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Tyler Cook
1
, Blair Madore
2
, Erica Miller
3
, Tim Pollio
4
, Zachariah Riel
5
,
Anneliese Spaeth
67
Edited by Zachariah Riel
March 1, 2007
1
SUNY Potsdam
2
SUNY Potsdam
3
St. Edwards University
4
Princeton University
5
Kent State University
6
Xavier University
7
We thank Dr. Joel Foisy, SUNY Potsdam, Clarkson University, NSF, and NSA for their support through the
ClarksonPotsdam REU program.
Introduction
Consider the subset of Z Z
2
Z
4
Z
8
consisting of those elements where all but …nitely many
coordinates are zero. We will de…ne an additive operation on this set. Instead of adding these elements in the
usual coordinatewise fashion, we will introduce the notion of "carrying" from the …nite cyclic groups into
Z. In the following example, we will add coordinatewise, but we will carry 1, twice, into the Z coordinate.
Here, we carry a 1 into the Z coordinate whenever the sum of the elements of a coordinate exceeds its
modulus. Let a +
c
/ denote the least nonnegative residue of a + /, modulo c; let a
c
/ denote the least
nonnegative residue of a/, modulo c. For r ÷ R, let the ‡oor of r be denoted by r. In this example, we
"add" (5. 1. 2. 3. 0. 0. ...) and (1. 1. 1. 7. 6. 0. 0. ...) as follows.
Z Z
2
Z
4
Z
8
Z
16
. . .
( 5. 1. 2. 3. 0. 0. . . . )
· ( 1. 1. 1. 7. 6. 0. . . . )
= ( 5 + 1 + 2. 1 +
2
1. 2 +
4
1. 3 +
8
7. 0 +
16
6. 0. . . . )
= ( 8. 0. 3. 2. 6. 0. . . . )
The subset of elements, where all but …nitely many coordinates are zero, of Z Z
2
Z
4
Z
8
forms an Abelian group under this additive operation, which will be denoted by ·. We denote this group by
Z · Z
2
· Z
4
· Z
8
· ; more precisely, we may denote it by Z
1
· Z
2
1
· Z
4
1
· Z
8
1
· , since each time we exceed
the modulus of a coordinate when adding two elements, 1 is carried into the Z coordinate. We say this,
because we also consider in…nitely (and …nitely) generated groups of the form Z
o1
· Z
b1
o2
· Z
b2
o3
· Z
b3
o4
· (or
Z
o1
· Z
b1
o2
· Z
b2
·
or
· Z
br
). Groups of this type, we will call carry groups.
Dr. Jonathan L. King …rst de…ned the carry group Z·Z
2
·Z
4
·Z
8
· and claimed that it could be used
to solve a problem in ergodic theory concerning the roots of a measure preserving transformation
1
. This
problem was solved by Dr. Blair Madore
2
, though a complete understanding of the structure of this group
and its …nitely generated subgroups was not needed for the solution. During the 2001 and 2006 Potsdam
Clarkson NSFREU summer programs, Madore and his students have further investigated the structure of
carry groups. We will now de…ne carry groups more formally.
All of our groups are written additively and all …nite cyclic groups Z
n
are represented by ¦0. 1. .... : ÷1¦.
Let (:

) be a (…nite or in…nite) sequence of positive integers greater than 1. Also, let H be an Abelian group
and let (/

