Description

Example : WoodArmer Slab Assessment
For software product(s): With product option(s): LUSAS Bridge. None.

Description
A Wood Armer slab assessment is to be carried out on a 15m long, 9.8m wide single span, reinforced concrete bridge deck. The deck has a skew angle of 11.3 degrees and is 0.9m deep. 11.3 degree skew angle 1.25 Upper lane Boundaries of Patch loads 3.65

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A load combination 1.25 comprising self weight, upper and 15.0 lower lane loads, and upper and lower All dimensions in metres knife edge is to be created from the results obtained. Slab reinforcement is to be arranged orthogonally and has capacities of 1700 and 300 kNm in the chosen Mx and My directions.

Lower lane

Positions of Knife edge loads

3.65

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Note. In order to create a generic example, no reference is made to any particular design code or loadcase type. 1

Example : Wood-Armer Slab Assessment Keywords 2D, Simple Slab, Skew Angle, Wood-Armer Reinforcement, Wood-Armer Assessment, Safety Factors, Self Weight, General Loading, Knife Edge Loading, General Patch Loading, Combination, Contour Plotting, Display Peak Values. Associated Files

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Modelling

q wood_armer_modelling.cmd example.

carries out the modelling of the

Running LUSAS Modeller
For details of how to run LUSAS Modeller see the heading Running LUSAS Modeller in the Examples Manual Introduction.

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Note. This example is written assuming a new LUSAS Modeller session has been started. If continuing from an existing Modeller session select the menu command File>New to start a new model file. Modeller will prompt for any unsaved data and display the New Model Startup form.

Creating a new model
• Enter the file name as wood_armer • Use the Default working folder. • Enter the title as Wood Armer Slab Example • Select units of kN m t C s from the drop down list provided. • Select the startup template as Standard • Select the Vertical Z axis option • Click the OK button.

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Note. It is useful to save the model regularly as the example progresses. This allows a previously saved model to be re-loaded if a mistake is made that cannot be corrected by a new user.

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• Select the lower horizontal Line of the model. The edge of the lower carriageway will be drawn. Next.. To define 2 notional lane widths of 3.65*tan(11.8) to define the slab as a single Surface. (15. the edge of carriageway and lane widths will be defined by copying the lower Line of the main span.96. (16. 9. • Select the Line just drawn. > Enter coordinates of (0.3 degrees)] • Enter the Y translation as 3.25*tan(11..73 [this is derived from 3. Select this Line 3 . 0).96.25 [this is derived from 1. 9.8) and (1. Select this Line Geometry Line Copy… > Enter the X translation as 0. and click the OK button.65 metres.Modelling Feature Geometry Geometry Surface Coordinates. 0). Geometry Line Copy… > Enter the X translation as 0.25 metres.3 degrees)] • Enter the Y translation as 1. • Enter the number of copies as 2 • Click the OK button to finish.65 metres.

LUSAS will add the Surface mesh dataset to the Treeview. The eccentricity field in the geometric properties dialog can be left blank or entered as zero as the plate element used does not possess this geometric property. Treeview onto 4 . At any time the mesh (and other features) displayed in the Graphics area may be hidden or re-displayed. If a mesh was previously displayed it will be hidden.9. • Deselect the automatic divisions option and enter 10 divisions in the local X direction and 7 divisions in the local Y direction.9 metres.9 from the the selected features. • Enter the dataset name as Thick Plate and click the OK button to finish. Treeview onto ! Note. Quadrilateral. With no features selected click the right-hand mouse button in a blank part of the graphics area and select Mesh. • Select the whole model using the Ctrl and A keys together. This facility can be used to simplify the display when it is required. • Drag and drop the Surface mesh dataset Thick Plate from the the selected features. Click OK • Select the whole model. Geometric Properties Attributes Geometric Surface… > • Enter a Surface element thickness of 0. If previously hidden it will be displayed. elements with Linear interpolation. • Turn off the display of the Mesh as described in the previous note. • Drag and drop the geometry dataset Thickness 0.Example : Wood-Armer Slab Assessment Meshing Attributes Mesh Surface… > • Select Thick Plate. Enter the dataset name as Thickness 0.

