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4
125
Chapter 4
Sections <&·2: harge and Current Distributions C
Problem 4.1 A cube 2 m on a side is located in the first octant in a Cartesian coordinate system, with one of its comers at the origin. Find the total charge 2z (mC/m3). contained in the cube if the charge density is given by pv ==
xre
Solarion; For the cube shown in Fig. P4.1. application of Eq. (4.5) gives
Q=
i
'Tl
p"d'Tl =
1212 12
z
);=0 y=O Z=O 2. 2 2
x/e2.zdxdydz
2mt    .:
4
f<[
' ~
r
..
..
.'
I [
I
x
Figure P4.1: Cube of Problem 4.1.
Problem 4.2 Find the total charge contained in a cylindrical volume defined by r ::; 2 m and 0 :; z :::: m if Pv = lOrz (mC/m3). 3 Solution: For the cylinder shown in Fig. P4.2. application of Eq, (4.5) gives
Q=
1
3 r21t
z=O $=0
1
12
=
(~?$i)
''0 2
1Orzrdrd<!>dz
21't
3
= 240n (mC) = 0.754 C.
=0 $:0 zo:;o
126
CHAI'TER4
z
3m
Figure P4.2: Cylinder of Problem 4.2.
Problem 43 Find the total charge contained in a cone defined by R ::; 2 m and 05 e S te14, given that Pv 20R2 cos2 e (mClm3).
=
Solation; For the cone of Fig. P4.3, application of Eq. (4.5) gives
2
11./4
Z"
=
(~4R5$cos3e)
25611: == 3" ( \1
(.J2) 3) = 2"
R=O 9=0$=0
173.3 (mC)
== 0.173 C.
CFIAPTER4
z
127
Figure P4.3: Cone of Problem 4.3.
Problem 4.~ If the line charge density is given by Pi = charge distributed on the yaxis from y;:;; 5 to y 5.
=
12r (mam),
find the total
Selunon;
Q=
Problem 4.5
1
5Pidy = j5
5
12rdy == _ _ 5 3
12115 = 1000 mC;::;
5
1 C.
Find the total charge on a circular disk defined by r ::;a and z = 0 if:
(a) Ps = psosin$ (C/m2), (b) Ps = psosin2q, (Clm2), (c) Ps = psoer (C/m2), (d) Ps = psoer sin2 <j> (C/m2), where Pso is a constant.
Solution;
(2)
Q=jP ds=11
s (b)
"
r=O
2"1t
ojl=O
psQsin$rdrd$=pso2 ? = Pso 2 I" 10 00
?I
2
a
0
COS <l>
,2"1t
0
I
=0.
.
Q
=
1 I:
a .::0 $=0
Psasinz<jJ r dr de
:11:
(1 .
cos 2
2@) d<!l '
= na o. TPs
2
PSG. a ;:;;4
2
(
5i02$) $2
[2"1t
o
128
(e)
C'dAPTER4
Q
= t" 1211: psoeJ~o
~o
r
rdr de
= 21'Cpso I" reh
r
dr

. = 21tpso [_rer
er]~
+a)].
= 2npso[1ea(I
(d)
Problem
4.6 If JJ == y2xz (Nm2), find the current I flowing through a square with comers at (0,0, 0), (2,0,0), (2,0,2), and (0,0,2). SoiutioIDI! Using Eq, (4.12), the net current flowing through the square shown in Fig.
P4.6 is
1=
Is
fJ.ds=
}x:o
r
2
1
2
z=()
(y2xz)
)'=0
·(Ydxdz)=
(
~l) ~
2
2
2
=8A.
z,."o
=0
z 2m
J2m
""0"'<> y .
.r
Figure P4.6: Square surface .
.. ,
1""
CHAPTER 4
129
Problem Solution:
4.7
If J
= :R25/ R (Nml),
2l"C
find 1 through the surface R
= 5 m,
Using Eq. (4.12), we have
1=
1
S
J ds =
1 ln: ( 25)
$=0 8=0
RR
. (R.R2sin8d6d<Jl)
11:
21t
= 25R¢cos8
R=o5
= ~o
$=0
soOn = 1,570.8 (A).
Problem 4.$ An electron beam shaped. like a circular cylinder of radius charge density given by
TO
carries a
Pv ::;
where Po is a positive (a) Determine the OJ) If the electrons the magnitude SoRutiOJ!l! (2)
+? (po)
1
(~/m),
3
constant and the beam's axis is coincident with the zaxis, total charge contained in length L of the beam. are moving in the lzdirection with uniform speed u, determine and direction of the current crossing the zplane,
Q=
c:
r;;O =0
pvd'll=..
LTO
r=O
t (+
=0
=  2n:PoL
(b) ~ upo
2
l
o
2 Po) Ir
~Q
2rtrdrdz.
~
T
l+r
dr = npoLln( 1 +
?o).
J =: pvu = 2
J=
J
1+r
(Alm),
?
J·ds
=
(0 t" (2 uPo ) .zrdrdq, Jr=o}$=o 1+ r2
(A).
= 2nupo 10 1+r., dr = 1tuPoln(l + r5) to r
Current direction is along
to
9 A square with sides 2m each has a charge of 20 pC at each of its four comers.O) y l: Figure P4. SQlution: The distance IRI between any of the charges and point P 15 .05) f Qkl.9: Square with charges at the corners. z P(O.l.130 CHAFTER4 Problem 4. Determine the electric field at a point 5 ill above the center of the square.
41t£o T _ Q [ _RJ R2 R3 I ~] + X+Y+i5] (27)3/2 __ _ =z ~ (27 SQ )3/2.71 X 10 6 (VIm) = z2::>.10 Three point charges. (./12 + 12 + 52 = m..61 (kV/rn).2 em.. another at (2 ern. (4. Problem 4.uN).4cm).:: JI.::.02)3 + 3ne (5'0. E[RP + 1R. _ _ Employ Eq. P4.10.02)] (0. ~~=~~~x Q Zero Figure P4.c is located at (1 em.13 + IRI3 IRP Q [XY+Z5 i:y+zS ~j+y+Z5 = 41tEo (27)3/2 + (27)3/2 + (27pr:.CJIAPTER4 131 iR[ = . 0) and charge qZ is located at (O.::41tC. 1 [3DC (XO. are located at the comers of a triangle in the xy plane. and the third at (0.02)3 =67.2 cm.10]: i!? ". (4.O) has no ycompoeent? Sviution: For the configuration of Fig.1l.~. l!7ob!em 4.14) to find the force IF === qE = 202. What should q2 be so that E at (0.O. 1 em. each with q = 3 nC. (4.4(:x+y)(kV/m)atR=O.19) gives .U Charge q! ::. Find the force acting on the charge located at the origin.::.19) to determine the electric field at the origin due to the other two point Charges [Fig.::4 p.02) (0. use of Eq. 0. with one comer at the origin.2(i+Y) y 2cmjQ JR2' lRl = x2 em R2= Q y 2 em JR. P4. Solution: Use Eq.C() • 5 x 20 pC z( "11_ 27)'> "Eo = _nCo 0.. 0).1O: Locations of charges in Problem 4. 0).