) be a (…nite or in…nite) sequence of elements of H. We de…ne a group with an operation · on
the Cartesian product H Z
n1
Z
n2
Z
n3
Z
nr
. The operation · is de…ned by
(a. a
1
. a
2
. a
3
. .... a
n
) · (/. /
1
. /
2
. /
3
. .... /
n
) =
a +/ +
n
¸
I=1
/
I
¸
a
I
+/
I
:
I
¸
. a
1
+
n1
/
1
. a
2
+
n2
/
2
. a
3
+
n3
/
3
. .... a
n
+
nr
/
n
.
Simply, this is coordinatewise addition, where /
I
is carried into the H coordinate if a
I
+/
I
_ :
I
. Conveniently,
we denote this group by
H
1
· Z
n1
2
· Z
n2
3
· Z
n3
·
r
· Z
nr
1
J. L. King, The generic transformation has roots of all orders. Dedicated to the memory of Anzelm Iwanik. Colloq. Math.
84/85 part 2, pp 521547, 2000.
2
B. F. Madore, Rankone group actions with simple mixing Z subactions, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Toronto, 2000.
1
so that we know we’re using the operation ·. This also helps so that we can see which elements of H are
carried for each coordinate. Note that these groups are …nitely generated. We can similarly de…ne in…nitely
generated carry groups. In particular, these groups are de…ned on the subset of H Z
n1
Z
n2
Z
n3
,
where all but …nitely many coordinates of the elements are zero. The operation ·, in this case, is de…ned by
(a. a
1
. a
2
. a
3
. ...) · (/. /
1
. /
2
. /
3
. ...) =
a +/ +
1
¸
I=1
/
I
¸
a
I
+/
I
:
I
¸
. a
1
+
n1
/
1
. a
2
+
n2
/
2
. a
3
+
n3
/
3
. ...
.
We’re guaranteed that
¸
1
I=1
/
I
o1+b1
n1
¸
is an element of H, since all but …nitely many coordinates of the
elements are zero. We similarly denote this group by H
1
· Z
n1
2
· Z
n2
3
· Z
n3
· . One can check that these
are all Abelian groups; it is tedious, but straightforward. In this paper, for most of our carry groups, we will
have H = Z.
Example. Consider (2. 1. 2). (1. 3. 4) ÷ Z
2
· Z
4
4
· Z
5
. We compute (2. 1. 2) · (1. 3. 4) as follows.
Z
2
·Z
4
4
·Z
5
( 2. 1. 2 )
· ( 1. 3. 4 )
= ( 9. 0. 1 )
Example. In the carry group Z · Z
4
· Z
5
, consider the element a = (4. 2. 1). We calculate ÷a, the
inverse of a, to be
÷a = (÷4 ÷1 ÷1. 4 ÷2. 5 ÷1) = (÷6. 2. 4) ,
since
(4. 2. 1) · (÷6. 2. 4) = (÷6. 2. 4) · (4. 2. 1) = (0. 0. 0) .
In general, given any element (:. :
1
. :
2
. .... :
n
) of the carry group H
o1
· Z
b1
o2
·
or
· Z
br
, the inverse is
given by
÷(:. :
1
. :
2
. .... :
n
) = (:
0
. :
0
1
. :
0
2
. .... :
0
n
) ,
where
:
0
= ÷:÷
¸
1In
n16=0
a
I
and :
0
I
=
0 if :
I
= 0,
/
I
÷:
I
if :
I
= 0,
for i = 1. .... :.
Now, for (:. :
1
. :
2
. .... :
n
) ÷ H
o1
· Z
b1
o2
·
or
· Z
br
, let the element
(:. :
1
. :
2
. .... :
n
) · (:. :
1
. :
2
. .... :
n
) · · (:. :
1
. :
2
. .... :
n
)
. .. .
\" times
be denoted by / (:. :
1
. :
2
. .... :
n
). What does the element / (:. :
1
. :
2
. .... :
n
) look like explicitly? The
answer to that question may not be immediately clear. However, a straightforward induction argument will
verify that, given / ÷ N and (:. :
1
. :
2
. .... :
n
) ÷ H
o1
· Z
b1
o2
·
or
· Z
br
,
/ (:. :
1
. :
2
. .... :
n
) =
¸
/:+
1
¸
I=0
n
¸
,=1
a
,
¸
i
bj
:
,
+:
,
/
,
¸
. /
b1
:
1
. /
b2
:
2
. .... /
br
:
n
¸
. (+
1
)
Furthermore, let’s …nd an explicit formula for ÷/ (:. :
1
. :
2
. .... :
n
). Since we’re working with an Abelian
group, we have that ÷/ (:. :
1
. :
2
. .... :
n
) = / (÷(:. :
1
. :
2
. .... :
n
)). For all , = 1. 2. .... :, let
:
0
,
=
0 if :
,
= 0,
/
,
÷:
,
if :
,
= 0.
2
We have that
÷/ (:. :
1
. :
2
. .... :
n
)
= / (÷(:. :
1
. :
2
. .... :
n
))
= /
¸
¸
¸
÷:÷
¸
1In
n16=0
a
I
. :
0
1
. :
0
2
. .... :
0
n
¸
=
¸
¸
¸
÷/:÷/
¸
1In
n16=0
a
I
+
1
¸
I=0
n
¸
,=1
a
,
¸
i
bj
:
0
,
+:
0
,
/
,
¸
. /
b1
:
0
1
. /
b2
:
0
2
. .... /
br
:
0
n
¸
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
÷/:÷/
¸
1In
n16=0
a
I
+
1
¸
I=0
¸
1,n
n
0
j
6=0
a
,
¸
i
bj
:
0
,
+:
0
,
/
,
¸
. ÷/
b1
:
1
. ÷/
b2
:
2
. .... ÷/
br
:
n
¸
=
¸
¸
¸
÷/:÷/
¸
1In
n16=0
a
I
+
1
¸
I=0
¸
1,n
nj6=0
a
,
¸
i
bj
(/
,
÷:
,
) +/
,
÷:
,
/
,
¸
. ÷/
b1
:
1
. ÷/
b2
:
2
. .... ÷/
br
:
n
¸
=
¸
¸
¸
÷/:+
1
¸
I=0
¸
1,n
nj6=0
a
,
¸
÷i
bj
:
,
+/
,
÷:
,
/
,
¸
÷1
. ÷/
b1
:
1
. ÷/
b2
:
2
. .... ÷/
br
:
n
¸
=
¸
¸
¸
÷/:+
1
¸
I=0
¸
1,n
nj6=0
a
,
¸
÷i
bj
:
,
+ (÷:
,
)
/
,
¸
. ÷/
b1
:
1
. ÷/
b2
:
2
. .... ÷/
br
:
n
¸
(+
2
)
Using (+
1
) and (+
2
), we come upon the following proposition.
Proposition. Given any nonzero integer d and any (:. :
1
. :
2
. .... :
n
) ÷ H
o1
· Z
b1
o2
·
or
· Z
br
,
d (:. :
1
. :
2
. .... :
n
)
=
¸
d:+
jJj1
¸
I=0
n
¸
,=1
a
,
¸
i sgn (d)
bj
:
,
+:
,
sgn (d)
/
,
¸
. d
b1
:
1
. d
b2
:
2
. .... d
br
:
n
¸
. (+)
By now, the reader should be a bit more familiar with what we call carry groups and the operation
·. Now, our aim is to present some theory regarding the structure of these carry groups. For the most
part, our classi…cation of these groups is complete. For …nitely generated carry groups, we can surely use
the Fundamental Theorem of Finitely Generated Abelian Groups and the Smith Normal Form to …nd their
structure. However, our theory provides alternative and interesting methods that yield their structure. We
have come upon an understanding of …nitely and in…nitely generated carry groups, which will be discussed
in the following sections.
3
Chapter 1
Structure Theory for Finitely
Generated Uniform Carry Groups
During the summer of 2001, Dr. Blair Madore’s
1
NSFREU group formulated a structure theory for
…nitely generated carry groups of the form
Z
o
· Z
b1
o
· Z
b2
o
·
o
· Z
br
.
For the sake of simplicity, let’s refer to them as uniform carry groups. We will now state and prove their
main results.
2
The following fact is trivial. However, it will be used often throughout this paper. It would
be best to keep it in mind.
Lemma 1.1. If a. /. : ÷ Z, 0 _ a < :, and 0 _ / < :, then
:
¸
a +/
:
¸
+ (a +
n
/) = a +/. (1)
Proof. If a +/ _ :, then 1 _
o+b
n
< 2, meaning that
o+b
n
= 1. Also, a +
n
/ = a +/ ÷:. Therefore
:
o+b
n
+ (a +
n
/) = : 1 + (a +/ ÷:) = a +/. If a +/ < :, then
o+b
n
< 1 so that
o+b
n
= 0. Hence,
:
o+b
n
+ (a +
n
/) = (a +
n
/) = a +/.
Proposition 1.2. Z · Z
n
~
= Z.
Proof. De…ne . : Z · Z
n
÷Z by .(a. /) = :a +/. Let (a
1
. /
1
) . (a
2
. /
2
) ÷ Z · Z
n
. Therefore,
.((a
1
. /
1
) · (a
2
. /
2
)) = .
a
1
+a
2
+
¸
/
1
+/
2
:
¸
. /
1
+
n
/
2
= :
a
1
+a
2
+
¸
/
1
+/
2
:
¸
+ (/
1
+
n
/
2
)
= :(a
1
+a
2
) +:
¸
/
1
+/
2
:
¸
+ (/
1
+
n
/
2
)
(1)
= :(a
1
+a
2
) + (/
1
+/
2
)
= .(a
1
. /
1
) +.(a
2
. /
2
) .
1
SUNY Potsdam
2
B. Madore, H. McDonough, C. Miller, D. Van Nort, A. Rogalski, and J. Wood, “Structure Theory for Carry Groups”, Pi
Mu Epsilon Journal, Vol. 12 (Fall 2004) 1, 1725.
4
Now, if : ÷ Z, then there exist unique integers c and r such that : = :c +r and 0 _ r < :. Therefore
(c. r)
,
÷ : so that . is surjective. Now, if .(a
1
. /
1
) = .(a
2
. /
2
) = :, then :a
1
+ /
1
= :a
2
+ /
2
= :.
We know that 0 _ /
1
. /
2
< :. The division algorithm tells us that : has a unique representation of the
form :c +r, where 0 _ r < :. To avoid a contradiction, we must have (a
1
. /
1
) = (a
2
. /
2
). Alternatively,
show that [(0. 1)[ = · and Z · Z
n
= '(0. 1)`.
Proposition 1.3. Z · Z
n
· Z
n
~
= Z
n
· Z
n
.
Proof. De…ne c : Z · Z
n
· Z
n
÷ Z
n
· Z
n
by c (a. /. c) = (:a +/. c). Let (a
1
. /
1
. c
1
) . (a
2
. /
2
. c
2
) ÷
Z · Z
n
· Z
n
. So,
c ((a
1
. /
1
. c
1
) · (a
2
. /
2
. c
2
)) = c
a
1
+a
2
+
¸
/
1
+/
2
:
¸
+
¸
c
1
+c
2
:
¸
. /
1
+
n
/
2
. c
1
+
n
c
2
=
:
a
1
+a
2
+
¸
/
1
+/
2
:
¸
+
¸
c
1
+c
2
:
¸
+ (/
1
+
n
/
2
) . c
1
+
n
c
2
=
:
a
1
+a
2
+
¸
c
1
+c
2
:
¸
+ (/
1
+/
2
) . c
1
+
n
c
2
= (:a
1
+/
1
. c
1
) · (:a
2
+/
2
. c
2
) = c (a
1
. /
1
. c
1
) · c (a
2
. /
2
. c
2
) .
As in Proposition 1.2, surjectivity and injectivity both follow from the division algorithm.
Proposition 1.4. Z
n
· Z
n
~
= Z Z
gcd(n,n)
.
Proof. As : and : are positive integers, we can surely …nd r. : ÷ Z such that ÷:r+:: = gcd(:. :) =
d and 0 < r < :. Now de…ne c : Z
n
· Z
n
÷Z Z
J
by
c (r. n) =
:r +:n
d
. rr +
J
:n
. (2)
Note that
nr+nu
J
÷ Z since d [ : and d [ :. Let (a
1
. /
1
) . (a
2
. /
2
) ÷ Z
n
· Z
n
. We have that
c ((a
1
. /
1
) · (a
2
. /
2
)) = c
a
1
+a
2
+:
¸
/
1
+/
2
:
¸
. /
1
+
n
/
2
=
:
a
1
+a
2
+:
b1+b2
n
+:(/
1
+
n
/
2
)
d
. r
a
1
+a
2
+:
¸
/
1
+/
2
:
¸
+
J
: (/
1
+
n
/
2
)
=
:(a
1
+a
2
) +:(/
1
+/
2
)
d
. r
a
1
+a
2
+:
¸
/
1
+/
2
:
¸
+
J
: (/
1
+
n
/
2
)
=
:(a
1
+a
2
) +:(/
1