(hold the Shift key down to add to the first selection). Modifying the Geometry to assign loading To position knife edge loads additional Points are required at mid-span positions. leave grade as Ungraded and units as kN m t C s and click OK to add the material dataset to the Treeview.Modelling Material Properties Attributes Material > Material Library… • Select material Concrete from the drop down list. ensuring that it is assigned to Surfaces and click OK Supports LUSAS provides the more common types of support by default. These can be seen in the Treeview. with an additional two combinations of these loads created at the results processing stage. Assigning the Supports • Select the 2 inclined Lines at either end of the slab. • With the whole model selected. Both inclined edges of the slab are to be simply supported in the Z direction. 5 . • Ensure Assign to lines and All loadcases are selected and click OK The supports will be visualised. drag and drop the material dataset Concrete Ungraded (kN m t C) from the Treeview onto the selected features. Select these Lines Loading Five load cases will be considered. • Drag and drop the support dataset Fixed in Z from the Treeview onto the selected features.

> > Select these 3 Lines • For each Line enter the number of divisions required as 2 • Ensure the Delete features on splitting option is selected and click OK Additional Points will be created at mid-span and existing Lines will be broken into 2 new Lines. • Rename Loadcase 1 to Self Weight 6 .. The new Points will be used later to define the position of the mid-span knife edge loads for each traffic lane. Loadcases • In the Treeview right click on Loadcase 1 and select the Rename option.Example : Wood-Armer Slab Assessment • Select the 3 horizontal Lines that define the traffic lane boundaries..Self weight Attributes Loading Structural. > • Select the Body Force tab and define the linear acceleration due to gravity in the Z direction as -9.81 • Enter the dataset name as Self Weight and click OK • With the whole model selected. drag and drop the loading dataset Self Weight from the Treeview onto the selected features ensuring the loading is assigned to Surfaces as Loadcase 1 with a load factor of 1 The self weight loading will be displayed. Loadcase 1 . (Hold the Shift key down to add to the selection) Geometry Line By Splitting At Equal Distances...

Select this Point • Select the Patch tab. • Enter a load value of -15 (kN/m2) for each coordinate. hold down the Shift key and select point 2. Select this Point 2. The order in which the Points are selected determines the local X and Y directions of the patch load. • Enter the Number of Division in Patch Local X Direction as 15 7 . • Enter the dataset name as Lane load (lower) and click OK 1.Modelling Loadcase 2 . Select this Point 4. • Leave the Options for loads outside search area as Exclude all loads Select this Point to assign Patch Loading ! Note. Select this Point ! Note. • Drag and drop the loading dataset Lane load (lower) from the Treeview onto the selected Point. See help for details. The coordinates of the Points selected will be inserted into the coordinate fields. Attributes Loading Discrete… > 3. 3 and 4 in the order shown to define the patch area. The Local X direction is from the first Point to the second Point selected.Lane load (lower lane) • Select the first point. • Select the Point shown at the origin of the structure. The Local Y direction is from the second to the third Point. Using the drop down list loads which lie outside the search area (the slab deck in this case) may be treated in a variety of ways.

The coordinates of the patch will be taken from the coordinates of the Points.Example : Wood-Armer Slab Assessment • Leave the Number of Division in Patch Local Y Direction as 0 so the number of loading points in the patch Y direction will be computed automatically from the aspect ratio of the patch. • Enter a load value of -15 (kN/m2) for each coordinate. Select this Point 2. Assign patch load to this Point • Enter the dataset name as Lane load (upper) and click OK • With the Point at the origin of the structure selected. Select this Point • Select the Patch tab. The loading will be displayed.Lane load (upper lane) • Select the Points in the order shown to define the patch area for the upper lane. therefore the patch load must be assigned to the Point at the origin of the structure. • Enter the loadcase as Lane load (lower) with a load factor of 1 and click OK. Select this Point 4. The coordinates of the Points selected will be inserted in the coordinate fields. • Enter the Number of Divisions in Patch Local X Direction as 15 • Leave the Number of Divisions in Patch Local Y Direction as 0 • Enter the loadcase as Lane load (upper) with a load factor of 1 and click OK 8 . Select this Point 1. Loadcase 3 . ! Note. Attributes Loading Discrete… > 3. drag and drop the loading dataset Lane load (upper) from the Treeview onto the selected Point.

