BE.

Mechanical Engineering

20112012

WORK STUDY AND ERGONOMICS

Mr.Vaibhav V Naik Mechanical Engineering 2011-2012

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING AND ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING

CHAPTER NO 2.1

WORK STUDY
DEFINITION:One of the most important techniques, which are frequently employed by all management personnel, is work-study. It introduces the most effective method of working. Work study has proved to be the most effective tool in the hands of management. Every industry is facing problems concerning the efficiency at all levels and so a systematic attempt is need to eliminate unnecessary work and the make remaining work easier. Thus productivity would automatically be increased. It is therefore, necessary to have a constant effort to reduce the waste in every phase of production. So, that there is surplus available for division to develop good life. According to the ILO, “Work Study is a term used to embrace the techniques of method study and work measurement, which are employed to ensure the best possible use of human and material resources in carrying out a specified activity.” According to British Standards Institute, “Work study is generic term for those techniques, particularly ‘method study’ and ‘work measurement’ which are used in the examination of human work in all its contexts and which lead systematically to the investigation of all factors which affect the efficiency and economy of the situation being renewed, in order to effect improvement.” Thus, the work study of human works in all aspects in order to improve productivity. It is a systematic and analytical study of work process and work methods with the objective of increasing efficiency and reducing

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costs. Work study helps to reduce waste through standardization of qualitative and quantitative element of the job. Advantages of Work Study:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Uniform and improved power flow. Higher productive efficiency. Reduced manufacturing costs. Fast and accurate delivery dates. Better service to customer. Job security and job satisfaction to workers. Higher wages to workers.

Objectives of work study:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Provide more and improved physical means to motivate the workers. Improve the basic process by research and development. Improve the methods of operation. Simplify and improve the product and reduce the variety, standardize Improve organization, product planning and control. Improve manpower efficiency at all levels.

the product.

Scope of Work Study There is a school of thought that work study is applicable only in the field of industry where processes are highly repetitive. This is not true. Since it is universal in its application, it does not matter whether the activities studies had occurred in industry, public services or in the armed forces. It is not confined to engineering activities of a repetitive nature; it can be applied to jobbing, maintenance or similar work in which there is little or no repetition of a particular operation.

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Uses of Work study 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Increased productivity and operational efficiency. Reduced manufacturing costs. Improved work place layout. Better manpower planning and capacity planning. Fair wages to employees. Better working conditions to employees. Improved work flow. Reduced material handling costs. Provides a standard of performance to measure labor efficiency. Better industrial relations and employee morale. Basis for sound incentive schemes. Provides better job satisfaction to employees.

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Work study procedure There are eight basic steps involved in a work study procedure. Some of them are common to both method study and work measurement. These steps are : 1. 2. Select: The job or the process or the operation to be studied. Record: All relevant facts about the job or process or operation

using suitable charting techniques such as operation process chart, flow process chart, flow diagram, SIMO chart (simultaneous motion chart) and man-machine chart. 3. Examine: Critically all the recorded facts, questioning the purpose, place, sequence, person and the means of doing the job/process/operation. 4. 5. Develop: The new method for the job/process/operation. Measure: The work content and establish the standard time

using an appropriate work-measurement technique, viz., time study using stop watch, synthesis method, analytical estimating method, predetermined motion time system and work sampling. 6. 7. 8. Define : The new method for the job/process/operation. Install : The new method as standard practice. Maintain : The new method for the job/process/operation.

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Techniques of Work Study Work-study has two closely related facts: method study, an examination of the ways of doing work, and work measurement, which is the assessment of the time, which a job should take. Both are carried out systematically and follow very similar patterns.

Work study Method Study 1) Select task to be Work Measurement 1) Select task to be

studied studied 2) Record the facts 2) Record the facts 3) Examine the facts 3) Analyze the facts 4) Develop and define the new method Measure the task 4) 5) Install the new method 5) Compile the standard 6) maintain time 6) Define method and its related time

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CHAPTER NO 2.2

METHOD STUDY
1. Define METHOD STUDY? State its objectives? Solution:- METHOD STUDY METHOD STUDY is a systematic recoding and critical examination of the way of doing a task/job/work and determination of the best method OBJECTIVES OF THE METHOD STUDY 1. To improve the process and work procedure. 2. To improve the layout of factory, shop and workplace. 3. To obtain effective use of man, material and machine. 4. To reduce material handling and fatigue to the operator. 5. Improved design and specification of the product. 2. State the brief procedure of METHOD STUDY? OR Brief the steps involved in METHOD STUDY Solution:- STEPS IN METHOD STUDY The steps involved in the METHOD STUDY are 1. Selection of the work to be studied 2. Recording all the relevant fact of present/proposed method by observation and analysis. 3. Examine the recorded fact critically and challenge everything that is done 4. Develop the most practical, economical and effective method considering all the circumstances 5. Define the new method so that it can be always be identified.

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6. Install the method as standard practice. 7. Maintain that standard practice by regular machine check up. 3. How work is selected for the METHOD STUDY? Solution:-Selection of work for METHOD STUDY The selection of work should be such that proposed method achieves one or more following result 1. Increased productivity of men, machine and material. 2. Improved quality with less scrap. 3. Improvement in layout. 4. Improved working condition. The factor that should be kept in mind while selecting a job or work are A. Economic consideration B. Technical consideration. C. Human consideration A. ECONOMIC CONSIDERATION 1) It is totally wastage of time to carry out the method study if the economic importance of the job is small. 2) That means by applying method study, proposed method must give a sufficient result. 3) The following factor affect the selection of the job are a) Bottleneck operation holding up other production operation. b) Operation involving excessive manpower. c) Operation producing lost of scrap/defects. d) Operation having poor utilization of resources. e) Backtracking of material and excessive moment of material.

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B. TECHNICAL CONSIDERAITON 1) An office clerks cannot solve the problem in the machine shop or machinist cannot do office work with justice. 2) Likewise method study should select a job in which he has a technical expertise knowledge i.e. he should be expert in particular field. 3) The following factor which favors the selection of the job are a) Operation producing a lot of scrap. b) Frequent complaint from working regarding job. c) Job having inconsistent quality. d) Job in which too many man hours are spent in checking and rechecking works.

C. HUMAN CONSIDERATION 1) Human reaction plays an important role in method study and as such must be given due to consideration by method study engineer. 2) Certain operation often causes dis-satisfaction by workers. 3) That means proposed methods should be positive about workers physical and mental condition as well as earning. 4) Following are the situation where mainly human factors are considered a) Workers complaining about unnecessary and tiring works. b) When the frequency of accidents are more c) Inconsistency of payment when it is tied to output.