+/
2
)
d
. ra
1
+
J
ra
2
+
J
r:
¸
/
1
+/
2
:
¸
+
J
:/
1
+
J
:/
2
=
:(a
1
+a
2
) +:(/
1
+/
2
)
d
. ra
1
+
J
ra
2
+
J
:/
1
+
J
:/
2
=
:a
1
+:/
1
d
+
:a
2
+:/
2
d
. (ra
1
+
J
:/
1
) +
J
(ra
2
+
J
:/
2
)
=
:a
1
+:/
1
d
. ra
1
+
J
:/
1
:a
2
+:/
2
d
. ra
2
+
J
:/
2
= c (a
1
. /
1
) c (a
2
. /
2
) .
5
Importantly, notice that
c
÷:
d
.
:
d
= (0. 1) and c (: ÷:. : ÷r) = (1. 0) .
Since c is a homomorphism, we know that for (a. /) ÷ Z Z
J
,
c
a (: ÷:. : ÷r) · /
÷:
d
.
:
d
= (a. /) .
Thus, c is surjective. Now, if c (a
1
. /
1
) = c (a
2
. /
2
), then
no1+nb1
J
. ra
1
+
J
:/
1
=
no2+nb2
J
. ra
2
+
J
:/
2
.
Hence,
:
d
(a
1
÷a
2
) +
:
d
(/
1
÷/
2
) = 0 and (3)
r (a
1
÷a
2
) +
J
: (/
1
÷/
2
) = 0. (4)
We know that gcd
n
J
.
n
J
= 1. Hence, (3) implies that
n
J
[ (a
1
÷a
2
) and
n
J
[ (/
1
÷/
2
). It follows that
/
n
J
= [a
1
÷a
2
[ and /
n
J
= [/
1
÷/
2
[ for some nonnegative integer /. Without loss of generality, suppose
a
1
÷ a
2
= ÷/
n
J
and /
n
J
= /
1
÷ /
2
. Thus, r (a
1
÷a
2
) + : (/
1
÷/
2
) = /
r
n
J
+:
n
J
= /
J
J
= /. By
(4), we know that / = 0 (modd). Since 0 _ /
1
. /
2
< :, we know that [/
1
÷/
2
[ < :. If / = 0, then
[/
1
÷/
2
[ = /
n
J
_ : as d [ /; this is a contradiction. Therefore, / = 0 == /
1
= /
2
== a
1
= a
2
.
Hence, c is injective. The proof is complete.
Corollary 1.5. Z · Z
n
· Z
n
~
= Z Z
gcd(n,n)
.
Lemma 1.6. If 1 is an abelian group and . : Z
n
·Z
o1
÷ 1 is an isomorphism such that .(:. 0) = ',
then
Z
n
· Z
o1
n
· Z
o2
n
·
n
· Z
or
~
= 1
1
· Z
o2
1
·
1
· Z
or
.
Proof. Let G = Z
n
· Z
o1
n
· Z
o2
n
·
n
· Z
or
and let H = 1
1
· Z
o2
1
·
1
· Z
or
. Let the operation of 1
be denoted by . Let c : G ÷ H be de…ned by
c (r. r
1
. r
2
. .... r
n
) = (.(r. r
1
) . r
2
. .... r
n
) .
If (r. r
1
. r
2
. .... r
n
) = o
1
and (n. n
1
. n
2
. .... n
n
) = o
2
are elements of G, then
c (o
1
· o
2
) = c
r +n +:
n
¸
I=1
¸
r
I
+n
I
a
I
¸
. r
1
+
o1
n
1
. r
2
+
o2
n
2
. .... r
n
+
or
n
n
=
.
r +n +:
n
¸
I=1
¸
r
I
+n
I
a
I
¸
. r
1
+
o1
n
1
. r
2
+
o2
n
2
. .... r
n
+
or
n
n
=
.(r. r
1
) .(n. n
1
) .
:
n
¸
I=2
¸
r
I
+n
I
a
I
¸
. 0
. r
2
+
o2
n
2
. .... r
n
+
or
n
n
=
.(r. r
1
) .(n. n
1
)
n
¸
I=2
¸
r
I
+n
I
a
I
¸
'. r
2
+
o2
n
2
. .... r
n
+
or
n
n
= (.(r. r
1
) . r
2
. .... r
n
) · (.(n. n
1
) . n
2
. .... n
n
) = c (o
1
) · c (o
2
) .
It is very clear that c is a bijection since . is a bijection.
6
Lemma 1.7. (Z Z
J
)
(o,0)
· Z
b2
(o,0)
·
(o,0)
· Z
br
~
= Z
J
Z
o
· Z
b2
o
·
o
· Z
br
.
Proof. Let G = (Z Z
J
)
(o,0)
· Z
b2
(o,0)
·
(o,0)
· Z
br
and let G
0
= Z
J
Z
o
· Z
b2
o
·
o
· Z
br
. Consider
the mapping c : G ÷ G
0
, which is de…ned by
c ((r. r
1
) . r
2
. .... r
n
) = (r
1
. (r. r
2
. .... r
n
)) .
It is easily shown that c is a homomorphism; also, from the de…nition of c, bijectivity quickly follows.
Now, for example, consider the carry group
Z · Z
22
· Z
6
· Z
4
.
We know that Z · Z
22
~
= Z. Moreover, there is an isomorphism . : Z · Z
22
÷ Z such that (1. 0)
,
÷ 22.
Therefore, Lemma 1.6 tells us that
Z · Z
22
· Z
6
· Z
4
~
= Z
22
· Z
6
22
· Z
4
.
Now, it follows from Proposition 1.4 that Z
22
· Z
6
~
= Z Z
gcd(22,6)
~
= Z Z
2
and there is an isomorphism
` : Z
22
· Z
6
÷ Z Z
2
such that (22. 0)
X
÷
226
gcd(22,6)
. 0
= (lcm(22. 6) . 0) = (66. 0). Applying Lemma 1.6
again, we have that
Z
22
· Z
6
22
· Z
4
~
= (Z Z
2
)
(66,0)
· Z
4
.
It follows from Lemma 1.7 and Proposition 1.4 that
(Z Z
2
)
(66,0)
· Z
4
~
= Z
2
Z
66
· Z
4
~
= Z
2
Z Z
gcd(66,4)
~
= Z
2
Z Z
2
.
Actually, we can follow the same procedure with any carry group and …nd its structure. We will now
generalize this procedure.
Consider the carry group G = Z · Z
o1
· Z
o2
· · Z
or
. Note that Z · Z
o1
~
= Z by an isomorphism that
maps (1. 0) to a
1
. Therefore, Lemma 1.6 tells us that
G
~
= Z
o1
· Z
o2
o1
·
o1
· Z
or
.
Proposition 1.4 tells us that Z
o1
· Z
o2
~
= ZZ
gcd(o1,o2)
by an isomorphism that maps (a
1
. 0) to (lcm(a
1
. a
2
) . 0).
Lemma 1.6 tells us that
G
~
=
Z Z
gcd(o1,o2)
(lcm(o1,o2),0)
· Z
o3
(lcm(o1,o2),0)
·
(lcm(o1,o2),0)
· Z
or
.
We now apply Lemma 1.7 to get that
G
~
= Z
gcd(o1,o2)
Z
lcm(o1,o2)
· Z
o3
lcm(o1,o2)
·
lcm(o1,o2)
· Z
or
.
Using the Principle of Mathematical Induction, we come upon the following theorem.
Theorem 1.8. If a
1
. a
2
. .... a
n
are positive integers greater than 1, then
Z · Z
o1
· Z
o2
· · Z
or
~
= Z
n
I=2
Z
gcd(lcm(o1,...,o11),o1)
.
7
According to the theorem above, …nding the structure of any uniform carry group comes down to a few
simple calculations. Using the theorem and the same example from above, we can quickly …nd that
Z · Z
22
· Z
6
· Z
4
~
= Z Z
gcd(22,6)
Z
gcd(lcm(22,6),4)
= Z Z
2
Z
2
.
In the following sections, we will discuss some more structure theory that applies to all carry groups (and
not just uniform carry groups).
8
Chapter 2
General Structure Theory for Finitely
Generated Carry Groups
During the 2006 PotsdamClarkson NSFREU, with Dr. Madore, we
1
further investigated carry groups
and continued the work of the 2001 REU program. There, we completely classi…ed the structure of …nitely
generated carry groups. Our classi…cation for in…nitely generated carry groups is, for the most part, complete.
We will now state and prove our main results.
Lemma 2.1. Z
o1
· Z
b1
o2
·
or
· Z
br
~
= Z
o
0
1
· Z
b1
o
0
2
·
o
0
r
· Z
br
if a
I
= a
0
I
(mod/
I
) for all i = 1. .... :.
Proof. Let G = Z
o1
· Z
b1
o2
·
or
· Z
br
and let H = Z
o
0
1
· Z
b1
o
0
2
·
o
0
r
· Z
br
. Suppose that a
I
= a
0
I
(mod/
I
)
for all i = 1. .... :. Therefore, for each i = 1. .... :,
a
0
I
= a
I
+:
I
/
I
for some :
I
÷ Z. Now, let . : G ÷ H be de…ned by
.(r. r
1
. .... r
n
) =
r ÷
n
¸
I=1
:
I
r
I
. r
1
. .... r
n
.
If (c. c
1
. .... c
n
) and (d. d
1
. .... d
n
) are elements of G, then
.((c. c
1
. .... c
n
) · (d. d
1
. .... d
n
))
= .
c +d +
n
¸
I=1
a
I
¸
c
I
+d
I
/
I
¸
. c
1
+
b1
d
1
. .... c
n
+
br
d
n
=
c +d +
n
¸
I=1
a
I
¸
c
I
+d
I
/
I
¸
÷:
I
(c
I
+
b1
d
I
)
. c
1
+
b1
d
1
. .... c
n
+
br
d
n
=
c +d +
n
¸
I=1
(a
0
I
÷:
I
/
I
)
¸
c
I
+d
I
/
I
¸
÷:
I
(c
I
+
b1
d
I
)
. c
1
+
b1
d
1
. .... c
n
+
br
d
n
=
c +d +
n
¸
I=1
a
0
I
¸
c
I
+d
I
/
I
¸
÷:
I
(c
I
+d
I
)
. c
1
+
b1
d
1
. .... c
n
+
br
d
n
=
c ÷
n
¸
I=1
:
I
c
I
. c
1
. .... c
n
·
d ÷
n
¸
I=1
:
I
d
I
. d
1
. .... d
n
= .(c. c
1
. .... c
n
) · .(d. d
1
. .... d
n
) .
Now, surjectivity and injectivity follow quickly from the de…nition of ..
1
Tyler Cook  SUNY Potsdam, Erica Miller  St. Edwards University, Tim Pollio  Princeton University, Zachariah Riel 
Kent State University, Annaliese Spaeth  Xavier University
9
Lemma 2.2. If gcd (/
1
. c) = 1, then Z
o1
· Z
b1
o2
·
or
· Z
br
~
= Z
co1
· Z
b1
o2
·
or
· Z
br
.
Proof. Let G = Z
o1
· Z
b1
o2
·
or
· Z
br
and let H = Z
co1
· Z
b1
o2
·
or
· Z
br
. Let . : H ÷ G be de…ned by
.(r. r
1
. r
2
. .... r
n
) = c (0. r
1
. 0. .... 0) · (r. 0. r
2
. .... r
n
) .
If (d. d
1
. d
2
. .... d
n
) and (c. c
1
. c
2
. .... c
n
) are elements of H, then
.((d. d
1
. d
2
. .... d
n
) · (c. c
1
. c
2
. .... c
n
))
= .
d +c +ca
1
¸
d
1
+c
1
/
1
¸
+
n
¸
I=2
a
I
¸
d
I
+c
I
/
I
¸
. d
1
+
b1
c
1
. d
2
+
b2
c
2
. .... d
n
+
br
c
n
= c (0. d
1
+
b1
c
1
. 0. .... 0) ·
d +c +ca
1
¸
d
1
+c
1
/
1
¸
+
n
¸
I=2
a
I
¸
d
I
+c
I
/
I
¸
. 0. d
2
+
b2
c
2
. .... d
n
+
br
c
n
= c
(0. d
1
. 0. .... 0) · (0. c
1
. 0. .... 0) ·
÷a
1
¸
d
1
+c
1
/
1
¸
. 0. 0. .... 0
·
d +c +ca
1
¸
d
1
+c
1
/
1
¸
+
n
¸
I=2
a
I
¸
d
I
+c
I
/
I
¸
. 0. d
2
+
b2
c
2
. .... d
n
+
br
c
n
= c (0. d
1
. 0. .... 0) · c (0. c
1
. 0. .... 0) ·
d +c +
n
¸
I=2
a
I
¸
d
I
+c
I
/
I
¸
. 0. d
2
+
b2
c
2
. .... d
n
+
br
c
n
= c (0. d
1
. 0. .... 0) · c (0. c
1
. 0. .... 0) · (d. 0. d
2
. .... d
n
) · (c. 0. c
2
. .... c
n
)
= (c (0. d
1
. 0. .... 0) · (d. 0. d
2
. .... d
n
)) · (c (0. c
1
. 0. .... 0) · (c. 0. c
2
. .... c
n
))
= .(d. d
1
. d
2
. .... d
n
) · .(c. c
1
. c
2
. .... c
n
) .
Since gcd (/
1
. c) = 1, we can …nd integers r and : such that /
1
r +c: = 1. Clearly, c
b1
: = 1. Let c be
the least nonnegative residue of :, modulo /
1
. Now, let (j. j
1
. j
2
. .... j
n
) ÷ G. It follows from (+) that
c (0. c. 0. .... 0) =
¸
jcj1
¸
I=0
a
1
¸
(i sgn (c)
b1
c) +c sgn (c)
/
1
¸
. 1. 0. .... 0
¸
and so
.
¸
÷
jcj1
¸
I=0
a
1
¸
(i sgn (c)
b1
c) +c sgn (c)
/
1
¸
. c. 0. .... 0
¸
= (0. 1. 0. .... 0) .
Therefore, since . is a homomorphism, we have that
