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Fingerprint Techniques Manual

Fingerprint Techniques Manual

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Published by Sunilkumar Dubey
This is very good document for the study of fingerprint techniques.
This is very good document for the study of fingerprint techniques.

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Sunilkumar Dubey on May 31, 2012
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06/30/2013

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Fingerprint Techniques Manual

Division of Health Improvement
Caregivers Criminal History Screening Program PACT Project: Providing Assistance Communication Training
1

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................... 3 HISTORY................................................................................................... 4 RECOMMENDED EQUIPMENT .............................................................. 5 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF FINGERPRINTS .............................. 6 FINGERPRINTING ................................................................................... 7 FINGERPRINT CLASSES ....................................................................... 8 ARCHES .............................................................................................. 9-10 PLAIN ARCHES ...................................................................................... 11 TENTED ARCHES .................................................................................. 11 LOOPS ............................................................................................... 12-13 PATTERN AREA ..................................................................................... 14 LOOPS .................................................................................................... 15 TYPE LINES ........................................................................................... 16 DELTAS ............................................................................................. 17-18 CORES .............................................................................................. 19-20 FOUR TYPES OF WHORLS .................................................................. 21 WHORLS ................................................................................................ 22 PLAIN WHORLS ............................................................................... 23-24 CENTRAL POCKET LOOP WHORLS .............................................. 25-26 DOUBLE LOOP WHORLS ................................................................ 27-28 ACCIDENTAL WHORLS ................................................................... 29-30 THE IMPORTANCE OF FULL FINGER ROLLING ........................... 31-33 SCARRED PATTERNS .......................................................................... 34 FINGERPRINT CARD EXAMPLES .................................................. 35-57

2

HISTORY

Ancient History
1000 BC; archaeological evidence of ancient Chinese and Babylonian civilizations using fingerprints to sign legal documents.

Beginnings
• Early 1880’s; William Herschel, Chief Administrative Officer of Bengal used thumb impressions to identify workers. • 1880; Dr. Henry Faulds, an English physician working in Tokyo, published a letter in the journal nature suggesting the use of fingerprints for identification purposes. • 1892; after some years of research the English scientist Sir Francis Galton published a book entitled Finger Prints in which was laid out a classification method of fingerprints. • 1897; Sir Edward Henry proposed a modified classification system which was adopted by Scotland Yard in 1901 which is still the basis for taking fingerprints in most English speaking countries. • 1901; First official use of fingerprints in the USA by the New York City Service Commission. • 1930 national fingerprint file set up in America by the FBI.

The Present
Fingerprints are still the primary method for the identification of criminals. Technology has improved tremendously with time, such as the storage, search, retrieval and matching of prints using computers (automated fingerprint identification systems; AFIS).

4

RECOMMENDED EQUIPMENT

• Magnifying Glass • Inking Plate (Metal or ¼” Glass) 6" wide x 14” long • Card Holder • Hardwood stand 2’ length x 1’ height and width • Cleaning Fluid or Cream • Paper Towels • Roller • Inking Plate Cleanser • Printer Ink/Stamp Pad Ink (heavy black paste), Note: Printing Ink, Ordinary Ink or Other colored inks are not suitable for use in fingerprinting work. They are too light, thin and do not dry quickly. • Retabs

5

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF FINGERPRINTS

First Principle: A fingerprint is an individual characteristic. No two fingers have identical ridge characteristics. Second Principle: A fingerprint will remain unchanged during an individual’s lifetime. Third Principle: Fingerprints have general ridge patterns which make it possible to systematically classify.

Cross section of human skin 6

FINGERPRINTING

Always Start Printing with the Right Hand

RIGHT HAND

7

FINGERPRINT CLASSES
All fingerprints are divided into three classes on the basis of their general patterns.

Distribution of Classes

Accidental Whorls 1% Whorls 34%

Loops 60% Arches (Plain & Tented)

Loops Arches (Plain & Tented) Whorls Accidental Whorls

60 to 65% 5% 30 to 35% 1%

8

ARCHES Two Types of Arches

Plain Arch (A):

Tented Arch (T):

9

ARCHES
Arches are the least common of the three general patterns and are subdivided into two distinct groups, Plain and Tented.

