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Capital Asset Pricing Model
(CAPM)
Road Map
Part A Introduction to ﬁnance.
Part B Valuation of assets, given discount rates.
Part C Determination of discount rates.
• Historic asset returns.
• Time value of money.
• Risk.
• Portfolio theory.
• Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM).
• Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT).
Part D Introduction to corporate ﬁnance.
Main Issues
• Derivations of CAPM
• Implications of CAPM
• Empirical Evidence
112 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Chapter 11
Contents
1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
2 The Market Portfolio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
3 Derivation of CAPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
3.1 A Numerical Illustration of CAPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
3.2 A Formal Derivation of CAPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
3.3 Implications of CAPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
4 Understanding Risk in CAPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1112
5 Applications of CAPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1118
6 Empirical Evaluation of CAPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1120
7 Summary of CAPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1123
8 Appendix A: Capital Market Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1124
9 Appendix B: Extensions of CAPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1125
9.1 Multifactor CAPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1125
9.2 Consumption CAPM (CCAPM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1128
10 Homework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1131
15.407 Lecture Notes Fall 2003 c Jiang Wang
Chapter 11 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) 113
1 Introduction
Portfolio theory analyzes investors’ asset demand given asset
returns.
This chapter studies how investors’ asset demand determines the
relation between assets’ risk and return in a market equilibrium
(when demand equals supply).
A model to price risky assets.
Main question of this chapter
E[˜ r
i
] = ?
Main points of portfolio theory
1. Diversify to eliminate nonsystematic risk.
2. Hold only the riskfree asset and the tangent portfolio.
3. An asset’s systematic risk is measured by contribution to the
risk of the tangent portfolio – its beta β
iT
.
4. An asset’s risk premium is proportional to its systematic risk:
¯ r
i
−r
F
= β
iT
(¯ r
T
−r
F
) .
Identifying the tangent portfolio gives a pricing model.
c Jiang Wang Fall 2003 15.407 Lecture Notes
114 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Chapter 11
2 The Market Portfolio
Deﬁnition: The market portfolio is the portfolio of all risky assets
traded in the market.
Deﬁnition: The market capitalization of an asset is its total
market value.
Suppose there are a total of i = 1, . . . , n risky assets. Asset i’s
market capitalization is
MCAP
i
= (price per share)
i
×(# of shares outstanding)
i
.
The total market capitalization of all risky assets is
MCAP
M
=
n
i=1
MCAP
i
.
The market portfolio is the portfolio with weights in each risky
asset i being
w
i
=
MCAP
i
n
j=1
MCAP
j
=
MCAP
i
MCAP
M
.
We denote the market portfolio by ww w
M
.
15.407 Lecture Notes Fall 2003 c Jiang Wang
Chapter 11 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) 115
3 Derivation of CAPM
Assumptions for this chapter:
1. Investors agree on the distribution of asset returns.
2. Investors have the same ﬁxed (static) investment horizon.
3. Investors hold eﬃcient frontier portfolios.
4. There is a riskfree asset:
• paying interest rate r
F
• in zero net supply.
5. Demand of assets equals supply in equilibrium.
Implications:
1. Every investor puts their money into two pots:
• the riskless asset
• a single portfolio of risky assets – the tangent portfolio.
2. All investors hold the risky assets in same proportions
• they hold the same risky portfolio, the tangent portfolio.
3. The tangent portfolio is the market portfolio.
c Jiang Wang Fall 2003 15.407 Lecture Notes
116 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Chapter 11
3.1 A Numerical Illustration of CAPM
CAPM requires that in equilibrium total asset holdings of all
investors must equal the total supply of assets.
We show this through the example below.
There are only three risky assets, A, B and C. Suppose that the
tangent portfolio is
ww w
T
= (w
A
, w
B
, w
C
) = (0.25, 0.50, 0.25).
There are only three investors in the economy, 1, 2 and 3, with
total wealth of 500, 1000, 1500 billion dollars, respectively. Their
asset holdings (in billion dollars) are:
Investor Riskless A B C
1 100 100 200 100
2 200 200 400 200
3 300 450 900 450
Total 0 750 1500 750
Claim:
The market portfolio is the tangent portfolio:
ww w
M
= ww w
T
.
15.407 Lecture Notes Fall 2003 c Jiang Wang
Chapter 11 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) 117
In equilibrium, the total dollar holding of each asset must equal
its market value:
Market capitalization of A = $750 billion
Market capitalization of B = $1500 billion
Market capitalization of C = $750 billion.
The total market capitalization is
750 +1500 +750 = $3, 000 billion.
The market portfolio is the tangent portfolio:
ww w
M
=
_
750
3000
,
1500
3000
,
750
3000
_
= (0.25, 0.50, 0.25) = ww w
T
.
0. 00
0. 50
1. 00
1. 50
2. 00
2. 50
3. 00
3. 50
4. 00
4. 50
5. 00
0. 0 1. 0 2. 0 3. 0 4. 0 5. 0 6. 0 7. 0 8. 0 9. 0 10. 0
Standard Deviation (%, per month)
R
e
t
u
r
n
(
%
,
p
e
r
m
o
n
t
h
)
T = M
Efficiency frontier
c Jiang Wang Fall 2003 15.407 Lecture Notes
118 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Chapter 11
3.2 A Formal Derivation of CAPM
(1) There are k = 1, 2, . . . , K investors.
(2) Investor k has wealth W
k
and invests in two funds:
• W
k
F
in riskless asset
• W
k
−W
k
F
in the tangent portfolio ww w
T
.
Market equilibrium — demand equals supply:
1. Money market equilibrium:
K
k=1
W
k
F
= 0 (riskfree asset is in zero net supply)
2. Stock market equilibrium:
K
k=1
_
W
k
−W
k
F
_
ww w
T
= MCAP
M
ww w
M
.