7 X 103 . Find E at (0.:::::63.. (20 X 102)3/2 2 2 = 1rX14.APTER 4 R!:= x + Y(2I).::5 em.11. . 6 )[ (yo.=: (x + y) em cY2 .447q2] X (VIm).. P4.13 (pC)..224q2) 4n:e . = Soiution: Use ofEq.E X 10.. 05 Z=O (4 x 10 [.. 14. Problem 4.14 x 106 + 5'(14. then q2 c.132 z CFI..z38.12 gives E_1_ {R'P1dl' 41tEo Jl1 R.47 Zl.liz = 1 41tEo 1°.224..:.14 X 1O6+0.O).. (4.12 A line of charge with uniform density pz :::...10 cm.24) em R2 == lcm x Figure P4.06] 3 = Y160.] [4PC((2x+y) 2)3/210.11: Locations of charges in Problem 4.2' R' = YO.21c) for the line of charge shown in Fig.1 X 103 (Vim). E R = y2cm _.4 (pC/m) exists in air along the zaxis between z 0 and z :. ( _) X Q2(y2z4) X 10= ..1 +z 2 = 4 X 106 4n:eo ylOz+z J(O...z0.14 106/0.. If Ey = 0.] 4Jr.93 x 10 [Y4.+ =~~.1)2+Z2_ 1 J 0.05 ~_o = 35.liz) )2 2]3/ dz (0.
CHAPTER 4 133 Scm Wem x Figure P4.Ji) (0.0 +zz 4 it"} (' Plr 2)3/2 4n:fo r.7 +i226 kV/m (c) At z = 5 em.4 .0.j4. . (7t)"} 4" + ZZ 899 (r2+z2)3/2 (a) At the origin. (4.7 .6 .lE= i81.02)x+ "(v'z2 ) . dl R' = rO.i226 kV/m .02 d<j>.+ Z (2PIT 2)3/2 41CCQ r Z 1 (0.. .(cost!»ry . (b) z 5 em. o zrcosq.21c) gives E= = 41tER2 Since f = icos4>+ysinq.33. E = %:81. E = x1. = 4 "1 1C 4 / 2 {(.02)y+ " .66 'MV/rn (b) At.B Electric charge is distributed <dong an arc located in the xy plane and defined by r 2 em and 0 S $ rr. and (c) z 5 em.yrsm<jld$+zz o "1C } _ { (sm<j»rx 'IX/4 . find E at (0.YO.02+Zz_ Use of Eq. P4.c " ".13.4 . If PI = 5 (flC/m). z) and then evaluate it at (a) the origin. E= = r d$ = 0.12: Line charge. = :s = = Solution: For the arc or charge shown in Fig.z = 5 cm. Problem 4.Y33. and f Rdq !' R= 41tER3 Plrdl Io !4 ft (fr+iz:)PIT 41t£o(r2 +z2)3/2 0 d<j> .
Call it element 1. These two electric fields have equal zcomponents. Apply Coulomb's law to obtain an expression for the electric field at any point F( r. The electric field at P due to this element is dEl. 1jI. Show that your result reduces to the expression given by Eq. Selation. Problem 4.==+==:(.8 from e e Oto e = sin1 LI2 o Vr=:r2. and hence they will cancel.02 m y x Figure P4. Thus.33) as the lengthLis extended to infinity. Similarly.will add. 0) on the xy plane. Their components along i.14 A line of charge with uniform density Pl extends between z = ~L/2 and z = LI2 along the zaxis.:==L/=:=:=2~)2 . Our integration variable is z. Consider an element of charge of height dz at height z.13: Line charge along an arc. but it will be easier to integrate over the variable .134 CHAPTER 4 z z 1::+•. but in opposite directions. the net field due to both elements is where the cos S factor provides the components of dEl and dE:z along r. (4. _ _ ~2 em == r 0. an element at z produces dEz.
Pl r 6=0 0 Zn£o Pl = f Z cos3 :. =: If  PI 2n:EQr . with R E= = T / cas e. = nan e and dz = T se2 e de.r e TSec2 SdS nsoT 106n casada 0 _ ~ PI 0. Hence.=====:===~ J LI2 r2 + (L/2)2 . and 1. ::::r sm GO 21tEoT For L~ r. we have L/2 l z=O dE = 160 diE :::::lGo~.CHAPTER 4 135 dz r 1 dE2 z '_ Figure P4_14: Line charge of length L.
Solutionr If 1Fl = force on QI. we use Problem 4.lS Repeat Example 45 for the circular disk of charge of radius a. . lP'robllem .psOr where Pso is a constant.16 Multiple charges at different locations are said to be in equilibrium if the force acting on anyone of them is identical in magnitude and direction to the force acting on any of the others. but in the present case assume the surface charge density to vary with T as Ps .136 CHAPTER 4 and lE = j __.E!_ 2n:EoT (infinite line of charge). Suppose we have two negative charges. with psor: To perform the integration. one located at the origin and carryingcharge ge. and the other located on the positive xaxis at a distance d from the first one and carrying charge 36e. _ 2 Solution: We start with the expression for dE given in Example 45 but we replace p. Determine the location. polarity and magnitude of a third charge whose placement would bring the entire system into equilibrium.:t.
=2 1 d 324e 9Q3 324e x J2 9Q3 =+ Cd xf XZ 36Q3 36Q3 (d xf . and Q3 are respectively _ RZIQIQ2 IF1Z F7 = RI2QIQ2 . ali parallel to the zaxis. The forces acting on charges QI...x)z ' 36eQ3 .~.. 429 (p4.QR~z R23QzQ3 =i 324e Z .17). 4"JtEo(d .41tEotf2 geQ3 x 36eQ3 4TCEo(d . :R31QIQ3 _ • 324~ _ geQ3 2 x n+Xz. The third charge has to be positive and has to lie somewhere between them in order to counteract their repulsion force. Fz = force on Qz> F3 then equilibrium means that = force on Q3. IF..CH..16: Three collinear charges. Qz..APTER4 Qz = 36e 137 x 1.17 Three infinite lines of charge. = F2 = F3· The two original charges are both negative. which mean they would repel each other... equilibrium requires that +. Solution of the above equations yields d x= 3 Section 441. 4TCEoRZl 41tEQR3• 41tEoa41tE{)X T  41CEoRiz + + R32Q3Qz 41Cf. x ~(dX)4 d i> Figure P4. If the .x)2 JF3 = RI3QIQ3 41tEoRh = i +i 41tEoR~3 41tEox2 Hence.: auss's Law G Problem 4. are located at the three corners of the kiteshaped arrangement shown in Fig.
