of which the two brought to London by Sir Charles Fellows, in 1842, are


its sides,

in the design of which the Greeks excelled. It consisted of a flat stone placed upright in the ground like a modern tombstone and crowned with the

now in the British Museum. The Stele was a class of tombstone



Il5 ToMBcf MAU50L05

PJINCE ? (folk











IT 15




























of AN













(Nos. 42 H, 43

design, the lower portion having panels in bas-relief F, and 44 E). Many of these can be seen in the


The agora, or open meeting-places for the transaction of public business, were large open spaces surrounded by stoae or open colonnades, giving access to the public buildings, such, as temples, basilicas, stadion (racecourse), and the palaestrae or

Stose or Colonnades were formed for the protection of pilgrims
to the various shrines, as connections between public monuments, or as shelters adjoining open spaces, and were an important class

of structure.

The most important of these were the StoaPcecile, Echo Colonnade, about 300 feet by 30 feet, at Olympia two


one two stories in height acting as shelters for the patients who came to be healed at the shrine of ^Esculapius and the remarkable example near the three examples at Delphi Propylaea at Delos, known as the "Sanctuary of the Bulls"




(No. 42).

The Stadion was the foot racecourse found in cities where games were celebrated, and it came eventually to be used for It was usually straight at one end, other athletic performances.
the starting-place, and semicircular at the other, and was always 600 Greek feet in length, although the foot varied, and was sometimes planned with the semicircular end on the side of a hill, so that the seats could be cut out of the sloping sides, as at Olympia, Thebes, and Epidauros, or else constructed on the flat, as at The Stadion at Athens, now Delphi, Athens, and Ephesus.

commenced in B.C. 331, and finished by Herodes Atticus, and accommodates between 40,000 and 50,000 The Hippodrome was a similar type of building used for people.
completely restored, was
horse racing.

The Palaestra or gymnasia, as at Olympia and Ephesus, were the prototypes of the Roman thermae, and comprised exercise courts, tanks for bathers, exedrae or recesses for lectures, with seats for spectators.


These were simple, well A. Plans (Nos. 18, 20 E, and 27 c). judged, nicely balanced, and symmetrical, exceptions to the latter being the Erechtheion (No. 18 M), and the Propylaea (No. 18 N), Plans involving at Athens, and probably the private houses.












probably also


framed into deep coffers, as were the marble lacunaria of the peristyles (No. 21 B, c, E). E. Columns. As the temples were usually one story high, the columns with their entablature comprise the entire height of the building, except in some interiors, as the Parthenon (Nos. 23, 25), the Temple of Neptune, Paestum (No. 28 B), and elsewhere, where a second range of columns was introduced into the cella to support the roof. The orders having been fully dealt with /on pages 59, 77, 85, are merely summarized as follows The Doric (No. 19) is the oldest and plainest of the orders, the finest examples being the Parthenon and the Theseion (page 67). The Ionic (No. 29) was more ornate, and is best seen at the Erechtheion (page 81), and the Temple on the Ilissus (page 79). The Corinthian was little used by the Greeks, the best known examples being the monument of Lysicrates at Athens (Nos. 32, 38 A), and the Temple of Jupiter Olympius (No. 43 A), upon which the Romans founded their own special type. Caryatides (No. 42 G) and Canephora (No. 42 F), or carved female figures which were sometimes used in the place of columns, as at the Erechtheion, Athens (No. 30), and are of Asiatic origin. F. Mouldings. Refer to illustrations of Greek mouldings compared with Roman given on Nos. 39 and 40. Mouldings are the means by which an architect draws lines upon his building, and a true knowledge of the effect of contour is best obtained from actual work rather than from drawings, the examples at the British Museum being available for this purpose.

principal characteristic of Greek mouldings was refineof contour due to the influence of an almost continuous sunshine, a clear atmosphere, and the hard marble


ment and delicacy


which they were formed. These mouldings had their sections probably drawn by hand, but approach very closely to various conic sections, such as parabolas, hyperbolas, and ellipses. As a general rule the lines of the enrichment or carving on any Greek moulding correspond to the profile of that moulding. This is a rule which was rarely departed from, and therefore, is worthy of notice, for the profile of the moulding is thus emphasized by the expression in an enriched form of its own

The examples given from full-size sections taken at the Parthenon, the Erechtheion, and elsewhere, may be studied on No. 40. The following classified list gives the most important mouldings When (a.) The cyma-recta (Hogarth's "line of beauty"). enriched it is carved with the honeysucke ornament, whose outline corresponds with the section (No. 39 j).












xma A














/.. "









) That with pointed and narrow lobes. When enriched it is carved with the egg and dart. especially (?'. 39 p). scroll The of Lysicrates (No. 41 N). 43 A. The Greeks usually preferred the former with deeply drilledeyes. B. is the deep hollow occurring in bases. 33 B).) The corona (No. 43. The fillet. it is carved with the (c. When (/?. and 44 E. 33 F. It is also frequently employed as an ornamentation to the tops of stele-heads and ante-fixae (Nos. The leaf from which these were derived grows wild in the south of Europe.) and approaches a circle in section. 42.) The scotia generally not enriched (No.) The ovolo (egg-like). which in fact gave the name to the moulding (No. F). G. This is usually without enrichment. the deep vertical upper portion of the cornice. viz. giving a sharp crisp shadow. It was frequently painted " with a Greek "fret ornament.) COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 39 A). 33 H.) (No. and is also found in the crowning finial of the Choragic Monument which accompanies the leaf and acts as a V-shaped in section with sharp edges. and was largely used as an ornamentation on Anta Caps (No. and has never been excelled. known as the "acanthus mollis" (No. 42 H. : (i. stalk is usually The anthemion. 44 A. The leaf was used principally in the Corinthian capital (Nos. 33 H). in two varieties. 17 A). and round the necks of columns. That with broad blunt tips. N). flat in section. or egg and tongue ornament (No. was a favourite decoration of the Greeks. or with bundles of leaves tied with bands (No. 39 j). including friezes (as at the Parthenon. (e. 39 c).106 (b.) The cavetto is a simple hollow (No. 39 N). face of the (j. water-lily and tongue (No. V-shaped in section. The bird's-beak moulding occurs frequently.) " enriched it is carved with the guilloche or " plat ornament. c). 39 The acanthus leaf G. (/. the Temple : . and giving a deep shadow is very suitable for the English climate (No. H. It may be divided into (a. 43 F. Ornament (Nos. and known as the "acanthus " spinosis (ii. 40 G). The torus is really a magnified bead moulding. and the Romans the latter of these varieties.) Sculpture appertaining to buildings. palmette ov honeysuckle ornament.) in the Doric order. 39 G). (Nos. as in the Erechtheion (No. and is (g. When enriched it is carved with the bead and reel or with beads. 44 j) and scroll play an important part in Greek ornamentation.) (No. 44 D). cyma-recta mouldings (No. The beid serves much the same purpose as the fillet. and 44). The sculpture employed Was of the highest order. 41. When enriched L). The cyma reversa. a small plain face to separate other mouldings (d. 39 E).


Frazer (J. " The Temples at ^Egina and Bassae. consisting (two-horse chariots).Die Tektonik der Hellenen.) and Lechat (H. " Fragments de 1' Architecture Antique.'' Folio." 8vo. Dorpfeld ( W. Bassae). and Rome. 1'historie Laloux(V." Paris. D'Espouy (H." 8vo.J. Paris. "Die Baukunst der Griechen. Der Parthenon. " Histoire critique des Ordres Grecs. and in some . REFERENCE BOOKS. Leipzig." Sur folio." Folio. "Epidaure restauration et description des principaux monuments du Sanctuaire d'Asclepios. 30 G. In many instances the stonework. "The Unedited 1817. 1899. W. " The Antiquities of Ionia" (Dilettanti Society). especially in buildings of the Doric This cement casing was also capable of a high polish. as in the Temples at Paestum and in Sicily. 1902." The Architecture of Greece A Sketch of its Historic Development. and Vitruvius mentions that well-polished stucco would like reflect a mirror. Paris. 1875. monuments.). the sculptured metopes in the Doric frieze. Society).). 1 Gardner (E.). " Die Akropolis von Athen. von).) Sculptured reliefs as seen on stele-heads (No. Pausanias's Description of Greece. 1889. Athens.). Cockerell (C." Folio.). 1888. Antiquities of Attica" (Dilettanti " Boetticher (C." Folio. 42 G. 8vo.) and Spiers (R. Color was largely used on buildings. Berlin. Invvood (H. 1870-1871. as at the Erechtheion (Nos. 1769-1881. 1 (J. Berlin. Defrasse (A." 4to. of groups. R. und Roemer. which appears to have been almost universal. brickwork. 1876. A. " Das Griechische Theater. G.) and others. Boetticher. . instances marble. or quadrigas (four-h^rse chariots (page 94). " Die Architectonischen Ordnungen der Griechen (J. bigas (c." " 8vo. 1902." 8vo. M.).108 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. as already mentioned (page 53). T.. Boston. Olympia. 44 M) mention might also be made of the series of magnificent figure sculptures to the Altar of Zeus at Pergamon in Asia Minor. les Mauch .) Free-sianding statuary. The Erechtheion at Athens. 896. 1895.)." 8vo. order. the tympana of the pediments. 1874. Chipiez (C). and many traces are left.. 1892. Paris.).'' Folio. Laloux (V. the Heraion.). Clarke (J." Folio. of which the great frieze or " Gigantomachia" is now in the Berlin Museum. 1831.).)et Monceaux(P. Folio. were covered with carefully-prepared cement to receive wall paintings or color decoration. Darmstadt. Durm 1898. 6 vols. Paris." Folio. 1883.). Berlin. 1860. Anderson (W. 4 vols. " Michaelis (A. Fergusson (J. " The Parthenon.). u La restauration d' Olympic. and the Temple of Apollo Epicurius. le culte et les fetes. of yEgina. 5. " Investigations at Assos (1881-83)." 8vo. 42 H). the acroteria at the base and summit. "^Architecture Grecque. (b.). single figures." Handbook of Greek Sculpture. and the Caryatides." Folio. Phene). 896.


Large the Greek Court at the Crystal Palace for the splendid model of the Parthenon facade. 1807." The Orders and Revett . Antiquities of Athens. " Mythology and Monuments of Ancient Athens. Greek and Pompeian Decorative Work. 1762- and Svo. 1836. " "Plans and Drawings of Athenian Buildings. Svo. P. Folio. "Die Akropolis von Athen Tempel der Nike Apteros. "The Sculptures of the Parthenon.).). and also the British Museum for actual fragments of the sculptures from the Temples. Ross (L." Folio.). folio. History of Discoveries at Halicarnassus. Perrot (G.).. "The History of Art in Primitive Greece. 1878." Paris. "An Investigation of the/ 7 Principles of Athenian Architecture" (Hellenic Society).). 1900. 5 vols." 1901.. Newton (C. P.). Watt Boston. Murray (A. Penrose (F. Svo. Svo. Svo. Magna Gratia. 410.) and Chipiez (C.) et Collignon (M. T. " Didymes Fouilles de 1895 et 1896. H. 1903. Spiers (R. C. Smith (Sir William)." . 1890." Folio." "Antiquities of " The Fall of visit Wilkins (W. "The " Argive Herasum.). S.). (Historical Novel). REFERENCE BOOKS Middleton Svo.) and Pullan (R. 1897." Folio. 1862-1863." Folio. ' Stuart 1832. Pontremoli (E.)." Folio. i88B.. (J." Waldstein (C).). J. and Branchidse. "History of Greek Sculpture." 2 vols.) (N. restauration et Pergame description des monuments de 1'Acropole. Harrison. Paris. S.) et Haussouillier (B.." "A : : la Restaurations des Monuments Antiques. Schaubert (E. 1890. of Architecture. Athens" Folio. " Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities.).). 3 vols." 2 vols.). (J. " Pontremoli (E.)." 3 vols.). Cnidus. Murray (A." Svo. C. Berlin.). folio. continued. Verrall (J.lio COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. " Pennethorne (Sir J. 1877-1890. and Hansen (C. The student should . 1902. Paris. 1903." 2 vols. 1902." Church (A. The Geometry and Optics of Ancient Architecture.. publiees par 1'Academie de France a Rome.). 1894.

* : Immortal glories in my mind revive Wht-n Rome's exalted beauties I descry An Magnificent in piles of ruin lie. 45) will show that the sea coast of Italy. held uncrowded nations in its womb . And here the proud triumphal arclies rise. although the peninsula is long and narrow. its public shows unpeopled Rome. along The Greek and Italian nations may therefore with fair accuracy ." That on And i. amphitheatre's amazing height Here fills my eye with terror and delight. as the shore line of Greece. neither are there so many islands studded its coasts. Where the old Romans deathless acts displayed. INFLUENCES. Again.I/I THE ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. Here pillars rough with sculpture pierce the skies. The map (No. is not nearly so much broken up into bays. or natural harbours. although many parts of Italy are mountainous the great chain of the Apennines running from one end of the peninsula to the other yet the whole land is not divided up into little valleys in the same way as the greater part of Greece. i. Geographical.

terra-cotta. alabasters. iii. Social and Political. a hard limestone from Tivoli Tiifa. The walls were generally formed of concrete and were faced in a decorative way with brick. from that of Greece. 405. notably at Palmyra and Baalbec. but concrete.112 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Geological. in conjunction with brick and stone casing or banding. which were used locally. derived from volcanic eruptions. (b. being less jealous of their separate independence. nor did they send out colonists faring people of the same description to all parts of the then known world. Officialism therefore naturally stamped its character on the temple architecture. a stone of Besides these. where the chief and almost the only building In Italy marble. and may almost be described as the leader of the Pantheon of deities embraced by the tolerant and wide-spreading Roman rule. Climate. The emperor then received divine honours.Travertine. 476). gave the Roman a material which contributed largely to the durability of their architecture. Lava and volcanic origin from Mount Albano.) The Romans never became a seaGreeks. Religion. . was influenced naturally by the materials found in the various parts where it planted itself. for it has extraordinary properties of hardness. Roman architecture. or marbles of all kinds. The heathen religion of ancient Rome being looked upon as part of the constitution of the state. brick were largely used even for the more important buildings. 234. size. as it spread itself over the whole of the then known world. and the small towns. and material is marble. stone. The north has the climate of the temperate region of continental Europe central Italy is more genial and sunny while the south is almost tropical.) There were few rival cities in Italy at this period (a condition : which was altered in after times. strength and durability. stone. was the favourite material although in Syria. . 1 be compared as follows like the (a. the worship of the gods came eventually to be kept up only as a matter of state policy. Pozzolana. pages 230. the Roman power could be built up by a gradual absorption of small states. hewn from countless Oriental quarries by whole armies of workmen. porphyries. iv. A list of the chief Roman deities is given on page 46. In early times three chief nations In the central portion (or Etruria) lived . . In Rome the following materials were at hand '. a volcanic substance of which the hills of Rome are mainly composed and Peperino. when mixed into concrete with lime. and excellent sand and The existence of Pozzolana (a clean sandy gravel were plentiful. dwelt in the peninsula. The position of Italy enabled her to act as the intermediary in spreading over the continent of Europe the arts of civilization. and in Egypt the quarries supplied stones of enormous . The geological formation of Italy differs ii. v. . a process that was never completed by Athens or Sparta. earth) found in thick strata in the district.

in turn gradually it acknowledged the Roman power. conquering several Etruscan cities. who continued for some time to hold the northern part of Italy. the Etruscans. r generally taken at B. In B. 149-146) ended in the total destruction of Carthage. which were included in the name Aryan together in leagues. the latter becoming a province in B.C. 343 began the but is The second Punic war (B. which B. consisting of towns or districts joined firstly " people.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE.C. King of Epirus. 146.C. and under Augustus " Empire originated. the great Carthaginian general. entering Italy from Spain. With F. defeated all the Roman armies. made the Rhine and the English Channel its northern boundaries. The foundation in Rome is of uncertain date.C. 133 also became a province. 264-241) against Carthage. when brought to a conclusion. which induced the importation of Greek artists and works of art. which was effected in about sixty years. At the same time were effected the conquest of Macedonia and Greece. upon Carthage itself. but was defeated in B. aided by a senator and popular assembly. became Republican. who appear to have authentic history begins. the Roman empire extended from the Atlantic ocean to the Euphrates. probably an been settled in Italy before were great builders (page had planted many colonies. which. under Scipio. resulted in Sicily becoming the first Roman province.C. The common form of government in ancient Italy resembled that of Greece.C.C. while Caesar's campaigns in Gaul in B. The first Punic war (B.C. of 113 Magna Graecia. Roman conquest of Italy. and the Italians had further split up into separate nations among themselves. at the hands of the Gauls. and resulted in the dominion of a city over cities. But long before history begins the Greeks and Italians had separated into distinct nations. and who In the south the Greeks 119).C. Greece formed a stepping stone to Western Asia. but about 500 it Caesar in B." The remainder of Italy (exclusive of Cisalpine Gaul) was occupied by tribes of the same Aryan race as the Greeks. became a Roman province in Africa. and the common forefathers of both must have stayed together after they had separated from the forefathers of the Celts.A. The government of Rome was effected by chosen kings. The Republic engaged in many wars. 390. Pyrrhus. Then came the wars with peoples outside Italy. 218-201) was the most severe struggle in w hich the Romans had engaged. Teutons and others. being first subdued. 59. B.C. for Hannibal. and maintained himself in Italy until recalled by a counter attack of the Romans. 55 Caesar crossed into Britain. till in the conquests of Spam and Syria. Nero. The third Punic war (B. 750.C. I . with its territory. 27 the of Augustus. The "Building Acts of and Trajan had considerable influence on the development vi. About B.C. Rome. Historical.

D. 43 and Livy the historian (B. Following Augustus came a line of emperors. were opposed to Brutus On the defeat ot and Cassius.D.C. 306-337) did something for its revival. the Elizabethan age in England. 17). and the beginning of the nineteenth century in Europe. and no longer carrying the entablature unaided. 65-8). 27. and eventually rendered the empire a political necessity owing to the difficulty of governing so many provinces. which had been growing up and which received official recognition under this emperor (page 176). were all contemporaries.D. history like that succeeding the The A. Italy went out of cultivation and depended on imported corn. Emperors soon chosen were sooner murdered. 59 A. A turbulent populace. Hadrian (117-138) under whom the empire expanded to its greatest extent Septimius Severus (193-211). The Romans adopted the columnar and trabeated_styje of the Greeks. of whom Nero (A. . Then followed a period of great confusion lasting 13 years.C. Architecture then fell into complete decay until the vigorous efforts of Constantine (A. in which what seems a new spring in national and individual life calls out an idealizing retrospect of the past. 41. Julius Caesar remained system. dominated the government. Vespasian (69-79). and governed till his death. but was murdered in B.C. Ovid (B. which in large measure was also due to a new force. 7 Antony at Aktion.C.C. This tide of conquest swept on in spite of civil war at home. Trajan (98-117). and this union of beam and arch is the keynote of the style in its earliest developments. Christianity. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER.D.D.C. and joined to it the Arch. The arch thus used in a tentative manner along with the . Caius Octavius (great nephew to Caesar) and Marcus ^Emilius Lepidus. 54-69). and the chaos that gradually set in weakened the fabric of the empire. and the huge armies required to keep in check the barbarian tribes on every frontier. The Augustan age was one of those great eras in the ^world's Persian wars in Greece. 44. Horace (-B. 70-19). without a rival. The Triumvirate. which it is presumed they borrowed from the Etruscans. Augustus Caesar (Julius Caesar's nephew) was made emperor B. A. 17). poets Virgil (B. Caracalla (211-217) and Diocletian (284-305) were the most active in architectural matters. consisting of Marcus Antonius. 62 and 63) at Rome is a good example of this union in which the gigrs_ between the arches on the different stories are strengthened by the semi-attached columns which act the part of buttresses thus becoming part of the wall. 2. The Colosseum (Nos.under the previous On Pompey's defeat at Pharsalia.114 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. the VaTIIt7~alid7!he Dome. and eventually defeated them.

The latter was of four varieties : Concrete faced with " opus incertum" (No. with large Blocks of stone. The structures could be erected by hands quite unused to the art of building thus the Romans employed the slaves of the district. of walling may be divided into two classes opus quadratum. a material consisting of small fragments of stone or quarry debris mixed with lime or mortar. . peperino. 46 B). i. are all monuments of Roman greatness. The Romans by their extended use of concrete founded a new constructional system and employed it in the most diverse situations. or even the Roman armies while the legal punishment of condemnation to work on public buildings was largely enforced. was finally utilized in a pointed form in the construction of those magnificent vaulted Gothic cathedrals. urged them to make a more economical use of materials. both plentiful and cheap. were chiefly decorative features ceasing to have. 62 A). Amphitheatres. adapting it with rare sagacity to their new needs. buildings of several stones were erected by them. The orders. i. Temples. and concrete unfaced or As stated. this was a building faced. Basilicas. usually attached and superimposed. the concrete backing being studded I 2 . their true constructive significance (No. rectangular blocks of frequently secured with dowels or cramps. they inaugurated the use of concrete. not being special to any country. broken bricks.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE.e. subjects liable to statute labour. The Thermae or Baths. used especially in Italy. . Aqueducts. and gave a of building The Greek method unconnected with mortar. The practical spirit of the Romans. was employed similarity to all Roman buildings. 115 classical column eventually came to be used alone.C. and (a) Unfacfd concrete was usually used for foundations. These materials. The craftsmanship required. was perfectly simple for only rough labour.. was used extensively for various building purposes. however. and Fora.. was required" for mixing the materials of which the concrete was made. showing great constructive and engineering ability combined with a power to use the materials at hand with the best possible results. and The various kinds utilizing it in the most important projects. and spreading it to form the walls. which was the oldest kind. . Greek buildings (see page 102) were normally only one story in height. which were erected in the Middle Ages. under the direction of the central authority. mixture formed of lime and lumps of tufa. and through the basilica. stone with or without mortar joints. in the buildings of the Republic. : (b) faced concrete for walls. marble or pummice stone. Tombs. and instead of composing the walls of their monuments of squared-blocks of stone. were used with success in every part of the Empire. Bridges. but owing to the varying needs of the Romans. and from the first century B.


used from the first century B.} The cross vault. : (c. The kinds of vault employed were as follows (a. (b. iii. Concrete faced with brick (testae). When used over corridors and long apartments the pressure being exerted on points of division (Nos. They made it^imple and practical by the employment of concrete.) The cross-vault was utilized for covering a square apartment. the vault had been previously used by the Assyrians. yet the Romans generalized vaulting as a structural system dating from the first century of the present era. with irregular shaped pieces of stone. wealth and iv.) The dome (hemispherical and semidomes). the style of the their turn centres as the whence radiated the architectural manners and customs of Rome. so called from its resemblance to the meshes of a net (reticulum) the joints being laid in diagonal lines. the vaults being of any form.) (a. as pointed out. and the Etruscans. which were easily roofed. so much so. angles.C.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. triangular on plan and usually about i-J. It will thus be understood that vaults of concrete had a very important effect on the forms of Roman buildings. The effect was far reaching and gave freedom in the planning of complex structures. the pressure being taken by the four. 58 and 60). 46 D). The majestic simplicity of their edifices give them a severe grandeur expressing the Roman ideals of conquest.C. 46 c). power. (b. left the remainder of the sides . 117 ii.inches thick (No. Thus from of the Greeks. that every Roman ruin is filled with their debris. The walling was faced with bricks. by which they covered the largest areas even now in existence. to the end of the Western Empire. which became in . the early Greeks. and easily constructed on rough centres or temporary supports till the concrete was set. mainly used in the first and second centuries B. and cities could be improvised. Romans tended to become everywhere uniform and generally above the influence of local conditions for through the colonies and legionary camps the new methods penetrated to the extremities of the empire. Concrete with "opus mixtum" consisting of a wall of concrete having in addition to the ordinary brick facing bands of tufa blocks at intervals. Concrete faced with " opus reticulatum " (No. ideas as well Vaulting. the time that concrete displaced the ashlar masonry and allowed of unskilled labour. The semicircular or waggon-headed vault resting on two of the covered rectangle was used in apartments whose walls were sufficiently thick.) The semicircular or waggon-headed vault. Although. and they were employed universally.

As Prof. and it would have been impossible to vault the enormous spans if the vaulting had been composed of brick or of masonry as in mediaeval times. therefore. that is to say. Most of these were cast in one solid mass with no lateral thrust on the walls. like the brick facing to walls. The great coherence of concrete formed of " Pozzolana" (see page 112) and lime was important by its use. Besides the use of many colored marbles other means of decorating wall surfaces are briefly stated here. for a Roman edifice built of concrete could receive a decorative lining of any or every kind of marble. Cements and . 46 K). brick arches or ribs probably used as temporary centres are embedded in the concrete vaults at various points." but these are sometimes superficial. and differing essentially from Greek architecture. and the by three (c. out the walls. window openings. intersected were very wide. a longitudinal half-cylinder. or inverted porcelain cup. The decoration of Roman buildings had little connection with the architecture proper. without the principle. The construction of the Pantheon tional (page 134). of the arch. of the diameter of the hall. Semi-domes were employed for exedrse and other recesses (No. Middleton has pointed out. the Roman use of concrete for vaults was more striking and daring than for walls. which. thus having the form.) half-cylinders of similar diameter. 46). vaults and domes of enormous size were constructed. if 'formed of radiating voussoirs of brick or stone.Il8 walls free for hall COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Roman architecture had the character. dome appears to be excep- In many cases (No. were used for covering circular structures as in the Pantheon. would possibly have pushed . of a body clothed in many instances with rich materials forming a rational and appropriate finish to the structure. it was divided into square bays generally three in number and covered with groined vaults. especially at the "groins. and only tail a few inches into the mass of concrete vault. having no necessary connection with the general structure. The Roman concrete vault was quite devoid of external thrust and covered its space with the rigidity of a metal lid. If the oblong compartment or side walls had to be pierced by large openings. such decoration being an independent sheathing giving a richness to the walls both internal and external. which is frequently as much as 6 feet thick. The use of buttresses had not been systematized. 54 and 55). and had an important effect on the general forms of Roman architecture. as in the Baths of Caracalla and Basilica of Constantine. Hemispherical domes or cupolas (cupa cup) (Nos.

to decorate the walls and vaults only. many ot them brought from Greece. The were mostly used the floors. 3. and used it extensively in their buildings. IIQ stuccoes (" Opus albarium ") were frequently used for the coverings of walls both internal and external. " Cloaca Maxima" (c. (&. or great drain of Rome. (No. where huge masses of stone are The piled up without the use of cement. and from their buildings it is known that they were aware of the value of the true or radiating arch for constructive purposes. Marble. gateways character (as is at Perugia). and may be classified as follows (a. The walls are remarkable for their great solidity of construction. who were great builders. porphyry. as thickness of the walls. or mortar of any kind. led to the adoption of niches for their reception within the buildings.) Varnish painting. and whose methods of construction had a marked effect on that of the Romans. EXAMPLES. or glass cut into" shapes to form the pattern of which the " Opus Alexandrinum was a very rich variety. marble.) : fashion.) "Opussectile" or "Opusscutulatum. alabaster. (c. The abundant use of statues. In dealing with Roman Architecture mention must be made of the Etruscans or early inhabitants of central Italy. thus forming a frame. Etruscan Architecture.) Tempera painting. The architectural remains consist chiefly of tombs. 578) . or rectangular. and not Gilded bronze was employed as a roofing material to important employed at the Pantheon (page 134). porphyry and jasper as linings to the walls have been already referred to." formed of squared (a.) Caustic : painting. They are divided by Middleton into " " Opus tesselatum. crowned with a semi-dome. Mosaics were also much used for ornamenting walls. 750. vaults and floors. city walls. and for the cyclopean masonry. " Opus Spicatum.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE.C.) tesserae of stone. (&. glass mosaics sometimes forming elaborate figure pictures." or vermiculatum. c. and (d. Mural paintings were executed on the prepared stucco. and their similar to the early Pelasgic work at Tiryns and Mycenae (page 54). B. These were either semicircular.) Fresco painting." made of paving bricks in herring-bone (c. The style dates from about B." of tesserae of marble. 47). and the final coat was polished. and they occasionally had columns supporting a pediment. They were usually attached by iron or bronze cramps to the walls upon a thick cement backing. or glass to form patterns. bridges and aqueducts.

120 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. each 2 feet 6 inches high. which was the largest of all. iii) and Juno. The models in the Walker Art Gallery. basilicas (halls of justice). The Forum corresponded with the Agora in a Greek was an open space used as a meeting place and market. viz.. and was nearly square on plan. The principal examples of Roman architecture were chiefly erected during 400 years.c. which in after years during the Empire took place in the amphitheatres. Baalbecand places in England (page 280)^^ FORA. and a plan of these is given " " was the oldest.C. Trevesin Germany. and to the Royal Exchange or probably Trafalgar Square in the Metropolis.. and grouped (No. and other Palmyra in Syria. Timgad in Algeria. This and the Forum of Trajan. as at Nimes and Aries in France. who brought some of the marble Corinthian columns from the Temple of Zeus Olympius at Athens (page 90). 100 and A. in Italy. and many places in North Africa. The forum was usually surrounded by porticos. It was burnt in/B. in three rings of voussoirs. 83 and rebuilt by Sulla. which will indicate its probable appearance in the heyday of ancient Rome. and is Its cella was divided into three generally taken as being typical. The Forum around it were some of the most important historical buildings. give a good idea of the appearance of this important centre of architectural history. The others include those of Julius Caesar. has a semicircular arch of ii feet span. restoration is given (No. colonnades and public buildings. Constantine in most important Etruscan example (dedicated B. and was adorned with pillars of victory and memorial statues of great men. 300. was a composite style derived by the unipn of the North Africa. the market place of English country towns. 509). corresponding to the Place of a French country town. Augustus Vespasian and Nerva. Liverpool. were the most important. such as temples. Minerva (Livy VII. constructed to drain the valleys of Rome. 48). There are no remains of Etruscan temples. and as indicated on page 114. The Forum Romanum was in early times also used as a hippodrome and for contests. 47).D. The Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus was the Greek and Etruscan styles. Rome possessed several Fora. Roman Architecture followed the Etruscan. between The principal remains are found not only B.C. with widely spaced columns and wooden architraves. but Vitruvius gives a description of them. city. chambers containing statues of Jupiter. or a rendezvous for political demonstrators. senate house. and Romanum A . Tarragona and Segovia in Spain. and shops. but throughout Europe to wherever the Roman occupation extended. and the Crystal Palace.

The plans shown on No.Of MARS ULTOR (5 COLS. streets at Palmyra and Damascus. and were continued along the flanks and back of the temple as a podium or continuous pedestal (Nos. ' ' IN'DICATEJ EXISTING REMAINS INDICATES RESTORATIONS 47- TEMPLES. 49. 49. and had no side colonnades as was usuar in Cjreek exkiilpltib. between projecting wing walls. Of SATURN (8 COLUMNS STANDING) 25 T. 13 f^ y 20 BASILICA JULIA v/ 21 COLUMN Of PHOCAS ZZARCHOfSEPTIMIUSSEVERUS 23R03TKA 2* T. The Roman temples were the result of the amalgamation of the Etruscan and Greek types. and others are referred to later on (Nos. Antioch. ' TRAJANS COLUMN 2 BASILO ULPW Of VENUS GENETRIX 4T. 53 and 57). . & PILASTER CTANMC 5 TEMPLE Of MINER\ft 1 \^ 3 TEMPLE RESTORED AFTER YAEI0US /tUTHOEITIES 6 TEMPLE 8 TEMPLE 9 TEMPLE 11 Of PEACE 7 SITE Of THE BASILICA AMELIA \/ Of ANTONINUS * MUSTINA Of ROMULUS . The characteristic temple is known as pseudo-peripteral (page 58). 1 8 G. The remarkable colonnaded 121 Pompeii also possessed an important Forum. LEfT) 12 V . Of CONSTANTIKt 10 BASILICA *^ TEMPLE Of VENUS * R0ME *^ TME COLOSSEUM ARCH Of CON5TANTINE 14 ARCH Of TITUS 15 HOUSE Of THE VESTAL VIRGINS^ 16 TEMPLE Of VESTA </ 17 ARCH Of AUGUSTUS 18 TEMPLE Of DIVWJUUU3 19 TEMPLE Of CASTOR & POLLUX (3 COLS. 18 give some of the types used. and Asia Minor may also be best mentioned here. The orders are described under the Comparative table (page 167). 52. Whereas Greek peripteral temples were normally twice as long as their width.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. for they resembled in many respects Greek examples. 50. . Bosra and elsewhere in Syria. Of VESPASIAN (3 COLUMNS STANDING) 26 TEMPLE Of CONCORD. 50) (page 167). "the order of columns being attached to the flank walls and arranged as a prostyle portico towards the front only. The size of the cella was frequently Note. the Roman examples were very much shorter. Steps were provided at the principal end. but their prostyle arrangement and the use of the podium was derived from Etruscan temples. which often supported groups of statuary.


or vaulted as in the TempleTof Venus and Rome at Rome (No.C. L. 11 ' . i8j.D. j. Nothing definite is known as to the ceilings. 27-A. IOO A typical Roman temple plan. the Temple of Diana at Nimes (No. B. B. Carrce (Nos.C.D. (See page 125.) x F. Jupiter Stator A. Peripteral octastyle 19 (Nos.) K. temple (page 125). A.47 Q5 ). . Castor as and Pollux. Three columns remaining. 56). having cella wide as long.D. Maria Egiziaca. 117-138 (See page 125. 141 The 68 Faiistina (Nos. A. N). double Peculiar Corinthian. and The Temple of Vemis and Rome and 50 A.D. 123-135 A. 14 prostyle-hexa^tyle. 52 E). the front being therefore made important by the deep No consideration was given to portico and flight of steps.D. The Temple of Forluna (No. Three with front portico. The l^emple of Diana (No. columns At Athens. The Temple of Saturn ^Nos. 42-2 Corinthian. 43 A). colu-nns remaining. Corinthian. orientation as in Greek examples. J. A. M. . Eight B. 47 67 A and 68). B. The Temple of Vespasian (No. D). 47 1 4 and 49 L. The Temple of Jupiter Olympius At Nimes. Temple of Antoninus and I. of open_timber-work as in the basilicas. which was used as a museum for Greek statuary and as a treasure As the architraves were supported by the enclosing walls store.C. 1 8 G. 49. Virilis Remarks. 94 A. Date. Ionic. being probably derived from Etruscan examples.C. B.D. Pseudo-peripteral Now the prostyle-hexastyle. 47-). (Nos. 50). Corinthian. 51). At Rome. which in most cases were isolated and visible from all sides whereas the Roman temples were specially intended to be seen from the forum or open space upon which they usually faced. G). 284 Ionic Pseudo-peripteral pro- style-htxastylc. Three columns and Pseudo peripteral Unusual twice as api'asterremaining(page 125). Now church of The (the Temple or Avenger) (No. plan. 52 and 67 Mars Ultor G). The abolition of the encircling colonnade and the continuous stylobate of steps resulted in a certain loss of unity in comparison with Greek examples. (See page 90. B. church of S. The Temple of Concord (No. Circular and polygonal temples were also used by the Romans. The Temple of Also known . RECTANGULAR EXAMPLES. 47 . and the Temples at Spalato. Corinthian. 174 remaining.) (Nos. K. but these may have been of coffering in stone as in the colonnades. 123 increased. The Alaiscn SOH.D. Lorenzo. Pro-tyle-hexastyle. 6 Corinthian. temples could also be built on a larger scale than in the Greek style. Pseudo-ptripteial te- the trastyle. S.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. on the flanks. c). c. A. being usually the whole width of the temple. 50 E.


having columns 58 feet in height.D. was erected during the reign of Hadrian. Date. 18 G. The Great Temple (No. the thrust of which is counteracted by smaller continuous vaults over the side passages. 52). 67 G. 53). the apses having semi-domes. in a precinct surrounded by an It was one of the enclosing wall 100 feet high. 300 Remarks. each provided with an apse placed back to back. K. 53). A D. the usually accepted restoration of this building. This temple was raised on a platform and stood in a large enclosure. and that by Palladio is given on No. A short description is given on No. in front of which by a dodecastyle Corinthian portico . F. The Temple of Mars Ultor. the capital of the latter being shown in No. The interior walls have detached Corinthian columns.D. It was 11 pseudo-dipteral decastyle (No. The so-called Temple of Diana. 131-161) (No. had a peculiar plan consisting of two cellas. Internally there were niches for statues. The Temple of Venus and Rome (A.) (See page 130. 50 H.D. D. 117-138) (Nos. The Maison Carree. 50). and the cella walls were of extra thickness to take the thrust of the vault. a court 380 feet square with recessed porticos. and the cella was crowned with a hemispherical coffered The plan on No.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. 273 A. It is of the typical form.) 273 Peripteral ocvastyle. A. j.D.C. Nimes (A. 47 ). Nimes (No. 50 E. having attached bronze leaves. but there are only three columns and a pilaster remaining. 123-135) (No. 53). being pseudo-peripteral prostyle hexastyle. 131-161 (See below. (No. c. was probably a nymphaeum connected with some thermae. 47" gives vault. (See page 1 6 1. At Palmyra. The Temple ofjiipiter (No. the peristyle having twenty flanks. largest Roman temples. probably a prototype of the vaulting of many southern French Romanesque churches. 50 A. and a pronaos at each end. stood in the Forum of Augustus. 52.) At Baalbec. The Great Temple. supporting a cornice from which springs a stone-ribbed barrel vault. entered through columns on the imposing gateways. Baalbec was a hexagonal cortile entered (A. was It stood in dipteral decastyle. Rome (B. but only six columns now remain. probably Corinthian. D. The Temple of sEsculaphts 59)- 125 (continued). with Corinthian columns supporting a rich entablature. B.D. RECTANGULAR EXAMPLES At Spalato. and 51). A. 42-2) (No. and raised on a podium about 12 feet high provided with a front flight of steps only. The Great Temple of the STDI. occupying in all an area of about 540 by 340 feet. surrounded by a colonnade of nearly 200 columns of red and grey Egyptian granite and red porphyry. G). and is the best preserved Roman temple in existence.





) (See below. 34 feet circular peripteral. Rome. Baalbec (A. 47). E. and rest on a podium 6 feet high. 37 A. del Sole. The circular portion. (See below.D. . owing to the investigations of M. CIRCULAR AND POLYGONAL EXAMPLES. 57. and resting on a podium 10 feet Among the remains lately found are some fragments of the high. A. is situated in the Forum Boarium.D.) At Tivoli (near Rome). (in (No. 55. Chedanne in 1892. The Temple of Jupiter.D. which is of tufa. marble. 54. M. 715. The Circular Temple (No. 205. ana the columns were built up in three A further short description is given on No. 67 H). 27-A. According to Middleton it was circular peripteral with eighteen columns surrounding a cella. c. 47).D. The interior was ornamented with half-Corinthian columns having returned entablature. but other authorities do not think this possible. 57).C. 284. pieces.) (No. is peripteral octastyle with a vaulted sanctuary at the west end. B. 59). 54. 33. A. 53. The Temple of Mater Matuta.I3O in antis. fire The Pantheon. known as the Rotunda. (See below. and is twenty Corinthian columns.) (See page 134. The Temple of'Vesta (Nos. occupies the site .D. The V-shaped section of the It is now the Church leaves indicates the . finally by Septimius Severus in A.D. Rome. was founded in B. COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. from which sprung the Between the columns were two tiers of niches. with the* is approached by a flight of marble of wood covered with bronze tiles. (See page 136. At Spalato. The Temple of Vesta. At Rome.C. having 3 feet 2 inches in diameter. B. 60 D. 7 inches in height and exception of the podium.D. 161. F). Dawkins and Wood restore this temple as^ if vaulted. 55. 57 E) is now. and The roof was probably steps. 33. approached by a flight of steps. The Temple of Jttpiter (in Diocletian's Palace) A. (Seepages 136. 56. At Baalbec. 273. Rome (Nos. The Temple of Vesta (No. 120-124.I4. 273). and therefore nearly eleven diameters high. These surround a cella 28 feet in It is built of Parian diameter. A. B. iSc.work of a Greek artist. of S. but was the Forum Romanum) frequently destroyed by and repeatedly rebuilt. 205. known to belong to two distinct periods.C. columns having fillets for fitting metal screens between the shafts.) the The Temple of Mater Matuta.27-A. The buildingsWere constructed with large blocks of stone without cement. 56. formerly known as the Temple of Vesta.D. formerly known as Temple of Vesta.) The Pantheon (Nos. 14. coffered vault.


of white marble and panelling of giallo antico. with capitals. forming a frontispiece to a three-cell temple of the Etruscan type. sixth and eighth columns having two others behind them. flowers. are believed to be part of the original design of Hadrian's architect. and are 19 feet high to the springing of their hemispherical heads.132 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. B. in front of the recesses in the interior. At the back of the portico are niches. The marble facing to the walls between. of concrete (opus incertum). serpentine. was a decastyle portico. The Rotunda (now the Church of S." or place for plants. 1 10 feet wide by 60 feet deep in the centre. As rebuilt this portico was made octastyle instead of decastyle. mouldings are regulated or foreshortened so as below is worthy of notice. and staircases by which to ascend to the various parts of the edifice. in A. . six of which are in the British Museum. ft The columns. the other four being rectangular on plan. used as a " nymphaeum. and running water. of an older uncovered piazza. and the columns. are placed on the front line of these recesses.C. The eight piers have niches entered from the exterior of the building.D. and the upper portion is fluted (No. third. The dome or cupola is a hemisphere. above which are relieving arches. The attic or upper story was originally ornamented with porphyry or marble pilasters. one of which forms the entrance three of the remaining seven are semicircular Two columns exedrae. and pediments of the projecting altars are later additions. 14. and have eight great recesses. 42 feet 6 inches high. 120-124. formed in three heights. and pavonazetto. 55). In front of this " nymphaeum. on the site of the more ancient " nymphaeum." and facing towards the south.D. 27-A. having its inner surface The manner in which the sinkings or coffered in five ranges. entablature. are 20 feet in thickness. to- be seen from . but in 1747 this marble panelling was removed and the present stucco decoration inserted. and was made to face the north instead of the south. the level of its floor being 8 feet below the present level. and the third tier are level with and entered from the second cornice of the exterior. the first. Maria Rotonda) is a circular structure having an internal diameter of 142 feet 6 inches. The present Rotunda was erected by the Emperor Hadrian. of which the lower are semicircular on plan. which is also its internal height. built by Agrippa during the reign Of AugUStUS. The lower third of these columns is cabled." the x portico to the Etruscan temple being taken down and re-erected at the higher level. the second tier have their floor on the same level as the cornice over the inner order. In front of the Rotunda is the Corinthian octastyle portico. with a layer of tiles every three feet in height. The walls.

o SB be -~ O 2 * H ^ _ "5 CO .

having a cella 24 feet in diameter. in 655. 46 feet 6 inches high. the upper portion being faced with stucco decorated with pilasters. and still retaining its circular bronze cornice (No. as shown in the drawings made by Palladio in the i6th century. placed in a low flat situation.D. and this example are instructive. and also near the central opening at the summit. has columns of slender proportions in order to give it the required height whereas the Tivoli example. but it is held that a series of arches may have been formed in this portion. Rome. which has Each of the three divisions of the portico ceiling appears to have been segmental and formed of bronze plates. The columns are nearly gf diameters high. The lighting is effected solely by one circular unglazed opening. 27-A. heaven is by far the noblest conception great eye opening upon for lighting a building to be found in Europe. ." divided by the two cornices. 5 feet in diameter at the base. 27 feet in diameter. The Roman building. D). still remain (No. resting on a podium. The dome. placed on the edge of a rocky prominence. but these were removed to Constantinople by Constans II. formed in the crown of the dome.134 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. This method of lighting produces an effect which is solemn and impressive and there may have been a symbolic meaning . are one diameter in height. and . was covered with bronze gilded plates. 23 feet 6 inches high. The intermediate portion was not examined. 18 c. is another circular peripteral example. The reason for the difference in design between the Temple of Mater Matuta. and a doorway approached by a flight of steps. 37 A). although was found by Chedanne to be built of brickwork laid in almost horizontal courses up to the fourth range of coffers." The circular portion was originally faced with marble up to the lower string cornice. The octastyle portico has monolith Corinthian columns. originally plated in gold. Tivoli (B. 14) (Nos. since removed. of which the foliage is derived from the acanthus mollis. K). and a pediment having an inclination of about 23 degrees. doors and fanlight.C. and the capitals. appearance of the vault of the heavens in the temple of all the gods. The dome. The cella. in thus imitating the originally its lower portion formed in steps. had two windows. surrounded by a peristyle of eighteen Corinthian columns. described by Middleton to be of concrete. 23 feet 1 1 inches in diameter internally. so as to relieve from pressure the recessed openings below. These support an entablature 1 1 feet high. 54 c. At the present time the walls are faced in brick with "opus reticulatum. and replaced with sheets of lead. The old Roman bronze door frame. j. The Temple of Vesta. 57 H. and 4 feet 3 inches at the top. the idea being that the worship of " One Jupiter should take place in a building open to the sky.


the cella between the six columns above mentioned. six of which are well advanced from the cella wall. Baalbec (A. In front of the apse was the altar. (A. as explained later on page 181. whose length was two or three times the width. 43 feet 8 inches in diameter. being occupied by the Praetor or Questor. erected as halls of justice and as exchanges for merchants. at one end. between which are semicircular niches for The line of the entablature is curved inwards towards statuary.136 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. surrounded by a low peristyle of Corinthian columns. Spalato The Circular Temple. 273) (No. Internally it has superimposed Ionic and Corinthian orders. Between these are placed eight Corinthian columns with Composite ones superimposed. The cella wall has Corinthian pilasters.D. and bear witness to the importance of law and justice in their These buildings are also interesting as a link between eyes. and occupy the positions resulting from the division of a circle into seven equal The entrance is placed centrally on the seventh division of parts. has a circular cella raised on a podium and approached by a It is surrounded by eight Corinthian columns. F). comprise some of the finest buildings erected by the Romans. The Temple of Jupiter. Externally it is octagonal. externally presenting a pyramidal form. The Christian baptisteries erected in the following centuries were adapted from such circular temples as these just described. that in the centre. The building was generally covered with a wooden roof. thus provided with a lofty basement. and crowned with a remarkable domical vault constructed in tiers of brick arches. has columns of a sturdier proportion. resulting in three or five aisles. where sacrifice was performed before commencing any important business. generally placed in a semicircular apse. and . The usual plan was a rectangle. is a further development of the Pantheon. Classic and Christian architecture.D. E. Two or four rows of columns' ran through the entire length. BASILICAS. 59). but the interior of the cella is circular. (in Diocletian's Palace) 284) (No. which was elevated above the rest. which was sometimes partly cut off from the main body of the building by columns. and has a column on either side. advanced slightly in front of tKe face of the wall. Ranged round the apse were seats for the assessors. and the tribunal at the other on a raised dais. flight of steps. The whole is raised on a podium. and galleries were The entrance was at the side or usually placed over these. with four circular recesses and three square. which are therefore extremely interesting with respect to architec- tural evolution. These. the entrance corresponding to a fourth. the circle. 60 D.



Entered from Trajan's Forum. believed to be the oldest. There were two apses. Galleries were formed over the side aisles. from which sprung the groined vaults. attached to the face of these piers. The columns on the ground story separating the nave and aisles were of red granite from Syene. and is in many respects a prototype of a Gothic structure. The Basilica of Maxentius or Constantine. it had a central nave 87 feet wide with double aisles.D. reached by steps as shown on the plan. exhibiting the deep coffering executed in brick work. 47) and the basilicas at Pompeii. and an internal length The total internal height was excluding the apses of 385 feet. E). supported that of the nave. although the column which was placed to carry it has been removed. 98) (Nos. of which Apollodorus of Damascus was the architect^ was a fine example of the wooden . crowned at a height of 1 20 feet by an immense groined vault in three compartments. D). in comparison with the interior. about 120 feet. . in which the thrust and weight of an intersecting vault are collected and brought down on piers built to receive them. and Trajan's famous Column (page 156) stood in an open court between them.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. Other basilicas at Rome were the Basilica Porcia (B. with white marble Corinthian capitals.D. each 76 feet in span. the Basilica Julia (No. Rome (A. formerly erroneously known as the Temple of Peace. and aided by the weight of the aisle Monolithic columns were vaults. Farno.C. may be mentioned. or semicircular windows in the wall formed by the intersecting vaulting. Trajan's (the Ulpian) Basilica. 47). and a portion of the main vault of concrete formed of pozzolana is still in position. and supported pieces of . having sacrificial altars in front of them. The building is similar as regards plan and design to the Tepidarium of the Thermae (No. These walls had communicating openings formed in them. 47*. springing from walls placed at right angles to the nave. and at Silchester in England. and Treves. consists of a central nave 265 feet long by 83 feet wide between the piers. Adjoining the Basilica were the Greek and Latin libraries. thus showing the extraordinary tenacity of Roman concrete.entablature apses. To the north and south are aisles roofed with three great semicircular vaults. c. 47% 58 A. Light was introduced in the upper part of the nave over the by means of lunettes. The vaults to the northern aisle still remain. 59). At each end were semicircular reached by flights of steps. one to the north and one to the west of the central nave. Rome (A. and the Basilica Amelia (No. 58 B. 184). 312) (Nos. each 23 feet 9 inches wide. aisle vaults . 46 i._ roofed type. the exterior seems to have been of small pretensions.


or for lounging. Calidarium (hot room. The external apartments were frequently let off as shops or utilized for the accommodation of the numerous slaves A who formed part of the establishment. Laconium or Sudatorium (the hottest room.) An outer ring of apartments. pomades or ointments.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. being supplied by a special aqueduct from a distance. central structure. open colonnades. Unctuarium (rooms for oils. with raised seats for also used for various athletic exercises (such as wrestling. body). and from the restorations of French students sent to Rome as prize winners of the Ecole des Beaux. It was frequently large open space. and other necessary apartments. and also answered in a measure the purposes of a modern club as a rendezvous of social life. The Tepjdarium (warm room for bathers to rest in). made in the sixteenth century. reservoir supplied the Frigidarium. when they were better preserved. usually containing a cold swimming bath "piscina") were the most important apartments added to which there were the Apodyteria (rooms for undressing). exedrae or spectators. races. and a Frigidarium (cool room. A as a stadium.) of ball). aliptae shampooing with the "strigillus" or scraper. the processes of bathing resembling the modern Turkish bath. boxing). usually containing a warm water bath). The whole block was frequently raised on a high platform.) : A great central block. rooms for the hearing of discourses. The Sphgeristerium (place for the games and small theatre occasionally formed part of the (b. but much can be learned from the published drawings of the Italian architect. where the " " anointed the bathers and performed the rubbing down. or great public baths are quite as characteristic of Roman civilization as the amphitheatres. libraries. A small charge of a quadrans (| farthing) was sometimes made. Palladio. being probably derived from the Greek gymnasia. 141 THERMS. large reservoir frequently occupied one This side. These consisted of lecture (c. Tepidarium and Calidarium in succession. In general arrangement they usually consisted of three main in Pompeii parts (a. The principal existing remains are found at Rome and The Thermae a ruined state. oiling and sanding the . This was planned for the baths proper.Arts. The Thermae supplied the place of the modern daily papers for the dissemination of news and gossip. and portions were planted with trees and ornamented with statues. poets and statesmen. but in later days they were opened free as a bribe to the populace by Emperors in search of popularity. usually a circular domed apartment). laid out This surrounded the central block and was recesses for the philosophers. .

Rome (A. which. and the upper on the platform level. K and 59 A). used entirely for bathing. roofed with an immense semicircular intersecting concrete vault. 212-235) ( Nos 4 6 F - > H. being laid out on. measured 750 feet by 380 feet. by the system of exedrae and screens of columns. of Caracalla. probably used as shops.150 feet (over one-fifth of a mile) each way. the lower at the street level. restorations have been made which the relative positions of the Tepidarium. loss of scale was prevented. giving access to the gardens.600 bathers. were grouped the various halls for dramatic representations and lectures. forming the principal hall. Moreover. important of all size and magnificence. Calidarium (with sudatio).^ixial-linS.D. to various parts of the establishment. and furnaces for heating the water and hot this platform Under of small Along the road front was a colonnade having behind it a row chambers in two stories. around which. air ducts. Only four doorways were formed on the north-east side. for underneath which were the furnaces and other rooms service of the baths.. 108 feet above the floor. accommodating 1. formed in three compartments. measuring 1. The planning of this and similar buildings is very instructive to architectural students and worthy of careful study. produced vistas through the various halls and saloons. The central building. Frigidarium (with piscina). while providing for the practical requirements of the bathers. and therefore covered an area of 285. Apodyteria (dressing rooms). are the most the remains. Internally the Tepidarium. for private "slipper" baths. It was 170 feet by 82 feet.000 square feet. and led to the large open enclosure laid out for wrestling and other games. about equal to Westminster Palace (including Westminster Hall). in ruins.142 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. The entrance to the establishment was in the centre of the north-eastern facade. but greater than either the British Museum or the London Courts. but large columned openings. were a feature of the south-western front. not including the segmental projection on three of the sides. which was exposed to cold winds. Sphaeristeria (for gymnastics). constituted the controlling feature of the plan to which the other apartments were subordinated. placed in front of the massive piers. 38 feet high and 5 feet 4 inches in diameter. vaulted stores. i. the The Thermae G.e. and other apartments. and supported on eight portions of entablature resting on granite columns. and the vastness of the building was emphasized. were communicating corridors leading chambers used as the hypocaust. around which the subsidiary apartments were grouped. in the segmental projections and elsewhere. and give a splendid idea of their The entire site including gardens was raised on an artificial platform 20 feet high. This Law Although now show .


to the sky. issuing from the mouths of sculptured lions in marble or brightly polished silver. and at the excavation of the Thermae during the Renaissance period much of it found its way into the Vatican and other museums in Rome. although as the surface of the bath. which was constructed on a similar system to that described for the Basilica of Maxentius (page 139). and their connection . admitting light over the roofs of adjoining halls by means of the intersecting vault.144 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. and decoratively to form with their entablatures and pediments frames for the superimposed niches in the walls. Liverpool. largely from Greece or executed in Rome by Greek artists. and the upper parts with enriched and modelled stucco bright with color the great columns on which rested the vault springers were either of granite. S. porphyry. great apartment was lighted by clerestory windows. the pavings were patterned with mosaic cubes of bright colors. some suppose it to have been covered with a roof of iron joists Viollet-le-duc has a (probably cased with bronze) and concrete. or covered with bold figures. decorations in black and white. perhaps banded or dressed with bricks of a different color. or colored glass mosaic. giallo antico. alabaster or other rare marbles from the ^Egean islands. Finally. drawing in his lectures of the Frigidarium restored. is of similar dimensions to the Tepidarium of Caracalla's Thermae. either planned in geometrical patterns or with figures of athletes the lower parts of the walls were sheathed with many colored marbles. giving an excellent idea of its probable original appearance. The surface of the great vaults was also richly ornamented by means of coffering. and in marked contrast to the exterior. or more wisely left as impressive masses of plain brickwork. 'The exteriors appear to have been treated very plainly in stucco. and in the principal European cities. but with five bays instead of three. high in the walls. falling into capacious marble basins and producing a delicious cooling effect in the hot sultry weather. George's Hall. Sumptuous internal magnificence was aimed at in all the great Thermae. The unbounded license of the public baths. The general adornment and color treatment of the interior must have been of great richness. Various colored marble columns were used constructively to support the upper balconies and the peristyle roofs. In these magnificent halls thus sumptuously decorated some of This was brought the finest sculpture of antiquity was displayed. The Frigidarium was probably open many tons of T iron were found below . The Calidarium was roofed with a dome similar to that of the Pantheon. . additional interest was given to the interiors by the perpetual streams of running water. indicating a further secession from Greek principles.

the tenth being the entrance." 1772. 50 feet high and 5 feet in diameter. 46 F. and the three examples at Pompeii indicate their general characteristics and manner of use. 145 with amusements generally. from which it will be seen that the general distribution resembled the Baths of The Tepidarium is 200 feet long by 80 feet wide and Caracalla. 60 K. but an idea can be obtained from the measured drawings of Palladio. 90 feet high. Above are ten windows of large size at the base of the dome. admitting of the use of thinner walls.C. with semicircular niches to nine of the sides. 46 M generally regarded as a nymphaeum attached to the Baths of Gallenius (A. 80) (No. It is particularly interesting in that the rudiments of the pendentive (see glossary) system are to be seen in the manner of setting the dome on its decagonal base. It is a decagonal on plan. Rome (A. caused them to be proscribed by the Early Christians. and in the walls from the hypocaust or furnace in the basement (No. and is covered with quadripartite vaulting of tufa concrete. but not for pleasure. which is an advance on the construction of the Temple and 83 now F. Typical Roman baths are shown on No. had a plan. M. into the Church of S. (B.D. and in 1740 a projecting choir was formed on one side by Vanvitelli.D.A. 1561. is of Minerva Medica. Rome (Nos. caused by the destruction of the aqueducts by the Huns and the gradual decrease of the Roman population. 46 j). H). They have completely disappeared. having Composite and Corinthian capitals of white marble each supporting a portion of highly ornamental entablature.D. Rome (A. This Tepidarium was converted by Michael Angelo. G. In the fifth century the large Roman Thermae fell into disuse and decay. a system afterwards carried still further by the Byzantines. bearing a remarkable similarity to S. 83 c. springing from eight monolithic columns of Egyptian granite. 46 L). published in Cameron's "Baths of the Romans. L . 27) (No. 266). who thus converted the nave of the church into a kind The Thermae of Titus. j. degli Angeli. These baths were heated by means of hot air in flues under the floors. built The Thermae of Agrippa. Vitale at Ravenna (No. who held that bathing might be used for cleanliness. B). in A. 69 G. The absence of a hypocaust or of flue tiles in the walls prevent it from being considered as a Calidarium. Rome of transept. The Balneum or small private bath was much used. were on the foundations of Nero's Golden House. The dome is formed of concrete ribbed with tiles. 69 B). shown in a restored condition in No. 302) (No. 80 feet in diameter.D. Buttresses were placed at points as required. were the earliest example. D). The so-called A. in order to give the necessary light and air to the plants.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. The Thermae of Diocletian.


The Theatre at Orange. and has at the summit two tiers of corbel stones. 161). cedar. is also Pompeii had two important theatres. constructed tier connecting corridors. 314 feet long by 116 feet high. The theatres at Taormina. pierced with holes. L 2 . The Theatre of Marcellus. which in recent years have been excavated. South France (No. of the semicircular auditorium. and inclosed by return walls at The great wall at the back of this right angles to the back wall. Staircases for access to the various levels were placed on either side of the stage. Athens (No. instead of being rather more than a semicircle as in the Greek theatres. but this. and consisted of tiers of seats one above the other. In diameter it is upon tier of retreat in case of 340 feet between the inclosing walls. was a semicircular area which was occupied by the Senators. at Fiesole.C. The auditorium. in Asia Minor. of the arcading. were entirely masked by the original decoration. Theatres were still constructed on the slope of a hill. the fa9ade of which was ornamented with the Tuscan order and the Ionic order superimposed. stage. Pantheon (No. held 7.D.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. however. of Herodes Atticus. Rome (B. was here restricted to a semicircle. probably only applied to the stage. near Florence. two stories high. 147 54). It is partly hewn out of the Acropolis rock and partly constructed. The Theatre (A. seating 6. and probably struction. in which the people might sudden showers. 23-13). through which the velarium poles were placed. siderably and treated with great richness. is the only The remains consist existing example of a theatre in that city. are other examples. and became connected more completely with the auditorium. 34 B). but where the site did not allow of this they were. 17) a fine example. separating the porticos on each story. and is an example where the auditorium is constructed and not hollowed out of the side of a hill. and Aspendus. THEATRES AND AMPHITHEATRES. auditorium of sloping seats from the stage. the It is held to have been roofed with seats having a marble casing. with wide passages and staircases ccmmunicating with the external At the ground level. It originally had a portico attached to it. and a step towards Gothic principles of conThe pendentives are of the rudest kind. The design of Greek theatres was adapted to suit Roman requirements. by means of the new art of vaulting. which is 203 feet wide by 45 feet deep. and which in its original circular plan in Greek theatres was occupied by the The stage thus becoming all important.000 people.000 spectators. is ornamented by blind arcading. on the east coast of Sicily. was raised conchorus.


those lining of 9 inches of brickwork. Access to the various seats is from the eighty entrances by means of staircases placed between the radiating walls and by The radiating walls were corridors. Rome shall fall. 82. 62 B). These are good exponents of the character and life of the Romans. being found in every important settlement. having underneath them corridors and staircases. consisting of a vast ellipse feet. 64). the two lower forming the grand tiers. and the top range under the peristyle forming the later addition. surrounded by a wall The seats. in solid stone. having externally eighty openings on each on the ground floor forming entrances. concrete being used where least weight. who had greater love for mortal combats. cleverly constructed. as at Verona (No. In plan it is a type of all the examples. The arena proper is an oval 287 feet by 180 feet. rise up from the arena. 62 and 63). faced with travertine stone.D. is the most important example. The Flavian Amphitheatre. 70. The system is one of concrete vaults resting on walls of the same material.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. the vaults running downwards to the centre from the high inclosing walls consequently no building is more durable or more difficult to destroy a feeling well expressed by the line . calculated at one-sixth of the whole area The constructive principle consists of wedge-shaped_piejs radiating inwards. placed at intervals as shown. Joeing of an engineering character. and travertine stone where the heaviest pressures had to be supported (No. tufa stone where more weight. Rome (Nos. and completed (with the exception of the upper story) by Domitian in The model in the Crystal A. The auditorium has four ranges of seats. making 7 jfeet in total thickness. The dens for the wild beasts were immediately under the lowest tiers of seats. commenced by Vespasian in A. 2 feet 3 inches thick. which were considered to be a good training for a nation of warriors. by means of which the various tiers of seats are reached. : " \Vhen falls the Colosseum. The modern Spanish bull rings to some degree give an idea of the arrangement and uses of Roman amphitheatres." . 15 feet high. and consequently opened on to the arena. 4 feet thick. and in addition to their normal purposes were used for naval exhibitions. and having an internal 620 feet by 513 story. 149 The amphitheatres are characteristic Roman buildirigs. Palace gives a good idea of the general distribution of its parts. and the construction is strong and solid. the water drains for flooding the arena still existing in many examples. than for the tame mimicry of the stage. the third separated from the second by a wall. The supports have been of the building. The masonry was laid without mortar.D. (The Colosseum).



CIRCI.D. 64). Domitian. At Rome there were several important examples. viz. points worthy of notice are The multiplicity of its parts. In criticizing the general architectural character of this wonderful building (No. The thick piers behind the orders. Although only part of it now remains. Nero. Capua.152 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. was used for chariot or horse races. and remains of a roughly made example at Dorchester. The proportions of the attached columns on the fa9ade. El Djem near Carthage. also known as the Circus of Romulus. and are ornamented with half columns of the Tuscan. The three lower ones have their walls pierced with arches. Hadrian. is in splendid preservation. however. divided and united : by three ii. The Colosseum was used as a stone quarry by the builders ol later times. tiers of orders. was built by Maxentius in A. it is the most perfect example of a Roman Circus existing. Nimes. many Renaissance buildings (page The Amphitheatre. : (No. external fa9ade is The divided into four stories.. 63). Surrounding this were rows of marble seats supported by raking vaults and an . while the Greek stadium was principally used for foot races and athletic sports. Ionic. connected by eighty arches and supporting the weight of the structure. and the height to the top of this order is 157 feet. although only four bays of the external wall are still standing. The plan of a Roman Circus was an adaptation of a Greek stadium. but. Flaminius. lines of the unbroken entablatures entirely surround the building. Aries. 60 c) near Rome. Pola in Istria. countless arcades encircling the exterior. iii. which The Tuscan all have the same lower diameter are unusual column is about 9^ diameters high and the Ionic and Corinthian about 8| diameters. materials being taken from it for the construction of iv. Verona 456). all the stone seats being intact. The purely decorative use of the Classic orders of architecture which being superimposed are in strong contrast to The grand sweeping which the Grecian method of single orders. Between the pilasters are the corbels used to support the masts of the velarium. among which were the Circus Maximus and those of Maxentius. The Circus Maxentius (No. three tiers of apparently i. Corinthian pilasters. Other well-known examples are the Amphitheatres at Pompeii. in Dorset. and Corinthian The upper story has orders. the two latter being on pedestals. It consisted of a long open circular-ended arena with a "spina" along its axis. and Sallust. 311.

47).C. 70 (B. The central keystones project considerably in order to support the main architrave. The Arch of the Goldsmiths. 65. The Arch of Titus. and 70). and are richly carved.D. having a dedicatory inscription. is (A. 114) Sergii at Pola.) The three-arched type. which returns round each column.D. is an example. of which the central arch at Hyde Park Corner. the opening being spanned by an entablature. These rest on an impost. On each side of the arch are semi-engaged columns of the Composite order. Rome (A. the (A. 7). emperors or generals in honour of their consisted either of a single arch or of a central arch with a smaller one on either side. commemorates the capture of Jerusalem in A.D. These were erected They stonework was placed above. and three-quarter columns occur at the angles. 81) (Nos. and is one It has detached Corinthian of the best proportioned examples.D. Marble Arch. 66 detached Composite columns resting on pedestals. being crowned by victory. 57 and 65. as shown in No. and at the semicircular end was the " porta triumphalis. horses.D. not of arched construction. (a. The Arch of Constantine. 204) (Nos. statuary. 69 A. 204) (No. to victories. columns supporting an entablature. and were adorned with architectural enrichments. 49. Rome (A. and basAn attic or surmounting mass of reliefs relating to campaigns. Other well-known examples of this type are the Arches of Trajan (No. 47. being the earliest known examples. 67 B. Trajan at Beneventum (A.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. Rome (A. " At one end were the " carceres or stalls for horses and chariots. . The archway has its soffit ornamented with deep coffers. was built in honour of Constantine's victory over Maxentius. has and statues. 1 13). with a central entrance for processions and two side entrances. A description is given on each of the illustrations Nos. 70. and have Corinthian or Composite columns on either side.D. in the centre of which is a relief of the apotheosis of Titus. and Hadrian at Athens. The inner jambs have reliefs of the emperor in a triumphal car. Augustus at Rimini D). and above the attic were originally a quadriga. London. 47. built to commemorate Parthian victories. c). Rome 57. 153 external wall of concrete faced with "opus mixtum" (page 117). of which the gives a general idea. at Ancona (A.D.) The single-arched type." TRIUMPHAL ARCHES AND PILLARS OF VICTORY. on the one side.D. 27). The Arch of Septimius Severus. 49). and the spoils taken from the Temple at Jerusalem on the other. London. (b. Augustus at Susa (Piedmont) Augustus at Aosta (Piedmont). 312) (No.


X H Pu W .

through various toils. was numerous. 58 B. tombs were numerous. Besides these. Of this 7 type of gateway the Porta Nigra. 60 j.500 human figures. 161 to the memory of Antoninus Pius and that erected to Marcus Aurelius in memory of his victories over the Germans (A. were probably intended to represent the unwinding of a scroll of parchment illustrating incidents of Trajan's war with the Dacians. The column design of Trajan's Column. mention might be made of the Arch of Janus. TOMBS. Rheims. Trajan's Column (No. Rostral columns. Spalato (Palace of Diocletian). in the time of the emperors. . were used in their ornamentation (No. and bear considerable similarity to Etruscan examples. a type of memorial which." wind aloft up the rough steep of the Roman Doric order. and stood in an open court with galleries around at different levels. The column is 12 feet in diameter at the base and is provided with an internal spiral staircase of marble. Rostra. and carved on a spiral band over 800 feet long and about 3 feet 6 inches deep. and 18 feet high. lighted by The sculptures. in particular that of Regolini Galassi at Cervetri. from which the bas-reliefs on its shaft could be viewed. were erected to celebrate naval victories. built in the reign of Septimius Severus. stands on a pedestal inches square. 167-179) were founded on the Museum. a four-way arch built as a shelter at the junction of four roads. "The And The sculptures lead. and in such cases might serve the purposes of defence.those of the Greeks. Its total height is 147 feet. Andre.156 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. or prows of ships captured after a naval victory. 69 H). and having a doorway on the fourth. Autun. Pillars of victory. the Porte des Mars. besides animals. are among the best known. Treve^ the Porte S. were sometimes erected to record the triumphs of victorious generals. There is a full-sized cast in the Victoria and Albert The column. ornamented with sculptured trophies on three sides. . hero to the skies. Arches were also erected to form entrances to towns or bridges. in the Forum Boarium.D. feet 1 6 8 erected in A. numbering over 2. L). The Arch at Orange is one of the finest examples of this type It has semi-attached Corinthian columns between outside Italy. was erected 'in connection with his Basilica (page 139). Rome.D. and the Porta Aurea. the arches and three-quarter columns at the angles. and a recital of the deeds which led to their erection was carved upon them. and also the arches at Palmyra and in North Africa. small openings. or memorial columns. In contrast with.

the frieze of which is carved with ox-skulls and festoons.) Rome.. resting on a quadrangular structure and crowned with a pyramidal roof. (on the Via Appia). 135) was one of the It is now the most important of these monumental tombs. as in the Tomb of the Gens Cornelia. the practice of cremation became less usual the richer classes embalmed their dead and placed them in massive and costly sarcophagi instead of the smaller . or caves. supporting an immense circular tower 230 feet in diameter and 140 feet high. what remained of it. supporting a circular mass 94 feet in diameter. probably surmounted by a conical roof. with the name inscribed thereon. Little is now left. Rome (A. There are five varieties of Roman tombs. symbolizing the escaping soul of the dead emperor. in which. was erected for himself and his heirs. which are now known as catacombs. Rome (B. The bodies of the emperors during the first three centuries were usually burnt on magnificent pyres. (b. 69 M) and urns being sometimes found in the same tomb chamber. from descriptions of Strabo. both sarcophagi (No.C. the whole being capped by a mound of earth laid out in terraces and planted with Cyprus and evergreen trees. . The Mausoleum of -Hadnan. 220 feet in diameter. Angelo. from which an eagle was set free. and the whole was faced with travertine and crowned by an entablature. dome. The tomb-chamber was in the interior.) Columbaria. receptacle for ashes. as other examples. 52 : These were placed in subterranean vaults (a.D. Castle of S. some of which in addition had " loculi " or recesses for corpses. as indicated on No. and crowned with a colossal statue of Augustus. to have had a square basement surrounded with a portico of columns and supporting a circular mass. Monumental tombs The Tomb of Cecilia Metella. and have rows of niches in the walls resembling pigeon-holes hence the name. 60). 157 The Romans either buried or cremated their dead.C. In the second century A. and in the eighteenth century. has a podium 100 feet square. Sarcophagi were also placed in these tomb-chambers. Each niche was reserved for a vase containing the ashes of the deceased. and consists of a square basement about 300 feet each way and 75 feet high. and others. In the middle ages it was converted into a fortress. 28). Tacitus.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE.D. These may be survivals of the prehistoric tumulus of earth with its base strengthened by a ring of stones. The Mausoleum of Augustus. consisted of tower-shaped blocks. having a peristyle of marble columns. surmounted by a conical marble It was built of concrete. square or circular. Rome (B. containing the mortuary chambers. but it is known. was used as a theatre.

at The Tomb Mylassa. often with a prostyle portico. were formed the sepulchral chamber and converging passages. On the whole. first century) consists of a high pedestal ornamented with basreliefs and supporting a story of engaged Corinthian angle columns with arched openings between. fulfilling a utilitarian purpose only. supporting an entablature and conical stone roof. as in the Tomb of the Pancratii. memorial structures or cenotaphs were occasionally erected. formed by The . the solemn paths of ! Fame ' . as isolated monuments. Germany." DYER. so many wondeiing realms. Remi. Jerusalem (e. some rock-cut. so many storms of war.C. as in the Pyramid of Cestius faced with white (B. So many pomps. near Treves. The Monument of S.) Eastern tombs. erected along the sides of roads leading from cities. and the upper chamber contained portraits or statues of deities and served as mortuary chapels. aqueducts. were often (d. Deserve they not regard Such crowds have roll'd o'er whose broad flints . In addition to the foregoing. is one of the most interesting examples of the The illustration (No. which slope upwards from the ground level. as at Rome and in the Street of Tombs.) Smaller tombs. and has an internal tomb-chamber. towards the centre of the mass. due to the introduction of (c.) Pyramid tombs. were also adopted. 52 H). Above is a circular story with fluted Corinthian columns. and . being converted in the middle ages into a fortress by the Popes. AQUEDUCTS. and is now used as a military barrack. and Petra in Syria Caria in Asia Minor. some structural. These often have subterranean tomb-chambers for sarcophagi with niches for cinerary urns. and the walls and vaults were ornamented with colored reliefs in stucco. but with a walled-up colonnade. is of similar design. 52 G). near Tunis (No. although more of an engineering than architectural character. the vault and walls being decorated with figure paintings. latter. The districts of Palmyra. The Tomb at Dugga.in Asia Minor. The Igel Monument. Above the ground the tomb resembled a small temple. (No. the structure has been much altered since its construction.158 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. probably Egyptian ideas. which is formed of concrete marble. 62-12).C. 52) will show its general characteristics. Pompeii : " Those ancient roads With tombs high verged. somewhat resembles that at Mylassa. in Provence (B. and Algeria and Cyrene in Africa possess many examples.

the ruined aqueducts are striking features. and the others vary in width. entered the city on arches above those sixty-two of the A. Many of them follow a circuitous course in order to prevent the slope of the channel being too steep when the source of the water was high above the required level of distribuIn the time of Augustus Caesar there were nine tion in Rome. of Uzes. conveying the water from the high ground. above or below ground (Vitruvius recommends a fall of 6 inches to every 100 feet). bringing water from the neigh- bourhood about 900 feet long. of these aqueducts supplying Rome with water. The principle of all the examples is similar. their size 159 and proportion striking features of the Roman landscape. great thermae and public fountains. The Pont-du-Gard.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE.) gives interesting information on the subject. ig)(Nos. The masonry is laid dry without mortar and. Owing. is carried on arches. 60 It forms part of an B and 61). near Nimes. however. 38). to say nothing of the domestic supply for its large population. 38) Aqua Claudia. to the fact that pipes had then to be made of weak and costly lead or bronze (cheap and strong cast-iron pipes not being in use). Throughout the Empire remains are to be seen showing the importance put by the Romans upon an adequate water supply Rome had to be especially well supplied owing to their cities. The Aqua Marcia (B. often in several tiers and sometimes of immense height (say 100 feet). aqueduct twenty-five miles long. On the two lower tiers the central arch is the widest. a system which even in modern times has been followed in the Croton Aqueduct which supplies New York City. these enormous arched waterways must have impressed the beholder. and is formed of three tiers of arches crossing a valley 180 feet above the River Gard. to the city reservoirs. to the inferiority of the local service and the large quantity required for the reservoirs. supply water to Rome. miles in length. On the uppermost tier there are thirtyfive arches having 14 feet span. which is added to from other sources by Middleton. it was found to be more economical by the use of slave labour to construct aqueducts of stone. and the upper rooms " of their houses were supplied by " rising mains in the same way as modern buildings. across valleys. 144) and the Aqua Claudia " (A. It is in France (B. having almost level water channels. on immense arches above ground.C.D.C.D. as will be seen on . or concrete faced with brick. is the finest existing example. The Romans were acquainted with the simple hydraulic law that water will rise to its own level in pipes. supporting the water-channel. chapter vii. and in approaching the Eternal City in the days of its glory. Vitruvius (Book VIII. A smooth channel (specus) lined with a hard cement.. still The " Anio Novus (A. In any views of the Campagna near Rome.

the Triclinium. Of the Roman palaces the ruins only remain. chief characteristics of Roman bridges were solidity and a view to their withstanding the ravages of time and the elements. in 1863. 47). The principal approach was from the Forum Romanum. The magnificent vistas.) The many-arched type. with throughout. . These. Irregular spaces. and having additions by Tiberius. commenced by Augustus (A. 61. by a road which enough branched off from the Via Sacra. (b. but there is to show their enormous extent and imposing character. spanning the rocky valley of the Tagus. BRIDGES. some of the arch voussoirs of the intermediate tier projected to carry the temporary centering. were rendered symmetrical by the use of hemicycles and other devices. Nero and Domitian. is the best example. Besides these there were many minor chambers of service. and the giant remains attributed to him will probably impress the student of architecture most when visiting the site. The Palaces of the Roman Emperors. The Bridge five arches. . on the west side of the Arch of Titus (No. and afterwards continued by the Italian Government. PALACES. The roadway was generally kept level The simplicity. 3). the Peristylium. a square garden surrounded by a colonnade. or banqueting hall the Lararium. No. have revealed remains of a group of magnificent palaces. whose uses cannot now be ascertained. (a. as exemplified in the extreme length of the bridges at Cordova and The single-arched type. Other aqueducts exist at Tarragona and Segovia. The disposition of the buildings was governed by axial lines .l6o COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. commenced by Napoleon III. Spalato and elsewhere. : chief apartments in these palaces were The Tablinum or Throne-room the Basilica. Caligula. or apartment for statues of the household gods and the Nymphaeum.D. or hall for administering justice. caused by additions being made from time to time. were remodelled by Septimius Severus. of which the romantic Alcantara. Excavations on the Palatine Hill. at Rimini is the best preserved in Italy and has There are examples of two types of Roman bridges in Spain which are equally impressive. disguising the producing .) sweepT of the bridge at Toledo.