Since the net amount invested in the riskfree asset is zero, all
wealth is invested in stocks:
K
k=1
W
k
= MCAP
M
.
Thus, the total wealth of investors equals the total value of stocks:
ww w
T
= ww w
M
.
The tangent portfolio is the market portfolio!
15.407 Lecture Notes Fall 2003 c Jiang Wang
Chapter 11 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) 119
3.3 Implications of CAPM
1. The market portfolio is the tangent portfolio.
2. Combining the riskfree asset and the market portfolio gives
the portfolio frontier.
3. The risk of an individual asset is characterized by its covari
ability with the market portfolio.
4. The part of the risk that is correlated with the market portfolio,
the systematic risk, cannot be diversiﬁed away.
• Bearing systematic risk needs to be rewarded.
5. The part of an asset’s risk that is not correlated with the
market portfolio, the nonsystematic risk, can be diversiﬁed
away by holding a frontier portfolio.
• Bearing nonsystematic risk need not be rewarded.
c Jiang Wang Fall 2003 15.407 Lecture Notes
1110 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Chapter 11
6. For any asset i:
E[˜ r
i
] −r
F
= β
iM
(E[˜ r
M
] −r
F
) (11.1)
where β
iM
= σ
iM
/σ
2
M
.
Given the premium of market portfolio, the riskless rate and
assets’ market betas, equation (11.1) determines the premium of
all assets.
We thus have an asset pricing model — the CAPM.
The relation between an asset’s risk premium and its market beta
is called the “Security Market Line” (SML).
Security Market Line (SML)
E
T
β
E[˜ r]
β
M
=1
r
F
¯ r
M
¯ r
i
β
i
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
SML
v
M
` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` `
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
s
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
¯ r
M
−r
F
15.407 Lecture Notes Fall 2003 c Jiang Wang
Chapter 11 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) 1111
Example. Suppose that CAPM holds. The expected market
return is 14% and Tbill rate is 5%.
1. What should be the expected return on a stock with β = 0?
Answer: Same as the riskfree rate, 5%. Note:
• The stock may have signiﬁcant uncertainty in its return.
• This uncertainty is uncorrelated with the market return.
2. What should be the expected return on a stock with β = 1?
Answer: The same as the market return, 14%.
3. What should be the expected return on a portfolio made up
of 50% Tbills and 50% market portfolio?
Answer: the expected return should be
¯ r = (0.5)(0.05) +(0.5)(0.14) = 9.5%.
4. What should be expected return on stock with β = −0.6?
Answer: The expected return should be
¯ r = 0.05 +(−0.6)(0.14 −0.05) = −0.4%.
How can this be?
c Jiang Wang Fall 2003 15.407 Lecture Notes
1112 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Chapter 11
4 Understanding Risk in CAPM
In CAPM, we can decompose an asset’s return into three pieces:
˜ r
i
−r
F
= α
i
+β
iM
(˜ r
M
−r
F
) + ˜ ε
i
where
• E[˜ ε
i
] = 0
• Cov[˜ r
M
, ˜ ε
i
] = 0.
Three characteristics of an asset:
• Beta.
• Sigma = StD (˜ ε
i
).
• Alpha.
15.407 Lecture Notes Fall 2003 c Jiang Wang
Chapter 11 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) 1113
Beta
˜ r
i
−r
F
= α
i
+ β
iM
(˜ r
M
−r
F
) + ˜ ε
i
• Beta measures an asset’s systematic risk.
• Assets with higher betas are more sensitive to the market.
Two assets with same total volatility but diﬀerent betas
10 20 30 40
−0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
asset beta = 0.2
time
r
e
t
u
r
n
10 20 30 40
−0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
asset beta = 1.2
time
r
e
t
u
r
n
0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
−0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
market return
a
s
s
e
t
r
e
t
u
r
n
0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
−0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
market return
a
s
s
e
t
r
e
t
u
r
n
(Market premium = 8%, market volatility = 25%, asset volatility = 40%.)
Solid lines – asset rturns. Dotted lines – market returns.
c Jiang Wang Fall 2003 15.407 Lecture Notes
1114 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Chapter 11
Sigma
˜ r
i
−r
F
= α
i
+β
iM
(˜ r
M
−r
F
) + ˜ ε
i
• An asset’s sigma measures its nonsystematic risk.
• Nonsystematic risk is uncorrelated with systematic risk.
Two assets with same total volatility but diﬀerent betas
10 20 30 40
−0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
asset beta = 0.2
time
r
e
t
u
r
n
10 20 30 40
−0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
asset beta = 1.2
time
r
e
t
u
r
n
10 20 30 40
−0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
time
r
e
t
u
r
n
10 20 30 40
−0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
time
r
e
t
u
r
n
(Market premium = 8%, market volatility = 25%, asset volatility = 40%.)
Solid lines – asset rturns. Dotted lines – market returns.
Dashdot lines – market component. Dashed lines – idiosyncratic component.
15.407 Lecture Notes Fall 2003 c Jiang Wang
Chapter 11 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) 1115
We can decompose return and risk as follows:
˜ r
i
−r
F
=
systematic
component
¸ .. ¸
β
iM
(˜ r
M
−r
F
) +
nonsystematic
component
¸ .. ¸
˜ ε
i
.
total
risk
¸ .. ¸
Var[˜ r
i
] =
systematic
risk
¸ .. ¸
β
2
iM
Var[˜ r
M
] +
nonsystematic
risk
¸ .. ¸
Var[˜ ε
i
] .
Example. Systematic risk is only a part of return volatility.
Consider an asset with
• annual volatility (σ) of 40%
• market beta of 1.2.
Suppose that the annual volatility of the market is 25%. What
percentage of the total volatility of the asset is attributable to
nonsystematic risk?