In the present case.33). But cos s = Rl/R2. add. == 5 (nC/m).17.ion: The field due to an infinite line of charge is given by Eq. SoJuil.1$ Three infinite lines of charge. E3 is along y because the line charge on the yaxis is negative. and PI. the total E at the origin is The components of lE] and E2 along i cancel and their components along . Also. PI] = 5 (nClm). are all parallel to the zaxis. Prob~em 4. I • Figure P4. show that the electric field is zero at the origin. (4.138 CHAPTER 4 two right triangles are symmetrical and of equal corresponding sides.17: Kiteshaped arrangment of line charges for Problem 4. P12 5 (nC/m). If they pass through the respective points = . Hence. Hence.
X E= 2~ [a2~f? ~] 10 9 CV/m). E:::: EJ +lE2 +E3. Ph = 5 Pl) :::: Pit.b) in the xy plane. F ==x  2P1R cos e + x. using Eq. (0.0).O. 0).b) PI] El Pl2 x E3 (O. (433). Evaluate your result for a= 2 em and b = 1 ern. PI1 :::: 5 (nC/m).. Components of line charges 1 and 3 along y cancel and components along zadd.PTER4 }' 139 (O.b) Pil Figure P4. Solution. find the electric field at (a. b).j a2 + b2. and (O. Hence.2 I .18: Three parallel line charges. . (0.CH4.PI 21t£oa 21tEol 1 with cosS:::: Ja2 + b2 a and RJ =. (nClm).
IfP(O. If the strip is in air and has a uniform charge distribution Ps.1<idE ! 1 .O. the fields of line charge at distance y and line charge at distance y give contributions that cancel each other along y and add along z_ For each such pair. E.19 A horizontal strip lying in the xy plane is of width d in the ydirection and infinitely long in the xdirection. (4. At point P.25). use Coulomb's law to obtain an explicit expression for the electric field at a point P located at a distance h above the centerline of the strip.19: Horizontal strip of charge. §O[U[Rc:n: The strip of charge density Ps (C/m2) can be treated as a set of adjacent line charges each of charge PI Ps dy and width dv.70 (kV/m).:::: :%. Problem 4.2.h) / / / / / Figure P4. Extend your result to the special case where d is infinite and compare it with Eq. = dE = 2 2ps dycos9 _ 2nzoR .140 CHAPTER 4 For a = 2 em and b = 1 em. z dE~h.
2£0 which is identical with Eq.25).26) (b) Integrate the charge density over the volume as in Eq. (4. Sehstion: (a) By applying Eq.29).) IJ :=0~ 24. (idzdy) ~ tL 2(x+ y) ~2 dzdy ~ ( 2z (2Y+ &". =2 10 60 cos 8 h ·d9 h 2 1tEo eo. and (c) the total charge Q in the cube. dl2 TCG{j 0 case ~ Ps dy=zR 1t£o 0 ~ p. (4. we integrate from y = 0 to dj2. E= 141 e = 0 to i: ~. y. (b) the total charge Q enclosed in a cube 2 m on a side. (4.:=2 = 1:o1:o(i2(x+y)+ .20 eo = n/2 and E = z ~. determine (3) pv by applying Eq. which corresponds to eo = s1n1 [(dI2)/(h2 + (dj2)2)1/2].. Y(3x2y») . (4.CHAPTE. Given the electric flux density D= X2(x+y)+y(3x2y) (erro2). Problem 4. .27): Q . cos e For an infinitely wide sheet. ds = Ffron! + Fback + Fright + Fieft + Fiop + Fbonom.: [ \1'. (4.. and zaxes and one of its comers at the origin. Io dE=z p.R4 With R = hi case. Thus. (4. located in the first octant with three of its sides coincident with the X.29) Q= i'fron! f D . Dd'1l J'T/ = 12 .26). =0 12 Jz=O [2 y=O Odxdydz = O. (c) Apply Gauss' law to calculate the total charge from Eq. obtained by applying Eq.
~. y:=O ~. (idydx) <:.12 + 0 + 0 = 0_ = X:r. Problem 4.1y==O Z=O ? ? (i2(x+y)+j(3x2y)) . ~ = 12 12 1.D a = ax (xl Z3) = ll66.0 Thus 0  = J 10 . Fback= t fu ~ ~. fief[= {2 t ee ~.& e . (5dzdx) y=o (3x. jJv = 'V . x=O z=O (il(x 0 =0 +y) +y(3x dy dx = o. Fbottom= 12 12 1:0/. jl.O dzdy = ( :if 12 ) • z=o 2 = 8. ~Z4 2 2 2 =0 12 =0)=0 .20 for D (a) From Eq..:=0 (i2(x+y)+y(3x2y)) .. (b) Total charge Q is given by Eq.2(x+y)+y(3x2y)) }x=o}=o .Gop ~*: 12 = 1: 12 J=o . = f~01:o(i2(x+Y)+Y(3X2Y) = k [ iii. (4.2y) dz dx )=0 x_o kO =_ (z (~~) 2 (idydx) 2 =0 ) 2 =0 = 12. (xdzdy) y:=O Z:=O 2(x+y) X.ji (C/m 2 ).26).<=0 .' ~ I. (ydzdx) y=2 W ~ (. Frigh!= {2 {2 (i. .27): Q:=: 1 0/ V D do/ = 1 Z=O 2 12 12 . ~ ~ . 2y ))[~ . =3' C.=0 dxdy dz = .ds = 24 1. ~ =121: =0 (3x2y) y=2 dz dx e: LO (Z(~~4X)  2 =0 ) 2 x=O =4.21 SohrtiiOIl1! Repeat Problem 4. 8 . r '" ~ J (' ~ t ? 142 CHAPYER4 Ro. (4..~ 12 =1 2 x =0 z=2 0 =2 dydx:=O..z3 }=o "...4...
From Table 3. (4. 1 4l=oJe==o 211: (It (RDR)' (RR2sin6dSd$) ~R2(211:)[ = Qrol.x. a < R < b. Thus.22 Charge Ql is uniformly distributed over a thin spherical shell of radius a. Using Gauss's law in R_R2 integral form CEq. .3 c.ex.15). where Qtol is the total charge enclosed in S_For a spherical surface of radius R.1. Solutione Using symmetry considerations. we find :IE from D. sin a de d<j> for an element of a spherical surface. so only to the integral. D· ds= Ffrom Ffronl + Fback + Fri~hr + Fief! + Fmp + Fbouorn' and Fback (integration over z surfaces) will contribute Note that D =5lD. ds :::. with b > a_ Apply Gauss's law to find E in the regions R < a. cosS]Q = Q. andR> b. 64 3' Thus Q . (4. we know D = RDR.1 64 = J D· ds = 64 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 :::. we know a linear.29)). and charge Q2 is uniformly distributed over a second spherical shell of radius b. 3 Problem 4.CHAPTER 4 143 (c) Using Gauss' law we have Js 1. isotropic material has the constitutive relationship D = c:lE. D R = 4n:R2· Q!O! From Eq.