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4. Enumerate the various RECORDING TECHNIQUES used in METHOD STUDY? What is importance of RECORDING in METHOD STUDY? OR What do you mean by RECORDING? What are various RECORDING TECHNIQUES in METHOD STUDY? Ans :-RECORDING RECORDING is defined as systematic note down of all relevant facts of proposed method by observation and analysis.

RECORDING TECHNIQES DESCRIPTION
1.CHARTS a b c d e f Outline Process Chart Flow Process Chart Multiple Activity Chart Two Hand Process Chart Travel Chart SIMO Chart Gives overall picture of process and record the main operation and inspections. Record the activity of the worker, on material done by machine. Record the activity of man and machine on the common time scale. Records the activity perform by the workers hand Records the movement of man and material in the department. Record the movement of parts of body on the common time scale

2 .DIAGRAM a b c Flow and String Diagram Cycle Graph and Chronocycle Graph Template and Model Record the path movement of man and material Records the high speed and short time cycle operation Helps to show the proposed work place layout

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Importance of recording 1. It helps to carry out critical examination carefully. 2. The success of method study depends upon on the accuracy with which facts are recorded. 3. Recording provides basis of critical examination and development of improved method.

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5. What is MICROMOTION? State the techniques of MICROMOTION? Solution:MICROMOTION 1) MICROMOTION means study of small motion knows as THERBLINGS. 2) MICROMOTION study provides techniques for recording and timing activity. STEPS IN MICROMOTION STUDY 1. Filming the operation to be studied. 2. Analysis of the data from the film. 3. Recording of the data using SIMO chart.

TECHNIQUES OF MICROMOTION STUDY 1. SIMO CHARTS 2. GRAPHS a) CYCLE GRAPH b) CHRONO-CYCLE GRAPH

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6. Draw the various symbols used in recording the flow process charts? Solution:-

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1. OUT LINE PROCESS CHARTS 1. It is also called as operation process chart. 2. It shows quick and overall picture of the whole process by recoding in sequence only the main operation and inspection 3. It used two symbol, operation and inspection. 4. It helps to visualize he complete sequence of operation and inspection in the process. 5. It does not reveal the place of operation and process. Task :Changing of refill of a ball point pen Method : Presented /Proposed Charted by :ABC Unscrew the cap Unscrew the neck Remove the old refill Assemble the spring on the new refill Place the refill in the barrel Screw the neck Check if the ball pen writing Screw the cap Chart begins :Unscrew cap Chart ends :Screw cap Date :

Summary SYMBOL FREQUENCY

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2. FLOW PROCESS CHARTS 1) It is the extension of OUTLINE PROCESS CHART. 2) It shows the activity of operation, inspection, storage, transportation and delay. 3) FLOW PROCESS CHART is a process chart of setting out the sequence of the flow of product or a procedure of recording all activities under reviews using appropriate process chart. 4) Three type (man, material and machine).

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2. MULTIPLE ACTIVITY CHARTS • • • • MUTLIPLE ACTIVITY CHARTS records the activities of worker with relation to machine on the common time scale. It consists of series of bars placed against a common time scale. One separate bar is pales for each element and activities related to the element are represented in the bars. Each bars is divided into three parts a. description of the activities b. time c. State of working and non working. • State of working and non working are represented by

It is prepared for a. Detecting the idle time of employees. b. Determining the no of machine handled by the operator. c. Determine the number of workers required to perform a job involving the team work .

Application of MULTIPLE ACTIVITY CHARTS a. Plant repair and maintenance b. Construction jobs c. Planning team work

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3. TRAVEL CHART 1. A travel chart is a tabular record for presenting quantitative data about the movement of the workers, material or equipment between any numbers of places over a given period of time. 2. It is quicker and more manageable techniques. 3. It records the distance and frequency of movement between the pairs of departments. 4. This chart is used to determine the degree of closeness between the departments. 5. It forms the basis of layout design that seeks to minimize the total material handling costs.

Advantages 1. It is a useful tool for movement analysis. 2. It is helpful to locate the activities and backtracking. 3. Useful for comparing alternative flows. 4. Can be easily computerized as quantitative data is involved. Procedure 1. Department or work centre’s are listed both row wise and columwise in the same sequence. 2. Each intersecting square or cells is used to records the data from department to another. 3. The entries in the chart are scattered on both sides of the diagonal.

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4. TWO HANDED PROCESS CHARTS 1) It focuses on the workers. 2) The activities completed by worker hands in relation to one another are recorded on the chart. That is why it is called TWO HANDED PROCESS CHARTS. 3) It consists of the two columns. a) One for LEFT hand and b) other for RIGHT hand 2) The activities of the both hands are recorded opposite to each other on the chart. 3) It commonly used for repetitive and short operations 4) The amplification of this chart are a) To visualize the complete sequence of activity in a repetitive tasks. b) To study work station layout. TWO HAND PROCESS CHART Charted by :ABC Date : Task :filling up ink in the fountain pen LEFT HAND SYMBOL RIGHT HAND LH Pick up the pen Hold Hold Hold Hold RH Idle Remove cap Unscrew neck Fill ink in the barrel Assemble

Summary :

LH

SYMBOL 1 4 -

RH

SYMBOL 04 01

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5. SIMO CHART 5. SIMO CHART is recoding techniques for micro motion study. 6. It is based on the film analysis. 7. SIMO CHART records the rapid movement of part of worker body’s for short duration on the common time scale. 8. These movements are represented by THERBLINGS. 9. SIMO CHART has two column • • One for LEFT HAND Other for RIGHT HAND

10. The time scale is placed on the column for the comparison. 11. It is used for micro motion analysis of • • Short cycle for repetitive jobs High order skill jobs. a) PACKING b) Repetitive uses of jigs and fixtures c) Inspection

12. Application of SIMO CHART

SIMO CHART
OPERATION : Assemble of Nut and Bolt Method :Presented/Proposed Charted by :ABC LEFT HAND To bolt Grasp bolt Move to assembly Head bold TH AB TE G TL H TIME 12 10 10 10 FILM NO : OPERATION NO: Date : RIGHT HAND To nut Grasp nut Move to assembly Put nut over the bolt. TH AB TE G TL H TIME 12 10 10 10

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THEREBLINGS 1. FRANKLIN B GILBERTH founder of method study suggested therblings. 2. Therblings are used to describe the basic element of movements /fundamental hand motion of cycle. 3. Each Therblings has symbol, colour and name.

NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

THERBLINGS SELECT SEARCH HOLD GROUP POSITION RELEASE LOAD TRANSPORT LOADED TRANSPORT EMPTY ASSEMBLE DISS-ASSMEBLE UN –AVOIDABLE DELAY AVOIDABLE DELAY PLAN

SYMBOLS

ABBREVIATI ON SE S H G P RL TL TE A DA UD AD PN

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DIAGRAM 1. FLOW DIAGRAM 1. Flow diagram is a diagram drawn by taking suitable scale of total working areas on which moment of men and material are traced by line with arrows. 2. The flow diagram shows the relative position of machine tools, work tables, storage racks inspection tables. 3. Different colors are used to represent different type of moments.

STEPS IN DRAWING THE FLOW DIAGRAM 1. The layout of the workplace is drawn to scale on sheet which is shown by W/A. 2. Relative position of machine tool, work tables, storage point and inspection points are marked on the sheets. 3. Path of material and men tracked by lines.

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4. Each movement is serially numbered and indicated by arrows for direction.

2.

STRING DIAGRAM 1. STRING DIAGRAM is a diagram drawn by taking suitable scale of the total working areas on which the path traced by mens and material are recorded by means of string/threads. 2. It is valuable where movements are complicated and irregular. 3. It is useful to shows the repetitive movement between workstation.

Steps in drawing the STRING DIAGRAM a. The layout of the workplace is drawn to scale on sheet. b. Pins are fixed at the place of workstation.

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c. Pins are also fixed at the turning points of the routes. d. A measuring length of thread is taken to trace the movement. e. The distance covered by the object is obtained by measuring the remaining parts of thread by subtracting it from original length. 7. What is the CRITICAL EXAMINATION? How it is done? CRITICAL EXAMINATION Critical Examination is a questioning technique having sets of question which gives a clear idea of the problem and solution for those problems. OBJECTIVES OF CRITICAL EXAMINATION To analyze the fact critically and thereby giving the alternative which form basis of selection and development of easier and effective method STEPS OF CRITICAL EXAMINATION It is done by the means of two set of detailed questions. 1. Primary question to find out the facts and reason behind them. 2. Secondary question to determine a. the alternative for place, sequence and person or b. Means for improvement over the current methods. 8. CRITICAL EXAMINATION IS A MOTIVE FORCE TO DEVELOP NEW METHOD .JUSTIFY? 1. Critical examination is a questioning technique having a set of questions. 2. In these techniques, very basic questions are used to find out the facts and reasons. 3. The question are of the types i.e what, why, how, when, where and who 4. These questions determine and reveal the facts that are not easily understood. 5. Thus the solution of different problem can be find out.

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6. It is a practical techniques which gives the clean idea of problem and solution to this problem Hence Critical Examination is a motive force to develop a new product. 9. Write a short note on WORKPLACE LAYOUT? OR Explain how WORKPLACE LAYOUT is designed WORKPLACE LAYOUT 1) A good workplace layout and productivity are closely related to each other. 2) A comfortable workplace satisfies the worker. 3) Bad working condition results in dissatisfaction and poor production. 4) While designing a workplace layout, following thing should be kept in mind 5) Material and tools should be located within normal working area and as close and in front of operator as possible. 6) Material and tools should be located in order in which they are used in the assembly. 7) Workplace must be clean as well as painted. 8) Workplace must be properly illuminated to avoid eye strain. 9) It should be free from the presence of the harmful elements like smoke, dust, heat, excessive humidity and vibrations.

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10. GRAPHS • • GRAPHS are the part of MICROMOTION STUDY. These graphic techniques were developed by GILBERTH. A. CYCLE GRAPH B. CHRONOCYCLE GRAPH A. CYCLE GRAPH

1. A CYCLE GRAPH is a record of path of movement by hand any other body part of an operator while he is performing an operation traced by the continuous source of the light on photograph. 2. A small bulb is attached to the hand of operator or other parts of body of the operator performing the operation. 3. The photograph is taken by still camera and the light source shows the path of motion and path of photograph is called cycle graph. B. CHRONOCYCLE GRAPH

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1. CHRONOCYCLE GRAPH is spherical form of cycle graph in which the light source is interrupted suitably 10-30 times per second. 2. It records the path of movement in the form of pear shaped dots on the photographic plate. TEMPLATES AND MODELS A. TEMPLATES 1. TEMPLATES are two dimensional cut out of cardboard/colored paper. 2. They are prepared by scale and placed on scaled plan on the board. 3. It shows the plan of various facilities like machine tools, fittings and storage racks, B. MODELS 1. They are scale models of facilities resembling in length, width and height. 2. They are made up of wood or plastics. 3. They are commonly used to prepare floor plan elevations. 4. They are useful in preparing alternative plan for multi-storey plant. Example: 3 dimensional models of chemical factory and refineries.

DEVELOPMENT OF NEW METHODS 1. Eliminate all the unnecessary operations. 2. Try to combine operation as possible. 3. Change the sequence of operations. 4. Simplify the unnecessary operations.

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It is done in the following stages 1. Evaluation. 2. Investigation selection.

11. List and give the importance of human factor consider in the MOTION STUDY? HUMAN FACTOR IN THE MOTION STUDY 1. HUMAN FACTOR plays a significant role in WORK-STUDY application. 2. It cannot benefit the company until the everyone makes the contribution. 3. WORKSTUDY means the changes and these changes involve the people. 4. these people are a) WORK STUDY practitioner who makes the changes b) TOP LEVEL MANAGEMENT who support the changes. c) MIDDLE LEVEL MANAGEMENT who implement and supervise the changes. d) WORKERS who are greatly affected by the changes. e) TRADE UNIION who support those affected by changes. IMPORTANCE OF HUMAN FACTOR IN THE MOTION STUDY 1. It makes a METHOD STUDY a powerful management tool to improve the productivity. 2. It improves the efficiency of the organization. 3. It provides better satisfaction to workers and management.

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12. Explain the importance of PRINCIPLE OF MOTION OF ECONOMY? Ans:- IMPORTANCE OF PRINCIPLE OF MOTION OF ECONOMY 1. PRINCIPLE OF MOTION OF ECONOMY are particularly useful form of developing improved methods at workplace 2. It forms a basis for • • • • Improving the efficiency and Reduce the fatigue in the manual work. Eliminate the unnecessary motion and Combine and modify the motion by changing their sequence.

2. It helps to

3. It makes suitable changes in workplace layout by simplifying the motions.

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13. Explain the PRINCIPLE OF MOTION OF ECONOMY RELATED TO HUMAN BODY? Principle of Motion Economy This principle is divided into 3 categories. 1. The use of human body 2. The arrangement of workplace 3. The design of tools and equipment This principle is good for the company to apply to their workplace layout because it can reduce accidents, can improve the quality of the product, the employee feel more comfortable while working. 1. The use of human bodies.

i) Both hands should begin as well as complete their motion. ii) Both hands should not idle at the same time. iii) Motions of the arms should be made in opposite and symmetrical directions. iv)Motions should be confined to the lowest degree.