(0.4)
2
= (1.2)
2
(0.25)
2
+Var[˜ ε].
Var[˜ ε] = 0.0700.
σ
ε
= 0.2645.
Nonsystematic risk
Total risk
=
0.07
0.16
= 43.75%.
c Jiang Wang Fall 2003 15.407 Lecture Notes
1116 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Chapter 11
Example. Two assets with the same total risk can have very
diﬀerent systematic risks.
Suppose that σ
M
= 20%.
Stock Business Market beta Residual variance
1 Steel 1.5 0.10
2 Software 0.5 0.18
What is the total variance of each return?
σ
2
1
= β
2
1M
σ
2
M
+σ
2
1ε
= (1.5)
2
(0.2)
2
+0.10
= 0.19
σ
2
2
= β
2
2M
σ
2
M
+σ
2
2ε
= (0.5)
2
(0.2)
2
+0.18
= 0.19.
However
R
2
1
=
(1.5)
2
(0.2)
2
0.19
= 47%
R
2
2
=
(0.5)
2
(0.2)
2
0.19
= 5%.
15.407 Lecture Notes Fall 2003 c Jiang Wang
Chapter 11 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) 1117
Alpha
˜ r
i
−r
F
= α
i
+β
iM
(˜ r
M
−r
F
) + ˜ ε
i
• According to CAPM, α should be zero for all assets.
• α measures an asset’s return in access of its riskadjusted
award according to CAPM.
What to do with an asset of positive α?
• Check estimation error.
• Past value of α may not predict its future value.
• Positive α may be compensating for other risks.
• . . .
c Jiang Wang Fall 2003 15.407 Lecture Notes
1118 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Chapter 11
5 Applications of CAPM
Example. Required rates of return on IBM and Dell.
1. Use the valueweighted stock portfolio as a proxy for the
market portfolio.
2. Regress historic returns of IBM and Dell on the returns on the
valueweighted portfolio. Suppose the beta estimates are
β
IBM,VW
= 0.73 and β
Dell,VW
= 1.63.
3. Use historic excess returns on the value weighted portfolio to
estimated average market premium:
π = ¯ r
VW
−r
F
= 8.6%.
4. Obtain the current riskless rate. Suppose it is
r
F
= 4%.
5. Applying CAPM:
¯ r
IBM
= r
F
+β
IBM,VW
(¯ r
VW
−r
F
)
= 0.04 +(0.73)(0.086) = 0.1028.
The expected rate of return on IBM (under CAPM) is 10.28%.
Similarly, the expected rate of return on Dell is 18.02%.
15.407 Lecture Notes Fall 2003 c Jiang Wang
Chapter 11 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) 1119
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c Jiang Wang Fall 2003 15.407 Lecture Notes
1120 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Chapter 11
6 Empirical Evaluation of CAPM
1. Longrun average returns are signiﬁcantly related to beta:
(Source: Fisher Black, “Beta and return.”)
The dots show the actual average risk premiums from portfolios with
diﬀerent betas.
• high beta portfolios generated higher average returns
• high beta portfolios fall below SML
• low beta portfolios land above SML
• a line ﬁtted to the 10 portfolios would be ﬂatter than SML.
15.407 Lecture Notes Fall 2003 c Jiang Wang
Chapter 11 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) 1121
2. CAPM does not seem to work well over the last 30 years:
Source: Fischer Black, “Beta and return.”
The dots show the actual average risk premiums from portfolios with
diﬀerent betas over diﬀerent periods. The relation between beta and
actual average return has been much weaker since the mid1960s.
c Jiang Wang Fall 2003 15.407 Lecture Notes
1122 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Chapter 11
3. Factors other than beta seem important in pricing assets:
Source: G. Fama and K. French, “The CrossSection of Expected Stock Returns”.
Since mid1960s:
• Small stocks have outperformed large stocks
• Stocks with low ratios of markettobook value have outper
formed stocks with high ratios.
15.407 Lecture Notes Fall 2003 c Jiang Wang
Chapter 11 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) 1123
7 Summary of CAPM
CAPM is attractive:
1. It is simple and sensible:
• is built on modern portfolio theory
• distinguishes systematic risk and nonsystematic risk
• provides a simple pricing model.
2. It is relatively easy to implement.
CAPM is controversial:
1. It is diﬃcult to test:
• diﬃcult to identify the market portfolio
• diﬃcult to estimate returns and betas.
2. Empirical evidence is mixed.
3. Alternative pricing models might do better.
• Multifactor CAPM.
• Consumption CAPM (CCAPM).
• APT.
c Jiang Wang Fall 2003 15.407 Lecture Notes
1124 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Chapter 11
8 Appendix A: Capital Market Line
In the presence of a riskfree asset, all eﬃcient frontier portfolios lie on the
“Capital Market Line” (CML):
Capital Market Line (CML)
E
T
σ
E[˜ r]
σ
m
r
F
¯ r
m
¯ r
p
σ
p
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
CML
v
m
` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` `
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
s
_
¸
_
¸
_
¯ r
m
−r
F
• Investors hold only portfolios on CML
• The risk of an eﬃcient frontier portfolio is its StD
• CML gives the tradeoﬀ between portfolio risk and return
• The price of one unit risk for an eﬃcient portfolio is
E[˜ r
m
] −r
F
σ
m
[the risk premium on market portfolio per unit of its StD].
15.407 Lecture Notes Fall 2003 c Jiang Wang
Chapter 11 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) 1125
9 Appendix B: Extensions of CAPM
9.1 Multifactor CAPM
In CAPM, investors care about returns on their investments over the next short
horizon — they follow myopic investment strategies.
