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# Simulative Calculation and Optimal Design of Scissor Lifting Mechanism

## Tao Liu1, Jian Sun2

1. School of Automobile Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Weihai, 264209, China E-mail: liutao@hitwh.edu.cn 2. Department of technology, Weihai Chemical Machinery Co., Ltd., Weihai, 264203, China Abstract: A mathematical model has been established for the research on scissor elevator. The kinematical and kinetic simulation analysis was carried out with MATLAB/Simulink. The relative kinetic relation between hydraulic cylinder and other parts, as well as its rules of change has been found. A 3-D model of scissor lifting mechanism was established with Pro/E. The design of the mechanism was optimized in Pro/Mechanical based on the findings from simulation analysis, which may guide and improve the further design. The design was proved to be scientific and reasonable and could serve as the theoretical guidance and reference for the design of scissor lifting mechanism of other uses. Key Words: Mechanical engineering, Scissor lifting mechanism, Simulative calculation, Optimal design

INTRODUCTION

Scissor lifting mechanism is the first choice for automobiles at high altitude work. These automobiles must be highly secure and reliable for the sake of the personnel safety. In the past the design of scissor lifting mechanism at high altitude work has simplified the dynamic problem and treated it as static. The kinetic reaction has been considered with live load coefficient. The problem was simplified but the most serious defect was that the machines real working condition and kinetic features couldnt be accurately reflected, which may lead to the unreasonable and inaccurate calculation for analysis and design. In order to solve the problem before-mentioned, a mathematical model of scissor lifting mechanism has been established and the kinematical and kinetic simulation analysis was carried out. The kinematical and kinetic parameters of the hydraulic cylinder and other parts have been obtained. The primary design has been improved by applying entity model and optimal design. It is significant for guaranteeing the security of automobiles at high altitude work and improves its working performances and efficiency[1~3].

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## KINEMATICS and SIMULATION RESEARCH

KINETICS

(1) Mathematical model The scissor lifting mechanism is illustrated as Figure 2. The length of 1 is r1, the length of 2 is r2, the length of 3 is r3, the length of 4 is r4, mg is the weight of hoisting terrace.

## Configuration of scissor lifting mechanism

In Pro/E, the 3-D model of scissor lifting mechanism was established. The configuration of scissor lifting mechanism is shown in Figure 1. The scissor lifting mechanism is composed of outer hoisting frame, inner hosting frame, hydraulic cylinder and other parts. It is driven by hydraulic cylinder.

Fig.2. Sketch of the lifting mechanism 1 Assistant Frame 2 Inner Hoisting Frame 3 Outer Hoisting Frame 4 hydraulic cylinder 5 Hoisting Terrace

The mathematical model is established for the kinematical analysis of the scissor lifting mechanism with reference to the closed-ring vector equation. The choice of
978-1-4244-2723-9/09/\$25.00 c 2009 IEEE 2079

frame of axes is illustrated as Figure 2. Each connecting bar can be shown by a displacement vector. Thus the following formula can be got: R3 +R2 =R1 (1)

The data may make preparation for further kinetic simulation. 2.3. Kinetics Simulation

## R4 +R2 (a+r2 )/r2 =R 1

(2)

The vector equation can be divided into two scalar quantity formulas: one is in the direction of x axis and the other is in the direction of y axis. The following group of formula can be got:

(1) Mathematical model The analysis of the stress on outer hoisting frame is shown by Figure 4. m3g is the weight of outer hoisting frame.

r3cos3 +r2 cos 2 =r1 r3sin3 +r 2 sin 2 =0 r4 cos 4 +(a+r2 )cos 2 =r1 r4sin 4 +(a+r2 )sin 2 =0
Where:

## (4) (5) (6) (7)

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Fig.4. Stress on outer hoisting frame

4 is shown in figure 2.

## It can be got from Figure 4 that:

(2) Kinematics Simulation research From the former group of formula the simulated model is established based on the kinematics relation of the mechanism, as is shown in Figure 3.

## F13y + F23y F53y m3g = m3 ac3y

F13x L sin 3 F53y L cos 3 F13y L cos 3 = I 3 3

Where: I3 is the moment of inertia of the bar, others are shown in figure 4. The mathematical models of the stress on the inner hosting frame, the hydraulic cylinder and the upper terrace can be got in a similar way. (2) Kinetics Simulation research The simulated model of the kinetic mechanism is established based on the mathematical model got from former group of formula, as is shown in Figure 5.

## Fig.3. Kinematics simulated model

The data of each bars position, palstance and angular acceleration can be got by running the simulated model.

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## Fig.5. Kinetics simulated model

(3) Simulation result By running the simulated model the data of acting force with the change of time can be got (as shown in table 1) which may make preparation for further optimized design.
Table1. Results of kinetics simulation Force F12y F13x F13y F14x F14y F23x F23y F52y F53y P Max /N 14610 59286 34178 56284 110800 24927 88782 34000 34000 114586 Time /s 0.4 0 0.4 0 0.2 6 0 0 0 0 Min /N 8547 18950 24587 17000 100000 66285 50350 27653 27653 103874 Time /s 0.2 6 0.2 6 0 0 6 0.2 0.2 6

OPTIMAL DESIGN

Based on Pro/Mechanical, the 3-D model of the scissor lifting mechanism can be optimized to minimize the total quality of hoisting frames. The constraint conditions are:
(1) The (2) The thickness thickness of the the the inner reinforcing vertical flitch plate bridge s1:

## 4mm s1 12mm . 4mm s2

(3) The of 20mm . of s2: s3:

thickness

4mm s3 12mm .
(4) The maximal stress : 345/1.5=230MPa The results of optimized design can be got by running the program, as is shown in Table 2.

## 2009 Chinese Control and Decision Conference (CCDC 2009)

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Parameters Thickness of the inner flitch(mm) Thickness of the reinforcing plate(mm) Thickness of the vertical bridge(mm)

Original Design 8

## Optimized Design 5.43

Round 6

mechanism is effectively reduced in the premise of ensuring the intensity. The proposal can be easily put into operation and provide reference for engineering application.

REFERENCES
12 9.76 10  Bidarra.R, Brinsvoort. WF, Semantic feature modeling, Computer Aided Design, 2000, 32(3): 201~225  WANG Fang, ZHANG Hai-yan, Study on the Kinematic Simulation of Linkage Mechanism Based on Simulink. Machine Design and Research, 2004.4  Li Emin, A Kinematic and Dynamic Analysis of Scissors Mechanism Driven by Hydraulic Cylinder, Journal of Gansu University of Technology, 1994.12 Vol.20 No.4 34~37  Cui Shengmin, Yang Zhanchun, Auto Mobile Design Optimized Based on Finite Element, Machine Design, 2001(9):41-42.  Jiang Daye, Chi Guotai, Lin Jianhua, Optimized Compounding Loan Decision Model Based on Finite Border, Journal of Harbin Institute of Technology. 2002, 34 (5):614-617

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7.60

The total quality of the scissor lifting mechanism is 1846.58kg with a 290.4kg reduction compared with 2136.98kg before optimized.

CONCLUSION

The kinematical and kinetic simulation analysis of scissor lifting mechanism for automobiles at high altitude work was carried out with MATLAB/Simulink. The curve of kinematical and kinetic parameters relations for the components has been obtained. A 3-D model of scissor lifting mechanism was established with Pro/E. By using Pro/Mechanical the design was optimized based on the simulation analysis results. The quality of scissor lifting

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