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v) Momentum should be used when wherever possible but should be reduce vi)Smooth continuous curved hand motions are better to straight line motions. vii) Ballistic movements are faster, easier and more accurate. viii) Work should be arranged to permit an easy and natural rhythm.

ix)Work should be arranged such that eye motion is limited to one comfortable area.

2. Work place layout

i) There should be definite and fixed place for tools and materials. ii) Tools and materials should be placed first to reduce search activity. iii) Gravity feed, box or container should be used to deliver material. iv) Tool and material should be placed within the maximum working area. v) Material and tools should be located to permit the best sequence of motions. vi) Drop deliveries or ejectors should be used. vii) Adequate illumination and good contrast. viii) Ergonomically design and workplace should be used.

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3. Design of tool and equipment. i) Hands should be free from all work that may be done with fixture. ii) Two or more tool should be combined. iii) Load should be distributed in accordance to the inherent capacity of the fingers. iv) Handles of tools should be design so as to allow as much surface area of the hands. This is how principles of motions economy can give a good workplace area. By following this method we can improve the productivity of our product.

PRINCIPLE OF MOTION OF ECONOMY RELATED TO HUMAN BODY 1. Both hands should start as well as complete their motion at same time. 2. Both hands should not be idle at same time except during the rest. 3. Use both hand simultaneously and use the best motion sequence. 4. Hand should be free from all works than can be done by feet. 5. Hand and body motion should be made at the lowest possible classification in order to reduce the fatigue. 6. Ballistic movement is preferred, which are faster easier and more accurate than controlled movements.
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7. Smooth and continuous movements of the hands are preferred than zigzag /variable motion. 8. Rhythm is essential to the smooth and automatic performance of repetitive operations. PRINCIPLE OF MOTION OF ECONOMY RELATED TO WORKPLACE LAYOUT 1. All the tool and material should be places at a definite and fixed place within easy reach. 2. All the tools and material and actuating devices should be placed in front of the operator at a distance as near as possible. 3. Gravity feed bins and containers should be used to deliver the material as close to the point of use as possible. 4. Material handling equipment should be arranged to deliver the material as close to the point of use as possible. 5. Material and Equipment should be arranged to permit the best sequence of the motion 6. Provide the adequate lightning for better visual inspection. 7. Provide proper tables, chair etc wherever possible to permit good sequence posture. 8. The height of workplace and seat should be arranged to allow alternate standing and sitting. Keep shop in good order, neat and clean. Principles of Motion Economy: These principles can be considered under three different groups. • Those related to the use of the human body. • Those related to the workplace arrangement, and • Those related to the design of tools and equipment. PRINCIPLES RELATED TO THE USE OF HUMAN BODY:

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1. Both hands should begin and end their basic divisions of activity simultaneously and should not be idle at the same instant, except during the rest periods. 2. The hand motions should be made symmetrically and simultaneously away from and toward the centre of the body. 3. Momentum should be employed to assist the worker wherever possible, and it should be reduced to a minimum if it must be overcome by muscular effort. 4. Continuous curved motions should be preferred to straight line motions involving sudden and sharp changes in the direction. 5. The least number of basic divisions should be employed and these should be confined to the lowest practicable classifications. These classifications, summarized in ascending order of time and fatigue expended in their performance, are: a. Finger motions b. Finger and wrist motions. c. Finger, wrist, and lower arm motions. d. Finger, wrist, lower arm, and upper arm motions. e. Finger, wrist, lower arm, upper arm motions and body motions. 6. Work that can be done by the feet should be arranged so that it is done together with work being done by the hands. It should be recognized, however, that it is difficult to move the hand and foot simultaneously. 7. The middle finger and the thumb should be used for handling heavy loads over extended periods as these are the strongest working fingers. The index finger, fourth finger, and little finger are capable of handling only light loads for short durations. 8. The feet should not be employed for operating pedals when the operator is in standing position.

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9. Twisting motions should be performed with the elbows bent. 10. To grip tools, the segment of the fingers closed to the palm of the hand should be used. PRINCIPLES RELATED TO THE ARRANGEMENT AND CONDITIONS OF WORKPLACE: 1. Fixed locations should be provided for all tools and materials so as to permit the best sequence and eliminate search and select . 2. Gravity bins and drop delivery should be used to reduce reach and move times. Use may be made of ejectors for removing finished parts. 3. All materials and tools should be located within the normal working area in both the vertical and horizontal plane (see Figure ), and as close to the point of use as possible. 4. Work table height should permit work by the operator in alternately sitting and standing posture. 5. Glare-free adequate illumination, proper ventilation and proper temperature should be provided. 6. Dials and other indicators should be patterned such that maximum information can be obtained in minimum of time and error.

PRINCIPLES RELATED TO THE DESIGN OF TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT: 1. Use color, shape or size coding to maximize speed and minimize error in finding controls. 2. Use simple on/off, either/or indicators whenever possible. If simple on/off indicator is not sufficient, use qualitative type indicator, and use quantitative type indicator only when absolutely essential.

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3. All levers, handles, wheels and other control devices should be readily accessible to the operator and should be designed so as to give the best possible mechanical advantage and utilize the strongest available muscle group. Their direction of motion should conform to stereo-typed reactions. 4. Use quick acting fixture to hold the part or material upon which the work is being performed. 5. Use stop guides to reduce the control necessary in positioning motions. 6. Operating, set-up and emergency controls should be grouped according to the function.

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CHAPTER NO 2.3

WORK MEASURMENT
1. Define WORK MEASURMENT?
Solution: -

WORK MEASURMENT
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1. Work Measurement is the application of techniques designed to establish the time for a qualified worker to carry out a task at a defined rate of working. 2. Work measurement is the application of technique designed to establish time for a qualified worker to carry out a specified job at a defined level of performance. 3. It provide the management with a means of measuring the time taken in the performance of an operation or series of operations in such a way that ineffective time is detected and can be separated from the effective time.

2. Give the objective of WORK MEASUREMENT?
Solution: -

OBJECTIVE OF WORK MEASUREMENT 1. To eliminate the ineffective time. 2. To balance the assignment of work among the workers in a team with the help of multiple activity chart. 3. To determine the number of machine a operator can run with the help of man machine chart. 4. To provide a basis for production planning and control choice of a better layout and for process planning. 5. To provide information that is useful for making tenders, selling price and delivery dates.

3. Explain the basic procedure of work measurement?
Solution: - PROCEDURE OF WORK MEASURMENT

The basic procedure of WORK MEASURMENT is 1. Select the work to be studied and determine the objective of the TIME STUDY.