Myopic strategy is optimal if
1. Investors have only short horizons, or
2. Investors’ asset demand does not change over time
• future returns same as today:
– the same r
F
, ¯ r
m
−r
F
, σ
m
, β
im
(i = 1, . . . , n)
• investors’ risk preferences same as today.
Thus, even if investors actually invest for a long horizon, CAPM may work
when future investment opportunities are the same as today.
In practice, however:
• Investors do invest over long horizons
• Investment opportunities do change over time.
Thus
• Investors may worry about unfavorable shifts in future investment oppor
tunities.
• They may accept lower expected returns on assets that help to hedge
against such shifts.
c Jiang Wang Fall 2003 15.407 Lecture Notes
1126 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Chapter 11
Example. Graduating MBAs saving for retirement may worry about a fall in
future real interest rates.
• They might not be content with holding the market portfolio and the
riskless asset.
• They might overweight assets that do well if real interest rates fall.
• They would be willing to accept low returns on these assets (relative to
CAPM predictions).
How does this work?
1. In order to hedge the interest rate risk, construct a portfolio q that is
uncorrelated with the market but highly correlated with changes in real
interest rates.
2. The optimal portfolio now consists of three funds — “threefund separa
tion”:
• riskless asset
• market portfolio
• hedging portfolio q.
3. In equilibrium, an asset’s premium is given by a multifactor CAPM:
¯ r
i
−r
F
= β
im
(¯ r
m
−r
F
) +β
iq
_
¯ r
q
−r
F
_
.
In general, there are two types of systematic risks:
1. Static (temporal) — Market risk
2. Dynamic (intertemporal) — Changes in investment opportunities.
Investors demand to be rewarded for bearing both types of risks.
Multifactor CAPM tries to model the two types of systematic risk and how
these risks are priced:
15.407 Lecture Notes Fall 2003 c Jiang Wang
Chapter 11 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) 1127
• Identify macroeconomic variables, the “factors”, that might aﬀect invest
ment opportunities.
• Find portfolios of traded securities that are highly correlated with these
factors.
• Hypothesize that the risk premium on an asset is linearly related to the
risk premium on these portfolios:
¯ r
i
−r
F
= α
i
+β
i1
_
¯ r
f1
−r
F
_
+. . . +β
iK
_
¯ r
fK
−r
F
_
.
where ¯ r
fk
is the return on the portfolio that is correlated with only the
kth factor.
• The factor beta’s can be estimated using regression analysis, as in the case
of CAPM.
Advantages of multifactor CAPM:
• Model captures diﬀerent types of systematic risk
(a) temporal
(b) intertemporal.
• Model has the potential to ﬁt data better.
Weaknesses of multifactor CAPM:
• Model does may not identify the macroeconomic variables that constitute
intertemporal risks.
• Model does may not specify the relative importance of these intertemporal
risks.
c Jiang Wang Fall 2003 15.407 Lecture Notes
1128 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Chapter 11
9.2 Consumption CAPM (CCAPM)
To use the multifactor CAPM, we need to identify diﬀerent sources of intertem
poral risks in asset returns and specify their relative importance to investors.
The theory itself gives little information on these factors and the data we have
may not provide suﬃcient information either.
However, there is another way to characterize how investors perceive the risk
in asset returns — a way that allows us to collapse many risk factors into one.
Consider a representative investor who decides between how much to invest in
each asset:
She faces the following choices:
1. Consume $1 today
• achieve utility u
0
(c
0
), or
2. Invest the $1 in asset i
• receive $(1 +˜ r
i
) tomorrow
• consume the payoﬀ, and achieve utility u
1
(˜c
1
)(1 +˜ r
i
).
At optimum, she should be indiﬀerent between choice 1 and 2.
• If 1 is better, sell asset i and consume today.
• If 2 is better, cut consumption today and invest in asset i.
Thus, at the optimum:
u
0
(c
0
) = E
_
u
1
(˜c
1
)(1 +˜ r
i
)
¸
.
In particular, for the riskfree asset:
u
0
(c
0
) = E
_
u
1
(˜c
1
)(1 +r
F
)
¸
.
15.407 Lecture Notes Fall 2003 c Jiang Wang
Chapter 11 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) 1129
Take the diﬀerence between the two equations:
E
_
u
1
(˜c
1
) (˜ r
i
−r
F
)
¸
= 0.
Observation: For two random variables ˜ x and ˜ y,
E[˜ x˜ y] = Cov[˜ x, ˜ y] + ¯ x¯ y.
Thus
¯ r
i
−r
F
= −
1
E
_
u
1
(˜c
1
)
¸Cov
_
u
1
(˜c
1
), ˜ r
i
¸
.
An asset’s risk premium is negatively related to the covariance between its
return and an investor’s future marginal utility.
Observation: The above must be true for any investor who is at optimum.
(a) For Cov
_
u
1
(˜c
1
), ˜ r
i
¸
> 0
• asset i pays when future marginal utility money is high
• its payoﬀ is more valuable
• it commands negative premium.
(b) For Cov
_
u
1
(˜c
1
), ˜ r
i
¸
< 0
• asset i pays when future marginal utility of money is low
• its payoﬀ is less valuable
• it commands positive premium.
Thus, an asset’s risk is measured by the covariance between its return and
investors’ marginal utility.
c Jiang Wang Fall 2003 15.407 Lecture Notes
1130 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Chapter 11
More generally, we have
E
t
[˜ r
it+1
] −r
Ft
= −
1
E
t
_
u
1
(˜c
t+1
)
¸Cov
t
_
u
t+1
(˜c
t+1
), ˜ r
it+1
¸
.
This is the Consumption CAPM.
Advantages of CCAPM:
• It gives the most general theory of risk.
• There is really only one risk — the risk in future consumption.
Weaknesses of CCAPM:
• Theory itself does not specify investors’ marginal utilities.
