List of Questions the Chewaucan Biophysical Monitoring Website Can Answer

• Have aspen responded to enhancement treatments? • What is the impact on soil compaction and soil repair over time?

In-Stream Restoration
• What is the impact of upslope management activities and high road density on soil infiltration, volume of runoff, and stream velocity? • What is the impact of grazing to this restoration program? • What is the impact on fish passage and invertebrate migration? • How has the reintroduction of willows impacted the stability of stream channels? • Have they become vectors for invasive aquatic weeds?

Reducing Road Density and Habitat Fragmentation
• What are the most practical and effective means of reducing road impacts (e.g. use restrictions, gating, decommissioning, obliteration)? • Did treatment of juniper (removal) result in permanent ground herbaceous cover? • Has meadow treatment reduced encroachment and allowed for grass/forbs establishment? • Has a mosaic of burn/unburned areas been achieved? • How is deer use affected by this project? • Has implementation affected snag and downed wood habitat?

Fish and Hydrology
• Are new culverts/ford crossings allowing for fish movement? • Is aquatic habitat improving? • Are soil productivity guidelines met? Have compaction percentages stayed below 20% in those units identified as below 20% pretreatment, and have those units identified as above 20% improved?

Noxious Weeds
• Has action affected noxious weed populations?

• Has meadow enhancement work affected range conditions?

• What is response of surface vegetation after treatment? – include willows and mountain mahogany? • What are the rate, density, and dispersal of conifer regeneration after treatment? Are openings and ground disturbance encouraging conifer regeneration (wanted or unwanted)? • Is aspen expanding its range and what treatment is best accomplishing this? Are there male and female clones present? • What is vegetative response to riparian burning? Is there a change in species composition? • What trees (size, age, crown class, species) are negatively affected (killed) by prescribed fire? Is there a pattern?

Prescribed Burning
• What are the effects of burning over compacted soil surfaces in relation to noncompacted surfaces? • What percentage of the disturbed duff layer is retained after the burning? • What is the impact on the species and distribution of noxious weeds in the burned areas?

Reducing Soil Compaction
• How does sub-soiling affect the various soil types that contain percentages of plastic elements, such as clay? • What is the impact on the natural hydrologic patterning, such as soil piping and the redirection of subsurface flows? • What is the impact of sub-soiling on the species composition and distribution of invasive non-native plants? • Is there enough canopy above the ripped lanes to contribute sufficient litter fall to cover the bare mineral ground and begin the process of duff creation? • What is the impact on remnant trees due to root damage and subsequent attacks by pathogenic fungi?

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