Experiment No.

1 Double Side Band Suppressed Carrier (DSB-SC)

Experiment No. (1)
Double Side Band–Suppressed Carrier DSB-SC
Lab Objective Understanding DSB-SC modulation. Testing and studying the performance of DSBSC signal. Understanding the function of each block of the transmitter and the receiver. The ability to draw the waveform and spectrum of the output of each step in the modulator/demodulator. Investigate the effect of the carrier error n the receiver on the system performance.. Design the different components of the DSBSC system to achieve certain requirements. Compensate the effect of channel noise using filters. Use virtual lab simulations to investigate the effect of all of the system parameters on the system performance.

.5 Khz and video signals whose spectrum occupies the frequency band. Radio links (radio and TV broadcast. Message signals. The reverse of modulation is called demodulation (or detection). by nature. A consequence of modulation is a translation or shifting of the message spectrum to a higher frequency band. The high frequency sinusoid is known as the carrier and the message signal is the modulating signal. Baseband communication requires no modulation whereas carrier communication requires modulation. Modulation is required to match the signal to the channel (or link). The modified carrier signal is called the modulated signal. coaxial cables and optical fibers do not need modulation. on the other hand. are low frequency or baseband signals. Examples of baseband signals include speech signals whose spectrum occupies the frequency band from 0 to 3. Links such as local telephones using a pair of wires. cellular phones and satellite links). Demodulation is a process which extracts the message signal from the modulated signal.Theoretical Background Modulation is a process by which a parameter of a high frequency sinusoid is modified in accordance with the message signal to be transmitted. A baseband signal is a signal whose spectrum is positioned close to dc (ω=0). 0 to 6 MHz There are two broad classes of communication – baseband communication and carrier (Passband) communication. must utilize modulation. microwave links.

Depending on the nature of the spectral (frequency domain) relationship between the modulated signal and the message signal. and the complexity of transmitters and receivers. Double Sideband Suppressed Carrier Modulation In amplitude modulation the amplitude of a high-frequency carrier is varied in direct proportion to the low-frequency (baseband) message signal.Amplitude Modulation (AM). and practical applications. power and bandwidth. we have the following types of linear modulation schemes: 1. ωc =2πfc . 3.Double-Sideband Suppressed Carrier (DSB-SC) Modulation. The carrier is usually a sinusoidal waveform. 2. disadvantages. We will examine these different types of linear modulation schemes. The emphasis is characteristics such as signal spectrum. that is. Each of these schemes has its own distinct advantages. 4. c(t)=Ac cos(ωct+θc) Or c(t)=Ac sin(ωct+θc) Where: Ac is the unmodulated carrier amplitude ωc is the unmodulated carrier angular frequency in radians/s.In linear modulation the amplitude of the carrier signal is a linear function of the message signal.Single-sideband modulation (SSB). demodulation methods.Vestigial-Sideband Modulation (VSB).

and is a linear function of the message signal m(t).θc is the unmodulated carrier phase. The dashed lines represent the positive (+A(t)=+m(t)) and negative (-A(t)=-m(t)) amplitudes. respectively . which we shall assume is zero.ωc)+ M(ω + ωc)) Figure 1-a shows a DSBSC modulator. the modulated Fourier transform is A(t) cos(ωct)= m(t) cos(ωct) ⇔ ½( M(ω . The amplitude modulated carrier has the mathematical form ΦDSB-SC(t)= A(t) cos(ωct) Where: A(t) is the instantaneous amplitude of the modulated carrier.The time domain waveform and the frequency spectrum for the modulated signal are shown in Figure 1(c). A(t) is also known as the envelope of the modulated signal For double-sideband suppressed carrier (DSB-SC) modulation the amplitude is related to the message as follows: A(t)=Ac(t) m(t) Consider a message signal with spectrum (Fourier transform) M(ω) which is band limited to 2πB as shown in Figure 1(b). Applying the modulation theorem. The bandwidth of this signal is B Hz and ωc is chosen such that ωc >> 2πB. Figure 1-B shows an example of the baseband signal waveform and spectrum .

(c) The modulated signal is centered at the carrier frequency ωc with two identical sidebands (double-sideband) – the lower sideband (LSB) and .m(t) Modulating Signal m(t) cos(ωct) Modulated Signal Carrier cos(ωct) M(ω) m(t) m(t) cos(ωct) -m(t) Figure(1): Amplitude modulated signal in time and frequency domains Properties of DSB-SC Modulation: (a) There is a 180 phase reversal at the point where +A(t)=+m(t) goes negative. that is. (b) The bandwidth of the DSB-SC signal is double that of the message signal. This is typical of DSB-SC modulation. BWDSB-SC =2B (Hz).

(e)The 180 phase reversal causes the positive (or negative) side of the envelope to have a shape different from that of the message signal. Carrier is phase reversed when m(t) goes negative (a) (b) Figure(2): DSB-SC Modulation Generation of DSB-SC Signals The circuits for generating modulated signals are known as modulators. the simplest . see Figure 2(a) and (b). This is known as envelope distortion. (d) The spectrum contains no isolated carrier. which is typical of DSBSC modulation. Conceptually. Thus the name suppressed carrier. Switching and Ring modulators. (f) The power in the modulated signal is contained in all four sidebands. Being identical. The basic modulators are Nonlinear. they both convey the same message component.the upper sideband (USB).

