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ISSN 0141-6790 Vol. 24
November 2001 pp. 621±645
Dialektik des Monstrums: Aby Warburg and the symptom paradigm
In 1923 Aby Warburg defined the aim of his library, but also his work in general, as eine Urkundensammlung zur Psychologie der menschlichen Ausdruckskunde.1 What else, then, is the `science without a name' invented by Warburg, if not a living metamorphosis of traditional art history ± this ostensible history of objects ± into a history of the psyche, as embodied in styles, forms, `pathos formulae', symbols, fantasies, beliefs; in short, all that Warburg intended by the term Ausdruck (`expression')?2 A metamorphosis in which `historical psychology' profoundly modifies the positivist point of view of history and `expression' profoundly modifies the idealist point of view of art. `Historical psychology'? This means that the time of the after-life is a psychic time; a hypothesis that must be situated on several levels all at once. First, the chosen motifs of Nachleben are the great psychic powers: pathetic representations, dynamogrammes of desire, moral allegories, figures of mourning, astrological symbols, etc.3 Next, the domains of Nachleben are style, gesture and the symbol, as vectors of exchange between heterogeneous spaces and times.4 Finally, the processes of Nachleben can only be understood from the basis of their `connaturality' with psychic processes in which the actuality of the primitive manifests itself. Thus Warburg's interest for the latent or critical aspects of the Pathosformel, as well as those that pertain to the drives and to fantasy. It is highly significant that Warburg undertook a vast, never finished, and never published `foundational' project on the psychology of art while working on his dissertation on Botticelli, a work through which dream motifs, themes of unconscious desire, of the erotische Verfogungscene (`erotic chase'), of sacrifice and death discretely, yet confidently, make their way. In the three hundred or so folios of this manuscript, written between 1888 (when he was just twenty-two years old) and 1905, Warburg devised an entire psychological and philosophical vocabulary (we would not want to call it a system) aimed at working out such formidable problems as `art and thought', the relationship between `form and content', the `theory of the symbol', the status of `anthropomorphism', the `association of ideas', `images of thought', etc.5 A vocabulary of `expression' remains omnipresent in all his attempts to formulate a psychology of art, continuing up to the 1927 Allgemeine Ideen.6 If all history falls within the realm of a psychology then, for Warburg, the entire history of images necessarily falls within the realm of a psychology of expression. As I
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ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM
have started to indicate, what is being formulated here is a psyche unconfined to the familiar, heroic tales of artistic `personality'. This formulation points toward a more basic and transversal, impersonal and trans-individual psyche; a psychic condition common to what we customarily call body and soul, image and word, representation and movement, and anthropologically central to what has been somewhat impoverished by classical aesthetics under the concept of imitation.7 This not only means that Nachleben should be thought of as a psychic time, it means that the Pathosformel should be thought of as a psychic gesture. Gertrud Bing recognized this fundamental trait. According to her, `pathos formulae' make visible `not a quality of the external world like movement, distance or space, but a state of the emotions'.8 Bing, the historian slightly alarmed by the swampy psychic terrain she has just touched on, concluded: `We are here treading on dangerous ground.'9 Yet, the Warburgian demand, dangerous or not, lies therein: the Pathosformel must not be translated in terms of a semantics or semiotics of corporeal gestures, but in terms of a psychic symptomatology. Pathos formulae are the visible symptoms ± corporeal, gestural, presented, figured ± of a psychic time irreducible to the simple thread of rhetorical, sentimental, or individual turns. But, where does one find the theoretical paradigm for this demand? This was Warburg's lengthy and obstinate quest. Its vocabulary would undoubtedly remain that of expression, but its point of view was that of the symptom. For expression, according to Warburg, is not the reflection of an intention, but is instead the return of the repressed in the image. This is why Nachleben appears as the time of a contretemps in history (thought of in terms of the development of styles), and Pathosformel as the gesture of a counter-movement in history (thought of in terms of the storia that an image represents). `Expression', then. But symptomatic expression. [Translator's note: The word Georges Didi-Huberman uses in French is `symptomale'. He wants to make a distinction between symptomale, which is a critical term, and symptomatic, which is a clinical term.] What kind of symptom? Symptom of what? And, above all, symptom how? Without being certain what he would find, Warburg first turned to medicine for answers. As early as 1888, it was the medical metaphor that sprang to mind when he tried to express his hope for an epistemological breakthrough, his desire to finish with the `aestheticising history of art' of connoisseurs and sogennanten Gebildeten (`so-called cultured') specialists: We of the younger generation want to attempt to advance the science of art so far that anyone who talks in public about art without having specially and profoundly studied this science should be considered just as ridiculous as people are who dare to talk about medicine without being doctors.10 When Warburg spoke of his desire for epistemological displacement, it was again medicine, along with anthropology, that would dismantle the judgements of taste proper to the `aestheticizing history of art'. He needed ethnology ± via his voyage to Hopi country ± to teach him the meaning of the primitive, and medicine to teach him the meaning of the symptom, so that traditional art history could cede to an anthropology of images capable of `organically' grasping the stylistic and symbolic phenomena of the Florentine Renaissance and the German Reformation: 622
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did Warburg begin to see the proximity between his intellectual project and psychoanalysis. I had no idea that after my trip to America the organic relationship between the art and religion of `primitive' peoples would appear with such clarity that I plainly saw the identity. above all.12 from this moment on the question remains as to which psychological or. Gombrich effected a considerable act of epistemological censure. `Warburgian tradition' with the return to order of a philosophy of the faculties (Panofsky traded Nietzsche and the eternal return for Kant and the a priori). The Warburgian history of images attempts to analyse the pleasure of formal invention. if original. between 1891 and 1892 Warburg had already taken preparatory courses in psychology for medical students. * * * Warburg's dreamed-of `historical psychology of expression'.13 Reducing the question of the symptom to one of a Hegelian `meaning of history. that for the young historian of images medicine signified medicine of the soul above all. It evokes movements of artistic creation. I was sincerely disgusted with the aestheticizing history of art (der asthetisierenden Kunstgeschichte). or rather the indestructibility of primitive man who remains eternally the same throughout all epochs (die Unzerstorbarkeit des primitiven Menschen zu È [der] allen Zeiten). we must try to re-imagine the path that brought Warburg to Freud. was envisaged. it was a question of burying the demons of the Freudian unconscious ± as well as of the Nietzschean Dionysiac ± under the ancient ramparts of a Mitteleuropa in ruins. henceforth Anglo-Saxon. is even more unjustified.14 And.' as Gombrich attempted. As nearly every connoisseur of Warburg's work would attest. It seems clear. To claim that he was trying to get at the `symptoms of a collective spirit' is far too imprecise. from the very pit of his own psychological collapse. in such a way that I could demonstrate that he was as much an organ of the Florentine Renaissance as he was. It seemed to me that È the formal contemplation of the image ± which does not consider it a biologically necessary product (als biologisch notwendiges Produkt) between religion and art practice (which I only understood later) ± led to such sterile prattling that after my trip to Berlin in the summer of 1896 I decided to switch to medicine. as well as ß Association of Art Historians 2001 623 . In order to break through this censure. psychopathological framework Warburg needed to found his stylistic analysis and symptomatology of renascent culture. bolstered by a `positive' psychology (Gombrich traded Freud and fantasy for Popper and perception).ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM Amongst other things. later. of the German Reformation. during the Renaissance for example.11 In fact. the theoretical foundation for his anthropology of images. rather. as well as `auto-destructive' compulsions at work in the very exuberance of forms. It highlights the coherence of aesthetic systems.15 Only from 1918 onwards.16 Once more. then. as well as the `culpability' of repressed memory that can be manifest there. By glossing over this episode. as a psychopathology. evolutionist Tito Vignoli as evidence for Warburg's recourse to the pyschopathological paradigm is equally insufficient. It was a question of providing the. calling upon the obscure.