j
1
¸
÷
jcj1
¸
I=0
a
1
¸
(i sgn (c)
b1
c) +c sgn (c)
/
1
¸
. c. 0. .... 0
¸
· (j. 0. j
2
. .... j
n
)
,
÷÷ (j. j
1
. j
2
. .... j
n
) .
Thus, . is surjective. Suppose that (d. d
1
. d
2
. .... d
n
) . (c. c
1
. c
2
. .... c
n
) ÷ H such that .(d. d
1
. d
2
. .... d
n
) =
.(c. c
1
. c
2
. .... c
n
). Thus,
(d. 0. d
2
. .... d
n
) · c (0. d
1
. 0. .... 0) = (c. 0. c
2
. .... c
n
) · c (0. c
1
. 0. .... 0) .
Surely, d
I
= c
I
for i = 2. .... :. The previous equation gives us
¸
d +
jcj1
¸
I=0
a
1
¸
(i sgn (c)
b1
d
1
) +d
1
sgn (c)
/
1
¸
. c
b1
d
1
. d
2
. .... d
n
¸
=
¸
c +
jcj1
¸
I=0
a
1
¸
(i sgn (c)
b1
c
1
) +c
1
sgn (c)
/
1
¸
. c
b1
c
1
. c
2
. .... c
n
¸
.
Since cd
1
= cc
1
(mod/
1
) and gcd (/
1
. c) = 1, we have that d
1
= c
1
(mod/
1
). Consequently, d
1
= c
1
.
This forces d = c. Thus, . is injective and the proof is complete.
10
The following lemma gives a few minor facts about carry groups. At this point, the reader should be
familiar enough with carry groups to see (or at least have a strong suspicion) that they are true. We could
probably get away with assuming these facts without stating them. For the sake of clarity, we will state
them. However, we will leave it to the reader to prove the lemma, as it is a straightforward exercise. Note
that the second fact is a generalization of Lemma 1.6; its proof is similar to that of 1.6. The third fact is
practically identical with Lemma 1.7.
Lemma 2.3.
(a) If o ÷ o
n
, then Z
o1
· Z
b1
o2
·
or
· Z
br
~
= Z
o
o(1)
· Z
b
o(1)
o
o(2)
·
o
o(r)
· Z
b
o(r)
.
(b) Let H and 1 be Abelian groups. If H
~
= 1 via . : H ÷ 1, then for any /
1
. .... /
n
÷ H,
H
1
· Z
b1
2
·
r
· Z
br
~
= 1
,(1)
· Z
b1
,(2)
·
,(r)
· Z
br
.
(c) (Z Z
J
)
(o2,0)
· Z
b2
(o3,0)
·
(or,0)
· Z
br
~
= Z
J
Z
o2
· Z
b2
o3
·
or
· Z
br
.
Lemma 2.2 tells us that if gcd (/
1
. c) = 1, then Z
o1
· Z
b1
o2
·
or
· Z
br
~
= Z
co1
· Z
b1
o2
·
or
· Z
br
. Actually, we
can generalize this lemma a bit. Now, Lemma 2.3(a) tells us that the structure of a carry group does not
change if we rearrange the …nite cyclic groups along with their respective carries. Therefore, we can apply
2.3(a) and 2.2 over and over again. Without loss of generality, if gcd (/
I
. c
I
) = 1 for all i = 1. .... :, then
Z
o1
· Z
b1
o2
·
or
· Z
br
~
= Z
c1o1
· Z
b1
c2o2
·
cror
· Z
br
. From now on, whenever we refer to Lemma 2.2, we will
refer to it in this general sense.
Lemma 2.4. Given a. / ÷ N, there exists c ÷ N such that gcd(/. c) = 1 and ac = gcd(a. /)(mod/).
Proof. So, let a. / ÷ N. Let / = j
o
1
1
j
o
2
2
j
o
í
l
be a prime factorization for /. It is clear that, for all
i = 1. .... , there exist c
I
. c
I
÷ Z such that a = c
I
j
o1
I
(modj
o
1
I
), where c
I
j
o1
I
< j
o
1
I
and gcd(c
I
. j
I
) = 1.
Also, for all i = 1. .... , there exist /
I
.
I
÷ Z such that gcd(a. /) = /
I
j
~
1
I
(modj
o
1
I
), where /
I
j
~
1
I
< j
o
1
I
and gcd(/
I
. j
I
) = 1. We claim that, for all i = 1. .... , c
I
=
I
. First, suppose that c
,
,
for some ,.
We know that we can write gcd(a. /) = ra +:/ for some r. : ÷ Z. Therefore,
/
,
j
~
j
,
= gcd(a. /) = ra +:/ = ra = rc
,
j
oj
,
(modj
o
j
,
).
Hence,
/
,
= rc
,
j
oj~
j
,
(modj
o
j
,
).
Now, this implies that /
,
= rc
,
j
oj~
j
,
+ c
,
j
o
j
,
for some c
,
÷ Z. Hence, j
,
[ /
,
. Since j
,
1, this is
a contradiction of the fact that gcd(/
,
. j
,
) = 1. Thus, c
I
_
I
for all i. Now, suppose that c
,
<
,
for some ,. So, since gcd(a. /) [ a, we can write a = ngcd(a. /) for some n ÷ Z. Now, we have that
c
,
j
oj
,
= a = ngcd(a. /) = n/
,
j
~
j
,
(modj
o
j
,
). Therefore, we have that c
,
= n/
,
j
~
j
oj
,
(modj
o
j
,
). Since
c
,
<
,
, we have that j
,
[ c
,
, which contradicts the fact that gcd(c
,
. j
,
) = 1. Therefore, we have that
c
I
_
I
for all i. Since we also have that c
I
_
I
for all i, we conclude that c
I
=
I
for all i.
Now, we can …nd a c such that c = /
I
c
1
I
(modj
o
1
I
) for all i = 1. .... , which is guaranteed by the
Chinese Remainder Theorem. Also, for all i = 1. .... , we have that
ac = a/
I
c
1
I
= c
I
j
o1
I
/
I
c
1
I
= j
o1
I
/
I
= j
~
1
I
/
I
= gcd(a. /)(modj
o
1
I
).
Also, by the Chinese Remainder Theorem, we have that ac = gcd(a. /)(mod/).
11
Lemma 2.4 is quite useful for our cause. Consider the carry group Z
o1
· Z
b1
o2
·
or
· Z
br
. For each i = 1. .... :,
it follows from Lemma 2.4 that there exists c
I
÷ N such that gcd(/
I
. c
I
) = 1 and a
I
c
I
= gcd(a
I
. /
I
)(mod/
I
).
It follows from Lemma 2.2 and Lemma 2.1 that
Z
o1
· Z
b1
o2
·
or
· Z
br
~
= Z
c1o1
· Z
b1
c2o2
·
cror
· Z
br
~
= Z
gcd(o1,b1)
· Z
b1
gcd(o2,b2)
·
gcd(or,br)
· Z
br
.
Thus, without loss of generality, we can assume that if given any carry group Z
o1
· Z
b1
o2
·
or
· Z
br
, then a
I
[ /
I
for all i = 1. .... :. The following lemma uses this general assumption. As you will see later, the following
lemma is a necessary tool for …nding the structure of Z
o1
· Z
b1
o2
·
or
· Z
br
.
Lemma 2.5. If a
I
[ c
I
, /
I
[
I
, and gcd (c
I
.
I
) = 1 for all i = 1. .... :, then
Z
o1b1
· Z
o1o
1
o2b2
·
orbr
· Z
oro
r
~
= Z
o1
· Z
o1
b1
· Z
o
1
o2
·
or
· Z
or
br
· Z
o
r
.
Proof. Let G = Z
o1b1
· Z
o1o
1
o2b2
·
orbr
· Z
oro
r
and let H = Z
o1b1
· Z
o1
o1b1
· Z
o
1
o2b2
·
orbr
· Z
or
orbr
· Z
o
r
.
In G, let
y = (1. 0. 0. .... 0)
y
1
= (0. 1. 0. .... 0)
.
.
.
y
n
= (0. 0. 0. .... 1) .
In H, let
x = (1. 0. 0. .... 0)
x
11
= (0. 1. 0. .... 0)
x
12
= (0. 0. 1. 0. .... 0)
.
.
.
x
n1
= (0. 0. 0. .... 1. 0)
x
n2
= (0. 0. 0. .... 1) .
Let . : H ÷ G be de…ned by
.(c. c
11
. c
12
. .... c
n1
. c
n2
) = cy ·
n
(
I=1
(
I
c
I1
y
I
· c
I
c
I2
y
I
)
,
where (is the operator corresponding to the operation ·. Let (c. c
11
. c
12
. .... c
n1
. c
n2
) . (d. d
11
. d
12
. .... d
n1
. d
n2
) ÷
H. Then,
.((c. c
11
. c
12
. .... c
n1
. c
n2
) · (d. d
11
. d
12
. .... d
n1
. d
n2
))
= .
c +d +
n
¸
I=1
a
I
/
I
¸
c
I1
+d
I1
c
I
¸
+
¸
c
I2
+d
I2
I
¸
. c
11
+
o1
d
11
. c
12
+
o
1
d
12
. .... c
n1
+
or
d
n1
. c
n2
+
o
r
d
n2
=
c +d +
n
¸
I=1
a
I
/
I
¸
c
I1
+d
I1
c
I
¸
+
¸
c
I2
+d
I2
I
¸
y ·
n
(
I=1
I
(c
I1
+
o1
d
I1
) y
I
· c
I
c
I2
+
o
1
d
I2
y
I
.
12
Note that, in the previous line,
n
(
I=1
I
(c
I1
+
o1
d
I1
) y
I
· c
I
c
I2
+
o
1
d
I2
y
I
=
n
(
I=1
I
(c
I1
+
o1
d
I1
) y
I
·
n
(
I=1
c
I
c
I2
+
o
1
d
I2
y
I
=
n
(
I=1
I
c
I1
y
I
·
I
d
I1
y
I
· ÷a
I
/
I
¸
I
c
I1
+
I
d
I1
c
I
I
¸
y
·
n
(
I=1
c
I
c
I2
y
I
· c
I
d
I2
y
I
· ÷a
I
/
I
¸
c
I
c
I2
+c
I
d
I2
c
I
I
¸
y
=
n
(
I=1
I
c
I1
y
I
·
I
d
I1
y
I
· ÷a
I
/
I
¸
c
I1
+d
I1
c
I
¸
y
·
n
(
I=1
c
I
c
I2
y
I
· c
I
d
I2
y
I
· ÷a
I
/
I
¸
c
I2
+d
I2
I
¸
y
=
n
¸
I=1
÷a
I
/
I
¸
c
I1
+d
I1
c
I
¸
+
¸
c
I2
+d
I2
I
¸
y ·
n
(
I=1
(
I
c
I1
y
I
·
I
d
I1
y
I
· c
I
c
I2
y
I
· c
I
d
I2
y
I
)
.
Therefore,
.((c. c
11
. c
12
. .... c
n1
. c
n2
) · (d. d
11
. d
12
. .... d
n1
. d
n2
))
=
c +d +
n
¸
I=1
a
I
/
I
¸
c
I1
+d
I1
c
I
¸
+
¸
c
I2
+d
I2
I
¸
y ·
n
(
I=1
I
(c
I1
+
o1
d
I1
) y
I
· c
I
c
I2
+
o
1
d
I2
y
I
= (c +d) y ·
n
(
I=1
(
I
c
I1
y
I
·
I
d
I1
y
I
· c
I
c
I2
y
I
· c
I
d
I2
y
I
)
=
cy ·
n
(
I=1
(
I
c
I1
y
I
· c
I
c
I2
y
I
)
·
dy ·
n
(
I=1
(
I
d
I1
y
I
· c
I
d
I2
y
I
)
= .(c. c
11
. c
12
. .... c
n1
. c
n2
) · .(d. d
11
. d
12
. .... d
n1
. d
n2
) .
So, . is a homomorphism. For each i = 1. .... :, we can …nd r
I
. :
I
÷ Z such that c
I
r
I
+
I
:
I
= 1, as
gcd (c
I
.
I
) = 1. For each i = 1. .... :, let 1
I
be the least nonnegative residue of r
I
, modulo
I
. Also,
for each i, let o
I
be the least nonnegative residue of :
I
, modulo c
I
. For each i = 1. .... :, there are
integers :
I
. :
I
such that r
I
= 1
I
+:
I
I
and :
I
= o
I
+:
I
c
I
. Therefore, for each i = 1. .... :,
c
I
r
I
+
I
:
I
= c
I
(1
I
+:
I
I
) +
I
(o
I
+:
I
c
I
) = c
I
1
I
+
I
o
I
= 1(modc
I
I
).
Therefore, for each i = 1. .... :,
o
I
x
I1
· 1
I
x
I2
,
÷÷
I
o
I
y
I
· c
I
1
I
y
I
= y
I
· a
I
/
I
¸
I
o
I
+c
I
1
I
c
I
I
¸
y
and so
÷a
I
/
I
¸
I
o
I
+c
I
1
I
c
I
I
¸
x · o
I
x
I1
· 1
I
x
I2
,
÷÷ y
I
.
Let (j. j
1
. .... j
n
) ÷ G. Therefore,
jx ·
n
(
I=1
j
I
÷a
I
/
I
¸
I
o
I
+c
I
1
I
c
I
I
¸
x · o
I
x
I1
· 1
I
x
I2
,
÷÷ (j. j
1
. .... j
n
) .
So, . is surjective. Now, suppose that (c. c
11
. c
12
. .... c
n1
. c
n2
) . (d. d
11
. d
12
. .... d
n1
. d
n2
) ÷ H such that
.(c. c
11
. c
12
. .... c
n1
. c
n2
) = .(d. d
11
. d
12
. .... d
n1
. d
n2
). Then,
cy ·
n
(
I=1
(