No. perhaps.A. and in the northern gateway arches rest of an entablature. different angles of the buildings in relation to frequently used by modern architects. country house. 136) and ^Esculapius (page 125) and the baths. l6l each other. . There was a square tower at each angle. or better. meeting in the centre. A circular vestibule. directly on capitals without the intervention an early example of a principle carried to its logical conbeing clusion in the Romanesque and Gothic styles. ending these main avenues. 300). each assigned to a particular purpose. thus losing its constructive significance. entablature of the peristyle is formed as an arch.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. The for the palace has a value. 524 feet by 24 feet. which formed the greater part of the mediaeval town of Spalato. halls of the palace proper. a method in Dalmatia (No. Elizabethan gallery. Lining the inclosing walls of the whole area. including two temples. were impressive features of the in distant views by group. being visible above the inclosing walls land and sea. and has thus been called a It may be described as a royal city in a house. gave the palace the character of a Roman camp. the " " "iron on the west. is The Palace of Diocletian. on the southern sea front. The original plan of the palace was approximately a rectangle. M . the "golden" on the north.D. 238). formed an entrance to a here were placed suite of nine chambers overlooking the sea the private apartments and baths of the emperor. 59) another famous example. which. broken and curved pediments with decadent detail being employed. as a transitional example. between which and those at the angles were subsidiary towers. were the cells that lodged the The octagonal temple. which divided the inclosed area into four parts. 130. pp. and the " brazen on the east. The architectural character is somewhat debased in style. On each of the facades. served as a connecting gallery. between the towers. a . and the more lofty the imperial retinue. as a chateau by the sea. being thus almost equal in extent to the Escurial in Spain (page 537. and in the centre of each of the north. These gateways formed entrances to porticoed avenues 36 feet wide. east and west sides was a gateway flanked by octagonal towers. (A. the finest being This the portico. page 555). that of Jupiter (see under circular temples. were rich entrance gateways. upper portion were detached and rested on carved corbels. however. occupying an area of 9^ acres. The two northern portions were probably for the guests and principal officers of the household while the whole of the southern portion was devoted to the palace. feature also seen in the golden gateway. F. with a front portico in antis. Spalato. slaves and soldiers of internally. on three sides. and was probably filled with works The columns to the of art (cf.

but as a decree was passed in the time of Augustus limiting the height of houses in Rome to 75 feet. the remains which have been excavated are believed to differ but slightly from the later Greek 'dwellings. The rooms wereji^hted by orjenings giving on to internal courts already mentioned. The villa. The impluvium.l62 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. The openings were small. or many- . and a peristyle beyond. and the inns former days. These Pompeian houses owe their preservation to an eruption of Vesuvius. as are Eastern houses to this day. forming the more public portion of the building. are interesting examples. which served as the public of in France and England The Pompeian houses waiting-room for retainers and clients. while round were grouped the front rooms. and from which the more The atrium was open private portions of the house were shut off. The (c. and there seems every reason to believe that Roman They each possessed an dwellings were evolved from them. " to the sky in the centre. with a " lean-to or sloping roof supported by brackets round all four sides. or entrance passage. and three smaller houses. 47). forming the centre of the family apartments. the frontage_on_ either side of the entrance passage beingL-4^fc-oft asjshl2pr~~The absence oF windows on the fronts is explained by some as being due to a lack of glass. burying it in ashes to a depth of 10 feet. B) may be taken as a good type of domus or ordinary private house. brick or masonry buildings must have been largely erected. or House/of the Vestal Virgins (No. bakeries. THE DWELLINGS OF THE ROMANS. or "water cistern. or country house and The domus. The House of Pansa (No. led direct from the street entrance to the atrium. At Rome.D. the garden occupying the fourth. probably used by servants or guests. or as semi-public . but are_ mostly stairs and traces of upper floors exist. was sunk in the centre of the pavement.) or private house insitla.) . 12. consisted of shops. 65. which in A." for receiving the rain-water from these roofs. These may be (&. besides the house proper. the Atrium Vestae. storied tenement. It was surrounded by streets on three sides. the light being strong in the sunny climate of Italy. The houses had plain fronts to the street. The streets of Pompeii were narrow (many only 8. in which case openings towards the street would have rendered privacy impossible. and the House of Livia. A prothyrum. The dwellings of the Greeks have already been touched upon (page 92). A. 79 overwhelmed the city. or 15 feet).) classified under (a. the widest being 23 feet 6 inches. one story in height. and as Pompeii was a Graeco-Roman city. The excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum have thrown considerable light on this important subject. and. with a roadway 13 feet 6 inches and paths 5 feet wide. Such upper stones were probably of wood. atrium.

Roman feast. the decorations being copies of original paintings at Pompeii. or tablinum. for conversation. The walls and floors were richly decorated with mosaics and paintings. 68 G. and fountains. to which the name " Pompeian is now applied. with " fauces. and thermae. the darkest colors of the decorative scheme being placed nearer the ground. " The Last Lytton's great novel. as nine was the recognized number for a . 163 rooms. is an exceedingly good reproduction of an ordinary Pompeian house. and others. each receiving sufficient light through the door openings. 69). or inner court. as Piranesi. The Pompeian House at the Crystal Palace. either in black and white (No. suggestive of a metallic perspective. The walls were either painted to imitate marble or executed in fresco. Days of Pompeii. designed by the late Sir Digby Wyatt. with entablatures in to be imagined. Examples of flat. or tenement of many stories. or dining-room (summer and winter). An open saloon. e. Besides the imperial apartments it was surrounded by terraces. 69 K) or of colored marbles. Diomede. or recesses. Hadrian's Villa. Pictures were sometimes framed with architectural features consisting of slender shafts. led to the peristyle. near Tivoli.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. The roofs were covered with tiles or bright colored terra-cotta. Canina. the triclinium. to have resembled modern M 2 . are other well-known examples of Pompeian houses which have their floors. the oacus. and which were furnished with domestic implements such as candelabra (Nos." will be found of interest to the student as a description of the habits and life of the Romans. 68. (see page 280). which have origin. had pro- bably painted and gilded timbers. and vaults decorated in a " characteristic style. Roman villas exist in England seems The the insula. Restorations have palaestra. the Tragic Poet." or narrow passages. The floors of these houses were of patterned mosaic. peristyles. The dining-rooms were fitted with three couches each for three people to recline upon. been made by many authorities.) libraries. furthest from the entrance. forming an important element in the decorative scheme. and Sallust. walls. and it usually had a small shrine or altar (Nos. The ceilings. Vettius. resembled a palace in its extent. The Houses of the Faun. or reception room. occupying an area of about seven square miles. corresponding to the hall of Elizabethan times. theatres. 69 E). The kitchen and pantry are in the side of the peristyle. often the garden of the house and around were grouped the cubiculae or bedrooms. a gymnasium. The peristyle was the centre of the private part of the house.g. and the alae. with different aspects.

and exhibit much variety. while variety of grouping and some picturesqueness was attempted in the Propylaea and Erechtheion (Nos. rich material. from which issued the water. Purity and severity of outline caused by the simple method of post and beam. on a large scale. proportion being of the first importance. and there is a dignity and grandeur of effect irrespective of the smallness of scale. Private fountains existed in great numbers. ROMAN. 4. and are characteristic of a powerful and energetic race. 58 and 59). giving boldness and variety and leading to the system of intersecting expanded. as have been found at Pompeii. mainly in the courts and gardens of the houses. and the soothing effect in a hot and low-lying city of the clear water sparkling in the sun. They were of colored marbles and porphyries. By the use of the arch. In some the water issued in jets from fishes. exceedingly /numerous. No mixture of constructive principles occurs in the buildings of the Greeks. either as (salientes). wide openings were rendered possible. The Romans were pre-eminently great constructors. sometimes supported by a figure of In others. Fountains.164 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. amounting large basing of water (locus) or as spouting jets or the two combined and ornamented with marble columns and statues. Plans. FOUNTAINS. and constituted a step ness of planning as resulted from the arcuated Roman style. were provided with lions' heads. refineA. and by vaults and domes large areas and complicated plans could be roofed (Nos. COMPARATIVE. structive skill was acquired by the building. of utilitarian works. the limits of whose style have not been yet successfully toward Gothic architecture. Designs convey an beauty. 30). to The public fountains were many hundreds. such as the aqueducts and bridges. wall niches lined with glass and mosaics a nymph. did not lend itself to such variety and bold- The arch. . shells. 18. of design. or other objects. have always been one of the most striking features of both ancient and modern Rome on account of their graceful designs. and knew how to use the This conmaterials at hand. both public and private. often decorated with bronze statuettes. GREEK. of and vastness impression magnificence. vault. Unity was attained in the selfcontained temples. and dome were the keynotes to the whole system of the style. A. 26. ment and Designs have Plans.

Doorways are squareheaded. Openings.D. semicircle divided vertically by two mullion piers was a favourite type of window. and coarse materials. 30. were not used in Temples. and 27 B. Of minor importance. 62 A). Constantine. placed without regard to orientation. rubble. Athens' (No. 54 B). The Greek Temples were B. Openings. the columnar treatment giving the necessary light and shade. 37 c. and 44 c. the adherence of the blocks not being necessary. bond courses for strength being introduced. principally The the latter (No. were never perfectly completion. vaults. by which the concentration of weights on piers was effected. each bed overlapping the one below till the crown is reached (page 54). An example of a vaulted building is the Treasury of Atreus. Where coarse stone used it was frequently covered with stucco. orientated. (No. 28. reduced into fragments and bound together was by mortar. as in the fine example of the north doorway at the Erechtheion. . Windows. ROMAN. GREEK. and doubtless many buildings finished. rectangular and semicircular on plan is a special Roman feature (Nos. B. but consisted of fragments of stone. Arches sometimes had centering. all of which sufficed for the most important projects. this polishing being performed by slaves. The Anta (Nos. where the beds of the stones are horizontal throughout. brick or hard rock and quarry debris. Stability was achieved solely by the judicious observance of the laws of gravity. The was employed at extremities and angles of cella walls. except on rare occasions. Great haste was necessary in the execution to complete sufficiently for use. Even for transmitting the pressure between the blocks only metal cramps were used. as shown on plate No. at Mycenae. thus producing the segmental arch. common in the third and fourth centuries A. 50 B. usually faced the east. Jointing was not reckoned as a means of effect. resistance. D). supported at the springing line. such as brick.. The Roman Temples were B. i. 26. Such walls are thus often coarse in character. 38 F and 67 F). with brick or marble facing. allowing of refinement of treatment. and needed but vertical Walls. By the extended use of concrete. PJ pilaster was the Roman development of the Greek Anta (Nos. Constructed of small. and often crowned with a cornice supported by consoles. 23 A.e. and concrete. Constructed of large blocks of marble. for the weights only acted vertically. 21. 46 E). without mortar. it may be said that the Romans inaugurated the employment of large masses of irregular materials. and perfection of finish in construction. One-sixteenth of an inch was rubbed off the buildings on These materials were not special to any country. headed or These were imbeing square- portant features. Walls. 27 L. The employment of marble directly shaped the development of the style. 20 c. The use of recesses The use of the true arch is avoided. afterwards filled up with brickwork. mean. D H).ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. illumination being obtained from doorways or hypaethral openings (Nos. from the Basilica of circular.


D. the richest examples being at the Parthenon (No. Timber framing also appears to have been employed. as in the Colosseum at Rome. and in many cases finished with richly carved antefixae (Nos. According to Vitruvius flat terrace roofs were employed. The noble vaults and domes described on page 117 constituted the important development. 16. as amongst the Etruscans. 16 A. the fluting being carried out when the columns were in position. reduced to rules by Vitruvius. 21). as for example the Pantheon. Roof coverings were either of terracotta. The Doric Order (No. used in The orders were connection with the arch. as at Baalbec. having carved enrichments. D. which is merely a simplified form of the Doric. 27). j). as at the Colosseum (No. The Tuscan Order has unfluted column entablature (No. used by the Romans. The Tuscan Order. is a good modern example by Inigo Jones. such as octagons and squares in combination. Roofs. 20). 20. The acroteria or blocks of stone resting on the vertex and lower extremities of the pediment. which it is believed were constructed of T-iron and concrete. Columns. Paul. or of bronze in the more important buildings. The ceilings internally were of various geometric patterns. being lost their structural used in a and gradually importance. These were of timber framing (Nos. 55). The ceilings of the peristyles were coffered in stone with square or rectangular panels (No. splendid wooden coffered ceilings were employed in the houses of the rich. I6 7 Extreme care was bestowed upon the elaborately constructed. and supporting statuary or ornaments were characteristic features (Nos. The column and beam are the keynotes of Greek architecture. plain and 262 simple S. not suited to most important buildings being being their ideas . as in some of the larger halls of the Thermae. as at the Pantheon (N os.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. The Romans introduced pedestals on which they placed the column A to secure greater height. 28 E. ROMAN. roofs of the temples. GREEK. Covent Garden. 23 and 25). was not employed by the Greeks. Greek use of pedestals appears to be that of the Temple of Diana at Ephesus (No. to interiors of 23. was gradually evolved for all the orders. largely used 38 A) was their The Doric Order (No. or in the Triumphal Arches. was of by the Greeks. 62 A). manner. a B). Orders often superimposed. were richly coffered. The only B and 31 D). canon of proportions. Columns. 54. little 38 B). and were covered with large slabs of marble with coverpieces which at the eaves were Roofs. decorative Orders never superimposed except Temples (Nos. 23) and the Temple of Apollo Epicurius (No. 19 c and 20 H. and according to Horace. and highly-finished. The orders were structural necessities wherever used. 31). Coffered ceilings in framed timber probably roofed over the large span of the cella. E.


but engaged columns occur in the Theatre of Marcellus. 16 A). The Romans added a base. The columns were less sturdy and the flutes were examples. 38 c) was used with great refinement by the Greeks. 27 and 29). thus showing the face of the scrolls on each side. usually placed over the triglyph only. placed over are tri- glyph and metope much sometimes omitted. and the shaft is usually fluted. beneath which is the echinus (No. usually The entablature is of a richer (Nos. dates from B. inclined. 38 F) was the favourite of the Romans. 67 A." which as the are blunt-ended and flat in section. The channels in the triglyph are rounded off at the top. but is in a line vertical with it (No. where the end triglyph appears at the extremity of the frieze (No. and the octagonal Tower or of the size. and the examples remaining are thought by some to indicate the decline of Greek art. in that sculpture. splendour and magnificence. except at the angles. The capital is rich. are but slightly inclined. that in the cella the of the Temple of Apollo Epicarius at Bassas. 430. as such. choragic (No. and the triglyphs are over the central axes of the columns. The mutules. as those of Castor and Pollux (Nos. numerous and enriched has naturalistic the acanthus leaves sur" " often being rounding the bell internally buildings greater The Temple mouldings. whose outline varies 169 ROMAN. 38 D) from the Greek chiefly as regards the typical capital. even at the angle. The entablature is very much enriched by ornamentation. ment The mutules. The channels in the triglyph have square angles at the top. probably derived from the painted work The architrave of the Greeks. 38 Monument of Lysicrates E). or from the olive leaf. of of character and in derived from the leaves known " acanthus mollis. The distinctive capital has the scrolls showing on two sides only. It was erected of this order. the capital having a plain square abacus. 38 B).. In this order as approved by Palladio and others the triglyphs in the frieze were over the central axes of the columns. adding a dentil course. The Corinthian Order (No. known earliest viz.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. varied the abacus and echinus. 38 E) was little used by the Greeks. description.C. although an example of angle volutes is found in a special case at Bassas The Order (No. 40 D). GREEK. and modified the cornice. The Ionic Order (No. Winds in at Athens. The architrave overhangs the face of the column (Nos. It appears to have been principally used in small such as the buildings only. The proportions of the columns proceed from extreme sturdiness in the in different early examples to great refinein the late ones. The Temple of Hercules at Cora is the only temple in the style. and the frieze is freacanthus quently carved with the . 68) and Vespasian at Rome. which Ionic differed had angle volutes. gave way to mere carving. The architrave does not overhang the face of the column. although example. The order was practically not introduced till the later age. The Corinthian Order (No. used without a base. 16 and 38 A).' as in the Temple of Castor and Pollux. and was used in the largest temples.


though often covered with delicately carved enrichments. 67). a certain rich picturesqueness of surface is produced in cornices and dressings. and have a fillet Greek dentils are far apart. for wall facings and The ornamental sculpture used in the tympana of the pediments. GREEK. Greek consoles used only as vertical brackets to doorways as in the Erechtheion doorway (No. underneath. 37). modillions (consoles. Executed in a finegrained marble. H). relied on the rich mouldings. of V- duced and giving an apparent support to the corona. of marble. 41). Ornament (Nos.. whether executed in isolated groups or in works within the boundaries of an architectural framing. rich and good effects were . 39 and F. 29 E The Composite Order was invented by the Romans. but Greek artists were employed. and Greek examples were prized and copied. as the corona itself. even The upper capital Triumphal Arches. brackets or corbels) being intro- The scroll or with figure ornaments. 33 leaves F. which are usually parts of circles in profile. and occupy the whole depth of the moulding. being used principally in the enriched with carving. and which. and the carefully prepared cement used as a covering to stone or were executed in many examples show floors. portion of the Ionic was combined with the lower part of the Corinthian. Jupiter Olympius at Athens may be considered a Roman building. but great vulIn the case garity of sentiment.Ornament The Romans the Parthenon. . Roman dentils are close together. Mouldings The Romans on relied for effect the graceful contour of their The Greeks (Nos. and F. Roman consoles used horizontally G. which approach conic sections in profile. c. Shafts were fluted or plain. 67. refinement. 69). Mouldings 40). spinosus) type (No.) The Acanthus leaves surrounding the "bell" were of the prickly acanthus (acanthus 171 ROMAN. 43 and 44). (Nos. although the execution of the carving to the mouldings themselves is often of inferior workmanship. 68 and did not excel either in sculpture or painting. 68) and vertically in keystones to arches (No. the metopes and the friezes. The sculpture of the Greeks has never been surpassed.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. In later times both vaults and floors of importance mosaic. carving cut upon their mouldings. as at (Nos. The Composite Order was never used by the Greeks. or rather as a Greek design mainly carried out by Romans. 42. but with additional ornamentation. In other details the order follows the Corinthian. in cornices (No. 39 and 40). but a treatment somewhat similar is seen in the capitals of the Erechtheion where the necking under the Ionic scrolls are carved with the Anthemion ornament (Nos. of less depth. (See page go. never lose the idea of grace of outline which the decoration seems but to enhance. The mouldings under the corona are much is Shafts of columns were fluted. having pointed shaped section. and have between them sunk and sculptured coffers. cornice is also considerably enriched. they were often undercut so as to produce a fretted effect. 41. every member being carved. Ostentation replaces and in the latest examples.


brick. N).) and Gandy (J. the Quarnero. 1888.)." Rome in the Gell (Sir Gusman. influenced largely the fresco decoration of the Renaissance period.)." 1764. 44 A." Monuments antiques a Orange. A.). GREEK. 1902. Paris. W. " The Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria. and formed a ground on which paintto walls judged from the provincial imitations of Pompeii. (R." Paris." Folio. also employed on cyma- recta mouldings. Dennis (G. Naples. 69 A)." 6 vols. must have been grand in style and decorative in effect. Phene)." Folio. Adam Cameron Paris. " Le Forum Remain et les Forums de Jules Caesar. 5. 1878. if from the actual lands skulls and gar- decoration on altars at which the beasts them- hung for selves A finely had been slain. The Acanthus scroll with continuous stem and spirals adorned with rosettes or grotesques.)." 2 vols." 1772. " Durm (J." 4to.)." 8vo. REFERENCE BOOKS. 43 F. 4to. E. 3 vols.). is specially characteristic (No. "Die Baukunst der Etrusker und Roemer (" Handbuch der Architektur"). " Les Edifices Circulates. F.).). 1848-56. have already been referred to in the analysis of Greek architecture (page 108). while the later. The early frescoes were probably in the style of the vase painters of that period. Darmstadt.). ings could be safely executed. Anderson (W. Ancient Lanciani (R.). Boston. worked marble cement was frequently used as a covering and stone columns. as at Pompeii. (Nos. or honeysuckle 42 H." Pompeiana. Paris. " Gli Edifizj di Roma Antica. . " Jackson (T. theatre. Caristie (A. " (C. 1887. and Istria." Large 8vo. Choisy (A. de Nerva. Folio. The arabesques which adorned the walls of the Baths of Titus (No.)." Folio. Dutert (F. " Restauration des Thermes Caracalla a Rome.) and Spiers (R. which must have aided in the Polygnotus and general effect.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE." " La Villa Imperiale de Tibur.) " Dalmatia. " L'Art de Batir chez les Romains. E. 1828. "Ruins of the Palace of Diocletian at Spalatro. as the Romans were produced. G. are supposed to have originated connoisseurs they Temples were treated with color. P. et de Traja. arc de triomphe et Folio." Folio. Paris.). d'Auguste. J. Canina (L. which sought out and imported from all countries." Blouet (G.. D'Amelio (P. " The Architecture of Greece and Rome: A Sketch of its Historic Development. 67 F). 1876. 1885. Paris. Isabelle (C. of Recent Discoveries. 8vo. 39 of much J. 1873. The Anlhcmion. part of the Propylaea being known as the Painted Loggia. so frequently carved on Roman friezes. was the characteristic motif and was Greek surface ornament. It is generally admitted that the exteriors of the 173 ROMAN. 1819-32. The ox-heads connected with garlands. in marbles. Description of the Baths of the Romans. de Vespasian. Light 8vo. " Dipinti Murali Scelte di Pompei. other great artists were employed for decorative painting upon the temples and other buildings. 1856.). 1855.


(Andrea).).). " Antichita Romane. 4to. F. C). 1570. Niccolini (F. the Colosseum. (N. each containing a magnificent series of engravings of Buildings and Antiquities in Ancient Rome and its Environs. Naples.). Tatham (C. J. Nibby (A.). Cinque English and French translations. 1826. "Roman : 2 vols. and other editions. and F. Pantheon and other The British and the Victoria and Albert Museums should buildings. see "The Decorative Part of (Sir W.) and Cresy Rome. " Arte Pompeiana Monumenti Scelti. H. Wood Novel. p." Rome. 1826..).). 23-79)." Niccolini (F. 1875. published in 1902. Paulin (E.).B. Historic Naturalis " (A. Vulliamy (H). Imp. folio. von). 175 REFERENCE BOOKS Mau (A. The ." Descrizone della Villa Adriana. Classic Architecture. 1892. Palladio." Translated from the Latin by Joseph Gwilt.A. Folio. B. Architectural Antiquities of 1821-1822. : 8vo.'' Spiers (R." Forming about 30 or 40 large folio volumes. 1899. "Description des Bains de Titus. Chambers Civil Architecture. Middleton : Continued." Folio. folio. 1901. "Pompeii New York.)." M." Folio. Pliny. da). large folio. Kelsey. 1887.). 1827." translated by W." The 1818. R. Piranesi (G. " (E. Penrose (F. "Die Architektonischen Ordnungen Folio. Mitchell (C. "Temple of Jupiter Olympius. Mauch (J. Paris." I Quattro Libri dell' architettura di A. . 1877.I. The Ruins Church (A." The Architecture of. "The Remains of Ancient Rome.." " 2 vols. " Thermes de Diocletian. of Architecture: Greek." Paris. Life in the Days of Cicero.). and student should visit the Crystal Palace for the Pompeian House and models of the Roman Forum." Folio. Its Life and Art. The best English translations are those by Leoni (1715) and Ware (1738). with Life and Work of Palladio. be visited for actual fragments. "Examples of Ornamental Sculpture in Architecture. Griechen und Roemer. L." Folio.) Folio and 4to. Various Ordini d' Architettura. Vitruvius (Marcus).)." 1827.). P.). measured and Vignola (G. 4. 1 der 829." (Historical For Classic Orders.). See also the author's monograph." (J.D.) " (R. Berlin. Small Le Case e i Monumenti di Pompeii. F. of Palmyra and Baalbec. 1786. 8. Roman. B. Circ. H. "Etchings of Grecian and Roman Architectural " Ponce Ornament. 8vo. Palladio Naples. 1854-189-." (C) Folio. Taylor (G." Several vols. " Parallel of the Orders of Architecture. " 1748-1791." Venice." Transactions vol. delineated." N ormand Italian. "The Orders 1901.ROMAN ARCHITECTURE.

known as the " Apostate. Ravenna.D.D. In A. 537. Geological. to become universal. and in A. was the connecting link of the early Christian and Byzantine styles (see page 193). iii. Climate." and Christianity. subdued by Justinian in A. was the Councils of the Church for the settlement of disputes about heresies.D. under Julian. 313 Constantine issued his celebrated decree from Milan. 325. " All roads lead to Rome." . freely. The position of Rome as the centre of a world. were now able to hold their services openly and Christians. Religion." TENNYSON.). " A A fuller light illumined all.EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE. called by Constantine. 323 he himself professed Christianity. however eastern its birthplace. A temporary reaction took place in A. all breeze through the garden swept.D. according to Christianity equal rights with all other religions. ii. The Council first of several of Nice.D. Geographical. which then became the established religion of the Roman Empire. had to grow up at the capital. both in regard to construction and decoration. which formed their burial-places. i. The quarry of the ruins of Roman buildings influenced the architectural treatment of the style. which spread so rapidly that in a very short period it was diffused throughout the whole civilized world. iv. A. History presents no phenomenon so striking as the rise of Christianity. sect. See Roman Architecture (page i~ . as columns and other architectural features and marbles from the older buildings were worked into the design of the new basilican churches of the Christians. i. The who up to that period were an unpopular dissenting and had worshipped in the Catacombs. INFLUENCES.wide empire was an important factor (see page in). 360-363.

A. 300 to 604. the latest phase of Roman art. The division of the Roman Empire first took place in A. A. Theodoric the Goth reigned in Italy. A.D. F. The the battle of Chalons. and for the next two centuries architecture was practically at a standstill in Europe. 493-526.D. which. aided in consolidating Christianity in Europe.D. 590 to 604) the Latin language and Early Christian architecture. Zeno reigning at Constantinople over the Eastern and Western Empires. Social and Political. and Teutonic settlements took place within the empire about this time. 324 Constantine practically reigned as an absolute monarch till his death in A. as lasting from Constantine to Gregory the Great. and the empire was nominally again reunited. reunited the Eastern and Western portions of the Empire.D. control made civilization.EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE. at Alaric in A.D. The West Goths sacked Rome under of Attila. The Teutonic invasions of Italy commenced about A. these movements being caused by the incursions of the defeat Huns into Germany.D. N .D. 364. was the capital of the Gothic dynasty. reigning between the years A. ceased to exist. gave a fresh impulse to the Christian Church and laid the foundations of the power of the Bishops of Rome. making common cause with the people against the Lombards and others. and in consequence are called Romance languages.D. and Romanesque architecture was gradually evolved. 376. Histoncal. or from A.D. The series of emperors in the West came to an end in A. the old Roman political system coming to an end. Gaul. 451. 476. 379-395. Spain. Kings of separate states were then elected in Italy. 337. and Northern Africa. empire from Rome to Byzantium in A. king of the Huns. Odoacer. Theodosius the Great. employed the imperial army of Constantinople and acted as the defender of Rome. at 177 Gregory the Great (590-604). 410. During the reign of Gregory the Great (A.D. possible the development of Romano-German which facilitated the growth of new states and nationalities. On changing the capital of the v. from 493-552. a period of peace and prosperity. The Early Christian period is generally taken vi. recognizing the supremacy of the one Roman Emperor at ConThe emancipation of the West from direct imperial stantinople. the new king of Italy. I From the Roman or common speech several of the chief languages of modern Europe commenced to arise. Valentian being Emperor of the West and his brother Valens of the East. when besieged by the Lombards Rome. when the old Roman traditions were to a great extent thrown aside. in which Byzantine art influenced Early Christian art by way of Ravenna.D.

were copied by the early Christians for their places of worship. but as the arch came more into general use these columns were spaced further apart. 77). 81. The earlier basilican churches had their columns closely spaced. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. The plans of the basilicas. On this account. 80. and formed of columns and other features from Pagan buildings. . and were constructed with columns of different orders and sizes which were made to an uniform height by the addition of new pieces of stone. Little money being at the them to These are known as basilican churches. being connected by semicircular arches (Nos. arising from new structural necessities. and the comparative lowness of the interiors in proportion to their length. in which a circular dome was placed over a square space by means of the pendentive (No. now rendered useless for their original purpose. or double bases. The architectural character is impressive and dignified due to the increase in the apparent size of the basilicas by the long perspective of the columns. covered by a wooden roof. although extremely interesting from an archaeological point of view. or--^^m^JtijJ]s_oi_justice. This gradual growth characterizes progress in other departments as well as Architecture. 73 A and 74). and in addition new churches built on the model of the old Roman basilicas. which a new manner in architecture. which were readily constructed. The basilican church with three or five aisles. it adopt places of worship which could be Many of the Roman Temples. COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. and were crowned with the entablature which supported the main wall. 79). were utilized for the new faith. -One style was evolved from another so gradually that it is impossible to say exactly where the one ended and the next began. or in some cases by the omission of the base mouldings (No. in the architect's mind at least. were erected. modifying the art of the past to meet command of the Early Christians. 75 B). is certain to possess. was necessary for fresh conditions. is the special type of the style as opposed to the vaulted types of the Byzantine style (Nos. 72. and were often situated over the entrances to their former hiding-places or crypts. on which rested the wooden roof (No. Each age feels its way towards the expression of its own ideals. 84 and 85). the early buildings can hardly have the value for study.178 2. BASILICAN CHURCHES. 3. EXAMPLES. and .

1 < ffl > H N 2 .1 * w S o 6tT -M c J tf w ^- SI z <: s '? S o.

as and in the Basilicas of S. which. thus became stepping-stones from the Classic of pre-Christian times to the Gothic architecture of the Middle Ages. John Lateran. Some authorities. ([Occasionally two aisles occur on each side of the nave. The apse became the sanctuary which remained circular-ended in Northern Europe. however. the water from which was used for washing before entering the church a custom which still survives in an altered form amongst Catholics. 1084 (Nos. as at S. formerly used by the Romans . 58) was for Christian worship is seen from the plan of S. 75 E) S. Galleries for the use of women were sometimes placed over the but where none existed aisles. Some consider. S. lighted by a clerestory of small windows. 72). In the centre of the atrium narthex was the place for penitents.l8o COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. being an open space surrounded by arcades. such aisles being usually half the width of the nave. had an aisle on either side. 75 c). was occasionally introduced. owing to the increase of . Clemente.ritual. PaulJ(No. 72. of which the nave was the long arm. converting the plan into a Latin cross. that this cruciform ground plan was derived from the buildings erected for sepulchral purposes as early as the age of Constantine. " and was inclosed by low screen walls. which may be said to commence with these Basilican churches. or holy-water basin. Peter (No. believe the early Christian churches to have been evolved from the Roman dwelling-house. The nave. 73 B). Rome. ^although rebuilt in the eleventh century. formed an imposing approach in most of the Basilican The covered portion next the church 'called the churches. contains the original internal arrangement of the churches of the fifth century. and provided with an " ambo " or pulpit on either side. An atrium or forecourt. The bishop took the place formerly occupied by the " pratprf1*! " qnestor" (page 136). called the in a modified form in the pagan basilicas.D. choir became necessary. or from the class-room where philosophers taught." which existed transept. where at first the community were in the habit of assembling. The presbyters. was a fountain or well." or "presbytery. who dip their fingers into a stoop. until in subsequent ages the seat was moved to the side. A A ' Epistle were read (No. Agnese and S. from which the gospel and . The altar in front of the apse. at the entrances of their churches. occupied seats on either side of the bishop formerly occupied by the assessors. becoming the bishop's throne. or " cancelli (from which the word chancel is derived). How suitable the Roman basilica type (No. or members of the council of the early Church. Lorenzo the sexes sat apart on opposite sides of the nave. A. " bema. however.


John Lateran (A.D. and at one S. which is frequently richly treated with a central figure of Christ seared in glory and set in relief against a golden background. the repetition of the long rows of columns being grand in the extreme. B." or of Nero. are important threeaisled Basilican churches carried out by Byzantine artists on Roman models.D. The priest stood behind the altar. A. a city well situated for receiving the influence of Constantinople. Peter (A. Apollinare time the seat of an Exarch of the Empire. Peter in the circus " It had a "transept." ) which was placed frequently in a broad band (No. In later times the altar was frequently placed against the east wall of the apse (No. and the fine mosaics." The ceilifigs of timber were also formed in compartments and were richly gilded (Nos. Paolo fuori le (Nos. . There were in all thirty-one Basilican churches in Rome." 55 feet wide. gave access from the body of the church.and S. as the chancel was at the west end of the church. or canopy. and at the sanctuary end was a semicircular apse on a raised floor. 78 G.D.D. or sacrifices to their gods. mostly made up of fragments of earlier pagan buildings. as in the interior view of S. 330) has been altered so much in modern times as to have lost its early character.D. r82i. 78 B. was for the celebration of Christian rites. 74) above the nave arcading and to the semi-dome of the apse (No. With cycles of the human tale. near Venice. bema. S. The interiors of these basilicas are impressive and severe. now used pouring out of libations. A. slices of columns being used as centres surrounded by bands of geometric inlay twisted with intricate designs (No. The old Basilican Church of S. 75 E). was erected over it. Apollinare in Classe. the foundations of the original A.l82 for the COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. the centre called 113 feet high (No. and a baldachino. 75 D and 76). built by Theodoric the Goth. 72). c). and thus faced east. 74. K). L). built mura 380 by Theodosius but re-erected in A. against the centre of the wall of which was the Pope's seat. and Five arches. 74 and 76). The pavements were formed out of the abundant store of old columns and other marbles existing in Rome. and they are interesting for the impost blocks to the capitals supporting the pier arches. At Torcello. There are also important examples at Ravenna. Maria Maggiore (Nos. The interiors of these buildings owe their rich effect to the use of glass mosaic (" opus Grecanicum. 330) was erected near the site of the martyrdom of S. and S. " Below was all mosaic choicely planned. 493-525. 75 A. supported on marble columns. the arch of triumph. Nuovo.D. 538-549.

1*3 CO h O u U ^ D K .

75 j. as the Roman circular. Rome (A. being The Rotondo. columns which a decorative in Roman examples were cover a large area with one roof was difficult. constructed of hollow tiles. until the end of the sixth century of our era the baptistery but after this period appears to have been a distinct building the font came to be placed in the vestibule of the church. in the mediaeval period. . 75 F. surrounded by six rows of seats in the apse. founded at the end of the fourth century. has S. resulting in such a building as these early domes. and appears to be the first instance of the use of both.D. being 210 feet in diameter. G. 470). The dome. 75 H. the early Christians modified them to some extent. of baptism . architects always allowed the stone vault to show externally. with two rings of columns. usually adjoining the atrium or fore-court. L) is octagonal. though not a a good example of a circular plan of similar type (Nos. Indeed. In the case of this building. . Nocera. who. as in the Pantheon. There was generally one baptistery in each city. bishop's throne. but by of an aisle in one story round a moderate-sized circular tomb. H. and is similar to the practice of Gothic architects. is 80 feet in diameter. still exist. is an octagonal structure with two arcades in the interior one above the other. and the roof is supported by a screen of eight columns two stories in height. BAPTISTERIES are another description of building met with in Early Christian They were originally used only for the sacrament hence the name " Baptistery. as at Ravenna and Florence. In adopting the Roman tombs as models for these buildings. The Baptistery. To way were now used generally used in to support the walls carrying the the addition baptisteries (No. the outer range supporting arches. K. all taken from older buildings. and the inner a horizontal architrave. (No.184 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. and 77). Rome Baptistery. This building is domed and covered with a wooden roof. covered the stone vaults of their churches with timber roofs (No 109). and it was as a rule a detached building. between Naples and Salerno. and with roof supported on two circular rings of columns. however. already described (page 136). Stefano is baptistery. the inner walls could be replaced by columns in the lower half. j). giving a good idea of the Early Christian arrangements. the vault is merely an internal ceiling which is covered with an external wooden roof. Ravenna." The form was derived from the Roman circular temples and tombs. The Baptistery of Constantine. The two central columns are an addition to support the roof timbers. for the internal architecture.


cc PQ .

D. and altars with the open books of the Apostles. Salonica possesses important examples. and in Egypt and Algiers are many examples of basilican and circular buildings of the Early Christian period. instead of the usual circular form. Ravenna crypt. and has a raised lantern at the crossing. It resembles the Temple at Spalato (p. Rome Placidia. George. Each of the arms of the cross contains a sarcophagus. S. notably those by Constantine the Church of the Nativity. to have broken away from influence. 83 c. 530) (No. Syria has a number of interesting monuments erected between the third and eighth centuries. 35 feet in diameter. the angles being Roman The Syrian type appears soon A filled with niches. 130). TOMBS. Constanza. Ravenna (No. standing on the decagonal basement. 73 c. Pergamus. D). of the founder were placed in an urn on the top of the covering. due largely to the abundance of hard stone. originThe ashes ally used to place this immense covering in position. also at Jerusalem. and is one of the few examples which the pendentives and dome are portions of one hemi-sphere (No. 45 feet in diameter externally. Such are considered to be prototypes of later Byzantine churches of the type of S. and Hierapolis. Piers were used instead of columns. 79 H). It The K). as it retains all its ancient polyis domed by a in (A. F. but with arcades instead of horizontal architraves. pierced with four windows. notably the domical Church of S. and the octagonal Church of the Holy Sepulchre on the site of the Temple of Solomon.EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE. 35 feet in diameter. fine 187 mosaics representing the Baptism of Christ. and containing a cruciform chromatic decoration in mosaics. Tomb of Galla j. 420) (No. G). F. and S. Bethlehem. and round the edge of this block are stone handles.D. The Tomb of Theodoric. It is 35 feet by 30 feet internally. G) is two stories in height. Sergius. is portion of a sphere. 79 E. as it is cruciform in plan. as at Ancyra. favourite plan was a circle placed in a square. Ravenna (A. Jerusalem. D. hollowed out in the form of a flat dome. and the interior is remarkable. Traces remain of an external arcade round the upper portion. 330) was erected by Constantine as a tomb for his daughter. pairs of coupled granite columns. The roof consists of one slab of stone. as in the Churches at Bozrah and Ezra. the Church of the Ascension. Constantinople (No. 73 H. and roofs formed of stone slabs were usual. (A. E. supported on twelve 1256. and the distance from Rome. exceptional.D. the absence of brick. . the lower story being a decagon. but was converted into a church in It has a dome. Vitale. In Asia Minor.


Middleton states that all the fine marble columns E. the earlier baptistery was joined to the square church and formed a western apse. themselves founded on the Roman circular temples and tombs. except where French influence made itself felt. faced with plaster. rubble or concrete walling being used. should use in their buildings the materials and ornaments which had been left by the pagan Roman. c. . 73 and 75). It was natural that the early Christian builders. . used as a baptistery. nave. Mosaic was used internally. as at S. was usually domed and Columns t 1 In later Romanesque and Gothic periods. Circular churches were erected. In England. 75 B). the baptistery always stands alone. Florence (No. circular churches were built to stand alone. 77 and 78). brick. and the apse pensed with. and a straight lined nave was added for the use of the people. 75 B. A. London. The side aisles in the churches were occasionally vaulted. 78 D. dwelling-houses. In Germany. not being good craftsmen themselves. the circular building was retained as the sanctuary Thus from choir. Plan. the use of the lintel being dis- Walls. 1 attached to the chief Basilica or cathedral. but were direct copies of the Roman basilica. where the churches were not derived from a combination of a circular eastern church with a western rectangular nave. were treated as follows in the different European countries : In Italy. the circular church originated the apsidal choir of the Gothic period. and even the pagan temples were used for places of worship. lined with mosaic (Nos. simple forms of construction such as King and Queen post trusses being employed. 93). The Germans also built circular churches. these early baptisteries. Roofs. and sometimes externally on the west facades for decorative purposes. and due to the Knights Templars (page 219). Miniato. as at Westminster. was generally These were still constructed according to the methods. 189 COMPARATIVE. 83 E). K). 72 and 78 G. as in France. G). a feature which was developed in Gothic architecture (Nos. Doors. Openings. the decoration of a visible framework being of a later date. that they might pray apart from the people (No.. In France. F) those to the nave being in the clerestory high in the nave wall above the aisle roof. being built as copies of the Rotonda of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem. and when it was or necessary to enlarge them. B. A rich and grandiose T effect w as often obtained at the expense of fitness in the details of the design. Roman The window openings were small (No. 72. but in addition the halls. being mostly from earlier Roman buildings which had fallen into ruins &k were purposely destroyed. the Gothic builders generally preferred a square east end. baths. They are often of different (Nos. and niches were generally spanned by a semicircular arch.EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE. 74). The early Christians adopted the Basilican model for their churches (Nos. and then added choirs for the priests. An isolated circular church. design and size. or stone. but they were few in number. covered the central D. Wooden roofs (No. as the Temple Church. 4. These roofs were ceiled in some ornamental manner (No. 73 A. windows.


G. 1843. screens. ) Paris.). Baldwin). Paolo fuori le mura. in the igi churches of Rome have been taken from ancient Roman buildings. and the carving is of the rudest kind. The . as in the fittings of the church of S. as has been mentioned. by the aid of these mosaics. J. Enrichments incised upon mouldings were in low relief. 74 and 76). J.). C. 72." Kingsley (Charles). 72. " Les 1860. and episcopal chairs. The arch are treated in strong colors on a gold backdesign is bold and simple. porphyry columns. These pavements were formed largely of slices from the old Roman figures The ground. both in form and draperies. is Ornament. 1904. Clemente at Rome (No." " 2 vols. separating the nave from the bema. 1899 Hubsch (H. fitting well the The method of position they occupy. Hypatia." 8vo. C. Folio. and the wall spaces between the clerestory windows often had mosaics representing subjects taken from Christian history or doctrine. 72).EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE. REFERENCE BOOKS. though rich in general effect. In addition to the richness of the wall surfaces formed of colored mosaics the pavements of colored marbles in geometric patterns added much to the rich effect of the interiors." Folio. although still copied from the antique. " York. Historical Novels 1J 13 LUI ICdl l>(L/Vt. Vogue (Marquis de). Mouldings. Folio. was ornamented with appropriate subjects long friezes of figures line the wall above the nave arcades (Nos. and the acanthus ornamentation." 8vo. of the period. Eglises de la Terre-Sainte. Brown (Prof. and an earnest and solemn expression. execution is coarse and large. 1886. except those in S.lO ) . F. These are coarse variations of Roman types." Munich. the subject generally being Christ surrounded by angels and saints.). Butler (H. American Archaeological Expedition to Syria. became more conventional in form. " Die Basiliken des Christlichen Roms.) 1900. 1884. was of a finer and more delicate description. Butler (A. 78). and was at a low ebb during this period. Bunsen (C. 1866. of triumph. and no attempt was made at neatness of joint or regularity of bedding.). 78). The interiors are. The introduction of much color giving much richness to the interiors. The glass mosaic used to decorate the ambones. a feature The domed apse (No. C." II /X1T /~* \ LL C* T\ " Sancta Paula. 1865-67." Perry (W. New The Ancient Coptic Churches of Egypt." Paris. Vogue. "From Schola to Cathedral. characterizes the groups. The technique of the craftsman gradually declined. " Monuments de 1'Architecture Chretienne depuis Constantin jusqu'a Charlemagne. was lined with mosaic. Paris. which were worked into designs by connecting bands of geometrical inlay on a field of white marble (Nos. 5. rendered exceedingly impressive. 1 55 Syrie Centrale. .

writer on the subject. especially over the corn trade carried on with the western merchants on the northern shores of the Euxine. Constantinople possessed no good building stone or even material for making good bricks. but. The quarries were situated in different parts of the empire. Brindley. like the other Rome in Italy. is Thessalian green (Verde Antico). fair The i. occupies an important commercial site. Byzantium (renamed Constantinople by Constantine). i. and the other churches and mosques in Constantinople. for Constantinople was a marble working centre from which sculptured marbles were exported to all parts of the Roman world. and the land high-road from Asia into Europe a position which. and that the architect was influenced by the kind of column likely to be at once obtainable. Geographical. "So a church as this had Venice none: walls were of discoloured Jasper stone Wherein was Christos carved . occupies the finest site in Europe. standing at the interthe water highsection of the two great highways of commerce road from the Black Sea into the Mediterranean. It and. gave it power and influence. it rests on seven hills." four miles in length. is of opinion that quite seventy-five per cent. INFLUENCES. Geological. as far as possible the materials upon the spot had to be employed. an inlet known as the " Golden Horn. and overhead A lively vine of green sea agate spread." CHAUCER. . It was called " New Rome" by the Turks of Asia. from early times. Mr. .BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE. ii. The absence of tides and the depth of its harbour. Most of the marble used in the new capital was brought from different quarries round the Eastern Mediterranean. of the colored marble used in Santa Sophia. a . standing on two promontories at the junction of the Bosphorus and the Sea of Marmora. the monolith columns being worked by convicts in groups of sizes such as the quarry could produce. rendered its quays accessible to vessels of large burden.

By the election of Charlemagne. which. the Spirit proceeded from the Father and Son or from the Father only the Eastern church which still claims to be the orthodox church..D. 325 being the first of the general councils called to suppress heresies. rivalled Rome in importance. It includes not only the buildings in Byzantium but also those which were erected under its influence. Historical. chosen Emperor of the West in A. 539-752 it was the seat of the Exarch of the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Emperors. whose system of government was an expansion of the despotic methods introduced by Diocletian. and Christianity the state that came to pass between east and west was followed by a separation of churches This was due to the " Filioque controversy " as to whether also.D. A. 493 Theodoric the Great took the city. v. Constantine.D. 1453.C. Ravenna became important owing to the Emperor Honorius was transferring his residence there from Rome in A. Climate. the position of the latter city being unrivalled as a great commercial centre on the trading highway between east and west. The eastern emperors lost all power in Italy by endeavouring to force upon the west their policy of preventing the worship and use of images. During the reign of Justinian (A. the Roman empire was finally divided. Russia. o .D.A. Social and Political.BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE. fSyzantine architecture is that which was developed at Byzantium on the removal of the capital from Rome to that city. 800. F. and in A. Constantine first made (page 176). The iconoclastic movement during the eighth and ninth centuries was in force and ended in the admission of painted figures in the decoration of churches. also in Greece. iii. Western Empire the town was taken by Odoacer. Religion. the Romans on settling there altered their method of building to suit the novel conditions due to climate and their contact with Oriental arts.D. and was a Greek colony as early as the fourth century B. 402.D.D. and it created an archiepiscopal see in A. 193 Owing to Constantinople being hotter than to its being further east. as at Ravenna and Venice. 324. 527-565) Italy was recovered to the Eastern Empire. when it became the capital of the Ottoman Empire.C.D. After the fall of the religion iv. The political division . and disputes in the church were rife the Council of Nice in A.D. After his death rival emperors troubled the state. maintaining the latter. accounting for the style of some of the buildings. removed the capital from Rome to Byzantium in A. and the western the former. Rome. remaining the residence From of the Gothic kings till 539. The Byzantine style was carried on until Constantinople fell into the hands of the Turks in A. Byzantium is said to have been founded in the seventh century B. These and other points of difference in ritual have vitally affected eastern church architecture up to the present day. 438. but all sculptured statues were excluded. vi. and elsewhere.

their bases " being brought to a circle by means of pendentives" (Nos. 0/532-537) was erected. Although no line can be stated as separating distinctively the Early Christian and Byzantine styles. and elsewhere. induced by the adoption of circular and polygonal This is in contrast plans for churches. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. yet as already stated the Basilican type is characteristic of the former and the vaulted church with pendentives of the latter.194 2. Externally an attempt was made to render the rough brick exteriors of Roman times more pleasing. largely directing the architecture of these districts. The walls of this shell were finally sheeted internally " Byzantine building consists generally of a brick carcass or with marble. as may be seen in the churches of Thessalonica. and M. They were not always laid horizontally. S. Byzantine art and influences were carried westward by traders." traces the influence of this tradition of domical construction on Greek architecture to show how from this fusion the later imperial architecture became possible. which developed the vault in Western of the The and Northern Europe (page 224). sometimes in the chevron or herring-bone pattern. and are found at S. in his "Art de Batir chez les Byzantins. but the manner in which the bricks of the casing were arranged contributed greatly to the decoration of the exterior. In fact no church was founded during this period in which mosaic was not intended to be employed. and under Justinian. Choisy. Vitale. Perigueux. is the prevailing motif or idea of Byzantine architecture. S. but sometimes obliquely. giving great richness and variety to the facades. and the vaults with colored mosaics on a golden back-ground. tombs and baptisteries. but in the course of 200 years the East asserted itself. Mark. Ravenna. Sophia (A. by the use of bands and relieving arches of an ornamental character. sometimes in the form of the meander fret. and remains the greatest achievement in the style the interior being perhaps the most satisfactory of all domed examples. with the Romanesque style. Sophia and the churches of Nicaea and Thessalonica show the perfection to which this was carried out. Domes were now placed over square apartments. 79. Venice." constructed after the size of the marble shafts had been assured. A shell. general architectural character depends on the development dome. The core of the wall was generally of concrete. The dome. and in many other forms of similar design. . and had been a traditional feature in the old architecture of the East. the Church of S. The change from the old Roman forms was of course gradual. already referred to. as in the Roman period. COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Front. and the decoration of S.

the voussoirs of which were always square. porous stones.BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE. in. : o 2 . of which there are seven distinct for the purpose. 88 and 89). these features were as a rule placed over a circular apartment.' a feature which was still further embellished in the Renaissance Period by the employment of a circular peristyle or colonnade. Ravenna (No. 836. and not set in receding planes. assume a novel form (Nos. appropriate to their new purpose of receiving the springers of arches. 195 whereas in Roman architecture 80. The grouping of the smaller domes round the larger central one was very effective externally (No. 84. 80 A) so closely correspond with the section as in the Byzantine. to teach the column to . as in so-called Gothic architecture. its columns and capitals being not merely ornamental. not derived from a Roman but from an Asiatic source. and there is an absence of preparatory and auxiliary work. presenting a direct contrast to the mediaeval buildings of Europe. four being in S. as at S. Byzantine art is the Greek spirit working on Asiatic lines. the regular entablatures of the Romans were abandoned. which is quite a distinct system. The architecture of the Byzantines was thus developed by the use of brick in the fullest manner. the columns and entablatures could be and were removed without causing the ruin of the building. M. The Classic orders were dispensed with. In vaulting. me). were used sometimes the domes were constructed of pottery. Choisy remarking that. In the Byzantine system of vaulting the vault surfaces gave the conditions of the problem.. especially in domical vaulting. Sophia is seen the fully-developed Byzantine style for whereas in the older buildings of Rome. 83 D). As Freeman says: "The problem was to bring the arch and column into union -in other words. arid in the church of S. but really supporting the galleries. the "greater number of their vaults rose into space without " any kind of support (i. for the dome on pendentives was invented and perfected entirely in the East.S. but were. Sophia. 79). Windows were now formed in the lower portion of the dome. which in the later period was hoisted upon a high circular drum. Sophia the true Greek expression of truth in construction was reverted to.e. especially pumice. by the use of large flat bricks. From. and one of the most remarkable peculiarities of Byzantine churches was that the tunnel vault and the dome had no additional outer covering. thus in no style does the elevation visible externally (No. 82. and the semicircular arches made to rest directly on coiumns designed The capitals. . 86. types. the time when the architect permitted the forms of the vaults and arches to appear as architectural features in the facades. and the groins or angles of intersections were of secondary importance. without centering). where it is formed with urns and amphorae placed side by side and grouted with mortar. Vitale.


This independence of the different parts of the structure was a leading idea in Byzantine construction. and lent itself to all the caprices of the architect for as interiors were always lined with marble and mosaics. the walls were sheeted with their marble covering. the numerous round shafts of S. or decorated with frescoes. with mortar joints of equal thickness". and when this had settled down and dried. These prevent the shafts from splitting a likely result. was the material preferred in the construction of walls. more or . The form of these varied a great deal.' These shafts once assured." This was done by shaping the block of marble which formed the capital so that a simple transition from the square block to the circular shaft of the column was formed. Sophia exhibit a remarkable and beautiful structural expedient.BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE. tion of these kinds of ornamentation. Swainson and Lethaby say. The science of construction acquired by the Romans descended to the Byzantines. for the walls were formed with a brick facing and concrete core a method also employed for vaults. capitals. who were only required to prepare the bases. moreover. the bricklayers not having to wait for the masons and. The building procedure was developed somethe general form of the building being what as follows : thing necessary was to collect was necessary to have a certain knowledge where such might be quarried or otherwise obtained. by reserving the application of the marble until the structure was dry and solid. before even the foundations were prepared. by which the necking is entirely suppressed. and the pavement laid down. such walls were the most suitable for the recepBricks being so much used. everything else being completed as a brick " The building was thus made of vast masses of thin carcass. and " ' bricks. as Messrs. and bronze annulets surround the shafts under the capital and above the base.' less decided. In this way the carcass was completed at once. manufacture when it is remembered that they employed them in their military as well as in their ecclesiastical and domestic architecture. the body of the structure was proceeded with as a brickwork shell without further dependence on the masons. and aqueducts. Brick. the vaults overlaid with mosaic. for the columns decided the height and points of support of the building. and cornices. but the . Further. and is obviously necessary when the quantity of mortar is so great that the bricks become secondary in height to the joints. further.he first it monolithic marble shafts. it was possible to bring together unyielding marble and brickwork with large mortar joints that must have settled down very considerably. bridges. it is not that the Byzantines took great pains in their surprising . . 197 support the arch. since the monolithic shafts had to be set up contrary to the direction of the quarry bed and also the lead seating from being forced out by the superincumbent weight.

527). The extensive use of rich marbles and mosaics caused a flat treatment. the majority are founded on the circular and polygonal plans of the Roman and Early Christian periods. ordinary shape was like the Roman. with an absence of mouldings. SS. Flat splays enriched by incised or low relief ornamentation were introduced. in a broad way. is (A. cornices. nearly square in plan. as a complete lining to a rough carcass. EXAMPLES. and it remains as hard as that in the best buildings of Rome. and the art of enamelling had arrived at perfection. with bandings of stone. as Moulds were used for the pieces forming already mentioned. Byzantine examples consist mainly of churches and baptisteries. The Theodosian code in fact encouraged this branch of trade and industry. and crushed pottery. Constantinople erected by Justinian. did not leave the same scope for mouldings as in other styles. such as rare marbles. One surface melts into another as the mosaic is continued from arch and pendentive upwards to the dome. an invention which was introduced in the Early Christian -period. and the workmen employed in them were governed by imperial decrees issued specially for their guidance.D. The interiors were beautified by richly colored marble pavements in opus sectile or opus Alexandrinum (page 1199. In the former. which were subordinate to the decorative treatment. 3. although a certain number follow the Basilican type. The simple exteriors of brickwork. and the mode of ornamentation by means of colored marbles was carried to a greater extent than ever before. which was worked on rounded angles. sand. tiles or bricks. did not in the least decrease. The universal use of brickwork made the Byzantines pay great attention to their mortar. columns of the richest marbles were taken from old buildings. composed of lime. cornices and modillions. being a rectangle of . Sergius and Bacchus.COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. The use of natural stones in mosaics and inlaid pavements had been abolished. architectural lines being replaced by decorative bands in the mosaic. an inch and a half in depth. and the gold of the background being carried into the Although figures. The quarries opened by the Romans continued to be used. the importation and sale of newly quarried columns and other decorative materials. and the shafts of columns when of this material were built of circular bricks. unity of surface was always maintained. and mosaic and marbles were used. all the mosaics which still adorn the domes and apses being of colored glass enamel rendered opaque by oxide of tin. and they were always laid upon a thick bed of mortar.


D. measures 250 feet by 237 feet. bounded : by four massive piers.e.. 360. The dome. S. 79. is which. . in their turn covered with semi-domes. in two stories. 415. (a. 532-537. F. however. The domical method of construction governs the plan. connected above by semicircular arches. To the north and south. but it has four niches only. but was being partially restored by the Sultan at the time of the authors' visit in January. Sergius and Bacchus would resemble S. This church. 83). 80. having no wooden roof. Sophia in plan if it were cut in two and a dome on pendentives placed over an intervening square. formed The area thus a great oval-ended nave 265 feet by 107 feet. less than a semi-dome).) The wooden-roofed basilica. London). was built by order of Justinian. The square central space is crowned with a dome. The (b. G). on the two sides where there are no semi-domes.D. A. and the whole doubled in size. erected by Constantine. Constantinople (Hagia Sophia = " Divine Wisdom") (Nos. and is inclosed in a square instead of an octagon (No. the upper story being for women.and mosaics are. irreparably damaged in consequence of the penetration of rain through the roof. and out of these are formed smaller exedrae. but in itself only 47 feet in height above its base (i. The Plan consists of a central space 107 feet square. all. These aisles bring the main building approximately to a square. pierced with double arches on the ground and upper These piers take the thrust of the main arches and dome story. architects were Anthemius of Tralles and Isodorus of Miletus. and forms a grand apartment over 200 feet long by 30 feet wide it is in two stories. and is of a peculiar melon-like form caused by the formation of ridges and furrows from base to summit. 109 feet by 92 feet over and has an interior arrangement very similar to S. 25 feet wide by 70 feet long. excluding the apse and narthex. . 79. 25 feet square.D. forming continuations of the four great piers already mentioned. 81).e. which is subservient to it. SS. Outside this central area are aisles over 50 feet wide. to the west of the main building. and supporting a dome 107 feet in diameter (cf. was set apart for catechumens and penitents. Further west is the outer narthex and atrium. north and south. 1896. the upper forming a gallery to the church. Vitale (No. picturesquely situated on the shores of the Bosphorus. 1 80 feet above the pavement. are massive buttresses. A. with marble columns and brick pillars. in A. on the site of two successive churches of the s"ame name. is in a ruinous condition. Paul.200 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 52 feet in diameter and 66 feet high. S. crowned with semi-domes.) The church erected by Theodosius. East and west are great semicircular spaces. Sophia. The narthex. i. is visible externally. E. The beautiful frescoes .


or . and Thessalian marble). Gabriel. as " as if suspended by a Procopius. Celtic black. fixed by means of metal cramps the floors are laid with colored mosaics of various patterns. Raphael. The total number of columns in the church is 107 (the same number as the diameter of the church in feet). and elsewhere. Michael. The walls and piers are lined with beautifully-colored marbles (Phrygian white. The lower stories of the aisles (north and south of the central space) are supported by four columns of dark green marble from the Temple of Artemis (Diana) at Ephesus. The pendentives carrying the central dome have a projection of 25 feet and a height of over 60 feet. of these are now concealed by matting covered with plaster. The great piers supporting the dome are of stones.winged seraphim. and saints on a glittering golden ground. covered with semi. Each oi the four small exedrse has two large columns of dark red porphyry below. with small Ionic angle volutes and delicately incised carving.domes. The construction of the dome is explained on No. which rests.2O2 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. . the actual effect of the whole is one of extreme intricacy. yet the four pendentives exhibit the six. although the general scheme is very simple. Laconian green. brought from the Temple of the Sun at Baalbec. The columns of many-colored marbles are used constructively to support the galleries which rest on a variety of groined vaults. white marble with black veins from the Bosphorus. of which forty are below and sixty-seven above. the upper stories having six columns of the same material. the height gradually decreasing from 179 feet at the centre. as has been stated. the rest of the building being of brickwork. like a canopy over the centre. described it. Moulded bronze rings encircle the column shafts at their junction with the capitals and bases. whom Mahometans acknowledge under the. names of the four Archangels. while scale is obtained by the careful gradation of the various parts from the two-storied arcades to the aisles and lofty dome. 80. in varied patterns. east and west. with little apparent support. and when the light is favourable the figure of Christ can still be seen in the vaults of the apse. and Israfil. abut against the great arches which support the central dome and act as buttresses The smaller exedrae are also to it on the east and west sides. and six smaller columns on the upper story. or. Internally. chain from heaven. Although many angels. an eye-witness." The impression is that of one great central domed space with semicircular domed ends. Lybian blue. The two semi-domes. and the vaults and domes are enriched with glass mosaics of the apostles. The capitals are mostly of the pyramidal or cubiform type. still are replaced by quotations from the Koran.


of its proportions. Constantinople. in which large semicircular headed openings are divided into six by columns in two heights. Constantinople. make imposing external features. but subsequently much altered. Some bear the monogram of Justinian. The Theotokos Church. originally constructed by Constantine and several times destroyed and rebuilt. twelve windows in each of the spandrel walls. and provided with windows lighting the central area. pierced by windows. 740. Irene. dating from the ninth to the twelfth century. being covered with lead i-inch thick. A variation of the dosseret block is in general used on the lines of the Classical abacus. . is a small but perfect example. . reached from the exterior by four gently sloping ascents. having a double narthex crowned with three domes. Sophia is the masterpiece of Byzantine architecture asS but/ the Parthenon is of Greek. of the smaller exedrae are also provided with windows. resting on a high drum pierced with windows to light the interior. S. dating originally from the fourth century. especially in respect of the abutting semicircular domes. pierced with openings about 7 inches square. Constantinople. deeply recessed from their face. The lighting is partly effected by forty small windows piercing Additional light is introduced through the dome at its base. north and south. finally about A. resting on wooden battens placed The immense buttresses immediately on the brick vaults. is interesting as preserving the Basilican plan of nave and two aisles with Eastern apse and Western atrium. the lighting area being filled with lattice work of marble 3 inches thick. . and from the interior by stone staircases. It has a dome which is believed to be the earliest example. and a central dome over the church itself.204 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE." or women's gallery. Many of the windows are small and spanned by semicircular arches others are more elaborate. is an interesting example. and has semicircular windows on three sides and an apse on the It has an inner and outer narthex. as also the two great spandrel walls between them. one at each corner of the building. The plainness of the exterior causes the building to depend for effect entirely on the massiveness of its form and the general symmetry S. The vaulting of the domes and semi-domes is visible. and on a column to the south exedra on entering is the date 534. as in those to the " Gynseceum. or the Pantheon of Roman neither in plan nor treatment does it seem to have been largely imitated. already referred to. under The bases of the domes the great arches which support the dome. It has a central area crowned with a dome resting on a drum 26 feet in diameter.D. filled with glass. ornamented with fourth. Externally the walls are faced with brick and stone in alternate courses. The Church of the Chora.



9*1 .

. Mark (No. but rebuilt by Justinian. Vitale. 85. 84 A and 86) is richly veneered with colored marbles casing the lower part of the walls above. and destroyed in A. Mark. an inner octagon of 50 feet being inclosed by an outer one of no feet. Mark. 83 c. Venice (Nos. founded by Constantine the Great.D. The plan of S.. by a square bay cutting through the outer The relation of the chancel to the octagon is successfully aisle." supposed by some that the fagade of this church served as a model for that of S. The interior (Nos. is his tomb. octagon have columns placed on a half circle. 526~547)/(No. was the second type of Byzantine plan. and a great depot of the traffic between the East and West. F). worthy of note that the square piers. The dome is composed of earthen pots. to make way for the Mosque of Sultan Mahomet II. in which are worked figures of saints mingled with scenes from their lives. and one over each arm of the cross. thus differing in construction from Roman examples. hence It is is now known as the " mosaic mosque.2O8 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 85). to which all architectural detail is subordinated. was erected. tine influences are seen. and is interesting as being the prototype of S. which is evident in Venetian architecture.D. Constantinople. Venice was by situation one of the connecting links between the Byzantine and Franconian empires. 83 derived from this church (see S. and containing E. in fact. 84 c) is in the form of a Greek cross. which carry the dome. the depth of the gallery being that of the pier. set off by a broad background of gold. B) is octagonal on plan. Venice (Nos. and is deriyed It from the Church of the Holy Apostles at Constantinople. The Church of the Holy Apostles. It is to be noted that the other seven arches of the inner designed. carrying round the In many particulars Byzangallery usual in Eastern churches. Mark. is : . Mosaic. the gallery are pierced on the ground floor and gallery levels arcade connects the piers on either side. between A. 84. 85 and 86). 1463. of equal arms. it large mosaic decorations. and extending in one great surface over vault and dome. S. at Aix-la-Chapelle (No. D). 84. is a lining of richly colored glass mosaic. the columns and marble mosaics to the exterior being added between 1100-1350. built The church page 261). 83 A. Venice (No. The apsidal chancel opens from the inner octagon. whose prototype was the Temple of Minerva Medica at Rome (No. covered by a dome in the centre (42 feet in diameter). for the most part. 86) (see below). 1063-1071. The vestibules fill out the western arm of the cross to a square on plan. and protected by a wooden roof.D. is the real and essential decoration of the church. Ravenna (A. by Charlemagne.

X F.A. .

The Byzantine style spread over Greece. near Athens. /variable. 400) is an early example of a domed church. Russia. towards which the eye The church is drawn. showing externally). as may be seen in the little Metropole Cathedral (No. A. In Greece the buildings are small but exquisitely executed. and other parts. The narthex was placed within the main walls. 5. 84). details. which with the narthex and side galleries make the plan nearly square (Nos. enriched with of many-colored marbles The shafts brought from Alexandria and the ruined cities of the East. the Church of the Kapnikarea. inexpressible color produced by transparent alabaster. Byzantine churches are all distinguished by a great central square space covered with a dome. 500550) an example of a five-aisled basilica with transepts (not . 80. which direct the eye towards the apsidal termination. but also on the most subtle. TreUzond. in Macedonia. 84 A). Luke of Stiris. Russia among the best known examples all are the Cathedrals of Moscow. . On each side extend short arms. external fagade (No. and S. 4. George (A. by means of the long perspective of columns. Kieff. COMPARATIVE. due to the use of bulbous-shaped domes and unusual of and Novgorod. and other churches at Athens the Church of Daphni. shown in No. described by Ruskin. polished marble. At Thessalonica (Salonica). and In galleries. The Mark have been present day. The essential difference in plan between a Byzantine church and an Early Christian basilican church are as follows : tine leading thought in a Byzanis vertical. In Armenia teristics. Mosaic panels also serve to enrich with color the spandrels of the arches. and the Monastery ofS.D. 79 j. 87). on the north of the Gulf of Corinth. and lustrous gold. which have a decided Eastern aspect. Sophia. It must be remembered that this and the external domes are a later casing upon the original exterior of the usual Byzantine type (No. by the grouping of domes round a principal central one. Plans. The leading idea in an Early Christian basilica is horizontal. 85) has five entrances. and has been the accepted style of the Greek church to the effects of S. supported by means of pendentives. forming a rich and beautiful portal. forming a Greek cross. K.D. are also interesting examples with local characsuch as the Church of S. Demetrius (A.2IO COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. who says that they depend not only upon the most delicate sculpture in every part.


80 A). The windows are small and grouped together (Nos. and on Such windows. to represent the the portion four arches. grouped in tiers within the semicircular arch beneath the dome. 86). in conings sufficed to admit the necessary light. perhaps the only example in Europe being that over the tomb of Galla Placidia(No. Portions of the windows are occasionally filled with thin slabs of translucent marble (No. cutting off four slices. a type not found in Roman architecture. K). COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.shoe/ arched openings are sometimes seen. G. 89 G). and in the bright climate very much smaller openTracery was. Walls. stone. rendered the use of such large windows as the Gothic architects employed quite inadmissible. c. 79 j). and then scooping out the interior above the crown of these semicircles is the dome. a series of domes formed in brick. Roofs.212 B. In S. The method of roofing these buildings was by D. 89 but segmental and horse. and the consequent exclusion of painted glass. In the later type the dome is not part of the same sphere as the pendentives. The Byzantines introduced the dome placed over a square or octagonal plan by means of pendentives (No. the oriental all These were often constructed of brick. fastened to wood laths. although the fa$ade was sometimes various colors. Externally the buildings were left comparatively plain. vening triangles are the pendentives. however. sequence. in c). Sophia the vaults are covered with sheets of lead. relieved by alternate rows of stone and brick. j. 80 A and The universal employment of mosaic in Byzantine churches. marble . in later times they were raised on a drum or cylinder. resting on the vaults without any wood roofing (No. The churches depend largely for light on the ring " of windows at the base of the dome. and the interSuch domes are rare. Internally. Doors and windows are semicircular headed (No. SOB. 83 D). love of magnificence was developed. 73 H. . In early examples the pendentives were part of one sphere. are a great feature in the style. with frequently no further external covering. practically non-existent as a northern architect would understand it. but rises independently from their summits (Nos. Hollow earthenware was used in order to reduce the thrust on the supporting walls (No. openings grouped in the gable ends (No. 87). 80 B). each at right angles to the last. a quarter of an inch thick. H). already described (page 187). . hence a flat casing and mosaic being applied to the walls treatment and absence of mouldings prevailed. in Openings. or concrete." or circular base on which the dome is sometimes raised (No. A good idea of this type is obtained by halving an orange. The early domes were very flat. or in the drum.


This represented the disused Classic architrave. arch. 88). 88) between the leaves. Greek rather than Roman technique was followed in the The carving was carving. These were unimportant. Columns. 88 and 89 D). which not being so numerous in the East as in the neighbourhood of Rome. the simple treatment of the elevations in flat expanses of brickwork. is . E). Ornament. The scheme of ornamentation was elaborate in the extreme. and pendentive up to the dome. constructively. Columns were used and often only introduced Romanesque churches (page 227). over which was placed a deep abacus block. and effect was frequently obtained by sinking portions of the surfaces. groups of saints and representations of the peacock (the emblem of immortal life). the whole forming a striking contrast to the less permanent painted frescoes usually adopted in the Western features. unity of surface is always maintained. Internally. G. and of V-shaped section. 89 c) or Corinthian types (Nos. having drilled eyes (No. In the earlier buildings. the decorative lining of marble and mosaic in panels was sometimes framed in billet mouldings. Capitals sometimes took a form derived from the Roman Ionic (No. carved with incised foliage of sharp outline. and aided in supporting the springing of" the arch. and flat splays enriched by incised ornamentation were used. mainly executed in low relief. Several other types are shown in No. the massive piers alone supporting the superstructure. with occasional stone banded courses. Externally. the walls being lined with costly marbles with the veining carefully arranged so as to form patterns. did not leave the same scope for mouldings as in other styles. of capital was required to support the arch. but were always subordinate to support galleries. 89 D. due to the origin of the craftsmen. The acanthus leaf. deeply channelled. and the gold surfaces being continued as a background to the figures. which was Further. One surface melts into another as the mosaic sheet creeps from wall. the supply was sooner exhausted and thus there was an incentive to design fresh ones. and architectural lines were replaced by decorative bands in the mosaic. ancient structures.214 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. their place being taken by broad flat expanses of wall surfaces. a convex shape The surfaces of these capitals were form being best adapted. or consisted in the lower portion of a cube block with rounded corners. and the vaults and upper part of walls with glass mosaic having symbolic figures. 89. . F. A special character of the carving was due to the use of the drill instead of the chisel (No. Mosaic thus was used in a broad way as a complete lining to a rough structure. an altered larger in area than the shaft of the column. these were taken from E. Mouldings. sometimes called a "dosseret" (No. probably derived from the Classic dentils.


and in clos6 contact with the East. H.) and Pullan (R. Didron (A." 8vo. The mosaics and casts in the Victoria and Albert Museum should also be inspected. " Saint Mark's. drilled at the several springings of the teeth with deep holes. 1899. Bentley. 1886.)." Folio. but became more conventional. R. as also the new Roman Catholic Cathedral at Westminster by the late John F. is that the pattern is incised instead of seeming to be applied. " Milligen (A.. Grecian and Asiatic feeling strongly pervades Byzantine ornamentation." A large and beautiful monograph in several Venice. Church of Sancta Sophia. 1894.). Luke of Stiris in Phocis. 2 vols.)." Folio. (A.) and Barnsley (S. and this is accounted for by the fact that Constantinople was a Greek city. "Christian Iconography. vols. 1883. . Venice.). 1864. folio and 4to... 1881. W. "L'Art de Batir chez les Byzantins. the pattern being cut into it without breaking its outline. 1854-1855." 8vo.) and Swainson (H." 2 vols. adopted from the Greek variety. A good general idea of the exterior of a church in this style is to be gained from the Greek Church in the Moscow Road. REFERENCE BOOKS. "The Monastery of St.). Berlin." Salzenburg (W. 8vo. Schultz (R. Paris. 1901. folio.." (Historical Novel. N. Italy." Folio. Lethaby (W. Byzantine Constantinople. " Alt-Christliche Baudenkmale von Constantinopel. with acute-pointed leaves. 5. Constantinople. published by Signer Ongania.). Texier (C. P. for the surface always remained flat. van). Note.) "Count Robert of Paris. G. The great characteristic of Byzantine ornament as compared with Classical.)." 2 vols." Byzantine Architecture. and Oriental methods. Choisy 1842-1843.) L. " Scott (Sir W. erected by Oldrid Scott. 4to and folio.2l6 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Bayswater. " Ecclesiastical Architecture of Knight (H.

and is Rome. in those countries which had been directly under Geographical. i. The position of each country will be slightly touched upon under its own heading. 1 .a/? . a general outline sketch is given. IN INFLUENCES. The influence of Byzantine art brought through Ravenna and Venice also influenced the Italian Romanesque in Lombardy and Europe generally. was on throughout practically the whole of the Western empire that is. Roman empire.COLOGNE/ ROUEN EMPIRE V CflLIPHflTE - OF THE ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE EUROPE. The style of the carried which grew up on the decay known as Romanesque.i i. GENERAL INTRODUCTION. the rule of Before treating of the development of the style peculiar to each country.

was striving to extend its boundaries in Northern Europe. The nlonastic communities. by whose decree architecture. Tours. and in creed warfare. which was the civilizing and educating agency of the period. and the aid thus rendered by monastic institutions to architecture was therefore important. The feudal rank of bishops and abbots made them in some sense Schools military chiefs. with which now often rested the nomination of public functionaries and judges. Among the chief monastic orders were the following in the (i. as those at S. Local styles were favoured by the variations of climate north and south of the Alps.D. style. with the encouragement and aid of Charlemagne. ii. Religious enthusiasm and zeal prevailed. Gall. but architecture of Western Europe due to Eastern influence is classed as Byzantine. The Christian Church. (For a description of the typical plan of a monastery see page 276). Jessop's "Daily Life of an Monastique. and pupils of monks afterwards became the designers of many of the great Gothic Cathedrals. The government as existed. and Rheims. As East and West drifted apart their architecture developed on opposite lines. architecture was practised largely by the clergy and came to be regarded as a sacred science. All the painting. came into existence.2l8 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. The papacy had been rising to great power and civil it rivalled or controlled such Pragmatic Sanction (A. as stated by Albert Lenoir in " 1'Architecture Dr. and will be referred to under the same. : The own different countries looked to Rome until each developed its . as referred to in each country. letters. occasionally taking the field in person. mosaic and all branches of art were taught. and the erection of a church was often the foundation of a city. Until the middle of the twelfth century science. and. founded in the South of Italy sixth century by S. so that when the Turks overran Palestine. Down to the thirteenth century." English Monastery" is interesting as showing the life led by the monks. Climate. art and enlightenment generally were the monopoly of religious bodies. and may be studied with advantage. influence. thus increasing the power of the Church. and was manifested in magnificent edifices. iii. Religion. Geological. In these early times a rough use of the material at hand characterizes the style in each country. attached to certain monasteries discharged to some extent the functions of universities. iv.) The Benedictine order. the loss of the Holy Places resulted in the long warfare known as the Crusades (1096-1270) between the Christians of the West and the Mahometans of the East. directed with skill. 554) had already conferred authority on the Bishops over the provincial and municipal governments. Benedict.

