FICHAMENTO: A THEORY OF ADAPTATION – LINDA HUTCHEON PREFACE Xi: not only novels and films; everyone has his/her

own theory Xii: de-hierarchizing impulse; her method Xii: fidelity; fidelity criticism Xiv: 3 ways we engage with stories Xiv, xv, xvi: division and summary of chapters CHAPTER 1: BEGINNING TO THEORIZE ADAPTATION Virginia Woolf – p. 3, 58, 77 Iconophobia x logophilia – 4 Repetition with variation – 4 Repurposing but new consumers are also created – 5 Palimpsestuous works; comparative studies – 6 3 meanings of adaptation – 7,8 definition of adaptation – 8 what is not an adaptation – 9 form and content – 9 what to adapt? = the spirit, tone, themes, characters, plot, p.o.v.m etc – 8-12 the other world (heterocosm) x the space of the mind – 14 adaptogenic (Groensteen) – 15 adapt. as a product: translation, refomatting, re-mediation, intersemiotic transposition – 16 paraphrase – 17 biopics and graphic memoirs – 17 adaptation as a process – cutting, expanding, compressing – 19, 20 imitation, Aristotle – 20 modes of engagement – 22 a 27 (images x words) context of production and reception – 28 adaptation as a matter of survival, mutation – 31, 32 CHAPTER 2 – WHAT? Film – 35 City of glass – 35 Telling   Showing Novel  film  renovelization – 38 Play and film  always adaptations - 39 ??? Music in film - 41 Stage musicals, novel into a radio show – 41 Stage and screen adaptations – indexical and iconic sign – 43 Literature – symbolic and convenitional signs – 43 GNs more easily to adapt to film – 43 ??? Sin City, Ghost World She fails to recognize GN as a hybrid form as she does with musical films - 48 Showing   showing – 46 Plays, TV, cinema, stage musicals, operas, stage ballet TV – 47 Operalization – 48 Hybrid form: musical films – 48 Interacting   telling or showing Dice games of pride and prejudice – 50 Computer games – 50 Theme parks – 51

a safe bet – 87 Walter Benjamin on translators – 88 Comics are created with the intention of becoming films – 88 B) The legal constraints: Is adaptation a copy? Copyright issues – 88. flashforwards. 57 Destroying the cliché – 58 Close-up to create psychological intimacy – 59 Film’s analogies (alternatives) to subjective elements – 59. – 55 p. dissolves. vulgarization. 60 Music in film and operas – 60 The operas alternatives and filmed operas – 60 Performance does exteriority better than print media (2nd part of the cliché) Destroying he cliché Dickens – 62 New technologies that do not represent the real exteriority but the workings of the mind – 62 CLICHÉ #3: showing and interacting  Present X Tellling  Past and Future Film: equivalents in flashbacks. in novels. betrayal. TV – 66 Videogames based on films – 66 CLICHÉ #4: Only telling can express ambiguity. irony. 69 Performance media resources – 70 Verbal irony: Kubrick’s Barry Lyndon – 71 The example of Billy Budd’s ambiguity – 72 a 77 CHAPTER 3: WHO? WHAT? (ADAPTERS) Who adapt? Adaptations may be a collective process.v. violation. from film to videogame – 55 CLICHÉ #2: interiority = tellilng x exteriority = showing/interacting Adaptations of Joyce – 56.v. silences. 89 .o. deformation. and time-lapse dissolves for representing stream of consciousness and interior monologues Visual and aural leitmotif represent past through memory – 64 Other elements in film – 64 In stage. in GN. desecration – 85 What motivates adapters if they know their work will be compared? – 86 A) The economic lures: computer games to cash in on the success of certain moveis and vice-versa – 86. temporal isues are more limited. fade in/out. – 65 In opera – 65 How to represent the unfolding of time – in film. metaphors. 82 Film editor – 82 Director – 82 Creative transposition is subject o genre and medium demands but also to the adapter’s temperament and talent – 84 Film: 1st adaptation: director and screenwriter 2nd adaptation: they adapt from the screenplay – 85 Why adapt? Infidelity.Gerard Genette: form/genre/mode – 52 Elements that are adapted – 52 CLICHÉ #1: only the telling mode provides intimacy – 52 Film exteriority x novel interiority – 53 Camera for 1st person narrator – 54 p. and absences.o. opera – 68. because there are many adapters – 80 In film and TV – 81 The role of the screenwriter and the music composer – 81 Costume and set designers and actors – 81. Representations of the turn of he screw to film. symbols.