Arch Frequency
Tented 40%

Plain 60%

Plain Arch (A)

Tented Arch (T)

Important to Remember: Arches do not have Type Lines, Deltas or Cores

10

PLAIN ARCHES
The Plain Arch is the simplest of all fingerprint patterns and is formed by ridges entering from one side of the print and exiting on the opposite side. These ridges tend to rise in the center of the pattern, forming a wave-like pattern.

TENTED ARCHES
The Tented Arch is similar to the Plain Arch except that instead of rising smoothly at the center, there is sharp upthrust or spike, or the ridges meet at an angle less than 90 degrees.

11

LOOPS
Right Loop

River
Delta Delta

La ke

Left Loop

ake L
Delta

River
Delta

12

LOOPS
The most common of the three general patterns are Loops. You will see both Right Loops and Left Loops.

Loop Frequency
Radial 6%

Ulnar 94%

Ridges flow in the direction of the thumb
Radial Loop

Ridges flow in the direction of the little finger
Ulnar Loop

Left Hand

Right Hand

13

PATTERN AREA

The most important characteristics to capture from any pattern are Loops and Whorls. Why? Because, we must capture the Cores, Deltas and Ridges which are used in the classification process.

PATTERN AREA

CORE DELTA

Pattern Area includes Core, Delta and Ridges which are used in the Classification of a Loop.
RIDGES

14

LOOPS
A Loop is a type of pattern in which one or more ridges enter either side, recurve, touch or pass an imaginary line between Delta and Core, and tend to exit the same side as the ridge entry. Right Loops

Important to Remember, Loops have two focal points: Delta and Core

Left Loops

15

TYPE LINES
Type Lines are the two innermost ridges. Type Lines start parallel or run parallel to each other then, diverge and tend to surround the Pattern Area. T

Core

PATTERN AREA

Type Line Delta Type Line

T

T T T D T T T T D

T

T T T D T T D T

T T

16

DELTAS
The Delta is the first point on the first characteristic. Deltas can also be any point upon a ridge nearest the center. They are located between two diverging Type Lines and are located on or directly in front of their point of divergence.

17

DELTAS

Left Loop 4 Counts

D

Right Loop 2 Counts

Right Loop 4 Counts

D

Right Loop 17 Counts

D

D D

18

CORES
Cores, as the name implies, are located in the approximate center of the pattern.

C D D C

Cores are located where the innermost recurve begins and curve to exit the same way they came in. C C

D

D

19

CORES
C D

20

FOUR TYPES OF WHORLS

Plain Whorl

Double Whorl

Central Pocket
21

Accidental Whorl

WHORLS
The second most common of the three general patterns are Whorls. Whorls are subdivided into 4 distinct groups: Accidental, Double Loop, Central Pocket Loop and Plain.

Whorl Frequency

Accidental 3%

Double Loop 13% Central Pocket Loop 13%

Plain 71%

22

PLAIN WHORLS
A Plain Whorl pattern must have Type Lines and a minimum of two Deltas. A Plain Whorl has at least one ridge that makes a complete circuit. This ridge may be in the form of a spiral, oval, circle or variant of a circle.

For a pattern to be a true Whorl, it must be composed of two Deltas with a recurve in front of each.

To help discern whether a pattern has two Deltas and might therefore be a Plain Whorl draw an imaginary line between the two Deltas along any one of the spiral ridges inside the Delta nearest the core.

23

PLAIN WHORLS
Plain Whorls are the most common and simplest of the Whorl subtypes. It is important to remember that Plain Whorls have two Deltas and at least one recurving ridge in front of each. In a Whorl pattern, the ridges are usually circular.

Whorls take the form of a Spiral, Shell, Circle, Target or Eye.

24

CENTRAL POCKET LOOP WHORLS
A Central Pocket pattern must have type lines, a minimum of two Deltas and at least one ridge. The pattern tends to make a complete circle. An imaginary line can be drawn between the two Deltas and does not cross or touch a ridge inside the type lines. One Delta appears to be substantially closer to the center of the pattern than the other Delta.