• Implementation relies on consumption data, which is lacking.
• Theory relies on rationality of individual investors.
15.407 Lecture Notes Fall 2003 c Jiang Wang
Chapter 11 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) 1131
10 Homework
Readings:
• BKM Chapters 9.
• BM Chapters 8.2, 8.3.
• Readings package: “Beta and return” (F. Black).
Assignment:
• Problem Set 8.
• Project 2 on equity portfolio management.
c Jiang Wang Fall 2003 15.407 Lecture Notes
112
Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)
Chapter 11
Contents
1 2 3 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 The Market Portfolio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Derivation of CAPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
3.1 3.2 3.3 A Numerical Illustration of CAPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 A Formal Derivation of CAPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Implications of CAPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
4 5 6 7 8 9
Understanding Risk in CAPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1112 Applications of CAPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1118 Empirical Evaluation of CAPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1120 Summary of CAPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1123 Appendix A: Capital Market Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1124 Appendix B: Extensions of CAPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1125
9.1 9.2 Multifactor CAPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1125 Consumption CAPM (CCAPM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1128
10
Homework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1131
15.407 Lecture Notes
Fall 2003
c Jiang Wang
Chapter 11
Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)
113
1
Introduction
Portfolio theory analyzes investors’ asset demand given asset returns. This chapter studies how investors’ asset demand determines the relation between assets’ risk and return in a market equilibrium (when demand equals supply). A model to price risky assets. Main question of this chapter
r E [˜i] = ?
Main points of portfolio theory 1. Diversify to eliminate nonsystematic risk. 2. Hold only the riskfree asset and the tangent portfolio. 3. An asset’s systematic risk is measured by contribution to the risk of the tangent portfolio – its beta βiT. 4. An asset’s risk premium is proportional to its systematic risk:
r ri − rF = βiT (¯T − rF) . ¯
Identifying the tangent portfolio gives a pricing model.
c Jiang Wang Fall 2003 15.407 Lecture Notes
. Deﬁnition: The market capitalization of an asset is its total market value. . . The market portfolio is the portfolio with weights in each risky asset i being wi = MCAPi MCAPi = . Suppose there are a total of i = 1. n risky assets.407 Lecture Notes Fall 2003 c Jiang Wang . Asset i’s market capitalization is MCAPi = (price per share)i × (# of shares outstanding)i. The total market capitalization of all risky assets is n MCAPM = i=1 MCAPi.114 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Chapter 11 2 The Market Portfolio Deﬁnition: The market portfolio is the portfolio of all risky assets traded in the market. 15. n MCAPj MCAPM j=1 We denote the market portfolio by wM. .
c Jiang Wang Fall 2003 15. 3. All investors hold the risky assets in same proportions • they hold the same risky portfolio. Investors agree on the distribution of asset returns. Demand of assets equals supply in equilibrium.407 Lecture Notes . 4. Every investor puts their money into two pots: • the riskless asset • a single portfolio of risky assets – the tangent portfolio. Investors hold eﬃcient frontier portfolios. the tangent portfolio.Chapter 11 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) 115 3 Derivation of CAPM Assumptions for this chapter: 1. The tangent portfolio is the market portfolio. 3. Investors have the same ﬁxed (static) investment horizon. There is a riskfree asset: • paying interest rate rF • in zero net supply. 2. 5. 2. Implications: 1.
Suppose that the tangent portfolio is wT = (wA . 0. Their asset holdings (in billion dollars) are: Investor 1 2 3 Total Riskless 100 200 300 0 A 100 200 450 750 B C 200 100 400 200 900 450 1500 750 Claim: The market portfolio is the tangent portfolio: wM = wT . 1. 1500 billion dollars. B and C. wB . 0. 1000.407 Lecture Notes Fall 2003 c Jiang Wang . There are only three risky assets.1 A Numerical Illustration of CAPM CAPM requires that in equilibrium total asset holdings of all investors must equal the total supply of assets.25. We show this through the example below. A. respectively. with total wealth of 500. wC ) = (0.116 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Chapter 11 3. There are only three investors in the economy. 2 and 3.50.25). 15.
25) = wT .00 1.0 9.0 3.50 Efficiency frontier 4.407 Lecture Notes .0 6.0 4. the total dollar holding of each asset must equal its market value: Market capitalization of A = $750 billion Market capitalization of B = $1500 billion Market capitalization of C = $750 billion.0 1. 3000 3000 3000 5.0 Standard Deviation (%.0 10. per month) 3.0 2.50 Return (%. The total market capitalization is 750 + 1500 + 750 = $3.50 2. 0. 000 billion. The market portfolio is the tangent portfolio: wM = 750 1500 750 .0 8.25.00 0. per month) c Jiang Wang Fall 2003 15.50. .0 5.00 T=M 2. 4.00 = (0.00 3. 0.0 7.Chapter 11 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) 117 In equilibrium.50 1.00 0.50 0.
. Thus. . (2) Investor k has wealth Wk and invests in two funds: k • WF in riskless asset k • W k −WF in the tangent portfolio wT. Stock market equilibrium: K k=1 k W k −WF wT = MCAPM wM .118 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Chapter 11 3. . all wealth is invested in stocks: K k=1 W k = MCAPM. K investors. the total wealth of investors equals the total value of stocks: wT = wM . . Money market equilibrium: K k=1 k WF = 0 (riskfree asset is in zero net supply) 2.2 A Formal Derivation of CAPM (1) There are k = 1. 2. Since the net amount invested in the riskfree asset is zero. The tangent portfolio is the market portfolio! 15.407 Lecture Notes Fall 2003 c Jiang Wang . Market equilibrium — demand equals supply: 1.