Knife edge load (lower lane) • Select the Points in the order shown to define the knife edge load position for the lower lane. • Enter the Number of Divisions in Patch Local X Direction as 15 • Leave the Number of Divisions in Patch Local Y Direction as 0 • Enter the loadcase as Knife edge load (lower) with a load factor of 1 and click OK 9 . Select this Point The coordinates of the Points selected will be inserted in the coordinate fields.Modelling Loadcase 4 . • Enter a load value of -32. The order in which the Points are selected determines the local X direction of the knife edge load. • Enter the dataset name as Knife edge load (lower) and click OK ! Note. Straight 1.24 (kN/m2) for each coordinate. The Local X direction is from the first Point to the second Point selected. Attributes Loading Discrete… > 2. Select this Point • Select the Patch tab • Select the Line option. drag and drop the loading dataset Knife edge load (lower) from the Treeview onto the selected Point. Assign Knife load to this Point. • With the Point at the origin selected.

• From the Treeview select the Lane load (lower) loadcase. The coordinates of the Points selected will be inserted in the coordinate fields. Select this Point • Select the Patch tab and select the Straight Line option. Assign Knife load to this Point.24 (kN/m2) for each coordinate.Example : Wood-Armer Slab Assessment Load case 5 . • Enter a load value of -32. Attributes Loading Discrete… > 2. drag and drop the loading dataset Knife edge loading (upper) from the Treeview onto the selected Point. Select this Point 1. • Enter the Number of Divisions in Patch Local X Direction as 15 • Leave the Number of Divisions in Patch Local Y Direction as 0 • Enter the loadcase as Knife edge load (upper) with a load factor of 1 and click OK Visualising Loadcases Load cases can be visualised at any time by activating each loadcase in the Treeview. • Enter the dataset name as Knife edge load (upper) and click OK • With the Point at the origin selected. click the right-hand mouse button and select the Set Active option. 10 .Knife edge load (upper lane) • Select the Points in the order shown to define the knife edge load position for the upper lane.

. • Click the Save button to finish. q wood_armer.. The LUSAS Solver uses this datafile to perform the analysis. Running the Analysis With the model loaded: File LUSAS Datafile. Rebuilding a Model If errors are listed that for some reason cannot be corrected by the user..) to the model. In addition.. 2 files will be created in the directory where the model file resides: < q wood_armer. assigned attributes and selected statistics of the analysis. a file is provided to re-create the model information correctly. A LUSAS Datafile will be created from the model information. Use a text editor to view the output file and search for ‘ERROR’. the output file will provide information relating to the nature of the error encountered. • Ensure that the options Solve now and Load results are selected.mys this is the LUSAS results file which is loaded Treeview to allow results processing to take place.. A LUSAS data file name of wood_armer will be automatically entered in the File name field. loading etc. The LUSAS results file will be added to Treeview. Any errors listed in the output file should be fixed in LUSAS Modeller before saving the model and re-running the analysis. allowing a subsequent analysis to be run successfully. If the analysis fails. automatically into the If the analysis fails.Running the Analysis Saving the model File Save Save the model file.. If the analysis is successful. A common mistake made when using LUSAS Modeller for the first time is to forget to assign particular attribute data (geometry. supports. mesh. 11 .out this output file contains details of model data.