Figure 3 shows a block diagram of a nonlinear DSBSC modulator. Figure(3): Figure(4):A circuit diagram of a double-balanced modulator. Figure 4 shows a double balanced modulator that use the diode as a non-linear device. then use the BPF to separate the product term. We use the non-linearity to generate a harmonic that contains the product term then use a BPF to separate the term of interest.modulator is the product or multiplier modulator which is shown in figure 1-a. it is very difficult (and expensive) in practice to design a product modulator that maintains amplitude linearity at high carrier frequencies. One way of replacing the modulator stage is by using a non-linear device. . However.

the amplitude of the carrier must be sufficiently greater than the amplitude of the modulating signal (approximately six to seven times greater). have a long life. It can be seen that D1 and D2 conduct only during the positive half-cycles of the carrier input signal. and D3 and D4 conduct only during the negative half-cycles. we use a BPF to separate the harmonic of interest. The schematic diagrams and waveforms for a ring modulator are shown in Figures 6 and 7. Figure 5 shows the block diagram and the associated waveforms and spectrums of a switching modulator. Then. Semi. For the modulator to operate properly. Figure 7 shows the input and output waveforms associated with a ring modulator for a single-frequency modulating signal. and require virtually no maintenance.Another method for generation DSBSC is to use a switching circuit. This ensures that the carrier and not the modulating signal controls the on or off condition of the four diode switches (D1 to D4). A balanced modulator has two inputs: a single-frequency carrier and the modulating signal. require no external power source. This is similar to modulating a signal with a square wave rather than a sinusoid.conductor diodes are ideally suited for use in balanced modulator circuits because they are stable. . Figure 6 represents a circuit diagram for a ring modulator that uses diodes as switching device rather than a non-linear device.

(b-d) associated waveforms and spectrum .Block diagram of basic switching modulator. Figure(5): (a)Switching modulator block diagram for DSB-SC.

Figure(6): Circuit Diagram for Ring modulator Figure(7): Ring modulator waveforms .

Demodulation of DSB-SC Signals Demodulation or detection is the process of recovering the message signal from the modulated waveform. The received DSB-SC signal is Sm(t) = ΦDSB-SC(t)= Ac (t) m(t) cos(ωct) The receiver first generates an exact (coherent) replica (same phase and frequency) of the unmodulated carrier Sc(t) = Cos(ωct) The coherent carrier is then multiplied with the received signal to give Sm(t)* Sc(t) = Ac (t) m(t) cos(ωct)* Cos(ωct) = ½ Ac (t) m(t)+1/2 Ac (t) m(t) cos(2ωct) The first term is the desired baseband signal while the second is a band-pass signal centered at 2ωc. Coherent detection The block diagram for coherent detection is shown in Figure 8. A low-pass filter with bandwidth equal to that of the m(t) will pass the first term and reject the band-pass component. This is similar to the modulator except that the band-pass filter is replaced by a low-pass filter. The method used to recover message signals from DSB-SC waveforms is known as coherent or synchronous detection (or demodulation). .

Figure(8): Coherent demodulator for DSB-SC signals Figure 9 shows a block diagram for the DSBSC system that will be used in the virtual lab experiment. Figure 9: A block diagram of a DSBSC system .

1000.Pre-Lab Answer the following questions (Assume any missing data) 1.t) and the carrier is cos(2π. Draw the output modulated signal and waveform and spectrum when using DSB-SC .100000.Assume a modulating signal f(t)= cos(2π.t).

2. .Repeat the previous problem assuming that the carrier is a square wave and triangle instead of a sinusoid.

Repeat Q1 if the modulating signal when there is a phase error in the receiver of 30 degrees .3.

.Q4: find a relation for the output SNR of a DSBSC system (Asume a suitable values for the filters BWs).

Q5: Suggest a circuit to achieve synchronization in the DSCBSC receiver (for example PLL or Costas loop) use any available resources to illustrate the synchronization circuit) .

. No noise added Experiment 2: Repeat when the input is square wave and sawtooth. Experiment 1: Use the provided virtual experiment and figure 9 to test the output waveform and spectrum of each stage in the DSBSC system. BPF bandwidth of 1 Khz.Virtual lab experiments The objective of the virtual lab is to see the output of each stage of the DSBSC system when applying different inputs and different system parameters to see the effect of each individual design parameter. Output LPF BW of 1 KHz. Input LPF cut off frequency of 1 Khz. Write your comments • • • • • • • Sinusoid having a frequency of 1Kz Carrier frequency of 100 Khz Sampling frequency of 600 Khz.

Experiment 6 Investigate the effect of the final LPF on the output signal SNR.Experiment 3 Discuss the effect of additive noise by varying the noise from 0 variance to 5. Experiment 5 Check the relation between the receiver phase error and the SNR for different noise values. Find the relation between the final SNR and the noise variance. . Experiment 4 Test the ability of the receiver BPF to remove the noise by changing the BPF BW and measuring the output signal SNR.

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