media and time – 144-45 Transcultural adaptation: change of language. the Sims = legal expanding by users – 90 Copyleftmedia – 90 C) Cultural Capital: one way to gain respectability is to be upwardly mobile. value sytems – 142 An adaptation is always framed in a context – 142 Nations. To different media – 132 Space and time are experienced differently by audiences in the various media and this difference creates new problems for adaptations across media.parodies –90 re-appropriation with critical purpose – 90 Doom. Creative choices – 108 What the audience knows about the creator influence in their interpretation of his/her work. critique – 93 For social or cultural critique – 94 To articulate political positions – 94 Individual motivations – 94 Learning from Practice – 95 The Carmelites of Compiège – novella. “the death of the author” and Foucault – 106 The author’s intentions are relevant to understand the creative processes of adaptations 106. if we see the film before – 122 A masterpiece for Bela Balazs can’t be adapted – 122 Big fans tend to have the greatest disappointments – 123 Autobiographical Poe acc. film. fashion. change of place and time period – 145 Hollywood americanizes a work – 146 . opera The adaptive process – cultures. 107. systems and personal motivations – 106 The creative process idea is dated after “the intentional fallacy”. 132 Reader-response theory: all readers are engaged in the active making of textual meaning – 134 McLuhan’s hot and cool media – 135 RPG games – 136 Expanded cinema. play. tributes. 91 D) Personal and political motives: a truly artistic adaptation – 92 Homages. – 109 There is no original genius – 111 CHAPTER 4: HOW? The pleasures of repetition – 114 More popular adaptations are those with familiar linear and realist story-line – 115 Videogames adaptations for boys and for girls – 115/116 – girls create more fan fiction than men – 115/116 Intertextual echoing – 117 To adapt for a different audience – 118 New education industry for children: see the film in order to read the book –118 Licensed products – 119 2001: A Space Odyssey novelization – 119 censorship of films – 11 TV adaptations of literature – 120 A knowing audience (if we know the adapted text previsouly) X an unknowng audience – 120 When we know. stage. To Phillipe Lejeune X American Splendor – 123 Films are more naturalistic than theater – 129 Each mode of engagement requires a different mental action from the audience – 130 Different effects acc. interactive and hypertext fiction – 137 Interactivity allowed X true interactivity – 138 Chapter summary – 139 CHAPTER 5: WHERE? WHEN? Alterations to national and culural setting. it must be so for both knowing and unknowing audiences – 121 Known adaptations set up audiences expectations – 121 After experiencing adaptations – 121 Novels become derivative works. we fill the gaps with info from the adapted text – 121 For an adaptation to be succesful.

:  What is NOT an adaptation? Short intertextual allusions. from kids to adults – 172 “Economy of invention” 173 In music. B) stories are timeless cognitive models by which we make sense of our world and of human action in it. 167 It is the same.177 . but it is not. – 174 The appeal cannot be explained by only economic gains. evolving technologies. For J Hillis Miller.g. not the exception . legal issues. while raised others. ideas that travel involve 4 elements – 150 Susan Stanford Friedman’s term “indigenization” in poliical context: the forming of a national discourse different from the dominant = it implies agency – 150 The adapter plug and the electrical converter metaphor – 150 Indigenizing can result in strange hybrid works – 151 Power – colonizer X colonized – 152 A modern rereading of the past – 152 Learning from Practice: The story of Carmen: a femme fatale or an independent woman? A victim or a victimizer? An orientalized portrait. This natural selection must involve an identical part and a different part at the same time. To Said. we need the same stories as a way to assert the basic ideology of our culture – 176 Adaptation is not vampiric – 176 malign or benign parasites / stories have high or low infective power Stories pass through a culural selection – 177 Summary – 177 Adaptations are the norm. FINAL QUESTIONS: she answered some questions. A marginal figure. Exotic – 153-67 3 way to indigenize a story – 158 a) historicizing/dehistoricizing b) racializing/deracializing c) embodying/disembodying 3 qualities for high survival of adaptations: a) longevity b) fecundity c) copying-fidelity – 157 There must be a recognition of he source-story. but quite impossible in some cases – 171 Sequels and prequels. theme and variation are essential – 173 Not a copy/ ritual & recognition + surprise and novelty – 173 Sameness through alterity – 173 Human mimetic faculty – 173/74 To repeat without copying – 174 Adaptations disrupt elements like priority and authority and destabilize cultural identity and power relations. fanzines and slash fiction are not adaptable – 171 Is a musem exhibit an adaptation? – 172  What is the appeal of adaptation? Adaptations appeal to different audiences. A) stories are considered forms of representation and vary with period and culture.Changes in racial and gender politics – 147 Economic. bits of sampled music are not – 170 Parody in adaptation/ Remakes are always adaptations – 170 Not every adaptation is necessarily a remediation – 170 Elements of fluidity – 171 Fidelity is ideal. – 175 Theories of narrative: there are 2 ways we can explain popularity of adaptations. religion – 149 Alternatives in performance – 150 Acc. e.

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