17 but as a concrete symptom of a cleavage ceaselessly at work in the `tragedy of culture'. Bologna: Santa Maria della Vita. etc.ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM 1 Niccolo Á dell'Arca. says Warburg. Terracotta. 1480. It already reveals that if the symbol was at the centre of Warburg's preoccupations. of form and matter. Detail of Mary Magdelene. It considers the beauty and charm of masterpieces. Photo: Antonio Guerra. the sometimes `irrational' nature of the beliefs upon which they are founded. the theoretical archaeology of this vocabulary requires examination. It studies the unity of stylistic epochs. as well as the `conflicts' and the `formation of compromises' that can traverse and dissociate them. The Lamentation of Christ. they provide a kind of `sublimation'. c. Naturally. it was not there as an abstract synthesis of reason and unreason. as well as the `anxiety' and the `phobia' for which. When Warburg rests his eyes on a pathetic Mary 624 ß Association of Art Historians 2001 .
as a veritable rupture in the symbolic order of evangelical history.18 It is the gesture of a counter-movement which recalls. it seems to be a question of something like a symptom. c. Bronze relief. in Mary Magdelene's body. 1485. above all. ß Association of Art Historians 2001 625 .ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM 2 Bertoldo di Giovanni. Here. It is the moment of a contretemps in which the unbridled desire of Antique maenads is repeated in Mary Magdelene's body. Museo Nazionale del Bargello. Crucifixion (Detail). Donatello. a paganism that is duly ignored by the entire symbolic content ± the sacrifice of the incarnate Word. it becomes clear that gestural `expression' is only symbolic in that it is first symptomatic. Therefore. which appears. the gestural formula `expresses' solely to crystallize a moment of intensity for the female saint. Magdelene by Niccolo dell'Arca. or Bertoldo di Giovanni (plates 1 and Á 2). Photo: the author.
in its temporal models (Nachleben) as well as in its models of sense (Pathosformel).26 To Warburg's È mind. sovereign and un-nameable thing. The omnipresent themes of Warburg's last years were: the `combat with the monster' (Kampf mit dem Monstrum) in ourselves. as if he feared that the substantive notion (das Unbewuûte) distanced him from the dynamic he sought to characterize. I have tried to diagnose the schizophrenia of Western culture (die Schizophrenie des Abendlandes) through its images. as an autobiographical reflex.21 Each time we witness the extent to which `the necessity to confront the formal world of predetermined expressive values ± whether they come from the past or present ± represents the decisive crisis (die entscheidende Krisis) . the beauty they invent lets the horror they repress burst through. defined in 1927 as the `original causal form' (Urkausalitatform).22 In the dance of these decisive crises. the fundamental and `uncanny duality' (unheimliche Doppelheit) of all cultural facts was as follows: the logic they set allows the chaos they combat to overflow. . the `complex and dialectical' (Complex und Dialektik) knot of the subject with this mysterious Monstrum. to seek out the heap of moving serpents: he preferred to speak of a `dialectic of the monster' (Dialektik des Monstrums). be confronted with the powers of the monster? Critical effects and unconscious causes: the `dialectic of the monster' describes nothing less than the structure of a symptom. and on the other. just before his death. The ecstatic (manic) nymph on the one side. Warburg had referred to this order of causes in terms of unnatural `un-motivated ' (ohne Motivierung) movements linked to desire (Zusammenhang met dem Wunsch). . once more. soll Ich werden seems to offer a variant): but how are we to understand this. Yet. the `psychic drama' (Seelendrama) of culture as a whole. the freedom they promote leaves the constraining drives they try to break intact. using the psychopathological vocabulary of schizophrenia (a Deulezian observation. before its time) or manic-depressive psychosis (an observation. for each artist'.20 from the irruption of Arab astrology in a fifteenth-century Ferrara fresco to the German Reformation's obscure dealings with astrological beliefs.25 The order of causes is thus the eternal conflict with a formidable. For the symptom accounts 626 ß Association of Art Historians 2001 . in 1929. sought to apprehend its objects from their critical effects: from Botticelli's and Polliauolo's `erotic chases' (where Savonarola justly saw the insolence of an `orgiastic desire at work')19 to the `superlatives of gesticular language' in Donatello or others where surged a `perfectly inopportune mobility of expression'.27 Warburg liked to repeat the adage Per monstra ad astra (to which Freud's Wo es war. the Freudian concept of the unconscious was at the `psycho-historian's' disposal.24 Forty years later. it seems. directly linked to his therapy with Ludwig Binswanger). he preferred.23 Underlying critical effects is an order of causes that Warburg grasped. and at first hand: Sometimes it seems that.ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM One could say that Warburgian art history. if it is not that one must. the (depressive) river god in mourning (die ekstatische Nympha [manisch] einerseits und der trauernde Flussgott [depressiv] anderseits). in fact. as a psycho-historian (ich als Psychohistoriker). Warburg saw all of Western culture shaken by a symptomatic oscillation that he himself experienced in its full force. As early as 1889. in any event.
On the psychological side. Indeed. `maximum degree of tension').ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM simultaneously for repression and the return of the repressed: repression in the `plastic formulae of compensation' (plastische Ausgleichsformel) that barely cross the `threshold of consciousness' (Schwelle seines Bewuûtseins). in which the psyche was to be apprehended from the angle of a `latent motor activity' that left its `motor residues' at every level of psychic life?35 However. In 1907. after taking in Karl Jasper's analysis of expressive disorders in his General Psychopathology (1913). attempts to analyse the pathological recesses of `movements of expression' were far from lacking: beginning with the `physiognomic mechanism' studied by Theodor Meynert in his Psychiatrie (1844). an occidental genealogical album. visual incarnations of the `dialectic of the monster' would be incarnated in Durer's engraving of the eight-legged Sow of È Landser or in the horrible composite figures of anti-Catholic propaganda wood engravings. the expressive Pathosformeln of crisis and the Nachleben of a latent trauma that returns in the intensity of effected movements meet in the hysterical symptom (it should be noted that the participle nach of the verb nachleben can refer to ß Association of Art Historians 2001 627 . a `psychological heritage' ± his own Nachleben of `faculties' and `instincts' ± by seeking all in the way into cultural history for his examples?34 And had Ribot not offered an explanation for expressive gestures ± his own notion of the Pathosformeln ± by elaborating an entire theory of the unconscious of movement. On the historical side. Symptom-moments of the anthropomorphic image. the French psychological school could also have served Warburg's designs. the Pathosformeln must henceforth be understood as corporeal crystallizations of the `dialectic of the monster'. but a history of prophecies and symptoms too.28 Later. details nothing else but symptom-movements. This is why these are exemplary `prophetic' (wahrsagenden) objects for Warburg.29 In reference to these figures Warburg spoke of a `region of prophetic monsters' (Region der wahrsagenden Monstra).31 In any case. the monsters of Lutheran propaganda are `prophetic' of a politico-religious defeat of the Papacy. it was above all the hysteria clinic at the end of the nineteenth century ± as triumphant as it was spectacular ± that furnished the most pertinent symptomatological model for Warburg's `dialectic of the monster'. The image in movement32 to which Warburg wanted to devote an atlas. and the return of the repressed in the `crisis' (Krisis) and the `symptomatic' (symptomatisch) figure that surge with a `maximal degree of energy tension' (hochsten energetischen È Anspannung). they are unaware that they unleash an unconscious truth (Wahrheit) through the bias ± the visual figure ± of these legendary (Sage) composite-bodied monsters. But. Warburg compressed this vocabulary into just four lines of his article on Francesco Sassetti.33 Undoubtedly. according to what paradigm should we understand them? In Warburg's own time.30 It seems possible to read his expression on the two levels called for by such a double-sided discipline as `historical psychology'. For had Theodule Ribot not formulated a theory of unconÂ scious memory. It is also why art history must not only be a history of phantoms. moving on to Cassirer's `pathology of symbolic consciousness' (1929). the pathos formulae were envisaged by Warburg according to the dialectical perspective of repression (`plastic formulae of compromise') and of the return of the repressed (`crisis'.