1119. transepts. the Charterhouse. Cistercian order in The Burgundy. London. Carlisle. In It was introduced into England in A. plan. at Citeaux. Gall. and Castle Acre Priory in England is an example. There were The transepts were short. and the Carthusian must work.D.) The Cluniac order was founded in A. a feature which was adopted in many English Cathedrals. The refectory was usually parallel to the nave. one for the monks and the other for the people. Carthusian order was founded by S. A. 1105. (No. the typical church was divided into three parts transversely by screens. The manuscript plan existing in the Library of the monastery of S. By the rules of the order. . Fountains. The influence of the Cistercian foundation extended to various countries of Europe. or steps. and in England. as also was the frequently no aisles.D. surrounded by an arcade on which the monks' (6. Roche. speech was interdicted.ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE older monasteries in IN EUROPE. in Switzerland. and Bristol.) The Augustinian order differed little from the Benedictine.D. 117 F) and Salisbury (No. In England the most important were Furness. The dormitory was generally placed on another side with a staircase in connection with the church for night services. the celebrated Abbey at Cluny being the headquarters. and the choir extended westward of the There was an absence of towers and painted glass. eat and drink in solitude. others being Vauvert. 117 (3. Such a regime explains In Italy the establishthe extreme severity of their architecture. in A. and Montrieux. is interesting as showing what was considered a typical plan of the buildings of this order (page 261). (2. The plan was especially notable for double transepts. near Grenoble. In plan the typical feature was the great rectangular cells cloister. Two churches were preferred. walls. (4.D. 909. and (7. Villefranche de Rouergue. the transept forming a part of one side of the cloisters. as at Lincoln (No. were the most important.) The military orders included the Knights Templars The churches of the Templars were circular Hospitallers. on the opposite side of the cloister. 2IQ England belonged to this order.) The 1080. Bruno. opened. ments at Florence and the Certosa near Pavia. Canterbury was founded in A. eastern arm of the cross.D.) E). and Oxford Cathedrals were founded by this order. 118 B) and Westminster Abbey (No. and Kirkstall Abbeys. Picardy. 1098. about the chief French establishment being the Grande Chartreuse. Clermont in Auvergne. each being self-contained and with its own garden.) The Premonstratensian order was instituted at Premontre. The usual arrangement consisted of a square cloister having on one side a church of cruciform plan with aisles. 127) being the chief establishments. in (5.

in A. in A. and skill in craftsmanship was at the lowest ebb. still the poorer freemen gradually came to be serfs. (9. It is supposed they were erected in imitation of the Rotonda of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem. or black Friars) were founded (#. The system of feudal tenure. anjd later held a high place in Christian art. Historical.D. Till the time of Charlemagne very little .D.D. 1229. and Northampton. (&. (8. instituted in A.D. plain. plan. and were distinguished for intellectual capacity.D. and first came England in A. 1216.D. whose election is a convenient date to mark the end of the Roman Empire as such.D. 1197. as in the Temple Church.220 in COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Christianity and civilization gradually extended from southern to western Europe. 1217. In the year A.) in A. amounting almost gave them importance. 1098. were driven out from Mount Carmel by the Saracens. 1209. The clergy the scholars of the period directed the building of the churches. While through its operation the class of actual slaves died out. The growth of the able. Social and Political. v. (c. while the influence of the freemasons produced important results. and the privileges to independence. aisles. Dominic about A. 799 the Roman Empire in vi. the West practically passed from the hands of the Romans.D. Friars of the Holy Trinity. in A. 1170.) The Friars.) England The (/. were founded Their churches were large. rapidly towns as civilization advanced is noticewhich they acquired. and caused important changes in the social and political organization of states.) The Jesuits were established to in order to crush the Reformation. instituted in Bologna. Crutched (or crouched) Friars.D. London.) They first came to England The Carmelites (or white Friars).) Franciscans (mendicant or grey Friars) were founded Francis of Assisi. 1538. of which there were several orders. and those at Cambridge. Roger Bacon being one of the The S.) (<?. on a change of ownership. bound to the land and passing with it. They came to England about A. by the election of the first FVankish King. 1169. by most distinguished members. Constant warfare rendered the condition of the people unsettled during this period. to (d. Fra Angelico freing the best known member of the order. or the holding of land on condition of military service. being designed for preaching purposes. and without at a later period.D. They came in A. Charlemagne. Austin Friars (or Hermits). was growing up. Little Maplestead.) The Dominicans (preaching by S.

and recognisable only by the multitude of its monuments. but after the millennium had passed. and which were being carried out. all unguarded. still intact. while picturesqueness is obtained by the grouping of the towers. some intact. 1000. and with many a contortion. in a rough and ready way. little building was carried out. imagine an ancient civilization of vast extent. and many a yawn. traditional forms being firstly transformed in general design and detail. and as he gradually acquired a knowledge to which he might apply this and that fragment. What happened ? As time went on he gathered up the smaller fragments and arranged them perhaps upon the foundations. which now had become only a title. while his own shelter afforded . threw off the sleep of ages and awakened to a sense of the treasure he possessed. and most of them disused which happens in due course to every great nation or calamity group of peoples and further suppose that the civilization is represented by a man. and Norway were distinct kingdoms. Denmark. and then new features civilization to created. and Spain. some still standing among heaps of stones hewn and carved. were becoming powerful and tending to set aside the rule of the Holy Roman Empire. buildings sprang up in all parts. The term Romanesque may be said to include all those phases of Western European architecture which were more or less based on Roman art. 2. but who slowly. of sculptured capitals and friezes.ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE building IN EUROPE. which will be noticed under each country.D. others injured or a partially destroyed. dormant.D. with many local peculiarities. from the departure of the Romans up to the introduction of the pointed arch in the thirteenth century. The general architectural character is sober and dignified. In his midst were ruins of vast edifices. 221 and was done. he insensibly porphyry . Before the year A. of an ancient of the uses building. As helping towards the appreciation of the character of Romanesque architecture. Sweden. of the means to the ends he would attain. when it was popularly supposed that the world would come to an end. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. 814. in various parts of Europe. In northern Europe. and England had become welded into one by the Norman kings at the end of the eleventh century. the nations of Europe had at this time come into France. devoid of physical force. of monoliths of and marble. hut he in a great measure restored the arts Western Europe before his death in A. Nearly all existence . and projection of the transepts and choir. but the change was slow. him little protection either from heat or cold. Germany. of the wants he began to understand.


was to lead to the next glorious period of architecture the thirteenth century in which elasticity of structure was joined to the principle of equilibrium. especially in the Western and Northern Provinces. for on the collapse of the Western Roman Empire. the whole current of architecture was turned to a constructive system which should answer to its needs. of the elements of the fully developed Byzantine style. to have been derived from contact with the Saracens. and it is considered by some. Further. Europe. for Ravenna was the principal city in Italy during this period. because the materials in use up to that time had not demanded it. In Italy (page 228) there were various early Christian edifices erected at Ravenna from the fifth to the seventh centuries. moreover. for the earlier buildings of the period were often built from the remains of ancient Roman buildings in the vicinity. The first was( the principle of equilibrium which succeeded that of inert \ stability as used by the Romans. and the highway by which artistic and other products of the Levant were dispersed through France and the North of after . This explains the birth of Romanesque. 223 produced a new art founded on the old. These buildings partake. in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries the chief centre of the growing traffic from the East. and the second was the employment of dressed stonework in comparatively small pieces. for. the period of the tenth to the twelfth centuries is remarkable for the tentative employment of a new constructive principle and a new use of material. but with apparently little foundation. In the course of time. Venice. the development from Roman to Gothic art was . being the seat of the Exarch or representative of the Byzantine Emperor in the western part of his dominions. was the result of the close connection of these centres with the trade and commerce of the East (No. the old traditional basilican plan was preferred and adhered to during the eleventh and twelfth centuries. in conjunction with the aisleless nave. This was a method not before attempted. Provence was. both in construction and decorative treatment. and S. a new style was evolved. and which. By this new employment of materials. Front. con nected with mortar beds of considerable thickness. In France (page 246). in the same way in which S. ) many tentative experiments. Perigueux. however. the quarry of the ruins of ancient buildings largely influenced the work done. Front.ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE JN EUROPE. in the South. notably S. who invaded this portion of France from 719-732. It is worthy of note also that the use of the pointed arch occurred in the South of France sooner than in the North. naturally. Mark. with certain exceptions. putting aside spasmodic efforts. the development of monasteries in the eleventh century gave a great impulse to civilization and agriculture. 84). and exercised considerable influence on architecture. Similarly. but the dome raised on pendentives became the common kind of vaulting.

112. by the intersection of the two vaulting surfaces meeting at right angles. cleared to a great extent of the extraneous elements with which it had been so long encrusted. D G) or else by forming the diagonal rib as a and transverse ribs becoming segment of a circle. the 2longitudinal semicircular (No. (&. Up to the end of the twelfth century the Provengal architects had led the way. If the vaulting surfaces were semi-cylindrical the diagonal groin was of necessity a semi-ellipse. the" vaulting of the naves of the Romanesque churches in follows : . 3 transverse and longitudinal ribs (No. and especially that of the diagonal rib.) France. The Roman system of plain cross vaulting (No % in A). this domical form was not used. in which a framework of ribs supported vaulting surfaces of thinner stone. known as " severies. 4 as used in Europe up to the twelfth century. in E. thus the diagonal rose to a greater height than the rib. accomplished through the ordeal of the destructive. as shown in No. / Romanesque Vaulting. who surmounted the difficulty arismg from the difference of span of the diagonal and transverse ribs as . . especially in Germany and (fl. ' the thirteenth century." or " in-filling. On the Continent. the difference in height between the ribs being equalized by stilting the diagonal and the transverse 5 latter (No. which had previously been settled without design. seizing on the Proven9al principle of the Pointed arch. but the use of ordinates.. whence the true spirit of Roman construction emerged. however. In vaulting an oblong compartment the difference between the heights of the diagonal and wall ribs was still greater and produced an awkward waving line of the groins on plan (Nos. 112 B. viz. does not appear to have been employed by the Romanesque architects. designing the profile of the the form of the vaulting surfaces to groin ribs and leaving themselves to them whereas in Roman architecture the adapt vaulting surface was first settled. the vaulting ribs were usually portions of circular curves of similar curvature starting from the same level. when it began to be superseded by the "groin-rib" type of vaulting. necessary for the Romanesque architects to find the profile of the ribs. The panelling was then filled in on the top of these ribs. in B and 112 c). but at this period the lay architects of the North. 112 D ). having the longest span. and in consequence the structure was highly domical. as mentioned above. and the profile of the groins It was therefore followed as a matter of course. In. yet purifying dissolution of the Dark Ages." This method introduced a new principle in vaulting. where the vaults were generally constructed with level ridges. soon developed from it the magnificent Gothic system of the perfected architecture of .) In England.224 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. D ).

The earlier examples have choirs without aisles. was formed a vaulted crypt as at S. the type of the Early Christian Church took place. The weight (six part) vaulting (Nos. took the Roman basilica as a model for the new churches. as at Worms (No. and 112 D). The towers are special features. being continued round in later examples. 94 A. Plans.ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE. oblong accommodating the heights be found that all of ribs of different spans. Paris (No. 10^ cloisters in connection The F. each main bay corresponding with two square compartments of the side aisles (Nos. in which the saints and martyrs were buried. and calling architecture out of its sleep. In some instances the intermediate pier was carried up as a . Transepts were usually added. these difficulties of It will also Germany. which was then known as " sexpartite 100 c. 105 c). In church architecture further developments from A. 94 and 95).same breadth as the nave. however. as at the Church of the Apostles at Cologne (Nos. The choir was raised considerably by means of steps. and Notre Dame. COMPARATIVE. as at Canterbury the difficulty of spanning . Q . 225 compartments was surmounted by including two of them in one square bay of vaulting. 93) and S. in France. which were accordingly strengthened (No. 157). especially in oblong compartments. Michele.A. and underneath. 105 G). of the vaulting in this case was therefore supported by alternate piers. During the following centuries this principle of rib design became more "complex by the multiplication of the frame-work of ribs described under Gothic vaulting (page 272). F). supported on piers. and of great prominence in the design. and Abbaye-aux-Dames at Caen. (refer to each country). and in England. 105 B and 112 F). and the chancel prolonged further east than in the basilicas.vaulting shaft and formed the vaulting compartment into " six parts on plan. were surmounted by the introduction of the pointed arch (No. B. . Charlemagne gathered around him artists and skilled workmen. which was usually twice the width of the aisles. E and 105). Pavia (Nos. Pavia (No. Florence (No. as at the Abbaye-aux-Hommes (No. 112 E. the latter. Mayence and Spires. EXAMPLES 4. Miniato. Michele. with the churches are often of great beauty and have capitals and other features elaborately carved. HID 3. 94). the church partaking more and more of a well-defined cross on plan. as The transepts were the at S.

94 and 100). Roofs. as at IfHey Church. of course. 94 F. 94). or the whole shaft is sometimes covered In early examples forms of the with sculptured ornaments. octagonal.e. 94 A). 112 G) were usual. and the profile of the jamb is carried round the orders. The characteristic rose (or wheel) window occurred over the principal door of the church in the west front. 98 B. of vertical. H. often raised. being built in concentric A continuous abacus often occurs over rings (No. Roman work and precedent. connected at the top by horizontal mouldings. t . was due to the desire of fire-proofing the building. although technical skill was at a very low ebb during this period. The arches followed the same method. general employment of vaulting. these columns. known as were placed circular columns or shafts. was " in receding in planes. 94 and 105). or trellis work form. having windows to each. but when introduced. The principal doorways are usually placed in the transepts. but the central nave was still often covered with a plain wooden roof.226 and 105 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. well-marked stories. 112 D G). Columns. especially over the side aisles in the eleventh century. spiral. and afterwards moulded in a simple manner (No.. . or rectangular recesses. buttresses" under the aisle roof. The form of arch universally employed was semicircular 5 (No. all constructive art in Europe. treatments. four of the sides were carried on The Romanesque architects used " flying (Nos. "Walls. flutings being used (Nos. but it was left for the Gothic architects of the thirteenth century to place them above the aisle roof and weight them with pinnacles.D. Intersecting barrel vaults (No. were at first plain. as at Palermo. or by a row of semicircular arches resting on a corbel table Semicircular arxphes. 138) also in Southern Italian examples. formed capitals. also occur. about noo A. The door and window openings are very c. inthian or Ionic capitals occur as in the third column from the crossing was crowned by an " octa- . They are either square. buttresses formed as pilaster strips of slight projection. j). and the difficulty in constructing these in oblong bays led to the use of pointed arches D. influenced B. stilted (No." which semicircular portion of the arch in southern examples.the columns have a variety of . The in later times.E. When " squinch arches gonal dome. resting on rudely projecting from the wall. having on the exterior. Other peculiarities are referred to in the comparative table of each country. or circular. The principle upon which the jambs were formed characteristic. Oxon (No. with c). Openings. i. In early examples rib mouldings were not used in the vaulting. in the case where the thrust of a vaulted roof had to be met (Nos. The shafts of . and are placed at the west and east ends and the crossing of nave and transepts. Walls were in general coarsely built. 107 L).

generally resting on a square plinth. climate. capital in later times was often of a cushion (cubiform) shape. L. but projects less than in the Classical style. 107 D. 135). 107 and 146) is always distinctive in form it is higher. (No. Mouldings. 139). The carving and ornaments were derived from G. and 146) is hollows. Early stained glass was influenced Note. which . John's Chapel. required great technical by Byzantine mosaic. and is moulded with alternate fillets and The base to the column (Nos. Ornament. as in S. or Attic base. H. skill.ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE. with lower corners rounded off and no carving. many types of the vegetable and animal kingdom and treated In in a conventional way. be referred to in English Romanesque (Norman) architecture The The abacus over the capital (Nos. 139). or is sometimes richly carved and scolloped (Nos. at the 'angles of which flowers or animals were occasionally carved to fill up the triangular part. M. Q 2 . K. 146 and 148 B. 98 j. the interiors fresco is more commonly used than mosaic. 98. and geological formations were instrumental in producing the different characteristics of each country. c). Tower of London (No. M. and the lower circular moulding often overhangs the plinth. j. 227 where and the right in S. John's Chapel. Also see Nos. Classic influence is apparent. These were often carved elaborately. as will F. geography as a whole. 135). often but rudely carved (No. The above are the principal characteristics of the style Local influences of taste. Tower of London (No. E. 103. 103 D. an adaptation of the old Classical form.

to Climate. Florence lay on the great route from south to north. . which the Pope accepted in the name Thus in 755 Central Italy severed its connection of S. asked by the Pope (Stephen II.). INFLUENCES. Geological. or Tivoli. i. although the Popes had only small temporal dominions. and Travertine stone from Marble was obtained from Carrara. It was during this period that. iv." I. while the south. page 112. advanced into Italy in 773. king of the Franks. commanding the passage of the Arno. The ordinary building materials of Rome were bricks. CENTRAL ITALY. Pippin. Peter. and. after defeating He gave the the Lombards. Paros and the other Greek isles. and the disputes with the emperors began. and south. iti. with the Empire and became independent. thereby inaugurating the temporal power of the papacy. invited by Pope Adrian I. Charlemagne. and to Naples on Pisa was by position a maritime power. . Geographical. her works in red and gold. " In Middle Rome there was in stone working The Church of Mary painted royally of it were some two or three The chapels In each of them her tabernacle was And a wide window of six feet in glass Coloured with ail 1 . entered Rome for the first time in 774. The comparative table of the three together given on page 242..ITALIAN ROMANESQUE. a few miles off. Tuscany possessed greater mineral wealth than any other part of Italy. ii. and building stone was abundant. they began to make their power felt in civil government. local volcanic stone (tufa or peperino). (772-779). (See Roman architecture. The boundaries of Central Italy extended Florence and Pisa on the north and west.) Religion. north. defended the latter from the Lombards and gave him the lands they had seized and also the chief city of the Exarchate (Ravenna). 1 The style is divided into three is central.


Pisa and Amain and other cities for self-defence. owing to insufficient protection from Constantinople. ideas rarely found. Social and Political. thus adding to his temporal power. the former supporting the-power of the Popes and the latter that of the Emperors. and that no temporal prince should bestow any ecclesiastical benefice. city at this period. and in the following century its growing commerce it caused to rival Pisa. -ruled that the clergy should not marry. influence was strong. 2. Dukedom of Spoleto and other concessions to Adrian. and Pisa. Historical. the rival of Venice and Genoa. In Italy. defeating the Saracens in A. complete districts. and 1089 at Tunis. 1030. being also a It republic. decisions which resulted in the struggles between the Guelphs and Ghibellines (page 405). Such treatment caused the introduction of many new constructive ideas. especially in Tuscany. The Pisans were defeated by the Genoese in 1284. Ravenna. The rise of Florence dates from 1125. which latter city in particular possesses a distinct style of its own. especially in several as Venice. principal aim is perfection construction of vaulting. The Byzantine . Constructive boldness not sought after. was the great commercial and naval power in the Mediterranean. Genoa. and from this period connection with Byzantium was broken off. where vaulting was now greater beauty in detail. Pisa. an artistic commerce and the independent views caused by education.the wars against the infidels. 1025. and thus were brought in contact with Eastern art. -and its architecture was influenced by that of Pisa.D. the daughter arts of painting and sculpture being in a state of inaction/ 7 The growth of an v. took place in the eleventh century. than for developing a bold and novel construction into a style. Pisa. which influenced the whole design as in Normandy and the Rhine The the have always possessed a capacity for provinces. ' ITALIAN (CENTRAL) ROMANESQUE. the inhabitants of this latter industrial population. and took the lead in. being developed. movement. less ^Q&THERN EUROPEAN ^ ROMANESQUE. which led to their decline. was rent by the feuds of the two parties. Lucca was an important ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER.230 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. in New departure being the ancient Basilican Italians made from The type. and Amalfi sent merchant fleets to the ports of the Holy Land for the Eastern Fair at Jerusalem. vi. owing to the destruction of Fiesole. the increase of ' city moved there. were important factors in the rise of Naples. Gregory VII. the Guelphs and Ghibellines. when. At the commencement of the eleventh century. in which architecture was most prominent.

if there were another internal hemispherical cupola. the reason being that Lucca belonged arches. and S.D. thus causing the tower to lean about 1 1 feet from the vertical. in Dalmatia. The structure is crowned by an outer hemispherical dome. connected by semicircular The which is an open arcade in two heights. Pisa (A. i. Michele.D. Paul.D. The Campanile (Bell Tower). A.ITALIAN (CENTRAL) ROMANESQUE. 1188. 70 G and 91). 91). above to that city when most Cathedral of its churches were erected. and supported on four piers and eight columns. however. (twelfth century resembles these Rome. bear considerable similarity to the architecture of Pisa. while the architecture of the rest of Europe was slowly developing towards the Gothic style. that of Rome was still composed of Classic columns and other features taken from ancient buildings. with rows of columns and flat ceiling recalling the Early Christian Basilican church.D. It was not completed till A. through which penetrates a conical dome 60 feet in diameter over the central space.D. Lucca (A. producing an elliptical dome of later date. ornament the fa9ades. it would resemble the constructive scheme of S. which. one above the other. a fine impression (No. interest of its building depends for its artistic effect upon the beauty and ornamental features rather than the promise of logical development mto a new style which a northern example possesses.. but the transepts with segmerital apse at each end were an advance on the Basilican Over the crossing or intersection of nave and plan. 253 B). from 600-1200. Pistoia churches. designed by Dioti Salvi in A.). Thus. supported on small detached shafts. as the custom of imperial city. 1278.D. fa$ade 1204). 129 feet in diameter. This Baptistery bears remarkable similarity to the church of S. During its erection the foundations gave way. Pisa Cathedral (A. and has Gothic additions of the fourteenth century. the interior. built in stripes of red and white marble. . is a circular structure 52 feet in diameter. Martino. 1172). EXAMPLES.D. Pisa (Nos. has a space only 30 feet in diameter. S. 91). blind arcades. 1153. 1060-1070. 91 and 92). The Baptistery. Donate (ninth century) at Zara. with encircling aisle in two stories. facade 1288). Built of marble. Lucca (A. in consequence of which it is not easy to ascertain what the original external design really was. erected in the During this period a series of towers were also The origin of these is not clear. it is surrounded externally on the lower story by half columns. is transepts Externally. 1063-1092) is a fine example of the style (Nos. ' 231 \ . which also have small open arcades. 3.e. London (No. In the Romanesque period. ornamented with eight stories of arcades (No. is circular.

the capital of Lombardy. recently restored. had been forced to do penance on account of a massacre in Thessalonica. i. and the local architecture the great building material of the shows the influence iii. 93). bell ringing was not then in existence. This division of the church by piers seems a prelude to the idea of vaulting in compartments. NORTH i. ITALY. ii. Ravenna and Venice. and the vine. but they may be regarded as prototypes of the mediaeval towers and spires. Paul beyond the walls. see page Rome Rome 242. of this material. always had a high degree of prosperity. 1234). .D. . The city is surrounded by rich plains. S. The special feature of the cloisters consists of the small twisted columns inlaid with glass mosaic in patterns of great beauty. Bishop of Milan (374-398). 1241) (No. a climate of extremes. the great emperor. Climate.. INFLUENCES. and is an evident departure from the basilican type of long unbroken ranges of columns or arcades. This is an instance closing the doors of the Church against him. Theodosius. For the Comparative table of Italian Romanesque. (A. They are formed in square bays. green. and the cultivation of the mulberry (for the silkworm).John Lateran. North Italy has a climate resembling that of Central Europe.e.D. The length of the church is divided into three main compartments. the vault arches inclosing the arcades in groups of five or more openings. The Cloisters of S. Religion. 98 B) are of extreme interest. while in summer the heat is often excessive.is open to the nave. S. Very notable is the open timber roof with its decoration. At the end of the fourth century. i. The marble panelling. (A. Geological. Brick is plains of Lombardy. as trade connecting links with the Eastern Empire. Ambrose. and its proximity to several of the Alpine passes. Milan.232 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. under which is a crypt. Milan is near enough to the Alps to experience cold in winter. and forming an evidence of the patient skill of the craftsman. and the raised eastern portion. is a leading example of the Central Italian style. and of S. were carried to a further extent in the Gothic period. Miniato. Florence (No. in bright coloring of gold. and banding in black and white marble of the exterior and interior. reflect the culture and architectural forms derived therefrom. adds to the general prosperity of the district. on account of its favourable situation in the centre of that state. Geographical. iv. blue and red.


and severe facades are typical. flat. the clerestory is omitted. 2. The churches were lican type. or Doge. The eleventh and twelfth centuries were the great building epochs in Lombardy. and ornament of great refinement. Marble facing was carried to such an extent as to form a style in that material. Detail much affected by Classic remains and traditions. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. the old Roman population eventually caused barbarian influence to wane. Wide. Arcades in several stories were employed as an ornament to the faades (No. the members of which were orn. In Italy. The devastating wars in the North Italian the in led to the gradual rise of the Venetian state. 96) aisles. the walls between the side chapels forming buttresses. The Basilican type was closely adhered to. The churches were mostly roofed with plain open-timbered roofs. Historical. CENTRAL ITALIAN ROMANESQUE. Milan being as much German as Italian. and a porch resting on lions are often the chief relief. Ambrose's fame and influence maintained the Ambrosian rite. top of The character gables and apses. of the Basiall and were nearly vaulted and roofed. Details show a breaking away from Classic preceIn sculpture. was invested with supreme authority plains first gradually grew up. page 408). At Pisa ancient sarcophagi richly sculptured with figures existed. hunting and dent. vi. and in these a grotesque element is Arcades prominent. v. which differed in some points of ritual. Milan Cathedral. such as side altars not being used (cf. is less refined owing to the use of stone and brick rather than marble. and Istria. by means of which both the naval importance and commerce of the little state continually increased. S.234 of the great COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Croatia. power the Church had acquired. Social and Political. cities Italy itself consisted of a number of separate which were independent commonwealths. without marking in any wav the difference of nave and A rose window (No. and beauty and delicacy of detail were preferred to the invention of fresh architectural forms produced by a new system of construction. . other scenes reflecting the life of the northern invaders are frequent. Venice from the first kept up a close alliance with Constantinople. including Dalmatia. covering the whole church. form of government being republican. especially after the eleventh century. but an oligarchy which a Duke. by which time commercial relations had extended to the Black Sea and the coast of the Mediterranean. The barbarians who occupied the valleys of the Rhine and Po pursued a similar development in spite of the intervening Alps. 91). but until this had come to pass little building was done. mented with bright coloring. which resuited in the production of carving restricted to NORTH ITALIAN ROMANESQUE. by whose study the Pisani were influenced. Side aisles are often in two stories.



Pavia (A. and Germany. 98 G). when a wooden roof was placed over a circular vault. The latter (Nos.D. as a decorative feature. carrying semicircular arches which are often stilted. but were placed at some little distance. as in countries as possible. Milan 140). are . or commemorative monuments. giving a deep . under the slope of the gable. the arches being connected with the extrados of the vault. are good examples.D. with columns supporting arches.D. north of the Alps. S. Mark. 104 and 105 B). 1 shadow in an appropriate position (Nos. without breaks. being treated as plainly and with only sufficient windows to . These campanili occur in most of the North Italian towns. so that it even entirely covered the western facade. Zenone. 1139) (No. came to be employed. The Palazzi Farsetti and Loredan. They were not joined structurally with the church to which they belonged. primarily of use for defence at the top of the building. the external walls did not need to be continued solid above the springing of the vault. from being used merely in this position.D. is an important example. as illustrating how such architectural features have had. and the Fondaco dei Turchi.important features of the period. 96). Thus. The Campanili. Michele. Similarly in the later Gothic periods in England. the battlemented parapet. being similar in purpose to the civic towers of Belgium (page 390). and S. 94 and 95) is vaulted in square bays. and resting on the backs of crouching lions (No. originally. Ambrogio. in which are found the characteristic cubiform capital. 3. The origin of the arcaded galleries in many of the more important churches of the period (Nos. This arcading. . a great warehouse on the Grand Canal. S. Venice. Antonio. S. was employed as a decorative feature on window transoms and other positions. 96). as in England. having. and have no projecting buttresses. In these cases they were erected as symbols of power. (A. which are characteristic of the work in this district also the great western rose (wheel) window. In plan they are always square. as the ends of the rafters exerted little thrust hence this portion was arcaded. 1122). 1 188). with side aisles in two stories. and piers of clustered section. or bell towers. 237 EXAMPLES. 91 and 95). Piacenza (A. and in many cases are rather civic monuments than integral portions of the churches near which they are situated. in every possible part of the building. Verona (A. as that of S. and sometimes connected with the main building by cloisters (No.ITALIAN (NORTH) ROMANESQUE. France. arcaded corbels. is interesting. a constructive meaning. and the projecting porch to the main doorway. used in the Eastern trade. are well-known examples at Venice.


is And amber i. for palms grow in the open air. Southern Italy has always maintained a close connection with Sicily. Being situated the Mediter- ranean sea. vi. which is typical (No. under Robert and /nasty. 239 light to the internal staircase. Sanguinary struggles amongst certain sects led to the insurrecon of several cities. In Sicily. ~:icl overran the whole island. The Mahometans introduced into Sicily valuable commercial products.D. For comparative table of Italian Romanesque. 96). Neither red nor white bricks . or sloping way the windows increase in number from one in the lowest story to five or more in the uppermost story. which is thus practically an open loggia. while the mountains afforded an abundant supply of a calcareous and shelly limestone. and hastened the downfall of the Mahometan From 1061-1090 the Normans. The climate of South Italy and Sicily is almost sub-tropical. Social and Political. architectural character. 827 the Mahometans landed in Sicily. how ever. On the southeastern coast of Italy the towns have the general characteristics of Oriental cities. and there are celebrated orange and lemon groves near Palermo. Their civilization was.ITALIAN (SOUTHERN) ROMANESQUE. owing to Mahometan influence. and the whole is generally crowned with a pyramidal shaped roof. and its history is a record of the successive influences of the powers to whom these countries belonged. features." SICILY. which were invented because the Mahometan religion forbade the representation of the human figure (page 654). and the third to North Africa. and being of triangular form. the fa9ades were ornamented with intricate geometrical patterns. and has yet to be fully explored for traces of its architectural development. Historical. iv. admit . Zenone. laid in rows. another to Italy. influenced Climate. But for cubits five or six. v. The deposits of sulphur contributed to the wealth and prosperity of the island. Geological. r . which ii. as is the Campanile of S. INFLUENCES. see page 242. " Therein be neither stones nor sticks. and the latter part of the gradually tenth century was the most prosperous period of their sway. In A. such as grain and cotton. SOUTHERN ITALY AND There most goodly sardonyx. centrally in Geographical. i. considerably aided by the previous Byzantine influences. the buildings having flat roofs and other Eastern its iii. Verona. Sicily presents one side to Greece. Religion.

c/ Q W ffi H CJ .

as in the Church of the Martorana at Palermo. but civil wars as to the right of succession led to the island passing in 1268 to Louis of Anjou. The change from the Byzantine to the Mahometan dominion. and a school of mosaic was maintained in the Royal Palace during this period. representing scenes from biblical history. and from the latter to the Nvrman in the eleventh century is traceable. marked by severity. with apses at the eastern end of nave and aisles^ the choir being raised above the nave. The low. where a square space is covered by a dome supported on Four freestanding columns. In plan it resembles a Roman basilica. Pointed windows without tracery occur in the aisles.ITALIAN (SOUTH) ROMANESQUE. 2. intricate in design. and by great richness in the material employed. EXAMPLES. During this period Sicily prospered. Architecture developed considerably under the Norman rule by the erection of cathedrals. on the high ground to the south-west of Palermo. dado. 1 1 30. Palermo (1132) (in the Royal Palace). Mahometan influence is evident. and a descendant of the latter was crowned at Palermo. about 12 feet high. supporting pointed arches. conquered the island. R . and her fleet defeated the Arabs and Greeks. which are square in section. well carved capitals of Byzantine form. are decorated in color in the Mahometan The interior is solemn and grand. A by F. The churches have either wooden roofs. as mentioned above. No. is bordered inlaid patterns in colored porphyries. oblong. or a Byzantine dome. were subordinate to the mosaic decorations which clothe the walls. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. The nave columns have. The walls are ornamented with mosaics in color. and rich cloisters. illustrates mixed Byzantine and Mahometan influences. particularly in the decorative parts of churches. surrounded by arabesque borders. and not in recessed planes as in northern work. Byzantine influence is shown in the plans of certain churches. 24! Roger de Hauteville. 97). Monreale Cathedral (begun 1174. 3. and rich mosaics and colored marbles were employed as a facing internally. The Capella Palatina. The architectural features of the interiors. but are hardly ever vaulted. the decoration being style. Dark and light stone was used in courses externally. crowning lantern. the early bronze -^ors. of which Monreale Cathedral (No. 97) has typical examples. of slabs of white marble.A. are notable. The open timber roofs.

and placed on huge semi-grotesque lions. There is a fine atrium at S.242 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. . The choir was occasionally raised to admit of a crypt beneath. distinguished by a projecting porch. i two . having a symbolic character. S. oblong in plan. the . . anri sometimes have a large circular window to light the nave. NORTH. Walls. B. AND SOUTH. as at Piacenza and S. supporting a projecting roof. the open arcades of the apses seen in conjunction with the usual arcaded octagonal lantern at the crossing. 97). as at Monreale Cathedral (No. which may be due to some extent to the Greek descent of the inhabitants of this part of Italy. CENTRAL. resting on isolated columns. I the South this feature is highly elaborated with wheel tracery. their northern 7 4. is a good and typical example of the churches of Southern Italy which are small in comparison with was the model The entrance front is always contemporaries. are detached. The Northern fa9ades are flatter. that at Otranto being noteworthy for the numerous points of support employed to carry the choir. was carried up to a flat gable. S. that at Novara being connected to the cathedral by an atrium. with the columns resting on lions' backs. It has a richly treated ceiling of stalactite forms. In the North A. The flat blind arcades of the northern style were developed by the Pisan (Central) architects in their galleried facades. The west front. and are bold open-arched structures. COMPARATIVE. being straight shafts without buttresses or spires. Zenone. for Monreale Cathedral. reached by steps from the nave. constitute the charm of the style. with arcading following the rake. which. Plans The plans of most of the churches were substantially same as the basilicas. is unrivalled for richness of the effect of the mosaics. including the aisles. Projecting porches were preferred to recessed doorways. the low lanterns at the crossing. The crypts are a special feature. Verona (No. when occurring. Ambrogio. modifications being introduced on the lines of German work in the South. above which is the characteristic wheel-window. 96). often of stories. Towers. more especially in Central Italy in the North the churches are mostly vaulted. and though of small size. and other arcades carried across in bands. A number of circular examples were built mainly as baptisteries. Giovanni degli Eremiti (1132) and the Martorana Church (1113-1143) are other examples at Palermo which show the blending of Saracenic and Byzantine ideas. are marked features. Milan. can be traced to German influence. The detail of these buildings is always refined and graceful. Bari (1197). Nicolo.


244 in COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 98 c). are met with. springing from corbels (No. as at Monreale Cathedral. Roughly carved grotesques of men E. Central Italy. where vaulting was more in use. groined vaults of small span were common and divided into compartments by the Gothic period. In consequence of the bright climate the c. as in the rich carving of the Palermo examples. 98 j M. Roofs. attention being chiefly bestowed upon their decoration. above which the plain walls are pierced. Where round-arched cross/ vaulting. The nave roofs of Italian churches continued to be constructed Plain of wood with flat ceilings till the thirteenth century. barrel vaults. 98). flat bands. Southern work is far superior in detail. especially in the North. Openings. Piers with half shafts were employed rather than columns. and Classic models were copied. and elegance. rude Corinthian columns carry a round-arched arcade. 98 A). openings are small (No. more often than not unmarked on the exterior. decorated by flat pilaster strips. Mouldings. vigorous hunting scenes. (No. No. connecting one Rude imitations of old Classical detail pilaster strip to another. The rows of apostles on the lintels of the doorways. and incidents of daily life are found in Northern sculpture. were not employed. show typical capitals. Flat bands are characteristic of the Northern Strings were formed by small arches. but coupled and grouped shafts were seldom properly developed in relation to the vaulting ribs. preferred to translucent. southern examples. style. Flank walls are occasionally the churches at Palermo. and the use of color G. bronze doors are a feature. Columns. connected horizontally by small arches. or simple D. as at Toscanella. a practice which was continued in E. are similar in treatment to Byzantine ivories. Ornament and animals (No. often F. owing to Mahometan influence. 97). and opaque decoration was Window tracery was not developed. Elaborate decoration in mosaic exists as in the Palermo churches and elsewhere (No. 98 was the main object in the design of the interiors. grace. the timber roofs of the basilican In the style often effectively decorated with color were used. In Southern examples. . In Central Italy greater elegance is displayed. but timber roofs are the rule in Palermo and Monreale (No. j). Buttressing was obtained by means of the division walls between an outer range In of chapels. 94 H. 96) just described are only rudimentary in pattern. and. elaboration were attempted in the doorways (No. as at Pistoia. Richness and possessing good outline. domes rather than vaults were attempted. F). 98 H). The wheel windows (No. great richness in timber ceilings was attained. while the roof is of the simple basilican type. by the small arched openings of the clerestory.

Terra-Cotta Architecture of North W.) 1829.)." Folio. de)." (Historical Novel). Rohault de Fleury." 3 vols." 2 vols. 1874. REFERENCE BOOKS.).). H. G. to Illustrate the Saracenic and Folio. Hittorff (J. folio and 4to. E. and Osten Paris.) italien. W..). Darmstadt. Griiner (L." Pisa.). large folio.." Street (G.)." 410. folio. J. 1830. Norman Remains Pise au Normans folio in Sicily. 1860. " Die der Lombardei vom bis 14 Folio." Dartein (F." Paris. " Denkmaeler der Kunst des Mittelalters in UnterSchulz (H.. Jahrhunderts. Dresden. 8vo. 8vo. Folio.) et Zanth (C. " Italy..).." Translated from the Italian. " II Duomo di Monreale. Gravina (D. 1892." 1838. folio. 1827.' e " Salazaro (D. Studi sui Monument! della Italia meridioni dal IV al 6 XIII Secolo." 7 2 vols. " Palermo.ITALIAN ROMANESQUE. 1896. D. 1865-1882." Normans " Knight (H. 410. B. Architecture Antique de la Knight.).- Cattaneo " Cresy and Taylor. 245 5. 1859." 2 vols. Boston. Sicile. 1' Architecture in Italy from the Vlth to the Xlth (R. 1871-1877. " Theophano." 4to. 2 vols. 1846-1854. " Brick and Marble Architecture of North Italy. 1866." and Chamberlin (G. " Etude sur Paris.).). Napoli. Delhi (A. . . in Sicily. (F. Architecture Lombarde. "Norman Antiquities of Palermo and Environs. "Harrison (F. Centuries. I. 1867. L. "Monuments de Bauvverke in Moyen Age.

fine-grained stone of Caen.) the south. Attention was then concentrated upon . ii. used throughout N. owing to the Gulf Stream and warm S. Auvergne walling was executed in a curious inlay of colored .ormandy. on the Mediterranean. The soft. terror on the aching sight. when introduced. Gilles. iv. took a strong hold in the Rhone Valley. Geological. material. . the severity of whose rules as to church building. Trophime. between the south and north of Europe. caused a reaction from the decorative character of the later Romanesque. Aries. Whose ancient pillars rear their marble heads To bear aloft its arched and ponderous roof. is sub-tropical. INFLUENCES. France is exceedingly rich in building materials. Venice and the East introduced to the district of Perigueux a version of the Byzantine style in stone. Religion. with a landscape almost African in its aspect.FRENCH ROMANESQUE. By its own weight made steadfast and immoveable Looking And It strikes an awe tranquillity. Climate. In this district the most interesting event was the rise of the Cistercians (page 219). winds (c. France is practically on the high road i. Geographical. especially stone. Lyons contributing martyrs to the cause. of which most of the towns are built." CONGREVE. Christianity. as in the fa9ades of S. How reverend is the face of this tall pile. and of S. and the relative position of each district influenced the various prevailing types of architecture.) the west on the Atlantic coasts is warmer. i. When Rome was a great power it was by way of Provence and the Rhone valley that civilization spread hence the strong The trade with classical element which is there prevalent. climates (a.) the north resembles that of the south of England (b. In the volcanic district of was also exported to England. I-n France there are three iii.W. .

In Aquitania and Anjou the vast interiors in one span. supported by the massive walls of the recessed chapels. especially along the Loire Valley. Roman style is remarkable for its rich decorative facades cloisters. In the_ south. v. Hugh Capet ascended the Prankish throne towards the close of the tenth century. often by (No. The development of vaulting. At this period the greater part of the means country was held by independent lords. naves were covered with barrel vaults. 100 B).FRENCH ROMANESQUE. On the death of Charlemagne. Lawlessness and bloodshed were rife throughout the century. . in France was the cause of continual invasions and wars in the two countries. forming a link to the marvellous structures the next three centuries. In the north the style is the promising commencement of a new epoch. Northern France was invaded by the Northmen. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. and the change to the pointed style was promoted. and heavily roofed with of ponderous arching. emphasized the richness of the west fronts of the churches in both districts. 2. where matter is lost in the emotions expressed. by the effort to solve the problems of vaulting. hence architectural progress was impossible until a more settled state of society vi. Clermont-Ferrand. and the authority of the king extended little beyond Paris and Orleans. naves were covered by groined vaults. Historical. The were close set with pier and pillar. are impressive. The plain thick walls. from whom Normandy was named. was established. half barrel vaults. The conquest of England in 1066 marked the transference of the most vigorous of the Normans to England. in In the north. the 347 of producing grand and severe effects. Normandy becoming an English province until the time of King The hold. and their ruler Rollo was the ancestor of the Norman kings of England. made much progress. interiors having the first tentative essays of a new system. and seem to revive the great halls of the Roman Thermae.over-two-storied whose thrust was resisted aisles thus suppressing the clerestory. usually with flat external buttresses in the north or internal buttresses in the south. however. the buildings of Provence being a new version of old features. which seem to have aojuiivd a The southern and graceful fresh significance. . Social and Political. _as at N6ti Dame du Port. Paris being made the capital of the kingdom. until the complete fusion of races in both was marked by the loss of the English possessions in France. which they retained on their possessions John. which was different in the north and south (page 223).

d Burgundy. F. Front. roundarched tunnel-vaults. 84). forming a Latin cross on plan. all showing Classical influence. The cloisters. The portals of S. as at Notre Dame dn Port. Gilles. 84 B) shows the Venice (page 208). is an example of the first type. 102). and the second having domes spheroidal in shape. surmounted by a circular ring of columns. 1050-1100) is an imitation of S. the 'first having. campanile in stone. Avignon." infilling or 3. as at Notre Dame. Toulouse. Provence. elongated upwards and supported on pointed arches. Clermont-Ferrand. consisting of columns. the geological influence is apparent. is due to a large trade with Byzantium. France exhibits several varieties of the Romanesque style. and for this reason it may be divided into southern and northern provinces. in which different peculiarities are traceable. Angouleme Cathedral (No. Provence has numerous remains of the eleventh and twelfth centuries. 100 E.^ 5. Irene at Constantinople (page 204). Front acted as a prototype of churches with cupolas in France. Trophime. and Orange. Both transepts were originally crowned with towers. being a volcanic district. and other places in the Rhone Valley. EXAMPLES. S. exhibit great richness of effect and beauty of detail. Sernin. Auvergne. Pmgueux (A. It is a Greek cross on plan. influence of Roman remains was naturally greatest in the where they more particularly occur. carrying a conical dome. G) is of the second type. Mark. Anjou an. used in couples in the depth . the buildings having a local character imparted to them by the inlaid decoration formed of different colored lavas.D. the groined ribs being constructed independently and supporting the " severies. but has a long aisleless nave with transepts provided with lateral chapels an cT an apsidal choir with four chapels. The South of France may be roughly divided into the provinces of Aquitania. and closely resembles S. but they have latterly The parts Attached to the church is a magnificent been made semicircular. Aries. Cahors Cathedral (A. and the Auvergne frequently Church at Issoire. as at Nimes. but the southern one was destroyed in 1568. indicating an eastern influence. The nave is covered with four stone domes.D. that over the crossing being carried above the roof and having a stone lantern. consisting of a square shaft. and the Church at 5. the main dividing line being the Loire. 1120) (No. Aries (No. an example of the second type. S. in many of which pointed tunnel-vaults were used. Aquitania has two distinct styles.248 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. square compartments and covered with sexpartite vaulting. The illustration (No. arches supporting the domes as pointed.

many~ot "whicfi. It had originally an eastern apse. (A. s A utun . The Church at Vezelay (A. 103 D. owing to its prosperity and the power of the Norman dukes. and that at Vienne are other interesting examples. 1101-1119) resembled Angouleme Cathedral nave and general arrangement. as The Abbey of Fontevrault Notre Dame la Grande. of the wall. are The columns have deep filling being made.D. Caen (Nos. but the characteristic chevet (No. expiation of having married Matilda in spite of their close relationship. ) Abbey Church is an interesting example in which arches the nave from pier to pier support transverse vaults. noo). 249 interesting. The plan seems to have been is the best known example. in its aisleless Burgundy was specially rich in monastic establishments which influenced the architectural treatment of the churches. with double side aisles to the main body of the church. These examples are of the vaulted basilican type.Cathedral ( i OQO. and a chevet of five apsidal chapels. :ompartments without the aid of the pointed towers crowned by octagonal spires flanked by with angle . The city of Caen possesses a number of examples illustrating the difficulties of vaulting. which was covered with a great barrel-vault. this was superseded is later by The west end two square schemes to pinnacles. which was being developed towards the complete Gothic of the thirteenth century. which ultimately led to the introduction of the pointed arch. with Paris as the radiating centre. Poitiers.faave been destroyed. no attempt at tracery and carrying semicircular arches.D. commenced A. this fa 9 ade being a prototype of the Gothic follow. The pointed arch was employed in the arcade of the nave. which are left entirely open. the former having a groined vault instead of the longitudinal barrel-vault. 1066 by William the Conqueror. spanning under which windows were formed in the nave walls. founded on the Romanesque church of Spires (Germany). and the aisles probably had groined vaulting. Etienne). The North of France comprises the provinces of Central France. Anjou has many examples rich in decorative treatment.1 1 3 2 is an example of the aisleless churches which are found in various parts of France.D. Normandy possesses many fine examples of this period The Abbaye-aux-Hommes (S. The vaulting illustrates the difficulties of spanning oblong Two bays arch. specially capitals sculptured with sharp and distinctive foliage (No. in 100-101).FRENCH ROMANESQUE. The great Abbey -Church of Cluny (1089-1131) was the most famous in this province and was the longest in 1< ranee. E) and support semicircular arches. 101). and the provinces of Normandy Toiirnus and Brittany.

In the setting out of the bays important changes were introduced. Caen (A. as glazing or tracery were not required by the climate. Cloisters were treated with the utmost elaboration^and jricjmess. but on the introduction of the pointed arch each oblong bay of the nave formed a vaulting compartment corresponding in length to each aisle bay. which thus being approximately square. as at Vienne cathedral. B. "Walls. was superseded immediately on the introduction of the pointed arch. and the fa9ades were arranged in stories. Round churches are rare in this district. Plans. 1083) (No. Nicholas. 1084). inclosing the outer range of chapels. could be vaulted without reference to the neighbouring one. 99 and'ioi . are notable examples. building abbot. Massiveness is the characteristic of all the early work. was erected Abbe Suger. Denis. diagonal. the Church of S. which. Caen (A. usually having double columns with magnificent capitals. resembling Italian Gampanili.which receive the round arches of the narrow bays. however. internal buttresses. COMPARATIVE. with window lights in pairs or groups.25O COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Michel (since restored). 4. were introduced between A. 1150-1200. This resulted in a system known as sexpartite vaulting (page 225) (Nos. Elaboration was reserved for doorways in the arcaded lower portion of the fa9ades. when each compartment.D. A. 99).D. 100 c. thus in early plans the naves were vaulted in square bays comprising two aisle bays longitudinally (No. In the south.D. Buttresses are often mere strips of slight projection (No. which are often models of simplicity and richness. Towers are detached. Trinite). In the north. Walls were of rubble with facing stones. near Paris. Flying buttresses. and the vaulting ribs were provided with individual shafts. the rise of the transverse-. which developed the pier plans. were preferred. and the Abbey Church of Mont The Abbaye-aux-Dames (La in by the great and the choir and west front still remain as left by him. 99). and were left entirely open. of the nave are comprised under one vaulting compartment. D. which the progress of intersecting vaulting is seen. 112 E. S. and wall ribs is nearly equal. admitting of high clerestories with windows Th lighting the nave. F). 100). in 1144. what) ever its shape. because the difference between the width of the nave and the distance longitudinally between the piers could be easily surmounted by pointed arches of different radius manipulated so as to equalize the height of the ribs. the increasing demand for vaulted interiors modified the planning. towers are mostly square with pyramidal roofs (Nos. although a fourteenth century nave Has been wedged between them. The Abbey of S.

u't :- .



blocks (No. with nook shafts plainly fluted. in carving. in northern work is supposed to have arisen from the imitation. often in two stories. circular or octagonal. Mouldings. The earlier vaulted churches have no clerestory. Roofs. to the nave. 103 G. and in order that the roofing slabs of stone might be carried direct upon the extrados of the vault. the early treatment was a tunnel vault by half tunnels oyer the aisles. 103 D. The pointed section was sometimes used. supported by plain form the cornices of the walls (No. clerestories of increased height were obtained by means of the intersecting nave vaults (No.254 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. buttressed and having upon their faces half round shafts carried to the vaulting ribs (No. (1130) are generally referred to as having the earliest pointed vaults in France. the elegance due to classic tradition contrasts with the rough axed decoration cut upon the structural features of the Norman work. arched jambs are formed in recessed planes (No: 102). In nave arcades. or columns. imitated from the Corinthian order. small. while in the north a commencement in grouping was made. clear-glazed openings being employed to set off the opaque color decoration of the walls. Corbel tables. were employed. 100). and then the vaulting shafts start awkwardly from the abacus of their huge' capitals (No. either square piers. more especially in the direction of filling in the vault spandrels of the clerestory with arrangements of three and five The ante-chapels at the Church at Vezelay light openings. In the south. Imposing western entrances are characteristic of this period. thus not admitting of a clerestory. The vault in the southern examples frequently supports the roofing slabs direct. with . Openings. Painted glass was not favoured in southern examples. were used. whose thrust was taken by buttress arches concealed in the aisle roofs a step towards the later flying buttresses. and reminiscent of Roman times. of the color pattern work. which supported the covering independent of the vault. In the latter. The carrying up of the vaulting shafts emphasizes the division of the nave into bays. Capitals are cubical blocks. either plain or carved with copies of acanthus leaves from old in planes. Stained glass favouring The diaper large openings was gradually developed in the north. F. 103). j). c. E). E. In the north. recessed D. work so common in the spandrels of arches. G. grotesque heads.groin ribs (introduced in the twelfth century). In the south. Columns. 103 M-P). narrow openings with wide splays to admit light sufficed. Ornament. or cut with zigzags. while in the northern examples above the stone vault were constructed wooden roofs. or draperies that originally occupied the . up Roman examples or B. doubtless to lessen the thrust upon the walls. In the south.

rn-rn .


102).). Thiollier (N." Verneilh (F. published under the title of New York..). 5. " romane Paris.). of Perigord and La Charente. The West Fronts of the churches of the Charente District in Aquitania were elaborately treated with carved ornament reprepositions.A . Ramee (D. Figure sculpture was more frequently employed southern buildings (No. "The Domed Churches 1896.B. February 20.. Spiers Churches of Charente. (A.. 10 vols. L'architecture religieuse a 1'epoque Folio. 1864-1873." 2 vols. " Rational 8vo. " Architecture Romane du Midi de la France. and F. " L' Architecture Normande aux Xle et XI le Ruprich-Robert (V. Sharpe (Edmund).A. broad frieze. 1888. 1900. McGibbon 8vo. " Dictionnaire de 1' Architecture." R. same in the senting foliage or figures of men and animals. Pugin W. Yonge M. dans Tancien diocese du Puy." 4to. "Saint Front of Perigueux and the Domed Phene). 1885-1887. 1828. Building." 410. M. (R. " Histoire de 1 Architecture. Viollet-le-Duc. 1859. folio. Journal. F. Revoil (H. A translation of the article "Construction" has been Paris. Paris. 1895.'* "Architectural Antiquities of Normandy." Svo. " L' Architecture Byzantin en France. were often continued as a rich. 4to. Paris." by G.*' .I.)." 2 vols. Huss. 1870. siecles.). "The Architecture of Provence and the Riviera. de).) and Le Keux. REFERENCE BOOKS." 3 vols. (D. On the ground story the capitals so treated. (C. Paris. Le Puy. 1882..)" Richard the Fearless" (Historical Novel).FRENCH ROMANESQUE. folio. 1851. 8vo.

and it was in these parts that Christianity took root. facilitated the erection in this material of churches. The existence of stone in the Rhine valley ii. being a strong supporter of ChristiThe anity. but with wider extremes. and in the winter correspondingly lower. Climate. originally divided into many distinct nationalities. Germany united under Charlemagne afterwards split up into small principalities. In the early period the Germans looked much iv. brick was there employed. INFLUENCES. built as tombs. No stone being found on the sandy plains of Northern Germany. On the banks of the Rhine. in . became fused into an absolute monarchy and has remained. There are also a number of important circular churches. cities had been established during the Roman occupation. i. to Rome. and in the south. as the heat in the summer is ten degrees higher. paganism still existed." CHAUCER. Social and Political. and eke full of windows As flakes fallen in great snowes. and the style of that district is consequently varied from that of the Rhine valley. i. so that carriages in Berlin are converted into sledges. the conversion of the tribes giving great importance to that ceremony. may be said to be the same as Southern England. Geological. Geographical. plan of a typical church of this period is peculiar in having eastern and western apses. Without peeces or joynings. Religion. v. while. The average temperature of Central Germany iii. " Both the Castell and the Toure And eke the hall and every boure. or more especially as baptisteries. But many subtle compassings As babeuries and pinnacles Imageries and tabernacles I saw.GERMAN ROMANESQUE. rendered permanent and fireproof by the early introduction of vaulting. and Charlemagne. in the north and east. forced the people of Saxony to embrace that religion. whereas France.

On Charlemagne's death in A.D. is evidenced in the similarity of the architecture of the two countries. 768-814). bears a strong The style resemblance to North Italian Romanesque. Rhenish Vaulting appears to have been first adopted in the churches some fifty years after its in France.spite of all 259 changes. Germany was troubled by the dissensions of the two rival parties. Historical. Otho. and ruled over the land of the Franks. and no great western entrance as in France. king who became Roman Emperor. and was not without its influence on the architecture of these regions. and the other representing the Imperial authority. the German princes pushed themselves into prominence tion by demanding the right to elect their own sovereign Conrad the First. The house of Hapsburg succeeded the Hohenstaufen dynasty in 1273. the one supporting the Church and municipal rights. general adoption s 2 .D. The mosFncKIy" ornamented parts are the doorways_aiid_capitals. 90). 1138-1273) with Lombardy. which are bold and effective in execution. In addition he established the Prankish dominion over Southern Gaul and Northern Italy In a great measure. when French Gothic architecture was introduced. and the use of arcaded galleries under the_eayes. 2. and henceforth copied. The Rhine districts possess the most fully-developed Romanesque architecture. . resulting in the erection of many important buildings in his dominions. In the later portion of this period. was crowned by Charlemagne (A. an event which shows the leading position of the Prankish emperors at the period.D. extending the boundary of the German Empire southwards into Lombardy. and the style lias_fe_wejl local -^axieiies than are peculiar in having that_pf France. the Guelphs and Ghibellines. the most united of continental powers. 814 this empire crumbled to pieces through internal wars. was crowned Emperor of the West at Rome. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. The plans of the churches western and eastern apses. The political relations of the Hohenstaufen (or Swabian) Emperors (A. he restored the arts and civiliza(No.GERMAN ROMANESQUE. the first Prankish to Western Europe. reigning as King of Germany at the beginning of the tenth century. in conjunction polygonal domes. which included all Central Germany and Northern Gaul. The general architectural character is rich in the multiwith plication of circular and octagonal turrets. the Pope at Rome. and in the unsettled state of the country. vi. but the conflict between the two took place mainly in North Italy (page 405). due to certain influences dealt with previously (page 234 and above). His successor.


261 the inventors of the Lombardian their Romanesque. abbot's lodging. 83 E. built A. 101). and the crossing of the nave and transept is covered with a low octagonal tower. giving richness and importance to this The grouping externally is effective. 1220-1250) is one of a series in that city which possesses characteristic features (Nos. guest-house. granaries. are of the basITican type with triple eastern apses. is an interesting and typical example of a German It appears to have been Benedictine monastery of the period. The Monastery of S. and of aisles half the width of the nave. The entrances were placed at the side. interesting examples.D.D. and round arched style lasted 3. school.D. Caen (No. 768-814 by the Emperor Charlemagne as a royal tomb-house for is as resembling S. and crowned with the characteristic row of small arches under the eaves of the roof. cemetery. the portion of the church. 1036). crowned by a low octagonal tower. framed in with flat pilaster strips as buttresses. Charlemagne's architect. face of the wall being divided up by arcading. The eastern portion has three apses. The bold dignity of this church may be compared with the confused effect of the French chevet. Aix-la-Chapelle Cathedral (No. Etienne. EXAMPLES. Treves (A. and Spires Worms .D.D. Vitale. 1030). a position which found favour in Germany as well as in England. Godehard. F). Martin (A. 11501170). Maria im Capitol (ninth century). F. The Germans may claim to be or North Italian till about 1268. as the representative cathedral of this period. In plan it consists of a broad nave. S. and S. E. opening from three sides of the central space. The fa9ades have semicircular headed windows. Cologne (A. c).GERMAN ROMANESgUE. usual (Nos. 105 and 106) vies with those of Mayence (A. Twin circular towers flank the eastern and western apses. and few works of importance were erected elsewhere till the Gothic period. and bakehouses. and S. having a pointed roof. S. 1047). Gall (circa A. and consisted of a double-apse church and cloister. Cunibert. G). both being covered with cross vaults. refectory. B. infirmary. are other examples of triapsal churches for which the city of Cologne is famous. of which a complete plan was found in the seventeenth century. 104 and 105 A. HiMesKeim (1133). Ravenna himself. 820) in Switzerland (page 276). Cathedral (1110-1200) (Nos. Gernrode Abbey Church (958-1050). the vaulting of one bay of the nave corresponds with two of the aisles. orchard. 105 D. dormitory. The Church of the Apostles. dispensary. as S.D. prepared by Eginhard.D. valley are specially rich in Saxony and the Rhine Romanesque As (A.



and often raised.264 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. as in Lombardy. to admit of cry_pts jbeneath. Western apses are frequent (No. Numerous towers.and a characteristic finish consists of four gables and a steep roof. 105 c). Germany 4. circular. as the crowning place of the Western Emperors. Laach Abbey Church example built completely in this style. 1173). one vaulting bay of the nave being equal to two of the aisles.D. sometimes octagonal (No. 105 G). and there are three eastern (A.D. 106 and 107 G). is generally found. The choir is always apsidal. 83 c. LandsIn these it is held that the upper chapel was berg. contrasting in this respect with Italian examples. width. A. (No. and two at the west end. a hip rafter rising from each gable top (No. Plans. as at Treves and the Abbey Church at Laach. Cologne (No.D. and apses also occur at the ends of transepts. historically. Lubeck Cathedral peculiar to North Germany is type of brick architecture but the choir and aisles were not added till A. The naves and aisles are vaulted in square bays. 105 c). remarkable for a series of double or two-storied churches. are the principal entrances from the western atrium. pro- ducing a rich and varied outline. or polygonal. arid the Church of the Apostles. 83. 106). COMPARATIVE.. 105 G). two being usually at the east end flanking the apse. apses. were employed. as in the Church of the Apostles at Cologne (No. generally attached to castles. The building has been much altered since the time of Charlemagne. for the Gothic choir was added in 1353 to 1413. B. and over the crossing a tower. as at Nuremberg. The chapels surrounding the structure are of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. and Steinfurt. connected by a gallery (Nos. 107 G). Western as well as eastern transepts occur. The building is of interest. The towers rise in successive stories. is a . used by the Prince and his personal retinue. The blank walls are cut up by flat pilaster strips. Walls. but in some instances the upper church would appear to have been provided in case of floods. and the gables and roof of the octagon are of the thirteenth and seventeenth centuries. and the lower by his retainers. either square. and the western tower has been added in recent years. 1093-1156) is a Benedictine On/either side of the western apse. connected horizontally by ranges of small arches springing from . which is used as a tomb-house. A short description is given on No. as in the plan of Worms Cathedral (No. D). 1335 (page 398). The vaulting-bays of the nave and aisles are of similar (A.


a system which led by degrees to complete Gothic vaulting. Denkmaeler der Deutschen Baukunst. (No. and the alternation of The capitals piers and columns is a favourite German feature. Timber roofs were also employed for large spans. the origin of which have already been dealt with (page 237).). being rarely grouped (No.). 106). and spires of curious form." Folio. 104 and 106). were carried on in color. with half columns attached. Denkmale der Baukunst am Nieder-Rhein. and the traditions and examples of the early Christian and Byzantine mosaic decorations. 105 and 107 N) are placed at the side. but the capitals and bases take a distinctive form." " Leipzig. Roofs. <. No tendency towards tracery is found. thus accounting for the absence of sculptured foliage. Open arcades. D. being a step in the evolution of spire growth. rarely in the west front or transept ends. Owing to the smallness of scale this favourite feature may be considered as a string course or cornice. The c. H). being superior to the later Gothic examples. occur under the eaves of roofs. REFERENCE BOOKS. Moller 1852. especially round the apses (Nos. 1844. In the Rhine district a central semicircular barrel D. E. though bold in execution. the latter being formed by the intersections of the planes between the adjacent sides of adjoining gables forming a pyramid. Hardy (A. S.266 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Passe Rose " (Historical Novel). 105 D and 107 E). . Ornament. are well designed. is common. (G. 107 c. leading from Roman through Romanesque to Gothic. F. The nave arcades were generally constructed of square piers.). Columns. G. windows are usually single. In the north colored bricks were used. A gable on each tower face. Tower roofs. The doorways (Nos. vault was supported by half-barrel vaults over the aisles. The churches have sometimes a triforium and always a clerestory. 5. with high pitched intersecting roofs (No. Boisseree " (S. 107 G). are a special feature of the style. corbels (Nos. and were unsuitable for rich decoration. Internally the flat plain surfaces were occasionally decorated in fresco. Mouldings (see Walls). Openings. design. Folio. These are as a rule of indifferent F. Munich.

. England had become thoroughly united under the Norman Kings. Climate. into existence. The nations of Western Europe had come Germany was the centre of the Western Empire and the Kingdoms of France. i. in Northern Europe. ii. GENERAL INTRODUCTION. is more suitable for Gothic than Classic Architecture.PIM01 13 CENTURY 108. Italy and Spain were also becoming Russia. GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE. do with Western Europe. 108) gives the general distribution of the various countries in the thirteenth century. for it is a sun wheeling somewhat low on an average round the sky. a general outline sketch is given. and shadows are better caught by outstanding buttresses and the flying lateral members of a Gothic 1 Before treating of the development of the style peculiar to each country. Refer to each country. Refer to each country. Geographical. i. Geological. iii. 1 INFLUENCES. It has been pointed out that the sun. The map (No. Sweden and Norway had little to strong united states.

which afterwards became principalities. The principles and character of Gothic architecture were' similar throughout Western Europe. The fully-developed Gothic art of the thirteenth century was the style which had been slowly developing itself throughout Europe as a necessary sequence of Romanesque art. Introductory remarks and a description of the The immense various order of monks are given on page 218. the periodical pilgrimages.about an increase of riches and the erection of magnificent'buildv. 117 E). and by so doing attracted wealtri" and power to their orders. divided into different portions belonging to the larger towns. \ * ". many buildings. Swithun at Winchester). The demand for chapels dedicated to particular saints. which was probably at its height in the thirteenth century. Religion. The clergy. and the Archbishops of Cologne. iv. Thomas at Canterbury. and are indicated on No. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. facade. as at Salisbury (No. under the Grecian or Italian sun. also had their influence on the monuments. towns joined together for mutual defence. whereas in Germany. vaulting and ornamentation of the pointed arch . S. many of the Abbots and Bishops were princes of the Empire. Jn Germany. and is mainly recognized because of the introduction and use in door and window openings. The growth of towns which developed into important cities brought . and Mayence were among the Electors of the Emperor.268 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. also affected the general plan of Social and Political. power of the Popes. S. Snow and inclement weather were responsible for the high pitched Gothic roof of Northern Europe. or at the eastern extremity. In Italy. -.Refer to each country. vi. as at Ely (No. which are more effective. Refer to each country. Hugh at Lincoln. for an ambulatory to be used for processional purposes. was evidenced in the way they made and unmade Emperors and Kings and disposed of their dominions. and of local saints (as S. than by the level lines of the heavy horizontal Classic cornices. amongst the most famous being those forming the Hanseatic league. Treves. and the foundation of chantry chapels where masses for the dead could be repeated. Msriokbtry was responsible for the addition of' lady chapels either laterally. The worship of relics. 109. Historical. arcades. which moves higher in the firmament. also took a pro^ minent part in temporal affairs. the country was ings owing to municipal rivalries. in consequence of their learning. the-adoration of the Virgin Mary and other forms of ritual. 2. 117 A).

having their upper parts designed with combinations of curves of great variety.ck mortar joints. 141). weighted with tall pinnacles (Nos. had to employ the materials at hand according to their nature. 141 F. The Gothic architects. laid in tolerably small courses with mortar joints. sometimes carried on corbels and sometimes continued to the ground. and to seek for those laws of elasticity and equilibrium whidi were substituted for those of inert "stability as practised by the Greeks and Romans. for the numerous vaulting being collected at intervals were supported on capitals of a shape formed to fit them. and revelled in tricks of construction and marvels of workmanship. leaning against the nave wall and supported at some distance by massive piers.GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE. it is evident. could have been developed without the employment of such a material as stone. influencing very largely the form of the nave piers. H. which gave the necessary elasticity to the various pressures. capitals and piers. fourteenth. arches. indeed. No such system of construction.tapered away in shell-like spires embroidered in all the fretwork of lacelike tracery. scarce capable of bearing the stalactite pendants in which the fancy of the fifteenth century its expression. is 269 v ^ found so characteristic as to give a which. and these were provided with shafts. and ribbed vaulting held in equilibrium by the combination of oblique forces neutralizing each other (No. and eventually pushing their practice to the furthest boundaries. In the thirteenth. G. Further.walls themselves were occupied principally by glazed windows. Romanesque . and 153 A). and fifteenth centuries the Gothic masons carried to the utmost the use of stone as a building material. developing ' still further the principles of architecture (page 221). In the case of the nave vaults. suggestion of height coinciding with the aspiring tendency of the style and its connection with the religious enthusiasm of the period. the comparative scarcity of materials taught the Gothic . Every vertical support in Gothic architecture depended for its stability on being stayed by a buttress. the collected pressures of the vaulting and roof were counteracted by arches. Walls became mere enclosures. which in its turn was weighted by a pinnacle and every arch-thrust met another which counteracted it. These principles led to the introduction of much novelty in ribs mouldings. heaping it up in towers that rose on open archways through the lofty roofs of the naves and transepts. and . divided by stone mullions. This elasticity was obtained by the employment of stone laid in narrow courses with tolerably th. buttresses. and the entire structure consisted of a framework of piers. Even the . they cut the granular stone to the thinness of fibrous wood or iron. called flying buttresses. They hung it aloft in ponderous vaults treated by art to seem the gossamer web of nature. 109 A.


and it was no longer the self-contained Greek temple. Form. the architecture of this period stands in close relation to Greek art. unity being obtained by the exact and necessary correlation between all the parts. whereas the Greeks erected small buildings with enormous blocks of marble. but the form had changed. The military organization. doing as little as possible. but had not at their disposal either the marble of Pentelicus or the blocks of granite which the Romans procured from Corsica. loftier . is not the result of caprice. but was a and an indication of municipal sign of the communal spirit spire of which it formed an outward and visible prosperity. reposeful in the severity of horizontal lines. in the best types of architecture.GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE. In the Middle Ages it was the constructional features themselves to which an attractive form was given. and the East thus they were absolutely compelled to erect considerable buildings with thin courses of stone. to fight in their owners' battles. but a complex. Romanesque architecture con. The architecture was adapted to a structure of small stones with thick mortar joints. was wanting in the Gothic period. Although many. but is only the expression of the structural necessities. and ornaments have particular developments it is because they are necessary. expression. sisted of walling formed of a rubble core between two faces of stonework. The was evolved from no utilitarian requirements. conditions naturally influencing the forms of each style of architecture. and taken away. As to the material at hand. 271 architects to practise economy in their use. the Gothic architects of Western Europe possessed stone which was strong and hard. or by workmen who were forced labourers. the Alps. which had helped to mould the Roman style. restless structure whose aspiring tendencies found expression in vertical grouping. and was a compromise between the concrete walling and the jointed stones (without mortar) of the Romans. and in this particular. and if the vaults are divided by ribs it is because they are so many sinews performing a necessary function. but at the beginning of the thirteenth century. If the column is a real support and has an expanded capital it is for the purpose of supporting a particular load if the mouldings . ever and anon. and could be split into thin pieces. The same principle of truth was upheld. of the architectural features were founded primarily on structural necessity. the characteristic mouldings of the Mediaeval period exhibiting much less waste of material than those common in Classic times. if not most. yet others were the expression of artistic invention and of aesthetic requirements. stone having to be sought in various quarries from different proprietors and transported by voluntary aid.

where painted glass was the principal mode of decoration. which was evolved from that of the Romans (page 224) and consisted of a framework of independent ribs. when by the grouping of windows and the subsequent formation of mullions and tracery. The walls. so as to allow the windows to be seen internally in every direction. which were first constructed and which supported thin panels of The difficulties of vaulting oblong compartments. while the semicircular arch was The ribs became still used for some time for the diagonal ribs. used to cover the shorter spans. The method was an extension of the Romanesque system. in D) during the three centuries of Gothic architecture is one of the most fascinating studies of the : style. were now overcome by the introduction of the pointed arch. 109 and 141. As indicated on Nos. and to avoid the expense of labour which the carrying of material of large size involved. the entire screen wall between . nor the mosaics and frescoes of the Byzantine and Romanesque periods produced color effects that can be compared with the brilliancy and the many-tinted splendours of the transparent walls of a Gothic cathedral. the paintings of the Greek temples. Further. and downwards by the weight of the material. the walls were kept internally as flat as possible. the painted sculpture and hieroglyphics of the Egyptian temples. Such pressures are of two kinds outwards by the nature of the arch. Vaulting. and the support of the structure was effected entirely by means of buttresses or short walls placed so as best to resist the thrust of thje vaulting. the colored and sculptured slabs of the Assyrian palaces.272 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. became of secondary importance. which was stone. and more extensive edifices being built. the resultant of the two being in an oblique direction. and enabled the building to be erected all at once or in parts without disadvantage to the solidity of the edifice. In the north and west of Europe. a new method was gradually evolved. for traceried windows came to be looked upon merely as frames in which to exhibit painted transparent Neither pictures displaying the incidents of Bible History. the pressures of the vaults were transmitted to the angles of each compartment by the diagonal ribs. therefore. The invention of painted glass was an important factor in the development of the style. In seeking to diminish the size of the piers and thickness of the walls. it was necessary for the architects of this period to find a mode of construction more homogeneous and more capable of resistance. all the mechanical expedients of buttresses and pinnacles being placed externally. permanent centres on which the panels or "infilling" of thin stone could rest. their place being occupied by stained glass windows. The increase of the number and variety of ribs and the consequent form of the vaults (No.

170 and Italy (Nos. by such modern institutions as the Board School. as evolved from the cruciform buildings erected for sepulchral purposes as early as the period of Constantine. past and present. both of peace and war. taking the place in the social state since occupied. and must be realized in order to understand how they were regarded. with their easily understood by the people. Belgium (No. in which Kings. a development from the early Christian basilicas. 120 and 127).A. originally adopted for constructive reasons arising from the progress of the art of vaulting. these of necessity took the pointed form of the vault. the sculptured forms and brilliant coloring being The virtues and vices. and by others. The plans in all parts of Europe. history. The founded construction of these buildings. Free Library. Architecture then as now was also the grand chronicle of . and the choir. forming the The cruciform ground plan is considered by some as transepts. sometimes crowned with a spire. T . 273 the piers came to be occupied by bright colored windows. was carried on from generation to generation. The place in the national life which the mediaeval cathedrals occupied was an important one. symbols. Museum. F. Rome (page 182). along with their reward or punishment saints and angels told of the better life. was generally erected over the crossing or at the west end. were mirrored in imperishable stone or colored glass. The sculpture and the painted glass reflected the incidents of Bible History from the creation to the redemption of mankind. north and south. Cathedrals were erected and decorated partly as a means of popular education.GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE. Germany (Nos. such as Old S. BUILDINGS ERECTED DURING THE MIDDLE AGES. 167). CATHEDRALS AND CHURCHES. are generally in the form of a Latin cross. 3. were there displayed. 117. and they were the history books of the period. 119. and 172). 118. France secular 155 and 159). many of which were in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. to a large extent. and the various handicrafts. either in glass or statuary. as may be seen on referring to those of England (Nos. Picture Gallery and Concert Hall. which was further influenced by the desire for lofty windows to act as frames for the glass. (Nos. the short arms. EXAMPLES. Nobles and Knights were represented. Peter. 176 and 179). A tower. \s a rule the nave is the portion to the westward.