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2. Record all the relevant data. 3. Examine the recorded data. 4. Measure the time required to complete each element of the work using work measurement techniques. 5. Compile the standard time for the operation of work cycle by considering the allowances. 6. Define precisely the series of activity and method of operation of which time has been completed. OR Basic procedure for work measurement: The following steps are necessary for carrying out the work measurement systematically. 1. study. 2. 3. Record all the relevant data relating to circumstances in which Examine the recorded data and the detailed breakdown critically the work is being done, the methods to be used. to ensure that most effective method and motions are being used and that unproductive elements are separated from productive elements. 4. 5. 6. Measure: The time required to complete each element using the Compile: The standard time for the operation. Define: Precisely the series of activities and methods of appropriate work measurement techniques. Select the work to be studied and determine the objectives of

operation for which the time has been compiled and issue the time standards for the activities and methods specified. 4. State the use of WORK MEASUREMENT? Solution: -

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USE OF WORK MEASUREMENT 1) To reveal the existence of ineffective time. 2) To compare the efficiency of the alternative methods. 3) To balance the work of member of team in association. 4) To decide production time and provide useful data in planning and scheduling. 5) To decide the cost of production. 6) 7) 8) As a basis for labor budgeting and budgetary control systems. To determine with the help of man and machine charts, the To provide info for labour cost control.

number of machines an operator can run. 9) To set the time standards for carrying out the work.

5. Define the WORK MEASUREMENT? State the techniques of WORK MEASUREMENT? OR

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List down the various method of WORK MEASUREMENT? Explain WORK SAMPLING in brief?
Solution: -

WORK MEASURMENT Work Measurement is the application of techniques designed to establish the time for a qualified worker to carry out a task at a defined rate of working. WORK MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES Work measurement techniques are classified as 1. Direct method a) Time Sampling b) Work Sampling 2. Indirect method a) Standard Time Data b) Analytical Estimating c) PMTS Techniques of work measurement The following are the principle techniques by which work measurement is carried out: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Stop watch time study. Predetermined motion time systems. Activity sampling. Analytical estimating. Synthesis from standard data. Define the TIME STUDY? Mention the steps taken to conduct a stop

watch time study?

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Solution: -

TIME STUDY 1. It is one of the major techniques of work measurement. 2. It is suitable for shot cycle and repetitive jobs. 3. It is the study with the help of stop watch. 4. It is generally carried with the special purpose. 5. It is used to set time standards particularly in mass production. Steps taken to conduct a STOP WATCH TIME STUDY 1. Select the work for time study. 2. Select the worker for time study. 3. Divide the work into elements. 4. Decide the number of cycle to be times. 5. Timing each element with the stop watch. 6. Compute the basic time. 7. Rate the performance of worker involves in manual work. 8. Calculate the standard time.

7.

Mention the TIME STUDY equipment and state its uses?

Solution: -

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The basic time study equipment required at the time of conducting study are N o 1 Time Study Equipments Time Study Board. Function and uses Plywood sheet. Used to hold the stop watch and time study form. To provide support and resting face while writing observation on the shop floor and make the hand free to write and operate the stop watch. 2 3 4 Time Study Form Stop Watch Pencil Provide a definite system of recording of observation. To observe the time of each element. To note down the recording of observation on time study forms.

8. Explain the following in connection with TIME STUDY a) Cumulative timing methods b) Fly back timing
Solution: -

A. CUMULATIVE TIMING METHODS 1. It is time studying techniques

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2. The stop watch in the method is started at the beginning of the first cycle of the jobs and is allows to run continuously until the required number of cycle have been timed and then its stopped. 3. The time study man note down time at the ends of each element. 4. Individual element time is calculated by taking the difference between successive readings.

B. FLY BACK TIMING 1. It is time studying techniques 2. In fly back timing method, the hands of stopwatch for each element start from zero. 3. The watch is started at the beginning of the first element of the work cycle and the hands are simultaneously reads and snapped back to zero at the end of the first and subsequent element. 4. The snapback watch reading so obtained to make subtractions which are necessary in cumulative timing methods.

2. WORK SAMPLING 1. Work sampling is also called as activity sampling .it is one of the very common techniques of work measurement. 2. Work sampling is defined as technique in which large number of observation are made over period of time of one or group of machines, processes or workers.

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3. Each observation records watts is happening at that instant and the percent of observation recorded for particular activity or delay is a measure of the percentage of time during which that activity of delay occurs. 4. With work sampling, it is possible to define the percentage of the day to be working and a speed at to be worked during working portion of the day can also be determined. Nature of state Productive No work No material Breakdown Set up time  Advantage 1. Less cost compared to stop watch time study. 2. Can time long operations which are almost impractical to be measured by stop watch time study. 3. Group operations can be easily studied by a single analyst. 4. A work sampling study can be stopped at any time without affecting the results.  Application a) To determine working time and idle time of men and machine. b) Used to determine the resource utilization pattern. 3. Synthesis from standard data It is a work measurement technique to build up normal time for a new job by adding element times collected from previously held time studies on similar hobs having similar element.  Procedure 1. Collect all the possible details about the job. No of observation 100 30 34 22 14 Percentage of total 50 15 17 11 07

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2. Break the job into the element like machine element ,constant element ,variable element. 3. Select the appropriate normal times for all element in the operation. 4. Estimate the various allowance for each element 5. Verify the analysis of the element for the selected jobs. 6. Add the allowances to normal time to fix the standard time.  Advantage of standard time 1. Provides budgeting and estimating .etc 2. Standard time can be found even when the product is not manufactured. 3. Economic than time study by stop watch method. 4. Rating or Efficiency of the operator can be determined correctly.

 Use /Application 1. Helps in estimating time required and lkabour cost. 2. For checking the standards established by time study. 3. Helps in determining in advance that how long it will take to perform an operation in the shop. 4. Helps in comparing two methods and determining the best method.

4. Analytical Estimating Analytical Estimating techniques determine the time value of jobs either by using standard data /on basis of the past experience of the estimator.  Definition Analytical estimating is defined as work measurement techniques, developed to estimate the time required to carry out the element of a job at a defined

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level of performance is estimated partly from knowledge and practical experience of the element concerned and partly from the standard data.

 Procedure 1. Select the task to be measured. 2. Decide the method to be followed by the operator. 3. Break the task into the element. 4. Calculate the basic time for each manual element. 5. Calculate the time for each machine element. 6. Add manual and machine element to the obtain the basic time of the job. 7. Add allowance to the basic time under 6 to obtain the standard time of the jobs.