I
c
I1
y
I
· c
I
c
I2
y
I
)
= dy ·
n
(
I=1
(
I
d
I1
y
I
· c
I
d
I2
y
I
)
.
Hence,
c +
n
¸
I=1
a
I
/
I
¸
I
c
I1
+c
I
c
I2
c
I
I
¸
y ·
n
(
I=1
I
c
I1
+
o1o
1
c
I
c
I2
y
I
=
d +
n
¸
I=1
a
I
/
I
¸
I
d
I1
+c
I
d
I2
c
I
I
¸
y ·
n
(
I=1
I
d
I1
+
o1o
1
c
I
d
I2
y
I
.
13
Therefore, for each i = 1. .... :,
I
c
I1
+c
I
c
I2
=
I
d
I1
+c
I
d
I2
(modc
I
I
)
==
I
(c
I1
÷d
I1
) +c
I
(c
I2
÷d
I2
) = /
I
c
I
I
for some /
I
÷ Z. Since
I
[ /
I
c
I
I
and
I
[
I
(c
I1
÷d
I1
) for i = 1. .... :, it is forced that
I
[ c
I
(c
I2
÷d
I2
)
for i = 1. .... :. Therefore, for all i = 1. .... :,
I
[ (c
I2
÷d
I2
) since gcd (c
I
.
I
) = 1. If c
I2
= d
I2
for some
i, then 0 < [c
I2
÷d
I2
[ <
I
and
I
 (c
I2
÷d
I2
), which is a contradiction. We must have that c
I2
= /
I2
for i = 1. .... :. Similarly, c
I
[ (c
I1
÷d
I1
) for i = 1. .... :. Since [c
I1
÷d
I1
[ < c
I
, we must have that
c
I1
= d
I1
for all i in order to avoid a contradiction. This forces c = d. Therefore, H
~
= G. Now, let
1 = Z
o1
· Z
o1
b1
· Z
o
1
o2
·
or
· Z
or
br
· Z
o
r
. Since /
I
[
I
for i = 1. .... :, we have that gcd (c
I
. /
I
) = 1 for
i = 1. .... :. Similarly, a
I
[ c
I
for all i implies that gcd (a
I
.
I
) = 1 for all i. It follows from Lemma 2.2
that H
~
= 1. Therefore, G
~
= 1.
Given a carry group, what are the necessary and su¢cient conditions for it to be isomorphic to Z? The
following theorem tells us precisely when a carry group is isomorphic to Z.
Theorem 2.6. Let G = Z
o1
· Z
b1
o2
·
or
· Z
br
. The following are equivalent:
(a) The integers /
1
. .... /
n
are pairwise relatively prime and gcd (a
I
. /
I
) = 1 for all i = 1. .... :.
(b) G
~
= Z.
Proof. [(b) == (a)] Let G = Z
o1
· Z
b1
o2
·
or
· Z
br
. Assume that G
~
= Z. We wish to show that the
integers /
1
. .... /
n
are pairwise relatively prime and gcd (a
I
. /
I
) = 1 for all i = 1. .... :. Suppose that it
isn’t true. Then, there exist 1 _ i
1
< i
2
_ : such that gcd (/
I1
. /
I2
) 1 or there exists 1 _ , _ : such
that gcd (a
I
. /
I
) 1.
(i) Suppose that there exists 1 _ , _ : such that gcd (a
,
. /
,
) 1. We know that Z
oj
· Z
bj
< G. By
Proposition 1.4, Z
oj
· Z
bj
~
= Z Z
gcd(oj,bj)
. Therefore, there is a corresponding element of Z
oj
· Z
bj
(in
G) that has order gcd (a
,
. /
,
). Thus, G has an element of …nite order. This contradicts the fact that
G
~
= Z and Z has no elements of …nite order. Therefore, we must have that gcd (a
I
. /
I
) = 1 for all
i = 1. .... :.
(ii) Suppose that there exist 1 _ i
1
< i
2
_ : such that gcd (/
I1
. /
I2
) = d 1. We know that
Z
o1
1
· Z
b1
1
o1
2
· Z
b1
2
< G. Consider the element c ÷ Z
o1
1
· Z
b1
1
o1
2
· Z
b1
2
given by
c = ÷
/
I1
d
a
I2
(0. 1. 0)
·
/
I2
d
a
I1
(0. 0. 1) .
I claim that c = (0. 0. 0). Otherwise, if the third coordinate of c is zero, then we would have to conclude
that
b1
2
J
a
I1
is a multiple of /
I2
; this means that d [ a
I1
. So, gcd (a
I1
. /
I1
) _ d 1 since d [ /
I1
. This
violates the fact that gcd (a
I
. /
I
) = 1 for all i = 1. .... :. Hence, c = (0. 0. 0). We now get that
/
I1
/
I2
c = ÷
/
I1
/
I2
d
/
I1
a
I2
(0. 1. 0)
·
/
I1
/
I2
d
/
I2
a
I1
(0. 0. 1)
= ÷
/
I1
/
I2
d
a
I2
(a
I1
. 0. 0)
·
/
I1
/
I2
d
a
I1
(a
I2
. 0. 0)
= ÷
/
I1
/
I2
d
a
I1
a
I2
(1. 0. 0)
·
/
I1
/
I2
d
a
I1
a
I2
(1. 0. 0) = (0. 0. 0) .
We have found that c is an element of …nite order. We obtain the contradiction that G has elements
of …nite order. We must have that /
1
. .... /
n
are all pairwise relatively prime.
14
[(a) == (b)] Suppose that we’re given positive integers /
1
. .... /
n
and integers a
1
. .... a
n
such that
/
1
. .... /
n
are pairwise relatively prime and gcd (a
I
. /
I
) = 1 for all i = 1. .... :. Let G = Z
o1
· Z
b1
o2
·
or
· Z
br
.
Using Lemma 2.2, Theorem 1.8, and the hypothesis that /
1
. .... /
n
are pairwise relatively prime, we …nd
that
G
~
= Z · Z
b1
· · Z
br
~
= Z Z
gcd(b1,b2)
Z
gcd(lcm(b1,b2),b3)
Z
gcd(lcm(b1,b2,...,br1),br)
= Z Z
gcd(b1,b2)
Z
gcd(b1b2,b3)
Z
gcd(b1b2br1,br)
= Z Z
1
Z
1
Z
1
~
= Z.
We have a method for …nding the structure of any …nitely generated carry group, which we will now
present. Suppose that we’re given the carry group
G = Z
o1
· Z
b1
o2
·
or
· Z
br
.
According to the lemmas (2.4, 2.2, and 2.1), without loss of generality, we can assume that a
I
[ /
I
for all i.
We can now rewrite this as
G = Z
µ
c
11
11
µ
c
12
12
µ
c
1r
1
1r
1
· Z
µ
]
11
11
µ
]
12
12
µ
]
1r
1
1r
1
µ
c
21
21
µ
c
22
22
µ
c
2r
2
2r
2
·
µ
c
r1
r1
µ
c
r2
r2
µ
crrr
rrr
· Z
µ
]
r1
r1
µ
]
r2
r2
µ
]
rrr
rrr
,
where j
o
11
I1
j
o
12
I2
j
o
1r
1
In1
is the prime factorization of /
I
. For each 1 _ i _ :, c
I,
_
I,
for all 1 _ , _ :
I
.
Now, by Lemma 2.5,
G
~
= Z
µ
c
11
11
· Z
µ
]
11
11
µ
c
12
12
· Z
µ
]
12
12
µ
c
13
13
·
µ
crrr
rrr
· Z
µ
]
rrr
rrr
. (#
1
)
This may look a bit ambiguous. To be clear, the group written in (#
1
) consists of :
1
+ + :
n
= ·
carry “components,” whereas the original group G consisted of : carry “components.” We say that a direct
sum of …nite cyclic groups with any group of this form is “reduced.” We will now show that the group in
(#
1
) can be transformed from an ·component group to an (· ÷1)component reduced group. Choose any
prime
j ÷ ¦j
I,
: 1 _ i _ : and 1 _ , _ :
I
¦ .
Let
c = min¦c
I,
: j = j
I,
for some 1 _ i _ : and 1 _ , _ :
I
¦ .
For each 1 _ i _ : and each 1 _ , _ :
I
, let
.
I,
=
1 if j
I,
= j.
j
o
if j
I,
= j.
Applying Lemma 2.2, we get that
G
~
= Z
\
11
µ
c
11
11
· Z
µ
]
11
11
\
12
µ
c
12
12
· Z
µ
]
12
12
\
13
µ
c
13
13
·
\
rrr
µ
crrr
rrr
· Z
µ
]
rrr
rrr
.
Note that j
o
[ .
I,
j
o1j
I,
for all 1 _ i _ : and all 1 _ , _ :
I
. In light of Lemma 2.3(a), we can assume that
j = j
11
and c = c
11
. Further, by Proposition 1.4, there is an isomorphism c : Z
µ
c
· Z
µ
]
11
÷Z Z
µ
c, where
c (j
o
. 0) =
j
o
11
. 0
. Using Lemma 2.3(b), we have that
G
~
= (Z Z
µ
c)
r(\
12
µ
c
12
12
,0)
· Z
µ
]
12
12
r(\
13
µ
c
13
13
,0)
·
r(\
rrr
µ
crrr
rrr
,0)
· Z
µ
]
rrr
rrr
.
15
Notice that, for each 1 _ i _ :, c
.
I,
j
o1j
I,
. 0
=
.
I,
j
o1j
I,
j
(o
11
o)
. 0
for all 1 _ , _ :
I
(why?). So now, it
follows from Lemma 2.3(c) that
G
~
= (Z Z
µ
c)
(\
12
µ
c
12
12
µ
(]
11
c)
,0)
· Z
µ
]
12
12
(\
13
µ
c
13
13
µ
(]
11
c)
,0)
·
(\
rrr
µ
crrr
rrr
µ
(]
11
c)
,0)
· Z
µ
]
rrr
rrr
~
= Z
µ
c
Z
\
12
µ
c
12
12
µ
(]
11
c)
· Z
µ
]
12
12
\
13
µ
c
13
13
µ
(]
11
c)
·
\
rrr
µ
crrr
rrr
µ
(]
11
c)
· Z
µ
]
rrr
rrr
. (#
2
)
So, we have transformed the ·component group to an (· ÷1)component reduced group as desired. Of
course, this iterated process can be used to express G as a direct sum of Z with …nite cyclic groups. So, this
method yields the structure of any …nitely generated carry group. However, this can be improved.
Fix any 1 _ i _ : and 1 _ , _ :
I
. Recall that .
I,
= j
o
whenever j
I,
= j. Therefore, if j
I,
= j, then
.
I,
j
o1j
I,
j
(o
11
o)
= j
o1j
I,
j
o
11
. In (#
2
), if j
I,
= j, then the i,
th
carry “component” has the form
µ
c
1j
1j
µ
]
11
· Z
µ
]
1j
1j
.
We know that gcd
j
o
11
. j
o
1j
I,
= 1, since j
I,
= j. Thus, we can apply Lemma 2.2 to rewrite (#
2
), where
the i,
th
carry “component” becomes
µ
c
1j
1j
· Z
µ
]
1j
1j
.
This is the i,
th
carry “component” that we started with in (#
1
). Recall that when we chose the prime
j = j
11
, we transformed the carry “component”
µ
c
11
11
· Z
µ
]
11
11
into a direct summand. In general, the argument above shows that the transformation of a carry “component”
into a direct summand does not a¤ect the carry components whose bases are powers of a prime di¤erent
from j.
Therefore, this problem amounts to reducing groups of the form
H = Z
µ
c
1
· Z
µ
]
1
µ
c
2
·
µ
cr
· Z
µ
]
r
,
where j is a prime, c
I
_
I
for i = 1. .... :, and (without loss of generality) c
1
_ c
2
_ _ c
n
. We now
present our main structure theorem for …nitely generated carry groups.
Theorem 2.7. Suppose that j is a prime. If c
I
_
I
for i = 1. .... : and c
1
_ c
2
_ _ c
n
, then
Z
µ
c
1
· Z
µ
]
1
µ
c
2
·
µ
cr
· Z
µ
]
r
~
= Z
n
I=1
Z
µ
f
1
,
where '
1
= c
1
and '
I
= min
¸
I
. c
I
+
I1
÷c
I1
for i 1.
Proof. Suppose that j is a prime. Let c
1
. .... c
n
and
1
. ....
n
be integers such that c
I
_ 0,
I
0,
c
I
_
I
, and c
I
_ c
I+1
for each i = 1. .... :. Let '
1
= c
1
and '
I
= min
¸
I
. c
I
+
I1
÷c
I1
for
each i 1. We claim that, for each 1 _ / _ :,
H
~
=