According to Schade. simulation. and that since the eighteenth century alienists had approached hysteria from this very angle). created under his master's guidance. both forms of knowledge present themselves as explorations of a clinical archive. both relied on an abundant use of photography. The Warburg Institute. 36 Sigrid Schade has recently defended and argued for an affinity between Charcot's conception of the hysterical body and Warburg's Pathosformeln. the great virtue of this rapprochement is that it responds to a censure ± a `blind spot' ± in the Warburgian tradition. Aside from the fact that there were two works by Charcot and his collaborator Paul Richer in Warburg's library.40 Indeed.38 One could conceivably imagine Warburg's atlas of pathos formulae as an equivalent to Richer's famous synoptic table.39 Á Â Á (plates 3 and 4). Mnemosyne. panel 6 (detail). 1928±29. At the end of the nineteenth century Charcot emerged as the uncontested mastermind of the workings of the symptom.ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM 3 Aby Warburg. For example. and the uncontested ballet master of the hysterical spectacle. London. of the `grande attaque hysterique complete and reguliere'. and both resulted in the creation of iconographic repertories. art history has 628 ß Association of Art Historians 2001 .37 there are several other essential links between Charcot's psychopathology and Warburg's Kulturwissenschaft.
can one not be struck by the analogy between the Warburg's Dionysian Ninfa and Richer's drawings of hysterics at the Salpetriere? (plates 7 and Ã Á 8). wanted nothing to do with the pathological repercussions of Warburg's understanding of pathos. the observation of the body during moments of pathos. Charcot and P. from J. but that it crumbles with each further step. It is tempting to claim that the regressive path adopted by Charcot's `retrospective medicine' ± modern hysterics.41 Sigrid Schade is therefore right to speak of Charcot as Warburg's predecessor when it comes to interdisciplinarity. 1881.M. Antique maenads ± finds its historical and aesthetic justification in the Warburgian analysis of Nachleben.43 (plates 5 and 6). it seems that the ground on which this analogy rests is not only sown with traps. upon closer scrutiny. in the Birth of Tragedy. It has refused to see that it owes its very status as a `humanist discipline' to Warburg's creation of something like a `pathological discipline'.ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM 4 Tabular overview of the `whole and regular major hysterical fit'. How. plate V. in the end. Paris.42 It must also be noted that Nietzsche's allusions. ß Association of Art Historians 2001 629 . iconographic collection. Christian mystics. However. and even of Dionysiac madness. to the dance of Saint-Guy and to the small possessed figure in Raphael's Transfiguration find their exact pendants in Richer and Charcot's panels È Â on the same themes in their work on Les Demoniaques dans l'art. Â Etudes cliniques sur la grande Â Â Â hysterie ou hystero-epilepsie. Richer. of passion.
From J. p. qui. Whether by recourse to hypnosis. Therefore. St. Richer. 1881. Guy's Dance. 1887. Paris. Les Â Demoniaques dans l'art. For Charcot. Richer. Possessed figure.M. ce n'est point une petite image fixe qu'on place Â Â devant une lanterne pour la plus grande deception des enfants. [Translator's note. Paris. c'est formellement une ``serie de series''? En tout cas. Charcot and P. Etudes cliniques sur la È Â Â Â grande hysterie ou hystero-epilepsie. rather than chart or table. the utilization of figures always relates to a epistemic operation that aims to reduce the essentially proto-form.M. p. a leur age. in reference to Michel Foucault in Â L'Archeologie du savoir. to which was added an iconographic sophism in which real. Charcot and P. faut-il signaler Ã qu'un ``tableau'' (et sans doute dans tous les sens du terme). Charcot's stake remained the same: he wanted to master the differences of the symptom. experimentation with electric-shock therapy or through the establishment of an `iconography'. Â Á Ã 630 ß Association of Art Historians 2001 . the symptom's differences could only be mastered through the development of an historical sophism. mutable and metamorphic character of the hysteric symptom ± this moving heap of serpents traversing the body ± to the simple level of an ordered tableau with temporal and visual force of law. And this was only concretely possible by making the hysterics themselves more mad. Foucault writes: `Aux derniers flaneurs. suffering bodies were forced to create themselves in the image of figures collected in atlases as `proofs' of a definitively established clinical tableau. Didi-Huberman insists on the word tableau. 35. 6 (right) After Peter Breughel. 29. From J. making them conform to the images that preceded them in his `artistic iconography'.ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM Â 5 (left) Raphael.
the symptom is a clinical category reducible to a regular tableau and a well-defined nosological criterion. For Charcot. fig. Graphic rubbing from a relief at the Louvre. whereas for Warburg the symptom is a critical category ß Association of Art Historians 2001 631 . 1888. the hysteric is a master signifier to which everything ± from the represented maenad to the present patient ± must be reduced. it must be recognized that Charcot's and Warburg's symptomatologies oppose each other on almost every level. Charcot's tableau aims at continuities and resemblances. preferent bien sur la vivacite du Â Á Ã Â Â cinema. From P. (Greek). Dancing Maenad. Paris. it introduces a temporal unity within the unfolding of a `whole and regular major hysterical fit'. on the contrary. Nothing of this sort with Warburg: the montage of the Mnemosyne atlas respects discontinuities and differences. n. fig. 1923. 1. Ninfa remains a floating signifier traipsing from one incarnation to another without anything trying to draw her limits.] If there is a striking resemblance between Richer's hysteric and Warburg's maenad. For Warburg. 1. Accordingly. (Berlin. In the end. it does not efface temporal hiatuses (for example. Warburg's `science without a name' subverts the entire premise of Charcot's medical iconography.7 (right) Anon. this is above all because Richer wanted to draw his hysterics just as an archaeologist would graphically reproduce an antique sculpture. 21. Etudes Â Â cliniques sur la grande hysterie ou hysteroÂ epilepsie. For Charcot.' L'Archeologie du savoir Â (Paris. from A. Warburg. between an archaeological sketch and a contemporary photograph). 1988). 19. p. Bilder aus dem Gebiet der Pueblo-Indianer in Nord-Amerika. 8 (bottom right) Prodromes de la grande Â Â attaque hysterique. Richer. 1969).
From P. can only respond with the double qualification that the hysteric is `illogical' (she is just doing whatever) and `clownish' (she is just making fun of us).44 One final remark makes the distance between these two epistemological models of the symptom palpable.46 But what about displacement? Â 9±11 Grande attaque hysterique: contorsions What about antithesis? The plasticity ou mouvements illogiques. Displacement and antithesis appear only negatively. we have the quasitotalitarian protocol of the `complete and regular' attack.ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM that explodes the `regular tableau' of stylistic history as well as art's academic criteria. both requiring flexibility. or hidden under the straight-jacket ultimately forced on the patients:47 It is. there is no place for Darwin's famous `general principles of expression'. a heap of moving serpents whose coordinates one would be hard pressed to pin down as on Charcot's tableau. and the great movements. which Richer schematized (plates 9±14) because photography was often useless for capturing the blur of movements that were either too reckless. toxic) determination. constantly open work of over-determination.45 Imprinting certainly registers a traumatic memory at work in the hysterical attack. Indeed. figs 39. On the one hand. that these two Darwinian principles Â Â Etudes cliniques sur la grande hysterie ou require is absent from Charcot and Â Â hystero-epilepsie. during the time of the Saint632 ß Association of Art Historians 2001 . neurological. cast into the senseless depths of the attack during this famous. detested moment when the hysteric defies the master and when the master. concentrated in the moment known as `passionate attitudes' or `plastic poses'. Richer's conception of `plastic poses'. this period consists of two phases: the illogical attitudes or contortions. and it is not without reason that Mr. whose importance for Warburg has been noted. overtaken by the event. 40 and 45. Charcot has given it the picturesque name `clownism. Whereas Charcot always wanted to bring the symptom back to its (traumatic. Richer. on the other. agility and muscular strength such as to bewilder the spectator and which. if one will forgive the vulgar expression. In Charcot's model of the hysterical symptom. This is known as the period of contortions. Warburg made the symptom a constant.' in reference to acrobats' muscular exercises. an erratic intertwining. the period of tours de force.
`formation of the unconscious' in the fullest sense. desires with censures. in the symptom.48 And here is the decisive turn: it will be Freud's accomplishment to have worked out an understanding of the hysterical symptom capable of surpassing the rigid model of the clinical tableau. Instead. . figs 43. From P.ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM Medard convulsionnaires. as Warburg might have said. and. it enabled him to describe how. capable of taking stock of the moving complexities or over-determinations. the patient assumed the most varied. Displacement allowed him to 12±14 Grande attaque hysterique: contorsions explain the constant interplay of figural ou mouvements illogiques. Â Â Etudes cliniques sur la grande hysterie ou entanglements and signifying metamor. Â Â phoses: a dynamic way of envisaging the complexity of phenomena. and of respecting the essential plasticity of the processes engaged. The hysterical symptom is neither tableau (representative or standardizing). . of displacement or `derivation'. Freud took up the problem of the symptom exactly where Charcot had left off: in the very crux of `illogical movements' ± this negative moment in the `dialectic of the monster'. Freud developed dynamogrammes of multiple polarities heaped or erratically fitted together. the hysterical symptom. sometimes swarming like serpents: touches with taboos. the royal road of psychoanalysis.] There. ß Association of Art Historians 2001 633 . [. Importantly. * * * With Freud. unexpected. to the Darwinian principles of imprinting or `commemorative repetition'. of `antithesis' or the possible reversal into the opposite.50 ceased to depend on an iconography. appeared Â to be so beyond nature's resources that only divine intervention could seem to account for them. nor `reflection' (even of a trauma).49 The imprint enabled Freud to understand the ways in which the symptom actualizes an unconscious memory Â at work. 44 and 46. finally. as Lucille Ritvo has admirably shown. and unlikely positions. How did Freud go beyond Charcot's iconographism? Firstly by returning. As for antithesis. Richer. the unconscious dupes or ignores logical contradiction and the time of commonplace biomorphisms.hystero-epilepsie. this `maximal degree of tension' in the Pathosformeln. facilitations with defences.