 Uses or application 1. For non repetitive jobs, jobs involving long cycle time. 2. In repair and maintenance works, tool rooms and job production.

5. PREDETERMINED MOTION TIME SYSTEM (PMTS) 1. PMTS is defines as work measurement techniques where by times established for basic human motion are used to build up time for jobs at a defined level of performance. 2. A PMT system consist of list of all motion that a worker can utilize in doing a job together with values for these motions at specified level of performance and in specified circumstances.

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 Procedure. 1. Select the large number of worker doing variety of the jobs under the normal working condition in the industry. 2. Record the job operation on the movie film. 3. Analyze the film, note down the time taken to complete each element and compile down in the form of table or chart. 4. The normal time for any new job can be determined by breaking the jobs into the basic elements. 5. Note down the time for each motion from the table. 6. Adding up time values for all basic motion involved in the jobs. 7. Calculate the standard by adding the proper allowances.

 Advantage 1. Set time standard for different jobs. 2. PMTS help in tool and product design. 3. More reliable and accurate. 4. Facilitated training of workers and supervisors.

9.

State the various allowances used to calculate the standard time? The various allowances used to calculate the standard time are a) Relaxation Allowances b) Contingency Allowances c) Policy Allowances d) Interference Allowances e) Process Allowances

Ans: ALLOWANCE FOR CALCULATING THE STANDARD TIME

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f) Special Allowances

10.

Explain the various allowances used to calculate the standard time?

Solution: - ALLOWANCE FOR CALCULATING THE STANDARD TIME

The different allowances are to be considered as A. Relaxation Allowances Relaxation allowances are calculated so as to allow the workers to overcome fatigue and for fulfilling his personal needs. 1. The amount of allowances depends upon the nature of the jobs.

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2. Relaxation Allowance are of two types a) Fixed allowance b) Variable allowance 3. Fixed allowances are composed of a. Personal need allowances 1. It is intended to compensate the operator for the time necessary to leave the workplace to attend personal needs like drinking water, smoking, washing hands. 2. Women’s require more personal allowances than men. 3. A fair personal allowance is 5% for men and 7% for women. b. Allowances for basic fatigue 1. This allowance is given to compensate for energy spent during working. 2. A common figure considered as allowance is 4 % of the basic time . 4. Variable allowances: A variable allowance is allowed to an operator who is working under poor working conditions that cannot be improved. Such circumstances create stress and strain in workers. The variable fatigue allowances is added to the fixed allowances to an operator who is engaged on medium or heavy work and working under abnormal conditions. The amount of variable fatigue allowance varie from company to company. B. Contingency Allowances 1. A Contingency allowance is a small allowance of time included in standard time to compensate the operator for the time lost due to legitimate interruption or delays which are uneconomical. 2. It should not exceed 5%, otherwise method should be improved. 3. This allowance is applicable for machine or process controlled jobs.

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4. This allowance provide for unavoidable delay as well as for occasional minor or extra work. 5. Some of the example of contingency allowances are c. Tool breakage involving removal of tool from the holder, insert new tool in its tool holders. d. Power failures of small durations. e. Obtaining the necessary tools and gauges from central store.

C. Policy Allowances 1. Policy allowances are an addition to standard time intended to provide a worker an opportunity to earn a specified level of earning at specified level of performance. 2. Policy allowances are not genuine part of the time study and should be used with almost care and only in clearly defined circumstances. 3. Policy allowance is addition to time standard time intended to provide a worker an opportunity to earn a specified level of earning at a specified level of performance. 4. Policy allowances are purely management decision. Workers and their representative cannot demand for the policy allowances. 5. Policy allowance once awarded cannot be withdrawn.

D. Interference Allowances 1. It is allowance of time included into the work content of the job to be compensating the operator for the unavoidable loss of production due to simultaneous stoppage of two or machine operated by him. 2. It is applicable for machine/process controlled jobs.

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3. Interference allowance varies in proportion to number of machines assigned to the operator. Interference of machine increases the work content. 4. The effect of machine interference is that the work content of the job is increased E. Special Allowances 1. Special allowance may be given for any activities which are not normally part of the operation cycle but which are essential to the satisfactory performance of the work. 2. Such allowance may be permanent or temporarily :care should be taken to specify which a.START UP ALLOWANCE to compensate for time taken by any work and any enforced waiting time which necessarily occurs at the start of a shift or work period before production can begins. b.Shut down allowance to compensate for waiting time occurring at the end of the day . c.Cleaning allowance to compensate for waiting time occurring at the end of the day. d.Tool allowances to compensate for time taken to cover the adjustment and maintenance of tools. e.Set up allowances to compensate for time required for preparing a machine or process for production. f. Dismantling allowances to compensate for time needed for making alternation to machine or process setting after completing run of production. g.Reject allowances to compensate for defective products, which may be inherent to some process. h.Excess work allowance to compensate for extra work occasion by a temporarily departure from standard conditions.

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i. Learning allowances to compensate for extra time taken by trainee operative engaged on the work. j. Training allowances to compensate for time an experienced worker is required to spend instructing a trainee, while both are working on jobs for which standard time have been spent. k.Implementation allowance given to worker asked to adopt a new method or process to encourage them to attempt an enthusiastic implementation of new ways and prevent their loosing earning by doing so on. l. Small batch allowance is required to enable a worker working on small batcher to decided what to do and how to go about it.

11. Define NORMAL TIME AND STANDARD TIME Or Short note on STANDARD TIME

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Solution: - NORMAL TIME AND STANDARD TIME

a.NORMAL TIME: It is a time for carrying out an element of work at standard ratings. b. STANDARD TIME Standard time is the total time in which a jobs or task or work cycle should be completed at a standard performance. Standard Time is made up of i. ii. iii. iv. v. Observed timing of elements Performance rating Relaxation allowance Interference and Contingency allowances Policy allowances

STANDARD TIME =BASIC TIME + TIME ALLOWANCES

12. Define the JOB EVALUTION? State its objectives? Ans: JOB EVALUTION 1. JOB EVALUATION is the process of comparing jobs with other jobs in wages a worker should be paid for performing the task.
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2. It is procedure to determine the relative values of the job in a plant and to determine the basic wages for that job. 3. Industrial job evolution system defined the job evolution is a complete process of determining the worth of an individual jobs in an organization in relation to other jobs. 4. Job evolution rates the jobs and not the worker who is performing it. OBJECTIVES OF JOB EVALUTION 1. To determine the relative worth of individual jobs in the organization. 2. To convert the relative worth of each job into appropriate pay scales or wages. 3. To fix up fair, minimum and maximum salaries for each position in the company. 4. To avoid inequality in wage structure. 5. To establish basis for comparison, when checking the company salaries with those paid for. 6. To provide basis for recruitment, selection, promotion and transfer of employees. 7. To provide line of responsibility, channels of authority and line of promotion. 8. To improve the employer-employee relationship.