109 A and 141 G). ~ Each of these divisions is further divided into a central nave and side aisles. Lincoln and Ripon. owing to the intricacy and . forming the centre of the secular affairs of the monastery. 117 D). Peterborough (No. The principal entrance. as at Ely (No. naturally. all of Norman origin. Durham. rising above the aisle roof (Nos. are features of English cathedrals western towers also occur in many examples. Chester.GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE containing the bishop and clergy. York. low. the position and number of transepts (Nos. Wells. . were circular. and central towers (see Chichester. Gloucester (No. York." Above Hhe triforium is a range of windows in the main wall. as at Lichfield (with spires). or " blind story. Gloucester and Wells). light being admitted by the windows in this portion of the nave wall. is IN EUROPE. Continental cathedrals seem short. and a means of communication between different parts of the Abbey. The head of these windows is generally the level of the ridge of the stone vault of the nave. were probably derived from the atrium of the Early Christian period (page 180). 118 D). Rochester. such as. 119. Durham. usually square-ended in England (Nos. and highly grouped examples. east ends of The The cloisters attached to so many of the English cathedrals. They are generally. 119 and 120) are generally richer than the remainder of the church. separated by columns or piers." probably derived from . The east ends or choirs. Lichfield (No. but not invariably. or on one side. admitting light into the upper part of the nave this division is called the clerestory. and often shapeless. The lady-chapel is placed beyond the choir at the extreme east end. Peterborough. from which. the French word clair. 167 and 187). and the floor is raised above the nave level by steps. in the warmest and most sheltered position. Such is the general distribution of the parts of a cathedral or large church. often richly ornamented. and Salisbury (No. 117 E). or "clear story. forming part of the original monastic buildings. The columns or piers support arches (the nave arcade). south and west of the transept. 118. there are many deviations. 159. high. 118 c). 127). 120 j). 118 B). and Canterbury (No. Canterbury. T 2 . Great length. is at the west end. Worcester. which carry the main walls. 117 A). Oxford. which is covered by a high pitched wooden roof. 275 that to the eastward of the crossing. 117. 120. while Westminster Abbey has a ring of chapels or chevet (No. as at Norwich. 117. Norwich (No. Above this arcade are a series of small arches. 118. Compared with such long. 155. for instance. or by a porch on the south or north sides. opening into a dark space caused by the height of the sloping roof of the aisle this is called the triforium.

as as at Wear " . 127) are good examples. the wreathed window planned. pride. These were amongst the most important structures erected in the middle ages. owe much of their beauty to the fact that they are generally placed in a large open space called the Close. interested in agriculture and industrial pursuits the Cluniac was the student and artist the Carthusian the ascetic and the Friars the missionary preachers of the period. are often completely surrounded by houses and shops (page 368)." . In many a maze. of monks. 109. . a single western tower is an English characteristic (No. as at Canterbury. and his dress was adopted by University students the Augustinian favoured preaching and disputations the Cistercian was the recluse. and were important factors in the development of mediaeval architecture. . For comparison of English and French Cathedrals. The English Cathedrals. or Durham. on the other hand. To fill with holy light the wondrous fane. Lincoln (No. 1 . richly rude. Worcester. included .276 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. of which S. A complete monastery. the friend of the poor. 154). " Grand and vast that stands above the or. They were erected by the various religious orders already referred to (page 218). 153. . side to side . In churches. which in many cases were actually built against the wall of the church itself (No. as a general rule. Gall (page 261) and Westminster Abbey (No. MONASTERIES. i25) and Salisbury (No. profusion of their buttressing (Nos. with capricious hand. Milton so descriptively has " it." Bosom'd high 'mid tufted The French Cathedrals. . To aid the builder's model. 162). are trees. 121) "The ranged ramparts bright From level meadow-bases of deep grass > Suddenly sealed the " light or are situated picturesquely on the banks of a river. With hues romantic tinged the gorgeous pane. By no Vitruvian symmetry subdued. see page 378. The interior of a Gothic cathedral has been thus described " The tall shafts that mount in : massy Their mingling branches shoot from Where elfin sculptors with fantastic clue O'er the long roof their wild embroidery drew When superstition. The monks according to their several orders favoured different The Benedictine was the chronicler and most learned pursuits. described by Scott as. 130).

orchards. . hospitals. the dwellings of the people. 5. stables. bakehouses. and other civil and domestic work are referred to under each country. library and scriptorium (the writing and illuminating room for making copies of books). SECULAR ARCHITECTURE. wine and oil. A Common Court. The placed under the dormitory. (b. guest house. servants' hall. Peterborough and Gloucester. with infirmary. The lavatory was usually placed in the south cloister walk as at Westminster. with the Sacristy between it and the church. off which were placed the Chapter House. thus placed to keep away noise and smell. On the opposite side to the church were the refectory (dining hall) and kitchens. was often by granaries.GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE : IN EUROPE. servants' rooms. COMPARATIVE. 4. store rooms. workshops. The comparative analysis of each country is given separately. Wells. and barn. as is the case to this day on the continent. and a comparative table of the underlying differences between the Gothic and Renaissance styles is given on page 442. (e. REFERENCE BOOKS.) Mills. kitchen. Examples of secular work.) cellarage for beer. Lists are given with each country. approached by a separate staircase. open to the public. and fishponds. Monasteries answered the purpose of inns in little frequented places. gardens. (d} The Church Court or Close. prison. and the dormitory adjoining the church. Chester. tribunal.) An Inner Court. with double gateway for carts. surrounded (0. 277 beside the church (a.) A Cloister Court. such as castles and residences of the nobles. abbot's lodging.

" The England may well be considered unique. thus the transport of stone by sea was an . i. Against the envy of less happier lands. This fortress built by nature for herself Against infection and the hand of war. bound in with the triumphant sea. this little world. ii. human art. INFLUENCES. \ ANGLO-SAXON.ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE. and lying opposite the rich and populous plains of Europe. ROMANESQUE (NORMAN). England." SHAKESPEARE. in some way. Geological. for it has assisted in the development of purely national characteristics. defensive to a house. Into the consciousness of safety thrill'd . in every part. AND GOTHIC. has led to the importation of continental ideas in architecture. responsible for the special character of the buildings in different parts of England. Who. Or as a moat. This happy breed of men. when winds blew loud." WORDSWORTH. owed much of her development to the intercourse effected by her ships. Isolation by the sea has had two alternating influences. and by giving rise to an incurable habit of travelling. And Love her tower-. Richard II. position of i. and pointing still to something higher. Geographical. laid Under the grave of things. This precious stone set in the silver sea. Hope had her spire Star high. The geology of the country is. England being an island with natural harbours. Which serves it in the office of a wall. of dread foundation.se rocky shore beats back the envious siege. " Diffused Spirit divine through forms of her arch Faith had her arch.

in the absence of good roads. and parts of the south coast. In England. Suffolk. Caen stone from Normandy being used in the erection of Canterbury Cathedral and other as transport became churches. and the different orders of monks had come into . Cheshire and. climate is cool. The conversion to Christianity of the Kentish by S. and 150. Religion. there was a tendency for these local distinctions to disappear. Hampton Court contains good examples of sixteenth and seventeenth century brickwork. Little Wenham Hall (A.D. but not pushed to extremes until a later date. 597. and sixteenth centuries (Nos. Augustine in A. being probably the earliest brick building existing in Brickwork of modern type came into general use in England A. gives a special character to the architecture of these districts. porches and small entrances of English cathedrals are in contrast with continental entrances. almost continuous work. during which period several popes succeeded in overruling the effected civil King ^Ethelbert was power. damp. In chalk districts the characteristic flint work of Norfolk. 1260).D. temperate. 1300. as in Lancashire. 279 important reason for its use in some districts. chiefly during the fourteenth. of course. but cold. in Suffolk. as at Layer Marney Towers.ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE. adapted The and is for climate. and moist. half-timbered houses were erected. Where forests afforded abundant material. easier. brickwork was largely used in house construction by Sir Christopher Wren and others. have all affected the districts in which they are found. was at its height from the eleventh to the thirteenth century. The distinction between the regular and secular clergy was fully established. about departure of the Romans. but in the Fen districts. Even in the Middle Ages stone was brought from a distance. mild. and are directly influenced by the iii.elsewhere. and high winds with much rain necessitate conThe deep stant forethought in building to exclude the weather. such as the Bath stones. after being comparatively unused since the England. and 247). Essex (1500-1525). By the end of the tenth century the greater part of Europe had embraced The power of the papacy had steadily grown. 132 j. the limestones of Portland. and the oolitic formations. During the reigns of William and Mary and Queen Anne. iv. material was conveyed on horseback. in parts of Hampton Court Palace.D. during every season. Terra-cotta was also employed. fifteenth. attempts at the assertion of national independence were continuous. although. Climate. and Christianity. The granites of Cornwall and Devonshire.

Lincoln.) Wailing Ermine Icknield Street. to Lincoln via Colchester and Cambridge. and Burgh Castle (near Yarmouth). The Roman settlements in this country were. near Shrewsbury. the Roman dress and language being adopted by the British higher classes. London London to Wroxeter. are indebted to the Venerable Bede (A. Social and Political. are referred to on pages 218. building. The arrival of the Angles and Saxons did not improve matters. and villas as at Bath. Britain. Edmunds to Salisbury and Southampton. The in civilizing power of the Roman The roads was of importance opening out the country. and progress was made in agriculand mining. as a Roman colony. is derived from the Latin word castra = camp. temples. and Fifehead-Neville in Dorset.D. 1384) asserted the freedom of religious thought. as they were especially ignorant in all matters of art. 420.280 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. such as those at Colchester. the remains Roman work were largely destroyed by the barbarians who succeeded them. A. St. 731) for most of the information regarding this period. 363. The Emperor Severus strengthened Agricola's forts. Hadrian's wall built from the Tyne to the Solway. Darenth in Kent. 81. Agricola built his forts from the Clyde to the Forth. Bury to Lincoln. Leicester. A. was divided into five provinces. their buildings exhibiting characteristic points of difference (page 2 1 8). The word "Chester.D. and from him is learnt that a stone church was a rarity. York. many of them. provided with basilicas or halls of justice. as at Winchester. : four great roads in England were (a. Street. The remains of this epoch consist chiefly of castles. fine basilica. 283. 449-547. The excavations at Silchester revealed the remains of a very ture. 210. John Wycliffe (d. A. which accounts for peculiarities of plan differentiating them from French Examples.D. Richborough.D.) Fosse (d. existence. Silchester. After the departure of the Romans in A. Cornwall Street. provided funds for the erection of new mansions. indicating the religious zeal of the period. but the influence of their architecture continued for a considerable period.D. and Chester.D.) Way. and protested against the dogmas of the papacy. and signifies a Roman settlement in this country. baths. A. Many of the cathedrals formed part of monastic foundations (page 294). 650 seems to be of We .D. The dissolution of the monasteries in the reign of Henry VIII. (. The Crusades." as an affix. v. Bignor in Sussex. A. 1 20. markets.) (b.

but most of these appear to have been built of wood. around the abbeys or castles. The English language was ordered to be used in the law courts. and in some of these it has been suggested that the timber forms of the earlier ones were executed in stone (No. founded early in the thirteenth century. 603.D.D. King Alfred erected. Westminster Abbey (consecrated 1065). See of London revived. Benedict Biscop flourished as a church-builder. The conquest of Wales led to further development in the planning and design of castles. by which the invaders secured their position in the newly-conquered country. in order to withstand the strangers whom the Angevin kings were constantly bringing into England. free speech. 1042-1066. 1265. 1154-1216. the Tower of London. A.D. and covered with thatch.D. 1272-1307. led the way in self-government. 1061. and elsewhere. The boroughs and justice. King Cnut founded Bury St. A. 604.D. A. The Magna Charta freed the Church. A. at Rochester Castle.D. abandoned his foreign dominions. Edward I.D. though the process was slow and difficult. 681. The framework of modern political institutions began to develop. Edward the Confessor's religious enthusiasm. Edmunds monA. 1174. 281 about the date at which stone churches were first built. A. summoned from A. 1215. took place. many of the ruined cities or monasteries. See of Rochester founded. . and peace and prosperity in commerce gave importance to a middle class. A. and the formation of towns. The rise of the farmer class and free labourer.D. 871-901.D. William of Sens built the choir of Canterbury his and work at Cathedral.D. A. A. A. Monastery of Peterborough founded. A. 1066. Harold's Collegiate Church at Waltham conse- crated.ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE. influenced the construction of strongholds. 656. Leicester's Parliament. The conquest of England by the Normans. A. 1349-1381.D.D. to which burgesses were first of the cities and boroughs. The Association of Freemasons. A. 1265-1284. A. A.D. During this period the fusion of the native English and Norman settlers was effected. assisted materially in forwarding the technical progress new buildings. 1362. was called.D. and the building operations of Bishop Gundulf. 134). 1017-1035. astery. and remedied abuses.D. and attempted to consolidate Great Britain.D.D. A. or rebuilt.

against France. diplomatic services.D. Destruction of British churches by heathen invaders. his employment on army of Wykeham (d. 43." by J. B. the West Welsh 802-837. is well treated in "A Short History of the English People. 1455-1471.D.D. 597-681. 1476. gradually brought the other English kingdoms and into subjection. A.D. and influenced art.D. (the The English Low Dutch tribes known as Angles. one of the greatest Gothic builders. Saxons and Jutes) conquest of Britain. A. exercising a marked influence on his writings. between the rival Houses of York and Lancaster. 450-550. the General of Domitian. 449-547. A. King A. carried out a large number of building operations at Winchester. R. 1404). developed education. 924. A. a press \ being established by him in the Almonry at Westminster. 84. Green. and the' military organization of feudalism introduced. William of The poet Chaucer (1340-1400) fought in the Edward III.D. LL. A. . vi. King of the Saxons. and many other buildings.D. A. which can hardly be considered apart from the architecture which they produced. . French traders at the same time came to reside in London and the large towns. The A. distracted England at this period. commenced. the manners and government of the English being transformed. of York and Lancaster.D. 1485. 55. A. which swept away half the population of England. thus bringing over Continental ideas. development of political institutions.C. and should be referred to by the student. united the Houses. Expedition of the Emperor Claudius into Britain. Final conquest of Britain by Agricola. including the college and refacing of the cathedral. in Italy and Flanders.D.D.D. 1066. Historical. Roman troops withdrawn from Britain. The Edward received the homage of all Britain. 420. Julius Caesar's first expedition into Britain.282 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Accession of Henry VII. The condition of the English people. Normans caused a social and political revolution. conquest of England by the A. The Wars of the Roses. to the owing Black Death. The introduction of printing by Caxton. Countess of Richmond.\ A.D. when a great impulse was given to the The Lady Margaret. Augustine landed in England and the conversion to Christianity A. Egbert (a friend of Charlemagne). as the foundress of colleges.D.

D. riot as castles or places of defence. an accomplished painter of portraits and designer of goldsmiths' work and woodwork. These and various other causes led to the great Renaissance movement. henceforward constructed. Romanesque period have been already explained on page 224. It is usually divided into periods having special characteristics and known as Anglo-Saxon (page 327). ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. is one of the earliest examples of a non-castellated domestic residence (page 322). Bordeaux. which is referred to on page 547. The first . and Tudor (page 356). and Henry VIII. The development of mediaeval architecture in England from the departure of the Romans till the sixteenth century. visited the French King. A. aided in the formation of the great which had a direct influence on feudalism and the Church. encouraged other foreign artists. but as residences. crumbling before the new artillery which Houses were lay at the entire disposal of King Henry VII.D. The introduction of gunpowder ruined feudalism. who followed in his train returning imbued with the newly introduced Renaissance style as practised in France. Henry VIII. was appointed Court Architect. 1520. near Guildford. Edward the Prince of Aquitaine. The Crusades. 2. Girolamo da Trevigi. which brought about the conWest. A. as of Henry VI.an Italian. 1431. amongst whom was Hans Holbein.D. 1338-1453. 1095-1254. A. The architectural character of Gothic architecture in Europe has already been referred to on page 268.D.ENGLISH GOTHIC. of England crowned King France at Paris. A. c. on the Field of the Cloth of Gold the King and the many knights . known as the " Hundred Years' War. 1521-1527). and a comparative table showing the approximate period covered by each is given on page 327.D. where the essential differences between Roman and Mediaeval vaulting are compared. 1360. Early English (page 335). and from this period modern ideas of domestic economy gradually transformed house planning. Decorated (page 341)." Black Prince ruled at A. The wars with France. A. fortresses which were impregnable against the bow of the yeoman and retainer.. Francis I.D. tact of East and 283 universities. Norman (page 328). Sutton Place (A.D. 1500. Perpendicular (page 349). Gothic Vaulting The problems of vaulting during in the England. has a more complete sequence of style than in other countries.

III. .


but the introduction of transverse and diagonal ribs in this period rendered temporary centering necessary for these. great advance was made by the introduction of the pointed arch. and at the same time to provide for the lighting of the building by means of clerestory windows in the nave walls above the aisle roofs. the diagonal ribs (i. The church was thus crowned with a fire-resisting covering over which a wooden roof was placed in order to protect it from the weather. as shown in Nos. F. The Roman system was in vogue up to the twelfth century. or. In England the raising of the diagonal rib. those with the longest span) remaining semicircular. and enabling vaults of varying sizes to intersect without stilting or other contrivances. in the later period. which produced the domical vault employed on the Continent. consisted entirely in the design of the vaulting planes or surfaces without reference to their meeting lines or groins. in D and 112 j. involved the solution of a group of constructive problems which have been already hinted at on page 272. or (&) to make the diagonal ribs semicircular and stilt A the springing of the transverse and longitudinal ribs. 112 B. 112 E. c). The evolution of vaulting in England. whereas mediaeval vaulting consisted in profiling the groins which were erected first and supporting the vaulting surfaces which were made to adapt themselves to them. . Early English (Thirteenth Century). in stone. Norman vaulting was either (a) cylindrical or barrel vaulting. seems to have been but little used. Norman. were pointed (d) Sexpartite (six part) vaulting as in the choir at Canterbury Cathedral. the nave of a church of the basilican type. 112 D. The pointed arch became permanently established. Two views of this type of vaulting at the Abbaye-aux-Hommes at Caen are shown in No. rebuilt by William of Sens in A.D. These severies were of arched resting upon the back of the ribs. in and 112. which was used firstly for the transverse and wall ribs only.286 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. surmounting all the difficulties of difference in span. 1174. as at the Tower of London (No. The problem for the mediaeval architects was to vault. and are indicated in Nos. 112 A) (c) other shapes in which the narrower vaulting arches were stilted (No. . 135) (b) groined cross vaulting in square bays (No. . and the method was either (a) to make diagonal ribs segmental. Thus it was in connection with the necessity for counteracting the thrust of the nave vaults brought down on piers that the greater part of the evolution of the constructive side of the style took place. as in the aisles at Peterborough Cathedral (No. as on the Continent. The following may be taken as the main features of vaulting in each period. L. The cells. also known " " as " severies or " infilling were quite subordinate to the ribs and were of clunch or light stone in thin beds. G).e. .

and were especially needed to strengthen the vaulting surfaces by decreasing the space between the ribs. called a " formeret. and designed without reference to the curvature of adjoining ones. was also introduced. 112 K. as is seen in the setting out of Gothic vaulting compartment (No. 112 j. 109 A. In the ribbed Gothic vault. continuous. 287 form. was chiefly used in this period. for in the former the vaulting surface is everywhere level in a direction parallel to the axis of the vault. L). Decorated (Fourteenth Century). Ridge ribs are generally horizontal in England and arched on " or "severy" having its courses the Continent. but often had winding surfaces. -During this period there was an increase and elaboration of intermediate ribs . The "ploughshare twist. Exeter and Lichfield Cathedrals. the plan thus formed would have as many angles as ribs. and as found in the churches of South- West France. above that of the diagonal and transverse ribs (No. M). Gothic system was a rough use of mathewhich beauty was sought for.) This was a of the common arrangement. the "infilling at the ridge in zigzag lines as in the nave of Westminster meeting Abbey (No. and the aisles of T windows. primarily constructed as a skeleton framework of diagonal and transverse ribs. A wall-rib. Later in the century intermediate ribs. as in the naves of Durham. Salisbury (No. and any horizontal section of a spandrel or meeting of two cross vaults would be a rectangle. were introduced between the transverse and diagonal ribs as in the vaulting of the nave of Westminster Abbey (No." because forming a boundary for each compartment. known as tiercerons. and not a strict Peterborough. The plain four-part (quadripartite) ribbed vault. The curvature of the ribs was obtained from arcs struck from one or more centres. and was necessary in order to obtain greater height for the clerestory The geometry matical truths in regard for the exactitude of scientific demonstration. and were constructed so that their pressure was directed towards the piers and not the wall rib.ENGLISH GOTHIC. however. and would have a tendency to fall towards the centre of the compartment unless resisted by In continental examples the ridge rib is often not the ridge rib. varying according to the curve of the latter." so called from its resemblance to a ploughshare. In such cases ridge ribs were introduced in order to take the thrust of the tiercerons which abut at their summit at an angle. 127 c). but only extends to the last pair of arches which abut against it obliquely. was produced by stilting or raising the springing of the wall rib. in D). and the naves and choirs of Lincoln. when forming the window arch bordering on a vaulting compartment. In this lies the w hole difference between the Roman and mediaeval systems. and Gloucester.

and connected at different heights by horizontal lierne ribs. known as Lierne ribs. The name "lierne" is applied to any rib. Owing to the reduction of the size of panels.D. a change in the direction of the vaulting surface. Tewkesbury Abbey nave. 137 F). and in consequence of the star-shaped pattern produced " by the plan of such vaults. o). 112 N. the panels being sunk in the soffit of the stone forming the vault instead of being separate stones The solid method seems to have resting on the backs of the ribs. Sepulchre. and of panels which became smaller and smaller until a single stone frequently spanned the space from rib to rib.288 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. of such surface. and the vaulting of Winchester Cathedral (No. In the fifteenth century the setting out of the vault was much simplified by the introduction of what " is generally known as "Fan vaulting. due to the increase in the number of the ribs. forming equal angles with each other and being all the same curvature. a vault of numerous ribs. 112 P. Ely (No. known as " rib and panel " vaulting. described above (No. s. Bristol (No. it is often called Stellar" vaulting (No. however. by their number and disposition. of of this period therefore consisted of transverse. in which the main ribs. In the early plain -ribbed vaulting each rib marked a groin. for in fan vaulting the whole vault was often constructed in jointed masonry. Holborn. 1390) by William (A. Q). Wykeham. are formed on the surface of an inverted concave cone. Examples 1337-1377).. by the introduction of more ribs. 112 R. and elsewhere. ridge and lierne ribs in fact. of this type exist in the choirs of Gloucester \ii2 Q). In some "perpendicular" vaults the two . been adopted first in the crown of the vaults where the ribs were most numerous. ridge ribs. F). 124 E. o. The complicated "stellar" vaulting of the late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries (No. their form being determined independently regulated their curvature. intermediate. These liernes. P. which.D. by a succession of trials and phases. The vaulting Perpendicular (Fifteenth Century). and a new set of ribs (tiercerons).. palm or conoidal vaulting. often give an elaborate or intricate appearance to a really simple vault (No. N. Wells. from the French lien to bind or hold. 112. as carried out (A. In the fourteenth century the masons converted this shape. a return was made to the Roman method of vault construction. to a peculiarly English type of vaulting in this century known as fan. Q) led. except a ridge rib. as in S. into a polygonal (hexagonal) pyramid. not springing from an abacus. i. The development was somewhat as follows: In the thirteenth century the form of an inverted four-sided hollow rectangular pyramid was the shape given to the vault. but lierne ribs were merely ribs lying in a vaulting surface.e. diagonal.

299 M) is typical of the architecture of the Tudor period. and the transverse and wall ribs. continued to the centre. F. must be considerably less than quadrants. Cambridge Henry VII. At Oxford Cathedral a somewhat similar method was adopted. . Ely. PeterS.A. obviate this the transverse and diagonal ribs in an oblong compartment were sometimes made as four-centred arches. systems are found. especially if the compartment is oblong. The difficulty of supporting the flat lozenge-shaped space in the top portion of the vault surrounded by the upper boundaries of the hollow cones was comparatively easy in the cloisters. Gloucester Cathedral (No. and appears to have been first used largely JLD &*l Vaulting.D. as generally twice as long transversely as longitudinally. George's Chapel. being supported on an upper arch. being shorter.ENGLISH GOTHIC. thus forming an awkward junction transversely. Oxford. and a polygonal form of ribs adhered to. if the diagonal rib is to be a pointed twocentred arch. It is not found out of England. as at King's College Chapel. but at a certain height the portions above this level were drawn with a longer radius in order that they might meet the ribs from the opposite side of the vault at the required height. in D). the whole vault is of jointed masonry. In the nave of Henry VII. the pendants also placed some distance from the wall. each portion must obviously be less than a quadrant. These four-centred arches were afterwards applied to other parts of the buildings in England. U . For example. 's Chapel. 289 . which were in others. The depressed four-centred arch (No. Westminster. . s) borough. although it seems to have been used in the vaulting of earlier churches (No. 112 the retro-choir. but the sides were cut off. and other examples beyond those already mentioned are in the Divinity Schools. 1513) the conoid was occurred. Fan vaulting is confined to England. because the vaulting spaces to be roofed were square or nearly so. and so the segments of a diagonal arch of two centres preserving the same curvature would not meet at their summit without becoming To horizontal or possibly bending downwards to each other. and elsewhere. to which the reason for its adoption is held to be due. all the ribs starting with the same curvature. and this would m'ake the window arch in the nave wall of acute lancet form but the window arch was made equilateral or even less in height compared to its span in this period. but when it was attempted to apply it to the bays of the nave. difficulties In King's College Chapel (A. Trinity Church. Windsor R. and changing it from an oblong to a square on plan. where this type of vaulting was first introduced. as in arches to . 's Chapel pendants supported by internal arches were placed away from the walls and the conoids supported on these. thus reducing the size of the flat central space.

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. features in Gothic vaulting. and the simplest in construction. 113 Roofs. the beam is merely pinned to the wall-plate at either end and unconnected with the Various methods were afterwards adopted in order to rafters. (i. in order that the awkward mitres of the rib mouldings might be hidden behind the ornament " " " " decorative of the boss. connecting the tie-beam with wall-pieces (No.) forms. or ornamental keystones. as at Wellingborough Church. The bosses. The tie beam was rarely straight. holding their lower portions to counteract the outward thrust on the walls. and form abutments to support the pendant conoids. make the truss harmonize well with other features. as at Caudebec. and other places. the whole being framed together and (3. concealed above the vaulting.) Tie-beam rafter or single-framed Roofs. (4. Collar-braced Roofs. primarily used to cover various ribs meeting at all angles. the purlins resting immediately on it. Curved braces were often inserted. were a constructive the awkward junction "of the necessity. The special forms of vault used in Chapter Houses are referred to is a later form often used in connection with fan vaulting. which form such Bosses. . 's Chapel and Oxford Cathedral are examples of this method on page 299. being merely two rafters pitching one against another with the tiebeam inserted. roofs of the Middle Ages are a special and may be classed in the following five divisions. and tracery work in panelling.) . Henry VII. B). (2. 113 A. being used in every succeeding style (No. and it was never entirely discarded by mediaeval builders. (5. possibly with a desire to harmonize with the important superstructure of vaulting. being illustrated on No. In the early examples.) The "Tie-beam there is any record. " Pendant " vaulting of vaulting. being cambered or curved in the later examples this camber governed the pitch of the roof.) Trussed : Hammer-beam Roofs of various forms. doors and windows. Open Timber Roofs The open timber English feature of the Middle Ages. including arch-braced roofs. 113 B). in which pendants as elongated voussoirs are dropped from a constructive pointed arch.) Aisle Roofs of several Roof" is the earliest form of which (i. This was probably the only form known at the Norman period. Examples of pendant but not of fan vaulting are frequent in the Flamboyant period (fifteenth century) in France.

together outside of the wall rafters pitched on the a ledge was left on the inside. and to remove this hollow and unsightly appearance an upright strut was introduced. repeated at intervals of 10 feet or more. collars and curved braces. as shown in No. it forms a truss which. forming a triangular foot (No. Lincolnshire. This greatly added to the stability of the roof. supports the intermediate rafters of the bay. and is held to be the The arched form origin of the hammer-beam roof (No. as at Lympenhoe Church. 113 A). as at Outwell Church. 113 A). The hammer-beam is merely the " " at the foot of lengthening and thickening of the sole-piece the trussed rafter (No. 2QI In giving the favourite form of the arch. are as at S. which were sometimes passed through the collar. springing from a wall-piece below the tie-beam. This is an inversion of the use of king-post and tie-beam as adopted in modern roofs. but as the tie-beam always intersected this the result. 113 A). as at Outwell Church. It is improbable. 113 j). halved and held "Hammer-beam U 2 . as at Solihull Church. A pillar or king-post and struts were often supported on the tie-beam to strengthen the rafters. and having once been used the superiority of its construction and appearance led to its being largely substituted for the tie-beam form. the principal rafter being strutted. and elsewhere. as at Swardstone Church and also as shown in No. and consists generally of hammer-beam. as stated. was obtained by the use of curved braces fixed to the rafters and collar. and the weight of the roof carried lower down the wall by means of a curved brace tenoned into the hammer-beam and wall-piece. B. forming a pentagonal ceiling ornamented with Norfolk. Norfolk. (2. 113 j). Being thus strengthened. considered (3.) The to be a natural evolution of the triangular framing adopted at the foot of the trussed rafter roof (No." of which there are many examples. and sometimes stopped on the underside. In roofs of large span each rafter had a collar stiffened by braces. 113 D.) The "Trussed Rafter or Single-framed Roof. which gave a pleasing effect. Norfolk. was probably chosen in order to form a space for the pointed vaults. as at Stowe Bardolph Church (No. as a suspending piece. as seen at Morton Church. roofs of steeper pitch the open space above the tie-beam was filled in with perpendicular strutting or carved open work. As the bosses. ribs and Wimbotsham. 1 13 A. The timbers with wooden pins. j. struts.ENGLISH GOTHIC. H. Mary. E. This type of roof was often boarded on its underside. Roof" is. in which the former acts A timber arch was sometimes introduced. was not satisfactory. It has been supposed by some that the hammer-beam arose from the cutting away of the tie-beam in the centre when a curved brace is used beneath the tie-beam.


collars and curved (a. 113 H). There are many varieties of this form of roof struts. curved braces only being used from ridge The archto hammer-beam.) Those with a main arched rib springing from wall-piece and reaching to a collar.e. braces. hammer-beam principals as at are supplied . Ipswich. The curved braces answer the double purpose of strengthening the principals (No. Suffolk.) "Collar-braced Roofs" are a simplification of the hammer-beam form. i. as at Tunstead Church. These are the main divisions. 113 c). Moreover.} Those with collarbeams and no struts but curved braces. but there are various minor modifications of the type. and there is little more resemblance between a hammer-beam roof and a tie-beam roof than consists in their both being double framed. (e. and was probably constructed after the hammer-beam Hammer-beams were not contype had attained perfection. Mary. in which a shorter hammerbeam is used. Norfolk (No. is an example of this collar-braced form. earliest recorded example.) Those with hammer-beams. Norfolk principals may be about 10 inches. whereas the collarbraced kind are not more than 4 inches thick. both having principals or trusses placed at regular intervals. (4. earlier. as Little Welnetham Church. Double hammer-beam roofs have two ranges of hammerbeams. 113 H) and Eltham. (#. 1399 (No. as at Palgrave Church. structed until the end of the fourteenth century. as opposed to the trussed rafter type.. forming a rigid chief support. itself. where the intermediate with hammer-beams this is a late example. the apex being framed into a wedge-shaped strut. as at S.) Those with no collars and no struts. 113 stiffen . which has no principal.ENGLISH GOTHIC. and Middle Temple Hall : E). that this was the origin. (No. as at Westminster (No. and include arch-braced roofs. Suffolk. Suffolk. Brinton Church is another example of the arch-braced type. even in conjunction with the Outwell. They usually occur when the pitch is flatter. 113 D). so called when the collar is omitted and the arched brace carried up to the This form is very like that constructed nearly a century ridge.) Those in which the collar-beam is omitted and curved braces carried to the ridge. 293 however. as at Trunch Church. but the effect is more complicated and less pleasing. Margaret.D. braced roof is the outcome of this latter form. (c. while the Pulham Church. as at Capel S. A. the object of the second range being to further the principals and convey the weight on to the first range and thence to the wall. and were not in Westminster Hall is the general use until the fifteenth century. the tiebeam was used in all types of roof. (d. but with the important difference that at Tunstead the braces are of the same thickness as and appear to form part of the principal rafters.

Oxford. Winchester. 113 G) and Ixworth Church (No. The following is a list The Cathedrals of Canterbury. and carrying the weight lower down the which they also help Aisle Roofs in the early period were merely a continua- At North Walsham. 3. S. Lincoln. New Walsingham Church (No. Westminster Abbey was a Cathedral Church from A. Hereford.) COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. CATHEDRALS. Norfolk tion of the rafters of the nave. Worcester. 113 F) are good types of aisle roofs. intermediate trusses being introduced to strengthen the purlins. (a. these buildings were mostly erected in the styles and Perpendicular. They may be divided into three classes (a. Asaph.) The Cathedrals of the old foundation are those which. Bangor. were not affected by the reforms of Henry VIII. Durham. Paul. and Bristol. Decorated. (b. and which were reconstituted at the dissolution of the monasteries as chapters of secular canons.D.) Cathedrals of the New Foundation. Rochester. 1540-1545. thus Aisle roofs were usually simple. S. David's. Chichester. Early English. and the Welsh Cathedrals of Llandaff. London. Ely. forming a corbel for the wall-piece of the nave roof. Gloucester. When they were gabled they were usually of low pitch. known as Norman. Norwich. As mentioned in architectural character (page 283). The constitution and foundation of English Cathedrals is important and is largely responsible for their monastic character and general arrangement. Refer to the General Introduction to Gothic Architecture (page 273). is carried through the (a tie-beam roof). Carlisle. Lichfield. (5. the tie-beam of the aisle wall. Chester. EXAMPLES. and the hammer-beam was rarely introduced for these. Salisbury. and S.) The Cathedrals of the monastic foundation are those which were originally served by regular clergy or monks.) Cathedrals of the Old Foundation. wall. The following is a list The Cathedrals of York. Wells. (c. being served by secular clergy. Peterborough.) Cathedrals of the Monastic Foundation. binding the whole together. The student is referred to Gothic Architecture in Europe (page 273) for the different types of buildings erected during the Middle Ages which are here further enlarged upon. When the change in these monastic establishments was : : : .2Q4 to steady. Exeter. (&.




. The Collegiate Churches of Lichfield. as at Salisbury and Wells. round which the various buildings enumerated above were grouped. The English Cathedrals are thus peculiar in retaining many of the conventual features. as Norwich. and The the choir is often of nearly the same length as the nave. York and Manchester. Gall. The buildings founded by the Norman prelates. The French Cathedrals were mostly erected in the thirteenth century by funds provided by the laity. Newcastle. Scotch and Welsh Cathedrals (S. prior the dean. wine cellars. Most of the English Cathedrals were founded or remodelled after the Conquest. Albans. dormitories. They were also frequently planned as an ornamental adjunct to cathedrals of the old foundation which were not part of monastic establishments. the monks became canons and choristers . but were served by secular clergy. whereas in France it is seldom more than four times the width. thus presenting a complete history of the evolution of Gothic Architecture. differing in not being provided with the buildings enumerated above. (cf. where they are frequently found. refectories. remaining the same. prison. especially in France. and others. The plans are long and narrow. Davids excepted) have no cloisters. Southwell. Manchester. chapter houses. workshops. The character which each Cathedral possesses generally indi: cates its Cathedrals are almost peculiar to England and Germany. and the the personnel generally made the abbot became the bishop. In these countries a large proportion of the Cathedral Churches formed part of monastic establishments in which are original purpose. Monastery of S. guest Cloisters hall. Ripon and Southwell. library. infirmary. extreme length is often as much as six times. Ripon. foundation are those to which (. and Truro.) The Cathedrals of the new which are bishops have been appointed. Canterbury.2g8 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. including many which formerly served as churches of the great monastic institutions of the period. mills. viz. The absence of double side aisles (Chichester and Manchester excepted) and side chapels tends to show that worship was more congregational in form than on the Continent. and the following Parochial Churches S. as they formed a covered way for the use of monks. Monastic found cloisters. scrip- torium. fact that Diversity of style in each building was caused by the with the single exception of Salisbury (page 309) many were erected in all periods. and gardens page 261). were required in monastic establishments from necessity. old Collegiate Churches. and the Irish. and therefore do not form part of monastic establishments. were provided with the apsidal easte . Wakefield.

D. and Wells (1292) (No. the flying buttresses to the chevet end of the building produce a confused. exteriors are in direct contrast to Continental examples." and seen in conjunction with cloisters. Canterbury. 1142-1170). 1084 1 1 60) is circular internally.D. 117-120 for the plans. in reality of the Nine Altars at Durham (A. Decorated. all of which have vaults supported by a central pillar and the surrounding walls. and Nos. The transepts project considerably. and in contrast to the large western porches of the French Cathedrals. 1242-1290) is an eastern transept. 114. Flying buttresses are not nearly so common as in France. while at Lichfield (No. being mostly situated in a quiet " close far from the madding crowd. as at Salisbury. Westminster (1250). as at Lincoln. and/or the sake of brevity the Early English. In France owing to the comparative lowness of the nave vault. Gloucester. Ely. The normal type is octagonal with a central pillar to support the vaulting. which is further emphasized by the comparative lowness of the vault. nave The refectory and outbuildings. 70 K). 115 and 116 for comparative views of models of the Cathedrals. as at Lincoln (1225). 116) all three towers are crowned with spires. No. 1093-1140) is apsidal. Lincoln. but has no central pillar. in striking contrast with the French The Chapel examples.D. and there are occasionally secondary transepts. 2QQ termination. Salisbury (1250). Canterbury and Durham. Wells and Worcester. See Nos. which produced a very different external effect. 101) absent in the English buildings. but the English type evolved through Durham to Lincoln had square eastern terminations from the Saxon prototype (page 327). acting as a screen against the cold winds. restless effect (cf. Chapter houses were required for the transaction of business by the chapter or bishop's council. The central tower is generally accompanied by two western towers. and that at Worcester (A. and is sometimes crowned with a high tapering spire. The characteristic high central tower. being covered with a sham wooden vault 57 feet in diameter. Note. The English Cathedrals. but the example at Durham (A. York (1280-1330) is also octagonal. owe their internal effect to their enormous length. and Perpendicular . sometimes developed into a chevet. as at Salisbury and Norwich.ENGLISH GOTHIC. They were originally square in plan. The characteristics peculiar to the leading cathedrals are here indicated. as at Bristol (A. York. form a part only of the entire composition (page 276). The main entrance was frequently by a south-western porch.D. for " " the buildings. is rendered very effective in contrast with the low nave.





Cloisters on the north. transept called the "Chapel of the Nine Altars. 1. . Bristol (Nos. is of lesser interest.E. Perp. by Alan of Walsingham. The plan influenced that of S. Most noted feature is the unique octagon. Those which were E. resembled that of the Cathedral at Sens. 136 A. Canterbury. triforium 3. and In 1866 thoroughly restored by Sir G. has a rich vault of wood only. Remarkable canopied wall c.304 styles are denoted COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE'. "Canterbury (Nos. An eastern 7. The chief example of double aisles. also late. Dec. No. the churches of Benedictine monasteries (page 218) are distinguished by an asterisk *. flanked originally with bold north and south transeptal projections. The sides of the octagon are unequal. 114 A. The Bell Tower is the only example of its kind belonging to an English Cathedral. 6. Built of red sandstone. It. being alternately 20 feet and 35 feet. erected by William of Sens. "Ely (Nos. with timber roof and modern paintings." At the extreme east is the curious chapel called Extensive There are double transepts. Present church is Dec. owing to the bold tower. 120 F). Rectangular vaulted chapter house. the openings. 114 G. An Augustinian monastery. on the destruction of Anselm's Norman choir in 1170. tower. Choir remarkable for splendid carving. There is thus an absence of the usual Norman recesses for monuments. 118 E). and clerestory. 1306-1332.E. if any. and quaintly channelled with characteristic spirals and flutes. Bangor (No. 5. ico feet by 46 feet. 216 feet in height. On his death the work proceeded under William the Englishman. London (No. The Perp. 1140. respectively. 115 B. large number of side chapels resembling Continental Cathedrals. A. cloisters. as in in having nave some German churches (cf. reaching to a central octagonal lantern. replacing a lallen central tower. "Chester (Nos. In front of the tower projects the E. 60 feet high by compare chapter house. Fine central spire. ended by big octagonal turrets. choir of singular interest. 137 F). is in the Late Perp. rivals.E. 114 H. (12421290). and a central Perp. two square bays in plan. Repeatedly destroyed. Chichester (No. 114 B. Paul. are of great beauty. Perp. The singular contraction of the width of the choir. Peculiar and aisles of nearly equal height. 70 feet in diameter. style. but suffered Scott. 1099-1128. 120 B). The splendid central tower. the finest in England. on the north side. 119 D). 8. by Street. the same width as the nave and 215 feet high. . Carlisle (No. choir. The nave was vaulted in A. 229 feet The nave. D. which it inspired.. Originally the church of the Benedictine order of S. " Becket's Crown.D. in 1322. "Elder Lady Chapel. 119 G). composition. help to form a group which for strength of outline and dignity have few. nave. Norman work (1096-1133).. The chapter house is oblong. the west front and towers are unimportant. much in the civil wars. 2. and high. vaulted and elaborately arcaded." Dec. The. Werburgh. except in the general picturesqueness of the group." in massive E. 253). containing the most perfect of tracery windows. and modern nave in imitation thereof. 117 A. and Perp. E. central and lower portion of south-western towers. in a style after French models. in order to In plan thjs choir preserve two ancient Norman chapels. Lady chapel at the east end.D. "Durham (No. Norman really caused by the formation of lateral chapels. 172). the special point is the massive arcade of the Norman nave. (1198-1215) Galilee porch. with lofty aisle windows. Band Norman nave and transepts. The east end a fine 4. west front is an imposing composition (180 feet wide). Exceptional lady chapel. A A An Augustinian Abbey. the original crypts are under all the eastern portion. Norman work being of singular interest. A.. 116 118 B). 120 K). is worthy of notice. 1133 and is said to be the earliest example of a Norman vault in England. the pillars about the same width as. E. with fine wooden ceiling. Internally.

W. excluding spires. removed in the thirteenth century for an oblong lady chapel. long low building. Nave shortened by Card. 16. Perp. is surrounded by a ring of flying buttresses. lady chapel and Dec. the windows beneath clerestory on south side of nave. Central tower.E. alternately circular and chapter house and lady chapel are E. in style. Oxford (No. chapter house and sloping ground and built of reddish stone. the " National former (271 feet high) being the highest in England. 118 c). as at King's College. Cathedral built between A. 126). Stephen. Situated on 13. upper part and short spire. 14. London. *Peterborough (Nos. Edinburgh. Norman choir cased with Perp. B. S. The cloisters are on the north side. nave. The interior is considered to be the finest in the Norman style next to Durham. Exeter (Nos. 1117 and 1190. The easternmost apsidal chapel. and S.E. Perp. work. No triforium. vaulting (No. Very rich in Early Perp. g. n6B. 137 E). without transepts or side Two western towers.ENGLISH GOTHIC. *Norwich (Nos. page 396). cloisters of singular completeness. 11. It is the best specimen of the Dec. Pillars of nave. front are in the E. are Norman (A. No cloisters. and the Augustinian monks. 115 H.E.E. The grand western facade. 115 F. 120 c). The apsidal choir is inclosed in a square chapel of Late Perp. and Dec.D. 10. restored. spire. style. King's College. The Dec. 1422-1520). Cambridge. Giles." 1256-1314. and the vaulting throughout are Perp. Remarkable for B). 1096-1 145). and choir with apsidal chapels. consists of F. aisleless transepts 17. ornamenting what is probably the oldest wooden roof in England. A 15. 119 E). Originally the church of a priory or The nave and choir are Norman (1158-1180). resting Newcastle. central tower. and the student acquainted with Canterbury E. The nave is covered with a painted wooden ceiling of lozenge-shaped compartments. "Angel choir. resembling that of Durham. The choir clerestory.E. (A. a vestibule to choir. which has splendid fan vaulting with pendants. The E. Perp. *Gloucester (Nos. whose lower parts are therefore invisible. narrow nave. 125. since destroyed. Lincoln" sums up its greatest glory. D. Manchester (No. 225 feet high. No cloisters. 120 H). transepts choir will see how the French feeling is here departed from. 116 F. Llandaff (No. Vienna. 124 A. Rebuilt 1185-1200. polygonal. 117 D. 119 aisles. Square chapter house with central pillar. Hereford (Nos. Fine modern stalls. Wolsey when building his college of Christchurch. The nave is much chapels. s). 115 in 305 D. 119 c). Situated on slightly The nave. consisting of a screen wall behind which rise the two western towers. Chapter House. situated at the foot of a hill. forming quite an unusual arrangement in order to gain height. E. decagonal chapter house. The long. 18. 115 c. with spire on crown of arches. in general outline resembling Canterbury. Late Dec. Norman nave and choir. Bold central Perp. transepts.. Lichfield (Nos. Norman central tower having E. style. vaulted to central pillar. C. C. 136 B). Ely).A. the ridge of a steep hill dominating the town. 112 R. tower (A. and is exceptionally rich in varied tracery and carved wood and stonework. 158 feet wide.D 1233. 1474). Aberdeen. 12. 117 F. 116 D.D. supporting Norman arches. on the north side of Cathedral. D.D. X . fan vaulted. 120 j. as it were. Lincoln (Nos.E. 122 A. The nave aisles only are vaulted (cf. A Norman 19. constructed in A. as at Winchester. The clerestory windows of spherical triangular form. and choir. obtained as at Chichester by the inclusion of side chapels. B. 114 F. Dunstan in the East. The west front is unusual. 118 D). similar to S. having twin towers placed over the Unique north and south transepts (cf. and having also double transepts and central and western towers. forms. having double Fine stalls. beneath which is the triforium gallery. destroyed. central and two western spires of rich and graceful character form the only example of the triple combination in England.

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E. Southwell (No. bays of choir are E. is unique. walled-in choir are Perp. 1 60. 119. Scott. Amiens is 46 feet wide and 140 feet high (three to one). but The spire. have exceptionally fine. 404 The cloister there is a fine north porch.ENGLISH GOTHIC. 117 C. beside the river Alan. being the loftiest in England. transepts and towers.I). Dec. the chief glory of the Cathedral. Ripon (Nos. to choir. Alban. 1722-1740. is Dec. though some uncertainty exists as to the intended grouping. 119 H). 1220-1260. 121. choir. *Rochester (Nos. 120 G. period has been built in the central archway. Dec. and fa?ade found in English Gothic.E. by Wren and Hawksmoor. During 1260-1269 the four bays west of the transept were constructed. See Nos.E. choir. The Norman nave and choir (1079-1093) were transformed . two-storied porch of the Perp. gable crowns each arch.D. are Perp. 26. and 24. octagonal chapter house. 119 K). E. 1220-1258 in the E. 154 A. and transepts. central tower. transepts with aisles. Norman nave. Albans (No. Dec. and the end abutments are carried up as small towers crowned with spires. The plan consists of a nave and aisles. Other towers rise from behind over the end bays of the aisles. illustrating the comparative height to width of the naves of English and French Cathedrals it has been shown that whereas Wells is 32 feet wide and 67 feet high (two to one). in A. The shrines. : feature in England. the highest development of a type of is arcaded and enriched with sculpture Double transepts. the longest in England (284 feet).) (1214-1465). 21. in A. 's Chapel was added by Henry VII. 127.E. open tracery and elaborate vaulting of the E. 129). The nave was completed in ihe fifteenth century in imitation The western towers were completed of the older work. very rich and well preserved. and is remarkable for its elaborate fan vault. transepts and Western Dec. o. and monuments are The cloisters. Rich choir stalls and tabernacle work. 119 F). 128. S. 124 D. as Amiens is of French Gothic. feet high. Fine western in recent years. A Benedictine monastery founded by Dunstan betrays French influence in its polygonal chevet and chapels. style. 309 a portico of three gigantic arches. boldly projecting and vaulted internally. 120 E). tombs. The triforium. Restored by Sir G. Wells (Nos.E. few elm trees.E. Central and two western towers. including buttresses.E. The plan has double transepts. Carving No cloisters. *Westminster (Nos. S. the only complete example of this 25. The 114 E. style. E. west front. 115 E. 115 G. 119 A). 22. F. total length (560 feet) of any mediaeval Cathedral in Europe. internal loftiness (having the highest nave in England). style (restored by A A Scott). and Henry VII. has no central pillar. 123 and 140 D).D. but with Perp. It has the greatest transepts Norman and tower. and Perp. 116 on a level site. Two-storied south porch. of close set openings with capitals. Rebuilt in the Dec. As three towers. 116 E. Situated in a valley. Salisbury (Nos. *Winchester (Nos. and splendid Dec. Asaph (No. eastern lady chapel. Norman doorways. and is believed to have been the model for that at York. . in place of the former lady chapel. The E. 20. clerestory to nave and Norman wooden roof nave. *S. west facade is weak. The nave arches close by the sea. surrounded originally by five aps dal chapels. marble shrine of S. -The nave. Central tower. 28. 122 E. in the usual position to the south of nave. 1070-1107. broken only by a Constructed almost entirely A. 29. surrounded by the green sward of a wide close. 1360). Of the present structure the eastern portion was erected by Henry III. Erected A. recovered and reportion of nave is E.E. and eastern chevet. Much destroyed and altered Norman nave. the full height of the Cathedral. 117 E. . Rcof and choir stalls 23. 159 B. chantry chapels. 137 G). Davids (No. E. erected by Sir Gilbert Scott. 150 feet wide. transeptsand western 27. Perfect western facade in E. F. forming the type of English.. and strongly marked flying buttresses. mouldings. periods. rood-screen at entrance support a carved oak roof of late (1508) design.



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Norman A MONASTERIES. The height of the nave is second only to that of Westminster Abbey. 1261-1324). in concert with the temperate awe natural reverence that the place inspired raised in nice proportions was the : pile. rectro choir. on core and crowned with a vaulted roof. with Sepulchral emblems And marble monuments were hrongmg footworn epitaphs Inning effigies and some with small of brass inlaid. that served to strike heart.. York (Nos.E.) Notf. of Edwardian Gothic (Dec. All withered by the depth of shade above. No Perp. The nave and the octagonal chapter house. 114 D. stalls. 145) are fine specimens. see page 378. nave.) PARISH CHURCHES. level situation on the banks of 30. (See page 276. With pillars crowded. Compare Gloucester. * Worcester (Nos.E. ***** The floor * .oi a comparison between English and French cathedrals. It is notable as the largest in area and width (being no less than 106 feet within the walls) of any English cathedral. Wykeham and his successors (1394-1486) with a veneer of Perp. cloisters. and Perp. and we entered. the River Severn. " The portals of the sacred pile A grateful coolness The And Not But large and massy. fell. without central column and covered with a wooden roof. 118 A). see page 571. Stood open. Dec. which will enable their various characteristics to be understood. transepts are remarkable for the 31. and grouping. On my frame At such transition from the fervid air. Paul's Cathedral. E. The west front is of the French type. The E. The Royal chantries of Interesting monuments. The nave and choir are covered with a wooden imitation of a stone vault. strength of outline.316 by William of the COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. and the roof upheld By naked rafters. mid some thick grove. E. King John and Prince Arthur (No.E. The five sisters a name given to the lancet windows of the north transept are each 50 feet high and 5 feet wide. and Dec. and on the floor beneath stones appeared. the largest Wood in England."-W O RDSWORTH graven . tower. for duration built . choir. Norman crypt. unpretending guise occupied by oaken benches. cloisters and house. In spite of the size of the cathedral it compares unfavourably with Durham for grandeur. vaulting to choir. north and south transepts and circular chapter the only one in England. intricately cross' d Like leafless unclerboughs. Tombs and chantries. 115 A. Jf nave and aisle in Was And here display'd the walls . (For a description of S. London. " " classic beauty of their mouldings (Street). ranged In seemly rows . 117 B). central tower (196 feet high).


military structures were all-important. 140 A) resting the following centuries. which are cruciform on plan. In the twelfth century. while in (No. sometimes of two stories.D. (b. clerestory with windows.) an outer " bailey " or court. over 1. The battled towers. Large hooded fireplaces and chimneys became general. the hall still remaining the principal feature. on the south side. 140 G. being vaulted. the tower larger Where a spire occurs it is usually is over the "crossing. as the growth of the royal power suppressed petty wars between rival nobles. The typical English Church differs from the French in not and there is. 140 c. These were often painted with rich colors. E) and flying buttresses tower and base of the spire (No. Parish Churches. 131 c). parapets with elaborate corner pinnacles were employed to connect the (No. an absence of flying " the " open-timbered roof. They were generally residences as well as military posts thus. as in the Tower of London (A.) the donjon or keep.D. The principal entrance was by a porch. while exacting the former's service. These consisted of (a." SCOTT. and narrow with aisles. The castles were less strongly fortified. These form an important part of the architecture of the Middle Ages. buttresses. and the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk have examples specially famous in this respect. while the invention of gunpowder (A. and a long a single western chancel without aisles. near the west end.) an inner bailey. while complying with the ideas of defence. several stories in height all being surrounded by a lofty wall with ramparts and parapet and a deep moat. H).318 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. and were fortified up to the end of the fourteenth century. who. although occasionally the western tower emphasized the main entrance. 130 B). the planning also illustrates the relation of the vassal to his lord. . 1081-1090) (No. A large number were erected during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. 113. was theoretically bound to maintain him. The loophole grates where captives weep. and " was effected in the thirteenth century by means of a "broach on angle squinch arches (No. therefore. . culminating in the "hammer-beam" variety of the fifteenth century. 1500) ' . various types being shown on No. clustering round the keep. ' ' In the thirteenth century these castles were further enlarged by additional buildings. and (c. and elaborate specimens of constructive art were indulged in. and Kenilworth Castle (No.100 castles being constructed during the reign of Stephen alone. the donjon keep." the change from the square to the octagon octagonal on plan. There was generally but in some of the tower. 131 A). finished with crenellated battlements. The English developed ' THE CASTLES OF THE NOBLES.


referred to in Hall. The porch or doorway led to the entry which. and the highest development Mote and Hever Hall. as at smoke being carried away by the " louvre or by a wall fireplace with a hooded canopy. D. . as in all domestic buildings of the fourteenth In this of primary importance. a large bay window gave external and internal importance to that end. Kent (No. as in arose. Penshurst. and the original or opening for the escape of smoke from the central fire still exists. the sleeping-room for the though they were sometimes lodged in dormitories in the wings. the kitchen being The fire was in the centre of the Hall on " dogs. The walls were hung with tapestry and with trophies of the chase. 132 F) of a nobleman's house. The plan (No. as at Oxburgh Hall (No still given retainers. London. and Crosby Kent. The "solar. ." or withdra wing-room. and the sleeping accommodation was much improved. century. . made rendered quite the moat comparatively useless. while at the further end of the Hall was the raised " dais. The roof (No. " in the roof. elevation is "louvre" example of a typical open timbered type. by a panelled partition or screen. 132 B.D. becoming a distinctive feature. and sometimes. Dorset. as was the mediaeval castle of the feudal baron. was often at right angles to the Hall. and habits of the country gentleman of to-day. E. and the fourteenth century house may be taken as the prototype of the modern country house. 132 A. B. 131 B). the whole height of the house. as in the earlier periods. desire for privacy In the fourteenth century an increased of the Hall was attained. Over this entry was the minstrels' gallery. with case it An external raised dais at one end and a screen at the other. and soon obsolete the older systems of defence (page 549). The main body of the Hall was occupied by the servants and retainers." for the seats of the master and his principal guests. c. good example indicates that. inclinations. as Crosby Place.3 20 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. was separated as a vestibule from the Hall itself. The great banqueting-hall gradually ceased to be used as the common sleeping-room on the introduction of the withdrawingroom. the Hall was the feature a is 68 feet by 38 feet 8 inches and 48 feet high. which in its highest development is an expression of the wants. 132 A. and the floor was often only strewn with rushes and formed. Westminster Hall. E) is a fine in No. F) (A. an example of a Richard III. In the fifteenth century the central fireplace was moved to the side wall." the adjacent. a royal palace Ightham Cranbourne Manor. 1335). Shakespeare's is a Penshurst Place. moated manor houses merchant's home. A characteristic house of the period consisted of a quadrangular from the entrance plan with central courtyard. On the side away was the Hall.

? '9' z . F..? . '91.1300-1650. ^PFEET 132.A.D.. .ENGLISH GOTHIC EXAMPLES.. 3 .. XI MIRTH iramm of crat ma fl.

effective police. and an external door led to a staircase. and dormitories in the upper story. in contrast with France.D. In this respect the passage way on the first . and Sutton Place (A. which gave access to the sleeping-rooms oil the first floor. In towns the dwellings often consisted of a shop on the ground floor. viz.. which gave it prominence. while the Jew's house at Lincoln is a fine specimen of an early half timber a notable example. Behind the shop were the kitchen and living-room. floor to the houses at Chester is stone residence. or formed a dependency to a and thus afterwards arose in many towns two rival In the absence of authorities. rooms were usually thoroughfare only entered from the courtyard. in which the trade of the owner was carried on. of the fifteenth " solar " century. and other local causes. 1521-1527). those forming apartdwellings. Houses of CHAPELS. light being obtained by a wide opening fronting the street. century the typical In the sixteenth of buildings grouped around a quadrangular Tudor house consisted court. The entrance was in the centre of one side under a gatehouse. where many such buildings exist. The " Butcher Row " at Shrewsbury. the castles of the great nobles.as at Layer (A. as The formation of towns was often due to considerations of when traders and others grouped themselves around . or attached to convents and monasteries. Compton Wynyates 1520) (No. the materials at hand. in some cases. has ground floor shops. house are dealt with in English Renaissance. THE DWELLINGS OF THE PEOPLE. 150). There were different varieties ments in palaces or other these. viz. safety. on the opposite side were the hall and offices. Marney (A. and in the consequent insecurity against lawless vagabonds.322 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.D. page 553. . monastery and Germany. The architecture was more or less developed. in proportion to the condition of the owner. those forming portions of larger churches. owing to modern ideas of privacy being introduced but the salient characteristics of the Elizabethan . ecclesiastical and secular. every city was more or less fortified. In the latter part of the century the common dining-hall began to decline in importance.D. the living and and such ranged along the other two sides. sleeping-rooms being " " rooms or.. and brick with overhanging upper stories abounded.. Italy. above. 1520). The undeveloped state of the towns is accountable for the absence of town halls. sepulchral of . Belgium.

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Clare. monasteries. Christ's. 1458. on the Bridge at Wakefield (fourteenth century). Westminster (1349-1364). 1352. 1326. . 1289. as in the mediaeval house. Pembroke. and cathedrals. 135) . Windsor Chapel. 1250). with the later addition of the Lollard's tower (1424-1445). 1546. West- COLLEGES AND SCHOOLS. 127. New College. with later additions. Chapel. large apartment to The following are a few examples of different types S. 1340. . John's. Brasenose. 1284. 1441 Queens'. . Worcester. George's (No. of which there . . hall Museum. 1497. and Eton College (1442) was founded by Henry VI. still exists. was built by the religious confraternity known as the "Prates Pontis. onward there existed a number of connected with churches. 1542 and Trinity. (1422-1461). 1350. Gonville. Trinity Hall. 1555. 1448. The rise of Oxford dates from about 1167." The " Triangular " Bridge at Croyland. London . 1348. hall was the principal apartment. . and this and the other rooms were grouped around a quadrangle. and many of the principal colleges at these Universities were erected as follows At Oxford the : : colleges of Merton. John's Chapel. Lambeth (A. and S. . Corpus Christi. 1326.John's. Christ Church. (1480-1508). 129) (1500-1512). the Chantry Chapel S.D. and Henry VII. 1437 Magdalen.324 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 1314. Lincoln. having three pointed arches with abutments at the angles of an equilateral triangle and having three communication. King's. Tower of London (No. 128. 1509 Corpus Christi. 1554. Jesus. 1427.D. Exeter. These formed important means tive of instances possessed a semi-religious character. BRIDGES. com- . 1524. 133). since destroyed Stephen's Chapel. From the time grammar schools of Alfred Winchester College (1387-1393) was built by William of \Vykeham. and that of Cambridge from about 1209. 1347. S. Merton College Chapel. At Cambridge: the colleges of Peterhouse. 's minster" (Nos. which aisles came to be added. menced in 1176. Colleges resembled the monastic establishments of The earlier times and were modelled on them in many ways. All Souls. those attached to colleges tions and those erected on bridges germ of all these being a : Palace Chapel (No. 1263-1264. examples may be mentioned. 132) (A. to make way for Westminster Palace King's College Chapel. . Trinity. 1516. Queen's. 1511 Magdalen. is a model in the GuildCambridge 1440). and in many A few representaOld London Bridge. Oriel. and other educational the institu- chapels. Lincolnshire. 1379. Oxford (1274-1277). 1505 S.

ANCIENT TIMBER HOUSES. and has bedrooms and sitting-rooms for the inmates opening on to the central hall. and form interesting examples of semi-domestic character.ENGLISH GOTHIC. the choir screens. COMPARATIVE. which have is their specially denned characteristics. The architecture of England during the Middle Ages can be divided into centuries corresponding to the principal developments. John's Hospital. These are j). HOSPITALS. 132 MINOR MONUMENTS. tablets. still numerous. can still boast a number. Kent. Mary's Hospital. (No. will give an idea of the appearance of these old timber houses. . is in good preservation. and the example from Chiddingstone dating about 1637. N) is mainly of the fourteenth century. such as Chester. whereas Sharpe's divisions are governed by the character of the window tracery in each period. Other examples are S. at 325 Wark worth. ALMSHOUSES AND BEDE HOUSES. although belonging to a very early foundation. and elsewhere. Chichester. and each period treated in a comparative way in a somewhat different manner to the method adopted in othsr styles. PREFATORY NOTE. at the end of which is the chapel. by Rickman's divisions are made to include periods corre- sponding to the reigns of English sovereigns. In the cathedrals and churches. Cross. M. The Bridge Northumberland. Winchester Ford's Hospital. There have been various systems of classification adopted by Rickman and Sharpe are the best different writers. and numerous villages throughout the country. 132 L. roadways and three waterways. Coventry S. . . and almshouses at Cobham. of which many towns. principally dating from the fifteenth century. the architectural character and examples in each period being given. but those now known. 5. wall and chantries are specially notable. Stamford. tombs. Many of these are of careful study. Many of these. worthy 4. which are given under each style later. . Northampton the Bede House. were founded by charitable people. (No.


.. as S v Martin. 449 to 1066). 449 (arrival of quest in 1066 (i. 134 H). The following are a few of the examples of this period : Worth Church. Early English.. 134).. Another type of plan is that of the Roman basilican form..e. it must be remembered that the transition from one style to the next was slow and gradual. (i. ... given : Dates. but the scanty remains of this period render it difficult to estimate the character of the buildings. B. so minute are the differences. Greensted Church (Essex). buildings are sometimes composed of the fragments of Roman architecture in Britain.) (i>e. Saxon. comparative table is showing the approximate period covered by Rickman.. for it must not be forgotten that the mediaeval architecture of England is one continuous style. 327 A each A. the chancel being squareended (borrowed from the Keltic type). are without buttresses. and Brixworth. f^ Lance ^' Rectilinear. the 1 3th cent..ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE (ANGLO-SAXON STYLE).. ANGLO-SAXON STYLE The (A.D... or of rude copies. | Transition. Sharpe. The masonry work is considered to show signs of the influence of wood architecture.. the pilaster strips. } /Norman. Plans.. Towers. Sompting (Sussex) (No. Dover Castle and Church. It is only for convenience in alluding to the different stages that the division is made. Barnack Church. and that the great development in timber work of the later Gothic styles was due to this early use. 134 F). oblongs.... of which Earl's Barton. Wickham (No.e. 134). and can often hardly be traced. . ... It is probable that timber was the material mostly employed in all classes of buildings. D). (i.. and the crypt at Ripon Cathedral. joined example.e. Decorated.) Perpendicular.... Earl's Barton (No.e.. . end of I2th cent. lower and smaller than the nave. 134 A.. as in the "long and short" work. Churches seem to have been planned as two simple by a small chancel arch. and the baluster mullions (No... is an A. . the first half i6th cent.... Tudor. D.) Anglo-Saxons) to the ConSaxon.) (i.. the triangular-headed openings. the I5th cent... and distinctly marked as such externally and internally.. Tudor... 1066-1189 1189-1307 1307-1377 1377-1485 1485-1558 to the Norman... but these features are more likely ru\le attempts to copy the contemporary Romanesque work of Ravenna and other Italian towns. the I 4 th cent.) . Northants (No. Brixworth (Northants)... Canterbury.. There was often a descent of a few steps from the nave into the chancel.. Although the period of each style is thus defined. 134 c). Deerhurst (Gloucestershire) (No..

as at Wickham (No. These were mostly formed of rough rubble work B. 134 A). There are no means of knowing exactly how these D. 1100-1135. Henry II. Piers in churches are short.. William II. as in early Irish ing each other till they met at represent buildings as covered by slates Manuscripts examples. : The keep and . Roofs. or shingles. These are round or triangular-headed. 1135-1154. This was probably scanty. " long . have been mentioned above. Columns. Henry I.. as none exist. have square jambs.. The round portion of the Temple Church S. and appear to have been worked by a lathe. stumpy in the place of cylinders crowned with square blocks of stone moulded capitals (No. 131 A and 135). The roughly formed balusters. were treated. courses.. short and low Built ere the art was known.. Ornament. 134 F). from whence it was introduced during the reign of William I. in the absence of G. Openings. To emulate in stone ". It is well described by Sir Walter Scott similarities : The many " In Norman strength. Smithfield. also known as the English Romanesque or Twelfth Century style. G). as at mentioned above are also features. E. By pointed aisle and shafted stalk The arcades of an alley'd walk . the principal examples are S. and presents with the architecture of Normandy. that occur in windows. 1066-1087. simple ovolos and hollows coarsely axed. that abbey frown'd With massive arches broad and round. hangings being probably in use.328 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. comprises the reigns of William I. Bartholomew's the (Transitional). 11541189.. hence the use of the axe in roughly finishing the contours.. and c. That rose alternate row on row On ponderous columns. belfry technical ability. In London. Mouldings. 134 E. general appearance is bold and massive. Great. 134 c). These were few in number and consisted of F. 1087iioo. but they were probably either of timber or composed of loose stones in horizontal layers approachthe apex. John's Chapel in the Tower of London (Nos. and are sometimes divided by a baluster. Walls. Stephen.and short" with ashlar masonry at the angles formed in The pilaster strips Earl's Barton (No. Ttfbls were few. as at Deerhurst Church (No. NORMAN ARCHITECTURE.




triforium. and transepts were employed. a method also adopted in the churches at Caen. 141 A). are sometimes grouped together." to their jambs. Barfreston Church. as at Iffley Church. which supports a plain parapet (No. S. at the crossing. Oxon in single lights. 131 A). . high roads. but are often constructed with defective masonry. :st. and often flush with the corbel table. known as "orders. Buttresses are broad and flat. (No. 135) is a type of a small chapel in the style. Oxon Abbey. with usually a tower Most of the cathedrals date from this period. Walls. The windows are isually small. having at their west end round towers supposed to be due to Scandinavian influence. and the general type of plan laid down was developed rather than changed. Plans. Lo'ndon (No. Saxon period. commanding fords on the rivers. with semicircular heads. Exeter. and other strategic points. but double windows divided by a shaft Three openings. The interiors have nearly an equal height assigned to nave arcade. chiefly of king-post form. and Winchester. 138). The Tower of London gives a good idea of the system of defence adopted (No. and Iffley Church. of which the centre -equently occur in towers. are good examples : The The nave was considerably lengthened from the A. owing to the recent conquest. were numerous and important. Chichester. as at Norwich. The towers are square and massive. 138). Kent. but probably owing to these being more readily constructed. and Tewkesbury Winchester.* Gloucester. Hereford. with little projection (No. S. The chapel of the Tower of Ely. of small Norman churches. Albans. Openings. the principal examples ^reater portion of the Cathedrals of Norwich. and a passage was often formed tetween the clerestory window and the triple arch carrying the inside of the wall. great length being aimed at. In Norfolk and Suffolk are some fifty churches. B). Ely. . These are very thick. the core being imperfectly bonded with the facing.COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Doorways are deeply recessed and richly ornamented with the ornament and beak-head. and frequently arcaded in later work. Durham. Peterborough. in the absence of suitable stone to form square angles. Oxford. Albans. Alban's Abbey and Iffley Church (No. are In the Provinces.n with 0e Omt ^^ whh Wa s scul P tural The roof-trusses a^l)^ were of ^ n . Waltham.beaded or intersecting > open timber. 136 c. They are narrow and deeply splayed. Castles. A. B. and clerestory. as at S. Durham. These were frequently formed with square recesses.



the existing cathedrals or abbeys of this period had originally wooden ceilings. but occasionally forms reminiscent of in the Roman architecture occur.. corbel. 135). being sometimes carved and scolloped. billet. supported by corbels or grotesques. 144. with rectangular recesses. Early Plantagenet. often in conjunction with round piers. all exposed. Also known as Lancet. with the addition A Norman font. Henry III. and form a most important decorative element in the style. in small pieces. Capitals (Nos. Edward I. and Exeter. piscina and sedilia are shown on No. consisting of black and white. were also used. The plain treatment of the earlier period was G. The style of this period. E. White Tower. massive. Corbel tables. Wall arcades of intersecting arches (No. shaking itself free from the massive . 1189- 1199-1216. are usually of the cushion form. 122). Columns. It is probable that hangings were employed in interiors. London (No. Mouldings. billet. and Durham. Exeter. These are low. or Thirteen Century Style. comprises the reigns of Richard I. being chiefly white. while at Durham fluting and zigzag channellings were worked on the columns. The Corinthian type frequently met with in France is rare. Clustered piers. Rudimentary decoration. are shown on Nos. bowtel. The simple framing is either left In fact. or zigzag. THE EARLY ENGLISH 1199. forming lozenge-shaped and other figures roughly executed in distemper. along the lower part of the aisle walls. the covering being of lead or shingles. constituted an effective dado decoration. First Pointed. the glass. as the chevron F. and either polygonal or circular (No. beak-head. and other orna- mented mouldings (No. without regard to the courses. and having an 335 inclination of forty-five degrees. 139). or has a flat ceiling boarded and decorated.. succeeded by the highly decorated work of the late period. 146 and 148). Bristol. as the Ionic example. Ornament. constitute crowning features on walls and towers. but were vaulted later. 1366). -The ornamented mouldings. nail-head. leaded together to of brown lines. The small shafts occurring in the recessed orders of doorways and windows were sometimes richly ornamented. produced a bold and not unLate in the period pleasing effect. as at Durham and Waltham. as at Gloucester. John.. form patterns. stained glass began to be employed. or roll moulding. or simple colors in stripes. 139 and 146. as in the roof at Peterborough. STYLE. as at Peterborough (No. 1216-1272. 135). 1272-1307. which was richly carved with nail-head. as at Gloucester.ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE (THE NORMAN STYLE).

117 F). Plans (No. and nave (restored) of S. In the Provinces the principal examples are Salisbury Cathedral (Nos. Rochester (choir and transepts). and the boldly projecting buttresses and Interthe exteriors. " which (No. Wells (nave and west front). restored (No. The Chapel of Lambeth Palace (No. spire A. The pointed arch vaults are bolder. York (transepts) (No. strong its dependence upon The Eastern Transitional. square The "broach s B. and steeply pitched roofs. Mary Overie (S. Bristol (the A. 136 Chapel). Worcester : (choir). in magnificent and rich. In London the principal examples are The round portion of the Temple Church. and used more frequently (page 286). in is Walls. nave compartments were made oblong in place of the former divisions. man work but more We filling On iTir J the concentration of the weight of the roof and leading to the gradual treatment of between as a mere screen. the foliaged capitals and bosses intrudthe mouldings and hollows. pinnacles. Elder Lady 1198-1218) (No. Lady Chapel.336 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. extending like some petrified almost impart garland or bower of filigree work round the arch. 140 mn the square tower without a parapet. which may be called : Norman. and 140 D). K). life and vegetation to the very stones of these door and window an upward openings. Flying buttresses were introduced. as. in place of the massive Norman pillar. four bays of the nave of Westminster Abbey (1220-1269). and the Chapter House. well-defined outline. and first portion of the Temple Church. and less ' P ronounced th an in the Norman period. 117 E). occur connected by bands to the piers. These varied but little from the The vaulting as it advanced modified the planning. B). equal in projection to their width. D). mark slender groups of shafts nally. 121. and . more elegant. is and simplicity in decoration. The long trails of dog-tooth ornament lurking in the dark furrow of the channelled recesses. proportion. The choir. transepts. when pointed arches were finally adopted. 132 G. and the ing their luxuriance upon knots of pierced and hanging leaves. in order to lateral outward of the pointed pressure vaults. Lichfield. Lincoln (nave) (No. The tall and narrow lancet openings give tendency to the design. 117 B). Saviour). a portion of the Cloisters. 122. 127). the upper portion characteristic. The proportion of opening 1S often excellent as in the e buttresses ' These retain the massiveness characteristic of cut stonework was employed. between Norman and Early English. Southwark. The Choir. Ely (choir transepts and Gallilee Porch. H.

making the inside jamb very deep. especially the early form known as "plate" tracery (No. three. then . Columns. the glass being usually kept near the exterior of the wall. and pointed arches came into general use for constructive reasons.e. D. 127 c) and Salisbury (No.A. gradually throughout the whole building. 143 (Nos. York (page 316). 122. i. the triforium Lichfield (No. stages were frequently gabled. B.. 146). Capitals were frequently moulded. as at the choir of Ely.) E. four or five openings. Flying or arched buttresses (No. These are steeper than in the last period. B). E. as in the " Five Sisters" in the north transept. generally. Cusps or projecting points of Gothic tracery were introduced in the latter part of the Early English style. 127 A. as at Westminster (No. the heads of windows having cusps forming The spaces between the cusps are part of the tracery itself.ENGLISH GOTHIC (EARLY ENGLISH STYLE). and the different 141 B). c. approaching the shape of an equilateral triangle. The framing was exposed where there was no vaulted ceiling. 1 1 1 and 112. being let into the soffit of the arches in separate small pieces and entirely independent of the mouldings. placed on the bell or lower portion of the capital. and ornamented with A). G) are of lancet form. Narrow lancet windows are grouped in two. 141 E) were first utilized in this period. folium a leaf) being trefoil. Roofs. surrounded by smaller detached columns (No. are more slender than in Norman work. 148). at first in connection with vaulting. carved foliage (No. or semicircular ribs were employed. In the interiors the nave arcade usually occupies the lower half of the height. sixty degrees. known as foils (Lat. see page 286. This form of detached cusping is found generally in the circular lights. 124 c). The normal Windows = abacus F. 337 were formed into stages by weathered set-offs (Nos. The doorways are often richly treated. and Nos. or carved with conventional foliage (No. often of polished Purbeck marble. (Vaulting. 142 A. is circular on plan. B. 146). 123) and Westminster Abbey. Proportions. quatrefoil or cinquefoil when having three. 122 G). The braces were used to form a waggon shape. c. or octagonal shaft. and 142 A. when the close setting of the flat rafters produces the effect of barrel vaulting. the naves of but sometimes. so as to produce fine bold shadows (No. and Their arrises were often chamfered. Openings. and tracery was developed. or even five lights. and Lincoln was diminished in order to provide a larger display of glass. 136 D. but were not of common occurrence till a later period. Piers consist of a central circular. the upper half being divided equally between triforium and clerestory. so-called because the openings were cut through a flat plate of stone. Z . as at Salisbury (No. held in place by bands at intervals. F.




and an unrivalled deep and violet-like blue was a favourite tint.. caskets. forming a valuable record of contemporary life. following the outline of the rectangular The chiselled dog-tooth succeeded the axed recesses (No. 3 2 7. knight and monk were represented. 144. Examples of an Early English font. The chisel was generally used. as " stiff leaf foliage. nailhead decoration of the G. A general tone of color pervades the windows. it has been suggested that the carved diapers of this and the next period are copies in stone of the hangThere is ings or painted decorations of the previous period. Edward III. deeply undercut.I 377- . the pieces being small and leaded up in patterns so as almost to suggest the cubic formation of mosaic.. Sculptured figures of large size were used. finial.ENGLISH GOTHIC (EARLY ENGLISH STYLE). Stained glass rapidly increased in importance. also known as the Geometrical and Curvilinear. sculptured ground vaulting bosses. 127). 143 and 147). scribe." Flat surfaces are often richly diapered (see Glossary. page 691). being a grand composition where sculpture is fully combined with architecture. shepherd. In regard to color work. piscina. 146). 147). exquisite decorative art was produced in such works as the Psalters. In the Early English and following periods. The Mediaeval Room at the British Museum contains examples of armour metalwork. THE DECORATED STYLE. Edwardian. as in the fine thirteenth century glass at Canterbury Cathedral. for believing that such carved diapers were colored. rings and utensils. Ornament. king. and placed in niches with canopies over them. which was generally placed is the doghollow mouldings. in which the huntsman. and carved bracket on No. and crisp and fine in treatment (No. 341 F. taking the place of the axe in the Early Norman period. Missals. ivory and woodcarving. as in Westminster Abbey (No. and often of pear-shaped section. Norman period. Later Plantagenet. and a gable cross. saint. labourer. Books of Hours and Chronicles. and was used in great profusion (Nos. Mouldings. fisher- man. as was the case with Greek and Roman ornament. 149. The west front of Wells (1206-1242) has 300 statues. illustrative of the ornamental art of the periods. or Fourteenth Century Style. Edward II. These are bold. sedilia. Middle Pointed. typical examples consisting of convex curling masses. comprises the reigns of I 1307-1327. The most characteristic ornament in tooth. known Carved foliage is conventional. and tabernacle are shown on No.