265 1. Utilities Vertical Axis… File Save File LUSAS Datafile.65 Live load factors for ULS combination q Lane factors β1 = 1.1 Load Case Factor Calculation Factor Self weight Lane load (lower) Lane load (upper) Knife edge load (lower) Knife edge load (upper) γfl x γf3 β1 x γfl x γf3 β2 x γfl x γf3 β1 x γfl x γf3 β2 x γfl x γf3 1. Viewing the Results Combinations A combination will be created to apply the ultimate limit state (ULS) factors and lane factors to load cases 1 to 5..Example : Wood-Armer Slab Assessment < File New… q wood_armer_modelling.65 1. Dead load factor ULS combination q Dead load factor γfl = 1..0 q Live load factor γfl = 1. > To recreate the model open the command file wood_armer_modelling..65 1.15 q Additional factor γf3 = 1. Typical ULS and lane factors can be found in relevant design codes. If an existing model is open Modeller will prompt for unsaved data to be saved before opening the new file.65 1.cmd example. carries out the modelling of the Start a new model file. • Enter the file name as wood_armer and click OK File Command Files Open. • Select the Vertical Z axis option and click OK Save the model file.0 and β2 = 1.cmd which is located in the \Lusas13\Examples\Modeller directory.1 12 . Rerun the analysis to generate the results.5 q Additional factor γf3 = 1..

! Note. • Click OK followed by Yes to update the combination dataset. and select Knife edge load (upper). Treeview right-click on Combination 6 and select the Set Active 13 . select each loadcase in turn and enter a factor of 1. select the Self weight load case and enter load factor of 1.Viewing the Results Defining a Combination Combinations can be created to view the combined effects of multiple load cases on the structure.265 in the load factor text box • For each of the other 4 load cases. All 5 loadcases should be included in the load combination panel. button to add the loadcases to the combination dataset. scroll down. Utilities Combination Basic > A combination dataset Combination 6 will be created in the The combination properties dialog will appear. • Select load case Self weight hold the Shift key down. • Ensure Results file: 1 is selected in the drop-down list to show the loadcase results available. Selecting Loadcase results • In the option. • Click the Treeview. To obtain the correct effect from the combined loads in this example the Combination should only include one occurrence of each load case. Assigning load factors • In the Included panel on the Combination dialog.65 • Select the Grid button to check all the factors are entered correctly and click OK to return to the combination dialog.

• Click the OK button to display contours of MX for Combination 6. • Select the MX component. • Click the OK button to redisplay the contours with peak values marked. select the Mesh entry in the Treeview and drag on drop it on top of the Contours entry in the Treeview. Contour Plots • With no features selected click the right-hand mouse button in a blank part of the graphics area and select the Contours option to add the contours layer to the Treeview. • Select the Values Display tab and set Maxima and Minima values to display the moments for the top 0% of results. The contour properties dialog will be displayed. with nothing selected click the right-hand mouse button in a blank part of the graphics area and select the Mesh option to add the mesh layer to the Treeview. The properties dialog of the values layer will be displayed. • To display the mesh on top of the contours. • Click Close to accept the default mesh properties. • If not already visible. 14 . • Select the Stress entity. Moments in the X direction • Select Stress contour results.Example : Wood-Armer Slab Assessment • If present in the Treeview delete the Geometry and Attributes layers. Marking Peak Values • With nothing selected click the right-hand mouse button in a blank part of the graphics area and select the Values option to add the values layer to the Treeview. • Select the MX component.

• Select the Stress entity. For the following section. The values layer is currently displaying results for MX. Moments in XY direction • In the Treeview doubleclick on the Contours layer. • Select the MY component. the Wood Armer reinforcement moments Mx(B) in the bottom surface of the slab will be calculated. • Select Yes to change the values layer results to match those of the contours layer.Viewing the Results Moments in the Y direction • In the Treeview double-click on the Contours layer. 15 . ! Note. • Select the component. it is assumed that the user is familiar with the theory of Wood Armer as an explanation is beyond the scope of this example. • Click the OK button to display contours of MY for Combination 6. Initially. MXY • Select Yes to change the values layer results to match those of the contours layer. Wood-Armer Reinforcement Moments ! Note. If additional information is required consult the LUSAS Theory Manual. • Select the Stress entity.