2. Discuss the JOB EVALUTION procedure? Ans: JOB EVALUTION PROCEDUR In general the steps involved in job evaluation are as follows.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Determine the detailed data or facts about the job. This is known as Describe the requirement of the job. This is known as job description. Specify the features possessed by employee to perform the job Determine the relative value or worth of the job. This is known as job Compare the job with predetermined job and prepared suitable wage

analysis.

satisfactory. This is known as job specification. classification. structure. This is knows as wage determination.

3.

What is Job Analysis? Explain the methods of obtaining the information about a job in question?

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Ans: JOB ANALYSIS Job analysis is the process of determining the facts relating to te jobs. It is the collection of data about tasks, skill, knowledge, abilities and responsibilities required for successful performance. There are three methods to obtain the information about the job in the company. 1. By observation 2. By interview 3. By questionnaire. 1. Observation method In this method, to analyst observes the working of worker and collects the information. This method helps to collect the accurate information, but analyst must have detailed knowledge of the jobs. 2. Interview Method. The jobs analyst interviews the worker for the purpose of securing all information and facts about the job and conditions under which it is performed. The analyst must observe the worker on the job before any questions about the job. 3. Questionnaire method. In this method, a questionnaire is prepared which covers all phases of the job and the environment in which it is performed. This set of question is circulated to the workers and the supervisors for answering the questions. Later than questionnaire with complete information and facts are returned to job evalution decision where they are processed. Generally for worker’s job following information is collected

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1. Skill involved a. Experience b. Job knowledge. c. Manipulative d. Versatility 2. Efforts required a. Physical b. Sense of hearing 3. Responsibility a. Quality of product. b. Safety of equipment. 4. Workers conditions. a. Surrounding b. Noise

4. What is Job Evalution? Explain the methods of Job Evaluation

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Ans: JOB EVALUTION Job evalution is the process of selecting on appropriate job evaluation system, evaluating the jobs and fitting them into grades. There are four methods of job evaluation. 1. Ranking methods 2. Job classification methods 3. Factor Comparison Methods 4. Point rating method. 1. Ranking methods a. Job ranking is the simplest and oldest methods of the evalution. b. In this method, jobs are ranked in hierarchical order from the most important one. c. For ranking, job is considered as a whole and it is not broken down into various element or tasks. d. The rank is decided by committee. 2. Job classification methods a. In these methods all jobs are divided into classes or grades. b. These grades or classes are established well in advance by the committee or experts. c. The grade differences are defined in terms of difference in the level of duties, responsibility and requirement of special skills. 3. Factor Comparison Methods a. The method involves detailed analysis of the job are then ranked in respect of predetermined factors. b. The five factors are considered for the analysis, comparison and evalution of the jobs are skill, mental effort, physical effort, responsibilities and working conditions. 4. Point rating method.

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a. This method was developed by Merill .R .Lott in 1925. b. The method evaluates jobs based on carefully selected factor such as education, experience, physical effort, responsibilities for machine and materials which are common to majority jobs. c. For example if experience factor is 25% and the factor is split up into 4 degrees ,then the points for the degrees are Degree 1 2 3 4 Point value for the degree 25 50 75 100

5. Define the MERIT RATING? State its objectives?
Ans - MERIT RATING

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1. Merit rating is a systematic and orderly approach to assess the relative work of an employee working in an organizing in terms of his job performance, integrity, leadership, intelligence and behaviors. 2. MERIT RATING is also called the PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL. OBJECTIVES OF MERIT RATING 1. To increase the industrial productivity and to reduce the hostility between the employee and employers. 2. To identify the training needs of the employee. 3. For taking the decision about the incentives, increment to be given to the workers. 4. To provide the sound basis in making decision for promotion, transfer of the employee. 5. Review of the result of selection of the employee. 6. To motivate the employee to perform better. 7. Helps in counseling employees regarding strength and weakness. METHODS OF MERIT RATING 1. Ranking plan 2. Checklist plan 3. Scales plan 4. Man to man comparison plans.

1. Ranking plan.

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a) The workers are arranged in rank orders from best to worst /most satisfactory to least satisfactory. b) Ranking plan is of several types c) The aim of ranking is to designate grade, each denoting a specified level of merit. d) The another way of ranking is Classifying the jobs in terms of various levels of skills, responsibility and rank the worker accordingly. 2. Scale plan a) This is mainly used in industry. b) There are many variable scale plan and all consist of list of attributed or trails, each being accompanied by scale, for rating the worker. c) Scale plan are of two types 1) Continuous Scale 2) Discontinuous Scale. 3. Check list plan a) These are list made up of series of statements/questions which concern the importance aspect of the employee performance of the jobs. b) The comparison among the employers is easier and better than this plan. 4. Man to man comparison plan a) These plans are widely used in USA in rating military officers. b) It is based on study of five characteristics i.e. Physical quantities, Intelligence, Leadership, Personal qualities, General value. c) Each of the characteristic is divided in five degrees and value is assigned to each degrees. d) Thus a person to person comparison is made and his position is determined e) Therefore it is knows as man to man comparison plan. CHAPTER NO 2.4

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ERGONOMICS
1. Define Ergonomics? Discuss the objectives of human engineering and human factor affected by environment? 10 marks 2. Discuss the following :Ergonomics and its objectives 4marks 3. State the various ergonomics considerations and factors in details. Also comment on the Ergonomics? 10marks 4. Define Ergonomics and Antiptrometry? Discuss the various ergonomics factors and anthropormntic data in details? 10marks 5. 6.

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Q1. Define Ergonomics? Discuss the objectives of human engineering and human factor affected by environment? 10 marks OR Discuss the following: Ergonomics and its objectives 4marks Ans:ERGONOMICS (HUMAN ENGINEERING) The word ‘Ergonomics’ has its origin in two Greek words Ergon meaning laws. So it is the study of the man in relation to his work. In USA and other countries it is called by the name ‘human engineering or human factors engineering”. ILO defines human engineering as, “The application of human biological sciences along with engineering sciences to achieve optimum mutual adjustment of men and his work, the benefits being measured in terms of human efficiency and well-being.” The human factors or human engineering is concerned with man-machine system. Thus another definition which highlights the man-machine system is: “The design of human tasks, man-machine system, and effective accomplishment of the job, including displays for presenting information to human sensors, controls for human operations and complex man-machine systems.” Human engineering focuses on human beings and their interaction with products, equipment facilities and environments used in the work. Human engineering seeks to change the things people use and the environment in which they use the things to match in a better way the capabilities, limitations and needs of people.