I=1
Z
µ
f
1
Z
µ
c
!+1
+]
!
c
!
· Z
µ
]
!+1
µ
c
!+2
+]
!
c
!
·
µ
cr+]
!
c
!
· Z
µ
]
r
.
16
By Lemma 1.4, there is an isomorphism c
1
: Z
µ
c
1
· Z
µ
]
1
÷ZZ
µ
c
1 such that (j
o1
. 0) maps to
j
o
1
. 0
.
Lemma 2.3(b) and Lemma 2.3(c) tell us that
H
~
=
Z
µ
c
1
· Z
µ
]
1
(µ
c
2
,0)
· Z
µ
]
2
(µ
c
3
,0)
·
(µ
cr
,0)
· Z
µ
]
r
~
= (Z Z
µ
c
1 )
(µ
c
2
+]
1
c
1
,0)
· Z
µ
]
2
(µ
c
3
+]
1
c
1
,0)
·
(µ
cr+]
1
c
1
,0)
· Z
µ
]
r
~
= Z
µ
c
1
Z
µ
c
2
+]
1
c
1
· Z
µ
]
2
µ
c
3
+]
1
c
1
·
µ
cr+]
1
c
1
· Z
µ
]
r
.
Our claim is true for / = 1. Suppose that, for some 1 _  < :, our claim is true for / = . Thus,
H
~
=
l
I=1
Z
µ
f
1
Z
µ
c
í+1
+]
í
c
í
· Z
µ
]
í+1
µ
c
í+2
+]
í
c
í
·
µ
cr+]
í
c
í
· Z
µ
]
r
.
Applying Lemma 1.4, there is an isomorphism c
2
: Z
µ
c
í+1
+]
í
c
í
· Z
µ
]
í+1
÷ Z Z
µ
f
í+1
such that
j
o
í+1
+o
í
o
í
. 0
maps to
j
o
í+1
. 0
. It follows from Lemma 2.3 that
H
~
=
l
I=1
Z
µ
f
1
Z
µ
c
í+1
+]
í
c
í
· Z
µ
]
í+1
µ
c
í+2
+]
í
c
í
·
µ
cr+]
í
c
í
· Z
µ
]
r
~
=
l
I=1
Z
µ
f
1
Z Z
µ
f
í+1
(µ
c
í+2
c
í+1
+]
í+1
,0)
·
(µ
crc
í+1
+]
í+1
,0)
· Z
µ
]
r
~
=
l+1
I=1
Z
µ
f
1
Z
µ
c
í+2
c
í+1
+]
í+1
· Z
µ
]
í+2
µ
c
í+3
c
í+1
+]
í+1
·
µ
crc
í+1
+]
í+1
· Z
µ
]
r
.
Therefore, our claim is true for / =  + 1 whenever it is true for / = . By induction, it follows that
H
~
= Z
n
I=1
Z
µ
f
1
.
Example. Let G = Z
6
· Z
9
10
· Z
14
5
· Z
7
. Notice that gcd (2. 9) = 1, gcd (3. 14) = 1, and gcd (3. 7) = 1.
Thus, Lemma 2.2 tells us that
G = Z
6
· Z
9
10
· Z
14
5
· Z
7
~
= Z
62
· Z
9
103
· Z
14
53
· Z
7
= Z
12
· Z
9
30
· Z
14
15
· Z
7
.
Also, note that 12 = 3 (mod9), 30 = 2 (mod14), and 15 = 1 (mod7). Therefore, by Lemma 2.1,
G
~
= Z
3
· Z
9
2
· Z
14
1
· Z
7
.
Now, note that gcd (7. 2) = 1. Therefore, Lemma 2.5 tells us that
G
~
= Z
3
· Z
9
2
· Z
2
1
· Z
7
1
· Z
7
.
17
Continuing on, using Theorem 2.7, we get that
G
~
= Z
3
· Z
9
2
· Z
2
7
0
· Z
7
1
7
0
· Z
7
1
~
= Z
3
Z
2
· Z
2
7
0
· Z
7
1
7
0
· Z
7
1
~
= Z
3
Z
2
Z
7
0
· Z
7
1
7
0
· Z
7
1
~
= Z
3
Z
2
(Z Z
7
0 Z
7
minf1.0+10g)
~
= Z
3
Z
2
(Z Z
1
Z
7
)
~
= Z Z
3
Z
2
Z
7
.
At this point, our classi…cation of …nitely generated carry groups is complete. Now, we will explore
in…nitely generated Carry groups.
18
Chapter 3
In…nitely Generated Carry Groups
We will now consider groups of the form
G = Z
o1
· Z
b1
o2
· Z
b2
o3
· Z
b3
o4
· .
Note that the proofs of the lemmas in Chapter 2 did not depend on the fact that the groups were …nitely
generated (perhaps except for Lemma 2.3(a)). Therefore, without loss of generality, we assume that a
I
[ /
I
and /
I
is a prime power for all i ÷ N. We will now give some de…nitions.
De…nitions
Suppose that we are given G = Z
o1
· Z
b1
o2
· Z
b2
o3
· Z
b3
o4
· , where a
I
[ /
I
and /
I
is a prime power for all i.
1. Portions of the expression of G of the form
o1
·Z
b1
are referred to as components.
2. We will de…ne /
I
´a
I
to be the depth of the component.
3. The collection of all components of G whose /
I
are powers of a …xed prime, j, is called the jsystem
of G. We denote a jsystem of G as G
µ
and we denote its associated subgroup of G as Z · G
µ
.
4. We de…ne the depth of a jsystem to be the supremum of the depths of its components.
5. A jsystem is said to be bounded if it has …nite depth.
6. A bounded jsystem is said to be simple if it has some component
o1
·Z
b1
where a
I
= 1 and /
I
is equal
to the depth of the system.
7. The in…nitely generated carry group G is said to have rational form if there exist H _ Q and a
sequence :
1
. :
2
. ... of natural numbers such that
G
~
= H
1
I=1
Z
n1
.
8. An element r ÷ G where r = (:. :
1
. :
2
. ...) is said to be an integer if :
I
= 0 for all i. We may refer
to r as : is this case.
9. For the in…nitely generated carry group G, we de…ne ¬
c
: G ÷Q, the projection homomorphism,
by
¬
c
(r. r
1
. r
2
. ...) = r +
1
¸
I=1
r
I
a
I
/
I
.
19
10. De…ne G