Cathedral (the choir. more noticeable . set diagonally.ENGLISH GOTHIC (THE DECORATED STYLE). Openings. Stone Church. characteristic of the thirteenth century. : plans were set out with a wider spacing in parish churches than in cathedrals already started in earlier periods. the importance of the buttresses are characteristic of the style. Buttresses occur with offsets in stages. The progress of vaulting regulated the planning of the piers. and Lichfield (No. 116 F). and the Dutch Church. and the extension of tracery to the walls in the shape of panelling was now introduced. and in later periods are ornamented with niches (No. Clerestories were enlarged at the expense of the triforium. and Southwell (the polygonal chapter houses). IIOA. Kent. 141 c) and crocketed canopies. although there is an increasing richness of ornamentation. and was in itself strongly influenced by the increased size of the openings required to exhibit stained glass. Salisbury. the English generally keeping to the battlemented form (No. west front and chapter house). Several of the great central towers were now carried up. Austin Friars. Wells. The new in the bays. Spires. Holborn. : . Ely Place. are lofty. Plans. 116 Band 125). the small number of parts. The proportions of height to width are less c. S. A. as in the exterior of Lincoln (No. (the portion). In London the principal examples are Westminster Abbey (three bays of the eastern cloister walk and the polygonal chapter house) the Chapel of S. but this was especially a French feature. gradually gave way to parapets with angle pinnacles (No. Parapets were often pierced with flowing tracery (No. D. as Salisbury (Nos. and B. 125). 147 N). Lincoln (Nos. including angel choir. Etheldreda. from. is simple. 343 The general appearance. usually octagonal. and ribs occur on the angles of the tapering spires. Vaulting ribs were more numerous and complex than in the previous style. and magnificent. 147 M). E). and the "broach" form. from the size of the windows filled in with geometrical and flowing tracery. 147 K). Exeter and Lichfield Cathedrals (naves). and the Eleanor Crosses. Albans (choir). the vault becoming a main feature in the effect of the interiors. Walls. In the Provinces the principal examples are Lincoln Cathedral (nave and east end. Angle buttresses. Spire-lights are ornamented with crockets (No. as at Westminster and Penshurst (No. In domestic architecture the " Hall" was highly developed. 121 and 140 D). The increased size of the traceried windows. lofty than in the Early English period. 140 c. 132). eastern York Ely Cathedral 1260-1280). were introduced in this period.




style. are similar to those in the Early but not so deeply undercut (No. Lincoln. as at Cley Church. Hollow mouldings are ornamented with the ball-flower (No. " " part of the period it was flowing in character as in the choirs of Ely (No. and the nave of York. ivy. D. In itself it lost the mosaic character . and wings put crosswise on their breasiS.ENGLISH GOTHIC (THE DECORATED STYLE). Columns. Base mouldings to walls are strongly marked. other mouldings being shown on Nos. forms. Dripstones are finished with carved heads or grotesques. 137 F) and Wells. 148 G). and sometimes have open framing. as seen in the exterior of Lincoln (No. Roofs. were a development from the Early English. of which Eltham Palace and S. Piers are sometimes diamond-shaped on plan. and G. Etheldreda. Carved . F. "The carved angels. 146).foliage in this period is generally and consists of seaweed. (Vaulting. ever eager eyed Stared. and are ornamented with crockets capitals. 143) are ornamented with engaged shafts. 125). Arches were formed by being struck from the points of equilateral triangles. Cornices and dripstones often have their deep hollows filled with foliage and carving. 299 v) was also used. Ornament. 143). Small shafts. 112. in this period were cut out of the stone forming the tracery. 147 and 148). 146)." KEATS. or even of lower proportion (No. The ogee arch into Windows two or more (No. Norfolk (No. The cusps. 347 (Nos.) E. With hair blown back. Holborn. Doorways (No. The enlargement of clerestory windows proceeded pan passu with the diminution in height of the triforium (No. The English (No. These are of moderate pitch. oak. 137 and 142) are large. or vine (No. 147 c). and the well-known tablet flower (Nos. 299 i). when moulded. which is specially characteristic of the style. and Lichfield. which in the Early English style were often planted on. W'hen carved. surrounding and attached to a central column. 147 K). with engaged shafts (No. Ely Place. as in the cloisters of Salisbury. Mouldings. Stained glass led to a great extension of window openings. the foliage is more naturalistic. are good examples. and vine leaves. ivy. the development of tracery. naturalistic. the choir clerestories of In the latter Ely. and resembles the leaves of the oak. maple. 137 F). 143 and 146. where upon their heads the cornice rests. see page 287 and No. and divided by mullions Tracery at first consisted of geometric lights. and have jambs of less depth than in the Early English style.


1413-1422.. Holborn. 144. Henry IV. 1461-1483. in THE PERPENDICULAR STYLE. The windows. London.. choir stalls. also I known as the Rectilinear. 1547-1553. and a gable cross. 15531558.. "began to acquire character and importance. Sepulchre's Church. Edward V. 1483-1485.. : Margaret. The triforium practically disappeared owing to height of nave arcade and flatness of aisle roofs. 1485-1509. by an inner structure forming a gallery across the window. In London the principal examples are Henry VII. Henry V. as at York. in tone. were strengthened by transoms in tiers (Nos. more especially in wood. as screens.I 399 VI.. 1509-1547. Edward VI.. owing to their immense size. III." Fittings.. Richard The general appearance varies much in earlier and later work. 127. and lighter The subjects portrayed became of more importance. a brass eagle lectern on No. pulpits. .. Porch (with vaulting) S. Shrines and tombs in masonry are elaborate and beautiful adjuncts to the interiors of the cathedrals and large churches. 1399-1413. Westminster. Lancastrian or Fifteenth Century Style. tabernacle and sedilia. pews. 147 K). 149. The architecture of the last four reigns is frequently known as " Tudor" architecture (page 356). and Crosby Hall. Henry VII. . by primary and secondary mullions. piscina. 1422-1461. Mary. Edward IV. the clerestory and aisle windows being of great size. . in some great east end windows. Westminster Hall. 1370 and 142).S. Late Pointed. the southern and western portion of the cloisters of Westminster Abbey. 128 and 129) (a most perfect example). Examples of a decorated font.ENGLISH GOTHIC (THE PERPENDICULAR STYLE). 349 and became more translucent. stained and traced. 's Chapel (Nos. the pieces being larger. are shown on No. and there was a loss in the general decorative effect of the interior. Henry VIII. the main lines in a perpendicular direction predominating. "The Would seem deep-set windows. and the crockets and finials to pinnacles and canopies increased and importance and gave additional richness to buildings of this period (Nos. but the glass in itself gained in value and expression. 377. slow-flaming crimson fires. Henry 1483. finial and boss on No.. comprises the reigns of Richard II. the latter being overladen with panelling.. 145. and. 143 D. the Savoy Chapel in the Strand.


Owing this period. Parapets are embattled or panelled (No. Sherborne Minster. and cloisters). c. as at early period inclose an equithey were afterwards obtusely pointed. and the Beauchamp Chapel at Warwick towers at Gloucester and Canterbury. for panels in conjunction with stone tracery. These were profusely ornamented with panelling 137 G). and A. (Nos. as the Bell Tower. which have often great depth. which are often richly ornamented with rich. 's Chapel. Windsor (Nos. resembling tracery of windows. The use of flint as a wall facing. and Other examples are (choir). York . sometimes inclosed in a square hood-moulding above the head (No. 143). Buttresses project boldly. which may be taken as the most elaborate specimen of the style.'s Chapel (No. Henry VII. Openings. 70 M). Oxford and Cambridge (page numerous mansions throughout the country. as at King's College. it rises behind a parapet. as at S. 's Chapel (No. Oxford. or struck from four centres (Nos.ENGLISH GOTHIC (THE PERPENDICULAR STYLE). Plans. Cambridge. Northants (No. as at Henry VII. ecclesiastical to the great building era that had preceded work consisted mostly of restorations or In church planning there was a decrease in the size additions. 133 and 299). 299) . (The plans of castles and houses have been referred to on pages 318 and 322). lateral triangle (No." WORDSWORTH. Flying buttresses are common and 128). Evesham (1533). Winchester (nave remodelled) (Nos. Kettering. and Beverley . many of the colleges of 324). and are crowned with finials (Nos. : 351 The west fronts In the Provinces the principal examples are S. as at Henry VII. being sometimes deep enough in projection to allow of a chapel being placed between. 140 F). and King's College Chapel. E. Towers are numerous and important. as at crockets. 70 L and 133). and often very Merton College. was B. 137 G). and were generally erected without a spire. When a spire occurs. 124. Arches . in the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk. 147). common. " This immense and glorious work of fine intelligence. They are also panelled with tracery. Gloucester. Peter. of the piers. in the are often pierced. 128. Cambridge (No. 124 D. choir. 128). of Winchester. Walls. George's Chapel. and a tendency to throw all pressures upon the buttresses. Gloucester (transept. in the Cathedrals of Canterbury (nave). and 128).


146). 113). The earliest are probably those at Winchester Cathedral (No. and often large and coarse. D. covers an area of nearly half an acre. and with two fillets. and S. E. Cambridge. as at S. these mouldings being carried round the arch. erected in 1399. 146).6 }. shallow and square in outline (No. . the east window at Gloucester (38 feet wide by 72 feet high). Open timber roofs of low pitch and of the hammerbeam construction abound they were often richly ornamented with carved figures of angels. Columns. Mouldings. they are of enormous size. 353 the spandrels thus formed being filled with tracery or carving N). Lofty clerestories are general. George's Chapel. George's Chapel. being one of the largest roofs unsupported by pillars in The and later roofs in the style became nearly flat (Nos. executed under William of Wykeham. Oxford (No. Carved capitals have foliage of conventional character. and with pierced tracery (No. 143 j).ENGLISH GOTHIC (THE PERPENDICULAR STYLE). The roof of Westminster Hall (No. The characteristic pier consists of four circular shafts connected by hollows. as shown in the doorway of Merton College. Bases to piers are often polygonal on plan and a typical 42 moulding is the "bracket" mould (No. Roofs. Capitals are sometimes polygonal on plan. King's College Chapel. 142 o). effect. 112) is characteristic of the later periods (page 288). or by niches for statuary. George's Chapel. 148 L). 133). . 129).'s Chapel (No. 70 j 133). (No. converting the west end into a wall of glass. 124). as at Henry VII. Fan vaulting (No.A. and having mullions continued vertically their whole height (Nos. existing in Norfolk. as well as the vaults of the central towers of Canterbury and Gloucester Cathedrals. Doorways were generally finished with a square label over the arch. F. stopping against the main In many cases arch. caused by the vaulting shaft being taken up from the ground. These were arranged on diagonal planes (No. consist mainly of mullions producing a perpendicular hence the name of the period. Windsor. and the spandrel filled with ornament. the mouldings being weaker and less effective (No. 's Chapel. are well-known examples. Windows many examples the world. as at S. F. 124 F and 137 G) is occupied by panels. and strengthened by horizontal transoms. on the front of the pier and not between the arches. Piers (No. and few have the abacus and bell perfectly defined. Windsor. i^. and the space of the triforium (Nos. Windsor (No. 148 M. being wide and shallow. 146) are generally oblong on plan. A A . Henry VII. 137 G and 142). and King's College Chapel (No. 113 H). and placed diagonally with their greater dimension north and south.

and other fittings. however. as in the churches of Norfolk. 147). 144. 's ornaments in square panels. supporting tracery^ treated with panelling. Ornament. CONCLUSION. the tracery of windows being repeated on the walls as blank panelling (Nos. Cambridge. with crockets (No. as at usually inclosing single figures. the portcullis. p). The misereres under the choir-stalls of the period were carved with delicate foliage. King's College. 147 are the Tudor rose. finial. parclose-screen and chantry on No. as in the early work. Suffolk and elsewhere. 128). a rood-loft. and perspective being introduced. 128. 147 G). sanctus bell. thus breaking away from the conditions imposed by the material. are shown in Nos. 145. gave contrast to the painted canopies of architectural character In very late examples. screens. the general design becoming more pictorial. Examples of a Perpendicular font. and it became the fashion to read the Latin authors. and the of the ments elaborately also with the which were used unsparingly (see Henry VII. boss. This return to color. 133. and battlements being carved along the cornices. The special ornacharacter. and diminutive battlements along the transoms enriched G. a pew-end. cresting (No. The various phases of English architecture from the time of the Romans to the reign of Henry VII. 149.354 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Canopies are often of ogee character. the upper part and the whole was being divided by mullions. round the arch without of cornice mouldings (No. especially as . Wooden chancel screens are very numerous. by the application of features on a small scale. and Pier mouldings are often continued up the intervention of capitals. and the bench ends Tudor flower with poppy-heads (No. piscina and sedilia are shown on No. used along with white glass. In the fifteenth century the Renaissance of literature in Italy was taking place. 128). gorgeousness of coloring exists with great confusion of form and subject. grotesques. pendant. and pinnacles fleur-de-lis. have been dealt with. niches. Crestings occur along the top of windows. on roofs. usually conventional and 148. and The 137 G). Architecture. 149 o. in Ornaments and sculptured foliage. and sculpture followed in the tram of literature. The tendency was to obtain ornamental motifs in decoration. from the base. painting. prevented any such completeness of one tone Color decoration was freely employed effect. statues. pulpits. all of period Chapel) (No. and flowers. pulpits. and a gable cross. golden tinge produced by silver stain. and poppy-heads on No. and the generation that wrote and spoke the Latin tongue desired to build in the style of ancient .

A A 2 .

" Analysis of Gothic Architecture. 1814-1835.." 5 vols. " 3ra*idon. 1882. until the Early Renaissance architecture. (H." 2 vols. 8vo. and Mary. Ato. 1848-1850. in these countries." 8vo. " Addy (S." 4 to. but probably under the direction of a designer familiar with the new features of the Renaissance." 1857.. in which the influence of the Renaissance movement is noticeable. " alysis Ancient Domestic Architecture.-" The Arts in Early England. Brown (Prof. A. and Sir Christopher Wren. 3 vols. Vol. G.356 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. f 1822. " Architectural Antiquities. grafted on to the native the reigns of Henry VII. in which may REFERENCE BOOKS. " Britton (JOCathedral Antiquities. 1860. 1899. described under English Renaissance (page 551). effected by Renaissance details being Tudor architecture Gothic style.).. and the special forms will be considered under the head of Renaissance architecture. 1807-1826.). in 6. Edward VI." )> : :S(J Collmgs. Brandon (R.. English Mediaeval Foliage and Colour Decoration. s' Elev ations. "The Bloxam (M. there the Gothic style had never. The Revived style naturally originated in Italy.. less debased but picturesque exemplified in the more or of each country. 2 deals with Ecclesiastical Architecture 1903from the Conversion of the Saxons to the Norman Bowman '^ 7 "R Co ings. The Tudor style was followed by the Elizabethan and Jacobean styles. Open Timber Roofs of the Middle Ages. finally shaking itself clear of incongruities. and because numerous Roman ruins.). S." (A ' )- Churches of Nene . 4*0. folio. IV 1*86 lSter 2 VOls." 2 vols. and in some examples the designs for the details and mouldings would It is styles be traced the increased influence of the old Roman architecture. and Gothic structures. Principles of Gothic Ecclesiastical Architecture. 1858. England. O." 2 vols.. Conquest. Rome. Evolution of the English House." Churches of the Middle Ages. developed into the Anglo-Classic or Later Renaissance of Inigo Jones. 1846. 4 to. at any time. was slow." 1847. for it is the work of those trained in Gothic art. 4 to.-" Gothic Ornaments." 13 vols. Baldwin). 410. 5. 410. however.. seem to have been made by a foreign artist. taken a because of the precedent afforded by the very firm hold. and J.. (page 349) is the style prevalent during Henry VIII." 4to. H. The process.. follO. -" Parish Churches. were erected late into the sixteenth century. 2 vols.) and Crowther (T. From Italy it spread to France and it took..). and Details of the Interior of - nlm 2 vols. etailsofGothicArchitecture -" 2v61s. more or less debased.

Westminster." Large folio. Sharpe. 8vo.)." Occupation. Westminster. " Architectural Parallels. " L." 410. Sharpe." (Trans. G. Rickman (T. The " Villa of Claudius. E." Blake (M. Turner (T. " An Scott (G. 1891.. land. H. R. "Glossary of Terms used in Gothic Architecture. Sharpe (E.}. E. Ivanhoe." 3 vols. C.) 1842.. Editor. W. Neale (J.).). Alban.).)." Cathedrals of England and Wales." Cent." 8vo." 3 vols. ." Gothic Architecture.). Wickes (C.I.. 'Builder" Series. 1830." Parker. Walcott (M. Essay on the History of English Church Architec1 88 1. ture.)." 1838. " Mouldings of the Six Periods of British Architecture.)." 1877. account of its splendid series of plans to a large scale. measured drawings and sketches should be made of these." History and Antiquities of the Abbey Church of 1818. 1881. In London.)." 8vo.}. " Lectures on Mediaeval Architecture.). Paley (E. " Under the Black Raven. and A." 1900." Scott (Sir G. Gilbert).)." 2 vols. 8vo.. 357 St. Peter.A. the Victoria and Albert Museum.).) 1898. Hertfordshire.).1900. H. Perpendicular (i$th Cent." 8vo. "The Siege of Norwich Castle. Pugin (A.). 1849.}. Introduction to the Study of Gothic Architecture. 4to." 8vo. 1870.). Anglo-Saxon. Historical Novels : Roman Norman Hilarius. Scott (Sir W. 4to. Neale (J. "A History of Gothic Art in England. which will impress the different features on the mind more thoroughly than study solely A from books. G. an important collection of architectural casts of each period can be seen at the Royal Architectural Museum. Cettt. \st half). H.. " Seven Periods of English Architecture. 8vo. besides the examples already mentioned after each period.). Prior (E. "A Treatise on the Rise and Progress of Window Tracery in England. Cutts (E.}. H.ENGLISH GOTHIC (THE PERPENDICULAR STYLE). Norman (nth Creswick (P. " The Last Ainsworth "Windsor Note. Tufton Street." (The This work is specially valuable on Folio.. careful study of the buildings themselves is necessary to appreciate thoroughly the progress of the style. M. " The Abbey Church of St." Lytton. 1859-1877." 2 vols. 1848." (\2tk Cent. " 3 vols. Pugin (A. "Specimens of Gothic Architecture. Perpendicular (\bth Cent. Castle. " Some Account of the Domestic Architecture in England during the Middle Ages. 1853-1859.B. " Willis (R. "Gothic Mouldings." (H." 2 vols. " Church and Conventual Arrangement." "The Gathering of Brother of the Barons. S. and the Crystal Palace.). Sharpe. Vaults of the Middle Ages. " Examples of Gothic Architecture. Parker (J.). Early English (i$th Decorated (itfh Green (E. " Spires and Towers of the Mediaeval Churches of Eng- Statham (H.) and Parker (J.).) Fairless (M.).. and many being within the reach of the student. folio.. Cent." 187 1-74." 1860. 1821. 1879.). P.}." " A Clerk of Oxford.


causing a picturesque and interesting in development on French (A." 1896. 8vo.). Giles). with which country there was a close political connection. when it took a more national turn.D. (D. 151 is given a series of plans and sketches of different types of buildings showing the national character of Scottish Architecture. while in Rosslyn Chapel Portuguese influence is it is very similar in detail to the Church of Belem most important Cathedrals are those -of Edinburgh (S. Scotland.'' 4 vols. and the planning of the buildings at different angles. Aberdeen and Elgin. Andrew. Pinches (F. with projecting turrets at angles. 120 D) (having no transepts but a famous crypt). MacGibbon Scotland. " The Abbey Church of Melrose. In Melrose Abbey is to be seen the influence of French and Spanish Art. and in which stone was almost universally employed. On No.). especially after Robert Bruce 1306-1329) finally secured the independence of Scotland." 1878-1894. manner. In vaulted roofs a continuous barrel vault with surface ribs." Folio. 'Edinburgh Architectural Association. 8vo. The Pele or bastle houses were of the tower class." 5 vols. Kirkwall. Melrose. is employed. 1887. and Ross Ross (T.. S. " Baronial Billings (R. "Glasgow Architectural Association. lines.). 1885. Architecture in Scotland followed on much the same lines as England. and almost bare.SCOTTISH ARCHITECTURE. which possess REFERENCE BOOKS. are characteristic. either singly or in groups. Sketch Book. and " Ecclesiastical Antiquities of MacGibbon (D). was used long after it had been discontinued in England. Dunblane.) and 3 vols. vast height of walls. especially from France. 1879. Holyrood and Dryburgh are the best known. and the Abbeys of Kelso. The " Castellated and Domestic of Architecture of Scotland. accessible by " turnpike" or winding stairs. and consisted of single rooms one over the other. 1848. W.. Dunfermline. treated in a simple.was occasionally specially rich in castles and mansions of the Gothic distinctive character. (T." 3 vols. ^he to the Perpendicular style of English Gothic.). The "corbie" or "crow-stepped" gable was used in preference to the straight-sided gable of England. for near Lisbon. Inspiration was largely drawn from abroad. Ecclesiastical Architecture .. In these the lancet window. until the middle of the fifteenth century. Sketch Book. In these a picturesque use of circular towers. 410. Glasgow (No. while in the later period the Flamboyant tracery of French Gothic was followed in preference apparent. Scotland period.

as in the early work in Greece at Mycenae (No. 2"n Irish Architecture. The Cathedrals of Dublin (No." 8vo. 152 G) or battlemented The entrance doorway was several feet covering (No. Prof. Kilconnel. were the most important." covered by a steep pitched roof. The best known are those at Cashel.. 15) and elsewhere. 1878 ( / TT 1 S Monographs Of) 1 '~ N tes on V on . cloisters. Stokes refers to a group of seven small churches found at Inchleraun. The naves were covered with barrel vaults. or were probably erected as symbols of power. bell towers. over which was a hollow chamber " called an overcroft.Early Christian Architecture in Ireland. originated by Mr. Co. and a tower. and for displaying lamps at night time. which was added in the fifteenth century. generally of stone.D. >tokes (M. from the ground. probably some time divided by a wooden screen. refuges. and the Rev. 120 A). usually having a nave and choir. 152). but the generally accepted view. The early Churches were extremely small. Kildare and Cashel. REFERENCE BOOKS. where the priest could officiate. have been a subject of much controversy. Windows appear to have been Glendalough. is that they were used as treasure houses. George Petrie. The Monas(principally Franciscan) are small." 187^-1877. but few monuments of importance were erected. probably the finest example in Ireland. S.IRISH Celtic Architecture. Cashel (A. but the earlier castles built by the teries and Friaries Chieftains are interesting. Owing to the disturbances in Elizabethan times there is no domestic architecture of note. 1127-1134) (No. Kerry. 152 j). and appear to have been used principally as oratories. They taper slightly towards the summit and are crowned with either a conical (No.'"' Ecclesiastical Architecture of Ireland. unglazed. Ardfert Cathedral. and to which a small square chancel was attached. similar to some in Asia Minor and elsewhere. The monastic cells at the Skellings are peculiar. as at Cormac's Chapel. Mediaeval Architecture. The Monasteries form another class of building. being of beehive form.). The Round Towers generally detached and placed near the Church. Kevin's Kitchen. but the absence of parish churches is remarkable. a transept and southern aisle. ARCHITECTURE." 8vo. 1845. with domed stone roofs in horizontal courses. The chief interest lies in the remains from the sixth century to the of the Celtic Architecture erected English Conquest in 1169. and other places. and Muckross. Within the English domain the influence of Continental art was felt during the Middle Ages.


airy. iii. grotesque. INFLUENCES. and in the mountainous districts of Auvergne the use of colored volcanic material gave a decorative character to the buildings of that ii. Romance district. Wolsey of the period. The Abbe Suger. race. to the north of which the were settled the Franks. was manifested also in the Crusades. self in stone.) found near Caen Geological. who may be styled the Cardinal Climate. which as pilgrimage centres acquired both wealth and importance. 248. The introduction of various special cults gave fame to certain chapels and shrines. with to please. The clergy as a corporate body reached the summit of their power and influence. The zeal with which the urban populations set about building cathedrals has been compared by Viollet-le-Duc to the commercial movement which has covered Europe with railways. The excellent building stone aided in the development of the northern Gothic style. which resulted in the erection of so many grand cathedrals. such being largely due to their championship of justice and their adhesion to the royal cause. much influence on church buildremained the controlling spirit. into divided architecturally. by the River Loire. leading the fourth (1248-1254). for French Romanesque. Rome . Geographical. though local liberties were not all swallowed up in centralization. (i 137-1 180). Religion. (See page 248. i.) (See page 246 " Of hazardous caprices sure Heavy as nightmare. light as fern. the minister of Louis V II. ever new surprise Graceful. while to the south were settled i.) (See page 246 in French Romanesque.FRENCH GOTHIC. France may be North and South. which are expressed in the richness of their architectural treatment. (See pages 246." Imagination's very LOWELL. Louis IX.) iv. Religious zeal. exercised ing.

when setting out on his last crusade. The development and consolidation of the French kingdom thus corresponds with the great cathedral. 160. to whom. which naturally gave a classical tone to any new architectural development in the southern districts where they were principally found. widely differing from each other. the vertical and aspiring tendency being accentuated by great internal height. 363 The crusade against the Albigenses (see below) was a movement against Christians who had been declared by the Pope to be heretics. Louis on account of his goodness. . with the exception of Aquitaine. vi. Germans. and all John's possessions in Northern Gaul. Social and Political. varies considerably in different parts of the country. were at constant war. viz Atlantic.. the dominions of the Counts of Toulouse were conquered by S. Previous to the commencement of this period (A. flying buttresses. : 2.FRENCH GOTHIC. and to the Roman remains. the Gothic architecture of France. King of England. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. Owing to the power of France at this time. 987). called S. high-pitched roofs. proceeded to conquer Normandy. to the separation of the various parts by different languages and customs. 158." Philip Augustus (1180-1223) after declaring John. Louis in 1229. but died at Tunis in 1270. as Louis VIII. idea or prevailing principle of Gothic architecture The main in France was the same as in other parts of Europe (page 268). and governed by different rulers.D. and the long lines of the tall traceried windows (Nos. the English barons offered the crown of England to Philip's eldest son Louis. v. with the title " King of the French. environment. largely increased the power of the crown. 161 and 162). the French crown afterwards passed. France thus the Mediterranean. and the next stage was to carry on a religious war against all who were considered to be enemies of the Papacy. 154. In continuation of the Romanesque style. Louis IX.building epoch of the thirteenth century. such being due to political. The real beginning of the modern kingdom of France may be said to commence with Hugh Capet. obtaining a sea-board on three seas. France was inhabited by races of people who. Historical.. and the English Channel. and Flemings at the Battle of Bovines in 1214. As a consequence of the crusade preached against the Albigenses by Pope Innocent. numerous spires (with crockets). to have forfeited all the fiefs he held of the French crown. Philip next defeated the combined forces of English. pinnacles. who was chosen king in 987.
























Of HRiKP:!?

94^789 p








divided by M. de





or thirteenth century. (i ) Primary (Gothique) from the characteristic wheel (2.) Secondary (Rayonnant, or fourteenth century. tracery of the rose windows) or fifteenth century. (3.) Tertiary (Flamboyant) is however, on account of space, to consider the


subject as one continuous development

as, in fact,








where necessary with English Gothic.


All the great cathedrals, numbering about 150, were erected in first half of the thirteenth century, principally by funds

provided by the laity, and not as parts of monastic establishments, and in consequence vary considerably in plan and arrangement from English cathedrals. The French cathedrals, in situation and surroundings, are also in marked contrast (page 299) with English examples (Nos. 121 and 162), and are referred to by Browning, who talks of that
" Grim town, Whose cramp'd, ill-featured streets huddled about The minster for protection, never out Of its black belfry's shade and its bells' roar."
B, 154 D, 156, 157 one of the oldest of French Gothic cathedrals. The plan is typical in having a wide central nave with double aisles, transepts of small projection (being practically in a line with the side aisles), and the chevet arrangement with its double aisles and exterior chapels. The west front (No. 156) is the grandest composition in France, the western gable to the nave being hidden by a pierced screen, connecting the two western towers, The three deeply recessed western portals, the range of statues in niches, and the circular wheel window, are all characteristic

Notre Dame, Paris, 1163-1214 (Nos. 153





between the buttresses.
ble as possessing

fa9ades are spoilt by chapels having been placed

Bourges Cathedral (commenced

It has five aisles, in three different heights, the being 117 feet, resembling Milan Cathedral (No. 176), though in a different gradation. The vast nave of extreme icight and with length unbroken by projecting transepts, presents an imposing appearance. The view westwards



A.D. 1190) is chiefly remarkno transepts, for its shortness in comparison width, and its general resemblance in plan to Notre











5 8.

Interior, looking East,

B B 2






the east end is striking, owing to the picturesque confusion of innumerable flying buttresses, pinnacles, and other features. Chartres Cathedral (i 194-1260) (Nos. 1 10 E and 155 K) has a plan peculiar in having strongly marked transepts, each crowned with two towers, which with the two western and two contemThe cathedral is plated eastern towers would have made eight. remarkable for the fine statuary to the north and south porches (No. 165 A), the rose window to the northern transept, and the flying buttresses of three arches one above the other, the two lower being connected by radiating balusters resembling the spokes
of a wheel.

Rheims Cathedral (1212-1241) (Nos. 155 and 161) has a fine plan, the west front having three deeply recessed portals richly ornamented with sculpture, and enclosed with richly ornamented The upper portion has a row of statues in tabernacles gables. carried between the two towers instead of the open tracery arrangement seen in Notre Dame. The flying buttresses (No. 141 H) show the arrangement adopted over a double aisle, in which the
thrust of the nave vault

transmitted by arches to piers weighted

by pinnacles and statuary.

Cathedral (1220-1288) (Nos. 154, 159 and 1 60) is generally referred to as having the typical French Cathedral plan, but the side chapels to the nave placed between the buttresses are a later
addition. The interior is 140 feet high to the stone vaulting, and the roof of the nave is over 200 feet in height. The western


facade somewhat resembles Notre
central fleche of timber

Dame and Rheims.
shown on No.



and lead


Bayeux Cathedral (twelfth century) is remarkable for its twenty-two chapels and immense crypt under the sanctuary, dating from the eighth to the eleventh century.
Coutances Cathedral (No.


was erected



famous for the excellent design of the two western towers and spires, and the octagonal lantern over the crossing of nave and transepts.

Noyon Cathedral

(1157-1228) with a peculiar plan resem-

bling a combination of the

German triapsal Troyes Cathedral (12 ^-fifteenth

example with eastern

and the French century), a fine fivechevet and rich western facade

Soissons Cathedral (1160-1212); La'on Cathedral (11501200), exceptional in having of six towers; and Rouen

an English type of plan and group

western towers of a later

Cathedral (1202-1220), with rich period and iron central spire, are other

well-known early examples. The Sainte Chapelle, Paris (1244-1247), built by S. Louis, in which the space between the buttresses is occupied by windows 15 feet wide and 50 feet high, is often quoted as a typical Gothic structure. The plan (No. 155 H; was in size similar to that of











It has a richly vaulted Westminster Palace. rebuilding French features as the apsidal crypt, and such characteristic termination and the high stone-vaulted roof. in the Among later examples in the north of France, mostly style, are Flamboyant S. Ouen, Rouen (1318-1515), the choir (1318-1339) being Rouen (1432contemporary with that of Cologne, S. Maclou, the richest Flamboyant example in France, 1500), probably S. Jacques, Dieppe (1350-1440), and S. Wulfrand, Abbe:

S Stephen, Westminster (No. 119

since destroyed for


many buildings were erected during the Middle Ages, differing from these northern cathedrals in plan and design owing to the proximity of Roman buildings. Albi Cathedral (1282-1512), a fortress church, consists of a large impressive vaulted hall with an apsidal end, and having a
series of flanking chapels separated by internal buttresses. possesses an unrivalled fifteenth century rood screen.

ville (1488-1534). In the south of France

Beauvais Cathedral was originally built 1225-1272, but was partly reconstructed 1337-1347, the transepts being added in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. This building was never comIt has the pleted beyond the choir and chevet and the transepts. highest nave vault in France, being 160 feet, and has a nave width of 47 feet from centre to centre of piers.

The Church of the Cordeliers, Toulouse
century), which



example of


partially destroyed in 1871, was another type, and has some similarity in plan with

that of King's College Chapel,

Cambridge. Sernin, Toulouse, commenced in 1096 (referred to on page 248), is a five-aisled example, the western portion and manystoried octagonal tower belonging to this period.

especially rich in domestic architecture, and throughout the country are to be found castles, town halls, hospitals, nouses, barns, farmhouses, granaries, and other buildings, in which the principles of the Gothic style can be studied. The House of Jacques Cceur, Bourges (1443), is a fine example of the house of a great merchant prince of the period. It is partly built on the town ramparts and has a central courtyard (ISO. 163), possessing a fine staircase tower.



Palais de Justice, Rouen (1499-1508) (No. 164), is an exceedingly rich specimen of French municipal architecture. The
restored by mSSS it Plerrefonand the Chateau Viollet-le-Duc, S. Michel (Normandy;, de Blois


,1498-1515), are examples of military architecture








The south of France has many examples of stone houses, and throughout the country half-timbered houses with plaster filling are still to be seen, as at Rouen, although fire and decay have naturally reduced their number. Students are often inclined to think that Gothic architecture was confined to ecclesiastical work, but it should be remembered that the style was employed in every building of the period.


(No. 159). Short, wide, and high. Length about four
times the width.
Cloisters rare, except in the south,






narrow, and low. six times the width.

Length about

where richly designed examples are met with. Transepts have slight projection, as may be seen in the sheet of comparative plans (No. 155). Side chapels numerous, due to
the popular character of the Cathedral for the worship of saints and * saying of masses. The apsidal east end developed into the chevet by addition of processional aisle and chapels, but


monastic foundation, and characteristic of English Cathedrals. Transepts have bold projection, and a second eastern transept is

and Lincoln. Side chapels seldom met with, due to the fact that the principal cathedrals were churches belonging to monastic foundations. The square east end characfound, as at Salisbury



Nine Altars




Laon, Dol, and

Poitiers are excep-

an east end transept



sometimes double, Notre Dame, Paris (No. Amiens, Bourges, Rheims and
western towers (Nos. 154,

aisles are


are Chichester


and Manchester (No. 119

nearly always (No. 119 G)




probable reason being that the great height of nave prevented a central tower being effective. A woodeny&V//^ often constructed over the crossing, as at Amiens
(422 feet high) (No. 165 B). Central spires are common

the only exceptions (page 305). The central tower the most successful and predominant feature, as at Gloucester (No. 1 1 5 H), Hereford (No. 115 Rochester





n6A), and Norwich (with spire) (No. 1160); or combined with one
western tower,as at Ely ( No. 1140). A single western tower is characteristic of parish churches.

Salisbury (with spire). (No.

attempted in by placing four at the angles formed by the junction of ic nave and transepts, and two at

Normandy. Towers sometimes


the west end, with
only, as at Laon.

central flf-che

Towers frequently arranged as a group of three, viz., two western and one central, as at Lincoln (No. 1 1 6 B), Canterbury (No. I i6c), Durham (No. ii4B) and York (No.
115 A).




jencral largeness ot parts.

houses never polygonal.

and Chap-





general smallness of parts. Chapter houses are often polygonal.


H O O U ^ w

147 M). Open tracery parapets are typical (Nos. Flying buttresses are not so prominent a feature because the they are considerably less ornate than the English examples. B. (No. 164 and 165 c. and there are seldom double -aisles or chevet. specially characteristic of lines. emFlying buttresses largely on account ployed. Early buttresses Later ones much pronounced. and deeply set in west fronts. them (No. variety of clerestories and richness of vaulting. The weatherings to offsets of buttresses are steeper the higher they occur. Walls. flat the Romanesque projections of sometimes semiperiod. 121). \\ith intricate tracery. 156. 133). complex piers. and single-framed timbers were used. 1150). Early buttresses were a development from the slight Walls. c. D. - Doorways Openings. being necessary of height and width of aisles and naves. Westminster Abbey. Interiors owe their effect largely to their great height. Windows develop on " " but plate the same English work. c. 154 and 164). treated ornament- Carpentry was more advanced. tracery was seldom used. Transitional buttresses may be seen at Salisbury with curious weathering. and Salisbury (Nos. B. larger and finer than in England. 113. 153). Later buttresses of deep projection are are projections. 156). - Doorways elaborate and rich. Windows have much "plate" the final tracery. often placed laterally. England. Durham. is Openings. They are constructed with double timbers of special type to surmount high vaults. The characteristic west front Wells Cathedral (No. They were used with special effect at the east end. or were in the apses of circular. Roofs. These are always steep and ornamented with metal ridges and finials (Nos. Battlemented parapets are typical (No. as at Notre Dame. Buttresses usually formed with offsets have chapels between 157). and provided with a projecting porch. D. and strongly marked with offsets and pinnacles. without offsets (No. Wooden roofs. The characteristic west front is Interiors owe much to the elaboration of triforium. otherwise clerestory is comparatively low. Roofs. are special features. the final development. D). 141). 115 H. Canterbury. Buttresses often nearly vertical. and elsewhere. Paris. These are of moderate to pitch. Wooden roofs of an ornamental . and were highly ornamented with niches and panelling. approaching flalness in later periods (Nos. 156 and 161) and transept 153 B). being " Perpendicu- Circular windows in west fronts (Nos. although found at Chichester. The weatherings to offsets of buttresses are flatter the higher they occur. as at Gloucester. especially churches. development * in the later period being flam" boyant tracery. There is an absence of cusps in late French tracery. ENGLISH GOTHIC. Notre Dame. Paris (No. (Nos. 161 and Coutances and 162). lar" tracery. Rheims. FRENCH GOTHIC. 116 C. Circular windows are not much used in ends (No. /22.i8o COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

probably due to the influence of carpentry. especially The square abacus (No. early carved capitals usually having "stiff leaf" foliage. Coverings of slates were often 381 ENGLISH GOTHIC. Columns. and A bold. There was a difficulty in bringing down the lines' of the vaulting with this type. is The clustered nave colums are characteristic. 146. shaft piers columns (No. not much developed as part of design of interiors. as when the shafts started just above the square abacus of the arcade columns (No. the Early English period (No. The joints was peculiar to England. The early adoption of attenuated shafts as a continuation of the vaulting ribs being taken as the basis of the pier formation avoided any such difficulty as was met with in France. as in Salisbury Cathedral (No. of moulded characteristic. 1 58).FRENCH GOTHIC. The vaults have level ridges and have longitudinal and transverse ridge ribs. as part of design of interiors. 109 and 112). of less variety. These vaults are usually domical and ridge ribs were rarely employed. sometimes of wood. J. F. The round abacus (No. F. character. These were and . 1480. Q) was characteristic. Mouldings. and their evolution in each period is shown The development was on No. 146). Coverings of lead were generally employed. Tower of London (No. and clumsy expedients were in use. very slight development taking place. of great variety. joints of the severies are parallel to the wall rib. The mouldings of the pier arches sometimes die into the pillars without capitals. being of large section. 165 G. and was preferred to circular columns. or placed 129) The diagonally (No.K) was much used. rich. H) derived from the classical feature was F. Moulded Normandy. and intermediate and lierne ribs seldom used (page 288) (Nos. " bell " foliage rarely met capitals without with. Vaults. employed. The^e are and not Mouldings. and in have bold projection. preferred. as in the S. 135). 1 1 1). 112 and of the severies are at right angles or parallel to the wall ribs (No. in D). besides an early application of stiff leaf foliage. 165 H). K. 148 G). and also the octagonal or polygonal (No. as at York and the Cloisters of Lincoln. In the south is found the square pier with attached three-quarter a special feature. Capitals of a classic type were only occasionally employed. 158). highly developed. and are due to Roman tradition. Paris (No. Fan tracery vaulting (Nos. ally. 2ss larger in size. 122). FRENCH GOTHIC. great height being a characteristic. Columns. 165 P. of the Capitals with foliage Corinthian type lasted well into the style. Vaults were specially characteristic of the style. L). gave a strong backbone the Pendants are frequently used " " flamboyant period. John's Chapel. Vaults were used more in the cathedrals than in parish churches. as in Notre Dame. in to the vaulting (No. except in often Moulded "bell" capitals were employed in all periods. E. which. and the crocket capital (No. Plain circular E. 165.

1 d'Archeologie. the west front of the of Chartres. Paris." 4 vols Pans. crockets and corbels was either of floral forms or of animals and birds. Much of the best stained glass has." Baudot (A de) Large folio. however. where they are inclosed in niches or tabernacles surrounding the arch in successive tiers. . former being the most complete. folio.andwas of great refinement (No. 1850-1872. as at Canterbury. " " The ornament dog-tooth (No. been destroyed. FRENCH GOTHIC. Features and details are coarser." 50 collotypes. REFERENCE BOOKS. according to the intent of the artists of the epoch. Color decoration in frescoes and as applied to sculpture seems to Stained glass was developed on similar lines as in France. and sculpture was much employed. the examples. and it would appear that hangings were imitated tions. Stained glass was much developed.. but the Cathedrals of Wells and Lichfield. Decorative G. Paris. Decorative figure sculpture of the highest type was attained.). and often were kept some distance from window openings. less attention ENGLISH GOTHIC.. much attention being given owing to the smallness of scale. earlier of large whereas the later examples consist figures surrounded with representations of the niches and crocketed canopies as executed by the sculptors. being in small pieces heavily leaded.902 " (E." 8vo.). 156).COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. on being given to these account of the largeness of scale. la Commission des Monuments Historiques. Features and details are of great refinement. Amiens. in The naturalesque in the Decorated and again conventional in the Perpendicular. in a prevailing tone of blue tending to violet." 2 vols." 3 vols. especially in the South of France. The carving of such features as gargoyles. are rich in this respect. being conventional in the Early English. Corroyer . 8vo. " 1893 M anueld'Arche-ologieFran 9 aise. " Architectural Drawings." liurges (W. and in the north and south porticos so extensively as in France. -" La Sculpture Francaise. Ornament. Paris. "Archives de folio. give an idea of the general effect of an interior. in style. Rheims (No. 147 A) is common. 165). Gothic Architecture. 1899 ou Rudiment -"Abecedaire. in painted wall decora- The painted roofs the Perpendicular notable. and Chartres possesses examples which. and pier arches applied to capitals as well as to door and window openings. Folio 1870 Cathedrales de la France. 1884. Color decoration to wall surfaces have been fully developed. and screens of period are 5. and is particularly seen in the great doorways of the figure sculpture was not carried out west fronts of Notre Dame (No. Ornament. 161). so rich as in England. and Westminster Abbey. G. finials. early examples of the carving varies considerably each of the periods.


Viollet-le-Duc (E. H. Pugin (A." 4to. Paris. " L'Architecture Normande aiix Xl e et Ruprich-Robert (V. 1889." " Blisset (X." " (C. 1828.-" Philip Augustus. P." Folio." vols." 8vo. " Specimens of Early French Architecture. B. 8vo.) et Viollet-le-Duc (E. Paris." Rational Buildin-" \ Historical Novels. Religieux du XII Siecle en France." 2 vols."Architecture Civile et Domestique au Moyen Age. Paris. C. " "Construction" has been issued under the A title of By G. 1888. Moore New Development and Character of Gothic Architecture. folio. " Dictionnaire Raisonne de 1'Architecture 10 vols. " Male Edinburgh. 1902. 1895.. Franchise. K. 410. 186-?. Norman). Newcastle.. E. Monographic de la Cathedrale de Chartres. 1859. Lang (A. 1869-1872. 1858. 410 Paris. "Architecture Monastique." i vol. J. Verdier (A. et de la Renaissance. Architectural Antiquities of Normandy. The most famous Loba." 410. Lenoir. A. e " L'Art (K. E.. New York." James (G.-" A Monk of Fife." 1858.). Shaw Folio. 1867-1881. XI c I Siecles. 1852-6. Paris.). 1864. Paris. and 410 text. COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Lassus (J. " 1899..). Gonse (L." Folio.).).)" " L'Architecture du V. M. B. 8vo. "Specimens of Medieval Architecture.). 8vo. York. au XVI. Paris.). P.).)." 2 vols.). Huss. Siecle. " Lassus (J.). and 4 Large Folio. Monographic de Notre Dame de Paris. R." 1862. . 410.).). Paris.) et Cattois (F." Johnson (R.384 Gailhabaud royal folio. A. (R.).). (]. "Architectural Sketches on the Continent. (A.. L'Art Gothique. MacGibbon (D. folio. Nestield (E.). A. M." 2 vols. " The Architecture of Provence and the Riviera." translation of the article Paris.

iii. Germany. Louvain. Halls.BELGIAN AND DUTCH GOTHIC. Geographical. but has greater extremes of heat and cold. and Holland under German influence. in. between the Germanic and Romanic races of the European peoples. as work.A. pillars lofty The keystone light and small . large in conception and rich in detail. This was greatly influenced by the religions of France." Was The And SCOTT. Ghent. INFLUENCES. grotesque and grim. the cathedral at Tournai being wholly of that material. the heiress of Flanders. became united of the first Duke of Valois to Margaret. This is similar to that of England. i. ii. and Spain. Many buildings. Flanders. Belgium being under French. and weavers to fief of France. iv. The whole of the Netherlands c c F. Climate. thus accounting for the dual influences found in its architectural development. corbels were carved. and the consequent effect upon the architecture was considerable. that locked each ribbed aisle and a fleur-de-lis or a quatre-feuille . being specially noticeable in domestic i. were erected. under whose dominion the Netherlands were at different times. v. notably Guildhalls and Town vi. Social and Political. Geological. reflecting the wealth and prosperity of the merchants of Antwerp. Stone was used in Brussels Cathedral and other examples. Religion. The district abounds with clay suitable for the making of bricks. as in the small house facades in the towns. " The darkened roof On rose high aloof. and granite was also available. the pillars with clustered shafts so trim. The mediaeval architecture of these countries developed with the social progress of the people. Historical. With base and with capital flourished around Seemed bundles of lances which garlands had bound. the towns with independent municipalities rivalling each other in the arts of war and peace. as a Burgundy by the marriage . and other cities. The country of the Netherlands lies wedged it were.

D. 2. and the choir has large side chapels The vaulting and nave windows date from 1350-14^0 Antwerp Cathedral (A. (15197.transepts" with four towers a lantern are of the Transition with period.D. owing to iconoclastic zeal. countries. 167) is one of the finest examples. 167) is h ne S Ch " r( B el ^ um and is chevet. were brought together under the rule of the Dukes of Valois. has a national character of its own. 3. been destroyed. remarkable for nave and Baying Cht Dordrech *> Ypres. Much of the ornament in many of the fine. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. with its single western tower g the . and that of the types. which for this class of buildings is unequalled in other Dutch architecture. French ideas in ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. Tournai Cathedral . and were constantly at war with one another. however. the choir (1226) being generally considered the Gothic work in Belgium. although somewhat resembling German. but in the Town Halls a national style of architecture was evolved. Early in the sixteenth century the Netherlands belonged to Charles V. large. ' le aisles.1555)? During the Middle Ages the cities of the Low Countries were the richest and most powerful in Europe. EXAMPLES. The eastern termination has a half-developed chevit. A The architecture of Belgium during this period was of two main of German. 1226-1280) (No. very light and elegant in character.386 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. The f the latterof equal heights. fully r l * . The Dutch character of simplicity is translated into the barn-like churches. and iM are other well-known examples. 154 c. Brussels Cathedral (A. (A. 1352-1411) (Nos'. that of the hilly part partaking mixture level part (Flanders) partaking of French character. and the Romanesque and choir. and for this reason the architecture of Holland is of less interest than that of Belgium. a good example. 1146-1338) is illustrating the styles of three -successive periods. The cathedrals show a general inclination to the general disposition of their plans. and lofty churches of the fifteenth century has. and narrow aisleless tranwest front 1422-1518). 111 ' ' ^ Ut Ghent . descendants of the French kings. complete developed Gothic. The nave is the circular-ended . of Spanish features is observable in many of the domestic buildings.D.




and their free and open appearance may be compared with the halls of Florence and Siena. which was of massive construction. the upper octagonal portion of which is richly ornamented (No. and the lower portion. Thrice consumed and thrice rebuilded. These. feet high (No. Louvain (1448-1463). The possession of a "beffroi" (belfry) attached to the town hall was an important privilege granted by charter." . at 168). Still it watches o'er the town. 167 F). especially which the country was renowned at this period. was The beffroi at Bruges. which were very powerful. 168).390 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. for The Town Hall The Trade Halls for buying and selling merchandize. is a somewhat striking example of comparative architecture. 169) being the more important. very characteristic. unbroken fa9ades and greater symmetry and regularity of the scheme are characteristic. 169). Short and wide plans after French models were the cathedrals. are also fine. that at Antwerp having seven aisles being regarded in other countries as non-Gothic in design. Walls. Many were designed on the same lines. Bruges (1377) (No. frequently used as a record is one of the most picturesque of these towers. Openings.places for the separate trades or guilds. and Ghent (1481) (No. cloth. Ghent (No. 168). In domestic work the long. B. the Cloth Hall at Ypres (1200-1304) being exceptionally also built as meeting. form a class of building suited to the needs of the community. A. The Town Halls are exceptionally fine those at 'Brussels (1401-1455). its chequered history being referred to by Longfellow : " In the market-place of Bruges Stands the belfry old and brown . built in two distinct styles. the central portion being carried up as a tower. adopted in (No. the Gothic fa9ade(i5i8-i533) contrasting with the Renaissance facade (1595-1622). The windows are richly ornamented with . Plans. and forms a landmark for many miles round. c. The French chevet was also adopted. along with the trade halls and guildhalls of which Ypres is probably the finest example. COMPARATIVE. 352 office. and there are several examples in the market-place of Brussels. The Guildhalls were 4. This reflects the independent and prosperous condition of the medieval towns. ' SECULAR ARCHITECTURE. and are several stories in height. surmounted by a high roof with dormer windows in tiers.

H S3 W 33 o .

Columns.). as at Liege." Monuments Folio. Choix des in Monumens des Pays-Bas." et 4 vols. folio. 1880-1889." (Historical Novel." Documents Classes (J J. " de 1'Art dans les Pavs- Mary of Burgundy. 410. c." of Mediaeval 1840-1850. (C. and S. and are by crow-stepped and traceried Numerous turrets. J.) . 5 vols. The use of round pillars in the nave. clustered piers." 1075. and bear a similarity and which are marked features in these large Roofs.. sculpture. (F. is fully decorated 5. Ornament. " The Ancient Domestic " Edifices of Bruges. REFERENCE BOOKS. have steep pitches.COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Brussels (No. and bold combine with the tiers of dormers to complete work roofs the rich profusion of the walls below. Jacques at Liege with paintings of a rather later date. 169) or ended gables of picturesque outline. 1858-1868. H. (P. d'Architecture de Sculpture en Verschelde Brussels.. folio. c. is well exemplified at S.).. Mouldings. Folio. mouldings. Waudru. Coarse profusion is characteristic of Belgian arcades. 167 B.). regularity in position and panelling." 3 vols.). by F.). in a scheme of permanent decoration." Bruges. (T. Stroobant Belgique. chimney stacks. 1827. nor the grace of English. In S. A peculiar feature is noticeable in some town hall where a column is omitted by hanging up any two arches means of a long keystone from a concealed arch. at Mons. Ysendyck Jas. Antwerp. Van). In domestic either hipped (No. possessing neither the vigour of French. " Goctghebuer Ghent. instead of E. D). D. Gudule. Gothic. Sketches Belgium and Germany. 1878. buildings. Haghe King " (L. tracery. "Study Book Architecture and Art. blue stone is combined with a red brick filling-in of the vault.

Trade guilds acquired great importance during this period. Geological. thick to the girdle tie Wherein was bound a child with tender feet Or the broad cross with blood nigh brown on it. a lordly house there was. and timber in Hanover and the north-west. west and south by large and warlike empires having strong racial differences. Owing to this situation it had direct communication with all the great European States. In the absence of records. found in the centre and south. interesting feature in the religious life of Germany. and latticed passage wet . Cool with broad courts. iii. The most French Revolution. Geographical. the truth as to the individuality of the architects will not easily be made out. Religion. 258 for German Romanesque. The River Rhine was an important factor in the rise of cities founded in the earlier period.) Some From rush flowers and lilies ripe to set. (See page 258 in German Romanesque). as well as ecclesiastical. INFLUENCES. which has a Stone was great influence on the architecture in these regions. ii. Was dim That spanned his head from nape to crown these Mary's gold hair. v. rule of many of the bishops. Sown close among the strewings of the floor And either wall of the slow corridor roods away. Some of these episcopal principalities were not finally abolished until the period of the iv. Social and Political. . prior to the Reformation.GERMAN (See page " GOTHIC. page 281) having been credited with much influence in the design and working out of the Gothic style. that of the Freemasons (cf. Germany was flanked on the east. i. . The plains of Northern and North Eastern Germany produce no building material but brick. was the civil." . with deep device of gracious things Some angels' steady mouth and weight of wings Shut to the side or Peter with straight stole And beard cut black against the aureole . i. Climate. .

the In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries heart and centre of the Western Empire. until the house of Hapsburg Germany was came into power in 1273. Gothic was. and was not a pure development of the Romanesque. This may be ascribed to the monumental character of buildings in the Romanesque style. as in the latter country. as at Lubeck and the which. The years 1254-1274. Under the Swabian Emperors long wars occurred with the Lombard league of the north Italian towns (cf. has that special character belonging properly to the material. no c and 170) may be cathedral in this style. 2. EXAMPLES. known as the "great interregnum." because no king was universally acknowledged by all Germany. reluctantly adopted at the time when it in France. The " Hanseatic league. page 234). completed in f u "7?. neighbouring 3. of the bmlding being completed according to the original design in the nineteenth The clear width of nave between century piers is 41 feet 6 inches and C m Th! remainder '. The Gothic architecture of Germany was borrowed directly from France. 6aStern P ortion bein a g It resembles Amiens and dimensi di rect copy in plan cathedral of North Europe. no Gothic building being erected in before the thirteenth Germany century. 'a brick architecture was developed. was attaining its great perfection precedents were long adhered to. in the valley of the Elbe. although expressed in a somewhat meagre manner. COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Historical. ' " " . but the Romanesque In Northern Germany. were times of great confusion and lawlessness. (Nos. regarded Cologne Cathedral as the great 9 B) ' ' ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. therefore." an alliance of the great commercial towns of North Germany. cities. exercised considerable influence on the peaceful arts. giving a superficial e nced in and the choir was .394 vi. which had been developed to a greater extent than in other countries. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. although not equalling that in the valley of the Po. having an extreme a width of 275 feet.


while rendering the interior more spacious. Munich Cathedral. Elizabeth. The architect stones. a remnant from Romanesque traditions. and one great roof . . out of the blocks they rose. and a polygonal eastern apse without ambulatory. are other examples of this type. spire similar to that of Cologne. octagonal apse without ambulatory. and S. And on and on and is not yet completed. It has an arcaded gallery to the eaves. Marburg (1235-1283) (No. added in 1859-1869. known as the the side aisles to the same height as the nave. Quintin. the three aisles nearly equal in width and height. of his craft. being notable for the small ratio of support in regard to its floor space. Freiburg Cathedral (1283-1330) has a plan. 172). Martin. Vienna (1300-1510) (Nos. has aisles and a " Hall Church. . and S. but with a total height of 385 feet. Stephen. was to raising abolish the triforium and clerestory. him." LONGFELLOW. no D. and their lives the walls Were builded with his own into As offerings to God. Barbara. with The small triangular Ulm Cathedral (A. . Stephen. For many generations labour'd with . The cathedral " was built by A Erwin von Steinbach but not he alone. S. and to do away with the necessity for flying buttresses. open-work spires porch is a peculiar feature. S. S. Mayence. Ratisbon Cathedral (1275-1534) (No. Landshut (1404). 172 and 173). height. has a regular and western towers. being therefore Vienna.D. and still the work went on. Kuttenberg. great master Children that came As day by day Grew old and died. . 1377-1477) is spacious and lofty." as are also S.COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Hildesheim. to see these saints in stone. characteristic of wall. The western towers have open-work spires. Built bis great heart into these sculptured And with him toiled his children. 171).is characteristic in having no clerestory or triforium. Lambert. is the " Hall Church." The result of typical form. nave of the same S. The western tower is 529 feet in height. to reduce the importance of the nave. and fine choir stalls.


.398 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. while at Landshut and elsewhere. These were based upon (a. the party walls being apparent. of air. sometimes only one central tower occurs. Apses often semioctagonal. The dwelling-houses of early date in Cologne. and frequently contained more stories than the walls " " for the large supporting it.) the French plan. In the domestic architecture the roof was a large and important feature. being used as a drying ground and planned with windows to get a through current monthly wash. Miinster and Ratisbon are the best known. Town Halls (Rathhaus) at Brunswick. with their stepped gables. . the ridge being generally at right angles to the street. Hildesheim. and artistically treated. The planning of the roof-ridge parallel. the covering the church in one span. to the street in towns influenced the design considerably (see page 536 in German Renaissance). aisles) and the Marien Kirche. In later work. less open than usual in German work. Twin towers occur at west end of Ratisbon Cathedral 171). The chevet is uncommon. Entrances are often on north or south. and these exhibit great variety of design in scrolls and other features. and express the possibilities of design in that material. and dormer windows are plentiful. or at right angles. and the town gates of Castles were erected the Baltic provinces. The Rathhaus at Liibeck and other cities. in goodly numbers. Magdeburg (1208-1211). and Prague.) the round-arched and (b. The vaults are traceried. Lubeck Cathedral (choir and Lubeck. as at Marienburg and Meissen in Saxony (1471-1483). German style of churches. found at end of transepts. although it occurs at Cologne (No. thus in Nuremberg the ridge is generally parallel to the street. SECULAR ARCHITECTURE. 172 D). and a square outline is not uncommon. A. and at east and west ends Plans. as at Naumburg. gables are the result. to the general plan Triapsal plans are frequent (No. are types of the brick architecture of North Germany. (1280). are evidences of the prosperity of the inhabitants of these times. Freiburg. 4. Halberstadt. Lubeck. COMPARATIVE. Tower porches occupy one of which is completed and has of transepts only positions a splendid spire. as in some English cathedrals. 170). Heilberg (1350). instead of being at the (No. are notable. and the original stained glass exists.



which was due to the side aisle being made nearly as high as the nave. Tower roofs of the Romanesque form were still used.GERMAN GOTHIC. with a wooden roof. F). Cologne. corresponding with two aisle bays. Tracery was elaborated. but were D. the outline. Square vaulting bays to the nave were often adhered to. Ratisbon (No. 172 F). 174 is E. 173) Cathedrals. F. 172). both as regards its size and excellence of construction. c. as also in Bavaria and at Munich. Cologne (No. The special German feature is the immense roof. and were Vienna (No. Ratisbon. no c). and elsewhere. consisting of two different sets of mouldings. Columns. In the north the clerestories are excessive in size. 401 take They sometimes have towers over them. tracery windows being used in later Excessive height F. the tendency being to make them lofty posts carrying the. Tracery was employed on the outer and inner wall surfaces. but vaulting in oblong bays afterwards became general. though ornamented. Great attention was paid to the vaulting. The resulting complicated intersections required great skill in the geometrical setting out and execution. Piers usual in naves (Nos. a characteristic. B. 171). Churches were nearly always vaulted. west end. without reference to their origin and meaning. owing to the height of the aisles. appearing and disappearing in and out of the same stone. each being provided with its own base and capital. D D . Lubeck in the north is the centre of a brick district. Openings (No. thus interpenetvation of mouldings (fifteenth century) was a very characteristic treatment. but the junction of the insufficiently marked. 170 and 172) and E. spire Towers with was often Freiburg (1300). roof. The typical examples are Strasburg (1429) (No. covering nave and aisle in one span (No. 154 E). spires were much used. and churches of this material abound. the mullions being often cut across the openings behind. 172). Oppenheim. Complexity rather than simplicity was striven after. Mouldings. Roofs. to provide a great expanse of stained glass. being weak.A. Open-work tracery spires indicate the same liking for this feature which is seen in the Rhenish Romanesque churches. Walls. and the use of two tiers of windows was due to the lofty aisles (No. double examples. 173). The apsidal galleries of the Romanesque style simply copied. and when the aisles are equal in height to the nave it is the recognized German type known as the "Hall Church" (No. sometimes covered only. as at Freiburg. starting as low down as possible. not the columns found in early French Gothic. and the place of transepts (No.

). Features such as pinnacles are larger the higher they occur. as at Ratisbon (52 feet). 4to. being placed at one side and forming a lofty and towerlike structure." 12 folio. . Foerster (E.402 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE." 4to and folio. and in colored brickwork was used as a means interiors are plain and bare in character.. Denkmaeler " der Germany. and therefore scale is destroyed. 1836-1850.). the -shrine itself being closed by a pierced iron grating.). c. Ulm (90 feet).). They are of stone or wood. Baukunst.) Leipzig. G. 1842. 1843. King 4 (T.. and in cases were most elaborate.. Histoire et description de la Cathedrale de Cologne. Hartel (A. Whewell (W). J. H. Moller Leipzig. 1858-1868. 1852. to the design. Stained glass and ironwork were well treated. . Boisseree (S. 174). was unsuitable for the its place moulded and of decoration. Foliage was treated in a naturalesque manner. 1873. Ornament (No. folio. the tracery of later windows sometimes representing the branches of trees ("branch tracery ")." Scott (Sir Walter). Puttrich (L. pinnacles. Study-Book of Mediaeval Architecture and Art.-" Architectural Notes on German Churches. in which technical display was more considered than grace of outline.). vols. " Denkmaeler Deutscher Baukunst.). dating from the time that the consecrated Host above the altar went out of use. " Baukunst. Lubke (W." Architektonische Detaile und Ornamente der Kirchlichen " Berlin. They form an important feature of German decorative art. many The enforced use of brick in the north employment of sculptured work. and the 5. " REFERENCE BOOKS. statuary decoration.). 1891." Deutschen 8vo. all erected in minature. 1855-1869." 4 vols. folio. whereas in English and French work the features do not increase in size. They usually represented a Gothic spire with its traceried windows." Anne of Gierstein." (Historical Novel. and either placed against a wall or isolated " and were used to keep the " pyx with the eucharist. and canopies. tapering upwards in many stages." vols. Munich.. as at Cologne. j). and the interlacing of boughs and branches is a common In general. Examples are found throughout Germany." Folio Denkmaeler der Baukunst der Mittelalters in Sachsen. 174 A. and they are sometimes of great height. " Ecclesiastical Art in (G. the carving was superior feature (No. The Tabernacles or Sacrament Houses were developed in this period. and the Lorenz Kirche. 2 vols. Nuremburg (64 feet). Leipzig.


such as mosaic work and fresco decoration. The colored marbles of ment of this style was important. (See page 228 for Italian Romanesque. the architect relying much for effect upon and disposition. Lucca. German influence in Geographical. through the Lombardy was connection of this part of Italy and Germany geographically by the Brenner Pass. 181). i. and other places. black. many large buildings.) " give thee twelve royal images Cut in glad gold. The influence of materials in the developii. for the reasons mentioned above. The preference for opaque treatment. iii.ITALIAN GOTHIC. having been erected in these materials. with thick walls. was inherited from the Romans. Genoa. as in Florence (No. And the strange Asian thalamite that was Hidden twelve ages under the heavy sea. The work at Venice was similarly influenced by an oversea trade connection with the East. while the climate counteracted effectually any desire the Italians might have had for the suppression of the walls by the employment of large windows of stained glass. " i. Northern and Central Italy supplied abundant and beautiful material for the elaboration of plain wall treatment. with marvels of wrought stone For thy sweet priests to lean and pray upon Jasper and hyacinth and chrysopas. Siena (No. The influence of the climate and brilliant atmosphere is apparent in the small windows. effected and also in panels. Red. which. factors which also hindered the development of tracery. Climate. 182). Orvieto. such as the Hospital at Milan and the Certosa at Pavia. INFLUENCES. Geological. Among the little sleepy pearls to be I will A shrine lit over with soft candle flame. and white marbles were used in stripes. their color . The brick and terra-cotta of Northern Italy has left a decided impress on the architecture of that district. were necessary to keep out the glare and heat of the Italian sun.

The succeeding Popes were under the influence of the King of France. as shown in the Classic forms and decoration. The poet Dante (1265-1321) has in his great poem presented a summarized picture of the age. 259) distracted Italy from 1250 to 1409. iv. and small wars were of constant occurrence. century successive members of the Visconti family ruled as Dukes of Milan. Milan and Lucca was largely due to the civic pride of the various rival cities. and many Greek artists were In the thirteenth established at Venice.) the to mask the flatness of the roofs (Nos. 2. 182) (b. in which political life was full of rivalry and activity. 405 The real power of the Pope as head of the Church died with Gregory X. and the latter was conquered by Florence in Florence became one of the chief states of Italy under 1406. The maritime commonwealth of Genoa considerably reduced the power of Pisa in 1284. To the Latin conquest of Constantinople. Pisa. The revival of learning took place in Italy nearly a century in advance of northern Europe. Western lines (pages 230. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. all commerce was transferred to the cities of Italy. as the head in arts. Siena and Florence. Orvieto. Oscar Browning in his Italy. Social and Political. Florence. The erection of the Cathedrals of Siena.) the tendency aisle roofs by a mere screen wall forming the west facade. Historical.ITALIAN GOTHIC. 181. and were very powerful in consequence of the wealth and industry of the cities over which they held sway. and for nearly seventy years (1309-1376) resided at Avignon. losing authority and influence during their absence from Rome. Italy into small principalities and commonwealths. without ." at this period was cut up v. (1271-1276). the effect that each holiday they blew trumpets. . is mainly attributed the sudden development of the formative arts in the thirteenth century in Europe. the powerful family of the Medici (page 447). in vi. in 1415. and proceeded Yet other countries looked to Italy to sack the adjoining town. learning and commerce. 1203. Rival Popes existed until a settlement was arrived at by the Council The factions of the Guelphs and Ghibelof Constance. while the numerous Town Halls Tasso has a line to attest the growth of municipal institutions. a sub" Mediaeval ject dealt with by Mr. was^so great that the verticality which marks the Gothic architecture in the north of Europe does not pervade the Italian examples to the same extent. for the citizens being dispersed during the sixty years of Latin occupation. of The influence of construction Roman tradition. The churches are especially noticeable externally for (a. Religion.


and a smallness in detail followed.) the great central circular window in the west front lighting the nave and comparative unimportance of the mouldings. for example." TENNYSON. but the crowning cornice (No. Stone of different color was also carried systematically in patterns through the design. 184). The Italian use' of the details were small brickwork was essentially the right one and designed with taste. colonnaded aisles. Terra-cotta and brickwork. The treatment of moulded brickwork has never been carried to greater perfection than in North Italy during the Gothic and Early Renaissance period. . sufficient projection not being obtainable for cornices.) the flatness cheir place being more than taken by the beautiful colored marbles with which the facades were faced. which. Porch pillars on the lion resting. who allowed the material to express its own capabilities without trying to disturb its architectural function. are as durable as most kinds of stone. if carefully burnt. and this was always tolerated by the Italians. there is no beauty of detail or of design on a small scale that may not be obtained by the use of moulded bricks. " Stern and sad (so rare the smiles Of sunlight) looked the Lombard piles . . . but it enters far less into the general composition and meaning of the architecture. although the effect of sublimity is perhaps not to be obtained in so small a material unless used in the broad massive manner of the Romans. in continuation of early ideas and practice. (c. old. 182). and the effect of variegated color was relied on instead of depth of shadow a perfectly legitimate and expressive use of material where small and colored units are used. is necessarily characteristic of brick buildings. the columns of which often rest on the backs of lions and other animals. And sombre. giving a A flatness and want of shadow^ special character. and the broad surfaces covered with fresco decorations. Corinthian capitals of modified form and the Roman acanthus were constantly used in Gothic buildings (No. especially in civic buildings. Sculpture partakes of classical purity. as at Verona. On the other hand.ITALIAN GOTHIC. Mosaic was used externally in panels. 407 reference to the slope of the roofs behind (No. There is an absence of pinnacles due to the unimportance or the buttresses. are characteristic features. and the employment of elaborately carved projecting porches at the west end. 181). at the Frari Church at Venice and elsewhere. as. and is in this respect superior to that exhibited in northern examples. which was eminently suited to the material. in their plastic state rendered much ornament easy of application. (d.

The roof is very flat in pitch. but with seven and the front porch omitted.D. 175. NORTH Milan Cathedral (A. commenced in 1390. in emulation of Florence Cathedral. the nave terminating with a circlet of columns in the French manner. with the exception of Seville. Cremona. a hundred spires. laid upon the upper surface of the vaulting. Petronio.408 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Mark in plan (page 208). Many archiincluding Palladio. The feature of the designed by Brunelleschi in A. which is aided in effect by the numerous pinnacles of glittering marble (No. and is built entirely of white marble. O Milan. Bologna. is the most important work of this period. 1440. if completed. At the crossing of the nave and aisles is a vault crowned with a marble 'spire. have produced designs for the unfinished in 1396. 176 B. Verona. It is the largest mediaeval cathedral. S. . EXAMPLES. The churches and palaces at Bologna. interior is the range of immense shafts to the nave (No. S. c)." TENNYSON. being constructed of massive marble slabs. and the great Hospital. aisles and outer chapels in section the Cathedral of Milan west front. commenced stages. closely resembling S. filled with statues. c. where terra-cotta was largely used. both in character and details. having a central crowning an internal dome. and there is a marked German influence. the chanting quires . erected by the first Duke of Milan. the gloom. " 175). 3. O. the space. 1385-1418) (Nos. ! A The height. Padua. the glory mount of marble. exemplify the influence of brick and terra-cotta on the architecture of the The Certosa. In plan it consists of a nave with a very small clerestory. The domes in 1475.D. would. 176 A. in the place of the ordinary capitals. whose summits are treated with canopied niches. 177). domes instead of five. district. lantern in on either side. and resembled (No. were added Antonip. ITALY. and Genoa contain specimens of brick architecture with pleasing moulded details. and double aisles of extreme height. Vicenza. nave and tects. Externally. The giant windows' blazon'd fires . 177). Padua (1237-1307) is a remarkable design. the character of the whole design is expressive of richness and lacelike intricacy. To the Ambrosian ritual is due the absence of side-chapels in the original scheme. Milan. Pavia. have been one of the It was to have consisted of a largest churches of this period. but inclosed in a German polygonal apse. B.


looking East. MILAN CATHEDRAL.ITALIAN (NORTH) GOTHIC. 177. . Interior.

and the solid and connected character of the tracery gives some stability to the design. The Doges' Palace. Pavia. is Venice remarkable for the civic " Where Venice sate in state. and S. the extremities of the design being left comparatively solid. 1424-1442. 182). throned on her hundred isles. 179 c). both at Florence constructed in the fourteenth century and afterwards destroyed and the Bridge over the Ticino. Maria Gloriosa dei Frari (1250. as is also the grouping of the windows towards the centre of the facade. the latter being peculiar in having - two western towers. The Ca d' Oro Palace. S. and an English type of plan. a Franciscan church. (1362). A general idea of . orders. having no bases. also by the Brothers Buon. The lower columns seem to rise out of the ground. is of the Basilican type. 411 and domestic architecture of this period. open arcade of two stories. one originally advanced in front and surrounding the main building. thus producing the effect of a central feature inclosed by wings. Andrea. 179 A and 180). Venice (Nos. Venice (Nos. . the excellence of marble as a material for carving being largely responsible for the refinement of execution in this example. with rose-colored and white marble. a Dominican church. No. her power and richness being due to the supremacy of her navy.1280)." S. and Cavalli are other well-known examples. The Ponte alle Grazie (1237) and tne Ponte Vecchio the Bridge over the Adda at Trezzo. and S.D. The latter was partly destroyed by fire in the sixteenth century. Anastasia. by G. the otherwise blank walls being broken by a few large and richly ornamented windows. are magnificent examples. but was rebuilt and extended over the double arcade in the Venetian style. Pisani (No. especially is Venetian in character. Vercelli (1219). with six eastern chapels. 178 and 179 B) (facade A. The delicate and light carving in low relief which occurs in the capitals of the arcades is justly celebrated. are notable examples. Buon) is the grandest effort in Each facade consisted of an civic architecture of the period.ITALIAN GOTHIC. and B. Contarini-Fasan. so heavily loaded above. arranged in patterns. showing the influence of the Monastic The latter by Niccolo Pisano. Giovanni e Paolo (1260-1400). . and it must be remembered that the Venetian state occupied a prominent position as a great trading centre in the Middle Ages. are other examples of the secular architecture of the period. and has a fine campanile adjoining the church (cf. in imitation of bricks. The Palazzi Foscari. is another fine specimen of the The tracery domestic work with which Venice abounds. Siena. Verona (1261).


. .J P ^?l @ MlL 179. Q 100 ft U ! -. tfrttfe&fefei |l II. SCALE 5Q.ITALIAN GOTHIC EXAMPLES. . .




pt being formed under the sanctuary. of Arnolfo di Cambio. allowed of a cry. The unfinished elevation of this east end is a grand design. is an octagonal structure faced with pilasters and richly colored ornamentation. 182) is remarkable in having a dome. 292 feet high. Florence (1376). Florence (A.ITALIAN GOTHIC. and S. is a wellof open tracery is The Campo Santo. Siena Cathedral (A. Pisa (1278-1283) (No. 181). is The Campanile (Nos. while the facade was completed in 1887. and for the marble facades The cathedral was erected from the designs in colored panelling.D. 179 D). James's and the building in Lothbury. 176 D and example. with three portals of equal size. by Giotto square on plan. having an unusual development in the arches (No. and is built in red and white marble. 58 feet in diameter. Maria dei Fion) (1294-1462) remarkable for the wide spacing (55 feet) of the nave arcades. (A. was added in 1420 by Brunelleschi. and the Loggia dei Lanzi. S. 1243-1284) (No. obtained from the old front of S. known example.D. and the octagonal dome. being contrasted by blank white-washed chiefly The Baptistery (originally the Cathedral). 1290) resembles that of Siena. opposite the CENTRAL Florence Cathedral (No. in four stories of increasing height. Florence (1294). is 417 Bank Piccadilly. but E E . 176). 181). but remodelled by Arnolfo in A.A. vast masses of grey pietra serena stone. which is used as a baptistery. and for its facade in black and white stripes. 184 c). the absence of a triforium.D. adjoining. of England. covering an irregular hexagonal space at the crossing (No. and inserted in the solidly designed lower story are sculptured panels of great interest and Below the present tile roof the start of the intended beauty. are examples of the vigorous secular architecture of the period. 1278). Siena. is an imposing example erected by the Dominicans. Venetian Gothic Hall. as in the adjoining cathedral. the nave itself.D. erected in Spandrels. Orvieto Cathedral F. Internally the fine effect promised by the plan is not realized. Florence (1298). the Palazzo Publico. by Arnolfo di Cambio (with its remarkable tower). 1294. the tenth century. is a well-known example of the same type. The ground falling towards the east end. 138 feet 6 inches in diameter. Maria Novella. 91). and characteristic rose window. is ITALY. Croce. 1324). being further remarkable for the fifteenth century bronze doors by Ghiberti.D. spire can be traced. buttresses arid pinnacles (No. in piers and arches. (Sta. The Palazzo Vecchio. Tracery of an elementary character is introduced into the windows in this (A.