The moment of the symptom as such appears at the dialectical crux of these polarities. What results will be an entanglement in movement. Freud describes this dialectic ± exactly as Warburg would have for a Magdelene by Niccolo Á dell'Arca ± with his observation of the fate of the `accessory in movement'. held back by the female half from the aggression of the male half. a labour that is both organic and transgressive at the same time. extreme movement becomes counter-movement. Freud first observed it in a context that was likely not that of the cure (one can imagine a common room at the Salpetriere. Here. fusions with defusions. and it touches our soul. It speaks to our mind. while she tried to tear it off with the other (as the man). that is. What takes place? Two contradictory motions confront each other in the same body. We view it. Pierre Fedida uses the same expression for approaching the question of the symptom. Admirable lesson in looking. The visual intensity of corporeal forms and effected movements is the first element of this structure. as impossible to understand in an iconography ± Freud was able to release the formula for this corporeal pathos. in this `body transformed into image'. Let us not forget that Goethe began with the same observation with regard to the desperate gestures of the Laocoon (plate 15): the active intensity of the sculpted È group `will never reveal all its mysteries to the human mind. for the lesson in looking goes hand in hand with a profound anthropological lesson on the `dialectic of the monster'. most unexpected. yet we cannot comprehend it totally. as evident to his eyes but as difficult to interpret as the Dionysiac intensity of the dishevelled Magdelene standing at the foot of a crucifix was to Warburg. fascinated) and relinquished (taken aback).'54 The second essential element in this structure (and the second motive for making the situation `incomprehensible') is contradictory simultaneity.55 which are reconsidered here according to terms that reveal the law of the double constitution of each formation of the unconscious ± a law that Warburg certainly acknowledged in the domain of images in general.56 634 ß Association of Art Historians 2001 . Freud managed to recognize an exemplary structure in this tangle of disorderly movements. `The symptom. or even Charcot's amphitheatre): Ã Á In one case which I observed. for instance. and is thus well suited to conceal the unconscious phantasy that is at work. This happens because the `situation' figured in the attack seems destined toward UnverstandÈ lichkeit (`incomprehensibility').' wrote Freud in 1899.ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM crises with compromises.52 There. the patient pressed her dress up against her body with one hand (as the woman). most unlikely positions' ± thus. `represents the realization of two contradictory desires'.51 This simultaneity of contradictory actions serves to a large extent to obscure the situation. The hysteric in crisis offers the spectator a `situation so plastically figured' (so plastisch dargestellten Situation) that the gaze is at once transfixed (captured. Freud begins with an undeniable phenomenological given. where Richer spoke of hysterical contortion in terms of the `most varied. Intensity becomes its antithesis. which is otherwise so plastically portrayed in the attack. the robe's drapery torn by the male half from the female half. a `dynamogramme' of mixed polarities.53 Â This structure is worth considering in detail. the formula for this gestural chaos exploding in the attack.
ß Association of Art Historians 2001 AD 50. (Roman). The Vatican Museum. after a Greek original from c. Photo: the author. Laocoon and his sons. c. Marble. 635 . 300 BC.ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM 15 Anon. Rome.
Here. . that the symptom is so resistant: it is supported from both sides. The two forces which have fallen out meet once again in the symptom and are reconciled. equally observable in the symptom. or turning a thing into its opposite. signs themselves fly into pieces: they spurt forth in sparks. the Antique maenad only `survives' as well as she does because pain and desire are maintained in their conflict. through the internal entanglement of `maintained' conflicts and ever possible compromises. too. Is it any surprise. The historical tenacity of Pathosformeln would thus express itself metapsychologically. Reaktionsbildungen (`reaction formations') and Ersatzbildungen (`substitute formations') coexist and respond to one another. conflict and compromise. and then collapse before another set of fireworks goes off. Here.60 This reads like a description of all that interested Warburg about the survival of antique Pathosformeln: for example. is one of the means of representation most favoured by the dream-work . Freud pointed to a process in dreaming.57 With the symptom. like a sculpture. representations that are repressed coexist and exchange with representations that repress. Freud had already shown this when he explained how a symptom is over-determined both synchronically (the symptom meaning several things at the same time) and diachronically (each symptom modifying itself over time).ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM Here the Darwinian principle of antithesis is given such a radical extension that the very idea of `pathetic expression' seems to explode. to begin with. an ambiguity that makes possible the compromise between the pagan dancer in a trance and the tearful Christian saint.59 This capacity for `resistance' can also be understood as a capacity for survival. a phenomenal evidence presented in its entirety to the spectator. as Nachleben. by the compromise of the symptom that has been constructed. In Bertoldo di Giovanni's Magdelene (plate 2). the symptom refers to what falls away. the desperate gesture of the antique Pedagog surviving inversed in the triumphant Renaissance David. on any attempt to understand the 636 ß Association of Art Historians 2001 . it produces a mass of distortion in the material which is to be represented. tense but tangled in a skilfully selected ambiguity. the symptom plays with the antithesis: it creates `incomprehensible situations' because it knows how to impart to the most complex workings of contradictory simultaneity a plastic intensity ± that is. . Etymologically. and not what signifies. the Freudian symptom takes into account exactly what Warburg was trying to get at in the constant oscillation between `extreme polarizations' and `depolarizations' productive of `ambivalences'. which he called Verkehrung ins Gegenteil (`reversal into the opposite'): Incidentally. Thus.58 In short. Freud wrote that the symptom is an `ingeniously chosen piece of ambiguity with two meanings in complete mutual contradiction'. that the vocabulary of conflict and compromise was as necessary to the Warburgian definition of the Pathosformeln as it was to the Freudian Symptombildung? We already know that neurotic symptoms are the outcome of a conflict which arises over a new method of satisfying the libido. It is for that reason. as it were. then. reversal. and this has a positively paralysing effect.
ß Association of Art Historians 2001 637 . Warburg. or even by looking for an idea `behind' what he saw. without renouncing his quest for a structure. 79. he would discern suddenly a formal line of tension. as Richer tried to do. Bilder aus dem Gebiet der Pueblo-Indianer in Nord-Amerika. dream .ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM 16 Heap of serpents at Oraibi. 1923 (Berlin. fig. 1988).61 Now. He did not pinpoint this structure by diminishing or schematizing what he saw. there is more: Warburg and Freud share a particular attention to what I would call the formal pivots of all of these reversals of sense. Nor would he attempt to create a structure out of iconographic detail. as Richer did. . to borrow another Freudian expression ± simultaneously manifests their work of transformation and their tenacity. Instead. a sort of symmetry in movement line. . the disorder of `illogical movements' makes impossible.62 In his 1908 article Freud offered us another great lesson in looking when. yet ever present in the very crux of the gestural chaos distributed by each part of its ungraspable geometry. Dancing or explosive. what Freud says here about the hysterical contortion is exactly what Warburg says of figurative formulae capable of survival: their interaction with antithesis ± that is their insensitivity to logical contradiction. he accepted the complexity of the phenomenon (the heap of moving serpents [plate 16] that constitutes the `incomprehensible situation' of the hysterical attack). in any case. However. their capacity for eternal return. Without a doubt Charcot's clinic ± where `hemi-sensitivities' and `hemianaesthesia' abounded ± had prepared Freud for this particular observation. sinuous or broken with the alternately slackening or coiling body. which. From A. Hysterical attacks sometimes make use of the same kind of chronological reversal in order to disguise their meaning from observers.