= ¦r ÷ G : r has …nite order¦. G

is called the torsion subgroup of G. Furthermore, we
say that G is torsionfree if G

= ¦0
c
¦.
Note that the mapping given in de…nition 9, ¬
c
, is actually a homomorphism; it is an easy exercise to
show that ¬
c
is a homomorphism. We leave this to the reader.
Lemma 3.1. For any r ÷ G, there exists : ÷ N such that :r is an integer.
Proof. Let r = (r
0
. r
1
. r
2
. ...) ÷ G. Remember that r
I
= 0 for all except …nitely many i. Now, let
: =
¸
r16=0
/
I
.
We know that /
I
[ : whenever r
I
= 0. Hence, /
I
[ :r
I
whenever r
I
= 0; in this case, the i
th
coordinate
of :r is 0. Therefore, :r is zero in every coordinate except possibly the …rst one. Therefore, :r is an
integer by de…nition.
Lemma 3.2. For the in…nitely generated carry group G,
ker ¬
c
= G

.
Proof. Let r = (c. c
1
. c
2
. ...) ÷ G. By the previous lemma, there exists : ÷ N such that :r is an
integer; say, :r = (/. 0. 0. ...).
First of all, suppose that r ÷ G

; then :r = 0
c
for some : ÷ N. Therefore, :(:r) = ::r =
:(:r) = 0
c
and :r ÷ G

. Since :r is an integer, we must have that :r = 0
c
; otherwise, ::r =
:(/. 0. 0. ...) = (:/. 0. 0. ...) = 0
c
since :/ would be nonzero. Therefore, ¬
c
(:r) = ¬
c
(0
c
) = 0.
Hence, :¬
c
(r) = 0 so that ¬
c
(r) = 0 and r ÷ ker ¬
c
. Thus, G

_ ker ¬
c
.
Conversely, let r ÷ ker ¬
c
. Still, :r is an integer; also, :r ÷ ker ¬
c
, since ¬
c
(:r) = :¬
c
(r) = 0. We
know that :r = 0
c
, because ¬
c
(:r) = ¬
c
(/. 0. 0. ...) = /. Since :r = 0
c
, we conclude that r ÷ G

.
Thus, ker ¬
c
_ G

. Hence, ker ¬
c
= G

.
Corollary 3.3. For the in…nitely generated carry group G, G´G

~
= ¬
c
(G).
Notice that if G has rational form H (
¸
1
I=1
Z
n1
), then Corollary 3.3 implies that ¬
c
(G)
~
= H. In this
case, it follows that ¬
c
(G) is a direct summand of G.
Lemma 3.4. If G
µ
is a jsystem of G, then there are no in…nite chains of additive j
th
roots in G.
Proof. Let G
µ
be a jsystem of G = Z
o1
· Z
b1
o2
· Z
b2
o3
· Z
b3
o4
· . Let r ÷ G and suppose that r has
an in…nite chain of additive j
th
roots. Then, for every : ÷ N, there exists r
n
÷ G such that j
n
r
n
= r.
Thus, for every : ÷ N, ¬
c
(r
n
) = ¬
c
(r) ´j
n
÷ Q. Therefore, for some : ÷ N, ¬
c
(r
n
) =
o
b
, where
gcd (a. j) = 1 and j [ /. It is true that there is at least one component of the jsystem, where the
corresponding coordinate of r
n
is nonzero. Suppose otherwise. That is, suppose r
n
is zero in all the
coordinates corresponding to components of the jsystem. Then ¬
c
(r
n
) =
o
0
b
0
where j  /
0
. Hence,
a/
0
= a
0
/. Since j  /
0
, j  a, and j is a prime, we have that j  a/
0
. This is a contradiction since j [ a
0
/.
Thus, there is at least one component of the jsystem, where the corresponding coordinate of r
n
is
nonzero. Assume, without loss of generality, that this component is
µ
c
· Z
µ
] and that the corresponding
coordinate of r
n
is = 0. We know that j
o
r
n+o
= r
n
. No matter what is in the Z
µ
] coordinate
of r
n+o
, we have that the Z
µ
] coordinate of j
o
r
n+o
= r
n
is 0. This is a contradiction. Therefore,
r ÷ G does not have an in…nite chain of j
th
roots.
20
Lemma 3.5. If some jsystem of G is not bounded, then G does not have rational form.
Proof. Suppose that G
µ
is an unbounded system of G. Also, suppose that G has rational form with
the associated H _ Q. So, Z · G
µ
has the form Z
µ
c
1
· Z
µ
]
1
µ
c
2
· Z
µ
]
2
µ
c
3
· . Since G
µ
is not bounded,
we know that
I
÷c
I
can take arbitrarily large values. We claim that
¬
c
(Z · G
µ
) =
:
j
n
: : ÷ Z. : ÷ N
¸
_ H _ Q.
It is obvious that ¬
c
(Z · G
µ
) _
n
µ
r
: : ÷ Z. : ÷ N
¸
. Let n ÷
n
µ
r
: : ÷ Z. : ÷ N
¸
; then n =
n1
µ
r
1
for some :
1
÷ Z, : ÷ N. Let = min¦i ÷ N :
I
÷c
I
:
1
¦. Therefore,
n = j
o
~
o~n1
:
1
j
o
~
o~
= :
1
j
o
~
o~n1
¬
c
(0. 0. .... 1. 0. 0. ...) ,
where the 1 is in the Z
o
~
coordinate. Thus, n ÷ ¬
c
(Z · G
µ
) and
n
µ
r
: : ÷ Z. : ÷ N
¸
_ ¬
c
(Z · G
µ
).
The claim is proved. Therefore, an isomorphic copy of
n
µ
r
: : ÷ Z. : ÷ N
¸
exists as a subgroup of
G. This is impossible, because the set
n
µ
r
: : ÷ Z. : ÷ N
¸
has in…nite chains of additive j
th
roots,
whereas G does not. This is a contradiction. Therefore, G cannot have rational form.
Theorem 3.6. Let G = Z
o1
· Z
b1
o2
· Z
b2
o3
· Z
b3
o4
· . The following are equivalent:
(a) The integers /
1
. /
2
. ... are pairwise relatively prime and gcd (a
I
. /
I
) = 1 for all i ÷ N.
(b) G is torsionfree.
(c) G is isomorphic to a subgroup of Q.
Proof. [(a) == (b)] Let r = (r
0
. r
1
. r
2
. ...) ÷ G