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OBJECTIVES OF HUMAN ENGINEERING

Human engineering (ergonomics) has two broader objectives: 1. To enhance the efficiency and effectiveness with which the activities (work) is carried out so as to increase the convenience of use, reduced errors and increase in productivity. 2. To enhance certain desirable human values including safety reduced stress and fatigue and improved quality of life.

Thus, in general the scope and objective of ergonomics is “designing for human use and optimizing working and living conditions”. Thus human factors (ergonomics) discover and apply information about human behavior, abilities and limitations and other characteristics to the design of tools, machines, systems, tasks, jobs and environment for productive, safe, comfortable and effective human use. Ergonomics aims at providing comfort and improved working conditions so as to channelize the energy, skills of the workers into constructive productive work. This accounts for increased productivity, safety and reduces the fatigue. This helps to increase the plant utilization.

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Q2. Write short notes on Importance of Ergonomics? Ans: IMPORTANCE OF ERGONOMICS Definition of Ergonomics 1. Ergonomics is defines as the scientific study of the relationship between a man and his working environment. 2. The primary aim of ergonomics is to optimize the functioning of a system by adapting it to human capacities and needs 3. Ergonomics is a scientifically based Discipline which integrated knowledge delivered from many sciences. Why Ergonomics 1. A Stone Age human in an environment using a flint stone as a knife could modify the shape of the stone fitting the hand and task. 2. Today a producer might be designed in one country manufactured in second country, purchased b y a wholesaler (buyer) in the third country and used by a customer in the fourth country. 3. The designer might not known who are the ends users and the buyer cannot influence the design of the product .Ergonomics is the only the link between these four actors. The Scope of Ergonomics 1. The scope of Ergonomics is extremely wide and is not limited to any particular industry or application. Ergonomics comes into everything which involves people. 2. Work systems, sports and leisure, healthy and safety should all embody ergonomics principles if well designed. 3. The ability of peoples to do their job is influenced by the persons capabilities (physical and mental) ,the job demand (physical and mental) and the condition (physical and organization environment )under which the people is carrying out the job.

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The Objective of Ergonomics 1. The Objective of Ergonomics is to enhance the effectiveness with which work and other human activities are carried out and to maintain or enhance certain desirable human values in the process, health, safety and satisfaction. 2. The aim of ergonomics is to enhance and preserve human health and satisfaction and to optimize the human performance in a system perspective, 3. Ergonomics is concerned with both employees well being as well as orgnaistiaon well being. 4. Ergonomics aims to ensure that human needs for safe and efficient working are meet in the design of work system. 5. The key words are health, comfort and performance. Factors to be considered 1. Accident frequency and severity :jobs where accidents occurs frequently or where they occurs in frequently but results in disabling injuries. 2. Potential for severe injuries or illness. 3. Newly established jobs: due to lack of experience in the jobs, workplace contributing factor may not evident or anticipated. 4. Modified jobs: new workplace contributing factors may associate with changes in job procedures. 5. Infrequency performed jobs: workers may be at greater risk when undertaking non –routing jobs and FWA provides a means of reviewing workplace contributing factors.

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Q3. Define Ergonomics and Anthropometry? Discuss the various ergonomics factors and Anthropometry data in details? 10marks

Anthropometry
1. Anthropometry deals with the measurements of the dimensions and certain other physical characteristics of the body such as volumes, centers of gravity, inertial properties and masses of body segments. 2. There are two primary types of body measurement. Static and dynamics . 3. Static dimension are measurements taken when the body is in a fixed positions.

4. These consist of a. Skeletal dimensions b. Contour dimensions. 5. Body measurement varies as function of age, sex and for different countries. 6. There are differences in anthropometrics of male and female. 7. Dynamic dimension are taken under conditions in which the body engaged in some physical activity. Use of Anthropometric Data It is very much essential in the design where items are designed for specific groups such as adult, males, children etc, the data used should be specific for such group in the country or culture in questions. Principles in the application of Anthropometric Data 1. Design for extreme individual: Designing for maximum population value is the recommended strategy if a given maximum value of some deign feature should accommodate of doors. Designing for minimum population value is an appropriate strategy if a given minimum value of some design feature has to accommodate all. Example: Distance of control from the operator and force required to operate the control.

WORK STUDY AND ERGONOMICS

68

Vaibhav Vithoba Naik

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING AND ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING

2. Designing for average range: In the design features of equipment or facilities the provision for adjustment should be there for the individual who use them. Example: Automobile seats, chair, desk height, etc. In design it is a produce to provide for adjustment to cover the range from 5th percentile male of the relevant population characteristics.

3. Designing for average: There is average individual and a person may be average on one or two dimensions. Designers often design for the average as a compromise as they do not give to deal with anthropometric data.

WORK STUDY AND ERGONOMICS

69

Vaibhav Vithoba Naik

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING AND ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING

Safety in industry 1. The importance of industry safety was realized because every millions of industrial accident occur which result in either death or in temporary or permanent disablement of the employees and a good amount of cost such as resulting from wasted man-hours ,machine hours,etc. 2. Safety results from safe plant, processes and operations and by educating and raining workers and supervisors regarding safe practices on the shop floor. 3. In an industry, safety may be considered from the mechanical side (equipment, tools etc) or from legal angles of workmen’s compensation or even as a matter of training in and motivation towards safe work practices for workers.

Need for safety Safety in industry helps 1. Increasing the rate of production. 2. Reducing production cost. 3. Reducing damage to equipment and machinery. 4. Preventing premature death of talented workers who are an asset to the society. 5. Preventing needless pain and suffering from its employees.

WORK STUDY AND ERGONOMICS

70

Vaibhav Vithoba Naik

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING AND ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING

Safety measures and the safety devices Fire prevention and protection 1. The first principle of fire prevention is to design building, processes and storage facilities in such a way as to limit the possible combination of oxygen, fuel and an increase in temperature. 2. The second principle is to eliminate or reduce the sources of heat or ignition, thus limiting the rise in temperature 3. Preparedness for the emergencies should always be organized by management along the following lines. a. Every work place should have an emergency plan with information detailing the role of every worker in case of fire and other emergencies. b. There should be at least two clear, properly marked, unobstructed exits leading to the area of safety. c. There must be a way of notifying personnel of a need to evaculate ,such as an alarm system .in some applications, for example where there is a high level of noise ,visual signals such as flashing or revolving light are also frequently used.

WORK STUDY AND ERGONOMICS

71

Vaibhav Vithoba Naik

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING AND ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING

WORK STUDY AND ERGONOMICS

72

Vaibhav Vithoba Naik

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