beauties with terrors. When referring to another heap of serpents. È According to Goethe. It was a matter of sculpting multiple forces and demonstrating the anthropological significance of the contortion itself (whether due to madness or pain. Goethe insisted straightaway on the È importance of antitheses: `[. * * * One last remark about the visual work of `contradictory simultaneity' is called for. in the Laocoon sculpture. the knotted antithesis of movement and paralysis: The artist's choice of subject is one of the best imaginable. impossible to schematize.'64 Everything doubles over. The viewer perceives these varied qualities as whole that is partly physical. clashes and melds together in the Laocoon. it organizes it and diffuses it spatially and rhythmically. . We can see the three tangled figures `participating in extremely varied activities'. . I insist ± around which all the turmoil of contortion is unleashed. The morphological law of the heap of serpents is no doubt complex. with Botticelli. It is the pivot ± itself agitated. that is. it allows itself to be glimpsed. `all three figures are engaged in a two-fold action. . all the conflicts at work in the image. or in a sculptural masterpiece). But it exists. How can we not be reminded of Warburg's particular way of distinguishing the structure of pathos at work in Botticelli's paintings. The source for Freud and Warburg's common intuition is to be found. partly spiritual . all that was disorder in Charcot's eyes. Goethe considered the very choice of the theme represented ± human bodies contorting under the contracting pressure of reptilian bodies ± an exemplary solution for representing human form. the `incomprehensible' and `illogical' character of the situation. This symmetry in movement offers a formula for the critical pathos exploding in the attack.ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM However. dance around these visual pivots: harmonies with ruptures. once more. . lives with deaths. the sculptor has `portrayed a physical effect together with its physical cause'. one brushes against it in the very rhythm of the moving complexities issued by the image. but rather attack separately on separate 638 ß Association of Art Historians 2001 . in Goethe's aesthetic and morphology.] this work. One never captures it entirely. This hinge abuts and confronts the two contradictory terms at the same time. Moreover. is at one and the same time a model of symmetry and diversity. It does not dissolve their complexity. was now organized around an axis which orients masculine fantasy on one side and feminine fantasy on the other. over-determined. so that all the degrees of complexity endow every level of formal organization. one approaches it. .65 Finally. . contrasts and gradations. . Human beings are battling against dangerous creatures which do not have to rely on large numbers of tremendous strength. hair or drapery and with Ghirlandaio the architectural border of the floor and basement at Santa Trinita from which the Medici children's genealogical portraits emerge so strangely. or Ghirlandaio's portraits? Warburg observed the structural power of visual pivots everywhere: the organic border of the body and its `accessories in movement'. in addition to all its other merits.63 I would suggest that all the contradictions. resemblances with dissemblances.' (eine doppelte Handlung). tranquillity and motion.
to understand why symptomatic expression ± as spectacular. because of their elongated bodies.68 So. The symptom moves. . from the Verhullung der wirksamen unbewuûten Phantasie È (`veiling of the unconscious fantasy at work'). the snakes. giving in to conflicts that suspend it between movement and immobility. metamorphosis ± every kind of mimicry and play-acting ± conjointly. a certain sense of tranquillity and unity pervades the group despite all movement. Here. forming compromises. as Nietzsche wrote with regard to . from the centre (her nude body) to the border (her hair in the wind). the `genital mucous membrane' (embrace. Freud entirely reformulated Darwin's principle of `association'.ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM fronts (als augeteilte Krafte). one only coiling itself around the victims. the incapacity not to react (± in a similar way to certain types of hysterics. The symptom veils itself because it metamorphoses. its `incomprehensible situation. But.66 Driven by multiple forces. `certain hysterics': In the Dionysian state [. imitation. capable of knowing how to play all the roles at the same time. As a result of the figures' immobility. over all. There is a gradation in the activity of the snakes. Nietzsche himself took care to define the Dionysiac using the example of `enigmatic creatures' capable of all kinds of metamorphoses. as a detour. without hiding anything ± sometimes to the point of obscenity ± but it offers itself as a figure. as Freud concluded his magisterial description of the hysterical event.67 That he was thinking of the Nietzschean Dionysiac rather than the hysteria clinic is undeniable. `the oral mucous membrane' (disgust. and capable of reacting with a variety of gestures. In short. creatures capable of being moved by a variety of forces. It certainly offers itself entirely. transfiguration. He sought.' ß Association of Art Historians 2001 639 . and it metamorphoses because it moves. that is. it is this very displacement that authorizes what is repressed to return. who also assume any role at the slightest instigation). Such is its phenomenological basis. the other provoked and causing injury. .70 Freud will note Dora's displacement of sensation (Verschiebung der Empfindung) ± concomitant with an Affektverkehrung (`reversal of affect') ± from the bottom.71 And this is how the organism becomes `enigmatic'. displaces itself: it can only be grasped in the dimension of the equivocal. are capable of rendering three people almost defenceless without injuring them. The essential thing remains the facility of the metamorphosis. Where Warburg demonstrated a displacement of pathetic intensity in Botticelli's Venus. Hence.69 And. acting doubly. . È indeed. . orality).] the entire emotional system is alerted and intensified: so that it discharges all its powers of representation. violent and immediate as it is ± proceeds from a veritable work of dissimulation. an enigmatic organism. the image becomes this ratselhafter Organismus (`enigmatic organism') that Warburg confronted in È each of his studies of Renaissance culture. The enigma ± `the incomprehensible situation' of which Freud spoke ± stems from the symptom's third structural element: displacement. genitality) to the top. concentrated resistance is ineffective.
whose moving geographies.76 The symptom needs to be interpreted and not deciphered (as the iconologists. as well as surviving histories. of displacement. Therefore. The symptom is first a `silence in the subject supposed to speak' or. among other things.75 The symptom. This inaccessibility is structural: it cannot be resolved with another `key' provided by the iconological dictionary. as it is to `deciphering'. ordinarily made to be understood. and therefore. the symbol become incomprehensible. heirs to Panofsky's legacy. We have done no more than give a name to an inexplicable phenomenon. a part that can be removed. their combination attains a sort of exuberance. taking off one's hat in the street is a symbol in the order of social convention (politely acknowledging someone).74 In short. Freud called this a regression of symbolic thought toward `pure sensory images' in which representation. 640 ß Association of Art Historians 2001 . to their vocation to formlessness. when its proliferation suffocates its signification.78 Here we touch on the fourth structural element of the model. for the symptom carries within itself a condition of inaccessibility and intrusion ± repression. a `symbol written on the sand of the flesh'. in a certain way. a kind of paradoxical writing. it must be thought of in terms of movements and displacements ± the migrations that Warburg considered the end of all Pathosformeln. . the obsessive performs the casuisitry of the salutation ad infinitum. capable of `contradictory simultaneity'. if an organization exists. the symptom is a symbol that has become incomprehensible. Freud established this in his short article from 1916. the Mnemosyne Atlas attempts to reconstitute. The `attraction' to which they submit amounts to their deformation. . return of the repressed ± that the symbol does not inevitably entail.ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM The symptom only gives us access ± immediately and intensely ± to the organization of its very inaccessibility. called the migration of symbols?73 Not exactly.77 Thus. or even in oniric folklore (the hat as genital organ). Neither regression nor the sensory image prevented Freud from posing ± on a metapsychological level ± the problem of unconscious inscription and of the `mnemic' trace.] In regression the fabric of the dream-thoughts is resolved into its raw material. would like to decipher `symbolic forms'). Is this not what Rudolf Wittkower. transgressing the limits off its proper semiotic field. What is the work of fantasy? It consists in attracting symbols into a register that literally exhausts them. they become richer. of dissimulation. for example. becomes symptom the moment it displaces itself and loses its primary identity. returns to its `raw material'. put in another way. deploying a whole network of significations likely to infect ± displacement is a kind of epidemic ± everything that surrounds it. It becomes a symptom when. with the head itself becoming. endowed as it is with the powers of the wirksamen unbewuûten Phantasie (`unconscious fantasy at work'): plastically intensified.72 The symptom displaces: it migrates and metamorphoses. but this exuberance exhausts them too. appears accordingly as inaccessible to `exhaustive' notation or to `synthesis'. who thought he was taking from Warburg. All it tells us is that there are numerous doors to be opened and that. We call it `regression' when in a dream an idea is turned back into the sensory image from which it was originally derived [. The symbol. `A relation between a symbol and a symptom'.
