SCIENCE IV (Physics) Fourth Year At the end of the fourth year Science Program, the learner shall have

developed the following competencies: I. Energy in Society 1. Appreciate the importance of energy resources and energy use in development 1.1 1.2 1.3 II. 1. Explain the role of energy in the development of human society Discuss examples of the interaction among energy, technology and society (e.g. effects of energy in the environment, economic growth and energy demand; energy resources and energy crisis, etc.) Infer that the total mass-energy in the universe is constant

Energy and the Environment Understand the principles behind different optical instruments 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 2 . Investigate the reflection and refraction properties of light using simple optical devices (e.g. mirror and pinhole camera) Compare the similarities and differences of the principle of the camera and the human eye Explain the different kinds of eyesight defects and how lenses correct these defects Demonstrate total internal reflection, diffraction, interference, and polarization properties of light Explain and cite applications of internal reflection, diffraction, interference, and polarization properties Setup a simple telescope and microscope Explain using ray diagrams how image is formed in a telescope and a microscope

Appreciate the contribution of scientists in the development of the atomic theory and in understanding nuclear radiation 2.1 2.2 2.3 Discuss the contributions of Becquerel, Pierre and Marie Curie on radioactivity Explain Einstein’s matter-energy equivalence Recognize the significance of the contributions of scientists in nuclear energy and related technology

3.

Understand basic concepts of atomic structure and nuclear radiation 3.3 3.4 3.5 Discuss and compare the types and properties of ionizing radiation Interpret equations on nuclear reactions Calculate the mass defect and nuclear binding energy of an atom using the Einstein’s matter-energy equivalence

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4.

Appreciate the uses of nuclear radiation in society 4.1 4.2 4.3 Explain the effects of these applications on living things and the environment Evaluate the risks and benefits derived from the applications of nuclear radiation Explain the principle of radiation safety and its importance in society

III. Energy in the Home 1. Appreciate the contributions of Franklin, Coulomb, Volta, and Ohm in the understanding of electricity 1.1 Discuss the significance of the contributions of Franklin, Coulomb, Volta, Ohm and Filipino inventors/scientists in electrical energy and related technology

2.

Understand the basic concepts and principles of electricity as used in home circuit connections 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 Trace the electrical connections from the meter to the appliances Translate circuit diagrams into actual circuits and vice versa Measure electric current through a conductor, voltage across it and its resistance Determine experimentally interrelationships among current, voltage and its resistance Apply Ohm’s Law to series and parallel circuits Relate power to voltage and current Discuss and practice safety measures in dealing with electricity Compute electrical energy consumption Suggest ways of using electrical energy wisely

IV.

Energy and the Economy 1. Appreciate the role of energy generation, utilization and management and conservation in economic development 1.1 1.2 2. Describe the development of various energy resources in the country Evaluate the risks and benefits associated with energy development

Recognize the contributions Oersted, Ampere and Faraday to electromagnetic theory 2.1 2.2 2.3 Demonstrate Oersted’s discovery Compare the contributions of Faraday and Oersted to electromagnetic theory Discuss the significance of Faraday’s contribution to the development of human society

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3.

Demonstrate understanding of the technology of electrical energy generation and transmission, and use 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 Explain electromagnetic induction Discuss how electromagnetic induction is applied to generators and transformers Differentiate a step-up from a step-down transformer Describe the energy transformation in electrical power plants Describe the energy transformation in electrical energy from a power station to the community Discuss the working principle of an electric motor Differentiate a motor from a generator Discuss the transformation of electrical energy to different forms

V.

Energy in Transportation 1. Trace the development in transportation facilities from the animal-driven to engine-powered vehicles 1.1 2. Discuss how the steam engine ushered in the Industrial Revolution

Demonstrate understanding of the relationship among force, power, work and energy 2.1 2.2 2.3 Explain the relationship of kinetic energy and potential energy to work and cite applications Apply the Law of Conservation of Mechanical Energy in different situations Discuss the Laws of Thermodynamics as applied to heat engines

3.

Understand concepts in force and motion as applied to land and air/sea transport 3.1 3.2 3.3 Apply Newton’s Laws of Motion to land transportation Explain road safety measures using the Law of Conservation of Momentum Explain how the concepts of stress and strain, pressure and the Archimedes Principle apply to air and/or sea transport

VI.

Energy in Information and Communication Technology 1. Trace the development of communication technologies 1.1 1.3 2. Recognize the contributions of Graham Bell, Maxwell, Hertz and Marconi in the development of telecommunications Describe communication in terms of energy transfer and transformations

Understand the transformation of energy in a telephone 2.1 2.2 Compare the transmission of sound through air with its transmission through solids, liquids, and a vacuum Discuss the factors that affect the speed of sound 21

2.3 2.4 3.

Explain how sound waves are produced, transmitted and propagated Discuss how information is transmitted and received in terms of energy transfers and transformations in a telephone

Appreciate the properties of electromagnetic waves and how they are used in communication 3.1 3.2 Explain how electromagnetic waves are produced Discuss the different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, their properties and uses

4.

Understand the principles involved in radio communications 4.1 4.2 4.3 Describe how radio signals are generated, transmitted and received Explain how radio communication devices (e.g. Cellphones, radio/TV receivers) work Discuss how LASER and fiber optics had improved telecommunication

5.

Appreciate rapid transmission of information brought about by developments in electronics technology 5.1 5.2 5.3 Differentiate between discrete electronic components and integrated circuits Understand how logic circuits are used in common electronic devices Differentiate between digital and analog methods in sending information

6.

Understand how the information superhighway has influenced the affairs of daily living 6.1 Discuss how the information superhighway has influenced the affairs of daily living

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