(Vim). Soirun!]on: . $=0 RPoR. Find the total charge inside the sphere. < R < b.24 In a certai~ region of space.lkR2sinEldBd$1 !R=a = 21tpoa3 foT. Qtot = 0.23 The electric flux density inside a dielectric sphere of radius a centered at the origin is given by where Po is a constant. (b) In the region a CHAPTER 4 iE = RER = 4n:R2£ = 0 RQtol (V /rn). Solution: Q= 15 lD.144(a) In the region R < a. Problem 4. IPn)blem 4. (c) In the region R > b. (VIm). sin9dS:: 2:rcpoa3cosam = 4npoa3 (C). the charge density is given in cylindrical coordinates by the function: Apply Gauss's law to find D.ds = Je=o r J{2T.
D. Hence. so will D. r dr ::::.TL). v·:o with Dr being a function of T. = 20rer. (rD. coincident with the zaxis.?er D = f D = no [~(1eJ"(l + r)) .CHAPTER 4 z 145 t 1 L r Figure P4. 40rcL[. Symmetry suggests that D has the functional form D = f. Q = 2rrL fo' 20re r .) TaT .ds=Q. ! ~.. Metlnod 1: lInrtegnd Form. = Pv. we construct a cylinder of radius T and length L.24: Gaussian surface. = D(21r.re + 2(1. J t oa« tn. Hence.e'O + r»)]. of Gauss's Law Since pv varies as a function of r only. r ] .
L(? . For T 2: 3 m. = pvO' r.: For r For 1 ::.: . r::. l~r::. r 2:: 3 m. ds = Q. =r _Pvo(?1) 2r . SOhlltiOIDl. = 20(2(1. < 1 m.r di (rD.146 CHAPTER 4 for . . a D = so. . Apply Gauss's law to find ]J in all regions. _ iiVr Dr' 2iCrL lTh Jl.) = 20rer.25 An infinitely long cylindrical shell extending between T = 1 m and r = 3 m contains a uniform charge density pvQ.)" h = r Dr = r pv01tL(? 1) 2 1tr L . 3 m. (rDr)dr= for 20?er dr.3m. D = O.. = no [~(1e'( 1 + r)) rl). Problem 4.er(l + r))  r1e1.12).
pv(O)=a=O. Problem 4. 147 Figure P4.CHAPTER 4 z. Pv(R)::::: a+bR. .25: Cylindrical shell. find the corresponding variation of D.26 If the charge density increases linearly with distance from the origin such that Pv = 0 at the origin and Pv ::::: 10 Clm3 at R = 2 ill.
RJ = Rz and R3 = Rs. with. RJ =. (a) Find the electric potential at any point P along the xaxis. Hence. Rl = 'J (x .a/2) and a point charge of Q at each of the other two corners.(2) = 2b = 10. (b) EvaluateVatx=a/2 Solution. Applying Gauss's law to a spherical surface of radius R. CHAPTER 4 Problem 4. b= 5.~) (x+ ~/ 2 + + R3 Atx= = (~r ' (~r .. a/2.27 A square in the xy plane in free space has a point charge of +Q at comer (a/2. _ »>: aVS 2 ' .148 p..a/2) and the same at comer (a/2. 2 a R.
47 (P4. (4. (2) Consider a. Solation. which was obtained on the basis of Coulomb's law.O.J5a = O. Tile potential at P is dV = _. Compare your final expression with Eq. . (3. 41tEoCr2 + ZZ)1/2 The potential due to the entire disk is . (b) Use your result to find :IE and then evaluate it for z h.) Obtain an expression for the electric potential V at a point P(O.24).. ring of charge at a radial distance r.55Q 1t£oa .z) on the zaxis._ = 21tpsr dr 41tEoR .CHAPTER 4 y 149 Q a/l Q a/2 Q Figure P4.28) has uniform charge density Ps across its surface. Problem 4. V = 21t£o Q (2 2) .27: Potential due to four point charges.!:J. The charge contained in width dris = dq = ps(2:n:Tdr) = 21tpsrdr.28 The circular disk of radius a shown in Fig.
z) is given by V :: Pla/[~(a2 + ?)1/2]. (4. z :: [ z] .y dy . (a) show that the electrical potential at (O.24) when h. P4. Problem 4.j a2 + Z2 _av _av _av _ p.28: Circular disk of charge.48c) gives Point (O.z) coordinates.67) in Eq.2) in cylindrical . (b) E = .4>.29 A circular ring of charge of radius a lies in the xy plane and is centered at the origin. and (b) find the corresponding electric field E. 1 .z GZ = Z 2Eo .29. Hence. = (0. Solution: (a) For the ring of charge shown in Fig.150 CHAPTER 4 = 27C Ps r dr y x Figure P4. for r = 0. The expression for E reduces to Eq. (4.\1V = x dx .O.$. If the ring is in air and carries a uniform density PI.z) in Cartesian coordinates corresponds to (r.. using Eq.O. (3.
= SOil!ltiOR!I: From Eq.CHAPTER 4 z 151 Figure P4. :IE :::::  'l:7V .:::: z_PIa >J 2E. (4. the electric field due to an infinite line of charge is Hence. the potential difference 15 VI2= 1~ 1~ E·dj='1. _Pia z +zz::= 2Eo (a2 + Z2 )3/2 (VIm). (b) From Eq.33). The line charge is coincident with the zaxis and extends from z = 112 to z = l/2.31 Find the electric potential V at a location a distance b from the origin in the xy plane due to a line charge with charge density PI and of length l.oOz a (2 a ?)1/2 ::::. .29: Ring of charge. (4. Problem 430 Show that the electric potential difference VI2 between two points in air at radial distances TJ and T2 from an infinite line of charge with density pz along the zaxis is Vl2 (pz/2rreo) In(r2Ird. 71 Problem 4. '2 ~I ~ '·f:dr::::::'ln 21tEoT 21tEo (~\ ).51).