Paris.-A. 1±2 of typed manuscript. Lacan looked for a response to the double requisite of the symptom. E. Translated from the French by Dr Vivian Rehberg. London. eds G. between past and present. Wuttke. pp. 51. 1 A. Allgemeine Ideen (1927). for his part. Doesn't Mnemosyne constitute the cornerstone of the Warburgian anthropology of images? But.W. Paris Notes This text is a fragment of an extensive study of Warburg's notion of Nachleben: L'image survivante. hitherto unnoticed. ß Association of Art Historians 2001 451±4. forthcoming 2001. K. would call the engramme.' È 5 Warburg. The Renewal of È Pagan Antiquity. Warburg. `Durer und die italienische Antike' È (1905). III. trans. op. and between North and South. though hitherto barely formulated: the interchange of artistic culture in the fifteenth century. D. how are we to understand the memory resurfaced by this gesture.ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM which reformulates the Darwinian principle of imprinting. Bing and È F. Los Angeles. Not only does this process afford a clearer understanding of the early Renaissance as a universal category of European civilization: it lays bare certain phenomena. 43. Paris: Minuit. Leipzig-Berlin. p. 17±59. Warburg Institute Archive. what about this memory? Closer to home.' in Aby Warburg. Muller.C. `Introduction. forces of transformation and forces of repetition. trans. London. `From Aby Warburg to E. Paris. and A. Wind. Michaud. A variant of the title is: Grundlegende Bruchstucke zu einer È pragmatischen Ausdruckskunde (monistischen Kunstpsychologie). Die Erneuerung der heidnischen Antike. Warburg Institute Archive. 4 Warburg. `this gesture that comes back from the depths of time'? Isn't this the Pathosformeln as the movement of an afterlife? Yet. È È dir. vol. is this not what Rilke meant by the gesture. (note 2). `Durer and Italian Antiquity'. 1999. p. Rougemont. 1932. trans. G. `Die antike Gotterwelt È und die Fruhrenaissance im Suden und im È È Norden. Kulturwissenschaftliche Beitrage zur Geschichte È der Europaischen Renaissance. what Warburg. Grundlegende Bruchstucke zu einter È monistischen Kunstpsychologie (1888±1905). 102. that cast a more general light on the circulation and exchange of expressive forms in art (kunstlerischer Ausdrucksformen). See C. Tedeschi. Ginzburg. Aby Warburg et l'image en mouvement. 1980. `Souvenirs d'un voyage en pays Pueblo'.79 And.' (1908). 1988. 265. The Renewal of Pagan Antiquity: Contributions to the Cultural History of the European Renaissance. J. pp. Dell'Omodarme. cit. `Aby Warburg et la Â science sans nom' (1984) in Image et Memoire. Baden-Baden. eds C. 2 The psychological aspect of Warburg's art history has frequently been noted (but its epistemological consequences rather neglected). David Britt. Ginzburg. Ausgewahlte Schriften une Wurdigungen. in particular Warburg. unpublished notes for Warburg's Kreuzlingen conference on the Serpent Ritual (1923). 3 Cf. 27-32. pp.H. in the notion of the signifying chain combining masking effects and truth effects. 130. 558. This led Lacan to bring le geste (the gesture) and la geste (the gest. p. Gombrich: A Problem of Method' (1966) in Clues. 1992. or epic poem) together as a carnel immediacy. M.1. incessant displacements and indestructible imprints. Myths and the Historical Method. pp. Perhaps this is what is most important with regard to our subject. and of formations of the unconscious in general. p. this image imprinted with time to which it gives life and movement? Georges Didi-Huberman EHESS. Histoire Ã de l'art et temps des fantomes. 7 Cf. 2. a single instant endowed with an epic depth (a long story). in P. Forster. 1998. Warburg speaks of the problem of a `psychology of style' (stilpsychologische Frage) `that is far wider. It demonstrates that the symptom is an afterlife. S. 6 Warburg. Baltimore. Gesammelte Schriften. III. a memory formation. Agamben. `Warburg's Concept of 641 .
Warburg a recherche et Â reconnu dans les oeuvres d'art moins l'expression d'une esthetique que le symptome d'un etat Â Ã Â d'ame collectif. Salzburg. (note 2)..' Journal of the Warburg Institute. 67-68. Cf. I will return to them further on in the text. È pp. op.' (1920). pp. Munich-Weinheim.' È (1914) Gesammelte Schriften. Translated from the È complete Italian text by J. 107. pp. London. cit. Kafka. These two texts. 303. 1983. Cf. pp. pp. cit. Trois Â essais sur le symbolique. vol.' The Renewal of Pagan Antiquity. Hincker. pp. op. Studies in Humanist Art. (note 2). I. p. pp. (1929). p. pp.H. (note 10). pp. Warburg. Gaubert. cit. The Renewal of Pagan Antiquity. Allgemeine Ideen.' art. cit.' (1907). The Eloquence of Symbols. Gombrich. dir. Ausgewahlte Schriften und È È Wurdigungen. Oeuvres VI. Notes dated 30 and 31 May 1927. (note 10). Cf. op. `The Maenad under the Cross. pp. Raulff. 18. to a certain degree. Gombrich. Warburg. G. p. pp. Tagebuch. `In the years following his university training the graph of Warburg's life shows some odd deflections. 223± 18 8 9 19 10 11 12 20 21 13 14 22 15 23 24 25 26 27 28 16 17 642 ß Association of Art Historians 2001 . `La Bibliotheque de Warburg et ses Á publications'. 36±53. (1971) The Eloquence of Symbols: Studies in Humanist Art. 20±21. Gazette des Beaux-Arts vol. dir. (1922). Wind. Warburg'. (note 10). 1984. op. 70±3. F. Jutteman. pp. Warburg. trans. pp.' (1923). 1983. 49. The Cultural Psychology of Aby Warburg'. 21 and 30±5. Warburg. 1992. 24. Dal Lago. The first was an abortive attempt to study medicine. op. cited by Gombrich. op. Antal and E. Bing. E. 251±2. Aby Warburg e l'antropologia'. p. cit. 1984. Oxford. and `Heidnisch-antike Weissagung in Wort und Bild zu Luthers Zeiten. Briefmarke. p. G. Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes. 199-303. `Der Eintritt des anitkisierenden Idealstils in die Malerie der Fruhrenaissance. cit. 1937.M. 1979. 39±40. pp. are worth reading. Trafic 9. `L'entree du Â style ideal antiquisant dans la peinture de la Â Renaissance. cit. In this way he may have been yielding to a misplaced hope. op. Ausgewahlte Schriften. (note 2). Warburg. Fischer. Quoted from E.ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM Kulturwissenschaft and its Meaning for Aesthetics' (1931). `Italienische Kunst und internationale Astrologie im Palazzo Schifanoja zu Ferrara' (1912). op. 563±93. 48.H.H. 27 March 1889. op. J. op. Gombrich `The Ambivalence of the Classical Tradition. 309±10. Carro and J. Rusch. Wind. 173±6. 125±30. `A. Tributes: Interpreters of our Cultural Tradition. `On a Recent Biography of Warburg'. 1994. p. op. (note 3). Cf. 638 and 646±7. cit. `En somme. 172. pp. Gombrich. (note 4). cit.cit. Warburg. (note 22). `Sandro Botticellis ``Geburt der Venus'' und ``Fruhling''. `Die Ausdrucksgebarden der È bildenden Kunst'. published in the Studien and the Vortrage È der Bibliothek Warburg. Ferrara'. `Francesco Sasettis letztwillige Verfugung. U.' Cf. 7-37. È `Pagan-Antique Prophecy in Words and Images in the Age of Luther. p. Belfagor vol. cit. 1988. `Souvenirs d'un voyage en pays Pueblo'. `La forme du concept dans la pensee mythique'. vol. p. ibid. G. 1965. pp. (note 2). 172.' Ã E. E. `In Search of Cultural History'. Paris. Fragmente. pp. 254±5. (`Symptoms and Syndromes') Ideals and Idols: Essays on Values in History and Art. (note 4). op. cit. p. 238.' in A. Essais Florentin. p. Zur Korpersprache in der Kunst. Warburg. F. 40±1. Mesnil. 1997. op. Bing. pp. 14±16. Translated into French by P. Saxl. È `Sandro Botticelli's Birth of Venus and Spring: An Examination of Concepts of Antiquity in the Italian Early Renaissance'. `The Emergence of the Antique as a Stylistic Ideal in Early Renaissance Painting'. `Aby Warburg: Ikonische Pragung und Seelengeschichte'. quoted from Gombrich. (note 22). (note 10). 303. Unpublished note 3 August 1888.H. (note 1). 47±9. Barta-Fliedl È and C. Warburg. trans. 1990. 3 April 1929. `Aby Warburg e l'evoluzionismo ottocentesco'. Cassirer. cit. 597-697. Aut aut. (note 8). Gombrich. und ``Fruhling''. 1986). pp. pp. Aby Warburg: An Intellectual Biography. p. `L'arcaico e il suo doppio. 39-111 and `Le concept de forme symbolique dans l'edification des Â sciences de l'esprit. op. Warburg. (note 6). op. Oxford. Cf. 252. È Wegbereiter der historischen Psychologie. 199200. The Renewal of Pagan Antiquity. cit. cited by Gombrich. pp. Eine Untersuchung uber die È Vorstellungen von der Antike in der Italienischen Fruhrenaissance' (1893). 149. London. `Einleitung zum Mnemosyne-Atlas'. Iena. cit. also E. 1932. `Einleitung zum Mnemosyne Atlas. Geissmar-Brandi. E. cit. 89±156. Ausgewahlte Schriften. 271±5. (note 4). 41. `Sandro Botticellis ``Geburt der Venus''. 77±9. p. pp. Aby Warburg. `Francesco È Sassetti's Last Injunctions to His Sons'. Warburg. È Warburg. (note 10). pp. `Italian Art and International Astrology in the Palazzo Schifanoia. `Mnemosyne (Introduction). cit. what he was looking for was a key not so much to the workings of the body as to those of the mind. The Renewal of Pagan Antiquity op. Paris. p. Aby Warburg. 1970 (Chicago. eds I. pp. cit. 173±98. 1926. J. Warburg. 14. Bericht uber den XII Kongress È der deutschen Gesellschaft fur Pscyhologie in È Hamburg. A. 13±25. Ausgewahlte Schriften È È un Wurdigungen. pp. (1969). op. n. Warburg. cit. 1994. in Die Beredsamkeit des Leibes. Gombrich. as `sythesizing' responses to (or interpretations of) Warburg's understanding of the symbol. 119±20. Oxford.