Maria sopra Minerva (1280) being quoted as the only Gothic church in Rome. E E 2 . CENTRAL. Both churches are vaulted. is a remarkable example of external stones of two colors. Roman in form. The style has been described as " Greek in essence. as at Florence (No. the naves having timber roofs of great elaboration and intricate construction. and Saracenic in decoration. with borders of arabesques in gold and color. shows the influence of Etruscan and Roman models. The pointed arch was used. 419 feeling. 179 D). and is very northern in detail. Francis.D.ITALIAN GOTHIC. depending much more on its frescoed interior than upon the architecture proper for its magnificence and character. but without mouldings or even receding planes (No. In Rome. AND SOUTH. and received a complete treatment in painted decoration by Cimabue and Giotto. 183). the apses in At the west end is a group consisting particular being very fine. S. influences at work in these districts have already been to in Romanesque (page 239). resembling in their effect the honeycomb work of Saracenic art. the facade dating from 1310. 176) and Siena Cathedrals (No. Plans. the churches. while the lower parts of the walls have a high dado of white marble. but suggesting Northern Gothic in its vigour of skyline. built of brick and plastered. churches of the Basilican type were erected throughout the Middle Ages. 1228-1253). with detail of an arbitrary style. The nave is now restored with an open timber roof of the Basilican type. It consists of an upper and lower church. S. decoration in Palermo Cathedral 4. Assisi (A. NORTH." Messina and Palermo Cathedrals have plans founded on the Roman basilican type. of a central and two lower towers. \ SOUTHERN ITALY AND The referred SICILY. is an example which was from the designs of a German. with a border introducing green and purple porphyry architectural in patterns. Jacobus of Meruan. The endeavour to create a great central space in A. and is more harmonious in design than the Siena example. COMPARATIVE. in which the principal personages of the Bible are rendered in a stiff archaic style. It is imbued more considerably with Northern Gothic mainly of one period. The main idea striven after in these churches was the unfettered display of mosaic decoration.

are an advance on the Romanesque lanterns at the crossing. and developing no spire growth. Mantua and Pistoja. projecting buttresses. Siena (No. 176 D) and the Certosa. c. The windows are often semicircular headed. flatness is the predominant characteristic of the style. The most imposing external feature was frequently a dome. Facades are treated independently as decorative compositions. 176). thus reversing the Northern Gothic practice. Verona (No. which are frequently inclosed by square lines as a frame. and may be compared is obtained by deeplymoulded string courses. the side aisles having oblong ones. Walls. and able themselves to withstand the pressure of a vault (Nos. window. and may valle. This surface treatment was borrowed from the Saracens. From the absence of vertical features and shadows in the facade. 178). 182). have square shafts without buttresses. arcades practically include the aisles and nave in one composition and give the effect of a single hall. in diminishing stages.420 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. with northern methods. A moulded keystone is often provided to pointed arches. These facades are often incomplete. Lucca. 182) and Florence (No. being compositions in marble facing. B. The nave vaulting is frequently set out in square compartments. The best known are at Florence (No. from the family of that name. the The be compared with English work. in which effect while the capitals are richly sculptured. 181). These slender shafts are often twisted. and often have no relation to the structure or roofs behind (No. as at Siena (No. continuing the Romanesque tradition. and the clerestory reduced to the unimportance of a vault spandrel. The widely-spaced nave arcades are characteristic. as at Florence and Milan (No. The marble was used in bands of two colors at Siena (No. and lofty pinnacles. and in panelling at Florence (No. and generally circular. The absence of large windows obviated the necessity for projecting buttresses. each having three high gables. Pavia. and even inlaid with glass mosaic known as "cosmato" work. as at Florence Cathedral (No. 182). 181). and have shafts with square capitals of Corinthian type. 176). Venetian tracery is a special form of geometrical combinations (No. 181 and 182). usually isolated. like northern examples. 184 K). 182) and Orvieto. in many cases not finished on the score of expense. . Openings. the high and flat walls being usually comparatively solid throughout their length. sometimes beautifully decorated. 1840). central lantern tower. These lofty pierced by a small. and Milan Cathedral (No. instead of the moulded mullions of northern Gothic examples (No. as at ChiaraCertosa at Pavia. 181). the triforium being usually omitted. Towers.

F. being scarcely visible from below (Nos. L) and sculpture features. the pulpits (No. A Anderson (R. the most interesting being those due to the use of brickwork in the facades. 184). leading up to the golden age of Michael Angelo and Raphael. They are often in contradiction to the steep gables of the facades. at . and the section of an arch mould is often identical with that of the jamb. " Cummings (C. History of Architecture in Italy from the Time . is not observable. of the Scaligers. by their height and size. Iron tie-rods -were often used to prevent the spread of roof timbers owing to insufficient Roofs. are shells for painted decoration. Mouldings. Columns. These have a flatness and squareness often little changed from Roman work. recalling Roman work. but on the other hand. H. 5. although there may be capitals at the impost. Verona (. D. In Milan Cathedral the circular moulded piers. It is in the carving and mosaics to the sumptuous altars and canopy tombs. four pilasters combined back to back being a common section. and in the veneering of the facades with colored marbles. as may be traced north of the Alps. 177). and many of the churches at Rome have " elaborate inlay mosaic work of " cosmato design on their arches of The Tomb and twisted columns. G. with capitals and bases. 1877. that the decorative character of the style is best seen.1329-1380). the general design is often neglected in the attention bestowed upon accessories. Commercial and Street Architecture of France and Italy. Round piers. Some buildings. These are r buttressing. pavements and choir stalls. and of small importance in the design. 179 and 180). The piers of the arcades in the churches are times surprisingly clumsy in plan. 184 A. Ornament (No.). Classic tradition led to a refinement and an elegance which contrasts with the grotesque element found in northern work. E. borrowed from northern Europe. Opaque decoration was preferred to translucent the art of fresco. were also used. F. G. "Examples of the Municipal. \produce the effect of a columnar interior (No.A. and peculiar treatment of tabernacle capitals. but the continuous sequence in the design of such features. and treated solely as a field for mosaic and other elaborate decoration. almost devoid of architectural In carving (Nos. such as Giotto's chapel at Padua. E. by constant exercise upon the noblest subjects in the grandest buildings. 184 B). B.ITALIAN GOTHIC. 421 of low pitch.). and the Sistine chapel at Rome. is an examp'e rich decoration." Folio. REFERENCE BOOKS. Mouldings are throughout subordinate to surface decoration.


1889. B. 1842-1844. folio. "The Lion of S. 1901. Paris." Folio. vols. Specimens of Mediaeval Architecture. 1867. E.. Strack (H. 8vo." atlas 1886." 4to.." 8vo.) et Zanth (C. Griiner(L.). 1874.)..).). Dawn of the Renaissance. " Rohault-de-Fleury (G.) and Macquoid (T. Ruskin Schulz "Stones of Venice. H. " Hittorff (J. 1862.).ITALIAN GOTHIC. (J. Paris. " La Toscane au Moyen Age. \in Italien. " Ecclesiastical Architecture of Italy. Unter-Italien. Mark. Kunst des Mittelalters in and text in 2 vols.).). W. Examples of Architectural Art in Italy and Spain. Henty (G.)." (Historical Novel.) ' . (H.). "Terra-Cotta Architecture of North Italy. Berlin. W. 4to.). Brick and Marble in the Middle Ages. R. Architecture Moderne de la Sicile. 423 REFERENCE BOOKS of Constantine to the Continued. 1874. 8vo. Nesfield (E. I. Waring (J." Folio. 1860. Knight (H." Folio." " Ziegelbauwerke des Mittelalters und der Renaissance Folio. L." 2 " 3 vols. 1850." Boston." Folio Denkmaeler der of plates." 2 vols. 1835. 2 vols. . Dresden.).. " Street (G. G.

The existence of rival races and kingdoms within the peninsula was rendered possible by the mountainous character of some parts. TICKELL. Constant warfare with the Moors gave a certain unity to Spain. divided by sierras.ooo feet above the i. as in the towers and gates of the city of Toledo. stood Spanish architecture cannot be underwithout a knowledge of the geography of the country. iii. Climate. is cold. who once the reins of Empire held In arms who triumphed. and led the way to heaven. or in arts excelled blood Chiefs. Religion. i. graced with scars. ." . the finest in the country. The arrangement of the choirs and the size and sea. or chains of low rocky hills. The kingdom of Granada. . INFLUENCES. which the country throughout possesses. who taught. the struggle being a war of religions as well as of races. Geographical. This varies with the structure of the country. who for sacred freedom stood. where the Moors held out until the close of the Gothic period. and the subdivision of the country by sierras. but granite and some of the semi-marbles. were used in places. iv. laws were given Just men. Burgos. and exposed to keen winds even in the summer. . ii. Allegiance to the Papacy has been a characteristic of Spain. to vulgar mind unknown) . Stern patriots. 1 Oft let me range the gloomy ! aisles alone (Sad luxury show Along the walls where speaking marbles What wor hies foim the hallowed mould below Proud names. by whom impartial And saints. and Santiago was a pilgrimage centre of more than national importance. which is that of a series of table-lands of varying elevations. Geological. 3. Stone was the material generally employed.SPANISH GOTHIC. while in the south the climate is sub-tropical. Rubble-work. with brick bonding courses and quoins. and prodigal of . was used under Moorish influence with much taste and success. was surrounded by mountains which inclosed a fertile plain. in the north.

and won back Seville and Cordova. 2. . for although Toledo was captured by the Christians in 1085. James. and for 800 years their influence was continuous. v. Ferdinand (1217-1252). that Gothic art took root. and are rich in detail. the Christian states of Castile. and lace-like. and from Toledo. In the south. In the Spanish peninsula. Leon. as in the Jews' synagogue at Toledo. called the Conqueror (1213-1276).. in later times. owing to the superior education and ability of Moorish workmen. Navarre. and the exuberance of intricate. which has been occupied at different times by peoples of various races. there was always more or Moorish influence. sown by the spirit of conquest and aided by the wealth of the conquered Moors. the Moorish capital. and.D. gained by the Christians. the richness of the architecture. the Spanish conquests were gradual. is specially required in the case of Spain. always necessary in order to properly understand the development of its architecture. This influence occasionally reached far into the north. Aragon. The curious early churches of the Spanish conquerors seem to have been executed by the aid of Moorish workmen. A. and Portugal were all growing up and gradually driving the Mahometans into the southern part called Andalusia. After many intermittent successes. after which Mahometan influence gradually declined. After the Romans left Spam the Vandals and Visigoths took possession.SPANISH GOTHIC. the country was invaded by the Moors from North Africa. this influence made itself felt in Saracenic features. under window. the battle of Tolosa (1212). Social and Political. less of ' Moorish influence. were covered with intricate geometrical and flowing patterns and rich surface decorations. King of Aragon. 425 importance of the chapels attached to the cathedrals were due to the ritual. as already mentioned. was the turning It point. Historical. The evidence of this is to be seen in the stronghold of their power the south of Spain where the curious construction. vi. These fretwork screens occupy the whole Elsewhere buildings. The study of the history of a country. as the capture of Toledo (1084) by Alfonso VI. and the final expulsion of the Moors did not take place till 1492. after which. who united Castile and Leon. such as the horseshoe arch. for which the Saracenic art is everywhere remarkable. pressed into the east of Spain until the kingdom of Granada was the only portion left to the Mahometans. was during the reign of S. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. 710-713 (page 655). the pierced stonework tracery of Moorish design. detail are everywhere apparent.

The "coro" or choir is in the usual position to the westward of the crossing. Leon Cathedral goes beyond its French original at Amiens. owing to the space between buttresses being utilized internally for chapels. and Lerida. as Barcelona. which has a dome over the crossing of nave and transepts. Burgos Cathedral (known as the "cimborio "). is a five-aisled church and resembles Bourges (page 368) in general idea.D. owing to the grand scale of the single-span vaulted interiors. and a richly-treated lantern over the crossing which was in The It French Romanesque models of Aquitaine and Anjou. it may be said that a liking for excessive ornamentation without any regard to its constructive character is apparent. and the peculiar treatment of the interior is shown m No. 1230) is irregular in plan (No. transepts and a complete chevet. (completed 1149). and has the choir mclosure west of the crossing. on the other hand. The Gothic style was best developed in Catalonia. 187 D). broad wall surfaces and horizontal lines are special features of the style. In this church the nave is covered with a barrel vault and the side aisles with cross vaults. EXAMPLES. ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. while the size and of the side chapels are striking. are characteristic.D.D. as in most parts of Spain. has two towers to the western fa9ade. in the expanse of window opening and tenuity of its supports. though on French lines. In the later period. were both influenced by the Southern S. with their openwork spires (No. the grafting of classical details on to Gothic forms produced some of the most picturesque features imaginable. over 50 feet in diameter. Contrary to Northern Gothic. Toledo. and old Salamanca 1120-1178). is an example of a building with nave. recall Cologne. 1487). and generally. lantern extraordinary importance detail* (A. The cloisters of many of the cathedrals. the nave being reduced to a mere vestibule. it has a special character.D. Leon Cathedral (A. 185). which is octagonal. which.426 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Isidore. (A. due to the influence of Northern French Romanesque. The exteriors usually are flat in appearance. 1227) (No. but nearly 50 feet wider. Santiago de Compostela Cathedral (A. 1078). It is about the same length. where. remarkable for the beauty and richness of its late completed 1567. with a singularly shallow Toledo Cathedral . as that of the Capilla del Condestable (AD. 3. 186. 190 L).




Externally there is but is less The parroquia a certain shapelessness and absence of sky-line. 187 c). which are internal features.D. From these comparisons an idea can be obtained of the immense size of this Spanish cathedral. are the chapels. the spacing octagonal piers of granite about 4 feet There is being wide. Barcelona (A. The vaults rest upon a splendid example of a town church. 1328-1383) (No. no triforium. 1298) (No. and is repeated four in addition to which there is the great nave. although the total length of Seville is little more than that of -the Abbey. double aisles. Maria del Mar. 73 feet in of the Law width. 187 B). . Gregorio. the space between being used as chapels. and 130 feet high. Valladolid (No. or. dral. but there are no aisles. in four compartments. but confused and weak in its lines. church Severe simplicity is the characteristic of the both inside and out there are no features but a few well-studied mouldings. The peculiarity of plan. and only small clerestory windows in the spandrels is of the vaults. as some would prefer to say. Barcelona Cathedral (A. in diameter. The vaulting is rich. and the aisles and nave of great height. The Central Hall Courts. is the largest mediaeval cathedral in any bears a considerable resemblance to Milan Cathefanciful in detail. Thus one aisle of Seville represents As show ng : may the size of the nave and choir of the abbey. Seville mosque country. having a nave. times . erected on the site of a same size. loaded with bosses of a purer Gothic style. of the It Cathedral (1401-1520). as at Albi in the south of France. and of the same depth as the aisles. Surrounding the church. (parish) church is separate. in which of wood. in places. while the nave arcades have twice the span. . flanked by tiers of arcaded statuary S. although only 48 feet in width. will give an idea of this interior. Spanish and small apse. in It is typically having a rectangular outline. Gerona Cathedral is a further development (No. was no doubt caused by the structure being made to fill up the space occupied previously by a mosque. 187 A). and side chapels. S. but included within the cathedral area. 55 feet wide from centre to centre of piers. cathedral of Seville it the extraordinary size of this be pointed out that each of the four side aisles is practically equal both in height and width to the nave of Westminster Abbey (page 309). but it differs from most of the great C atinental churches in having a square east end.D. 189) shows the lace-like character of detail derived from Moorish influence. an immense retdblo or reredos upon the sanctuary is placed apsidal sanctuary.430 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. is remarkable in that the thrust of the vaults is taken by buttresses. the nave being one vaulted hall.

TOLEDO. JUAN DE LOS REYES. showing Octagonal Dome. Interior. 188. S.SPANISH GOTHIC. .


as S. 'as at Seville. 4. Vaulting was used freely. the great A. or dome is nave and transepts. Rouen. and Valencia and S. much Roofs. as in Germany.D. and were design probably inspired by Moorish work. were favoured. and the parish church is often included in the area of the cathedral. width and comparative shortness (No. although the lines are not always tion. south. Openings. on the lines of the facade of Notre Dame at Paris.D. at the crossing of the similar in treatment to examples in the S.A. Toledo. and also seen at Westminster Abbey (No. 185). as seen in work the best examples Barcelona municipal are to be found in Catabuildings. erected by Ferdinand and Isabella. which are intricate in and ingenious in construction. and ribs producing a rich effect. Sernin. 's Chapel at Westminster. (A. an arrangement probably derived from the Early Christian basilicas. 190 L). B. The position of the choir is generally to the west of the crossing of nave and transepts. openings are of large size. 1476 (No. resemble each other in plan. externally roofed with stone. Ouen. Burgos having in place of gables effective horizontal arcades. rather F. Chapels are numerous and large. 1262). "Walls. is a rich example of a sepulchral chapel. and even wild. and Valencia town hall. Valencia 1298) (A. bosses. in design. 73 B). Clemente. F F . In regard to the plan of the cathedrals. which has not only a glazed triforium. are characteristic. A. 186 and 188). stained glass (Nos. Leon (A. Thecimborio. 433 S. and Norwich Cathedral (No. Plans. 188). Traceried open-work spires. as at Seville. Internally octagonal vaults. 118).D. and Burgos Cathedral being D. and Barcelona Cathedrals. ornamentation. but developed in decorathan in construction.D. are other examples of early date. but also a large part of Even in the the wall surface of the clerestory glazed as well. such features as tracery. 127). those at Burgos being worthy of attention (No. as at Burgos (No. 187) of many of the naves is a prominent characteristic. In domestic lonia. 187 E). used. all showing French influence.SPANISH GOTHIC. There is much flatness and absence of skyline in the exteriors. In design French models were favoured. and Lerida Cathedral (No. comparing in its intended purpose with Henry VI I. the later work being characterized by extreme. 1260). Juan de los Reyes. Toulouse. These were carried to excess in Leon Cathedral. Rome (No. south of France. c. COMPARATIVE.

the former naturalistic. and elsewhere. are indicated in No.' or rich and lofty grilles (Nos. or alabaster. The most decorative feature in G. Oviedo. 86) the great octagonal piers at S. but this is far from being the character of other more numerous examples in Spain. or in duplicates attached back to back. Refinement is not the usual characteristic F. the interior of the church beyond. Original and arbitrary forms were mingled with features borrowed from France. similar in effect to those of Milan. Their rich in three spans. and strong to gaudiness in coloring. as at Seville. interiors of Spanish churches. wide interiors. are circular in plan (rebuilt 1567). the formality of the long and vertical bars being relieved by figures beaten in repousse. to compare in interest with English vaulting good. are probably the richest specimens of mediaeval woodwork in existence. it combines in producing the notoriously impressive. that at Gerona (No. being usually Flemish in style. of Spanish art. Spanish churches is the vast retablo (reredos). and expressive (No. Stained glass was used. and is crowded with niches. Painting and gilding were used to heighten the effect. figures. 190). including The boldest and most original vaults are the great flat duvet. Sculpture in stone or marble is often life-size. 'Rejas. This feature is usually constructed of wood. Columns. and however deficient in other qualities. every moulding has its purpose and expression. S. Sernin. in one span. In Catalonia the best and In most artistic work was produced in a restrained manner. and nothing was accomplished. stone. Toulouse. were successfully vaulted in a simple style. in hammered and chiselled iron. Hants. Barcelona (page 430). canopies and panelling (No. In Seville Cathedral great column-like piers are employed for all the arcades. In the south. that form galleries across the western ends of the churches. resembling the great English altar screens. and give scale to. extending through nave and aisles soffits attract attention on entering.434 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. heavy in outline. and the latter of such solidity that the effect of metal is obtained. but without Carved capitals of characteristic form the tabernacle capitals. M. j. 186 and 190 H). which at Burgos crossing gives importance to the central piers. 187 c) being no less than 73 feet span. naturalistic. arches. 190 H. 190 E. K). and by freely . N). Mouldings. Ornament (No. and having a total length of 270 feet. Maria del Mar. Those at Toledo and Seville. which is often as wide as the nave. if sensational. and contrast with 1 (No. are also characteristic. notably that at Christchurch. and reaches up to the vaulting. F. The favourite feature of a lantern at the E. and their curves frame the view of. 190 c.


).COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 5.. E. REFERENCE BOOKS. " Waring (J. Waring (J. Account of Gothic Architecture in Spain. ' . 89 parts.Architectural Studies in Burgos. . (not completed). 1842-1850. Magnificent stalls. Few things in Spain are more original and artistic than these Rejas. B. Villa-Amil (G." (Historical Novel." Folio. P." 8vo. Barcelona Cathedral having some resembling those at Chester. " Street (G. R. " Espana Artistica y Monumental/' 3 vols. atlas folio Madrid. 1874. each provided with a separate canopy and crowned with a tall spire.). are common. 1852. My Brother." Folio.) folio.) and Macquoid (T. 1859-1879. F. 1850. N. " Roulet (M. pulpits. BA . employed crestings and traceries adapted to the material. Examples of Architectural Art in Italy and Spain. de). God the King. " Monumentos Arquitectonicos de Espana" (a magnificent work issued under the auspices of the Spanish Government). while bishops' thrones.). Paris. lecterns and choir desks were also elaborately treated.

By many a relic . to a desire to break away from Romish influence. of Classic Architecture in Europe at the beginning of the fifteenth century. and England. brought back harmony. the spirit of inquiry. cSe a1 -! ^ to each country. " IN New structures. and the diffusion of freedom of thought. i. its world late born. The Eastern empire did not come under its influence. were now falling before the Turks. who had been the most civilized people in Europe. Italy in the fifteenth century. and over the whole of Western Europe over what had been the Roman empire in the West.RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE EUROPE. < !h. Geographical. GENERAL INTRODUCTION. The invention of printing. made ripe of ihe archetype Extant for wonder every upstart church. Germany. iv.D. which aided the spread of knowledge. That hoped to leave eld temples in the lurch. arising in i. among the Teutonic races. The Renaissance movement. spread from thence to France. THE causes which led to the re-introduction. led. and must be grasped in order fully to understand so great a change. for the Greeks in the East." BROWNING. and by Martin . are instructive. 1377). that inordinately glow. INFLUENCES. This desire was originally fostered by Wycliffe in England (A. to Subdued. Religion. In this section the Renaissance movement as affecting the whole of Europe will be dealt with. Lay. or re-birth (Renaissance). Corrected by the theatre forlorn That as a mundane shell. and o'ershadowed it.

D. The Jesuits who headed the counterreformation carried the style into all parts. 1453 caused an influx of Greek scholars into Italy. the remains of the great baths. In Italy. at the same time giving it a special character (page 496). A new intellectual movement v. Social and Political. one of the few Greek scholars of the period. was a general grouping together At the beginning of the sixteenth century . proceeded side by side with This renewed vigour in thought and literature was accompanied In England. because the Gothic style had never taken a firm hold on the New who had at hand the ancient Roman remains. in which countries Reformation Renaissance in architecture. among the MSS. Thus a revival of classic literature produced a desire for the revival of Roman architecture. Erasmus (1467-1536). a revival of ecclesiastical architecture took place. in religion 1521. therefore. the former influences the public taste.438 Luther in COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. the Colosseum. and where comparatively few churches the Gothic manner during the Middle Ages. the Basilica of Maxentius. there of the smaller states into independent kingdoms. manifests itself sooner in literature than in architecture.D. and the Roman fora. and kept large standing armies. In Italy. whose authority had for so long borne an exclusive sway. Historical. and thus Dante (1265-1321). Again. civil by a fresh building era in northern Europe. and where the municipalities had developed a spirit of municipal Italians. which caused a revolt against mediaeval art. was Vitruvius' book of Architecture. where the Reformation took no had been built in hold. the enterprise. vi. under powerful rulers. practically a direct return was made to Roman forms. and domestic architecture received a special impulse from the diffusion among laymen of the wealth and lands of the monasteries dissolved by Henry VIII. who governed with Three great inventions authority. and to the Greek classics. worked hard to direct the public attention to the original text of the Testament.C. such as Pantheon. 50. of Greek and Latin authors brought to light about this time. where feudalism had never fully established itself. as a set-off to the writings of the mediaeval philosophers. and in every important town Renaissance churches were carried out on a grand scale and in a most complete manner. and Boccaccio (1313-1375) aided in the spread of the newly-discovered classic literature.D. 1517). Italian architecture was naturally the first to be affected. and the subsequent fall of Constantinople in A. whose learning was an important influence in an age which was ripe for a great intellectual change. on the other hand. which was translated into Italian in A. written in B. Petrarch (1304-1374). Germany (A.

therefore. the headquarters of the new movement. were their pupils. 439 had an important influence gunpowder. and often to a great extent applied regardless of the materials of their execution. and a style built up which has become the basis of all modern styles. lastly. as Ghiberti. 2. In place of such evolution there was the worship of style. fluted or panelled. which favoured that stirring of men's minds which caused the reformation in religion. in the fifteenth century possessed skilful jewellers and excellent medallists. Such results were worshipped for their own sake.RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE. the Doric. and of the sixteenth century in other parts of Western Europe. The main features in the style were the Classic orders (Nos. .. silversmiths. and the foundation of colonies by European states and. a system in their application being gradually evolved. whether plain. as by the Romans. Men. which led to the discovery of the West Indies (1492) and America. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. century. The Renaissance of the fifteenth century in Italy. and Brunelleschi. 38. viz. Donatello. architects consulted them. Galileo (1564-1642) proved that the earth was not the centre of the universe. The development of the schools of painting also had their influence on architecture. and it was by their help that the Renaissance commenced and expanded. It is true that Roman precedent was the basis. was a break in that orderly evolution of architecture which is based on the nature and necessities of materials. sculptors. but merely a minute planet in the solar system. of the past results of the nature of materials as formulated into systems. and aided the tendency which caused structures to be looked upon as works of . and Corinthian. which had changed the whole method of warfare the mariner's compass. and the revival of learning. who were at once painters. architects. and were not troubled about the means to such an end. and often. but it must not be supposed that in this development no advance was made. jewellers. 262). Ionic. printing. Copperplate engraving was discovered in the third quarter of the fifteenth . Buildings designed for more modern wants were clothed in the classic garb of ancient Rome. but columns and pilasters. that is. and at other times with their true constructive significance. were applied in many novel and pleasing forms. with entablature and details. and goldsmiths somewhat naturally only looked at the finished results as the goal to be aimed at. From their well-known good taste. Italy. which were often used decoratively. indeed.

A building. continued in the matter of construction to a large extent to follow the traditions of the Middle Ages. as in many of the Roman palaces (No. COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. and architecture became to a great extent a personal art due to the fancy of individual architects. the period may be looked upon as the age of accessories. pilaster. instead of being dependent mainly for their form and effect on structural necessities. becoming largely independent of constructive exigencies. In . therefore. and thenceforward the necessity of making the jointing accord with the various architectural features being no longer imperiously felt. in which their principles were followed by their pupils and followers. the body and facing were one and the same thing constructively. The wide and narrow spacing of the pilasters in the Palazzo Giraud is a novel form (No. Architecture ceased to a certain extent to be subject to the considerations of use. It would be a great mistake. In the decorative detail. and. also. i. In the Gothic period each stone was finished. being often designed by men trained as painters. there was an endeavour to reconcile the Gothic and the Roman methods of construction. the Roman manner of forming the main walling of concrete and casing it with marble. moulded. and obliged the sculptor to make the decoration suit each piece of stone. In the Renaissance period the new mouldings and carvings could be executed with more exactitude and less expense in situ. and fountains. Speaking generally. was regarded rather as a picture with pleasing combinations of lines and masses than as a structure of utility. an advance was made.440 art. frieze.e. were special features of the style. Owing. 197). gold and silver work. dignity. a want of harmony between the jointing and the architectural features often resulted. but perceiving that this form was merely an envelope. attracted by the mere external appearance of ancient Roman art. were designed in great numbers. and cornice were employed as elements of composition with special regard to the artistic result and with considerable originality.. or brick was not followed. by the whim and fancifulness of the designer. and sculptured in the workshops before being laid a method which produced skilful and intelligent masons and stone dressers. for new and delightful combinations of features were introduced. to state that Renaissance architecture was solely imitative. or goldsmiths. stone. Such structures often have a princely sculptors. and to a greater extent an art of free expression in which beauty of design was sought for. because the architects of the period. it will be observed. which did not separate the structure from the decoration. to ignorance of Roman methods. 195). therefore. and tombs. monuments. altars. For the same reasons. fonts. in which iron. where the column. many of whom founded schools of design.

as in the Palazzo Riccardi. Florence (Nos. and was in no way imitative of ancient Roman buildings. and before proceeding to consider the development in each country. a straight in E). often of remarkable richness and beauty. EXAMPLES (refer to each country). a comparison of a few of the more prominent characteristics of the style with the treatment which obtained in Gothic architecture is given. 212. in the halls. Although important types of church design were evolved. chapels. country houses and elaborate In addition. it appears that the groins were now formed by means of the ordinates The Renaissance architects Dome. 254). plastered and painted with colored decoration. In the beginning of the fifteenth century the Gothic principles of ribbed vaulting were abandoned. 191 and 192). Likewise. giving place to the revival of the Classic method of solid semicirThis type of vaulting was much used cular vaulting (page 117). gates. in 1404. in Which buildings the wall was frankly treated as architecture. Renaissance Vaulting. they were the first to introduce as an architectural "motif" the wall of massive rusticated masonry with arched openings. but increased it " (No. facades to town buildings. Note. and was besides frequently built of wooden framing. with elliptical soffits. palaces. passages. as at the Vatican palace by In cases of cross-vaulting with narrow and wide Raphael. both in Italy and in elsewhere. 3. 441 metal work the bronze baptistery gates at Florence were won competition by the sculptor Ghiberti. oratories and public fountains were special creations. 202." in which windows were formed. Venice (No. in . and elsewhere. 209). spans. and staircases of Renaissance palaces and churches.RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE. line springing. erected. or added to many old buildings. yet the main the most characteristic monuments were the municipal buildings. tombs. the Palazzo Pesaro. and are the finest examples of a class of work for which these craftsmenThese accessories of architecture were architects were famous. thus making it a great external dominating feature (Nos. groins forming on plan instead of the wavy line produced by the intersection of a semicircular vault with one stilted above its of l* followed the Byzantine treatment in importance by lifting it boldly from its substructure and placing it on a " drum. Having now taken a rapid survey of the causes which led to the revival of Classic architecture throughout Europe.

254). Walls. by which a general effect of grandeur is produced. GOTHIC. 140 and 154). 4.442 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. and are covered with stone vaulting 123). Masonry was worked according to the nature of the material to It a new and significant extent. 213). and finials help to emphasize the vertical The dome is a pre- dominant feature (Nos. masonry of smooth-faced walling. and 173). 200. 20 1. and Bow Church (No. 136). 116. Walls. 253). Grandeur gained by multiplicity In (Nos. the nave being divided into three or four compartments (No. Angles of buildings often cated. Paul (No. Materials are small in size. B. a nave of the (Nos. 115. A. turrets.. 125. These were often constructed of uncoursed rubble or small stones (No. consequence of the large number of parts. particularly sought after (Nos. London (No. 114. no. Grandeur gained by simplicity and (Nos. which. 198. beauty of Picturesqueness and individual features portion of part to part carefully studied (Nos. Materials are large. at S. Towers are a general feature. 181. 197). in the lower stories. Towers are sparingly used. 255). A. and covered with domes and pendentives. The use of the material according to its nature was lost. the building appears larger than it more really is. as in a mosaic. structed in These ashlar were con- K. The parts are few. as in Florence. 252). Interiors are more irregular. Fewness a tenlargeness of parts have dency to make the building appear less in size than it really is. 159 and 187).e. 205. 199 and 203). Plans. and carry out the Gothic idea of multiplicity. 117. 212. 155. built in blocks of unstone. Small towers. Compare 213). 213. Paul. are exceedingly fine. 162. S. 175 and 189). Symmetry and pro- Plans. Interiors of churches were planned on Roman principles (Nos. . and carry out the Classic idea of fewness of parts. 128 The tower and spire are predominant features. COMPARATIVE. 192). 2 54). i. was occasionally rusticated heavily (No. 223. the design being paramount. and when they occur are symmetriIn England those cally placed. not built in horizontal layers . rusti- smoothed (No. bered same length as a Renaissance church twice as probably divided into many compartments. 223 and 254). tendency (Nos. 113). 121. 112. as rubble or flint. is not too much to say that. and are often crowned with a spire (Nos. parts are many. 193. RENAISSANCE. the rest of the walling being of rough materials. Compare Cologne Cathedral (No. 203. also of brick and rough flint work. or carefully indented with patterns Angles of buildings often of ashlar masonry or smooth-faced stone. each piece in a wall has its value in this style. Stucco or plaster were often used as a facing material where stone was unobtainable. or open-timThe roofs (No.

with a bright atmosphere. C. and often have stone mullions or the solid dividing uprights are small. with chimneys. 132 j. upon which they depend for their beauty. 206 D and ( Door and winare semicircular 2 1 4 C). Openings generally come over one another. The Classic system of moulded architrave (No. 197 and 200} and intricacy of mass are prominent characteristics (Nos. 242 and 243). though not necessarily so. 138 and 150). Roofs Vaulting was developed by means of the pointed arch.RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE. and in conjunction Hall (No. Openings. windows of the earlier period are large. Open-timbered roofs occur. Roofs.) Simplicity of treatment and breadth of mass are prominent characteristics 443 GOTHIC. 125. 193 and 211 K) or of semicircular form (No. D. Openings Doorways and other openings are surrounded by such architraves. 109 and depends and are in 112). without much regard to symmetry of composition. as S. Gable ends of churches and buildings generally were formed as pediments. and of considerable size.e. but were made much of in France and Germany. and crowned either with sloping parapet or ornamented timber barge boards (Nos.. must be reckoned as a means of effect. Vaults are of simple D. 142. the use or non-use of which means of decoration influenced number of the the size and openings. often richly carved. Door and window openings usually pointed (Nos. and are symmetrically disposed with reference to fagade. 164 of the style. the windows In northern Europe. Boldness and richness of sky-line (Nos. Openings. in the for effect on the richness of the carved bosses. and are painted in colored fresco. in formed receding planes (Nos. 94 K) projecting from the wall face was revived. with a low pitch (Nos. London (No. In Italy. . the placing of openings over one Windows and doors another. Roman form without ribs. 253). the most perfect specimen England being Westminster Externally 113 H). were placed where wanted. . of great richwith mouldings ness. Often little attention was paid to the centre lines. or square- C. 161. 162. are divided by mullions. 94 F j and 143). space vertically (No. but the tendency was gradually to plaster them up (Nos. and 173). All roofs other than domes were hidden in Italy. 125. 121. RENAISSANCE. window 246). with a dull climate. Domes have usually an internal plaster soffit or ceiling. were often provided with small circular shafts and carved capitals. 156 and 161). roofing is an important element in the design. This treatment was for the introduction of painted glass. as Jacobean halls. 143. Gable ends are steep. The dome over a large space was generally constructed with an inner and outer covering. 193. on the setting out of the ribs on which the severy of the vaulting and on the grace and rests. occupied by windows. beauty of these curves (Nos. i. 1 headed (Nos 194 E and 206 A). Paul. dow openings Nos. Open-timbered roofs a beautiful feature of the style. The influence of climate on these was important. 211 A.

often mark F. or pierced with open tracery (Nos. turrets (Nos. of circles joined by inclosed in rectangular fillets. battlemented. casting a deep shadow. Tablets and string courses of carved ornament occur (No. and the capitals and bases were either heavily moulded or carved with conventional foliage. Where used. 197. 123. 200. portion of height to diameter does not exist. and in the Florentine palaces is bold and impressive (Nos. G. sometimes. 133 and 147). but many new combinations of mouldings were The contours and mouldings portions are Roman lines. numerous pinnacles. they were attached (Nos. 'thus helping in giving relative value to parts (Nos." pressive of pressures upon the piers to which.444 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 214 and 218). Cornices. fluted spirally. The contours of mouldings follow as may be seen in the architrave (Nos. 207. 206. and structurally as for porticos (Nos. ings Vertical features. 192 and 198). 154. effect of verticality. 128. 192. 200. and by their frequency and importance produce an effect of horizon ta/ity. Mouldings. and was less strongly marked than the boldly projecting Classic cornice. 193 A. G. took the place of a cornice. balconies. 194. Cornices. often and on 215). 191. Cornices and Classic other features of origin (Nos. Columns. 191. 147). 165 A. The principal cornice plays an important part in the style. splay (No. and partly the raison d'etre of the immense traceried windows. recesses in the early peiiods. asintheRomanmanner(Nos. they ex- columns and orders were revived were entirely structural. which was lavishly applied to interiors. E. or wreathed with foliage bands of " and fruit. and are refinement beautifully carved. or in later times based on a diagonal designed. 160 The relative proand 177). 164. 209. - The Columns. figure The as human a scale. gay or solemn. GOTHIC. 145 G. 198.i95. however. 146). 209. 156. figure The human abandoned statuary being often much larger than life-size and 254) (Nos. Stained glass was used. 210 The parapet. 205 little to as a scale. RENAISSANCE. as Stained glass was extensively used. 205. being an essential quality. K. 153. 196 197. Ornament. such as buttresses and horizontal features generally (Nos. 204. 219 and 248). each story (Nos. adhered and 177). 162 and 185). I. from no building. 210 and 212) occur in every building. The shafts were often rusticated. 198 G. which acted as a frame . produce an Ornament. being the chief glory of internal decoration. all the best efforts at color being obtained by means of opaque decoration. string bands. varying in outline and treatment in different centuries. 197 and 209) are strongly pronounced. as fresco or mosaic. high roofs. F. 207. 158. Can spare the shapely Grecian column. or and used decoratively in fa9ades. Classic E. Mouldings. Mouldeffect depend chiefly for upon light and shadow. H and 254). with towers and spires. 161.

sculptors. noticing the influence of climate and race. Note. in the Sistine 445 GOTHIC. i. 174 and 190). Italy (see No. and.e.I.g. and colored plaster. derived from reading " The History of the Lives and Works of the most celebrated Architects. The student should study many excellent examples which have been collected in the architectural courts of the Crystal Palace. Interest in their works will be much increased by reading of the influences which directed these master-minds. Vasari. REFERENCE BOOKS It is (refer to each style). GhiDelia Robbia. Color for exteriors was dependent was sometimes applied to the exteriors.B. 165. Cathedral).. as in colored marbles of central Florence 181. translations of which are published. Library. possesses a decorative character in harmony with the architecture. often painters and berti. " Sgraffito scratched decoration. but in the best examples. and \ e. tive features. examples of their work being in the Victoria and Albert Museum." by Quatremere de Quincy. As about this period the names of architects begin to be prominently mentioned in connection with their own designs. Chapel. such as pinnacles. by Fra Giocondo Consiglio (page 490) at Verona. Donatello. RENAISSANCE. themselves being enriched. 214 and 218).. 133. for its reception (Nos. and the biographies of G. and elsewhere. peculiarities of the necessary to glance briefly through the chief Renaissance style or manner in each country. the Victoria and Albert Museum. 124 E. 5. Great efficiency in the crafts is noticeable in the work of the Renaissance architects early (Nos. buttresses. Carving was often grotesque and rudely executed (Nos. and others. and the various incidents in their lives which tended to influence their work. the social and political causes which were at now work. and arches. as in the Palazzo del on the actual material. Milizia. where possible. by " Michael Angelo.RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE. 153 B and 175). it will sometimes be convenient to group them into schools In this respect much information may be for that purpose. 194. .A. and will be found in the R. for it is only by a close study of the details themselves that the style can be thoroughly grasped. Rome. This was effected by the construc- who were 206.

They And love not fancies just betrayed. one of the powers of Italy. THE FLORENTINE SCHOOL." C LOUGH THE Renaissance of Italy varies considerably in the chief centres of the great revival. and this was due to various social and political causes. being near the surface.) (See page 404 for Italian Gothic. It must be remembered that Florence was more than a city. activity and influence of the Florentines caused a Pope to declare that they were the fifth element. which.ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. studious heads out again. worn-out story. Rome. The quarries of Tuscany supplied large blocks of stone and marble. which will be enumerated shortly. INFLUENCES (see page 437).) " Come. were easily obtained for building purposes. being." . o'er the white palace front Come The The The interrupted scaffold climbs anew walls are peopled by the painter's brush. As if a spell broke. 1 (See page 227 for Italian Romanesque. BROWNING. in fact. and the monumental character and massiveness of these materials considerably influenced the style of the architecture. all But pure form nakedly displayed^. . i. Florence. more vivid that it slept awhile 'Gainst the glad heaven. "Florence at peace. although its dominions included only a small part of Central Italy. Geographical. and the calm. the penetrating eyes . i. namely. each art You boast. statue to its niche ascends to dwell. And things absolutely made. leave your Gothic. and Venice. all resumed. Geological. artful tricks of light and shade. The ii.

In art he tended to the Puritan theory. wave took the popular side against the nobles. In Italy generally there was a of national enthusiasm and patriotic feeling and an endeavour to assimilate the old Roman magnificence in art. whose reforming energy divided He looked to the French king the city. Among other causes which affected the development of the style. As showing the commercial prosperity of Florence. . the sculptor of the bronze gates to the Baptistery. the bright and sunny climate rendered large openings for light unnecessary. As rival parties in the city were engaged in constant hostilities.D. gradually usurping His son Cosimo (died supreme authority over the State. 1442-1497). safety and defence were primary motives in building. at our feet. employed his wealth liberally in the advancement of art. who v. and architects. is The character of the climate well indicated ' ' by Tennyson : In bright vignettes. Michelozzo. 1431-1484). Ghiberti (1378-1455). vi. Religion. Historical. Social and Political. reproductions also being in the same Museum. The Medici dynasty. so intimately connected with the rise of Florentine art. famous for glazed reliefs in terra-cotta. Florence commenced to grow in importance on the removal of the inhabitants of Fiesole to the banks of the Arno in 1125. and each complete Of tower or duomo." At this period Florence produced the great iv. and was the patron of Brunelleschi. Masaccio. famous for his bas-reliefs and statues at Florence and elsewhere. his influence on the minds of his generation was not lost. Donatello. The artists of the period were often at the same time sculptors. it is worthy of note that the golden florin was first coined in that city in 1252.della painters. Savonarola. 447 Climate.ITALIAN (FLORENTINE) RENAISSANCE. Mino da Fiesole (A. was founded by John of Medici (died 1429). and although suppressed by the Pope. the Sistine frescoes bearing witness to his power over Michael to call Angelo. and among these were : Robbia (1400-1482). ' a general council to reform the Church. sunny-sweet. the palaces being in reality semi -fortresses. Dominican preacher. some of which are in the Victoria and Albert Museum Lorenzo . iii. Lippi. and Florence "the Athens of the Renaissance" became the centre of the revival in art and literature. Luca . and others. Pietro and Lorenzo Medici succeeded Cosimo. and soon became the general standard of value in Europe.D. Or palace how the city glittered Through cypress avenues. and swayed its policy. Donatello (1386-1466). 1464) He founded the Medici Library and Platonic Academy. and Benedetto da Majano (A.

The general absence of pilasters. In 1494 Charles VIII." The sparing use of carved detail. and in fact of features of any The massive kind. afterwards as the Kingdom of Etruria. who. The short-lived republic of Savonarola (see above) followed. 191). followed. 259). being proportioned to the whole height of the building. one Italy Pisa became subject to Florence in city bore rule over another. especially under Cosimo I. Dante Alighieri (1265-1321) took part in these conflicts. however. Paolo. Siena being ceded to him in 1557 by the Emperor. as the Republic.Ghibellines. as in ancient Greece. 2. it enjoyed political freedom with the exception of the years 1807-1814. took the town in 1530. gives a marked character of simplicity to the style. as in the Ospedale degli Innocenti and the Loggia S. as decorative features. but eventually the wealthy family of the Medici became the ruling power in the State (see above). and into the hands of Austria. were finally reinstated by the Emperor Charles V. the former being generally successful. is specially noticeable in the design of the palaces. blocks of rusticated masonry in the lower stories (No. the Duchy passed In 1801. acting on behalf of the. greatly extended the Florentine dominions. The columnar arcade is . and the latter gradually became the chief power in The grouping is 1406. during his brief invasion of Italy. who. of France occupied Florence. during which time it was incorporated with France. together of the independent commonwealths of a feature of this period. but the Medici. Ghibellines (pp. 230. (1537-1564). being divided into the hostile camps of Guelphs and Italy. which are therefore called "astylar. suppression of political liberty followed. (No. a special feature. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. the Grand Dukes of Florence. During a siege of eleven months. the House of Medici becoming extinct.448 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. and mural monuments and altars are exceedingly rich with sculpture and decoration. 192) of the Florentine palaces give to these buildings that character of solidity and ruggedness for which they are remarkable. His successors. possibly derived from the arcaded cloister of the mediaeval monastery. which arose from his claims on the kingdom of Naples. but in 1860 it was united to the Kingdom of Italy. The Michael Angelo acted as the engineer of the republic. and. During this period the nobles were at constant feuds with each other. The palaces were all built round interior courts. in spite of successive banishments.. as in the Riccardi Palace 191 grand D). and also in the fourteenth century the artistic capital. until in 1737. The effect of these palaces is considerably aided by the massive cornice which crowns the structure. the walls resting on columnar arcades (No.

his design being accepted in competition.) The architrave type is that in which mouldings inclose the window. and ribs. will be briefly enumerated. Lorenzo. 191 and 194 D) . and others. Florence (No. Florence (A.D. and Riccardi Palaces.ITALIAN (FLORENTINE) KE&AISSANCE. It is said that it was constructed without any centering. Pitti. (c. EXAMPLES. 1420-1434) (Nos. and also shown in . the chief works of Brunelleschi. and is raised upon an octagonal drum is in which are circular windows itself is lighting the interior. studied the features and construction of the Pantheon and other examples of Roman architecture. 176 and 181) was Brunelleschi's principal work.No. and S. as being the leaders of the Florentine school.D. 193). which henceforth exerted a considerable influence over his works. being constructed on a Gothic principle with eight main ribs and sixteen intermediate The dome S. and is probably the earliest F. as in the courtyard of the Pandolfini Palace' and in the Palazzo Riccardi (No. The groups : types of doors and windows may be divided into three (0. a Florentine by birth. and consoles on either side support a horizontal of pediment cornice. consists of a round a'rch. and a flat wooden ceiling to nave. this being the final development. ascribed to Raphael. Note. 3. 194 F. in the centre of which is a circular column supporting a simple piece of tracery (Nos. (b.) The arcade type. as at the Strozzi. usual in the heavily rusticated examples. BRUNELLESCHI (A. constructed of inner pointed in form. It covers an octagonal apartment 138 feet 6 inches in diameter. 1425) (No. Spirito. and outer shells. are both examples of churches on the basilican plan. as employed in the' Pandolfini Palace. 1377-1446). Having reached the period when the personality of the architect has increased in importance. The Dome of Florence Cathedral (A. with voussoirs having horizontal joints. Alberti. the latter having aisles formed round the transepts and choir. 192).A. his main object being to complete the unfinished dome over the Cathedral of Florence. 193 D).) The order type is that in which the opening is framed with a pilaster or column on each side supporting an entablature above. G G .D.




but the fa$ade (A. Florence 1470). ALBERTI (1404-1472) was a scholar deeply interested in classical literature.D. 193). alternating with entrance vestibules. which cause the entablature to be mitred round the pilasters of the order which carry the lunetted half dome of the apse. in the facade over S. are examples of the massive rusticated buildings with heavy crowning cornice for which the Florentine style is noted. although dignity was lost compared with the Pitti Palace. 453 instance where isolated fragments of entablature are placed on each column with the arches springing from these. Andrea.D. Over the intersection of the nave with the transept is a dome. is particularly notable and important as the type of many modern Renaissance churches. the interior ornamented with a single order on pedestals supporting a barrel vault. 193 A. Francesco. take the place of the customary aisles on each side of the nave. Florence the first 1451-1455) is known as which superimposed pilasters were used. " De those of Brunelleschi. B. lighted by three windows. a thirteenth century in the revived style. The Ruccellai Palace.D. in both of which he appears to have been associated with Michellozzo (1397-1473). The perfection of the proportions makes the interior of this church one of the grandest in the style." which largely influenced men's minds in favour of the revived Roman style. Maria Novella. The chancel is apsidal. was one of the churches in which consoles were placed the side aisles to connect them with the nave. S. and the front is reminiscent of a Roman triumphal archway. Mantua (A. is a refined example of his smaller works. Croce) (A.ITALIAN (FLORENTINE) RENAISSANCE.D. 1447-1455). (A. 1472-1512) (No. was remodelled was never completed. The Riccardi Palace (1430) (Nos. c). and his works exhibit more decorative treatment and are less massive than He wrote a work on architecture. Chapels. Renaissance building in S. Rimini Gothic church. consisting of a dome over a square compartment. which is entered through an open colonnade of six columns supporting a decorated vault and forming the front fa9ade. Re ^Edificatoria. The Pazzi Chapel. and consists of a single nave with transepts. 191 and 192) and the Pitti Palace (1440). first (A. by the reduction in size of the great crowning cornice. 1420) (No.D. and shows a lighter and more refined character. r . in the drum or lower portion of w hich are windows lighting the interior. Florence (in S.

" Das Ornament der Italienischen Kunst des XV. "Detail and Ornament of the Italian Renaissance. " Les edifices de la Ville de Genes. Stuttgart.).. "The Architecture of the Renaissance 8vo.454 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Schutz (A. Gruner (L.). (see page 490). P. 1867." . Alberti (L." 8vo. 4 vols. Eliot di Architettura della Citta di Firertze.)." Romola." Folio.'' Melani (A.).). GENERAL. 1901." 1888." Burckhardt " Die Renaissance " F..san< 1882." Folio. Buildings. cinque libri d'Architettura." (Historical Novel. folio.). 1902. Fresco Decorations and Stuccoes of Churches and Palaces of Italy. plates in folio and text in 4to. " 1611. Strack(H. Raschdorff (J. 4. " Oliphant (Mrs. Peake." Die Architektur der Renaissance in Toscana. Dresden. " Details from Italian i82. Jahrhunderts.)." 2 vols." 410. "Scelti Florence.Makers of Florence.).) and Widmann (A. Hamburg. Berlin. V." (George). Sanmicheli(M. Kinross (J. J.)." 1890. REFERENCE BOOKS. Le Fabbrichecivili Ecclesiastiche eMilitari. 1882. Paris. FLORENTINE SCHOOL. C. 1886. G. Anderson (W. in Italien." Folio. Paris.) . " De re redificatoria.). Reinhardt (K. in Italy. &c. "Architecture Toscane. J. Ruggieri (F. 1891. 2 vols.." 4 vols. " Die Renaissance in Italien." 1832." Fletcher (Banister " Andrea Falladio. (J. entitled "Architecture in 1726.).) et Famin (A. Von. 1874. Nicolai (H.). folio. 3 vols." Folio." Toscana. Note." Folio. Ten Books.). Berlin." Folio. Munich." English translation by R. "Central und Kuppelkirchen der Renaissance in Italien. Geymuller (H. H. Anderson (W.). Oakeshott (G. and the Gaudagni Palace.). 191). 1888.). 1885-1894. 194. Characteristic Florentine ornament is shown in No. B. COMPARATIVE 5. entitled " The Five Books of Architecture made by Sebastian Serly. 1899." Architectural Studies in Italy. or I dieci Libri de' 1'Architettura.). Gauthier (M. 1738.. " I Serlio (S. Folio.. examples.)." Folio. 1818. J." Folio. " Genua. 1854. are other Florentine. The Strozzi Palace (1489) (No." ." English Translation by Leoni.). " Manuale di Architettura Antica e Moderna. 1891-1895.). both by Cronaca. folio.). Grandjean de Montigny (A.


Historical. states as one would eat an artichoke Julius II. 1415. Some hoped that Italian unity would be effected under the papal sway. proposed to effect this by absorbing the Italian leaf by leaf. Raphael. During the fifteenth century the popes were temporal princes. Colosseum. extracted. i. ncphc\ to Alexander VI. vi.) Religion. Pantheon. and fortified palaces were not necessary as in Florence. During the absence of the popes at Avignon. broken temples spread. Rome was the home of the old classic traditions. In Rome a central government existed. Geographical. The unique character of Rome as an was its prestige as the capital of an empire that had crumbled away. 404. Geological. formed the quarry from which much of the material for the Renaissance buildings was (See pages 112. i. Hi. except during the brief rule of Rienzi's republican state in 1347." \vild ! ! POPE. Social and Political. and whose architecture was now being revived. as sacred and secular capacities were The Jesuits. the factions of the barons continued unchecked. and the decoration of old ones carried on by successive painters of whom Peruzzi. in consequence of which party spirit was checked. (see below). besieged Bologna in person. Splendid new palaces and churches were erected. popes took place in 1376 under Gregory XI. The return of the The scandal of rival . The remains of old Rome. which naturally exerted great influence in any new development. 1376 helped to restore her to her former position of importance and prosperity. INFLUENCES (see page 437). and Caesar Borgia. existed to counteract the Reformation. iv.. who afterwards spread abroad the style of the Renaissance in other parts of Italy and beyond. A school was created for artists and workmen. by rendering the papal influence universal v. such as the ii. Climate.COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE THE ROMAN SCHOOL. and great patrons of art and learning. Michael Angelo. and others were eminent.D. The ruins and new buildings are important as forming models for influence the whole of Europe. founded in the often combined in the same pope. " See the How Rome With waste of all-devouring years her own sad sepulchre appears nodding arches. the popes took a more prominent position as Italian princes. From the time of the Council of Constance. later Renaissance period. and during the fifteenth century they greatly extended their temporal dominions in Italy. The return of the popes from Avignon to Rome in A. and colonnades.

ITALIAN (ROMAN) RENAISSANCE. though checked in 1848. by the Emperor Charles V. and founded the new cathedral of S. without Rome ceasing to be the headquarters of the papacy. a warlike and ambitious pope. He was a Florentine by birth. 1492). and was not always exerted for good. 3. 1527. but it was replaced by that of France. and in the ducal dominions. which was sometimes crowned by an attic. The Classic orders were largely used in the facades and courtyards (Nos. 457 popes at Rome and Avignon was terminated in 1415 by the Council of Constance. but never by another superimposed . Spanish influence became powerful. practising first in the city of Milan. The growth of the power of Austria was next felt throughout the Peninsula. was born in the year that Brunelleschi died. but is most successful and suitable in detail for the terra cotta with which it was constructed. and was probably a pupil of Alberti. BRAMANTE (1444-1514). ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. which they endeavoured to attain by making a whole building appear to be of a single story thus two or more stories were included by an order of pilasters. S. taken and plundered on the 6th May. except tiers of arcades. 196) and the Giraud Palace (1503) (No. which was strong under Louis XIV. to which Bramante added the choir. an abbey church of the fifteenth century. Julius II. an effect of dignity (No. after which Rome rapidly gained in wealth and prestige. educated as a painter under Andrea Mantegna. and a general attempt at correctness and conformity to the ideas of ancient Roman architecture preThe size and simplicity of the palaces of Rome produce vailed. transepts and dome. Rome was.D. until the rise of national feeling which. Peter and the Vatican. The Cancellaria Palace (A. for the last and seventh time. led in 1870 to Rome becoming This remarkable revolution was effected the capital of New Italy.. 1495-1505) (No. The principle which animated architects in the later school was that of unity. in which a more pronounced classical tendency is seen. Maria della Grazie. 195. in the EXAMPLES. 197). 195) are examples of Bramante's later works. in imitation of the Colosseum. . is essentially transitional in style with Gothic feeling. the first Roman architect of note. Milan (A. but studied at Rome.D. order. extended the temporal power. 2. form of Arcuation was only sparingly introduced. 196 and 200).

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of all the examples of the school. Peter (No. the Tiber. and detail thus he uses flat pilaste'rs. by Cola da Caprarola. was founded on this design. and Greater and Lesser Belvedere Courts in the Vatican well-known examples of his secular work. Dorchester House. Pietro in Montorio (1502) is a perfect of gem (No. 1485-1546) erected the This is the grandest Farnese Palace. founded in design on the small Roman circular temples. Damaso. as tending to show the influence which Bramante. 199). a system afterwards made use of by Sansovino in the Library of The remarkable frescoes of this building S. and circular-headed openings. Maria della Pace.D.D.ITALIAN (ROMAN) RENAISSANCE. B. Rome (A. who may be called the " continuator " of the style of Alberti. framed by square lines His " Ultima Maniera " is seen in the (Nos. whether of plan. S. and contained windows. 203 D). Bramante's works every European country. 199 architecture. 196 c. had its later cloister court of arcades supporting columns constructed in 1504 of the middle period especially exhibit great refinement in mouldings. 1891. S. 196 A and 206 D). Rome.D. 1506). Transactions. Rome (Nos. 1536) (No. BRAMANTE'S PUPILS AND FOLLOWERS. Rome (A. 210). 1503). erected in 1484. Park Lane. Maria della Consolazione. c). are S. Mark (No. The latter was central arched loggia and rich crowning frieze.A. by Vulliamy. Ant. The Villa Faniesina. which appeared in the R. is interesting. both in design and detail. but is overladen with pilasters. is especially interesting in the way the convexfagade has been treated.B. The Tempietto in S. is ascribed to his influence. The Massimi Palace. were executed by Peruzzi and Raphael. London. bold and grand designs for the Courts of Law (never finished) near " for S." by Baron von Geymiiller. buildings at Baldassare Peruzzi (1481-1536) was the architect of Rome.D.I. 461 The Cortile of the (A. the Cortile delle Loggie. D). and in his " projects An article on "The School of Bramante. carving. section. is a two-storied structure (each story comprising an order) with boldly projecting wings. and is executed in brick walling . by Bramante. exerted on the development of the Renaissance in 'Rome and in . and able to execute works so finished in detail. or elevation. Todi (1508-1604) (No. ornamented with cupids holding festoons. 197 and 198). da Sangallo the younger (A. the internal diameter being only 15 feet A. an example full of refinement and beauty. and few architects of the school were several so well trained.

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At Rome. BAROZZI DA VIGNOLA (A. he exercised a great influence on the development of French Renaissance architecture. 201) is a pentagonal semi- Rome . rendered pleasing by bright coloring. London. The Villa of Pope Julius. Columns or used only in a special way to form frames -to the windows. 463 with travertine dressings from the Colosseum. The excavation of the Baths of Titus gave Raphael an opportunity of studying the interior decoration of ancient Roman buildings.D. 1507-1573) exercised great influence by his writings. He designed the facade of S. 238 D. The grand crowning cornice.D. which is a one-story building. and also the Villa Madama (A. It is quadrangular in plan. with figures of men and animals. The internal open court (" cortile ") is in the style of the Colosseum. The surface of the vaulting was found to be painted with studies from the vegetable kingdom. including his masterpiece the Palazzo del Te. 1550) (No.D. each of the stories being well marked horizontally by pilasters are projecting string courses. (A. Lorenzo in Miranda. to the garden and the painted ceilings are remarkable. he was engaged on S. The Pandolfini his death).D. and with such objects as vessels and shields. The Palace of Caprarola (No. which was a special feature in the original design (No. 198 B) was added later by Michael Angelo. r G. and the design is perhaps the nearest approach made on the part of a Renaissance architect to reproduce the features of a Roman villa. now the Etruscan Museum. 1516). Florence. Peter." Being taken back to France by Francis I. but did little.ITALIAN (ROMAN) RENAISSANCE. London. the stucco decorations being by Giulio Romano. and comprises The recessed arcaded facade large saloons round a central court. decorated with the Doric order. 1492-1546) was a pupil of Raphael. 1483-1520) was the nephew and pupil of Bramante. and the use of hard stucco with painted decorations was one of the things he learned from these remains. The designs for the decoration of the Vatican Loggie. and a reduced cast of a portion of it may be seen in the Italian Renaissance Court at the Crystal Palace. and the "motif" was followed for the Reform Club. E). but authorities differ as to his exact responsibility for the designs ascribed to him. is Palace. (page 497).D. erected in 1530 (ten years after one of his most famous designs. Giulio Romano (A. all blended together in fanciful schemes. the "motif" being afterwards followed for the Travellers' Club. and was the architect of buildings at Mantua. Raphael (A. w hich he carried out. and was the author of " The Five Orders of Architecture. is one of his best known works. were based on these Roman examples.


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finished the Farnese Palace. 75 c). and the unfinished municipal palace at Bologna. 1524). was the most important building erected in the period. and the dome is beautifully decorated in mosaic. Peter (No. over the alleged. 199) one of his earlier and a simple oblong on plan having an elliptical dome with pendentives. H H 2 . smaller works. 137 feet 6 inches in diameter. and carried out the Dome of S. MICHAEL ANGELO (A. S.D. representing the Fall and Redemption of Mankind. Peter. The Gesu Church (A. and colored to imitate marble. producing a rich effect. 203 and 213) it was a Greek cross. The walls are faced with plaster. Peter (page 471).ITALIAN (ROMAN) RENAISSANCE. the later it. having statues of his patrols.D. 199) is one of many is Rome designed on the lines of S. consists of existing church (No. are other works. and painter of the roof of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican (A.D. to architecture. 200 and 201).D. The high altar stands under the dome. the central crossing is covered by the dome. page 500). 1550) (No. tomb of S. 204) has one gigantic order of Corinthian pilasters. and the Laurentian Library (A. but perhaps his best work was the reconstruction 'of the Palaces of the Capitol (A. Rome. extension of the nave and aisles toward tne east practically bringing the whole scheme to a Latin cross. Lorenzo. Rome (1506-1626). 80 feet wide.D. the western arm being precisely similar. S. Peter. All comes united to th' admiring eyes. Andrea. four bays of immense size. This w as probably effected so as to inclose the whole of the area of the previously r The nave." 100 feet high. 203 E). He life. 1540-1644) (Nos. late in but reckless detail mars his work. also turned his attention." POPE. 1520) (No. The two small cupolas at S. Peter. fortress situated 467 on the spur of a mountain looking down into the valley. 1508). " No single parts unequally surprise. and the short transepts are terminated by semicircular a'pses. within a " baldachino. His principal works at Florence were the Mausoleum (or New Sacristy) (A. and many architects were engaged upon In plan (Nos. the chancel being at the west end. Lorenzo and Giuliano de Medici. 150 feet high. while the internal circular court is suggestive of the Colosseum at Rome (see the Chateau de Chambord. 1474-1564). recalling Hadrian's tomb in mass and outline.D.D. (A. crowned with semicircular barrel vaults. a famous Florentine sculptor. grand examples of one-order buildings. both at S. 1568-1632) (No. The interior (No. 193 D). A vestibule at the East end extends the whole width of the church.

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. the drum of which he completed. the detail is rendered less offensive by its smaller scale. roughly executed in travertine. Giuliano da Sangallo (d. has an immense order of Corinthian pilasters. 1546.D.design in the form of a Greek cross with entrances at East His design for the dome is shown in No. Peter was recognized as a model of which numberless churches were erected throughout Italy. 203 L. a synopsis of the history of this building Bramante. Antonio da Sangallo the younger succeeded him A. idea of the building. 203 M. with an attic 39 feet high surrounding the entire building. were entrusted with superintendence Division of opinion existed as to altering of the work. The A. A.D. 203 c) and lofty His plan is shown in No. which had shown signs of weakness. S. the innovations of Sangallo. The view of the dome from the east except at a distance. 1516). 1564. however.D. Foundation stone laid. The design owes much to the circular four-fold colonnades added by Bernini in the seventeenth century.D. 1536. is nearly cut off behind the screen wall of the now extended nave. Death of Bramante. end. and at his death (1564) left drawings and models for the completion of the work up to the lantern. shown in No. Vignola continued the building of the church. 1520. in which process the masterly planning of the accessories. He rejected Michael Angela appointed architect. 1514. A. but died A.ITALIAN (ROMAN) RENAISSANCE. formulated a 1506. the original architect. A. Raphael.D. D. 203 j. Giocondo (d. 203 B. 1536. 1520.D. and A. the top of which is 405 feet from the ground. 1515). The capture and sack of Rome disorganized all artistic work. as in most drawings of the church. with a central dome (No. the construction of the great dome. A. Death of Raphael. disappeared. His suggested plan is shown in No. which A good inclose one of the noblest entrance courtyards in Europe. as architect (d. Proposed a picturesque design of many orders. strengthened the piers of the dome.D. and simplified the form of the aisles. 202. is to be obtained from the model at the Crystal Palace. Baldassare Pevuzzi appointed architect. restored the design to a Greek cross. 1513. in its general distribution. 471 The exterior (Nos. by Raphael. 137 feet 6 inches internal diameter. 203 and 205). 1546). 108 feet high including entablature. following is : Fm plan is A. campanili.D.D. in which. which were to give scale to He planned and commenced the interior. Raphael's suggested ground original plan to a Latin cross.

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D. Giacomo della Porta and Domenico Fontana A. 6 in. in yards. are ineffective in relation to the whole mass. in S. the Palazzo Barberini. in front (Nos. and erected the present contemptible facade (No. Quirinal and Vatican Hills. 6 in. there is a the portions of separate dates colored differently. 6 in. instructed by Paul V.000 148 S. Diam. Giovanni in Laterano. 203 E).D. 176).000 7A 156 205 Pantheon (No. In Baron von Geymiiller's book. 142 ft. excellent in themselves. COMPARATIVE (see page 490). also by Fontana. which is very interesting.. . 202. 1585-1590. Rainaldi appointed architect and prepared designs A. A. 138 ft. (No. 203 K. 137 ft. yds. 80) 9. 203 K).D. 202. and also a comparison drawn between the fundamental principles of design which characterize each plan. Carlo Maderna. Paul.D. and the Fountain of Trevi (A. campanile.D. 54). 213) S. The Papal Palaces The (1586) is portico to north transept of S.ITALIAN (ROMAN) RENAISSANCE. He also erected the brazen baldachino under the dome (No. The Portico to S. Note. Other examples in Rome are : (A. 1543-1607). 473 adding the cupolas on either side of the great dome. 203 E). 204) with metal taken from the portico of the Pantheon. 109 ft. Peter. erected the dome from Michael Angelo's wooden model. Compare plans (No. were by Fontana. These (Nos. Sophia 8.35O 170 Area in Length sq.D. for " With arms wide open to embrace The entry of the human race. 1629-1667. by Maderna. 1605-1612. The Palazzo Borghese (A. 206. 176). 1734). already mentioned. 1612. Maria Maggiore. Bernini erected the fourfold colonnades inclosing the piazza. 4. 1743). 650 feet wide.D. A. 1574-1590) on the Lateran." BROWNING. Giovanni in Laterano The Facade of S.D. lengthened the nave to form a Latin cross (No. 18.D. of . with scheme. by Galilei (A. 1735). Maria Maggiore (A.150 118 Cologne. : Milan (No.dome. Florence (No. and the Chapel of Sixtus V. S.D. but effected nothing. Characteristic Roman ornament is shown in No. by Fuga (A. 107 ft. E and 205). 1590). 10.


"The School of Bramante. ) Yeats (S.-X. And before that dream of light. The history of the Venetian state was always influenced by the proximity of the sea." Palais Massimia Rome/' Folio. B.) et Fontaine (P. folio. Broad. and dome. Jahrhunderts.). Vicenza. L. 1868. 1891. 404).3 vols.. Venice lies." " P. F. the sapphire-tinted sky. Rome Moderne. Paris. (G." Folio. Amphitrite's destined halls.) et Haudebourt (L. F. red." Rienzi. Berlin. Raccolta delle Chiese di Roma. Paris." The best English editions are those by Leoni and Ware. de). quivering line Of the water's crystalline . and the peculiar formation of the coast.. "Studio d' Architettura Civile della Citta di Roma.). Fontana " ''Edifices de Letarouilly (P. Geymiiller(H. 1882. Maccari (E). effect of this commercial prosperity lasted well into Renaissance times (pages 232. The Honour of Savelli.ITALIAN (ROMAN) RENAISSANCE. folio. M. Palladio (A. Fabbriche e Design! di Andrea Palladio. L. tower. Paris and Vienna.de). Ocean's nursling. 11 Palazzo di Caprarola. " 2 vols. 1891." J Historical Novels H THE VENETIAN SCHOOL. Suys (T.. " B. 1809. 4to vol. and the . 410 and folio. of text.). u Baudenkmaeler Roms des XV.. half-reclined On the level. Scamozzi (O. Projets primitifs pour la Basilique de St. ! A Column.I. Stiack (H. " Les Geymuller (H. folio. As within a furnace bright." 4 vols." Folio." 1 Quattro Libri dell' Architettura. :> 4 vols. Paris.). Which her hoary sire now paves With his blue and beaming waves. Pierre de Rome/' 2 vojs. Roma." SHELLEY INFLUENCES (see page 437). 475 REFERENCE BOOKS. Rossi (D. Folio." Letarouilly.). Lo the sun upsprings behind. " Choix de plus Celebres Maisons Percier (C. radiant.A..)." 3 vols. Lytton (Lord). Berlin." . " Underneath day's azure eyes. de). folio and Le Vatican et la Basilique de Saint-Pierre de Rome. Geographical.). due to her important geographical position. 1818.IX. Panting with inconstant motion From the altar of dark ocean spire To i. and Shine like obelisks of fire. 1720-1721. peopled labyrinth of walls. -The greatness of Venice was founded on Oriental commerce. Paris. 1776." R.). 1855. de Plaisance de Rome et de ses Environs. 1875-1880. 5. i. Trans.

due to her political necessities in those days of growing temporal power. there was a period of transition. but the residences . arts which had meanwhile been silently developing shed a glorious sunset over the waning glory of the mighty republic. Venice was engaged in conquering the surrounding towns. except in North Italy. such as the palaces which line the Grand Canal these however were not fortresses. owing to the previously existing circumstances of the two cities. and eventually in 1715 the whole of her possesYet " the sions." 2. Religion. its commerce was diverted to the Portuguese. Climate. Social and Political.the architecture of upon Venice from that which produced upon the architecture of Florence. breezes. In the middle of the fifteenth century (1453. The Venetians had a beautiful type of Gothic architecture of their own.476 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. the learned theologian Paolo Sarpi (1552-1623) The being the adviser of the State during this crisis (1607). Historical. important influence on its art. different effect it The Renaissance movement had a very . churches. The government of Venice was republican. being great. exist in many houses. were not so much under the influence of that city as was Florence. though tempered by sea The northern position called belvederes. This favours out-door life. During the whole of the fifteenth century. Venice continued to maintain a semi-independiv. the earlier buildings . ence of the Pope. as at Florence. and the rivalry of the leading families led to the erection of fine and lasting monuments.. Venice has the appearance of a floating city ii. founded in the sea. between the periods of Gothic and fully-developed Renaissance. renders chimneys more prominent than in other Italian cities. to which Venetian nobles were appointed governors. and. palaces. Geological. tolerance of Venetian policy is shown by the erection of the Greek church. and merchant princes. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the Venetians were at constant war with the Turks. By the discovery ot the new route round the Cape to India by Diaz in 1486. and houses being set upon a structural formation having an piles in a shallow lagoon. Strong loyalty to the State even the clergy was manifested during the attempted interdict among of Paul V. an interesting example of the local Renaissance. the heat in summer iii. and the supremacy of Venice in the East was undermined. Constantinople was taken by the Turks. v. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. being farther from Rome. Therefore. of peaceable citizens vi. were taken from her. Open top stories.

giving access to the upper portions. Extreme depth was sometimes ^iven to the frieze. B). in general. in which windows were sometimes placed more graceful kind than that of Florence. 210 A.D. columns and pilasters (No. but the continuation of the design. The architecture of Venice is.D. the Giant's Staircase. 208). London.D. 210). Mark's Library and the palaces by Sansovino (A. 3. was executed in 1584 by Scamozzi. and give light and shade to the facade.' leaving comparatively solid boundaries to the facades (No. in the 477 style having Gothic in conjunction with Renaissance notable instance is in the pointed arches of the Renaissance facade in the courtyard of the Doges' Palace (No. palace. balconies (No. is unusual. The regularity of the disposition of a Venetian facade is described by Browning. and having a straight frontage with the water. The facade of the Geological Museum in Piccadilly is founded on the design of the lower part of the courtyard facade of this 1486. and have no great projections. 1554. 207).D. 209). This design has been followed for the Carlton Club. Mark (A. The Court to the Doges' Palace (No. 210 F) details. as. rustication of walls. the detail became large and projected boldly. Door on door exactly waiting. EXAMPLES. heavy rustication being used to contrast the basement with the upper part of the facade (No. 209) are graceful and important features. and a cornice usually marks each story (No. by Ant. in consequence of the houses being situated on the side of The canals. A. one order higher round S. as at Florence. SECULAR ARCHITECTURE. producing strong effects of light and shade. In Longhena's works and other late examples. A special Venetian feature is the grouping of the windows near the centre. who talks of the " Window with window just The mating. being erected by Sansovino in A. 210) was commenced Rizzi. in S. 1536) was erected by Sansovino (No.ITALIAN (VENETIAN) RENAISSANCE." is In the later period perfection of details characteristic of the Venetian Renaissance. which facades are comparatively flat. new A (see below). of a lighter and being used freely in all designs. Mark's Square. . for instance. 1479-1570). having the same effect as the recessing of portions of the structure. The Library of S. in contrast with the great crowning Florentine cornices.







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S. 1534-1562). and has curious sculptured perspective. 1549). 1575). and S. 209). Giorgio Maggiore.D. held to be founded on (A. 1576) and S. 1451-1493). was erected by Sansovino. S. are later examples. S. the facade of which was by Pietro Lombardo. and a small tower also carried up. A secondary dome covers the chancel. with a Renaissance treatment of tracery. by Sansovino (No. 1538).vaulted bays.D. with domical and barrel. Maria dei Miracoli . 1481). The Scuola di S. 1532) the Grimani Palace. The sacristy is beneath the raised choir. their fanciful shapes contributing to the rich effect. by Tullib Lombardo. 1536. not uncommon in Venice. 1632). 485 The Zecca. which is covered with a roof of semiThis is emphasized by a circular form. reliefs in ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE.D. the facade of S. being a modified copy). groups most beautifully with the surroundings on the Grand Canal. The Cornaro Palace (the Army and Navy Club. 1560) were both by Palladio (No. as exhibiting the difficulties of adopting the Classic orders to the facades of churches of the basilican plan. Marco (A.D. Zaccaria (A. architect. 212) over the aisles. by Pietro Lombardo. 211). Mark. 1530). 1480) (No. In plan it consists of an octagon with chapels projecting on each side. Giobbe (A.ITALIAN (VENETIAN) RENAISSANCE. S. semicircular. (A. Giorgio Maggiore (A. 1485-1533). Giorgio dei Greci (A. is a rich example. 1456-1515). S. by Pietro Lombardo (Nos. the central space being covered by a circular dome. 211 c. London. although the facade of the latter was by Scamozzi (A.D. 212 and 213 E). and has a peculiar treatment of column rustication. Salvatore (A. has no aisles. are other churches worthy of note. The walls are faced internally and externally. and the Pesaro Palace . by Longhena (Nos. Zaccaria. Note. 211). or Mint.D. Francesco della Vigna. Maria della Salute (A. the plan derived from S.D. 1650-1680). These churches are instructive.D. 211).D. Characteristic Venetian ornament is shown in No. a feature which also occurs at S. by Sansovino (A. by Sanmicheli (A. by Sansovino (A. whose drum is connected to the outer walls by buttresses (No. semicircular pediment on the facade.D. as shown in No. Mark.D. and S. 207 and 208). The Vendramini Palace (A. which projects on the side opposite the entrance.D. and the choir is raised twelve steps above the nave. 214. by Longhena (No. contributes to the picturesque grouping of the exterior. has to each story an order of engaged The windows are columns the earliest example in Venice. has a fagade (1562) by Palladio resembling S. with delicately carved and different colored marbles.D. II Redentore (A.D. a transition example.D. are other examples of the early or transition period.