103 x 4n:c:o =2.o x 2 3 = a8  1 (mV/m).. A we can solve for qusingEq. 413.48c).pyER4 z 1lR. Solution: For R = 1m and lEI = 2 (4.31: Line of charge of length C.4nc:o 10 103 X 41t€o Again using Eq. d = 1 em and (mV/m) at R = 1 m and e = 0°. [E] = 2 mv/m. .'1 = . (4. (4.jz1 + b::! T Figure P4.31]: Vb= () 11 41tE l'R' PI dl' = J:!. Find E atR = 2 mand e:::: 90°. P4.. (C).152 CHP.  is Hence. qd = 41tEoR 3 (R2cos8+Ssin8). PEt = q= (4~) d 2= 2mVJm at e = 0°. Solutiea: From Eq. we have (R(O)+6) _  = O..1112 4nc dz 112 ~ Z2 { b2 = ~ln 41tE ( 1+~12 +4b2 ) I + ~ [2 + 4b2 • Problem 432 For the electric dipole shown in Fig.56) to find E at R E = 2 m and e = 90°.= O. we can find the voltage at a distance b away from a line of charge [Fig.56): e = 0°.41tE{)x 102 4nE.
1.j. v ~~ .. o (a) v E (b) ..CHAPTER 4 153 Problem 4.1' . sketch the corresponding distribution of E (in all cases.33 For each of the following distributions of the electric potential V.. ~ . the vertical axis is in volts and the horizontal axis is in meters): Solution.
6012 "": 15 ~" ++>4 E (c) Figure P4.. Solution: VAS = VA .12 = z 2" z c lor z?: 0 .12 . Hence.or z 1 . ~ Along zdirection. R·zaz= 4 z2 2  [fO 4 12 z?""z Ad z + A Z 10 0 2 . both on the zaxis.34 Given the electric field find the electric potential of point A with respect to point B where A is at B at 4 m. R = z and E z :5 o.154 CHAPTER 4 4 .33. VAB=  .VB +2 m and = .LA E dL A .12 f.33: Electric potential distributions of Problem 4. .12 Z"'Z Ad z z: J = 3 V. . and lR =z and E = 2:? . Problem 4.
9 =.4m) in Cartesian coordinates with respect to point B(D.35 An infinitely long line of charge with uniform density PI 6 (nC!m) lies in the xy plane parallel to the yaxis at x = 2 ill. Problem 4. Find the potential VAS at point A(3 rn.CHAPTER 4 155 A i z~2m B z =4m Figure P434: Potential between BandA.O.06V. = v= where 71 ~ln(12) 2nc:o II and 72 are the distances of A and B _ In this case. Hence.J0 m.O) by applying the result of Problem 4. .O. 11= 72:=:: )(32)2+42 2 m. Sch:ntiom: According to Problem 4.30. V AS = 6 X 10X 21t x 8.85 1012 In ( 2 ) v'17 :=:: 78.30.
lE = IE! + E2 = Z PSI 2f:o . B(O. E would point downwards for positive PS2 on the top plate.2 (nC/m2) occupies the plane z = 6 rn. PS2 = . Problem 4.36 The xy plane contains a uniform sheet of charge with PSI = 0.  9 . 0.2 m).O.59 V. and VAc for A(D.Z PS2 2Eo = i 2PSI 2£0 = Z PSI . 2 ro. ~ PSI IE 1=2:· 2Eo In the region below the top plate.Ps I' Hence. only change in position along z can result in change in voltage.85 X X 101012 :::.i dz £0 = _ PSI zl6 = _ 6Ps Eo 10 Co l == _ 6 x 0.2 8.O). Eo Since E is along i. For any point above the xy plane. VEe. VAB =_ Jo {6 i fu .25). 4) <» <> . Solution: We start by finding the E field in the region between the plates.35: Line of charge parallel to vaxis. Find VAB.: 135..O.2 (nC/m2) and a second sheet with Psz = 0. (4. "" x Figure P4. and qo. 181 due to the charge on xy plane is.156 CHAPTER 4 4m A(3.. In this case. from Eq..6 m).
The voltage at C depends only on the zcoordinate of C. and Uh. and (e) the power dissipated in the bar. If a voltage of 5 V is applied between the ends of the bar and f.uh = 0.13 (m2N·s). Hence. VBe = VAS VAC 2 = VAB+ 6 == vEe (135. .05 (rn2rv·s). .39 V.20= 3 == 45. (c) the drift velocities u.37 A cylindrical bar of silicon has a radius of 2 mm and a length of 5 em. find (2) the conductivity of silicon.59+45. (b) the current I flowing in the bar.CHAPTER 4 z 157 x Figure P4. and Nh = Ne.59) = 135.36: Two parallel planes of charge.20 V. (d) the resistance of the bar. Problem 4. with point A being at the lowest potential and B at the highest potential.6e = 0. 90. Ne == 1.5 X 10J6 electrons/nr'.
9nA = 9.. parts b and c. (c) From Eqs. :IE (mls) . = tIbE = +(0.!e + NuJ.9 (nA). ille ~h = PeE = (0. (iil) Similarly to Example 4.2 (m N·s).4 x 1019 electrons or holes/m '.) To find the resistance.8.6 x 1019) = 4. Nh 2.4 + 0. = crEA = (2.2)(1.13)(100) IE! = 13. (e) Power dissipated in the bar is P Problem 4.(2 x 103)2) = 2.65).37 fOT a bar of germanium with fJe 0. = ffeE = (OA.05)(1.38 Ph = (SV)(542. o = (Nef.9nA) = 2. (d.2)(100) lEI = 20 lEI . u.4 1= JA x 1019)(0.Je + NnJ.4 (m2 N ·5).1h)e = (1. (4. = .EI E E (m/s). Solution: (a) Conductivity is given in Eq.lu)e = (2. (c) From Eqs.65).62a) and (4. = Repeat Problem 4. parts b and c.)( 100) lEI Uh E = 40 iEI lE (m/s).32 x 104) ( 5V) 0.62a) and (4.Q). (4. o = (Nef. 1= JA = crEA = (4.32 x 104 (S/m). (4.!1hlE:::: (0.05)( v 100) lEI lE = 511£1 lE (m/s). (0) Similarly to Example 4.5 x 10l6)(0..62b).3) (:'~5) 18 (n.8.89 (rnA). and N.13 +0.21 = IV SV (M.3 (Srrn).~ 158 Solution: (a) Conductivity is given in Eq. 2 = = = 0. we use what we calculated above.05 (n(2 x 1O3 f) = 542. (4.6 x 1019) = 2.62b).7 (pW). R = I = 542.