Richer. Warburg. pp. trans. Paris. Etudes clinques sur la grande hysterie. Schade. Recalling the tables Warburg traced. cit. 1928. 242. (note 39). Cf. she functions as an iconic formula of reconciliation between the 'medieval trust in God and the Renaissance trust in self. `Charcot and the Spectacle of the Hysterical Body. trans. La Vie inconsciente et les mouvements. 1965. London: The Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psychoanalysis. ibid. V. op. See Darwin. Bernheim and. (note 38).1. Paris. Baldwin. (1929). `L'observation de Celina'. Â Janet. in his manuscript Schemata Pathosformeln (1905±1911). p. 7-20. 26. 1881 (re-edition 1885). Â pp. cit. pp. Les Difformes et les malades dans l'art. 637. J. The Knotted Subject: Hysteria and Its Discontents. Â F. L'art et Â la medecine. Meynert. Schade. 1992. Ritvo. Â Cf. art. Cf. cit. Richer. pp. pp. 632±41. 103-118 ('L'heredite dans l'histoire' which refers to the Â Â Â Medici family). (note 38). 1889. L'Evolution de la memoire et la notion de temps. L'Ascendant de Darwin sur Freud (1990). 1884. 2000. Phylogenese de Â l'individuation. Paris. Cf. pp. p. Etudes cliniques sur la grande hysterie. The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872). cit. op. 138. eds. Didi-Huberman. L. P. 44±54. (1993). trans. A. `La memoire affective et l'art'. d'Eichthal. London. p. Fedida. pp. 21±43. and G.'. P. T. op. For an analysis of this phase and Charcot's texts. Freud. 449±60. Paris. 161±162. 1902. actives. Michaud. (note ??). eds G. G. op.-A. Paris. G. F. (note 21). also P. p. Chicago. 1928. 28±38. Amongst the most recent studies. op. Paris.) Â Cf. pp. Journal de Psychologie normale Â et pathologique. G. cit. Ribot. trans. Hysteria. Paris. Cassirer. `L'histoire de l'art a Á rebrousse-poil. (note 1). 1914. Psychopathologie generale (1913). ibid. Paris. 1995. LXXIII. 1920. cit. Cf. cf. It is important to note that Britt's translation omits the word `symptomatisch'. Essai de Â psycho-mecanique. 499±517. Scenes of Seduction: Prostitution. Aby Warburg et l'image en mouvement. preface to P-A Michaud. and Reading Difference in NineteenthCentury France. 588-613. cit. cit.. Richer. Invention de l'hysterie. Art History vol. See Freud `Vorlesungen zur Einfuhring in die È Psychoanalyse' as `Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis' (1916±1917) The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. (note 36).M.. `We now feel why the wind goddess. Translated from the German under the general editorship of James Strachey. New York. Lacoste. Etudes cliniques sur Â Â Â la grande hysterie ou hystero-epilepsie. Fedida and D. Â Á Sollier. but left undeveloped. T. pp. pp. Psychiatrie. used by Warburg in the original German to describe how the wind goddess Fortuna functioned for Sassetti. Matlock. 264±73. of course. J. Â Invention de l'hysterie. I. P. T. pp. S. ibid. `La substitution psychique. Cf. pp. 1994. E. Â Richer. Paris. but also the possible influences of Bergson. trans. 244±55. Didi-Huberman. G. Â art . Paris. Koyre. Â P. 113±19. who underlines not only the influence of Charcot. Oeuvres philosophiques completes vol.. LacoueÁ Labarthe. K. 503. `Heidnisch-atike Weissagung in Wort und Bild zu Luthers Zeiten'. 499±501. 23. P. `Sur les theories freudiennes Â Á de l'evolution. p. 227-173. Bronfen. (note 36). pp. 1994. pp. Warburg was to acquire many other works by the French school concerning the question of `unconscious memory'. L'Heridite psychologique. especially J. 1907. 18. vols 15 and 16. La Naissance de la tragedie (1872). Lacoste. Â È Paris. pp. E. Didi-Huberman. 1881 (re-edition 1890). Aby Warburg et l'image en mouvement. especially pp. cit. pp. reprint 1995 (first pub'd 1959) and `Hemmung. Charcot et l'iconographie photographique de la Ã Á Salpetriere. Vienna. `La memoire affective: nouvelles remarques. came into Francesco Sassetti's mind in the crisis of 1488 as a measure of his own tense energy: for Ruccellai and for Sassetti alike. 1998. trans. cf. Montinar. pp. op. III. Â esthetiques.ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM 64. 1900. Les Demonaiques dans l'art (1887). Fortune. Didi-Huberman and P.. A. Ã 113±39 and 269±89. Les Â Cahiers du Musee national d'Art moderne vol. Derieg. `Savoir-mouvement (l'homme qui parlait aux papillons)'. pp. Du role de la Â memoire dans nos conceptions metaphysique. Richer. vol. Paris. J-M Charcot and P. J-M Charcot et P. Ithaca and London. etc. pp. (note 1). The ``Pathos Formula'' as an Aesthetic Staging of Psychiatric Discourse ± a Blind Spot in the Reception of Warburg'. 1984. Â vol. Schade. (note 39). E. Klinik der Erkrankungen des Vorderhirns. P. Ribot. 72. cit. op.B. 502. Ribot. S. Symptom und 37 38 29 30 31 39 40 41 32 33 42 43 34 44 45 46 47 48 49 35 36 50 ß Association of Art Historians 2001 643 . Ventriloquized Bodies: Narratives of Hysteria in NineteenthCentury France. 69. including: P. S. P. 267±80. Â Â 251±62. Le Probleme de la memoire. 289±336 and 523±66. Temps de l'image et `travail au sein des choses' selon Walter Benjamin'. 1912. Didi-Huberman. Jaspers. 1994. DidiÂ Huberman. op. 1929. pl. 89±116. Paulhan.cit.' Les Evolutions. Paris. Paris. pp. Colli and M. Beizer. Richer. Nietzsche. 1977.' Revue Â philosophique. Didi-Huberman. Cf. 1982. Invention de l'hysterie. passionnelles. LXIV. Warburg Institute Archive. (Benjamin avec Warburg: `L'histoire de l'art est une histoire de propheties'. 246±272. Â P. A.' ibid. Kastler et J.. 4±29. Â Â T. Widlocher. `Etude sur la pathologie de la conscience symbolique'. 1909. Mendousse. dirs. Princeton. P.