(A. which appears externally as a low It is dome above the main building. owes its importance to the double-storied Renaissance arcades. with the stage built in perspective. separated by arches supported on a minor order. the whole composition. 1580).D. 1556). of both of these methods. 216 D. and it has also been England and on the Continent. the Palazzo Tiene (A.D. E. who was also the originator of a new system of fortification. hipped copied elsewhere. and the entrance gateways through the fortifications of Verona are excellent instances of his power of giving character to his works. and measured. is an interesting building completed by Scamozzi. F and and the Palazzo Valmarana The Teatro 238 B). Olimpico (A. 216 G). and he wl& followed in his methods by Inigo Jones (page 567). the Palazzo Chierecati (A. c) were designed by Palladio in 1549. His designs were mostly erected in brick and stucco. 215 and 216 A. 216 G). and are his most famous work. an architect of ability. This is generally known as the Palladian "motif" and was produced in this case by the necessity of making each bay correspond with the Gothic hall. being built in a beautiful stone in two stories of Doric and Ionic orders. and the upper ones having pilasters. These are notable cities possessing many examples of Renaissance architecture. . 1556). all the Roman antiquities. 1484-1549). The Villa del Capra.D. the scene of his labours. B.488 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 216 H). Vicenza was the birthplace of Palladio (A.D. 1570) (No. These arcades (Nos. and are counted in the Venetian School. the lower story being rusticated. Vicenza (generally known as the Rotonda). and were often never fully carried out. originally erected in the mediaeval period (about 1444). still their publication in books had a far-reaching influence on European architecture. with a pillared portico on each face leading to a central rotunda. as the Palazzo Barbarano (A. He indefatigably studied. all of this building Although Palladio's designs were mainly executed in common materials such as brick and stucco. to obtain scale in that feature.D. 1518-1580) and His churches are referred to above. The design Lord Burlington at Chiswick the tiled roof. of which it forms the frontispiece.D. a square building.D. both in ways from the angles ol was utilized by (page 581). as may be seen by the drawings in his book on architecture. is an example of the application of the features of Classic architecture carried to an extreme (Nos. and unity and dignity There are several examples in Vicenza in. Verona owes many of its most important buildings to Sanmicheli (A. The Basilica at Vicenza. VICENZA AND VERONA. the Palazzo Capitanio (formerly Prefitizio) (No. A second method was to comprise two floors in the height of the order (No. 1560).


to the Roman. Windows are disturbing elements. circular and elliptical. as those in the Barberini. and picturesque disposition was adopted otherwise a straight front to the canals had to be adhered to (No. 198 and 199). were used. Rome.4QO by a bold and COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 211 D). the Byzantine domical treatment (No. Staircases. 207 and 209). 1550) (No. Rome. as in the Colosseum. 193) were vaulted by ascending barrel-vaults. and the Basilican (No. The style of pilasters (No. the Roman coffered and vaulted nave (No. In the multiplicity of parts the style allies itself Florence. a broken. 200). The style of columns (Nos. 19 1. A. The Palazzi Pompeii (A. The utmost to adapted town. he gave great extension original treatment. Plans. with columnar supports. were all followed. while subordinated as a whole by the great top cornice (No. and the dome on pendentives (No. Two or more stories are united by an order upon a graud scale (No. 217 A). are features. Walls. B.D. a style of rather than country buildings. COMPARATIVE. In church work. Where an open site permitted. 199 c). placed in a central area. 191) was adopted. and is chiefly remarkable " " work of the facade. planning Staircases inclosed by walls (Nos. Excessive separation by the entablatures is modified. In church work. 191 and 192). In pure wall treatment it is akin to Egyptian art. Staircases. 195). the dome over a circular space (Roman type) (No. 193 E). the dome on pendentives and Basilican plan (No. 193 A). the Roman barrel-vaulted type (No. THE FLORENTINE. . Venice. sgraffito Characteristic ornament is shown in No. In church work. Canossa. Corsini. Venice. The style of fenestration and rusticated quoins The astylar treatment. in which to the use of rustication as a means of effect. Florence. 211). 1500) at Verona was erected for the colored by Fra Giocondo. which dispenses (Nos.D. 196. with orders and makes each story complete in itself. are the best known examples of his style The Palazzo del Consiglio (A. and Braschi palaces and the Scala Regia of the Vatican. More varied planning on a grander scale (Nos. surrounded with arcades. Note. 193 j). AND VENETIAN SCHOOLS. 218. Bevilacqua. 199 G). 4. Stories are defined by an order to each. simplicity and compactness. and corrected by breaking them round the columns. . without which the designs would have the unity of Greek temples. were used. complex. and at Verona. ROMAN. belong to this school. 208).

217. .

218. .

were not regarded. c. forming a semi-tracery head (No. and simple cross or waggon-vaults in halls. was continued from previous periods (Nos. In churches. Roofs rarely visible (No. Pavia. the arches springing direct from the capitals (No. obtained by window spacing. The typical opening is an archway in rusticated work. after the style of the then newly-discovered Baths of Titus. A square-headed opening was treated with a framework of architrave mouldings (No. and even such features as balustrades were not regulated by use. 207 and 209). Openings seem small in relation to the great order adopted (No. Openings are large. D. E. Florence. Venice. Vaults of a similar kind were more elaborated. Roofs having balustrades preferred (No. were adapted to palace facades. 192). 192). and severe in treatment (No. 493 Openings. In courtyards. The treatment of a centre and two wings. 191). . 193). as in the Colosseum. 194 D). the low internal cupola was often covered externally by a lofty structure in diminishing stages. In Milan and other North Italian cities. numerous. wide. as at the Certosa. Venice. Openings are small.spaced. Florence. 210 A). and the motif' of the style. and S. 197). Raking vaults feature (No. Rome. 196). arches resting directly on columns are typical (No.ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. but by the system of proportion to the order employed (Nos. 198 H). the low dome over the crossing was a favourite Florence. 211 and 212). Maria della Grazie. and later on with orders on a small scale. 191). Rome. generally frescoed. divided by a column carrying two minor arches. Domes mounted upon a high drum and crowned with a lantern are universal in churches (No. Pictorial effect was attempted in the vaulting of halls and staircases. 197and 200). The application of the orders on a great scale is the " In their use. Rome. internal necessities of the building. Domes are grouped with towers in churches (Nos. though columns were used to arcades. surmounted by pediments (No. Columns. Flat pitch tiled roofs are sometimes visible (No. treated with coffering or stucco modelling (No. the scale of openings. Early examples do not have the orders (No. 195). 195. 197). to staircases. the arcade and colonnade. Milan. 191). and close set . 199). Roofs.

" Le Fabbriche e i Monument! cospicui di Cicognara (Conte F.'' XT Hlstoncal Novels.. 191 and 194). 206). 1898. to give full effect to the of which were based on grand crowning cornice. projections. and the high relief of sculpture competes with the architectural detail in prominence fruit (No. until Michael Angelo. Paoletti (P. Prominence of detail is characteristic Venice. " Vicenza.. while spandrels have figures in high relief (Nos. . architects. despising the sound methods of the earlier of the late entablatures have deep soffits and keystones. REFERENCE BOOKS." Folio. The problem of successive tiers of orders was worked Venice.494 ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. 1890-1894. G. scrolls. Ornament. is collected in masses. Ruskin (J."Marietta. Venice (No. and his followers. painting and its application to buildings the artists of the great schools of Italian painting had an by important decorative effect on all the schools. 208 and 209) projecting columns were preferred to pilasters. Mouldings." 2 vols.). Decoration. Every spandrel has its figure. 1838-1840.. Marion). Venezia." Folio. . Renaissance works in Venice . 207. and entablatures were usually broken round these . Florence (No. 209).)." " Venezia "(published by Ongania).). Moulding stories Rome. Calli e Canali in Venezia. 1893. "Makers of Venice. Ruskin (J. such as carving and sculpture.. 210 and 214). Stands midway between Florentine and Venetian work. e la Scultura del Rinascimento in Venice. L. Venice. '21. folio. Venice. 192). 5.) Examples of the Architecture of Venice.). which contrast with the plain wall surfaces. F. . and masks." Crawford (F. Those between are few and simple. Florence. London. folio.)." 3 vols. the details Classic examples (Nos. 1851. 8vo. were reduced to the minimum. 3 vols. The revival of fresco Sculptured ornament to friezes carved with infant genii. out (Nos. and less exuberance than is found in the latter. Rome (No. Schmidt (O. Close adaptation of the features of the Classic orders marks the Roman style (Nos. 1851-1853. Leoni (G. 194). Oliphant( Mrs. introduced their arbitrary details.). "The Architecture of Andrea 1715. Palladio. 214). Decoration is equally spread throughout the facade. having more variety than prevails in the sternness of the former. and great projection. 208. " L'Architettura " . was abundantly used in the three schools. . 198 and 206). '42." Stones of Venice. as in the great stone shields at the angles of palaces (No."/ ) .

the niches with statues executed by the greatest sculptors of the day. and is probably the most important of the early examples. 1500-1572). supported by large consoles (No. and for its octagonal sacristy.D. and is specially remarkable for the small scale of its parts. the windows occupying the square intervals between these brackets. . one of the richest and most populous The powerful family of the Visconti. with the help of the Italian sun. has the west facade (A. Maria delta Grazie (A. Many of the palaces were painted wholly in one color.ITALIAN (MILAN AND GENOA) RENAISSANCE. treated in perspective. and in the great courtyard of the Ospedale Maggiore (A. Brick and terra-cotta were the materials chiefly to hand. in the Renaissance style. in which advantage was taken of the sloping sites to produce beautiful vistas of terraces and hanging gardens Genoa These buildings usually have their basements pilasters were freely introduced as a decorative feature while the facades were crowned by a bold projecting cornice. gives them a very bright appearance. and Venice. and received their name from it. the arrangement of the vestibules. which was covered with stucco.D. very suitable to the material employed. the leading lines being essentially Lombardian Gothic.D. rusticated. is famous for its chancel wall. 217 . there were many noteworthy buildings which be briefly referred to. 495 MILAN AND GENOA. near Milan (page 408). and the bright coloring. which was erected in the Gothic period (A. and were employed in the Church of 5. S. has some remarkable buildings. former times had built Milan Cathedral (page 408). by Borgognone. 1492) (page 457). and . Palazzo Rosso (red). The Genoese palaces are remarkable especially for the entrance courts. although clothed with Renaissance details. Although these cities formed no distinct school. Satire. 1474). The building material at hand was brick.D. principally designed by Alessi (A. as the Palazzo Bianco (white). D). and flights of steps. Pavia. 1457). Milan (A. to resemble stone-work. Rome. 217 B). The dome is interesting as a Renaissance copy of a type used in the Gothic period as at Chiaravalle and elsewhere. of Gothic feeling may Milan was. The arcaded galleries. by Bramante. a Both these buildings possess a considerable amount Florentine. the detail is delicately and richly modelled. as it is now. as Florence. by Filarete. by Bramante.D. and the wealth of beautifully executed detail. greatly encouraged art. The Certosa. a pupil of Michael Angelo. 1396). The Palazzo Municipio (Doria(No.D. who in of Italian towns. It is in marble. courtyards. make it one of the richest and most is and perfect specimens of the arts of the architect and sculptor. 1476).

and a strained originality in detail. are the best known. commencing at the time when the movement in religion connected with the Jesuits was in progress." Folio. style is a debased application to architecture of Renaissance features. and of the period." Folio. represents an anarchical reaction. V. Peter. and consisted of exaggerated and badly-designed detail. huge scrolls. 1853. Milan. because the Rococo period. and Borromini (1599-1667). Paravicini (T. Paris.). " Die Renaissance Architektur der Lornbardei. C.). Durelli (G. and the Palazzi Durazzo. often overemphasized by gilding and sculptured figures in contorted attitudes. 217) S. 218. The Rococo. 1855." Les plus beaux edifices de la ville de Genes. which was followed in the seventeenth century. and Tursi) (A. B. Carlo Madema (1556-1639).). Characteristic Note.D. and broken and curved pediments. or Baroco. extraordinary degree. THE ROCOCO STYLE. 1552). publics et particuliers de" Turin et La Certosa di Pavia. and among the most prominent examples are the Roman churches of S. 5. without regard to fitness or suitability. Gauthier (M." moderni di Genova. Maria di Carignano (A. Such work is to be distinguished from the mixtures of certain forms of the early Renaissance. Agnese by Borromini. were among the more famous who practised this debased form of art. broken curves in plan and elevation. Rome. the ornamentation was carried out to an style.496 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. " Architecture italienne edifices Callet (F. and many churches at Naples and modern forms. Bernini (1589-1680)." : Folio. Cambiassi of also by Alessi. 1878.). This style." 1663. its almost universal extension style being a ideas to monument to their activity. Rubens (P. Pans. and F. and the features described are specially to be seen in the Jesuit churches throughout Italy and the rest of Europe.'' Palazzi antichi et Dresden. coming after the reign of a highly systematized classical style. P.). 1818. ornament is shown in No. . P. cornices made to break round them. was designed on the lines of Raphael's plan S. was adopted by them for its essentially modern character. when the was commencing. can Renaissance movement. REFERENCE BOOKS. are the characteristics Columns were placed in front of pilasters.) et Lesueur (J. Maria delta Vittovia by Maderna. 1564) (No. Sinuous frontages. Balbi. The application of classical of bad detail. beneath the trappings in the later period of the be traced elsewhere.D. and twisted columns are also features of the In the interiors.

362. The number of chateaux erected during the early periods of the Renaissance in France was due to many social causes. and by Francis I. the Jesuit style (page 496) prevailing in those built during this period. iv. not only in architecture. Vignola. France had now more clearly defined boundaries. the supply of churches erected during the mediaeval period proved adequate. (See page 246 for French Romanesque. and workmen over Europe. and more especially many returning in the train of the French kings. Climate. Paris is built. as London is a brick city. and from Paris emanated any movement. and Napoleon. Refer to pages 246 and 362. The Reformation maintained practically no hold in France. v. As. moreover. and Cortona. Serlio. Palladio's pediments and bases. such. The invasion of Italy by Charles VIII. INFLUENCES (see page 437) Geographical. PrimaIn the later period. Cellini. and is a stone city. brought to France by Francis ticcio. the Italian Bernini was . K K . in 1494. F. Among the chief of the artists were Leonardo da Vinci. Thus the Louis XIV. in 1527. in spite of the conquests of Louis XIV. Religion. style.) "In all new work that would look forth To more than antiquarian worth. were not permanently extended. iii. which hereafter. and furniture. Geological.FRENCH RENAISSANCE. Social and Political. Rosso. ii. Refer to page 246.) (See page 362 for French Gothic. had little effect upon churches." CLOUGH. will find their places. so to speak. but also in science and literature.the end of the eighteenth century. in a quarry of a fine-grained building stone. I. i. marks the distribution of Italian artists France.A. Paris at this time was the capital of a compact and rapidly consolidating kingdom. which had an universal influence upon interiors. Or something i. the old order remaining until. it was the domestic work which took the lead in this period. in vindication of their claims to the thrones of Naples and Milan. Refer to pages 246.

Louis XII. between the Huguenots and The Massacre of S. and Louis XIV. comprising the reigns of: Henri IV. and in 1508 Louis joined the league of Cambray formed against Venice. and drawn into the Renaissance movement. Francis I.. lomew took place at Paris. claiming the kingdom of Naples. at the same time becoming more absolute in their own country. The style may be divided into three periods (a. 1461-1589 (or sixteenth century) comprising the reigns of: Louis XI. in the Netherlands and Germany. His conquests. were thus brought into contact with the superior civilization of Italy. 1498-1515. : Henri III.) ine Classical Penod. 1574-1589. 1589-1715 (or seventeenth century). 1543. In these wars the French kings. and to his great defeat at the hands of Marlborough. marched through Italy. From 1558 to the end of the century. 1610-1643. 1572. and Louis XIV. after which there was an emigration of Huguenots to England. Rousseau. distracted the country. Charles VIII. 1525. The English were driven from France in vi. in A.) The Early Renaissance Period. In the reign of Louis XV. 1589-1610 (introduced classic type). (1610-1643) Cardinal Richelieu strengthened the royal power. 1559-1560. Louis XIII. 1461-1483. and the writers Voltaire. led to a general coalition against him. A band of Italians journeying from the guest of Louis XIV.COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. BarthoCatholics. of France. (1715-1774) the evil effects of despotism and bad government became more marked.f. became an absolute monarch. ^d . Francis II. and prepared the ground for the great revolution that began in 1792. Florence being the ally of France during all this period. During the reign of Louis XIII. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. (0. was defeated and taken prisoner by the Spaniards at the Battle of Pavia. 1547-1559. ' Refer to pages 439. although failing in their actual object. 1643-1715. Francis I. 2. During the first half of the sixIn 1494 teenth century Italy became the battlefield of Europe. and others weakened authority by their attacks. 1515-1547' Henri II. Historical. and the accession of Louis XL. Cardinal Mazarin continued his policy. ascending the throne in 1643. 1461 practically led to the consolidation of France into one kingdom by the reconciliation of the Duke of Burgundy. 1483-1498. the religious' wars. 442. place to place was responsible for much of the picturesque early Renaissance south of the Loire. /56o-i574. The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 led to a further emigration of Protestants to England.D. Ch le * IX . Charles VIII.

Considerable variety however arose in use and disposition . so that every fa$ade was of importance. In order to understand better the architectural character of French Renaissance it is compared with Italian in the following table : ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. Paris.FRENCH RENAISSANCE. in buildings erected Principal towns. The large number of the churches of the jVliddle Ages sufficed for existing needs. A return to Classic forms occurred. Predominant characteristics are stateliness and a tendency to Classical horizontality. picturesque grouping from every point of view (Nos. Early buildings were principally chateaux for the nobility. 193. Influence of Rome less apparent. 219). partly because of distance from the headquarters of the Renais- A A sance movement. 222). 222). dukes and wealthy and powerful popes (Nos. nymphs. although the number of Italian palaces of the epoch is very large. Influence of ancient Rome and her buildings apparent in greater purity of sculptured detail. FRENCH RENAISSANCE. as at the Church of S. and a tendency to Gothic verticality (No. only applied to the front fa9ade Principal buildings erected in the country. Venice. 204).. The latter reign 499 was a period of remarkable artistic activity. being palaces built for royalty and nobility. 195 and 207). while internally a fanciful style of stucco and papier mache decoration of scrolls. 199. 220. Severe Classic disposition not only appropriate but necessary in the narrow streets of Florence and Rome. 1715-1793 (or eighteenth century). where the chief buildings were erected (No. characteristics are picturesqueness. city palace as in Florence. Chateau de Blois(No. The picturesque disposition ot Gothic origin. church-building age (Nos. mostly on the banks of the Loire. Venice. 1715-1774. in consequence of the comparative fewness of these buildings erected in the Middle It was essentially a Ages. prising the reigns of : 1774-1793. and direct A period of transition in which Renaissance details were grafted on to Gothic forms. (. shells and figures form important elements. being palaces for kings.e. is seen on all and the importance of a (No. and in ornamental features. the architecture being correct and dignified with a large use of the orders externally. Rome. and Louis XVI. country chateau sides. wreaths. 211. as Florence.) The Rococo Period. 207). comLouis XV. Early buildings were principally churches. 203. 212). 221) was sought for in these buildings. or on the straight waterways of Venice. 221 and 223). i. as Chambord (No. Eustache (No. or Rome is principally seen from the street. 221). It was essentially Predominant a palace-buildingepoch(Nos. who vied with each other in the erection of these important structures. K K 2 . "220). 220.of the revived architectural features (No. and the architectural features were often appltgue. more in keeping with the country surroundings. 192.

a courtyard being an exception (No. and is provided with a. with no traces of Gothic influence (No. near Blois. and attached to these. The above description applies equally to French town houses. The country houses of the nobles in the Venetian territory.D. and which contained the reception rooms. The Chateau de Bury (A. is and Francis Edinburgh. The Chateau de Chambord (A.D. are symmetrical and stately. and offices and stabling on the other. in the style of Palladio. and in the centre of one side was Each of the side wings to the court is placed the chapel. 219). 1526) (Nos. The chateaux on the Loire are irregular Gothic castles. whereas in English country houses after the time of Henry VII. 3. 131 and 244). introduced from Venice. but with a colonnade facing the court. (A. solid externally. are long wings containing the is servants' apartments on one side. 220 A. by Pierre Nepveu. the windows all face outwards. is one of the most famous erected in the . These are connected at the further end of the court with the main building (Corps de logis) in which the family resided. 1508). The Chateau de Blois I. F). forming two sides of the court. 220 and 221) over features essentially Gothic. It consists of a large square court. the mullioned windows showing the preference for the square section of mullion. i 515-1547). as in the ancient Roman atrium' (the courtyard corresponding to the atrium). porteThe screen wall is flanked by towers. and vaulting bosses. 1520) (No.500 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. and the repetition of the carving of the salamander. Behind this main building was the garden. version (minus the staircase) is to be seen in Fettes College. EXAMPLES. ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. up to the present day. FRENCH RENAISSANCE. cochere.. E. are notable.. a typical example and may be compared with a typical English plan (Nos. A Scottish the emblem of Francis I. one of the more important examples (No. In shell ornament. and 221). the letter F decoratively formed among the carved balusters. as mentioned above. was largely employed.D. B). and square internally. erected by Louis XII. SECULAR ARCHITECTURE. D.D. 219). 220 c. circular externally. with slight modifications dependent on site and local necessities. 131). with a coating of Renaissance detail (Nos. and the The rich crowning cornice and carved roof dormers. The pilaster treatment of the fa9ade. in front of which is a screen The wall. entrance is in the centre of this wall. In French country houses the windows face on to an internal courtyard. 2 16 D. one story lower than the main building. or carriage entrance. are interesting (No. the famous " Staircase Tower" by Francis I. which contained the family apartments. (A.


FRENCH RENAISSANCE EXAMPLES. I.i ' F/tto If BfID flf 7Ef ^ ' e&sanrj r3^r=inn. I II llJlllilJ.tBl. . K U PI | IJU' 220.

The smallness of scale in regard to mouldings. which give to the building its characteristic confusion. the chief interest of this example lies in the sumptuous interiors. These conical roofs are broken up. There is a remarkable irregularity in its plan. especially the high-pitched roofs.D. The exterior is remarkably plain. the building exhibiting. due in part to the convent it replaced. built up in a cage of stone. and protected on three sides. Primaticcio and Serlio (No. was surrounded. and possesses a semi -fortified The traditional circular towers of defence. under Italian influence. roofed with slate covered cones. by rich dormers (No. L. as shown on No. Other noteworthy examples are the Chateau d'Azay-le. Egham. 1515-1578). corresponding to the keep of an English castle. with four halls as lofty as the nave of a church. architect. by while the fourth side was defended buildings inclosing a courtyard by a moat. 225). whose favourite residence it was. in consequence. Contrary to Blois. picturesquely situated by a lake. advantage to the pentagonal semi-fortress of Caprarola (No..D. M) and tall chimneys. and Vignola and Serlio seem to have worked on the design. the flatness of the projection to the pilasters. 220 feet square.D. "is square on plan. and the Chateau de S. and standing for the most part on a bridge over the water. 400 feet square.Laye (A. the Gothic feeling throughout the design. The main block. by Vignola . 220 F. of sky-line. make this example one of the most characteristic of Early French Renaissance buildings. The general design of the Louvre was originally intended to cover the ground of the fortified Gothic palace which it replaced. Rideau Germain-en.FRENCH RENAISSANCE. 1520) 1515-1523). This may be taken as the most important building in the style. The present design consists of two stories and an attic (No. commenced the work in 1540. The central feature. (page 463). where possible. character. but the original design . An English version is the Royal Holloway It may be compared with College. a complete history of the progressive stages of the French Renaissance style.D. 1539). the first architect. or "donjon. At the junction of these halls is the famous double spiral staircase. whose crowning lantern is the central object of the external grouping. as in the saloons decorated by Benvenuto:: Cellini. and its construction lasted from the time of Francis I. and the general vertical treatment of the features. arranged round a courtyard. to Louis XIV.D. the ornamented chimneys. The Palace at Fontainebleau (A. The Louvre. for Francis I. yet richness. 201).. Paris. are incorporated in a palace design infused with Italian detail. 1528) was erected by Le Breton. Pierre Lescot (A. (A. 220 E). 503 Loire district of central France. the Chateau de Chenonceaux (A. 225 K. and tunnel-vaulted with coffered sinkings.

u .

and an order of pilasters of less height was provided is for the attic story. 1610-1643) the Louvre. (A. as mentioned above. and triangular or circular pediments were placed over pilasters. during 1852-1857. the Pavilion de 1'Horloge being added to form the centre of the enlarged court fagade. The destruction of the The Tuileries Palace.D. (A.FRENCH RENAISSANCE. above which is an open colonnade of coupled Corinthian columns. Only a portion of one side was erected. whereas the Louvre stories. Under Napoleon III. entablature was pierced for admission of windows. 505 The only only included a court one-fourth the present size. Under Louis XIII. B. Perrault added (1688) the eastern fagade. in which a certain richness and dignity are added to the picturesqueness of the earlier inclinations periods. Paris for menced . the northern portion fronting on the Place du Carrousal (completed by Napoleon III. the throughout. 1564-1572) was Catherine de Medici. windows. du Cerceau. The sculptured work by Jean Goujon especially noteworthy. (A. by Philibert de l'Orme. the Louvre was finished by Visconti.D. The lower order is of Corinthian. without any reference to construction or fitness. Under Louis XIV. consisting of In the a domical central pavilion with low wings on either side. as built by Lescot. reign of Henry IV. com(A. and additional stories were added on the north and south sides of the court to make up the necessary height to the eastern block. the details being coarsely carved Corinthian columns run through two stories. (1863-1868) and the Republic (1874-1878)) was constructed to connect this building with the Tuileries Palace. 600 feet in length. and shows the debased of the period. but was finally effected under Napoleon III. throughout of solid walling. two stories were added by F. broken up only by pilasters. the gallery facing the Seine was erected (1595-1608) by Du Cerceau. 1515-1570). and other architectural features. was doubled in size by the architect Lemercier. 1589-1610). The problem of effecting a proper junction between this palace and the Louvre was a crux of long standing because of the want of parallelism between them.D. courtyard in Italy to which that of the Louvre may be compared is the Great Hospital at Milan.D.(A. due no doubt to climatic influences .D. commenced in 1456 by the This was formed of open colonnades in two architect Filaretc. 1510-1572) is Under Henri IV. forming one of the most pleasing specimens of modern French art. by the addition of the fa9ades north and south of the Place Louis Napoleon. consisting of a solid-looking basement. the upper of Composite pilasters. Under Napoleon I.

1863-1875) Amongst (A. are very fine. are examples. . Genevieve. Orleans. as the House of Agnes Sorel. 1664.D. was erected by Francois Mansard. and the apses of S. and is remarkable only for the uniformity and tameness of its The dimensions are very large.D. and general refinement of detail. H). terraces and arbours. in .D. Tuileries during the Commune in 1871. 1871 and the Opera House (A. altars and doorways. for Louis XIV. of tombs. from which wings project by 170 230 feet. early examples of the incoming style consisted mainly. fountains. and many others throughout France. Pierre at Caen. the Hotel de Ville. 1611) (No. Florence. and is shown in plan and It is notable for the effective use of elevation in No. in the The Palace of Versailles was commenced in A. . was erected by De Brosse for Marie de Medici of Florence. thus giving a total of Le Notre laid out the gardens which. The . architect. near Paris. .D. The Chateau de Maisons. 1843-1850). and having screen and portecochere in front. Rouen." 315 feet feet and three stories in height. The tombs of Louis XII. the central projection design.D. Florentine buildings. treatment of the. as England. . 223 E. and additions to churches. a corp de logis. and Cardinal d'Amboise at Rouen the portals of the church of the Trinity at Falaise the external pulpit at the Chateau de Vitre.e. later examples in Paris are the Arc de Triomphe 1806) by Chalgrin the Library of S. F.D. near Paris (1658). by Jules Hardouin Mansard (1647-1708). the Hotel de Bourgtheroulde. Beaugency. with its astylar the Louvre. in which Renaissance details were often grafted on to Gothic forms.506 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. (A. It is now used as a Senate House. there are many charming examples of the style. reconstructed in its original style of the Early Renaissance (A. by Gamier.320 feet. facade (A. measuring 320 feet and each wing 500 feet.D. i. the Classic orders to each story. the intention being to imitate the bold and simple treatment of It resembles the Pitti Palace. In addition to the important buildings mentioned. 223 G. the mansard roofs treated separately for the pavilions and central portion. courtyard. Denis Cathedral.D. ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. has rendered the connecting galleries architecturally ineffective. enclosing a courtyard. 1515) in S. . The Luxembourg Palace.. 1533) by Ballu and Deperthes in A. by Labrouste completed by Visconti the Hotel de Ville. with their 1.. pulpits. however. " It has a French type of plan. Paris (A.



or lower portion. deeply -recessed portals. Paul. commenced in 1670 by Bruant. 1627). and other Gothic features. over all is an external dome crowned by a lantern of wood. with circular As to the exterior. 1532). London. is an unfortunate example of the intermediate period. 223 D) is approximately a Greek cross. In plan it is a Greek cross.S. are so formed as to produce internally an octagonal effect. 1750.D. but clothed with detail inspired from Italian sources.D. the openings leading to four angle chapels. 1629) was designed by Lemercier and has a domical treatment with a facade of superimposed orders. S. laid out on Gothic lines. above which rises a dome. The Dome of the Invalides. flying buttresses.D. The Pantheon (1755-81). (A. with double staircases and carved balustrading in Renaissance detail. in fact. above which is an interior dome. clothed with Renaissance detail. vided with windows in the drum. Paul and Louis. 175 feet high.FRENCH RENAISSANCE. a kind of apsidal end.D. Paris in plan is ability of the masons of the period. 223 A. The church is. over this comes a second or middle dome. overloaded with decoration The Church of the Sorbonne Sulpice. S. covered with lead. illustrating the highly developed technical Eustache. 69 feet in diameter. 1517-1538) is another example to which the same remarks apply. pinnacles. four halls surrounding a central one. by Jules Hardouin Mansard. The plan (No. external stone lantern. The construction differs considerably from that of S.D. thus bearing a similarity to S. It has a famous rood-screen. Paul. Paris (A. The dome is a triple one (No. rests on four piers. S.D. The dome. which completed the scheme of the Hdtel des Invalides. Paris (1670-1706). to its three-storied facade. Paris (A. 1650) the grand two-storied facade being added by Servandoni in A. it has high roofs. by Lemercier (No. 1713-81). was erected from the designs of Soufflot (A. shows that the principles of the Italian Renaissance were fully established. appear independent of the dome. The exterior of the dome is poor in comparison with that of S. 223 c) as that of the Invalides. with a central opening. mentioned above. with painted decorations. B). Paris (A. London (No. which. 92 feet in diameter. Etienne du Mont. Paris. being at a different The triple dome is prolevel. where an intermediate brick cone supports the . 222). because of the apparent weakness and want of variety of the unbroken ring of free-standing . with the corners filled in so as to make it a square externally (No. 253). Renaissance tracery to the windows. Amongst the later examples are S.D. but the outer dome is of stone covered with lead. Paul. 509 (A. provided with openings to form The piers eight. a typical five-aisled mediaeval church. visible by means of windows at its base lastly.


FRENCH RENAISSANCE. 1804) was erected by the architect Vignon. to stand on the piers or giving columns of this arcade. The The castles of the previous period influenced both plan and design of the early chateaux. which often occurs in French buildings. and that the comparisons state what usually is the fact. The vaulting is ingenious. 350 feet by 147 feet. the cella. At the east end is an apse covered with a half-dome. 208 and 220 and 221).D. being divided into three bays. The Madeleine. . A. some of which were on the site of. viz. In plan it is an octastyle peripteral temple. the joints of which confuse the lines of the fluting. 5!! columns unattached to the drum. which are in Italy. which has. on the first or principal " floor. or portico at the west end. It is usual for the main wall. in all important examples. hall castle the first floor. Plans. and has been decorated recently with frescoes by foremost French artists. ampler space for the important rooms. ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. 191. with two lower wings inclosing a courtyard cut off from the street by a screen wall. on Plans. A. a colonnade or arcade round it. the cornice to which is carried round the remainder of the fa9ades. and being a further step towards absolute copyism. through the eyes of which is obtained all the light for the church. Paris (A. COMPARATIVE. 196. or additions to. The typical house plan in the towns has a main block. 198. or central open courtyard. although in many cases features are found which do not exactly correspond with the type. the light being obtained for the nave by a clerestory over the aisles. that the columns are built of small courses of stone. and the architraves are formed into flat arches with wide joints. called the "piano nobile (Nos. which have a blank wall treatment. Chambord may such castles. The interior of the church has an order of Corinthian columns with an attic over. The interior is fine and original.. 4. 224) has a Corinthian colonnade the edifice. great feature ot Italian houses is the cortile. and elegance has been obtained by a tenuity of support. but it must be borne in mind that the subject is treated generally. showing a direct imitation of ancient Roman architecture. covered by flat domes. which at one time threatened the stability of The exterior (No. The essential differences between Italian and French Renaissance \vill now be treated in a comparative manner. 217). and half palace (Nos. The external order has a defect.FRENCH RENAISSANCE. as it would be called in a Classic structure. be counted as an attempt at an ideal plan of a mansion.

on account of the use of the great cornice. In the later buildings greater and transoms of the Gothic method continued. The attic was a between consoles. the horizontal lines of their entabla- metry plainness prevails to give effect to the orders. High roofs are special roofs are special features. lated and the Symmetry reguposition of openings. 215 and 216). 196. 220 and gradually gave place to 225) and balustraded pedimented elevations (Nos. Symin position was carefully late work. position (Nos. 219. 224 and 226). Attics are rare. 221 and 222). varied by facades Straight orders. usually came increasingly into use. Chimneys. with circular windows (No. pling of windows was effectively practised. designs were often astylar. 191. the mullions In early. are in plaster (Nos. ! 9 2 > 1 9S) except at Venice. 195. the openings being the features upon which all the detail was concentrated (Nos. The mansard roof lent itself to pavilions which mark the angles of the facades. B. 223 E). for the reason that in a narrow street the roofs could not be seen. but an open top feature story (Belvedere) is a Brickin houses of all classes. K). if used at all. 207. 192 and 197). while the centre often has an attic (No. 192. or Walls. In the Rococo period a return was often made to the astylar principle. 226 R). Openings. special windows (ceil de bceuf ) often occur in it support to D. sometimes combined with c. to preserve the range of openings externally (No. Roofs. work was used in large and rough masses with ashlar facing. or frieze. main cornice. ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. Chimneys continue to be marked window orders. or were set tures prevailed (No. features. 197. determined their 199. with elaborately carved dormer windows and chimneys. 198 and 210). 191. which give sky-line and picturesqueness to the design when viewed from a distance (Nos. but red. B. Italian work. In early examples were made visible roofs above the tile The French Mansard form preserved invention of the the roof . but as the orders. so as not to interfere with the fa9ade treatment. one for each story. which give the' and circular feature. c. in attended to Mezzanine floors were much used in large mansions. The gables and window-dressings were crowned by a deep cornice at the top (Nos. 226 J. as at Genoa and Vicenza. 219. Early 200. features. arcades. 223 E). though less ornamented Stone was the chief^ (No. Flat or low-pitched D. the top floor openings were often formed as a deep band. Walls. in late examples the use of Classic orders. designs convenience. brick was''. (No. material. Roofs. attention being concentrated on the prominent stone dormers of the early period (Nos.512 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. or dressings Later examples. it. 216 and 217). rather than the Openings. were masked as far as possible (Nos. FRENCH RENAISSANCE. 220). when excessive prominence and exaggeration of detail marked the window dressAs the attic was rare in ings. the main apartments then having an upper row of windows. Vertical cou221 and 225 K). 221). though changed in detail (Nos.

225. (No. and hangings of the early period were superseded by the universal Louis XIV. the details assigned to each were used in full. 204. I n later work it continued. In early examples. given each story (No. 196. ence pervaded the early work. Mantua. F.211 and 212). 513 FRENCH RENAISSANCE. An " order " or column was usually 220). nice The heavy cor- for protection from the glare of the Italian sun (Nos. * 218).A. often splendidly carved with arabesque designs. have extremely small the top cornice. Domes were relied upon for sky-line in churches (Nos. 200. as a feature (No. rusticated or panelled in star . slates being nailed in the sunk faces of the stonework. but gradually lost the character The and scale of the material. modelled plaster were much employed. Compare the Vatican. Mouldings. where they assume the importance of towers. as in the The arabesques of Raphael. Ornament The wood times (Nos. Interiors. Pilasters were Columns. ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. 191. 200. were regulated unduly F. which was the type of Palladio (Nos. 192 and 197). and combinations of methods. Fresco and 214 and 218). sometimes out of scale with the architecture. but sometimes treated with foliage common. and as lent itself it 210 A). E. 219). Later stucco work suffered in the same way. the later being nearly always balustraded (No. L L .as at the Louvre. 226). members. G. in the profilings of mouldings were tried Some examples. however. 217. Where the orders were employed.shaped patterns. 214 star-shaped J. 2060. (Nos. 223). as at Blois. great cornice. and devoid of decorative value. 225 K). An " order " was often made to include two or more stories of a building. while sinkings are un- decorative adjuncts to Gothic features. 206. In churches especially a single order prevails. 193. frescoes were. Columns usually do not The run through two stories. The "Belvedere " gives character to villas. pavilions. as (No. generally in late work. 199. G. Classic and Mediaeval. to give value to was provided Gothic influMouldings. the sinkings were treated with a black inlay. Raphael style of decoration was introduced by Italian artists. -- Pilasters were either plain.FRENCH RENAISSANCE. 221. Venice having some extraordinary examples of its abuse. 201. Ornament. square or oblong. Columns. 203. such features acquired to great prominence. string courses were of slight projection. papier mache. and the Palazzo del Te. 194. 216). 223). style of internal wood. E. F. The architecture gradually acquired a special character from the treatment of mouldings. panelling of Gothic continued in the early period. was pilaster in Italy preferred rather for its The architectural importance as an " order/' the panelled decoration being often omitted. Mouldings are usually large but well studied in profile. in the early period the two being combined. or carved with delicate foliage (Nos. and stucco decoraIt was tion in white and gold. as The tapestry at Fontainebleau. 225 H). at Orleans. influence of Vignola in this respect is visible (Nos. At Chambord (No.



1864. " Palustre (L. as in the fountains of modern French architecture." 3 vols. 1867.). Les plus Excellents (J.. 4 vols.). " Le Palais de Fontainebleau." 2 vols." Paris.. " Desjardins (T. " Paris.). Verdier (A. Hotels et Maisons de France. Paris. REFERENCE BOOKS. ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. 2 vols." " Paris.). Palais. a Louis XIII. P. Paris." Folio. Berty " (A.1 885 (Not completed. Sculpture in later work lost touch with the decorative feeling of architecture.." Paris.. * .). 1859-1867.." Folio. and FRENCH RENAISSANCE. 1870. folio." Folio. folio.." L' Architecture Civile et Domestique.).) et Darcel (A.). Daly (C. 1864. and the best available figure sculpture has been used in connection with great extravagances were perpetrated." Chateaux de la Valle'e de la Loire. " " Bastiments de P>ance. folio. Du Cerceau 2 vols. D. folio.) et Cattois (F. 5. Rouyer 4to. applied to every accessory. Sculpture acquired an increasing importance. I . Paris. 4to.).). " Motifs Historiques : d' Architecture et de Sculpture. 1 879. La Renaissance Monumentale en France. and have often no relation to the requirements of the occupants.COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 1900.-"A Gentleman of France. Paris. folio. Daly.)." Sauvageot " (C. Motifs Historiques Decorations Interieures." 2 vols. 1861. by the features of Classic temple architecture. . 1858.). 2 vols. A.). Monographic de THotel de Ville de Lyon. Paris.. Gurlitt (C. " Chetwode (R. and had the merit of a certain fitness and unity. Weyman (S." Paris. Die Baukunst Frankreichs." 2 vols. (E. Rome..). 1868-1870." L'Art Architectural en France. John of Strathbourne.4to. folio. Histoire et Caracteres de 1'Architecture en France.). (L. 1867. La Renaissance en France. Paris. Chateau 8vo.. . Chateaux. (E. 2 vols.). folio. "La Renaissance de Fran9ois I." Hlstoncal Novels - I ." Rouyer Paris. Pfnor (R.} Petit (V. 1863-1866.." 3 vols.

D. Geographical. where live angels. . Martin Luther (1517-1546) attacked the practical abuses of certain doctrines of the Church. v. iv. and surface ornamentation being formed in raised patterns. of social importance. Goethe and others aroused interest in Greek architecture. in the great alluvial plains of North Germany. was . 'neath my tabernacle take my rest. continuing to be used. Geological. The absence of stone. and brought about i. INFLUENCES (see page 437). but the prominence given to preaching brought in galleries and congregational planning. Heidelberg was the centre of " Humanism. (See page 258 for German Romanesque. which was under one united head. In the eighteenth century the literary works of Winckelmann.GERMAN RENAISSANCE. One sees the pulpit o' the epistle side." and the chief reformed seat of learning in Germany. Luther's a revolution in the religious life of Germany (see below). In the latter part of the sixteenth century. translation of the Bible into High Dutch caused that language to become the recognised German tongue.) (See page 393 for German Gothic. old churches. . ended by the Peace of Westphalia in A. In architecture little of great interest was produced.) " My niche is not so cramped but thence seats. i. with all their fittings. Religion. 1648. thus preventing any national effort as in France. influenced largely the architecture of moulded and cut brickwork was used in every that district variety. And somewhat of the choir. Refer to pages 258." BROWNING. 393. Social and Political. each with its own capital and government. Climate. those silent And up The And And into the aery dome. Refer to pages 258 and 393. The country consisted of a number of small kingdoms or principalities. the general scale of the detail being small. iii. and a sunbeam's sure to lurk I shall fill my slab of basalt there. The Thirty Years' War. ii.

when the Peace of Augsburg was conall cluded. Hence many Englishmen and Scotchmen served in these wars. Aragon. which was aided largely by the revival of learning. on the death of Maximilian. seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. and in 1520 he defied the Pope. and caused France to become the leading nation in Europe. and in 1519. Historical. such as Christian IV. 2. of Spain) succeeded to the possessions of the Houses of Castile. of England. passed a decree against all ecclesiastical changes. and finally in the great religious war." princes who followed him protested. of Denmark and Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden. joined in these wars on the Protestant side. under the Elector Palatine Frederick. In 1517 Luther nailed up his theses at Wittenberg. however. for mutual defence. The war had. while the Henri IV. under Cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin. This style as in other countries may be roughly divided into three periods corresponding to the sixteenth. by publicly burning the bull of excommunication put forth against him by Pope Leo X. and the Catholics against the Protestant princes extended from 1546-1555. becoming the most powerful emperor since Charlemagne. and the Low Countries. Refer to pages 439. utterly ruined Germany. and France joined in for her own aggrandizement. known as the " Thirty Years' War. Charles V. 1648. who had married a daughter of James I. hence the name This led in 1530 to the Confession of Augsburg and the confederation of Protestant princes and cities. and carried on in Germany between the Catholic and Protestant Other princes. and this marks the period of the German In 1516 he obtained the two Sicilies. Renaissance. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. marking the commencement of the Reformation. (Charles I. and quaintness and grotesqueness of ornament. princes. Burgundy. which may Germany is chiefly remarkable for . The Peace of Westphalia. against which Luther and the " Protestant. The Diet of Spires. but made no provision for those people who might be of different religion to the government of each state. COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. which left each state free to set up which religion it pleased. 442. provided once more for religious equality and tolerance in each state." commenced in 1618. The war of the Emperor Charles V. It was introduced from France. about the middle of the sixteenth century.518 vi. This resulted in persecutions. style was in vogue. called the Smalcaldic League. due in a large measure to the traditions of the preceding style. The Renaissance style in picturesqueness and variety of grouping. 1529. he was elected to the Empire.

/ w 3 W Q s ffi .


Brunswick. while resembles in some respects our own Elizabethan. in a style purer in detail than usually found. 3. 1601). 1605) (No. and the immense gable comprising four stories. The later period. which commenced at the beginning of the " nineteenth century. It consists of semicircular arcading. whereas in France they are principally found in the country (page 499). adoption of Classic forms in toto. Lemgo. The scrolls by which the stages of the gable are contracted are also typical. SECULAR ARCHITECTURE. originally executed in the Gothic. Town Town The Pellerhaus. 230). in fact. The threequarter columns. are other characteristic examples. but the design suffers much from overits ornamentation. Heidelberg Castle has interesting examples of the style.D. and a stone vaulted roof. with an order and entablature to each story." and was chiefly It consisted in the confined to Munich. has its eastern gable (A. It forms. each provided with an order of vase-shaped pilasters. especially the fagade of the Heinrichsbau (1556) (No. Cologne. c). as in Elizabethan work. in a general heaviness and whimsicality of treatment. Examples are mostly found in towns.D. Nuremberg (A. EXAMPLES. or appropriateness. as is also the vaulting. and Dresden. which have elaborately-carved string courses. German Renaissance and it differs from French in lack of refinement. The Gewandhaus. 229 B). 1590) in this style. Nuremberg and Hildesheim are also rich in domestic examples of the period. The Rathhaus (Town Hall). and the (No. marking each floor. B. 227) of the early period. Symbolical statuary was prominently introduced (No.GERMAN RENAISSANCE. is an . Berlin. 521 it account for a good deal of the grotesqueness and crudity which possesses. a connecting link between Elizabethan architecture and French Renaissance of the time of Henri IV. has a fine two-storied porch (1571) (No. with mullioned windows and Hall. with pedestals and entablatures. 231 A. 228). Solothurn shaped gables (No. The arches on the first floor are pointed. and the Fveidrichsbau of the later period (A.D. are characteristic features. 229 A). with detached Corinthian columns. has been called the Revival. The Hall. with pilasters and entablature to each story. and classical details surrounding the windows. without reference to their applicability.



Heilbronn. 1784-1864) of the classical styles in Munich. example of rich domestic architecture. the Rathhaus. buildings. The latter especially notable. 1 method of an internal courtyard was In towns. Florence. Michael. and having a dome 75 feet in diameter. 2310). 1843) is ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. and richness was produced by the application of columnar features as ornament (No. A. the Museum. The French . COMPARATIVE. an abundant practical needs remaining from the mediaeval (A. Altenburg (1562). and the Polytechnic School in that city. Halberstadt (1552). which also has the elaborately-treated stepped gables. the Rathhaus. 4. applying them to modern buildings. Plans.D. Gables assume fantastic shapes (Nos. The Revival by Klenze the architect (A. The Gateway. 1784). Munster (1615). the Zeughaus at Danzic (1605). many-storied houses were erected with adopted.D. continuing the practice of the mediaeval period. the Stadtweinhaus. Oriel windows of various" and design were plentifully used. and crowned by grotesque. mullioned (No.EJT. Munich Dresden (1726-1745) and exhibit a desire is are among 1582) and the Frauenkirche. so characteristic of the period. Openings. the Rathhaus. is responsible for the Glyptotek. Stuttgart (1553). the The Brandenburg Gate. and the celebrated architect Schinkel (1781-1841) erected the New Theatre. Brick and stone were used singly and in combination. both in the fa ade itseffshapes 9 (No. 230). Pinacothek. The Parliament House. S. In all of these buildings the great idea was to copy classical forms and details. open spaces. Walls. resting on eight piers. In the later periods B. It is constructed internally and externally of stone. Vienna. 229 A and 231 E). (A. or Venice during Renaissance times Windows are large. and the Zwinger Palace.524 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. great roofs. 230) and on the angles of Such features did not appear at Rome. period as in France. for wide. Leipsig (1556). by Hansen an imposing edifice. are a few of the picturesque and free examples of the early period. is well known. and the Walhalla. Dresden (1711). Berlin (A. The new churches were few and supply for all insignificant. 229 A). the Castle. c. being 140 feet square on plan. or scrolly pediments (No. the best known buildings.D.


folio. c). Fritsch (K. F. The imitations of Italian carved pilasters as at Heidelberg are inferior. " folio. c.).) l Renaissance und . 231 A. Studium der Deutschen Barockstils. folio. 1890-1893. are prominent features in this. Haut (W. period. The many stories (Nos. 228 were two methods of treatment (a) making the ridge parallel to the street front." (Historical Novel. as generally carried out in Nuremberg. F. large roofs in the town houses. as adopted in : Germany. j).. 229 E and 231 the usual Classic features were adopted (Nos. and many other places. such as interpenetration of mouldings and other vagaries.. 410. the worst features of the last age of the Gothic style. There being D. Columns.manner. The Pellerhaus. 229 F." Folio. 2 vols.. Lambert und Stahl Motive der Deutschen Architectur. H). G). B. Leipzig.). E. A. in the south-east of The first two methods. 231 D. and the second method permits the use of fantastically. G. Sculpture is best seen native grotesques (No. E.)." 9 vols. B. Fresco work was attempted during the revival at the beginning of the century by the Munich school. " Monographic du Chateau d'Heidelburg. shows a combination of the Landshut. 229 A). Lichtenstein. as in the Gothic.).) Denkmaeler Deutscher Renaissance/' " (E. Ortwein (A. Roofs. (A. Boldness and vigour must be set against the lack of refinement and purity in detail. rising one above the other. Ortwein-Scheffers. in the Ornament late glasswork is interesting. used as drying-rooms during the periodical wash. containing and 230). Renaissance. The orders were employed in a free.526 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Nuremberg (No. The 5. Pfnor (R. were given up. Though Renaissance details were affected in the preceding style. 1891. Such roofs served a useful purpose. as decorative adjuncts (Nos. 4 vols. Berlin. 1892. Stuttgart. 1859. the stories being marked by rich cornices the columns and pilasters were richly carved. but the art soon died out. 230). 227-231). and are often supported on corbels.*' Deutsche 1871-1888. wherein much fancy is displayed." 2 -vols..shaped gables (No. (ft) making the ridge run at right angles to the street. 229 and 231). Paris.). REFERENCE BOOKS. ." Leipzig. allows for the display of many tiers of dormer windows (No. Mouldings. O. there being some fine specimens at Heidelberg (No. (Nos.

being mainly Catholics. INFLUENCES (see page 437). The increase of riches through matter-of-fact. Refer to page 385. * * Yellow lichen on the * * * Deep green water rilled the moat. In Holland the character of the Dutch is shown in their buildings. is Geographical. mirrored by the erection of monumental structures. the characteristic iv. and continued under the Duke of Alva. Religion. ii. nothing on a large scale was attempted. rallied to Spain. however. Refer to page 385. i. (See page 385 for Belgian and Dutch Gothic. and the demand for greater comfort regulated planning. Social and Political. was limited. but the Dutch.) " Many In its scarlet bricks there walls. were and old grey stone On * the bricks the green moss grew. viceroy of Philip II. the barn-like churches developing no features of great interest. Geological. iii.5V) BELGIAN AND DUTCH RENAISSANCE. Their daring and activity in trade made them one of the chief powers of Europe during the . i. v. led to a revolt in 1568 which lasted till 1609. The Belgians. Climate. which are in general . of Spain. was not. but. Brick material of this phase of the Renaissance.. and finally under a Their architectural expression republic became a great power. under the able rule of the Duke of Parma. Refer to page 385. whether for lack of interest or funds. stone. trade in consequence of the discovery of the New World by Columbus. strongly Protestant." MORRIS. constituted the United Provinces. The prominence given to preaching. and unimaginative. The persecutions begun under Charles V.honest. Each side had a red brick lip Green and mossy with the drip of dew and rain.

the Archbishop's Palace. and crowned by a high-pitched roof with dormer windows. remained country and a Spanish province under the rule of Spain. Refer to pages 439. The Hotel du Saumon. 232 D. Leyden Town Hall Among recent examples. are met In the design of the gables. style.D. 232 G) are other works. G). were perfected. mention and for its (A. vi. the whole design being placed on a sturdy rusticated basement.. or row of columns. with occasional stone courses and dressings. Antwerp. many charming specimens of street architecture. and details of internal work. the execution of this fine work. the richness and prosperity of this particular city contributing not a little to An order. EXAMPLES. 233). The Spanish occupation of the Netherlands. of 1565). The design of houses and fittings a large amount of attention. 1579) (No. erected by de Vriendt in A.D.D. while Dutch examples are plain. but their extensive colonies gradually passed over to the English. including Brick received its due prominence in furniture. Hall. .52 8 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. but picturesque in Belgian examples are wild and licentious.D. Amsterdam (only worthy Hague Town Hall (A. as a Catholic from A. leaning rather towards the work found in . this domestic style. 234 D). 442. the Palais de Justice. Liege. Malines. ornament with. must all and the be taken into account in this section. and 'the consequent influence of Spanish art in the sixteenth the loss of liberty under Charles V. executed in bright red brick. Belgium. the Ancien Greffe. (No. Although there are few large or important works erected during the Renaissance period in northwest Europe. seventeenth century. when Holland freed herself under the House of Orange. 3. much originality of treatment found (No. together with ultimate expulsion of the Spaniards in 1648. and mullioned windows were employed in each upper story. 1506-1712. Historical. the Stadthaus. is an imposing edifice. still great benefit may be derived from studying much of the domestic and civic architecture for while wandering through the streets of these old-world towns. and with additional . by Polaert. is The Town Bruges. is of gracefully-designed iron ties (No. the the Neo-Grec Domestic Architecture. 1565 one of the most important buildings. often the matter of design received approaching dulness. in great size). 2. century. Brussels. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER.




Lysbeth. The high-pitched forms continued long in favour. Leipzig. j).). B. and were Gothic practice (No. with- and 234 c. especially. of these street fronts are good examples of the treatment Many In Holland. 4." (Historical Novel. E. and otherwise treated in a licentious and grotesque fashion (Nos. Bas. and often verging on the grotesque. and rococo squares. statuary." 2 vols." Etchings in Belgium. are crowded together in streets and Their general effect and grouping must be enjoyed. 1878. some of the old German towns. und Holland. Openings. The orders took the place of the niches. " (T. 234). van). continued in this period. B. Ysendyck (J. grotesque. H and 234 K). D). Columns. but at the same time thoroughly suited to the use of bricks. G Gables of curly outline. that of coarseness. 232 D. of varied colors. 5. as well as the dormers. E. generally much corrupted. Plans. 5 vols. 234 A. These were numerous in continuation of the arid crowded. being gradually adopted. being heavily panelled.). 232 F." J. Die Renaissance in Belgien Ewerbeck folio. out too much inquiry into their rationale or detail (Nos. classes de 1'Art dans les Pays- Antwerp. D. E).532 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 232 c. . COMPARATIVE. 232 and 233). H) and stained glass of this age are especially worthy of study.) Haggard (H. the groundwork of the achievements of the Renaissance in these It was in the modifications of detail that the influence countries. Italian forms. Ornament (No. The woodwork (No. picturesque. 232 and 234 c G )> Roofs. towers of many stages (No. referred to under Gothic. G. in character. F. of large window spaces.). Carving of vigorous grotesques occupies any vacant panel or space (Nos. that surround the windows of the previous period (Nos. sides of canals. and possessing a certain characteristic quaintness." according to the critic's point of view. REFERENCE BOOKS. 1883. of the latter was felt. 232 G and 234 c. corrupted or original. rising very often from the and form fascinating studies for water-color sketching. F. and visible chimney stacks (Nos. R. 232 D). and traceried panelling.. The great development of domestic Gothic formed A. folio. Mouldings. the " " " motifs being usually Italian. 1880-1889. The orders were used as decorative features. rusticated.. these quaint buildings. The same defect. G. " George (E. and the further divorce of detail from construction and material rather accentuated the evil. group most harmoniously." Documents " 410. Walls.

Refer to page 424. The counter reformation found its motive force in the Jesuit order. Climate. Historical. Under Philip III. iv. The people were a mixed population. Jews Europe. It RENAISSANCE. and brick was also iii. Religion. (1598-1621) the Moriscos were driven out of the country. of Spain. i. v. arising i. and the national character of the church have already been mentioned (page 424). and heretics being persistently persecuted. combined with the vast hereditary and conquered possessions of the Spanish monarchy. INFLUENCES The position (see page 437).si* SPANISH "For God. A . Geological. Granite was much used. in the northern mountains. or a tower That might with Heaven communication hold. From the latter part of the fifteenth century the power of Spain gradually increased. Ignatius de Loyola. Social and Political. founded by a Spaniard. in which the Goths of Northern Europe and the Moors of North Africa formed the most important elements. and the fall of Granada in A. vi. employed in certain parts. and power from the discovery of the new world. and this proved a great loss to Southern Spain." COWLEY. the universal Architect.D. The presence of very pure iron ore. The accession of Ferdinand and Isabella to the throne. made her the leading nation in Europe.) had been as easy to erect Louvre or Escurial. The Reformation obtained no hold whatever The religious aspect of the great struggle with the Moors. in Spain. mark the .. ii. (See page 424 for Spanish Gothic. facilitated the development of decorative ironwork. Geographical. Refer to page 424. As Babel vainly thought to do of old He wanted not the skill or power. which by their hard work had been made to flourish. until she became the chief power of Absolute despotism was the policy of Philip II. 1492.

442. This Sardinia. Alcala (A. and by the empire was held together by his skill excellence of the Spanish army. The style of this period. has an open arcaded . The Refer to pages 439." from its likeness to silversmith's work. but progress. the Netherlands. produced a style as rich and poetic as any other of the numerous phases of the Renaissance in Europe. Napoleon's invasion. known as Churrigueresque. SECULAR ARCHITECTURE. lasting to the middle of the sixteenth century (b) The Classical Period of the latter half of the sixteenth century and the first half of the seventeenth century and (c] The Rococo Period of the latter part of the seventeenth and the eighteenth century. marriages. which was aided by the English. platero The middle period became more classical. as in other European countries. innovations.D. Renaissance details. In the early period. reigning over Spain. and the of the Armada expedition against England ended in the defeat Provinces were gradually lost. 1500-1517). away from true principles. becoming imbued with the Rococo 3. Germany. and Naples. checked the power of the Turks The but his by winning the great naval battle of Lepanto. and influenced to some extent by the exuberant fancy of the Moorish work. and Austria. EXAMPLES. the expulsion beginning of the Spanish Renaissance. 1597). Many revolutions followed. and Herrera (d. The University. and the chief expositors were the architects Berruguete (d. the infantry being the finest at that time in Europe. a pupil of Michael . from " " silversmith. 2. grafted on to Gothic forms. Angelo. has been slow. story under the roof a specially characteristic feature and details showing the lace-like character of the Plateresque period. of consolidation of Spain. in government.534 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. style. led to an outburst of national resistance. as was the case in Europe generally. Philip II. at the commencement of the nineteenth century. ceased to exist. and the were due to a succession of great dominions of Spain Charles V. Sicily. 1560). and Spain as a power in 1588. : may be divided into three tolerably distinct periods (a) The Early Renaissance Period. harsh and despotic rule alienated the Netherlands. . is called " Plateresque. fell The late period shows that the style. the Moors. from being minute in detail. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. as understood by other nations. 1571.



The circular internal elevation is an open colonnade in two stories. The palace was never roofed in or occupied. an ancient square castle of MoorishGothic architecture. exclusive of palace. but in 1567 Herrera was appointed architect. is also noteworthy. and the whole design. 236 A) in the early Renaissance of Charles V. a feature mostly found in Spanish buildings.SPANISH RENAISSANCE. so that mezzanines could be lighted where these occur. the lower being rusticated.. has a "patio" or courtyard. the central The feature of the two visible fa$ades being in colored marbles. leads into an atrium. The Palace of the Escurial (No. to the upper story. and the Ionic order. It has a rich facade " " surrounded by a double patio (No. are undoubtedly of wooden origin. is the purest example of Renaissance in Spain. 238 c). 100 feet by 50 feet. The Palace of Charles V. Toledo. to the right of which is the college with its site . 237). On the south side is a grand staircase inclosed in a space. Both basement and upper story have bull's-eye windows above the lower openings. all grouped into one The grand entrance. Seville. in the centre of the long facade. of small height. 205 feet each way. design. 235). the whole of this severe and monumental building being executed in granite. and the upper having Ionic columns. and is an important structure. and church. " The " bracket capitals.." was erected in 1527 by Machuca and Berruguete. sculpture is by Berruguete. has one facade (A. and having off the half landing a grand square two-storied chapel. Granada. and the columns have typical bracket capitals. 1548) (No. palace. Alcala. The back elevation is an early example of a many-storied building in the classical style. but much of the stoneIt is generally regarded as the work has remained uncarved. supported on fine " patio Corinthian columns. which is of the Bramante school. In plan it is a square. was built (1583-98) from the designs of the architect Herrera. college. The Casa Miranda. considerably extended at later periods. adjoining the " Alhambra. The structure is built in a golden-colored stone. and consists of a monastery. 537 The Archbishop's Palace. It is a group of buildings on a 740 feet long by 580 feet wide.D. The Casa Lonja (Exchange). inclosing an open circular court 100 feet in diameter. The external fagade is two stories in height. near Madrid. and a handsome It has been storied arcade in the Doric and Corinthian orders. The Alcazar. while the interior possesses a " surrounded by arcades in two stories. best example of a municipal building in Spain. with the Doric order to the lower. Burgos (No. on the first floor in the courtyard.. was commenced by Juan de Bautista for Philip II. their use being to decrease the long bearing of the architrave.

House of Miranda.SPANISH RENAISSANCE. " Patio" of the BURGOS. showing the Bracket Capital. . 237.

and does not conflict with the church. to the early period (1567). magnificent reredos in such quietly-toned marbles that its richness might pass notice. The detail is classical. 186) belonging an example of the wealth of . The plan of the church is Italian in origin. is built in granite of a gray color. the palace proper at the east end is only an annex. and illustrates " richness of the " Plateresque style (page 534). 1524-1610). beneath which is a domed vestibule consequently the interior is. left of the atrium is the monastery. and shows that Herrera studied to some purpose in The principal Spanish feature is the placing of the choir Italy. is most impressive. The masonry is excellent. sort. internally and externally. deriving peculiar its detail from Moorish influence. in one stone. Salamanca(A. however. Moreover. the The architraves of doors being 10 to 12 feet high. ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. external fa$ades are everywhere five stories in height. described above. In general grouping nothing could be finer than the dome as a centre. lying between Behind the church. with three courts 60 feet square. Peter. a Greek cross on plan.D.SPANISH RENAISSANCE. being of granite with It has a suitable detail. is the church. and beyond is the great court of the college. at the end of the atrium. as the Vatican does with S. whether in granite or not. 539 four courts. which material may have influenced the design. surrounded with three stories of On the arcades. on a vault. which is 320 feet by 200 feet. the courts of the palace and the college. the whole being silhouetted against a background of mountains. flanked by the two towers and surrounded by the great mass of building. The entire structure. with a slight yellow tinge. so that they are effect to the and inferior in facade at the Alcazar. is an important the early work with excellent figure sculpture. The architectural character is so restrained that the structure looks nothing at a cursory glance. the windows square-headed. The interior. Burgos Cathedral has a magnificent dome (No. Santo Domingo. are the state apartments of the palace. 60 feet square. and beyond is the great court of the palace. in effect. without dressings of any without any attempt at grouping. and in blocks of great size. and having only the vaults colored. and Herrera might have produced something equally plain. following somewhat the type of the Carignano Church at Genoa. over the lengthened western arm of the cross. Immediately in front. The taste of Philip II. Rome. but at least the design may be said to be suited to the material. and is detail so characteristic of the style.

1585). but unduly sensational. and which was generally treated in a most pleasing manner. example translation of Seville Cathedral into the Renaissance style. The streets of Toledo present walls all but blank (No. relieved by an elaborate doorway. but with the Classic orders applied to the piers carrying the vaulting. rough. 236). and also granite. and Carmona cathedrals have steeples placed alongside. Arabesque pierced parapets or crestings are In churches wide naves sometimes without any aisles are usual. 1529). COMPARATIVE. as at Saragossa.D. Lanterns or domes are common at the crossing. in which latter building the patio and staircase beyond are as picturesque and fanciful as any in Spain. through the doorways of which. and in incredibly rough. In houses the Patio (Nos. but effective masses. The general effect of the interior is powerful. constituting a fresh and original departure. is universal. A. and Italian cortile. Churriguera. on which all the decoration was concentrated. (A. Gables were never or rarely employed. an added seclusion. out of scale. and the ritual choir remaining west of the transepts. Santiago. by Diego Siloe. without reference either to good taste or fitness. 236 B and 237). is a grand It is a of the Renaissance churches of Southern Spain. is more dis- model is preserved. the Granada Cathedral Gothic system being followed. and has even Plans. Largeness of scale characterizes palaces as well as churches. the transepts and apsidal chancel. and buildings were erected in a manner called Churrigueresque. but a special feature is an arcade (No. leaving a blank wall below.' 540 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. when open.D. forming a class of structure in which Spain is especially rich. 236 A). Malaga. in which fantastic forms were employed for their own sake. or Spanish version of the Roman atrium. 4. a glimpse only of the patio can be obtained. . ingeniously disposed. being usually shallow. as at the Escurial and in Madrid. although Herrera's The west faade is imposing. Staircases are often large. after the name of the architect. Walls Brickwork was used in large. by Herrera. B. In the latter half of the seventeenth century there was a reaction from the correct and cold formalities of the school of Herrera. The lofty circular choir is radiating supports. as in the Burgos transept and the Casa Infanta at Saragossa. which seems due to Moorish influence. domed on Valladolid Cathedral tinctively Classic. but (A. Fine stonework was used in other places. but wholly the interior the execution and detail are Granada. remains incomplete. forming an open top story.


Roofs. and their dressings in stonework are frame-like in character (Nos. 236 A and 239 D). period. These were generally flat or of low pitch. being decorated in arcades sometimes had very high In the later pedestals. to be hung with feet in height. the great mitres. and the angle towers of the Escurial may be compared with the spire of S. c. the orders were used in slight decorative forms (Nos. 236 and 237) the baluster shape. for ten or more stonework. to forms is In early work. as the Palacio de Monterey at SalaAt Saragossa. 236 A). 235) give to the church interiors quite a special effect by the flutter of the in the entablatures In the middle period. and at Toledo they alone relieve the blank. resting on corbels. 239 A). even in designs of the severe Classic period. and detailed in a style suggestive of Arab influence. Sculpture varies much in quality. have spires of slate or lead work of fanciful outline. A was perhaps due to the special largeness of scale (No. Towers. many (No. but his figures often are wanting in decorative treatment. Windows were treated with well-designed grilles. Mouldings. D. fanciful . however. and to in In the early style. 239). as in the " Audiencia" at Valencia. Columns. G. much was given special feature which the long bearings of stone architraves are relieved by corbels on either sid^. 239) number of breaks which occur mitred round columns (No. Columns Rococo F. 239 D). Internally the great saloons in the early common manca. Expression Ornament . 235. importance of a gateway in oriental countries a feature found in Spain owing to Saracenic influence. work. affording a passage in front of the windows in the main wall. Berruguete was the Donatello of the Spanish Renaissance. 236 B and 237). or shafts. work. the great cornices of the brick palaces wood. while the sill is often absent or untreated. small orders. from the top of which the arches spring. Classic correctness prevailed until the outbreak of the in wood turned low relief. are of of the early period are remarkable. Doorways were emphasized (No. by refinement (No. narrow. due to Gothic and Moorish influences. were used abundantly. and reaching to the flat wooden coffered ceiling. 235. A the bracket capital (Nos. internal gallery resting upon a great projecting wooden cornice. elaborately detailed. Martin. combined in treatment with the capital itself. of an outline suggestive of the forms due E. Saloons sometimes have a light-arcaded Ludgate (London).54 2 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. being of plain draperies. walled streets. the walls. often carrying a highly ornamented head (No. Openings. a lathe.


or wood are the finest decorative feature of the churches. or grilles. " Die Baukunst Spaniens. being apparent. 1903. The fresco work of the Escurial is merely late Italian. uncommon (No. 5. Digby). "An Architect's Note-book in Spain. Berlin. " Impressions of Spain. 1872. and the drawing is frequently clumsy. R. Monumentos Arquitectonicos de Espana. folio. " Ford. " Folio. 1842-1850. atlas folio (not completed).). (R. Stained glass tended to be loaded in color and over vivid.).). Madrid. 1850.).) and Macquoid (T.). The painting on the sculpture The great retablos of alabaster. N.) Uhde Picturesque Sketches in Spain. Crawford (F. " Villa-Amil (G." Junghaendel Folio.. 89 parts. Baudenkmaeler Spanien und Portugal. usually crude and realistic. " Prentice (A. are also a source of effect (No. folio. though In the large in scale." (M. 1859-1879.). Renaissance Architecture and Ornament in Spain. Dresden.). M." Handbook 8vo." . and the canvases of Murillo at Madrid and at the church at Seville. Paris.) und Gurlitt (C. and armour design was carried to great perfection by the Spaniards." in Folio. 8vo. D). have the character of paintings in oil. " (C. de). 1889-1892. B. REFERENCE BOOKS. 239 E) is an example of the elaborate metal work of the period. Wyatt (Sir M." Folio. and violence of action is is not stone. not of the best kind. Roberts (D. 1898. Espana Artistica y Monumental. Waring (J. and the following books contain interesting examples. Tile work is excellent in Southern Spain.)." 3 vols. " In the Palace of the King.544 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. the figures being often lifeThe iron size. Flemish influence. 2 vols. "Examples of Architectural Art in Italy and Spain. B. and the architectural detail very elaborate." (Historical Novel. accessory arts. P. " 1893. often was emphasized unduly." published by the Spanish Government. to Spain. 1889-1893.." Calvert (A. 1837. 239 A. The subject of the Renaissance in Spain has been well taken up by architectural students of late years. 235)." 410. the iron pulpit (No. Rejas.

With distance In kindred The towers of Westminster. . i. her abbey's pride While far beyond the hills of Surrey shine softly tinted.A. Through their soft haze. i. It would be hazardous during this period to lay too much stress upon the relations of England with the Continental powers but the relative cordiality of this country with France. Geographical. N N .6-K IWTfl 240. ENGLISH ! RENAISSANCE. INFLUENCES (see page 437). or Holland. F. roof's St. The closing of the Continent to travel during . a regal chieftain stands over fields of ridgy appear. and show their wavy line. Paul's And high dome amid her vassal bands Of neighbouring spires. Refer to page 278. like twain of sisters dear. side by side grace. might be seen by some to be reflected in the architectural fashion of successive periods." BAILLIE.


Geological. In London. led to each room having a fireplace. the funds for which enterprises proceeded from the newly seized revenues. and also because the authority of the Pope was increasingly felt to be irksome. Others were cleared away for the erection of houses according to the new style. distributed freely among his courtiers. and was again brought into prominence on the introduction of the " Dutch fashion. and the opening out of the great coal industry. 1516) by Torrigiano. which paved the way for the introduction of the Renaissance into England were many and significant. 438). Cheshire. which the Popes failed to rectify. The use of brick received a great impetus after the Fire of London. settled the relation of the English Church to the power of the Crown.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. and at Layer Marney. the introduction by Inigo Jones of Portland stone. population and cultivation of the land. which Henry VIII. the tomb in the Rolls Chapel (A. A great increase of warmth was found necessary iii. to other features that did not complicate the architecture of the earlier periods. and beginning of the nineteenth century. 356. resulting in a tion of life. Religion. as a technical term. Refer to page 278. certainly coincided with the worst phase of English architecture. the forests of Lancashire. by cheapening fuel. Climate. Social and Political. and wood had been gradually disused as an external building material. while the ancient nobility was almost entirely annihilated. Monasteries either fell into ruin or were converted into cathedral churches on the monastic foundation. The suppression of the monasteries (1536-1540) caused the diffusion of vast sums of money and land. and some of these have been The following also aided the dealt with (pages 283. In the early part of the sixteenth century a iv. and incidentally. In the increase of ii. and Herefordshire were reduced. 1559.. The historical and other events v. Shropshire. 547 the great war at the end of the eighteenth. partly on account of abuses having crept into the Church. Essex (1500-1525). so that the timber architecture of the mediaeval period had died out.D. had its influence. movement The Wars : of the Roses (1455-1485) caused a terrible destruceighty princes of the blood being slain. stir in religious matters took place in Western Europe. The Act of Supremacy. a material very similar in weathering and effect to that used in the Renaissance palaces of Venice. N N 2 . as greater comfort was demanded. and thus " Flemish bond. has its significance. - Terra cotta for ornamental details was introduced by the Italian craftsmen of Henry VIII. as in the busts of Emperors at Hampton Court by Giovanni da Majano.