The inner cylinder has radius a and is made of a material with conductivity (ib and the outer cylinder. from Eq. If the two ends of the resistor are capped with conducting plates. the electric field everywhere in the resistor will be parallel to the axis of the resistor. 7 x 105 (AimZ) = a ( 2 (V) ) 100 (m) . Problem 4. If the density of the current flowing through it is 7 x lOs (AJmz). has = 3. Soiution. show that the resistance between the two ends is R l/[n( Cila2+ .39 A 100mIong conductor of uniform cross section has a voltage drop of 2 V between its ends. ()2A2 Cl"1JU? (J27C(JJ2~c?) l h l . Problem 4.CHAPTER 4 (d) To find the resistance.40 to find the resistance of a 10cmlong hollow cylinder (Fig. (kQ). identify the material of the conductor.70). or Problem 4.5 (mVil).41) made of carbon with 03 x 104 (S/m). we know that for two concentric R= cylinders. is made of a material with conductivity 0"2. the ends of the coaxial resistor are each uniform at the same potential.40.89 mA) = 14. n: ( Cl"ja 2 +o2(b I 2 a )) 2 (Q). Hence. From Table B2. . Due to the conducting =+::::+=+ R Rinner Router 1 1 1 ()IAI I. in which case the two cylinders can be considered to be two separate resistors in parallel. we find that aluminum a = 3. Then.73 in the bar is P =N = (5V)(2. (}z(b2 = = plates. (4. = From Problem 4.5 x 107 (S/m). P4. Sohrtion: We know that conductivity characterizes a material: ('j J = crE.4& A coaxial resistor of length 1 consists of two concentric cylinders. extending between r = a and r b.5 X 107 (S'm). 159 R (e) Power dissipated = 1.t?))].41 Solution: Apply the result of Problem 4. we use what we calculated V 5V = I = 2.89mA above.
.160 CHAPTER 4 Carbon Figure P4.02)2) = 2.1 (ron). 1= IOcm. 2 x 106 . and (b) the resistance between the two square faces. = 14 (mQ).41.1 R= 3nx lQ4((O. X A == 10 em x 2 x 103 mm == 20 x 102 10 x 102 R = 3.41: Cross section of hollow cylinder of Problem 4.42 A 2 x 1O3mmthiek square sheet of aluminum has 10 em X 10 em faces. (See Appendix B for tne electrical constants of materials). Problem 4.03)2(O.5 X 107 x 2 X 107 106 = 2 X 107 m2. (J == 3. I == 2 X 103 mm and A = 10 em x 10 em = 102 m2.5 X 107 (S/m) [Appendix B). 0. Find: (a) the resistance between opposite edges on a square face.· R= 35 x 107 x 102 =5. crA Fur aluminum. Sohman: (a) R=_l. (b) Now. For air 0"1 == 0 (S/m). C>2 = 3 X 104 (Szm): hence.71 pO .
3).ll!. l?'roblem4_414 An infinitely longdielectric cylinder with Elr 4 and described by r:S 10 em is surrounded by a material with £21" = 8. find E2 and Dz in the surrounding region. iD2) = Ps· = lElt = ~3?cosd."" E r . = density Solution: We know that lEI! = E21 for any 2 media.08 x toII = 2 x 8.>+z3 E1E1n (VIm)..63 sinS == sphere with Elf = 3 is embedded .. find IEl if £2 X3 . . c. == r?sin<l>$3?cosq. Solution: Using Table 43. £2 2 Thus. in a medium with (V1m) in the surrounding region. n= Ps (from Table 4. S=cos1 (~) =~r. 8Ea (i'"~?Sin$ $3.45 A 2cm dielectric = R3 cos e .2 = 2n I . ([Ill . == 0).D2) . IfE.85 X 1OIZ + 36 = 40 (Vim). EI == i3  y2 + i40 (V 1m). Finding the angle Ez makes with the zaxis: 4 = . fl.y2+24 == 2Eo. 0) . Hence.3.. which gives Ell = = Ps+£ZE2x £1 = 7. (EI . Using Table 4.08 X 1011 2Eo + 2 18(4) 7.?sinlj>$3?cos<P+i3. 2 ~2 == E2E2:=. If Ez 4. Elt E2h n· (DI p.E21 = £2t.2COScj>+i3) (C/m2)./9+4+ 16cos9. E2 == f. £2 = 18£0.+i3 (V 1m) in the cylinder region.08 x 1011 (C/m2)_'Nhat angle does E2 make with the zaxis? EI = (Vim).!.D2) = Ps. find E I and 01 and in the sphere. Hence. Eit . = El E In = rsmej). and iii· (DI = EZE2.) = Ps.c2{Ez . Solutioa.43 With reference to Fig_ 4l9. Hence. == 0. Assume that = no free charges exist along the cylinder's boundary.CffAPTER4 161 Section 49: Boundary Conditions Problem 4.n (since p. and the boundary has a surface charge Ps 7. . Problem E2r == 9.y2_ Also. lEI! E::{ = X3 .
Eo Eo (air) Figure P4. iE. Hence.47: Dielectric slabs in Problem 4.41 Figure. . = 3Eo(R9cosS .47.·· D::d= Ps. Problem ~.47) shows three planar dielectric slabs of equal thickness but with different dielectric constants.99sin9) (Om1). E2 inside the sphere is zero. what is the total charge Q on me sphere's surface? Sohlttion: From Table 4·3. find the angle of IE In each of the other layers.162 CHAPTER 4 I So D.33 sinS) = Eo(R27 cos G. Ell = £21= 3sin9. since we (DI assume it is a perfect conductor. for a sphere with surface area S = 4naz. If Eo in air makes an angle of 45° with respect to the zaxis. Preblem 4.::::: R9cosee3sine (VIm).·!fJ.46 If E = RsO (Vim) at the surface of a 5cm conducting sphere centered at the origin.434(a) CP4. = iSlEI ERI =:~ £R1 = (~) 3cosS = gease.
= Soliution: From Eq. and the dielectric material is mica with Er = 67 Sohdion: (a) From Eq. (4. 12n{8.60) = 78.6 (p:Clm).. b == 2 em.a ::. F= E.CHAPTER 4 163 Solution: Labeling the upper air region as region 0 and using Eq. From Eq.131). IE! ~ 21tEr PI PI = Zrc(6Eo)(lO2) = 200 (MV/m) which gives PI = (200 M'V'rm)(2n:)6(8.7 X 109 (N). (b) The dielectric breaks down when = for a < r < b. Sections 4Hll2.70) = 81. (4. 62 = tanI 93 = tanI (:: ~Ell) = tanI (~tan71.9°. we can find the voltage corresponding to that charge density. (2) At what value of r is IE! maximum? (b) What is the breakdown VOltage if a == 1 em. d = 1 em. Probteen 4. Ell = ·tanI (: tan eo) = tan J (3 tan45°) = 71. X 1012 F/m) In(Z) = 1.854 (667.39 (MV). In the coaxial capacitor of Example 412.£!_In (~) 2rcz .. and Er 4 if the voltage across it is 50 V. it is evident that [E] is IE! > 200 (MV/m) (see Table 42).6 0 .01) = 667. (4.= z2£o(l0 2 X 104) ( 50 ) 0.7°.114). the angle is again 45°. (:~ tan 92) = tan1 (~tan78.99).01 2 = z442.115).6. v = . In the lower air region.854 x 1012)(0.4!EI2 z. Thus.49 Dielectric breakdown occurs in a material whenever the magnitude of the field E exceeds the dielectric strength anywhere in that material. (4. or .lf!ld ·1L1:Capacitance 4 and Electrical Energy Problem 4.48 Determine the force of attraction in a parallelplate capacitor with A = 10 em".£/m). E fpI/ZTi£r maximum at r = a. .