3. cannot be diversiﬁed away. can be diversiﬁed away by holding a frontier portfolio. • Bearing nonsystematic risk need not be rewarded.3 Implications of CAPM 1. The risk of an individual asset is characterized by its covariability with the market portfolio. • Bearing systematic risk needs to be rewarded. The market portfolio is the tangent portfolio. c Jiang Wang Fall 2003 15. 5. 2. the nonsystematic risk. the systematic risk.407 Lecture Notes . Combining the riskfree asset and the market portfolio gives the portfolio frontier. The part of an asset’s risk that is not correlated with the market portfolio. The part of the risk that is correlated with the market portfolio.Chapter 11 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) 119 3. 4.
We thus have an asset pricing model — the CAPM. Security Market Line (SML) E[˜] r T SML¨ ¨ M¨¨¨ v ¨¨ ¨ ¨ ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ¨¨ s ¨ ` ¨ ` ` rM − rF ¯ ¨¨ ¨ ` ¨ ` ¨¨ ` ¨ ` βi ` ` ` ` ` ` ¨ ¨¨ ¨ rM ¯ ri ¯ rF ` ` ¨¨ βM = 1 E β 15. equation (11. the riskless rate and assets’ market betas.1110 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Chapter 11 6.407 Lecture Notes Fall 2003 c Jiang Wang . For any asset i: E[˜i] − rF = βiM (E[˜M] − rF) r r 2 where βiM = σiM/σM. (11. The relation between an asset’s risk premium and its market beta is called the “Security Market Line” (SML).1) determines the premium of all assets.1) Given the premium of market portfolio.
What should be the expected return on a stock with β = 1? Answer: The same as the market return. 5%. What should be expected return on stock with β = −0.4%.14 − 0. 14%. ¯ 4.05) + (0.05 + (−0.6)(0. 2.5%. What should be the expected return on a portfolio made up of 50% Tbills and 50% market portfolio? Answer: the expected return should be r = (0. Note: • The stock may have signiﬁcant uncertainty in its return.5)(0.407 Lecture Notes . 1.14) = 9. Suppose that CAPM holds.Chapter 11 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) 1111 Example. ¯ How can this be? c Jiang Wang Fall 2003 15.5)(0.6? Answer: The expected return should be r = 0. What should be the expected return on a stock with β = 0? Answer: Same as the riskfree rate. 3.05) = −0. The expected market return is 14% and Tbill rate is 5%. • This uncertainty is uncorrelated with the market return.
1112 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Chapter 11 4 Understanding Risk in CAPM In CAPM. we can decompose an asset’s return into three pieces: r ˜ ri − rF = αi + βiM (˜M − rF) + εi ˜ where • E[˜i] = 0 ε • Cov[˜M. 15. ˜ • Alpha. r ˜ Three characteristics of an asset: • Beta. εi] = 0. • Sigma = StD (εi).407 Lecture Notes Fall 2003 c Jiang Wang .
8 1 market return 1.4 0.5 asset return 1 0.6 0.2 asset return 1 0.2 2 1.5 0 −0.5 asset beta = 1.407 Lecture Notes . asset volatility = 40%.5 0 −0. Two assets with same total volatility but diﬀerent betas asset beta = 0.5 0.5 0 −0.) Solid lines – asset rturns.5 0 −0.Chapter 11 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) 1113 Beta r ˜ ri − rF = αi + βiM (˜M − rF) + εi ˜ • Beta measures an asset’s systematic risk.8 1 market return 1.5 10 20 time 30 40 return 1 1 0.5 0.2 (Market premium = 8%. market volatility = 25%. • Assets with higher betas are more sensitive to the market. Dotted lines – market returns.2 return 0. c Jiang Wang Fall 2003 15.4 0.5 2 1.6 0.5 10 20 time 30 40 2 1.5 2 1.
5 10 20 time 30 40 return 0.2 1.5 1 asset beta = 1. asset volatility = 40%.5 10 20 time 30 40 1.) Solid lines – asset rturns.5 1 1.2 return 0. Dashed lines – idiosyncratic component.5 1 1.5 0 −0. Two assets with same total volatility but diﬀerent betas asset beta = 0.5 0 −0.5 0 −0. Dotted lines – market returns. 15.5 1 return 0.407 Lecture Notes Fall 2003 c Jiang Wang .1114 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Chapter 11 Sigma r ri − rF = αi + βiM (˜M − rF) + εi ˜ ˜ • An asset’s sigma measures its nonsystematic risk. • Nonsystematic risk is uncorrelated with systematic risk. market volatility = 25%. Dashdot lines – market component.5 10 20 time 30 40 return 0.5 10 20 time 30 40 (Market premium = 8%.5 0 −0.
Total risk 0.16 c Jiang Wang Fall 2003 15.75%.2.0700. Consider an asset with • annual volatility (σ ) of 40% • market beta of 1. Nonsystematic risk 0.2645.2)2 (0. What percentage of the total volatility of the asset is attributable to nonsystematic risk? (0. ε σε = 0.07 = = 43. ε Var[˜] = 0.407 Lecture Notes . nonsystematic risk Var[˜i] r = 2 βiMVar[˜M] r + Var[˜i] ε .25)2 + Var[˜].Chapter 11 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) 1115 We can decompose return and risk as follows: systematic component nonsystematic component ri − rF ˜ total risk = r βiM (˜M − rF) systematic risk + εi ˜ .4)2 = (1. Example. Systematic risk is only a part of return volatility. Suppose that the annual volatility of the market is 25%.