• Select Yes to change the values layer results to match those of the contours layer 16 . • Select the Mx(B) component to view contour of Wood Armer moments in the X direction for the bottom of the slab. • Select the Stress entity. • Select the My(B) component to view contours of Wood Armer moments in the Y direction for the bottom of the slab. • Click the OK button. This value is compared with the maximum slab capacity (1700 kNm) to determine the safe load carrying capacity. • In the Treeview double-click on the Contours layer. From the resulting Wood Armer plot it can be seen that the maximum value of Mx(B) is 1545 kNm. In this case the slab passes the assessment. • Select the Stress entity. • Select Yes to change the values layer results to match those of the contours layer. Wood Armer Moments in Y direction of the bottom of the slab The Wood Armer moments in the direction of the reinforcement on the bottom Surface My(B).Example : Wood-Armer Slab Assessment Wood Armer Moments in X direction of the bottom of the slab • In the Treeview double-click on the Contours layer. Click the OK button. are now to be examined.

The method returns minimum safety factors for top (hogging) and bottom (sagging) reinforcement for each nodal position. ! Note. Wood Armer . Published by Construction Press.J Burgoyne. May 7. ! Note. C. where the user inputs the slab capacity of the reinforcement and the reinforcement skew angle. This would result in a restriction in the load carrying capacity of the slab. Since the slab can potentially fail in flexure about any axis in the plane of the slab. No. however the user may find it beneficial to consult the following references: q Concrete Bridge Design to BS5400. q The Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Slabs. 9. ! Note. Equations For Plate Design. S.R Denton. the method adopts a safety factor approach. 74. the method examines the applied moment field (Mx. The Structural Engineer. In outline. Mxy*) for all possible reinforcement skew angles. My. Wood Armer Assessment • In the Treeview delete the Values layer 17 . A detailed explanation of the modified equations is beyond the scope of this example. Appendix A. L. Vol.Discussion It is generally accepted that the Wood Armer equations when used in the assessment of the load carrying capacity of slabs provide a safe but conservative estimate of the structural capacity. Mxy) against the moment capacity field (Mx*.A Clark. Top and bottom safety factors are possible at any single position due to the application of mixed moment fields.Viewing the Results The plot indicates a maximum applied sagging Wood Armer moment My(B) of 389 kNm This exceeds the slab capacity of 300 kNm and therefore this slab fails assessment. Normally the analysis would be continued to calculate the reduction in live load that would be necessary to obtain a situation where the applied moment My(B) equals the capacity of the slab My*(B). My*. It is possible to obtain significant improvements using alternative equations based on the fundamental principles of Wood Armer.

• Click the Wood Armer button. ! Note. The Wood Armer options dialog will appear. 18 . hogging moment capacity values are entered as +ve (positive) values and the sagging moment capacity values are entered as -ve (negative) values. In the Wood Armer dialog. The moment capacity of the slab in the sagging and hogging zones needs to be entered. • Enter the Resistive moment in X (top) as 1700 • Enter the Resistive moment in Y (top) as 300 • Enter the Resistive moment in X (bottom) as -1700 • Enter the Resistive moment in Y (bottom) as -300 • Click the OK button to return to the contour form. • Click the OK button to display contours of safety for the moment capacities entered.Example : Wood-Armer Slab Assessment • In the entity Treeview double-click on the Contours layer and select the Stress • Select the MSafe(B) component to select contours of Safety in the bottom of the slab.

the Maximum value as 5 and the Minimum value as 1 • Click the OK button to finish. This completes the example. 19 .0. Contours of safety factors from 0 to 5 will be displayed showing a small region in the centre of the slab that has failed the assessment according to the moment capacities used. • Set the contour Interval as 1. the slab is deemed to satisfy the reinforcement criteria and no live load reduction is necessary. To help clarify whether any regions of the slab have failed the assessment the contour range will be modified: • In the Treeview double-click on the Contours layer and select the Contour Range tab.Viewing the Results Changing the Contour range If a safety factor is equal to or greater than 1.

Example : Wood-Armer Slab Assessment 20 .

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