25

CENTRAL POCKET LOOP WHORLS

All Whorls, Deltas and areas between them must be captured when taking fingerprints.

A Loop Whorl with an eye is also known as a Peacock’s Eye.

26

DOUBLE LOOP WHORLS
A Double Loop pattern, as the name implies, is made up of two Loops combined into one fingerprint.

A Double Loop pattern consists of two separate Loop formations with two separate and distinct sets of Shoulders and two Deltas.

The two recurves of the Double Loop Whorl may be connected if they re formed by separate ridges and if neither is spoiled by an abutting ridge.

27

DOUBLE LOOP WHORLS
Double Loop Whorls and Central Pocket Loop Whorls occur with an equal frequency of thirteen percent. Plain Whorls occur seventy percent of the time and Accidental Whorls occur 3 percent of the time.

The “S” type Loop Whorls are not considered Double Loop Whorls

The “Interlocking” Loops are not considered Double Loop Whorls

28

ACCIDENTAL WHORLS
Accidental Whorls consist of a combination of two different types of patterns (with the exception of Plain Arches).

Accidental Whorls have two or more Deltas and fall into their own category.

Accidental Whorls may occur in some of the combinations listed below: • Loop and a Whorl • Loop and a Tented Arch • Loop and Central Pocket Loop • Double Loop and Central Pocket Loop

29

ACCIDENTAL WHORLS
Accidental Whorls are very rare and unique and occur with a frequency of only one to three percent.

The fingerprint (bottom left) is an example of an Accidental Whorl because it does not conform to any other definition, pattern or category type.

30

THE IMPORTANCE OF FULL FINGER ROLLING
The examples below show what can happen when fingers are not fully rolled.

Whorls may appear as Loops if not fully rolled.

Can you tell whether or not the two examples to the right (same finger) have been fully rolled from nail to nail?

31

THE IMPORTANCE OF FULL FINGER ROLLING
It is extremely important to remember to always roll each finger from fingernail to fingernail to capture all required characteristics.

Ridge Ending

Enclosure

Bifurcation

Island

This print has a ridge count of 10
32

THE IMPORTANCE OF FULL FINGER ROLLING
Remember every fingerprint is extremely important. Make sure every fingerprint is fully rolled, clear and legible.

Ending Ridge

Bifurcation
Arch (A) Tented Arch (T)

Island Ridge or Short Ridge Dot Bridge

Spur

Loop (U or R)

Whorl (W)

Eye (Island)

Double Bifurcation Delta

Trifurcation

33

SCARRED PATTERNS

34

FINGERPRINT CARD EXAMPLES

35

Review Each Fingerprint Card To Ensure that Each Card Contains the Following Printed Last Name Printed First Name Printed Full Middle Name If Applicant does not have a middle name “NMN” If Applicant middle name is initial only “__” Signature of person fingerprinted Alias (AKA) Maiden Name of previous married names ORI (Originating Request Identification Number) NM920160Z NM Department of Health Santa Fe, NM Date of Birth Residence of person fingerprinted Street Address P.O. Box City, State, Zip Code Citizenship Sex Race Height & Weight Color of Eyes Color of Hair Place of Birth (City and State) Date fingerprint taken Signature of official taking fingerprints
36

Review Each Fingerprint Card To Ensure that Each Card Contains the Following

Eye Color Block (3 Characters)
If Description is: BLACK BLUE BROWN GRAY GREEN HAZEL UNKNOWN List Data in Block As: BLK BLU BRO GRY GRN HAZ UNK

Hair Color Block (3 Characters)
If Description is: BALD BLACK BLONDE (OR STRAWBERRY) BROWN GRAY (OR PARTIALLY GRAY) RED (OR AUBURN) SANDY WHITE UNKNOWN List Data in Block As: BAL BLK BLN BRO GRY RED SDY WHI UNK

Race
A B I W U ASIAN BLACK AMERICAN INDIAN WHITE UNKNOWN

37

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