5) (0. Stock 1 2 Business Market beta Residual variance Steel 1.5)2 (0. However 2 2 2 = (1.10 = 0.407 Lecture Notes Fall 2003 c Jiang Wang .19 2 2 2 2 σ2 = β2M σM + σ2ε = (0.5) (0.1116 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Chapter 11 Example. R2 0.10 Software 0. Two assets with the same total risk can have very diﬀerent systematic risks.2) = 47% R1 0.2) = 5%.19 15.2)2 + 0.19 2 2 2 = (0. Suppose that σM = 20%.5 0.18 = 0.2)2 + 0.19.5)2 (0.18 What is the total variance of each return? 2 2 2 2 σ1 = β1M σM + σ1ε = (1.5 0.
• Past value of α may not predict its future value. • Positive α may be compensating for other risks. c Jiang Wang Fall 2003 15. • α measures an asset’s return in access of its riskadjusted award according to CAPM... • .Chapter 11 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) 1117 Alpha r ˜ ri − rF = αi + βiM (˜M − rF) + εi ˜ • According to CAPM.407 Lecture Notes . What to do with an asset of positive α? • Check estimation error. α should be zero for all assets.
2.63.02%.1028. Required rates of return on IBM and Dell.407 Lecture Notes Fall 2003 c Jiang Wang . The expected rate of return on IBM (under CAPM) is 10. ¯ 4.28%. 3.VW = 1.04 + (0. Applying CAPM: rIBM = rF + βIBM. Regress historic returns of IBM and Dell on the returns on the valueweighted portfolio.6%. 15. Obtain the current riskless rate. 5. Use the valueweighted stock portfolio as a proxy for the market portfolio.73)(0.VW (¯VW − rF ) ¯ r = 0.VW = 0. Use historic excess returns on the value weighted portfolio to estimated average market premium: π = rVW − rF = 8. Suppose it is rF = 4%.73 and βDell. 1. Similarly. the expected rate of return on Dell is 18.086) = 0. Suppose the beta estimates are βIBM.1118 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Chapter 11 5 Applications of CAPM Example.
407 Lecture Notes 1119 .44 0.01 1. Err.Chapter 11 Reading the Beta Book MLPF&S’s Beta Book 00/03 Close Price Beta 10. Beta AmerAlia 2. (b) Betas are estimated with raw returns.438 2. 15.23 42. not risk risk premiums.– Std of of RSqr.40 GeneLink 0.25 0.17 37.98 8.25 America Online 67.21 1.30 0.74 General Mtrs 82.93 9.13 Resid –Std.57 2.290 7.10 0.99 1.31 0.79 0. 60 60 17 60 60 c Jiang Wang Ticker Symbol AALA AOL GNLK GM TSN Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Fall 2003 Note: (a) S&P 500 is used as a proxy for the market. Beta Alpha Num.21 0. DevN. of Obs.15 0.27 0.72 17.55 1.44 1.92 4.15 2.09 Alpha Adj.125 1. according to CAPM. is rF (1 − β).250 2.52 2.30 6.12 16.05 4.26 6.06 1.813 1.03 0.01 Tyson Foods 11. (c) Adjusted beta is obtained using other information. The alpha.
“Beta and return.”) The dots show the actual average risk premiums from portfolios with diﬀerent betas.1120 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Chapter 11 6 Empirical Evaluation of CAPM 1. 15. Longrun average returns are signiﬁcantly related to beta: (Source: Fisher Black. • high beta portfolios generated higher average returns • high beta portfolios fall below SML • low beta portfolios land above SML • a line ﬁtted to the 10 portfolios would be ﬂatter than SML.407 Lecture Notes Fall 2003 c Jiang Wang .
c Jiang Wang Fall 2003 15. “Beta and return. The relation between beta and actual average return has been much weaker since the mid1960s.Chapter 11 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) 1121 2. CAPM does not seem to work well over the last 30 years: Source: Fischer Black.407 Lecture Notes .” The dots show the actual average risk premiums from portfolios with diﬀerent betas over diﬀerent periods.
1122 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Chapter 11 3. Factors other than beta seem important in pricing assets: Source: G. French. “The CrossSection of Expected Stock Returns”. 15. Since mid1960s: • Small stocks have outperformed large stocks • Stocks with low ratios of markettobook value have outperformed stocks with high ratios. Fama and K.407 Lecture Notes Fall 2003 c Jiang Wang .
Empirical evidence is mixed. c Jiang Wang Fall 2003 15. 3. • APT.Chapter 11 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) 1123 7 Summary of CAPM CAPM is attractive: 1. 2. It is relatively easy to implement. • Consumption CAPM (CCAPM). CAPM is controversial: 1. It is simple and sensible: • is built on modern portfolio theory • distinguishes systematic risk and nonsystematic risk • provides a simple pricing model. Alternative pricing models might do better.407 Lecture Notes . • Multifactor CAPM. It is diﬃcult to test: • diﬃcult to identify the market portfolio • diﬃcult to estimate returns and betas. 2.
15.407 Lecture Notes Fall 2003 c Jiang Wang . all eﬃcient frontier portfolios lie on the “Capital Market Line” (CML): Capital Market Line (CML) E[˜] r T CML v ¨¨ ¨¨ ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ¨¨ s rp ¯ ¨ ` ` ¨¨ ` ¨¨ ` ¨ ` ¨ ¨ ` ¨ ` ¨ ` rF ¨ ` ` ` ` ` rm ¯ m ¨¨¨ ¨ ¨¨ ¨ ¨¨ rm − r F ¯ σp σm E σ • Investors hold only portfolios on CML • The risk of an eﬃcient frontier portfolio is its StD • CML gives the tradeoﬀ between portfolio risk and return • The price of one unit risk for an eﬃcient portfolio is E[˜m ] − rF r σm [the risk premium on market portfolio per unit of its StD].1124 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Chapter 11 8 Appendix A: Capital Market Line In the presence of a riskfree asset.