558: `[. 2. Crise et contre-transfert. part 3 `General Theory of the Neuroses' (1917). (note 4). SE. 229±34. Les formations de l'inconscient (1957±1958). With Breuer `Zur Theorie des hysterischen Anfalls' (1892. trans. `Pour une anthropologie des singularites formelles. pp. E. 61 Freud. Fedida.. (note 58).. A Berman. 54±63. cit. (note 58). 1968. 360. as `On È È the Psychical Mechanism of Hysterical Phenomena: Preliminary Communication. SE. Didi-Huberman.' (1902). Cf. `Uber den psychischen Mechanismus hysterischer Phanomene: Vorlaufige Mitteilung (1893). op.' A sentence worth mulling over in today's context of gender. 246. Paris.' op. R. pp. op. È As `The Art of Portraiture and the Florentine Bourgeoisie. (note 63). first publication in 1940) as `On the Theory of Hysterical Attacks'. pp. Domenico Ghirlandaio in Santa Trinita: The Portraits of Lorenzo de'Medici and His Household'.W. Warburg. È cit. pp. 247. J-A Miller. trans. 65 ibid. Geneses. op. `Bildniskunst und florentinisches Burgertum. cit. pp. trans. Geary. p. `Bildniskunst und florentinisches Burgertum. . 1998. cit. `A Case of Hysteria. `Sandro Botticellis ``Geburt der Venus'' und ``Fruhling''. Â (note 53). p. p. J. 70 Warburg. I. 1998. 328. 15. Phasmes. 1993 and on another level. 5. `Durer und die italienische Antike'. `Une ravissante blancheur' (1986). Freud and E. pp. etc. Kris. 17. 358±9. Paris. 67 Warburg.. Essais sur l'apparition.' A more thorough analysis would require a discussion of the È following: Freud with Breuer. 166.' as `Interpretation of Dreams. 19 February 19 1899. 76. there are no limits to the further determinants that may be present ± to the overdetermination of the [hysterical] symptoms. and much more overtly surprising. `Introductory Lectures on PsychoAnalysis'. . Â Cf. (note 2). and Anxiety.'(1927) SE. on which three men and three children are climbing up towards him. `Hysterical symptoms are the expression on the one hand of a masculine unconcious sexual phantasy. (note 50). Remarque sur l'invention Â Á warburgienne'. pp. Freud. vol. cit. and on the other hand of a feminine one. SE.' Here we see the relationship between the notion of the symptom and what Warburg referred to as the `the exterior cause of the image (die aussere Veranlassung der Bilder)'. 71 Freud.' art. È Ausgewahlte Schriften. (note 54).. cit. trans. 130. trans cit. `On the Laocoon Group'. cit. 173. 24. pp. cit. cit. vol. p. cit. Invention de l'hysterie. p. 569: `As in the case of dreams. In this text I will only discuss the article `Hysterical Phantasies and their Relation to Bisexuality. p. pp.' (1905 ). trans. P. op. op. p. The Antichrist. 231±2. von Nardoff. 62 Didi-Huberman. And I should like to add that in my estimation a single unconscious mental process or phantasy will scarcely ever suffice for the production of a symptom. cit. pp. Freud.v. 9. pp. 161±2. 1990 (Words and Pictures: On the Literal and the Symbolic in the Illustration of a Text. p. SE. Die Bildnisse des Lorenzo de'Medici und seiner Angehorigen.' SE. 74. 1992. `Bruchstuck einer Hysterie-Analyse' as È `Fragment of an Analysis of a Case of Hysteria. especially. `Hysterische Phantasien und Ihre Beziehung zur Bisexualitat' as `Hysterical Phantasies and their È Relation to Bisexuality. Â M. (note 50). Les Mots et les images.] a symptom has more than one meaning and serves to represent several unconscious mental processes simultaneously. Fedida. cit. op. p.] a 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 644 ß Association of Art Historians 2001 . Trans cit. 20±1. 1956 (re-edition 1973). A. 200±202. Cf. 190.A. 319±34. Paris. `Sandro Botticellis ``Geburt der Venus'' und `'`Fruhling''. 72 Warburg. SE. (note 4). also J. vol.' The Renewal of Pagan Antiquity op. `Hysterical phantasies and their relationship to bisexuality'. in which iconography is often polarised. Â Lacan. Bonaparte. J. Hollingdale.J. 68 Nietzsche. 60 ibid.' as `Some general remarks on Hysterical Attacks'. Goethe. 1973). p. `The Art of È Portraiture and the Florentine Bourgeoisie. London. Domenico Ghirlandajo È in Santa Trinita. `Dialogue sur le symptome'. 29±30. V. letter to Fliess.47: `[. in The Twilight of the Idols. The Hague. 193: `Lorenzo's startled gesture has a different. M. cit. vol.' and `The Paths to the Formation of Symptoms'. 373±90. `The Interpretation of Dreams'. 77. Cf. 1994. p. È pp.' op. p. The Renewal of Pagan Antiquity. `The Twilight of the Idols. (note 2). Schapiro. pp. Bernier. 66 ibid. op. Sciences sociales et histoire vol.' (1908) SE. 63 Warburg. vol. (note 18). pp. È 64 Goethe. pp. . Semiotique du langage visuel (1969±1976). motivation: the hard stone pavement of the Piazza della Signoria has opened up beneath his feet to reveal a stairway. eds M. Crise et contre-transfert. 20. Paris. 133±42. p. Auerbach. 11±63. pp. vol.. op. and often trivially.' and `Die Traumdeutung. cit. p. 151±4. Paris. 3±5 and `Allgemeines uber den È hysterischen Anfall. 3: Essays on Art and Literature. Collected Works in 12 Volumes. Princeton.' 59 Freud. SE. vol. 7. Â L'interlocuteur'). Figura (1938). Â 227-265 (`Structure theorique du symptome. p.' op. pp. op. 1996. p. in La Naissance de la psychanalyse (1887±1902). E. pp. Symptoms. ed.ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM Angst' as `Inhibitions. Alferi. 145±63. (note 36). Freud. Paris. ed. 69 This is why one must always go beyond the iconographical approach with a figural approach which takes into account the overdeterminations of sense and time presupposed by such a 'detour'. 92±98. 20±1. . Le Seminaire. 9 (1906± 1908).' 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Ornicar. (note 58). Question posee aux fins d'une histoire de l'art. Le Â Seminaire. (note 76). cit. cit. 221±44. op. 173. (1975). Ecrits. Les formations de l'inconscient. 74 Freud. 76 77 78 79 ß Association of Art Historians 2001 645 . 339±40. (note 22). 1976. 1992. 280. p. Devant Â l'image. 372. Le site de Â Â l'etranger. cit. trans. (note 50). pp. op. 358. 533-549. D. Paris. Lacan.' Interpretation of Dreams. 14. Lacan. Le Seminaire. Paris. Freud. 1995. `The Psychology of the Dream Processes. p. op. 75 Freud. 689. pp. and Lacan `Le sinthome'. 43±4. pp. La situation psychanalytique. 1990. 475. Les quatre concepts fondamentaux de la psychanalyse (1964). trans. J-A Miller. p.ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM record of some initial excavations along the route of the long migration that brought antique superlatives of gesture. Hechter. 1973. Â Lacan. Lacan. (note 58). pp. cit. `The Interpretation of Dreams'. 6. pp. op. On the relation between this example and Panofsky's paradigm of the `removal of the hat'.' as `A Connection Between a Symbol and a Symptom'. p. 73 R. 1996.' Warburg. XI. 3-20. op. Fedida. Wittkower. ('La regression'). Georges Didi-Huberman. pp. On Regression. 216±17. Paris. Paris. La Migration des symboles (1977). pp. V. cf. vol. cit. Ecrits. `Eine Beziehung zwischen einem Symbol und einem Symptom. 542±3 Cf. no. 518. p. Â J. Paris. (1916) SE. `Einleitung zum Mnemosyne-Atlas'. 16.
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