d = do + uot + iat2. The force is directed from the negatively charged plate towards the positively charged plate.39 (MV) is the breakdown voltage for this capacitor.1 X 1031 kg is injected at a point adjacent to the negatively charged plate in the region between the plates of an alifilled parallelplate capacitor with separation of 1 em and rectangular plates each 10 crn2 iII area Fig. (4. find (a) the force acting on the electron.6 X 1019 C and mass 1Ile = 9. (b) the acceleration of the electron.6 x 1019_ 10 0. and (c) the time it takes the electron to reach the positively charged plate. .1 X 10 = 1. assuming that it starts from rest.112). Problem 450 An electron with charge Qe = 1. '1_ ! 1:+' i Vo= lOV Figure P4. where in the present case the start position is do = 0.6xlO16 9 31 .:y. (0) a = F = m 1. (c) The electron does not get fast enough at: the end of its short trip for relativity to manifest itself. Combining these two relations. If the voltage across the capacitor is 10 V.50: Electron between charged plates of Problem 450. classical mechanics is adequate to find the transit time. 164 CHAPTER 4 V Thus. Solution: (a) The electric force acting on a charge Qe is given by Eq.6 X 1016 (N).76 X 10 14 (mJS2). (4.01 = 1.14) and the electric field in a capacitor is given by Eq. From classical mechanics. we have F = QeE = Qe·d V = 1. 433 (P450). = 1.
CHAPTER 4 the total distance traveled is d = 1 em.52(a») depicts a capacitor consisting of two parallel. 434a (p4.133) E2A2 . E=x(r+2z)+yrz(y+z) Calculate the electrostatic energy stored in the region . and 0 5_ z ~ 3 m. 0 5_ Y 5_ 2 m.7 xlO = 10. where Cl C2 (4. The space between the plates contains two adjacent dielectrics. Problem 4. . the initial velocity :to is given by part (b). with C=C1+C2. (4. one with permittivity £1 and surface area Aj and another with £2 and A2. Problem 4.124). (4.134) To this end.The objective of this problem is to show that the capacitance C of the configuration shown in Fig.52 Figure 434a (p4. you are asked to proceed as follows: (a) Find the electric fields E. Solving for the time t . and E2 in the two dielectric layers.51 In a dielectric medium with Zr = 4. and the acceleration = = '\ I 2 x 0. the electric field is given by (VIm).S2(a)) is equivalent to two capacitances in parallel.01 9 6 14 = 10. conducting plates separated by a distance d. r 165 = 0.1 m 5_ x 5_ 1 ill.7 x lOs 1.S2(b»).7 (ns).132) == = cJAl d' d (4. as illustrated in Fig. 434b (p4. Solution: Electrostatic potential energy is given by Eq.
166 CHA. Figure P4_52: (a) Capacitor with parallel dielectric section.132) is indeed a valid result..) Within each dielectric section. (31.. i .PTER4 T d 1 (a) v + t (b) . ~ ~ [. Solution: (c) Figure P4. and (b) equivalent circuit. (b) Calculate the energy stored in each section and use the result to calculate C1 amdC2· (c) Use the total energy stored in the capacitor to obtain an expression forC Show that Eq.! . Ewill point from the plate with positive voltage .•. (4..52: (c) Electric field inside of capacitor.
.35£0 == 3. Problem 4. E1 (lb) From V = Ed. (b) conducting plates are on front and back faces of structure in Fig. WeI = 2C1V2. (e) conducting plates are Fig.CHAPTER 4 to the plate with negative voltage. e2 Ez A2 _ 4 (5 X 3) X 104 d .. 435(b) (P4.1 X 10 12 F.53(a)). (c) Total energy is Hence.52 to determine the capacitance for each of the following configurations: (a) conducting plates are on top and bottom faces of rectangular structure in Fig. (4.. as shown in Fig. Cl = £1 d A1 = 2Eo (5xl)xW4 2x 10 2 = 580 _  X 10 X z . 435(a) (p4.z = d ' But. C2 = £2 " d. Soiution: 011 top and bottom faces of the cylindrical structure in (a) The tWO capacitors share the same voltage. 435(a) (p4.53(b)).V =. 167 . == £1  AI (2 x l ) X 104 2 = 2Eo z = 0. A2 1 Hence C1 = EI AI d' Similarly.53 Use the result of Problem 4.>Co 2 X 102 X 30 Eo 102 C (b) = C1 +Cz = (580 + 30£0) C! 102 = 0. from Eq. d 5 x 10 .880 x 10 . hence they are in parallel. .121).53(a».c. P452(c).
£2 = 4Eo.168 £ . 2 El "" 820. (b) c:? = 2EQ Figure P4.53: Dielectric sections for Problems 4_53 and 4_55_ . CHAPTER 4 (a) '1 = 2IlmJ.
04 10 X 10 X 12 F. (c) Show that C is given byEq._ 1:2 = d2·· V2 . C2 1L = £2 Ad2 = 4£0 2xlO.. (b) Calculate the energy stored in each of the dielectric layers and then use the sum to obtain an expression for C.= ( r1).)2 = 0.09 1012 E ? ' ) C3 = A~ d 1tEo" = 2Eo2 (n:d) 2 = (8 2 3 X 1010 X 10. What are the corresponding electric fields El and E2? By applying the appropriate boundary condition at the interlace between the two dielectrics. (4. (2 x 10 3 )2 = 0. then and .. V. C. 4 d 5 x 105 12 C = C1 +Cz = 0. obtain explicit expressions for Eland E2 in terms of EJ.18 X 101 F C:::: C\ +CZ+C3 = 0. 20~ (4 I  X 103)2 = 0. is equal to the series combination of the capacitances of the individual layers.:!.CHAPTER LJ 169 Cz :::: £z A2 :::: £0 (3 x 2) X 1~4 = 24 Eo x 102.. (c) Aj C1 = EJ d ::::8Ea (rcrf) 2 x 10 "" 41CEo = .. Cl +Cz (4..5 x 10.54 The capacitor shown in Fig.136). C1 and Cz. 436 (P4. £3.F. We wish to use energy considerations to show that the equivalent capacitance of the overall capacitor. £2.136) (a) Let Vj and V2 be the electric potentials across the upper and lower dielectrics. and the indicated dimensions of the capacitor. ProMem 4. respectively.tfiolrn: (a) If V! is the voltage across the top layer and V2 across the bottom layer. SoDul!.31 x 1O 1Z F.54) consists of two parallel dielectric layers. namely c= C1CZ where .
j """""+ VI El + 1 V tC. I 1 ==.54: (c) Electric fields inside of capacitor. .. and (b) equivalent circuit (Problem 4..170 CHilPTER4  Id (a) Td! 2 :..54). .l V. ~ ~' £. ~~ £2 Figure P4. According to boundary conditions. This means that at the interface between the two dielectric layers. 1 t T d..v + ~! E:2 1 ell c. the normal component of D is continuous across the boundary (in the absence of surface charge).I..v r (b) Figure P454: (a) Capacitor with parallel dielectric layers.