βim (i = 1. . even if investors actually invest for a long horizon. c Jiang Wang Fall 2003 15. In practice. Investors’ asset demand does not change over time • future returns same as today: – the same rF .407 Lecture Notes . . • They may accept lower expected returns on assets that help to hedge against such shifts. Investors have only short horizons. Myopic strategy is optimal if 1. Thus • Investors may worry about unfavorable shifts in future investment opportunities. or 2. CAPM may work when future investment opportunities are the same as today. however: • Investors do invest over long horizons • Investment opportunities do change over time. Thus.Chapter 11 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) 1125 9 9. σm .1 Appendix B: Extensions of CAPM Multifactor CAPM In CAPM. n) ¯ • investors’ risk preferences same as today. . investors care about returns on their investments over the next short horizon — they follow myopic investment strategies. . rm −rF .
1126 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Chapter 11 Example. an asset’s premium is given by a multifactor CAPM: r ri − rF = βim (¯m −rF ) + βiq rq −rF . Dynamic (intertemporal) — Changes in investment opportunities. Static (temporal) — Market risk 2. 2. construct a portfolio q that is uncorrelated with the market but highly correlated with changes in real interest rates. • They might overweight assets that do well if real interest rates fall. The optimal portfolio now consists of three funds — “threefund separation”: • riskless asset • market portfolio • hedging portfolio q . Investors demand to be rewarded for bearing both types of risks.407 Lecture Notes Fall 2003 c Jiang Wang . Multifactor CAPM tries to model the two types of systematic risk and how these risks are priced: 15. • They might not be content with holding the market portfolio and the riskless asset. How does this work? 1. ¯ ¯ In general. In equilibrium. Graduating MBAs saving for retirement may worry about a fall in future real interest rates. 3. In order to hedge the interest rate risk. there are two types of systematic risks: 1. • They would be willing to accept low returns on these assets (relative to CAPM predictions).
Advantages of multifactor CAPM: • Model captures diﬀerent types of systematic risk (a) temporal (b) intertemporal. ¯ ¯ ¯ where rf k is the return on the portfolio that is correlated with only the ¯ kth factor. as in the case of CAPM. . • Model does may not specify the relative importance of these intertemporal risks. Weaknesses of multifactor CAPM: • Model does may not identify the macroeconomic variables that constitute intertemporal risks. • Model has the potential to ﬁt data better. c Jiang Wang Fall 2003 15. that might aﬀect investment opportunities. • The factor beta’s can be estimated using regression analysis. the “factors”. . • Hypothesize that the risk premium on an asset is linearly related to the risk premium on these portfolios: ri −rF = αi + βi1 rf 1 −rF + .407 Lecture Notes .Chapter 11 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) 1127 • Identify macroeconomic variables. • Find portfolios of traded securities that are highly correlated with these factors. + βiK rf K −rF .
and achieve utility u1 (˜1 )(1 + ri ). • If 1 is better. c ˜ In particular. there is another way to characterize how investors perceive the risk in asset returns — a way that allows us to collapse many risk factors into one. Consume $1 today • achieve utility u0 (c0 ).407 Lecture Notes Fall 2003 c Jiang Wang . Thus. at the optimum: u0 (c0 ) = E u1 (˜1 )(1 + ri ) . we need to identify diﬀerent sources of intertemporal risks in asset returns and specify their relative importance to investors. Invest the $1 in asset i • receive $(1 + ri ) tomorrow ˜ • consume the payoﬀ. c 15.2 Consumption CAPM (CCAPM) To use the multifactor CAPM. cut consumption today and invest in asset i. or 2. she should be indiﬀerent between choice 1 and 2. for the riskfree asset: u0 (c0 ) = E u1 (˜1 )(1 + rF ) . • If 2 is better.1128 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Chapter 11 9. c ˜ At optimum. Consider a representative investor who decides between how much to invest in each asset: She faces the following choices: 1. The theory itself gives little information on these factors and the data we have may not provide suﬃcient information either. sell asset i and consume today. However.
Observation: The above must be true for any investor who is at optimum. c r Observation: For two random variables x and y . an asset’s risk is measured by the covariance between its return and investors’ marginal utility. c Jiang Wang Fall 2003 15.Chapter 11 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) 1129 Take the diﬀerence between the two equations: E u1 (˜1 ) (˜i − rF ) = 0.407 Lecture Notes . ri . Thus. ˜ ˜ E[˜y ] = Cov[˜. (b) For Cov u1 (˜1 ). c ˜ (a) For Cov u1 (˜1 ). c ˜ An asset’s risk premium is negatively related to the covariance between its return and an investor’s future marginal utility. x˜ x ˜ ¯¯ Thus ri − r F = − ¯ 1 E u1 (˜1 ) c Cov u1 (˜1 ). ri > 0 • asset i pays when future marginal utility money is high • its payoﬀ is more valuable • it commands negative premium. y ] + xy . ri < 0 c ˜ • asset i pays when future marginal utility of money is low • its payoﬀ is less valuable • it commands positive premium.
which is lacking. rit+1 .1130 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Chapter 11 More generally.407 Lecture Notes Fall 2003 c Jiang Wang . we have Et [˜it+1 ] − rFt = − r 1 Et u1 (˜t+1 ) c Covt ut+1 (˜t+1 ). • Implementation relies on consumption data. Weaknesses of CCAPM: • Theory itself does not specify investors’ marginal utilities. c ˜ This is the Consumption CAPM. • There is really only one risk — the risk in future consumption. • Theory relies on rationality of individual investors. 15. Advantages of CCAPM: • It gives the most general theory of risk.
8.2.407 Lecture Notes . • Project 2 on equity portfolio management. Assignment: • Problem Set 8. • BM Chapters 8. c Jiang Wang Fall 2003 15.Chapter 11 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) 1131 10 Homework Readings: • BKM Chapters 9. • Readings package: “Beta and return” (F.3. Black).
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