Kirthiga Sekar Nivetha Grace Rasika K.R Swappna Dhevi.S Umamaheswaran .M

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Analysis of data
Draw inference

Phenomena of interest

Inferential statistics

Descriptive statistics


Non Parametric


. ► This is also called a non-parametric randomized block analysis of variance.Definition ► It is a non-parametric test (distribution-free) used to compare observations repeated on the same subjects.

Friedman's Test ► Developed Friedman ► Similar to parametric repeated measures. ANOVA ► Used to detect differences in treatments across multiple test attempts by US economist Milton .

Friedman's Test ► Popular K-related sample test ► Similar to the Wilcoxon test. ► Each subject does all of the experimental conditions ► With more than two related samples on ordinal data . except that you can use it with three or more conditions.

WHEN TO PERFORM ► Subjects within a row must be independent ► A dependent variable that is not interval and normally distributed (but at least ordinal) .

That is.g. The data can be meaningfully ranked. the results in one block (row) do not affect the results within other blocks. ► ► ► . normality). this non-parametric makes no assumptions about the distribution of the data (e.ASSUMPTION ► Unlike the parametric repeated measures ANOVA or paired t-test. All observations are mutually independent The rows are mutually independent..

How the Friedman test works ► The test compares three or more paired groups. ► The test first ranks the values in each matched set (each row) from low to high.  If the sums are very different. ► Each row is ranked separately. ► It then sums the ranks in each group (column). . the P value will be small.

Hypothesis ► Ho = All the related variables have the same mean ► HA = All the related variable do not have the same mean .

CONDITIONS FOR STATISTICAL PACKAGES ► The data need to be in a long format ► SPSS handles this need ► Other statistical packages require the data to be reshaped before one can conduct this test .

It was hypothesized that reaction times would differ significantly across drug conditions.Example . a drug X and a drug Y condition. .1 ► Reaction times for eight subjects were measured under placebo condition.


Select the Analyse menu Click on Nonparametric tests and then on K Related Samples to open the Tests for Several Related Samples box Select the variables you require and then move the variables into the Test Variable List: box Ensure the Friedman check box has been selected. 4. . 3. 2.To conduct a Friedman test 1.



5. Click on OK .

► X2 = 12.25 .002 ► Significant differences do exist in reaction time across drug conditions. ► Drug Y appears to slow reaction considerably. p = 0. .

writing and math) are the same .e.2 ► To determine if there is a difference in the reading.EXAMPLE. writing and math scores ► Null hypothesis: The distribution of the ranks of each type of score (i. reading..



there is no evidence that the distributions of the three types of scores are different.645 ► p-value .INTERPRETATION ► Friedman's chi-square value .0.724 ► Not statistically significant ► Hence. .0.

APPLICATIONS ► Rank data separately for each block (matching level) ► Find sum of ranks for each of the comparison groups ► Use statistic – to know order of importance .

.ADVANTAGES ► Since the Friedman test ranks the values in each row. thus increasing the power of the test. it is not affected by sources of variability that equally affect all values in a row (since that factor won't change the ranks within the row). ► The test controls experimental variability between subjects.

.DISADVANTAGES ► Since this test does not make a distribution assumption. it is not as powerful as the ANOVA.

"100" = euphoric).Try it out Effects on worker mood of different types of music: ► Five workers. Each is tested three times.  condition 2: "easy-listening” music. .so use a nonparametric test. ► DV: mood rating ("0" = unhappy. once under each of the following conditions:  condition 1: silence. ► Ratings .  condition 3: marching-band music.

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