1 d2 C2A _ EIA CI d1 T dz C1Cz + Cz ) where r _ ElA ~Id l ' · C2  £2A d2  . hence.CHAPTER or Hence. (0. = ·=£1d. j we C= _d.) Multiplying numerator and denominator of the expression for C by have c!A E2A AI d d2.+dz E2 V Similarly. BUl • Hi VYe l = 'lCV 2 . 4 171 which can be solved for Ej: E.
~3 j:.18 Sectien 412: Image Method Problem 4..z). e= C1 +C2 C1Cz = L77xL18 x 1012=0.55: Dielectric section for Problem 4·.54 to determine the capacitance for the configurations in Fig.djd). This .55.56).y. polarities. charge Q is located at a distance d above a grounded halfplane located in the xy plane and at a distance d from another grounded halfplane in the x« plane.77+ 1.56 With reference to Fig. .55 Use the expressions given in Problem 4. Since the negative yaxis is shielded from the region of interest. r_ '7   E?  A_  ."" 1 ern .55) when the conducting plates are placed on the right and left faces of the structure. 437 (P4.71 x lO12F. Cj A =: C1  d] =: 2E. Use the image method to (a) establish the magnitudes.172 CHAPTER 4 Problem 4. 4. and locations of the images of charge Q with respect to each of the two ground planes (as if each is infinite in extent).dz . emol T ~!"~":"~""~~~ Figure P4.35(a) (p4.LI8  X 10 12 F. " 'r. Soliution: (2) The original charge has magnitude and polarity +Q at location (O.77 X 1012 F. there might as well be a conducting halfplane extending in the y direction as well as the +y direction.o 4Cn v (2 x 5) x 104 2 I x lO(2x5)xl04 z 3 X 10 = 20£0 _ X 102::::: 1. and (b) then find the electric potential and electric field at an arbitrary point P(O. 1.
z direction... d). In addition. :!> V(x. Q(O.56: Charge Q next to two perpendicular.y.d) and +Q at (0.4 173 "P(O. z) d .1. ~~!IlImIl~ay .z) = Q 4m:: (1 = l:ix+y(yd) +z(zd)1 + lix+y(y+d)+z(z+d)Ilh+y(yd)+z(z+d)1 11) . an image of this conducting half plane also appears in the . d. Figure P4.. z Q. grounded. d oQ . d.. y. dld). d Qo d oQ .lix+y(y+d)+i(zd)1 1 . d) . This ground plane in the zz plane gives rise to the image charges of Q at (0.47) with N 4. d:o. I d  P4.d... (4. . conducting half planes. since charges exist on the conducting half plane in the +z direction. (0) Using Eq. e:round plane gives rise to an image charge of magnitude and polarity Q at location (O.56: (a) Image charges.
.S7). image of II is same as h. .Jxl + y2+ 2yd + Z2  + 2cf2 =2t:f2:=::. Keeping in mind that the direction of a current is defined in terms of the movement of positive charges..=. what are the directions of the image currents corresponding to h and Iz ? Soll1tiion: (2) In the image current.174 CHA.d2) From Eq... (4. (VIm).51).Jr + (y_.Jr +(y+~)2 + (Zd)2 + Jx2 +(y+:)2 +(2+d)' .jr+i'2Yd~Z2_2zIi+2d' 1 2zd 1 + . Hence. Prebtem 4.r =:::2=+=y=:::"=+=2=y=d=+=z:::.1YfER4 ~ 4~ (Jr+(y~)2 +(Zd)2 .57 Conducting wires above a conducting plane carry currents 11 and Iz in the directions shown in Fig. E = v'V (V). 438 (p4. = movement of .JX2+y22Yd~Z2+2zd+2. movement of negative charges downward positive charges upward.)2 +(Z+d)') ~ 4~ (.::_ x ..:2=+=2=z=d=.
(b) In the image current.57: (b) Solution for part (b). T1 t + I " +q @ l':=0 II (image) Figure P4. of negative charges to right = movement of positive charges to left.q @t=O FigureP4. movement. +q $[. Problem 4.57: (a) Solution for part (a).58 Use the image method to find the capacitance per unit length of an .>e +q@ l':=tJ Qi>0 .57).CHAPTER 4 12 175 (a) (b) Figure P4.57: Currents above a conducting plane (Problem 4.
Its image cylinder at z = d will have charge density PI.i§#JL)i~ ::V:::O Figure P4.58: Conducting cylinder above a conducting plane (Problem 4. as shown in Fig.33).::pz 2~(dz) ~ . we i wt:KfK"". 4 infinitely long conducting cylinder of radius a situated at a distance d from a parallel conducting plane.>I = . the electric field at any point z (at a distance of d . Solutton. For the line at z = d.S8: (a) Cylinder and its image. 439 (p4. (4.JJ.58). from Eq.58).z from the center of the cylinder) is. .MttE*$I!1.Z '. Let us distribute charge PI (C/m) on the conducting cylinder. 1<?' d t~ lt I z lG~' "s.L.' Figure P4.176 CHPJ'TER.
a): V = 1\'£1 +lEz)zdz 2.Z  z i l! 1 (pt) 2nEo( d + z)  1:  PI 21tEo(d + z) _ The potential difference between the cylinders is obtained by integrating the total electric field from z =(d . :::: r: _Pi (1 (da) 21C£o  d z + d +z d: 1) _ zdz :::: 2~ :::: 2~ PI J~~:al(d~Z + d:Z) rln(dz)+ln(d+Z)]~(. Similarly for the image cylinder at distance (d + z) and carrying charge PI. Q = PIL and a)ja] .a). c= Q= p[L V (Pl/ltCo)ln((2d  For a length L.1 . E2 ._a) ::::21tG{j In(a) [ = :~ + In(U a) + In(2d a) In(a)] In(2d. I . ~ CHAPTER 4 177 where is the direction away from the cylinder.a) to z = Cd . and the capacitance per unit length is c' = ~ L = In[(2d/a) 1] tcEo (am)_ .
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