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Network configuration Cell coverage Comparison of half power beam widths Vertical downtilt Mechanical downtilt Electrical downtilt Adjustable electrical downtilt
1785 MHz Base Station Equipment Base Station Mobile Station 2 ©Kathrein/Scholz 07/02 .1880 MHz Uplink frequencies : Uplink Connection GSM 900 : 890 .Network Design / Base station Antenna System Downlink frequencies : GSM 900 : 935 .960 MHz Radio Link Downlink Connection GSM 1800 : 1805 .915 MHz GSM 1800 : 1710 .
pico cells) in high traffic areas (cities.Network Design / Configuration honeycomb structure omni base stations using omnidirectional antennas for low traffic cells sector sites with 3 cells (directional antennas) of different frequencies for a higher amount of subscribers smaller cells (micro cells. the repeatability of the frequencies and the real base station locations influence the network planning 3 ©Kathrein/Scholz 07/02 . city centers) the topography.
Network Design / Cell Coverage Cell coverage To avoid interferences to adjacent cells the target is to provide coverage just for the concerning sector but not beyond the sector border tools for cell matching half power beam width tilt of the vertical pattern 4 ©Kathrein/Scholz 07/02 .
Network Design / Half Power Beam Width Which half power beam width is needed to cover a 120° sector ? standard comparison indicates significant differences at the sector borders 65° 90° 105° 120° mistake : gain variation is not considered 5 ©Kathrein/Scholz 07/02 .
0 dBi 105° 13. 105° and 120° regarding half power beam width and overlapping area to the adjacent cell 6 ©Kathrein/Scholz 07/02 .3m length 65° 15.5 dBi 120° 13.Network Design / Half Power Beam Width antennas with the same vertical length but different horizontal half power beam width differ in the overall gain value example : 900 MHz / 1.5 dBi 90° 14.0 dBi result : no significant difference between 90°.
But also 65° is used 7 ©Kathrein/Scholz 07/02 . rural areas : 90° (65°) Reflection intensity is much lower.Network Design / Half Power Beam Width Conclusion : the range of half power beam widths can be limited to 65° and 90° field of application : urban areas : 65° Theoretically the overlapping area between the cells is too small. But due to reflections from the surrounding the half power beam width is increased. Therefore many network planners prefer 90° to provide sufficient overlapping.
the majority of the radiated power is concentrated within the sector .Network Design / Vertical Downtilt as a standard the vertical beam is pointing to the horizon downtilting of the pattern provides the following benefits : .the reduction of the power towards the horizon avoids interference problems with the next sector best results when fieldstrength in the horizon is reduced by about 6 dB 8 ©Kathrein/Scholz 07/02 .
90° from the main direction the downtilt angle is always zero (rotation axis) effective downtilt varies across the azimuth 9 ©Kathrein/Scholz 07/02 .Network Design / Mechanical Downtilt a mechanical downtilt kit increases the upper distance to the mast and makes the antenna pointing down the requested downtilt angle is achieved only in main direction at +/.
90° to it results in deformation of the horizontal pattern this effect of changing half power beam width can hardly be considered in the network planning and reduces the prediction accuracy Horizontal pattern 105° / mechanical DT 10 ©Kathrein/Scholz 07/02 .Network Design / Mechanical Downtilt Mechanical Downtilt 0° 6° 8° 10° effect on the horizontal pattern at the horizon : reduction of the fieldstrength in main direction without any change +/.
Network Design / Electrical Downtilt more elegant is the electrical downtilt with the antenna remaining upright. instead of equal phases on the dipoles. perticular phase distributions are selected by varying the cable lengths to the dipoles Ф Ф Ф Ф Ф 11 12° downtilt ©Kathrein/Scholz 07/02 .
Network Design / Electrical Downtilt Electrical Downtilt : 0° 6° 8° 10° the fixed phase distribution applies to all azimuth directions ⇒ electrical downtilt angle is constant the shape of the horizontal pattern remains constant accurate network planning is assured Horizontal pattern 105° / electrical DT 12 ©Kathrein/Scholz 07/02 .
Electrical DT maximum flexibility is achieved with adjustable electrical downtilt by combining the adjustability of the mechanical DT and the technical advantage of the electrical DT Ф Ф Ф Ф 13 Bild ©Kathrein/Scholz 07/02 .Network Design / Adjust.
electrical DT angle approx. 14° for higher DT angle a combination of mechanical and electrical DT is recommended adjusting mechanism with scale 14 ©Kathrein/Scholz 07/02 .Network Design / Adjust. Electrical DT phase shifters at each dipole provide variable phase distributions for sidelobe control the dipoles are fed with different power max.
A greater vertical half power beam width means a higher downtilt angle in order to receive similar results. 15 ©Kathrein/Scholz 07/02 .Downtilt Angle versus Vertical Half Power Beam Width Antenna Type 741 988 Xpol F-Panel 1710-2170 88° 14dBi 0°-10°T Antenna Type 741 990 Xpol F-Panel 1710-2170 88° 18dBi 0°-6°T 6dB point 6dB point 3° 9° Vertical pattern example at 9°T (polar-logarithmic scale) Vertical pattern example at 3°T (polar-logarithmic scale) The selected downtilt angle is linked to the respective vertical half power beam width.
Max. DT angle is determined by the angle between the mainlobe and the first sidelobe . A higher downtilt angle increases the power again due to the first upper sidelobe.Maximum Electrical Downtilt Angle Antenna Type 742 212 / Xpol F-Panel 1710-2170 65° 18dBi 0°-8°T Vertical pattern example at 0°T (polar-logarithmic scale) Vertical pattern example at 8°T (polar-logarithmic scale) Max. 16 ©Kathrein/Scholz 07/02 . power reduction towards the horizon is achieved with the first null.
e.Special Cases In general: Adjustable electrical downtilt is normally used for coverage fine tuning. i. an acceptable compromise is to combine electrical and mechanical DT mechanical downtilt kit : primary downtilting adjustable electrical downtilt : fine tuning 17 ©Kathrein/Scholz 07/02 . In this cases. a higher downtilt angle could be stipulated. antenna mounting on high rise buildings or in special test scenarios. In special cases.