A certain John of Padua was also brought to England by Henry VIII. Flemish and . was an event of some significance. . no longer habitable as palaces by a king. his He mixed I. Henry declared the Pope to have no jurisdiction in England. from Basle. Finally. writings of Spenser. but Mary's policy was reactionary.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. as the hoarded knowledge of the world could then be disseminated.D. and marks the era of Spanish influence in England. Torrigiano. Burleigh. The extended use of gunpowder rendered ancient castles obsolete. The court of Henry VIII. endowment of grammar schools and colleges. Under Elizabeth (1558-1603). thus influencing efficient execution of the newly-imported Classic Historical. bearing an important relation to the introduction of Renaissance art into England. The introduction of printing by Caxton (1476) powerfully aided the new movement. and the Massacre of S. 1552). and Edward VI. employed part of the funds obtained from the suppression of the monasteries (1536-1540) to . or as seats by the nobility. from which there was a reaction end of the fifteenth century. very largely the architecture. causing the enlargement of men's ideas and the increased spread of knowledge throughout the country. Wiltshire (page 557). continued the Reformation. . and on the Field of the Cloth of Gold. being anxious to provide themselves with the paraphernalia suited to their rank. who executed Henry VII. or newly acquired wealth. and newer fortresses tended to become merely military posts.D.German workmen and weavers came numbers. and Sir Philip Sidney had considerable influence. and amongst the artists. Bartholomew in A. 1512). The new nobility and rich merchants were naturally more susceptible to any fresh movement they desired. led to the emigration of many skilled vi. settling in to England in large the eastern counties especially. which play an important part in the development (pages 324. and Edward VI. was composed of men who were connected with the new movement. 557). thereby In literature the influencing the architecture of certain districts. the erection and The reign of Elizabeth (A. had undisputed the English crown. the wars against the Huguenots in France. Henry VIII.D. 1558-1603) inaugurated the era of the erection of the great domestic mansions.D. and is usually credited with the design of Longleat House. Shakespeare. the Reformation was finally settled. Henry VIII. important country houses. craftsmen to England (page 498). Rouezzano and Giovanni da Majano. The Protector Somerset commenced building schemes which were interrupted by his execution (A. were : Holbein. 1572. 's Tomb in Westminster Abbey (A. meeting with Francis possession of generally with foreign affairs. moreover. at the 549 period of architectural depression. 1520.


and Henry VIII. a special in Italy and finished character was given to the buildings themselves. relation to details which were at first The style bears the same Anglo-Classic. by William of Orange. With the accession of George I. and England was much under the influence of French art." and other windows (No. for in designing the house with forecourt. . arcades. principally erected in cities. gardening was important. Elizabethan Architecture was a transition style. page 567 Queen Anne and Georgian (Eighteenth Cen.'s attempts to develop art were interrupted by the outbreak of Puritanism. 51). 551 itself felt. style does to fully-developed French Renaissance. 251 B). contrasting with the palaces and churches of the Italian RenaisThe influence of landscape sance. As during the Middle Ages a sufficient number of churches had been erected for the wants of the people. Dutch influence made (the 2. was in the pay of Louis XIV. and the defeat of the Spanish Armada. 1800page 589 Late Victorian (Nineteenth Century) (1851-1901). until the Exhibition of 1851 marked the commencement of a revival in all forms of art. 1588. marked the decline of Spanish power in Europe. like those of the French Renaissance.ENGLISH (ELIZABETHAN) RENAISSANCE. were country houses erected by powerful statesmen. formal garden. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. or fully-developed English Renaissance. Charles I. English Renaissance tury). pierced parapet. Hanoverian dynasty) commenced an era of quiet domestic The growth of London proceeded rapidly. . Gothic features. for many Gothic features were retained and ornamented with Renaissance applied only in a tentative manner. Charles II.. THE ELIZABETHAN STYLE. page 561 Anglo.Classic (Seventeenth Century). churches of this period were many and important. such as the tower. see below. The examples of Elizabethan architecture. 1603-1625).D. Many . England slowly deteriorated. ELIZABETH (A. and large chimney stacks were retained. few were built in this This was also the case in France and Germany whereas period. following periods: Jacobean (A. . and newly-enriched gentry. oriel. page 578 Early Victorian (Nineteenth Century) (A. (page 536). as the Francis I. successful merchants. large mullioned "bay. fountains and terraces. which followed the Tudor style of the reigns of Henry VII. The rise of Holland was taking place. 1558-1603). Page 593. . architecture may be divided into the Elizabethan (A.D.D. and on the expulsion of James II. but art in progress. gable.D. 1558-1603).


in 1512. The larger type of house was evolved from the quadrangular plan of the Middle Ages (No. as at Chastleton in Oxfordshire. The gatehouse on the centre of the side forming the entrance. Edinburgh (No. designed by Torrigiano. a triangular house attributed to John Thorpe (No. Other fanciful plans showing extreme originality were erected. as at George Heriot's Hospital. Stanway. . and elsewhere. an Italian. the tomb of Henry VII. 131 B). examples of the style consist works such as tombs. a the sixteenth century. of Scotland (d. and other features. 1513) with France caused French architectural features to be introduced. 131 D. The following features occur in the principal examples i. 241). The H-shaped plan was evolved by extending the wings on both fronts.ENGLISH (ELIZABETHAN) RENAISSANCE. The great hall. family relics and heirlooms. became a detached building. The E-shaped plan thus came into existence. decoration. 131 F). complete in every aspect. retained from the mediaeval period (No. as at Burton Agnes. being generally regarded as one of small of the earliest examples. internal courts for lighting being sometimes employed. and is in this respect a The alliance of James IV. : . which the later architects renounced by omitting the side forming the entrance. Gloucestershire. and fittings. 151 j). as at Hat field House (No. in Westminster Abbey. portraits of ancestors. EXAMPLES. Dorsetshire. with kitchen and offices at one end and withdrawing and living rooms at the other. domestic architecture received more attention than any other class Two general types of house plan were in use at the beginning of Of these the smaller type consisted of. as at Holland House. London (No. 3. 553 The Elizabethan style represents the attempt to apply Italian architectural features to buildings. 131 B). was lined to a height of 8 or 10 feet with oak panelling. - of building. which was typical of the Tudor period. As in other countries. hall placed centrally. B). E). Yorkshire (A. as at Oxburgh Hall (No. but it did not confine itself to architecture only. admitting sunlight and allowing free circulation of air about the building. as it pervaded the whole of the ornamental arts in style furniture. doorways. armour. As already mentioned (page 551). 1610) Cranbonrne. 244 A. as Longford Castle. the earliest Elizabethan Mansions. SECULAR ARCHITECTURE.D. monuments. while above were arranged the trophies of the chase.


D. It served as a means of communication between the wings of the The length is house.D.D. the sill of which is level. The hall in the later period became of less importance as a living room. (A. 1559) is 75 feet by 12 feet 6 inches wide. The walls have usually glazed with leaded panes (No. 243). and below are dimensions of important galleries. and the roof (No. The broad staircase of oak (Nos. oak panelling the full height. or " solar of Gothic times.D. with its heavily-carved newels. 131 E and 245 c) often extends the whole length of the house. The hall fireplace was much elaborated (No. 241). the ceiling being richly modelled in plaster. Aston Hall (A. of approach. 1589) (No. Charlton House (Wilts) (A. and gives to the interior an air of spaciousness and dignity. the proportions varying considerably from the hall in being comparatively low and narrow in proportion to the length.D. a chapel (sometimes). Haddon Hall (A. 245 wide and 26 feet high. 1607) is 130 feet by 22 feet wide.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. rich carving. The withdrawing room. by the entrance. 166 feet long. pierced balustrading. There is no feature of an old English mansion more characteristic than these galleries. 242 and 244 E) is a special feature. Moreton Hall (A. ii. were other apartments. and richly carved with the coat-of-arms of the owner. 1576-1597) (No. and the bedrooms. 1618-35) is 136 feet by 18 feet and 16 feet ' The term high.D. An example of an apartment treated with panelling its whole height and with elaborate carved chimneypiece is shown in No. the latter increasing considerably in number and importance during this period. from Stockton House. Wiltshire. 1580) is 170 feet long by 20 c) is feet 6 inches Hardwick Hall 22. 555 At one end of the hall. the hall being often two stories in height. long gallery on the upper floor (Nos. its importance being due to the fact that the chief living rooms were often placed on the first floor and therefore demanded an important almost at the floor means iii. over which is the minstrels' gallery. Montacute House wide. The picture gallery" is supposed to be derived from these apartments. some of which belong to the Jacobean period. is the carved oak screen. feet 5 inches (A. . frequently relieved by room-like projecting bays those at Haddon Hall being about 15 feet by 12 feet. 243) is 109 feet by 18 feet wide. " iv. 244 D. was elaborately ornamented. with stone-mullioned windows. 250 K). while at the other end is the raised dais with tall bay-window. and was used more as a means of communication. 113) either with the timbers showing or formed with plaster panels (No. and It was generally placed in connection with the hall.


132). Westwood. Holt.D. Trinity College. Montacute House.D. Charlecote. Longford Castle was originally triangular in plan (No. College. with circular towers at each angle. John's College (Court).D. triangular courtyard. Theodore Haveus of Cleves (?). Wilts. 1580 A. Caius A. A. with superA.D. Worcester. A. 557 Kirby. Name. Moreton Hall. Kent (No. . page 324) were erected during this period. Holt. Holt. Clare College.John Thorpe. 1550-1559) (No. 1634. Thomas Thomas Thomas Thomas Holt. The Gate of Honour. Architect.D.D. and central open It was added to in the eighteenth century. John of Padua (?). A. A. Longleat. 1600-1624. Name. OXFORD.D. 1595. is an example of many of the timbered houses. Wilts.D. - 1558. for which Cheshire and Shropshire are specially famous. .D. Cheshire (A. Kent. Sidney Sussex College A. Elizabethan Colleges. A. A.D. College. 1565-1574.D. naturally gave a great impetus to the new style. Westley. Oriel imposed orders. john Thorpe. A. College.ENGLISH (ELIZABETHAN) RENAISSANCE. The Quadrangle. and Jesus Colleges (portions of) and others. Date. Architect.D.D A. 1624. 1571. erected in the period. Many of the colleges at Oxford and Cambridge (cf.D. Jesus College. and these buildings. A.D. situated within the seats of revived learning. Northants (No. l6l2. 248).D. Emmanuel (Court).D A. Northants. Ralph Simons. Wollaton. Warwickshire. A.I 589. Notts. 1593-1615. Merton College (Library). and now forms an irregular pentagon on plan. (later fa9ade). Wadham College. 575. 131 F). l6l2. Nevill Court. A. 1580-1601.D 1570-1585I A. Date. Penshurst. C" Smithson. Pembroke A. 1590. 1567.D. Burghley. 1580. CAMBRIDGE. A. Somerset. Longford Castle. 246). 247). l6l2. list. I570-I5751570. Ralph Simons.D. S. Knole. Ralph Simons. A. Gateway of the Schools (No. John Thorpe (?). 1584. as object lessons to the rising generation.D A. EXAMPLES OF SOME FAMOUS ELIZABETHAN MANSIONS.D.

u .



1603-1625). 1611. will give as much if not more pleasure than the study of the buildings of any other period of Architecture in England. Elizabethan of these exist. 3. A. 2. EXAMPLES. Bramshill. THE JACOBEAN STYLE. Some of the detail and ornamentation may be questionable.D. Bishopsgate (now in the Victoria and Albert Museum). Holland House. John Thorpe. I. and many examples in Chester. and other of the country towns throughout England. 1607. Hatfield House. for example. erected several of the mansions The Jacobean was a development Gothic gradually diverging from of this epoch. Architect. 241 and 249).D. Herts (Nos. A. 244). Name. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. but they were at least the outcome of the social conditions of that age. Kensington (No. JAMES i. REFERENCE BOOKS (see page 565).D. Many interesting specimens and among them are several houses of half-timber construction. as. F. 250). Staple Inn. EXAMPLES OF SOME FAMOUS JACOBEAN MANSIONS. INFLUENCES (see page 545). 131 D. most of which are easily accessible. COMPARATIVE (see page 562). style of the Elizabethan.D.A. A. Jacobean furniture design continued on the same lines as the architecture. London. Charlton House. Sir Paul Pindar's House. (A. Hants (No. J onn Thorpe.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. is well worthy of study. The celebrated architect.D. o o . 5. in London. 1607-1612. the Hall of Charterhouse. picturesqueness as classic literature and models became better known. The buildings of this style were most suitable to the wants of the people in whose era they were erected. Wilts. Holborn. and an examination of the mansions erected during the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods. arid his book of "compositions. A. and the use of the columns with their entablatures became more general. 561 Town Houses. Date. 1607. 4." preserved in Sir John Soane's Museum. E.

A. Cranbourne Manor House Dorsetshire. 1613. as Knole. Bernard Jansen Bolsover Castle. and very often a chapel (No. Hatfield and elsewhere. 244 and 246). 248).D. THE ELIZABETHAN AND JACOBEAN These are often E or H-shaped (No. 244). The great hall. often placed one above the other in the f^ades. . Walls. the long gallery. The gables are often of scroll-work. and Haddon (ball-room wing). and Holland House (No. with yews. and the two ends forming wings. and Kirby Hall (No. while many are irregular in plan. c. the baluster being much employed. 4.D. the shafts being carried up boldly. 249). as at Montacute. Derbyshire. A. (No. near Guildford. as at Hatfield and Kirby (Nos. B). 249 and 246) but sometimes they are of cut brickwork. and wide flights of steps. as at Hatfield House (No. 246). Hatfield (No. Norfolk Hall. Openings.D. Broad terraces. 1603-1616. Bay windows were largely used. entrance being in the middle of the letter. E). 1618-1635. 249 and 250 A. as at Haddon . Essex. the Classic orders being used in a very free manner. 243). with balustrades. as at Bramshill.D. Burghley. are charming features in the style. raised above the : garden level (No. Longford. and other trees cut in fantastic patterns. Date. 244 E). Warwickshire. Loseley. A. Loseley Park. Holland House (No. the broad staircase Characteristic features are (Nos. COMPARATIVE. A. Audley End. 242. l620. the A. K). 244 A. such grouping being often brought about through the work being an addition to a previous Gothic house. 1612. following in a general way the slope of the roof (Nos. H. Longleat. 244. 244). Hardwick(No. Penshurst (No. 244 B). 250 D. Elevations have the character of picturesqueness. being often treated in a prominent manner with orders. Gardens were often laid out in a formal manner.562 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE Name. Kirby Hall (No. Aston Hall. 131 D. and form important features of the style. Longleat. Plans. B). 245 D). the Gateway of the Schools at Oxford (No. A. and Audley End. B. box. 246). so that they play an important part in the composition and outline of the house.D. Parapets are pierced with various characteristic designs (Nos. Smithson. 132 F). STYLES. A rchitect. (Nos. 245 c). The chimney stacks are special and characteristic features. Blickling .


scrolls. j. pierced. as at Hatfield. and the use of convex mouldings. and and festoons were preferred . the topmost order is the smallest. 250 E). A typical cornice consists of a large cyma and small ogee moulding above a corona of little depth. Arcades were often introduced. and tiles were both used. Doorways are often elaborate in design. Mouldings. arcaded. as at Bramshill (No. High. strap ornamentation (No. and also stone slabs in certain districts. 246 with leaded glass. as in the ceilings (No. 248. "Strap" ornamentation was formed of about the width and thickness of a leather strap. 243. 244 A. Ornament by raised bands. 250 in carving generally. Roofs. the most Italian-like example. Columns. 249 and 250 D. 250 G). especially in the form of recessed loggie. (No. and 247). and oriel windows are common. and crossed by horizontal transoms. Bramshill. 249). banded with swellings (No. Dormers were largely used. " Through this None come wide opening gate too early. accompanied by bulbous Square columns were used. 250). and Hatfield (No. and elsewhere. but founded on Classic originals. 244 A). 244. through and on piers and in spandrels. a characteristic treatment being the reduction downwards. are special features adopted from the late Gothic period. seems to have influenced in many ways the sections employed (No.564 filled in COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. occur Lead both separately and in the same design (No. 250 G). This type of detail is also found in pilasters. none return too late. and pilasters were similarly At Longleat. flat. 250 H. 249 and 250 G). 244 A and 248). 246. interlaced in grotesque patterns. and turrets were in common use (Nos. as at Hatfield (No. treated or panelled. G. and attached as if by nails or rivets. is a constant feature (Nos. Plaster work. centre which is perhaps the most licentious specimen of the style. in imitation of the damascened work which was at that period so common." D. Large heavily-mullioned windows (Nos. The orders were employed rarely with E. or low roofs with balustrades. France and Italy. purity. These are local and coarse in many instances. 241. corresponding to the comparaBramshill has a fa9adetive unimportance of the upper rooms. F. Arcades were much employed. 249 and 250). It is considered by some to have been derived from the East. Grotesquely carved figures as terminals occur (No. or battlemented. as at Bramshill (No. M). (Nos. 250 M). c). to Gothic foliage types. often banded or carved at intervals. more especially in pilasters. 249). 250 K). as in Nos. ribbons. 250 G). as at Bramshill (No. The balustrade.

Annals of an Old Manor House " (Sutton Place. etc. Cambridge (No. Cambridge (No." 1901. such as the monuments to Elizabeth (A. . from the Charterhouse. Farmhouses. REFERENCE BOOKS. are very numerous and charac- making The teristic.). as at Hardwick. "A Collection of the Ancient Timber Edifices of England. 251 o) Convocation Room. (F. London (No. J. and other Halftimber Buildings of Shropshire. 243 and 250 M) was used for ceilings with great skill in design and adaptability to the material. Old Cottages. " Studies from Old English Mansions. Oxford (No. 242. A. and Cheshire. 251 E)." 2 vols." 4to. Davie (W. 251 F) the pulpit from North Cray Church.). (Gloucestershire. and broad friezes were sometimes modelled with much quaintness and grotesque feeling. 1904. 410. Kent (No.). 250 G).. will indicate to the reader the manner in which Renaissance features were applied to the arts and crafts connected with architecture. " Old Cottages. G. ." 4to. 251 G) the cistern now in the Victoria and Albert Museum (No. " 4to. Nash (J. and other Stone (E. screens. Gotch (J." 1839-1849. and many being richly colored. and in later times colored stones were inserted in their stead. Harrison Guildford)." 4to.). . 1900. " 1893. 565 Prismatic rustication. Parkinson and Ould. 1837. 251 H). Architecture of the Renaissance in England. Dawber " 1891-1894. " Buildings in the Cotswold District 1904. entrance porches. 1604) and Mary Queen of Scots in Westminster Abbey. "Early Renaissance Architecture in England. occurs in pilasters and pedestals. Farmhouses. Habershon (M.). color decoration little or no progress. Richardson (C.). mantelpieces. Tapestries continued to be used for walls." Folio. .). A. 1846. 251 j). Mansions of England in the Olden Time.D. and the tablet from Peterhouse College Chapel. . 5. 250 F). folio." 1841-48. or the projection of blocks of stone of prismatic form (No.). ELIZABETHAN AND JACOBEAN. " Gotch (J. Richardson. and the tomb of Lord Burghley (No. Clayton (J. " The Ancient Half-Timbered Houses of England. 251 A) the bookcase from Pembroke the throne and stalls from the College. Herefordshire. a large number being found in churches throughout the The chapel screen country. 1836. Plaster (Nos.). 251 c) the doorway in Broughton Castle (No.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. " Old Cottages and Farmhouses in Kent and Sussex. Guy). . monuments and tombs (No." Folio. " Observations on the Architecture of England during the Reigns of Queen Elizabeth and James I.


" Folio. Tanner (H. H. and thus Palladio had a great influence on English architecture.). and especially at Vicenza. B.). THE ANGLO-CLASSIC. 1839. but returned to He revisited Italy in 1612 for further England in 1604. the reigns of Charles I. many of Inigo Jones's designs. Charles II. who are considered the founders of the Anglo-Classic style. and with a porch having the baluster-columns of the earlier periods. founded on Italian models and ornamentation." His toncal Novels. " Details of Elizabethan Architecture. Renaissance Architecture. Kent (A. E-shaped facade. Palladio's native town. "English Interior Woodwork of the XVI-XVIIIth Centuries.) "Sir Indar." Walter)." ReedQ. The Commonwealth intervened. He was invited to Copenhagen by the King of Denmark." The Fortunes of Shorthouse (J. and checked the execution of transitional of brick with stone dressings." Taylor (H. with radiating side wings forming a horseshoe court at the back. Gotch's text-book on James I. the Commonwealth (1649-60).D. John Thorpe's Original Drawings in the Soane Museum. 1902. i. 1884.) "John Inglesant. A good " selection of these are reproduced in Mr. 1614-1616). (1660-85). Comprises." 4to. is a : example .). study. "Architectural Remains of the Reigns of Elizabeth and Folio. The transitional Elizabethan and Jacobean styles at length gave way before the influence of Inigo Jones and Wren. 1840. OR SEVENTEENTH CENTURY STYLE." Shaw (H.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE 567 REFERENCE BOOKS Richardson. (1573-1652). The Italian architect Palladio was Inigo Jones's favourite master in design." Scott (Sir Scott (Sir Early ] Walter). INFLUENCES (see page 545). Continued. 3. 2. EXAMPLES. and on his return introduced a purer Renaissance style. The following are among his principal Buildings Chilham Castle. James (1685-89)." Kenilworth. " Old Halls in Lancashire and Cheshire. 410. (1625-49). INIGO JONES Long study in Italy. his works being carefully studied by him. influenced the work of Inigo Jones. William and Mary (1689-1702)." Nigel. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER.


569 Banqueting House. and Chevening House. Berks (1650). 252 c).D. and purity of detail. 1619-1621). SIR CHRISTOPHER WREN (1632-1723) was a scholar and a mathematician. are examples of his town buildings. 1626) (No. and in design like the Banqueting House (No. Paul. was an important part of his education. 252 E) was arranged round courtyards. . Wren lacked the more thorough technical education of Inigo Jones. are more happily combined than in any other Renaissance scheme of the kind. Houghton (1630) . and the great court would have vied with that of the Louvre (page 503). on the Louvre were then in progress. Greenwich Hospital. being Professor of Astronomy at Gresham College and at the University of Oxford. Norfolk Stoke Park. Whitehall (A. Greenwich (1639) (No. Covent Garden (A. but has been altered and rebuilt by subsequent architects. As an architect. j). The arcades and buildings around the market were also designed is The by Inigo Jones. Coleshill. Houses in Lincoln's Inn Fields and Great Queen's Street (1620). his early mathematical training fitting him for the constructive skill shown in his later works. . 131 H. the Embankment Gardens.D. since destroyed. one of which was to be circular. executed by the master mason Nicholas Stone. but his study of French architecture at Paris and elsewhere in The works France. In this design. Northants (1630-1634) the King's (Queen's) House. proportion. The remainder. London (A. Westminster (1640). Beds (1616-1621). York Water Gate. 252). has the two lower stories The hospital was included under one huge Corinthian order. Kent (No. and Lincoln's Inn Chapel (1617-1623). a part only of a Royal Palace. Hall. and constituted a great . and was not always able to clothe his constructive forms in equally appropriate detail. a pupil of Inigo Jones. with a total height to the top of the parapet of 100 feet. 1631-1638).D. is severe and imposing by reason of its simplicity and good proportions. Wilts (additions) (1640-1648). 238 A) Wilton House. . as curtain wings to the main blocks. divided into two stories. elegance.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. the Barber Surgeons' Hall (1636-1637) and Ashburnham House. Raynham Hall. was to be 75 feet high. are examples of his country houses. S. The plan (No. the river facade of which was executed by John Webb. which was one of the grandest architectural conceptions of the Renaissance (No. each 30 feet high. afterwards added to by Sir Christopher Wren (page 576). formed the river entrance The gateway is now in to Old York House. The greater part of the building was to have been of three stories. 252).

goo . effl 5fflLE FOR && IO.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE EXAMPLES. '. 100 fr 253- .00 . t ESTIMATED IV..Q 50 . TIMBER flWMIIG MI Vim EIGHT 1/IM HKHTOF SUPPORTING BtE - FOR (foils ^---9 y. .

abandoned for pecuniary and other reasons. school in 571 of art. after which he devised a grand plan for the reconstruction. above which are formed the flat saucer-like domes. Paul and the City churches. whom the French followed. The wall surfaces have recently been decorated with glass mosaic. however. the Pantheon. indicate. arranged somewhat similarly to Ely Cathedral. is given (No. 213). 253 B) are ornamented with pilasters of the Corinthian order.000 square feet. he used with stone dressings. Wren's work shows more French influence than that of Inigo Jones. Rome. The internal piers (No. Paul's Cathedra]. His great opportunity was the destruction of London by the Great Fire in 1666. : but the influence of the with a projecting western vestibule clergy. 253). Marlborough House. which has given the color it was originally intended . The first design. to have. as may be seen on comparing his work with that of Inigo Jones. but Wren. internal length of 460 feet. It is struction. all his designs. was Wren's masterpiece. .ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. Dome of the Invalides. as shown in No. Paul." and indicating a careful study in the proportion of part to part. finally caused the selection of the mediaeval type of plan. including S. and. as executed. which was. of which there is a fine model in the northern triforium of the Cathedral. which by its good weathering properties adds and importance while in domestic work. as at Hampton Court. and Cologne Cathedral. was in plan a Greek cross (No. Palladio continued to be the inspirer of English work. supporting an entablature and attic. 253 B. which ranks amongst the finest Renaissance Cathedrals in Europe. London (1675-1710). being mixed "with brains. and other buildings. Many of his designs. much thought. as Opie said. This. and a projecting The building has an western vestibule with lateral chapels. which are not visible from the exterior. crowned by a dome. as compared with Vignola. Many of these. red brick His principal Ecclesiastical works were as follows S. who never visited Italy. to their dignity . which is pure Italian. as S. consequence. The dome. is of triple concarried on eight piers (cf. who desired a long nave and choir suitable for ritualistic purposes. consists of a great central space at the crossing. in which he was obliged to study economy. under Sir William Richmond. and having east and west a nave and choir in three bays with aisles. more especially in the decorative detail. often gave a semi-French turn to his designs. An illustration showing its comparative size and disposition with S. however. Peter. 86 feet high. north and south transepts. Light is admitted by means of windows in the clerestory. a breadth including aisles of 100 feet. and elsewhere. but he was employed in a large number of churches. and an area of 60. Paris. were executed in Portland stone.


having every fourth intercolumniation filled in solid. having between them the double storied portico of coupled columns supporting a pediment in which there is a fine representation of the conversion of S. The dome externally is probably the finest example in Europe. and thus giving an appearance of strength and Behind the solidity which is lacking in the Pantheon. It might some lofty Alpine peak be deem'd. a rugged screen. page 500). S. Did not its form man's artful structure show. One. 'Tis then St. being formed of three-quarter radiating buttress walls. and is 109 feet at the base of the drum. 253 B). S. Bishops. which latter has The outer dome is formed of timber a height of 365 feet. with cave and crevice seam'd. covered with lead. of steps. Master Mason. diminishing to 102 feet at the top. columns attached to effective. 215 feet high. The facades have two orders totalling 108 feet in height. ball and cross. Paul. In lurid dimness nearer streets are seen. Paris. The exterior is exceedingly effective. Like shoreward billows of a troubled sea Arrested in their rage. that well I trow. 35 years. but as the aisles are only one story high. The western front. The inner dome of brickwork. the projecting masses of masonry at the meeting of nave and the support of the dome from the transepts expressing The colonnade to the drum is particularly ground upwards. the lower Corinthian and the upper Composite. The lower parts in swathing mists conceal'd " The higher through some half-spent shower reveal'd. . Paul. supports the stone lantern. which is crowned with lantern and cross. London. Eight openings are formed in the summit for the admission of light to the inner domes. Paul on a foggy day : Rear'd in the sky. " Stone balustrade. the upper story on the flanks is a screen wall introduced to give dignity. 573 Paris. Twenty. and is made to group well with the central dome. known as the Gallery. One. The poetess Joanna Baillie has well described the majestic appearance of S. has its summit 281 feet high. One. So far from earth removed. Rome. 1 8 inches thick. Peter." Time Building.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. and rests on the intermediate dome (No. Paul's arrests the wandering eye . Six. and to act as a counterweight to the flying buttresses concealed behind it." rises an attic above supporting the dome. 100 years. which receive the thrust of the nave vault. and approached by a broad flight is flanked by two finely proportioned towers. and the intermediate conical dome also of brickwork 18 inches thick. Architects. Stretched wide on either hand. The eagle's haunt. 180 feet wide.



Martin. and general in which a central preaching suitability for Protestant worship. Ludgate. Winchester . : (1663-1664) was The Secular works of Wren were numerous The Sheldonjan Theatre. S. Michael. Oxford and the School Room (1682) . James. Trinity College. characteristic of mediaeval churches. the Library of Trinity College. and The Inner Court. the sixteen columns. Wren was also responsible for the erection of some fiftythree City churches in the Renaissance style between 1670-1711. has original and ingenious planning. inclosed in a rectangle. . . has a steeple simpler in design. are examples of his Gothic treatment of Pembroke College Chapel. Oxford (1664). at Winchester (1684). a fault which was avoided in Bow Church by the use of inverted consoles. are work. B) of which Wren may be called the inventor. but exceedingly picturesque in the group that it forms in conjunction with Wren's masterpiece. Cornhill spires. is another example generally considered less successful because of the telescopic effect of similar stories. a group at once picturesque and the Royal Palace. the Fountain Court and Garden Facade of Hampton Court Palace (1690). and are notable for skilful planning on awkward and confined sites. Aldermary . D. carrying cross vaulting and a S. 257). in which a square tower supports a pyramidal spire in receding stages clothed with classical details. Dunstan in the East (1698) S. the more important of these are the following Stephen. S. Bride. Piccadilly (No. Church. the Two Blocks of Greenwich Hospital furthest river. Oxford (1665). Paul's Cathedral. central cupola. is the most successful of a type of Renaissance steeple (No. London Bridge (1671). The Western Towers of Westminster Abbey S. Clement Danes (1684) and S. is considered more important than the "long-drawn aisle" space for processional purposes. Cambridge one of his earliest works. Mary. S. 255 A. Among : Bow S. S. the latter resting on eight of the columns. Cheapside (1680). 255 c. and is deservedly famous for the excellent effect produced by small means within a limited area. Cambridge (1679) the Library of Queen's College. Walbrook (1672-1679) (No. are successful though plain examples of his galleried interiors. (1711). properties is an evidence of his scientific skill in the constructive carpentry of the roof. combined in Chelsea Hospital. (1721). 257). Fleet Street (1680) (Nos. in the splendid acoustic of the hall. other examples of his collegiate from the stately. The Monument. 256).576 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. These are models of simplicity and restraint.


258 A. the first floor being the principal one. and Kedlestone (No. Castle Howard (No. or connecting H -shaped E . London (1674-1684) with wooden doorways. removed to Iheobalds Park. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. Greenwich (No. i. j). to which importance. In the square type the centre was frequently occupied by the top-lit saloon. In the latter part of the seventeenth. and this led to the internal staircase being reduced in The hall. E. entrance gateway Temple Bar. two stories in height. B. and their which they were designed. were placed in a central block. REFERENCE BOOKS (see page 588)." "GEORGIAN. is plain brickwork an example of his character is given. reached by an external flight of steps as at Rainham in Norfolk. 131 K). the ground floor was frequently treated as a basement. In the oblong type. saloon and staircases. The basement in both types contained the kitchen. 258 C. On either side symmetrical detached wings were added. (1727-60). the centre third being occupied by the hall. 131 H. Comprises the reigns of Anne (1702-14). as at the King's (Queen's) House. either and square or oblong on plan (No. both already mentioned (page 569). or an oblong. as in the principal simpler style to which to Fleet Street. c). 5.COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 4. F). (1683). 2. Hall (Orangery) in Pall Mall (1709). as at Chevening (No.. and reception-rooms. THE "QUEEN ANNE. London (1670). George George II. I. and during the eighteenth century.F) superseding the Jacobean plans. George III. INFLUENCES (see page 545). as at Holkham Hall (No. (1760-1820). storerooms and cellars. facades and interesting The Temple.." OR EIGHTEENTH CENTURY STYLE. are a few examples which show Kensington number of different classes of buildings upon which for suitability to the several purposes its the large he was engaged. is a pleasing example work. of a smaller type of monumental Herts. COMPARATIVE (see page 585)." "PEDIMENT AND PORTICO. 238 A). the plan of the smaller type of house was usually a square. In the larger type of house. Blackheath. as at Greenwich. everything was sacrificed. and the Banqueting Palace Gardens. saloon. the house was usually roughly divided into three. Morden College. (1714-27). Maryborough House. 258 D.


not profuse. Herts. are thus referred to by Palladio. Fill half the glorious. viz. "You show Yet us. buildings once were things of use. Park. The publication. and the fast developing trade of the joiner admitted of the elaboration of internal fittings. and well There were many style of architecture. Chatsworth.. Moor Park. their names and principal This passage suggests what characterizes the famous architects works are given. 238 F). corridor planning did much for convenience and comfort in domestic architecture. Derbyshire (No. 258). The fact must not be overlooked. your noble . But where d'ye sleep. 258 c). or where d'ye dine I find by all you have been telling That tis a house. design of the buildings. Yorkshire (No. Moreover. land with imitating fools Who random drawings from your sheets shall take. that the latter had better take a lodging opposite his Palladian mansion (by Lord Burlington). And pompous shall. practising at the same time. And of one beauty many blunders make . if he liked nothing but the front. Proud to catch cold at a Venetian door. and many other examples. but not a dwelling. 258 F). of this period and as they were contemporaries. however. rules. that at this time there grew up a national style." really did happen. Turu arcs of triumph to a garden gate ****** . often treated Northants (No. as at Castle Howard (No. Castle Howard. for symmetry and grandeur. Rome was lord. by Pope in one of his epistles to the Earl of Burlington. The Jacobean gallery survived in a modified form. of the designs of " Antiquities of Rome. Shall call the winds through long arcades to roar. as at Stoke portions of quadrant form. Lancashire. 131 K). and Kedlestone. Oxfordshire (No." Inigo Jones. as colonnades. a point remarked upon by Pope The was influenced by a passion : "'tis very fine.580 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. most of the less important houses for the middle class people being erected in the useful and modest Queen Anne and Georgian type of square house. and Holkham (No." r ? Or the remark of Lord Chesterfield to General Wade may be quoted. by the Earl of Burlington. my your just. Load some vain church with old theatric state. Latham Hall. not excepting the domestic class. and of the drawings of the in the early part of the century. Blenheim. 1310). . which almost entirely put aside as unworthy of consideration the comfort and convenience of the people who had to occupy them.

in the somewhat heavy style of his master. (A. Lombard Street . PrinciS. and Seaton Delaval. erected the Horse Guards. the most appropriate of and patron of Kent artists. as with other of Wren's pupils.D. Hawksmoor held several Government appointments. was often his badly designed. Dover Street. 1766). the Danes Church Hospital all cliffe Library. George Dance. in architectural detail. Rococo style. and a step towards the privacy which is now insisted upon. Blenheim Palace Principal works: (No. an amateur architect Ware (d. and was the author of Complete Body of Architecture. and Holkham Hall. and S. Principal works: George. Philip. 1734) was the the compiler of the ' k Vitruvius Britannicus. Essex (1720). Cambridge. fields assisted Sir John Vanbrugh at and Blenheim. is both picturesque and S. 1715). led to the debasement of architecture. and the Senate House. Oxford. London. Treasury Buildings. 258). 1763) was a pupil of Wren and followed him in his practice. London. 1768). He was the architect of the Pelican Fire Office. Colin Campbell (d. but and ideas of some originality grandeur were too often marred by eccentricities of treatment. Chatsworth. 1695-1753). and other He Villa at designed the Palladian Chiswick an English . is an example of a ponderous character. Gloucestershire King's (A. tion in collabora- with the Earl of Burlington.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. and Ely House. James Gibbs (1683-1754). being a great development in planning. Norfolk (1723). SpitalHe also all in London. 1681)." which contains plans and elevations of all the country houses of any importance erected best His during the century. senior (d. EXAMPLES. . Thomas Archer (d. Martin in pal works were : the Fields . erected the Mansion House. at the expense of usefulness. Houghton. Mary Woolnoth . notable for skilful grouping the . Castle Howard. John.D. The Earl of Burlington (A. Sir John Vanbrugh (1666-1726). England. Northumberland. in which the above works. He published a book of his own designs. In the plan of Blenheim there is an extensive use of corridors as communicating passages. Dyn. and Wanstead. Castle Howard His works were much influenced both by Wren and Vanbrugh. are other works. 1713). Derbyshire (A.D. may be found. and the commencement of the Palladian type of house. Piccadilly. 1743) was a He pupil of Sir John Vanbrugh. Horse Guards Parade Devonshire House. notably clerk of the works at Kensington Palace and Greenwich Hospital. 1714) (the Mary-le-Strand tower is an oblong on plan)." Sir Robert Taylor (1714-1788). Anne. Clement and Bartholomew's in London the Radsteeple. Blooms. Kent (1684-1748). known works were the front and gateway of old Burlington House (1717). Yorkshire (A. S. S. and works at Hampton Court. May"A fair. ham House. He Isaac erected Chesterfield House. in it is and which a striving after symmetry and monumental grandeur. His better known son was the designer of Newgate. the most important mansion of the period erected in bury . Birmingham. Norfolk (No. erected S. . stately. William Talman (d. Gloucestershire. S. S. 1714) (No. . 238 F).D. Westminster.D. Weston. (1666- Nicholas Hawksmoor S. with others. City architect of London. 3. 131 K). George in the East Limehouse Christ Church.

a erected House and the Law Courts at Dublin. . dignified.1813) studied Rome. 262. near designs . His best known work is Prior Park. The Brothers Adam. (1728-1792) published "Diocletian's Palace at Spalato. studied in Italy (1788). James Wyalt( 1748. occupied many This important building years of his life. Robert John also of S.582 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. x and the East. Bath (A. Other designs are two sides of Fitzroy Square the Adelphi Terrace (named after the the screen in front four brothers) . stone Hall. Hampstead and many (A. and there is a consequent taint of eccentricity. near London (A. wrote the Decorative Part of Civil the He carried on the Architecture. England. . decoration were treated together with the design of the rooms themselves with refined and elegant details. creating a lished the taste for Roman magnificence. Chambers.D. London House. . 1735-1743). Ireland Bowden Park. The character of his work in general is correct and refined. Caen Wood. but the small knowledge of the true spirit of Gothic archi- and constitutes his masterpiece. junior. Derbyshire (No. in originality Holland Henry (1740-1806) erected Claremont House. of the Admiralty. Sir John Soane (1750-1837). 1764). on the site now occupied 'by Waterloo Place (the Corinthian columns being employed at the National Brooks's Gallery) Club. and White's works in London Club. but he was unable to clothe them with suitable details. Buckingham Sion House. Greek revival 261. a book which influenced architectural design. The Pantheon (1772) in Oxford Street. commenced in 1776 (No. the Corinthian order of the Temple at Tivoli being closely followed. His Europe great work is Somerset House. are Lee Priory. first Treasurer of the Royal " Treatise on Academy. prison lished in translation of the Villa Capra. and his later ones are thoss of an original mind. Hampstead . which is a charming and refined piece of work. The Dulwich picture gallery is by . and the College and Register Office. Comparing this design with Newgate. Dover House. Kent Castle Coote. Adams' chimneypieces are specially characteristic. The proportions he adopted for the Classic orders are given in Nos. private houses in London. 259). and the vestibule to . pub" Illustrations of Baalbec and Palmyra" in 1750. Luke's Hospital. London (1765) Stowe House." in the year 1760.D. He was appointed architect to the Bank of fames Gandon pupil of Sir the Custom W. His early designs are Palladian. it fails in the quality of apparent suitability of purpose." traditions of the Anglo-Palladian objecting strongly to the then commencing. Adam conjunction with Dawkins. ^00^(1704-1754) of Bath. school. Whitehall. runs through t\vo rustication is A single order stories. in . and various other works in that city. Sir William Chambers (17261796). and largely employed. He travelled largely in The brothers Adam were the authors of a marked style of interior decoration that is known Furniture and by their name. . and lately demo- Vicenza (page 488). Kenwood House. 258) LansStratford Place. downe . He undertook the restoration of many of the cathedrals and important churches in England and Wales. a pupil of George Dance. . Edinburgh. which is grand. Whitehall ( 1 760) . (1742-1823).D. . Wiltshire and Fonthill Abbey (1795-1822). . and simple in its parts. but lacking somewhat and strength. Kedle. London. 17611762). Esher Carlton House.

o Q sS" en u~> CS .


circular. his private house. and often for the facing. as in the houses of the Brothers Adam in Fitzroy Square. Pediments are the only form of gable. or by a mean approach from a side door through the basement. and the best rooms are reached by a great external staircase and portico (No. 4. and filled in solid between B. 260 A. Plans." 585 Museum. formerly him. Openings. elliptical-shaped c. ANGLO-CLASSIC. Excessive cellarage. Pugin has starred him with " the affix the destroyer. in Sir John Soane's Lincoln's Inn Fields. These are marked by regularity and symmetry. 260 B). on plan. tecture then existing is responsible for his inability to effect these with success. often cubical in proportion. are not uncommon. and elsewhere. Stone was used as an ashlar facing and for dressings. ingenious domical. as in houses in Hanover Square. c. 258 c). These are usually thick. and the minimum condition of having to pass through them (No. tively developed. and apartments. 131 G. or other top lights. Brick was used most commonly for walling. but in later work it was usually stuccoed. F). and blank walls. H. 258). arcades. pilasters. occupy the ground floor. sometimes showing signs of being dictated by a preconceived The Italian use of a piano nobile above a storage elevation. QUEEN A.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. Walls. balustrades or attics conceal the small . or kitchen offices. Chimneys are often concealed. sometimes of a Porticos. 261). ANNE AND GEORGIAN STYLES. " dignified for this style. doorways (No. basement. contains interest- ing drawings and models. Staircases receive much attention. Octagonal. the varied shapes of the rooms. to mask undesirable necessities. being introduced. " No roof but a D. spherical one being sufficiently . Gate piers are frequently in excellent Vertical grouping of windows was effecproportion (No. were regulated by the proportions of the Classic orders. and suites of such saloons are arranged in various combinations. and special Venetian Character (No. or window dressings of the composition (No. 258). Roofs. but infrequency of openings was compensated for by large and unobstructed window areas (No. Corridors gradually supersede the hall and en suite or thoroughfare systems of planning (Nos. and the large compositions of windows to more than one room or story were not affected by party-wall or floor divisions. 258 D). j. K. affected the planning of many country houses (No. 238 F. 260 G). Unbroken surfaces contrasted with the porticos. 252 E and 258 c. and are used with and without balustrades. COMPARATIVE. Windows were reduced in number as much as possible. 261 c). E) the maximum scale was a question of material and expense. are usual (No.


^JL SS3 ^t "te> *r"" is fcU m ^j> ^ w || .

however. was modelled in stucco with great skill and effect. folio.). The orders were executed with facility in wood or plaster. but on possible owing to the small the introduction of stucco and iron these could be erected. artists such as Verrio and Sir James Thornhill being engaged. 260. and J. steeples of the period. admitted of much elaboration and refinement in such features as the main external cornices and doorways. Whitewash was usual. and J. 262). 258). material smallness of scale was rendered possible. founded on Roman. and French work of the style of Louis XIV. and turrets were well designed. Decoration. rival mediaeval spires in fanciful E. Wall (No. covered with lead. tombs H. and his successors was also followed. were most often of two or more stories in Columns. Chambers (Nos. " Works in Architecture. 260 tablets (No. Columns. 260 and chimney-pieces (No. who carried the art to a high pitch of technical excellence. The splendid in stone and wood. 260). while small examples were sometimes entirely of wood. Ornament j). those on a large scale being lead covered. Domes. In the smaller works. 261. Decorative Work of. often purely decorative height (Nos. orders were used wherever funds permitted (No. amount of low-pitched roof covering the building (No. Adam (R. K) are among the most pleasing decorative features in the style. in function. were employed in interiors with considerable effect.). 262). while the Brothers Adam and others imported Italian workmen. and skilful outlines (No." (A selection of plates reproFolio. and small buildings resembling Roman Temples (No. and design is thus often found of equal standard in very varied The large employment of wood. 1901. on Greek examples. . 258 A and 259).) Adam (R. 1773-1822. were often effectively used. or both. being applied in every material with small modification (Nos." 3 vols.. The standard mouldings of the Classic orders F. who took various Renaissance architects as his guide. but sometimes fresco decorations were employed.) duced from the above. 260). in which classes of building. became the stock-in-trade of every workman. 260 D). The canons of proportion first laid down by Vitruvius (page 167) were still further insisted on by Sir W. The G. REFERENCE BOOKS. cupolas. Mouldings. 255). 261 E)were most effectively grouped in parks and gardens. (SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES. 5. (No. Single order porticos of large scale were not size of stone obtainable.588 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. LATER ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. or in the later period. Pilasters. tiled roofs having a wooden eaves cornice.

D. 2 vols. 1900." Simon Dale.). 1901. ." Lytton (Lord).)." . (Contains much interesting information concerning the life and work of Sir Christopher.). Wren (C.D. . i.). Folio.." I T > Historical Novels. 1835." Devereux." 2 vols. and Influence Wren." Folio. Scott (Sir W." Folio. shut out new ideas in art. " Ware (I.). in 8vo." By W.). . 1764)." Folio. " Some Architectural Works Triggs (H." 2 vols. THE EARLY VICTORIAN STYLE (THE AGE OF REVIVALS). " Parenfalia. M. Blomfield (R. E.). the reigns of George IV. History of Renaissance Architecture in England." Works of Sir Christopher Wren Churches of London and Westminster. Macartney. Lady Grizel. By Campbell. H. 589 Belcher (J. folio." Stratton (A. " Later Renaissance Architecture in England." of Sir Christopher (A. " Towers and Steeples designed by Sir Christopher Taylor (A. Woolfe.-" Esmond. Virginians. " London Churches of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. Thackeray (W. 2." 1902.). On the one hand. folio. jun." Woodstock..). The beginning of the century saw Palladianism on the decline. etc. Comprises (1830-37). and S. Triggs (H." 1897. Wren. 1897-1901.). of Noblemen's and Gentlemen's Houses. Folio. INFLUENCES (see page 545). The notes on this period are merely -given as explanatory of the general course of architecture at this time.). Plans. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. Complete Body of Architecture." (Also abridged edition.). 1762). 1767-1783.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. " Vitruvius Britannicus." / . Book of Architecture." 2 vols. Formal Gardens in England and Scotland.). M. " Inigo Jones's Designs.) 1750. Inwood's " Erechtheion . 1757. " " Robert Adam's " Spalato (A. due to the Stuart Napoleonic wars. Inigo) and H. "The 1897. " Paine (T." " Wingfield (L." Folio.) the Parochial Clayton (J. folio. and the introduction of eclecticism as a governing idea in architectural design. Great Britain." Folio. Birch (G. 1756. Swan Folio." 5 vols. " Papworth (W. 1728. Work. Renaissance and Italian Styles of Architecture 1883." 1881. and Revett's "Antiquities of Athens" (A. folio.). William IV. 8vo. 1715-1771. "A 1896. \ Hope (A. Inigo). isolation from the Continent. " of Inigo Jones. Kent. (1820-30).).). 8vo.. Designs in Architecture. T. and Victoria (part of) (1837-51)." " The Thackeray (W.. Tanner.." Folio. Life. and on the other hand.) and M. 1848-1849 u Gibbs (J. and Gandon..


Buckingham : Palace. Somewhat later. already referred to (page 582). and Grange House. Street. 59! " Greek copied from Greek originals." Rickman's " Attempt to Discriminate the Gothic Styles" (A. f Pancras (1819). with colonnades have moved) All Souls. Trinity College. an early attempt at revived Gothic. reproducing purest Church of S. the writings of Professor Cockerell and the publications of the Society of Dilettanti (A. John Shaw Dunstan . London the National Gallery (fettered with conS. of the Regency. (A. and Fonthill Abbey (a monastic building with (A. which now. and Gothic schools of architec- Note." Battey Langley's "Gothic Architecture Improved. 1776-1832) in the West. a fine treatment of a town church. Wild. Examples in the Classic ture.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. 3. Savage: S. Museum at York DownThe College. Chelsea (1820). caused an increasing interest to be taken in Gothic This interest was further aided by the erection of Architecture. internally of the traditional architecture. Sir Jeffrey Wyatville (1766transformed Windsor Castle in 1826.D. EXAMPLES. and the laying out of Regent's Park in palatial blocks of synimetricai architecture. the Antiquities of Great Britain quities of Great Britain" (1814-1835).In wood(-i j^\-\^>^}\ New r THE GOTHIC SCHOOL." and other works. 1831). by James Wyatt. Cambs. by Blore Quadrant (the since been re. the galleried church of the period being clothed with details. since altered Regent . and externally battlemented and turreted 1840) : in imitation of the Edwardian castles. . This started a fashion for castellated mansions. by Horace Walpole. Cotman and the elder Pugin. are placed THE CLASSIC SCHOOL. a Pseudo-Gothic Abbey. caused an increased interest in Classic architecture and the erection of buildings modern internal arrangements). William Wilkins (1778-1839) University College. W.D. which is known as the Revival. . the writings of Coney. directly from old cathedrals and copied churches.. and the works of other writers. run concurrently. : William Wilkins : New Court. and the New Buildings. Brandon's of the Middle Ages. . H.D. an attempt to copy absolutely the of Greek detail. in many respects the Erechtheion. Athens.D. ditions) George's Hospital. Cambs. (A. the influence of literature helped to produce what is known as the " Gothic Revival. Luke. Langham Place.. Nash (1752-1835). Britton's Architectural " " Cathedral Anti(1807-1826). introduced the age of stucco Haymarket Theatre. 1819). 1831-1832). " Churches Paley. Fleet Street : ing London.D. since spoilt by erection of adjacent buildings. Strawberry Hill (1760-1770). 1769)." a movement much strengthened by the importation of the Elgin marbles in 1801-1803. S. side by side. for the first time. Hants (1820). as at Belvoir Castle. King's College. Cambs.

and elsewhere S. the Houses of Parliament. London. simplicity of idea. a new era in the Gothic revival began. Basevi (1795-1845). fittings. metal work. Ramsgate. mansions and schools. over Chapel. and carried out with scrupulous adherence to the spirit and detail of the Perpendicular clothing. and Italy. and United Service Club. London (1831). Southwark." He erected the Taylor and Ranthe Sun dolph Institute. " depamphlet contrasting the " architecture of the day graded " with what he called the Chris- THE CLASSIC SCHOOL. and made a vast number of designs in collaboration with or as assistant He had not yet arrived to others. In the Gothic revival Pugin sought to restore the fervour of faith and the self-denying spirit which were the real foundations of the artistic greatness and moral grandeur of the Middle Ages. : Prof. . besides convents. by the earnest study of old work. (17881863). Elmes (1815-1847) George's Hall. Liverpool. acquired an extraordinary knowledge of the He published a rousing style. London (recently altered) Banks of England at Manchester.A. Pall Mall. Florence. Brisand Liverpool and Hantol. Regent Street (1825) . a design inspired by the Farnese Palace. Sir Robert Smirke (1780-1867). travelled much in Greece and Italy.. (lately demolished). Pall Mall. . and. Rome. Threadneedle Street. George's Cathedral. and richness of character pervade the whole design. AugusHe worked tine's. shows the influence of the Pandolfini Palace. Cockerell. 1855. Pall Mall. Amongst the numerous works which he erected. R. and was followed by the Reform Club. which is Classic in inspiration. and published "The Greek Temples of yEgina and Bassae. Prof. H. under Sir Charles Barry on the stained glass. is the most perfect design of the Classic School. a pupil of Sir John Soane. Sir Charles Barry (1795-1860) travelled extensively in Egypt. S. : . monasteries. and many in colonies. erected Fitzwilltam Museum. TV/* (1798-1873) Royal Exchange. Sir Charles Barry : Birmingham Grammar School. and ornamental work generally of following : . Pall Mall.592 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. in which symmetry of the leading lines on plan. . 263). Cockerell com- The pleted the decoration of the interior. only the few the colonnade and portico design is handled with great effect. A new spirit of Decimus Burton (1800-1881) Screen at Hyde Park Corner in 1824 Athenaeum Club. lege. at the meridian of his power when he died at the age of forty. On the death of Elmes. won in competition. period. Pugin erected more than sixty-five churches in the United Kingdom. Cambs. The a pupil of Sir John Soane British Museum (1823-1847) (in which remark the application of the useless but grandeur-giving to buildings) public porticos General Post Office King's Col: . He abandoned Greece. Sir IV. George tian " style. Derby. In Bridgewater House. 1833 Houses of Parliament. . vault was executed in hollow tiles by Sir Robert Rawlinson. R. the main hall recalling the Roman Thermae (page 144). THE GOTHIC SCHOOL. and brought in the " astylar " treatment of design. commenced 1840 (No. Externally a : church building was awakened. and S. Gothic "in the . Weiby Northmore Augustus Pugin (1812-1852). The Travellers' Club. can typical examples be mentioned Roman Catholic churches at Nottingham. from beingemployed upon his father's books of mediaeval architecture. L. C. Oxford Fire Office. the fashion of useless porticos.

western wing (A. and sculptured works. glass painting. Record Office. by its illustration of ancient decorative art. discarded porticos as unnecessary. first idea of the movement that of carrying on the Tudor style so that. and the works of Beresford-Hope. cation of "The Seven Lamps of Architecture" and "The Stones of Venice. directed the execution of the fittings. Burlington Gardens Somerset House. at the time of its completion. J. third of the series (1849). such as metal work. Q . in 1851. the attention of all was riveted on the earlier phases of mediaeval architecture which every- Sir James Pennethorne (1801assistant to Nash. and Cliefden. Whewell. Donaldson were writing on the Classic side. the Civil The influence of Classic Revival. . architecture by the architectural courts and models of buildings The publiin the various styles aroused an interest in the subject. influenced by Barry. and by the atelier which was there maintained for some years. Parker.A. had powerfully aided F. Piccadilly (after courtyard of the Doge's Palace. The foundation of the South Kensington (now Victoria and Albert) Museum carried further the influence of the 1851 Exhibition. helped on the Gothic movement. Hall at work. and formed a starting The popularization of point for the arts of the Victorian age. and followed on Renaissance rather than Classic lines : one was engaged in imitating.D. The immediate effect of the evidently felt. Fetter Lane. in 1860. Shrublands. and the erection of many new churches. agreeing with the style of the building. Rev. Cockerell and Prof. and others. mosaics. and 1871). which in the end has done so much to raise the arts and crafts to a higher state of perfection. Orders were sparingly used. THE CLASSIC SCHOOL. and in marked contrast to the previous buildings of the Revival. Brandon. 1857). and the His Italian feeling final Halifax. Prof. Willis. the Gothicists was now paramount. Pugin. The Great Exhibition of 1851 caused the raising into prominence of the minor arts. under Sir Charles Barry. and the final touch to this influence was given by the 1851 Exhibition. the intention being to combine picturesqueness with symmetrical stateliness. decoration. greater richness is sought is after. Venice). Service Commission." by Ruskin. the influence of the Gothic revival is 593 THE GOTHIC SCHOOL. The end of the period of Sir Charles Barry marks the close of the Geological Museum. Comprises the latter part of the reign of Victoria (1851-1901). The restoration of a large number of cathedrals and churches. Other important works in the country are : Town less strong. the Trentham Hall (where landscape gardening of the Italian School is admirably carried out). while Prof. is a still more ornate example of the Renaissance. and detail is refined. Sharpe. Highclere.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. Petit. design of this great building was It was the climax of the slight. THE LATE VICTORIAN STYLE. L.

Provincial Banks in London and the provinces. Pall Mall. for domestic buildings. dral. to erect the Home and Foreign Offices (1860-1870) in the Classic. due to Norman Shaw. restored Cardiff Castle. He endeavoured to introduce the Early French Renaissance. Nesfield. . or as it was called. Nelson : Junior United Service Club. church 5 at Halifax (1855) church at Hamburg S. Oxford . after a Roman Renaissance palace. Pancras Station buildings in Broad Sanctuary. W. the Law Courts. F. while churches and kindred buildings continued to be erected in a developed style of Gothic architecture. . : M. All Sydney Smirke : The story added to Burlington House . Benjamin Ferrey S. E. Burges (1828-1881) Cork . Mary's Cathe- Haley Hill. or Free Classic. . Mary. S.594 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. B2itlerfield : vvich (the Burlington House Courtyard and facade to College . George. London Alban. The work of Shaw. and Margaret Street. . . James's Hall. Mary Magdalene. . which for . Doncaster (1853) S. S. : Cathedral (1870) . P. CLASSIC SCHOOL. in Northumberland Avenue. The design thus dictated to Scott was not likely to be a masterpiece. Oxford . Paddington . ledge. Cockerell: Gilbert Scott (-1810-1877): Camber well Church S. houses. John Gibson National James the Less. S. a : modern version of Venetian Gothic. all of which show the increasing desire for and S. Nesfield. Street (1824-1881) : S. William College. and Philip Webb. Sir Digby Wyatt (1820-1877) Courtyard to India Office. Stephen. Lewis Vulliamy : Dorchester House. Sir Gilbert Scott (1810-1877) The Foreign Office. Charing Cross Station. Edinburgh . it was attempted to extend to buildings every purpose until the movement met with a severe check in the decision. study of color. Stoke Newington the Martyrs' . British Mu- seum reading-room Carlton Club. Mary Abbott. Banks and Barry : Dul: Kensington the Albert Memorial S. Barry (1831-1 880) Covent . and Webb influenced the design of smaller buildings in suburbs and country. The Free: masons' Tavern. London. Room. London. and it is in fact but a poor ideas of the Renaissance. in which the Classic orders embracing two stories are the Society for freely introduced the Promotion of Christian Know: . A*. Westminster . Piccadilly). GOTHIC SCHOOL. has unique decorative work inside by Alfred Stevens. London the Speech . E. restorations. . . Mark. G. Victoria Embankment. . then arose in favour of the Queen Anne style. Westminster. Garden Theatre Building. the modern style. Strand The Art Union . after the library of S. Sir Memorial. London house in Cadogan Square the Convent. East Grinstead house and church at Holmwood. Messrs. and elsewhere. 1861. Keble Saints. and built his own house in Melbury Road. acquiesced in by Sir Gilbert Scott. the Gothic revival. Venice. . as in the Temple Chambers. compromise between modern French and the traditional Italian After this crisis a new movement. many and other new churches. Brandon Catholic : and . Harrow School. Holborn. Owen Jones : Westminster.

G. buildings. and H. Pearson. manner.) S. W. James. Learning Brothers: Birmingham. and Northampton Town Hall. . and many others round London. and houses at Bedford Alliance AssurPark. : S. and many houses. The student confined to London may obtain an idea of the early French Renaissance style by an inspection ot this building. Lord Carlisle's house. Lower Kennington Lane. E.A. of Ruskin's teaching. Kenoffices at Lincoln's Inn sington .: Truro Cathedral. (5) S. London house near . S. London Thames Nesfield: Lodges at Kew Regent's Park. James Brooks: Churches in Holland Road. John. churches (1) : Embankment. White- (8) Maida Hill. His eight London W. in the Palladian Gosford Park. London. west front and dome added later. : Sir Horace Jones of Music. come Alexander Thomson. Whichcord: S. Philip IVebb: "Clouds. L.) G oldie . of Glasgow. Whitehall. The Smith - London. Alban. Cambridge. Upper Norwood. Gordon Square. Thomas's Hos- Bodley and Garner : School Board Offices. Davis and Emmanuel : City of London Schools. Lowther Lodge. S. John. : Spanish S.Whitehall. : S. Gospel Oak. S. Kensington. Todmorden Apostolic Church. Vauxhall. (7) Catholic Apostolic Church. War Office. J. Anne. Moscow Road. hall. John. additions . Hall and Assize Courts Natural History Museum. : Hall. Hall. Young: Glasgow Municipal Buildings. (4) Brompton. South Kensington. as country " Wispers ". Peter. Bristol Assize Courts. Leadenhall Street. Kilburn. since altered. Q Q 2 . (3) S. Hoiborn Eaton Hall. known as "Greek Thomson": several buildings at Glasgow with a peculiar severe treatment of modern Greek which had much influence. G. and the Albert Hall. 1859. R. W. London. London Leamington. directly the out- Burns: Buccleuch House. Admiralty (The result Buildings. Cheshire City Guilds of London Institute. London houses. (6) S. . Norman Shaw : New Zealand Chambers. CLASSIC SCHOOL. Kenchurches at Southwark and Norwich the Greek Church. Gribble: The Oratory at (2) Holy Trinity. West Croydon. Augustine. Michael. (The Italian style a condition of the competition. Pembroke College. Town A. Scott nington . Deane and Woodward: The Oxford Museum. Kensington. Godwin Market and Guildhall School Capt. Town bord). Chiswick ance Office. . 595 London. Egham (after Chateau de ChamStephen's Club National Safe Deposit. Kensington. Town field GOTHIC SCHOOL. 1879 . . S. Thames Embankment. Bessborough Gardens (1850). . Fowke and Assistants: The Science College. Grassland: Holloway College.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. H. of an open competition which practically sounded the death knell of Gothic architecture for public R. Congleton Waterhouse : Manchester . Chiswick Parish Church (additions) S. 1879 Prudential Assurance Offices. since altered . Fields. Pall Mall houses at Queen's Gate. Redhill . Mark. Red Lion Square. . Place." Hampshire . South . E. Currey pital. to . Astor Estate Offices. Agnes.

Electra House. Bodley and Garner Hoar Cross. Chiddingstone Causeway S. R. Leeds. Works Hill. the People's Palace. Castle Allerton. London Christ's Hospital. Sussex. Hospital. . S. Wormwood Scrubs Scotland Yard (Anglo-Classic). Sussex. Jackson: Work at Oxford the Examination Schools and . Wilson. raising of the arts and . Douglas and Fordham Churches and domestic half-timber work. S. premises. . Manchester. John F. D. Cambridge Indian Institute and Mansfield College. Knights/. Staffordshire . W . Folkestone. Town proper importance the Church of the Clerkenwell (a new Holy Redeemer. Life tecture). J. Collingham Gardens and Cadogan Square. (also see . Bournedomestic work Offices. version of the Wren style) . crafts into their Hall Battersea Town Hall Battersea Polytechnic Liverpool Technical Schools and Art Galleries Central Criminal Court. London. T. Hammersmith . H. Church at Clumchurches at Hack: ." and Bryhouses near Salisbury anston. . Palace City Bank. Stevenstyle in S. Robson and ] son : Sir Arthur Blomfield: S. and Badminton Clubs. Ealing. Hammer. IV. John. Robson: Institute of Water Colors. . Finsbury. . Brentford S. . and Clement. Moorgate St. and others. E. Brydon Hall and Bath Polytechnic Municipal Buildings.596 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. Old Bailey. and elsewhere. London (a monumental example of street archi. London. London. W. . London Lloyd's Registry Office. Sir Aston Webb and Ingress Bell: Birmingham Assize Courts. Thomas's Seminary. . in Chester and elsewhere. London houses at Streatham Common Buchan at . . Thames Embankment the Church House. Luke's Holy Rood. Brighton " Greek Architecture. CLASSIC SCHOOL GOTHIC SCHOOL. other churches in Stock port Lanca- Theatre. M. Horsham. Moorgate Street. T. Watford Church. Florence: Hotel Woolland's bridge. in " " " Craigside. Victoria. Chelsea Town J. for London School typical Board London red brick stocks. L. S. Piccadilly. Mary. S. : . dressings and yellow E. and several large houses. Soho Square. Work . . page 56). mouth. Finsbury Circus. Mary. Palcy and Austin : and shire. smith . London. Portsea. and many others. Peter. Colcutt : imperial Institute . Art Gallery and Pump Room Government : . ' ." Harrow Mission at Hampstead . Ernest Newton Houses at : . the New Gallery. . R." Dawpool. . Colleges. Telegraph Offices. /. G. R. ham. Junior Constitutional. . Sir Aston Webb: Metropolitan . Children's adjacent . . Westminster the Church of the S. Street Office. Insurance Buildings. additions to Elizabethan. and in conjuncT tion with H. Oxford . Westminster All Saints. 5 Newnham Basil Champneys : Girton and . Chelsea (1890). Edis : Constitutional. New Church. John. Clap- E. Sheffield . marks the Mountford: . W. Belcher: Institute of Chartered Accountants Colchester Town Hall Eastern Co. Westminster.. Bentley New Cathedral. Bride's Vicarage. . Moorgate French Church. London Rylands Library. and many other churches Sion College. the Wren style Salisbury. Sedding(\*3j-\%<)2) Holy : : London. Holborn Viaduct Hotel and Station. Trinity Church. E. colleges in revived Ernest George and Peto (Influence of Flemish Renaissance) : ber Church ney Wick.

Wokingham and else- Victoria Naval College. Among those in the "Classic" school are the MacGill University. . and the outward symbol of the twentieth century. Sir Aston Webb: Victoria and Albert Museum (South Kensington) 5Q7 GOTHIC SCHOOL. and law courts. and the The Parliament House at Ottawa are outstanding examples. where. and it is a source of much pleasure and instruction to go through these records of the developments which have taken place. Some of the larger works are of importance and are an evidence of the political growth of those colonies in which they are situate. Hare: Oxford Municipal . Stafford . but the building was not proceeded with further than the foundation. Municipal Town Hall . CLASSIC SCHOOL. has to a colonies. of architecture in the great self-governing Zealand and Canada. Prynne: Dulwich and During the last fifty years the pages of the professional journals have contained most of the noteworthy buildings erected. H. the old buildings being still in use. Gothic and Renaissance styles. . worked British Colonial Architecture. Melbourne and a large number of banks. G. resist all revivals and fashions. large extent followed the lead of the mother country. Haslemere. Richards: Cardiff Town Hall and Law Courts. and the Parliament House. London. and Gothic for ecclesiastical buildings. Buildings Buildings . insurance offices. Carce : Churches at . and elsewhere. W. Montreal. style. Dartmouth Memorial Processional Avenue. Parliament House at Sydney was intended to be rebuilt in this . Fellowes Churches elsewhere. Bristol and Stewart and Lanchester. for they seem to show that a style or out. it is hoped. T. and become the free expression of our own civilization. Melbourne Cathedral. In the "Gothic" school. H. a homely type of design resembling our own Georgian style being employed for smaller domestic works of the countryhouse type. Henley Hall. at Staines. and buildings The development New have been and are erected both in the Classic. Canterbury. Classic is principally though not wholly reserved for secular buildings. Leonard Stokes : Churches and schools at Folkestone. city halls. As in England. manner in architecture is being slowly which may. Liverpool.ENGLISH RENAISSANCE. D. and elsewhere Episcopal Palaces. Fordington. such as Australia. Crewe Town Exeter.

Michael Charlestown (1752) (the probable architect being Gibbs. many of the best examples of country houses were erected. worn and crazy doors'. and largely affected the detail. were among the early churches. at Boston (17 47). During the eighteenth century (1725-1775) buildings were erected which have been termed "colonial" in style. and tiled and tall. the designer of the Radcliffe Library at Oxford). Christ Church. kind of old Hobgoblin Hall. S. Cambridge It has elongated (1757). With weather stains upon the wall And stairways. Independence Hall. Built in the old Colonial clay. Now somewhat fallen to decay. the " hipped roof and the dentil cornice of the Queen Anne period the internal fittings resembling those of Adam and Sheraton. In Virginia. THE study of the progress of architecture in a . and Maryland. is typical of the symmetrical buildings. shuttered sash windows. And chimneys huge. Shirley. " at erected after the manner of Sir Christopher Wren. Ionic half-columns to its fa9ade. S." . Craigie House. When men lived in a grander way. New York (1767). Paul. And creaking and uneven floors. A With ampler hospitality . new country.ARCHITECTURE " IN THE UNITED STATES. the Old State House and the Town Hall at Newport are other well-known buildings." LONGFELLOW. Philadelphia (1727-1735). Philadelphia (1729-1735). In the "New England" States wood was the material principally employed. is interesting than a cursory glance. corresponding " " to what is understood in England as Queen Anne or Georgian ' ' ' ' (page 578). The early buildings were mainly churches or "meeting houses. as at Brandon. the homes of the tobacco planters. The Spanish rule in Florida and California is responsible for . untrammelled with precedent and lacking the conditions obtaining but room is not available for more in Europe.

the Treasury at Washington. both by Renwick Trinity Church. Boston Custom House. Trinity Church. . Recent Architecture. Upjohn the State Capitol at Hartford. Among the buildings were the Wings and Dome of the Capitol at Washington (1858-1873). Hunt has been specially employed in the erection of large town and country houses. Louis (1904) have aided in enlarging the national ideas. the United States Mint. 599 mission houses. New York (begun in 1858). R. . The Classic Revival (1812-1870) of Europe reached the States somewhat late. . Among the buildings of importance a few only can be mentioned. the . Richardson. and the Capitol at Albany. by Walters. Patrick's Cathedral. including the Lennox Library. begun in 1871. Philadelphia. worked in the non-academic French Romanesque manner. by Jefferson. both^in very different ways. while such exhibitions as that at Philadelphia (1876). Hunt (1827-1895) also helped the movement. are examples of this revival. are his well-known examples. a more monumental type was evolved. Grace Church (1845) and S. Chicago (1893) an d S. The industrial activity which followed the civil war (1861-1865). New York (1839-1846). which bear resemblance Spanish Renaissance buildings. Philadelphia. a country chateau in North Houses at Newport. the Town Hall. and many charming small libraries round Boston. but produced similar results. several State capitols. " Biltmore Carolina many city buildings. Upjohn (1873-1878) the Museum at Boston (1876-1880) the Academy of Fine Arts. New York. The original Capitol at Washington (1793-1830). M. Between the Declaration of Independence (1776) and the war of 1812. by R. H. by Bullfinch. which became the model for many public buildings. The Gothic Revival was confined principally to churches (1840-1876). M. Virginia University (1817). recently destroyed by and rebuilt in a similar manner by McKim. Boston (1877). churches and to the IN THE UNITED STATES. and the Massachusetts State House at Boston (1795). New York (1871-1877). and the additions to the Metropolitan Museum of Art. fire. owing to the erection of new State capitals. by Thornton. Richardson (1826-1886). Albany City Hall. Harvard College (1870-1877). Two architects. and the devastating conflagrations of Chicago (1871) and Boston (1872) all helped to create greater interest in architecture. Philadelphia (1876) Memorial Hall.ARCHITECTURE many forts. although a pupil of the Ecole des BeauxArts. Pittsburgh County Buildings. and R. recently enlarged and restored. Hallet and Latrobe. . M. Mead and White. work at Harvard University. by R. . H. and greatly influenced his contemporaries and successors. The Customs House at New York. "among which may be mentioned.


being main features. by Carrere and Hastings McKim. John the Divine. insurance offices and trusts are notable. piazza. or perhaps wood alone. and a picturesque grouping of steep Among later buildings of note are 5. at Philadelphia (various buildings). by Messrs. and the enormous buildings of the leading newspapers. by Library. Smithmeyer and Green New York Public the State House. by Cope and Stewardson Libraries at Washthe Ponce de Leon ington and Atlantic City. Riverside Drive. . The same architects have erected very scholarly and refined buildings at the Library. President Grant's Tomb. . . Columbia University at New York. by Ross and Ackermann Hotel at Florida. the general use of lifts and fireproof construction and the cost of land has caused the erection of many important town buildings of great height. a most successful and chaste design as applied to a high building. but that American architects . . In some the walls have been constructed of a framework of steel. by Messrs. The houses of small type have been very successfully treated. and the Boston Public Library. by Petz. . being in a country which is the centre of the lumber market but " extremes meet. and Coolidge Congressional Library at Washington. which has had a good deal of influence in the designing of recent library buildings. which is in reality a tower. already advancing so rapidly along certain new lines of departure. Adler and Sullivan. Such buildings are essentially modern in character. by Carrere and Hastings. roofs. Chicago (No. Mead and White University of Pennsylvania. will value the lessons they teach without copying their exact . supporting masonry brick or terra-cotta inclosing walls. wood being largely employed in the country districts. the staircase. York Chicago Public New . Among the most important are the Garrick (Schiller) Theatre. in the Spanish Renaissance style. Madison Square Theatre in Neiv York. The plan of these houses often shows great originality. The designs of the various buildings for the Chicago Exposition (1893) differed largely from expectation. The Monadnock Building and the Masonic Temple at Chicago. Domestic Architecture. 264). The Ames Building and Tremont Temple in Boston." and an exposition of architecture on the wilds of the western prairie turned out to be a collection of well-studied Parisian designs. museums and other buildings. Mead and White. Rutan. Burnham and Root. New York . . a modern Renaissance design by McKim. Many looked for some new development in either iron or terra-cotta. sitting-hall. It is to be hoped that the imitative element will not cause these great Classic designs to be reproduced elsewhere for town halls. but are not necessarily ugly in design. Providence.ARCHITECTURE IN THE UNITED STATES. 6oi The abnormal progress of American industries during the last 25 years. by Shepley.

The great historic styles must of course be well studied. but for the principles which they inculcate. COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. In conclusion. needs. constituting a retrogressive movement. that there is a great future for only the architects will. as has been done in certain cases. much in the same way that the literature of the past is studied in order to acquire a good literary style. If architecture is thus studied a good result will be assured. and aspirations of the life and character of the age in which he lives. No advance can be made by the copying of ancient buildings. not for the forms with which they abound. as much as possible. express themselves in the language of their own times. if not there will be another great American Classic revival French type which will go far beyond any craze such as has occurred in England and do a great deal to retard the true progress of the of art in America. and showing a sad want of the appreciation of the true value of art. it is certain if American Architecture .602 forms . and the architect will produce works reflecting the hopes.

. but it is thought that by keeping them quite separate from the historical styles. GENERAL INTRODUCTION. since it presents many novel forms to which one is . THE non-historical styles Indian. who had been working mainly in connection with government departments. PART II. He was the first to piece together the story of Indian and Eastern architecture. Mr. Fergusson's chronology is founded on his own labours and such investigations. which would probably be the case if they were placed in their chronological order. and is the one which has been followed. however.. The position which they should occupy in a History of Architecture is. and need not interrupt the story of the evolution of European Historical Architecture dealt with in Part I. a matter of doubt. although it certainly influenced it to some extent. Mention should be made of the late Mr. They can thus be studied independently. Fergusson's investigations on the subject. Chinese and Japanese and Central American are those which developed mainly on their own account and exercised little direct influence on other styles. THE NON-HISTORICAL STYLES. it will make for greater clearness to the student. Saracenic architecture is also placed in Part II. not only by his own patient researches. as its connection with European architecture is not generally considered important. The study of Indian and indeed of all Eastern art enlarges the view.A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE ON THE COMPARATIVE METHOD. but by utilizing the vast amount of material brought to light by General Cunningham and a score of others.

character. monuments and houses. From an architect's point of view. doubtless because of their unusual It is. " " Use is second and Indian architecture was no doubt nature. or whether such forms would not be considered beautiful if sanctioned by custom. beautiful to those who were engaged on it and to whom it was meant to appeal. as was the case in Europe from the Classic period to that of the Renaissance. and models of temples. often strike one as ugly or bizarre. and which.604 COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE. 265. unaccustomed. these non-historical styles can scarcely be so interesting as those which have progressed on the solution of constructive problems. however. which possesses a most valuable collection of portions of original buildings. no other style was such patient care and labour bestowed on the minutest detail. In India and the East. resolutely met and overcome. decorative schemes seemed to have It is certain that in outweighed any such problems. . a question of taste and education as to whether this impression is really due to this unusual character. casts of details. The student should visit the Indian Museum at South Kensington.

Delhi (the " Rome of India "). Bounded on the North by the Himalayas on the North. and were utilized for rafting down timber used for building from the immense forests. It was the capital of the Mogul Emperors (page 671). and Jumna. The coasts. Persia. and on the East by the heights of Southern Assam. and Assyria. For she was prophesying of her glory And in her wide imagination stood Palm-shaded temples and high rival fanes By Oxus or on Ganges' sacred isles. a collection of ruins of different cities. that from the Lower Ganges. The proximity of the Greek Bactrian Kingdom in the north-west had considerable classical influence on the architecture. Geographical fifteen an area good harbours. as the Nerbudda. the Indus Valley and the Gulf of Cambay. may have helped to keep the people aloof from extraneous influences but by her position she was destined to receive the human overflow from the ancient breeding grounds of Central Asia. : i.West by the Suleiman mountains. viz. as they contain capitals and columns of similar design. Indus. More thought than woe was in her dusky face. Krishna. The Ganges-Jumna Valley contains some of the principal cities of architectural importance. were important as affording employment to thousands of deficient in . i. the remaining portion is bounded by the sea. INFLUENCES. primarily of the : . By forming trade routes or cheap highways they assisted in the formation of great cities. The rivers. Ganges. the Hindu Koosh. covers nearly 50 square miles. India a three-cornered country occupies times greater than Great Britain. as London is of England. Delhi is therefore the centre of India. Its architectural importance was probably gained through being at the junction of four historic roads.INDIAN ARCHITECTURE. The rock-cut temples on the Western Ghats are attributed by some to the influence of Egypt. boatmen." KEATS.

At Mahavellipore and Ellora. At Hullabid. Two principal seasons. the sandstone of the Godavari. being found in large forests on the Eastern and Western Ghats. rising from the ground as perpendicular cliffs. In the low-lying plains of Bengal. the Dravidian monolithic rockcut free-standing temples. wet and dry. Other woods are ebony. tecture. Geological. the east coast the country. exercise. clothing and building material to the native) grow mostly on the lowlands of the coast. which had considerable influence on Indian architecture from the earliest Mention should be made of the pink marble of Rajputana. and the bamboo of the jungle. " Histoire de 1' ArchiThe map 265) taken from Choisy's Gandhara On (No. rendered easy by the pressing of plastic clay into moulds. a nodular form of impure lime found in most river valleys. used for coolness. and thence over Northern India generally. India lies mostly within the tropics. a narrow strip of lowland only intervening between the Ghats and the seaboard caused the inhabitants to remain to this day aloof from civilizing movements. and the Nardada. Assyria and Persia. and from shells plentifully found in the marshes. an indurated potstone of volcanic origin is found. uniform in texture and of considerable thickness. Terracotta seems to have been employed in early tim