. There exists :
0
÷ N such that r
I
= 0 for all i :
0
.
Let :
1
=
¸
n0
I=1
/
I
. By the proof of Lemma 3.1, :
1
r is an integer. So, we must have that :
1
r = 0
c
.
Otherwise, :
1
r has in…nite order. Hence, ¬
c
(:
1
r) = :
1
¬
c
(r) = 0. This means that
¬
c
(r) = 0
== r
0
+
n0
¸
I=1
r
I
a
I
/
I
= 0.
We know that
¸
n0
I=1
r1o1
b1
must be an integer, since r
0
is an integer. The common denominator for this
sum of rational numbers is :
1
. Therefore,
:
1
[
n0
¸
I=1
¸
¸
¸
r
I
a
I
¸
1,n0
,6=I
/
,
¸
.
Fix 1 _ / _ :
0
. We know that
/

[
n0
¸
I=1
¸
¸
¸
r
I
a
I
¸
1,n0
,6=I
/
,
¸
.
Furthermore, whenever 1 _ i _ :
0
and i = /, we have that
/

[ r
I
a
I
¸
1,n0
,6=I
/
,
.
21
So, /

divides the i
th
summand for all i = / and /

divides the whole sum. To avoid a contradiction,
/

must divide the /
th
summand; that is,
/

[ r

a

¸
1,n0
,6=
/
,
.
Since all the /
I
are pairwise relatively prime, we know that /

and
¸
1,n0
,6=
/
,
are relatively prime.
Hence, /

[ r

a

. Since gcd (/

. a

) = 1, we have that /

[ r

. Since 0 _ r

< /

, we must have that
r

= 0. We chose / arbitrarily. Hence, for all 1 _ i _ :
0
, we have that r
I
= 0. In light of the equation
¬
c
(r) = 0, it is forced that r
0
= 0. Hence, r = 0
c
. We conclude that G is torsionfree.
[(b) == (c)] Suppose that G is torsionfree. Since G

= ker ¬
c
and G

= ¦0
c
¦, we have that
ker ¬
c
= ¦0
c
¦. This implies that ¬
c
is an injective homomorphism. Therefore, G
~
= ¬
c
(G) _ Q.
[(c) == (a)] The exact same argument from the …rst half of the proof of Theorem 2.6 su¢ces.
As in the previous section, if we reduce components whose bases are powers of a prime j, then the carries
of other components are not a¤ected whenever their bases are powers of a di¤erent prime. Therefore, the
problem of reducing an in…nitely generated carry group comes down to reducing its jsystems. The following
theorem tells us how bounded jsystems are reduced.
Lemma 3.7. Suppose that G
µ
is a bounded jsystem, where Z·G
µ
= Z
µ
c
1
· Z
µ
]
1
µ
c
2
· Z
µ
]
2
µ
c
3
· . Then,
Z · G
µ
~
=
Z
µ
c
1
· Z
µ
]
1
1
I=2
Z
µ
]
1
.
Proof. Suppose that G is an in…nitely generated carry group, where G
µ
is a bounded jsystem of G.
So, Z· G
µ
is of the form Z
µ
c
1
· Z
µ
]
1
µ
c
2
· Z
µ
]
2
µ
c
3
· . Since the depth of G
µ
is …nite, this depth must be
achieved by one of the components. Without loss of generality, assume that this component is
µ
c
1
· Z
µ
]
1
.
Let H =
Z
µ
c
1
· Z
µ
]
1
¸
1
I=2
Z
µ
]
1
. In H, let
y = ((1. 0) . 0. .... 0)
y
1
= ((0. 1) . 0. .... 0)
y
2
= ((0. 0) . 1. .... 0)
.
.
.
Let . : Z · G
µ
÷ H be de…ned by
.(r. r
1
. r
2
. ...) =
¸
ry
r
1
÷
1
¸
I=2
r
I
j
o
1
o1+o1o
1
y
1
¸
1
I=2
r
I
y
I
.
It is straightforward (but quite tedious) to show that . is a homomorphism. Surjectivity and injectivity
follow quickly from the de…nition of ..
Lemma 3.8. If all of the jsystems of G are bounded and if all but …nitely many of the systems of
G are simple, then G has rational form.
22
Proof. Apply Lemma 3.7 to all of the jsystems of G. Notice that the repeated application of Lemma
3.7 reduces G to a direct sum of …nite cyclic groups and a group of the form H
0
= Z
c1
· Z
J1
c2
· Z
J2
c3
· ,
where the d
I
are pairwise relatively prime and c
I
= 1 for all but …nitely many i. For the (…nitely
many) components that satisfy c
I
= 1, we can repeatedly apply Proposition 1.4 and transform them
into direct summands. After transforming all such components into direct summands, G is reduced to
a direct sum of …nite cyclic groups and a group of the form H
1
= Z · Z
J
0
1
· Z
J
0
2
· , where the d
0
I
are
pairwise relatively prime. Therefore, H
1
satis…es Theorem 2.6(a) or Theorem 3.6(a). Hence, in any
case, H
1
~
= H for some H _ Q. Thus, G has rational form.
Lemma 3.9. If G has in…nitely many nonsimple systems, then G does not have rational form.
Proof. Suppose that G has in…nitely many nonsimple systems and that G has rational form. Then,
essentially, ¬
c
(G) is a direct summand of G. Therefore, there is a subgroup G
1
_ G such that
G
1
~
= ¬
c
(G). Let r ÷ G
1
be the element that corresponds to 1 ÷ ¬
c
(G). Let : be a number so that
:r is an integer. Let j be a prime such that j relatively prime to :r and G
µ
is a nonsimple system of
G; note that such a j exists by hypothesis. Assume that G
µ
is bounded; otherwise, we have our result
by Lemma 3.5. Let j
J
be the depth of G
µ
. Since the depth is …nite, it is a maximum and must be
achieved by some component of G
µ
. Therefore, j
J
÷ ¬
c
(G). Then, certainly, r and :r both have
j
Jth
roots. Say, j
J
n = :r. Let
z = (1. 0. 0. .... 0)
z
1
= (0. 1. 0. .... 0)
z
2
= (0. 0. 1. .... 0)
.
.
.
be the generators for G. Then, n must be a linear combination of z. z
1
. z
2
. .... Assume that z
I
has
a 1 in the coordinate corresponding to the
o1
·Z
b1
component. Given c
I
, we know that either j
J
c
I
z
I
is not an integer or j
J
c
I
z
I
= j
J
c
I
o1
b1
z. We claim that j [ j
J
c
I
o1
b1
if j
J
c
I
z
I
= j
J
c
I
o1
b1
z. Assume that
j
J
c
I
z
I
= j
J
c
I
o1
b1
z and j  j
J
c
I
o1
b1
. Then, j
J
[
b1
o1
. Since j
J
is the depth of G
µ
, we have that
b1
o1
_ j
J
and, therefore, j
J
=
b1
o1
. Since G
µ
is not simple, we have that j [ a
I
. Therefore, j
J+1
[ /
I
. Therefore,
j [ c
I
; otherwise, j
J+1
 j
J
c
I
== /
I
 j
J
c
I
and so j
J
c
I
z
I
cannot be an integer. Since j [ c
I
, we have
that j
J
c
I
o1
b1
= j
J
c
I
j
J
= c
I
and j [ j
J
c
I
o1
b1
; this contradicts our assumption that j  j
J
c
I
o1
b1
. Thus, if
j
J
c
I
z
I
= j
J
c
I
o1
b1
z, then j [ j
J
c
I
o1
b1
. Since n is a linear combination of elements of the form cz and c
I
z
I
, we
know that j
J
n is a linear combination of elements of the form j
J
cz and j
J
c
I
z
I
. These elements must be
multiples of j; otherwise, they wouldn’t be integers and, thus, j
J
n = :r wouldn’t be an integer. Since
the elements of the linear combination are multiples of j, we must have that j
J
n = :r is a multiple
of j. This is a contradiction of the fact that j was chosen to be relatively prime to :r. Therefore, we
must have that G does not have rational form.
We know that every countably generated carry group satis…es the hypothesis of at least one of Lemma
3.5, Lemma 3.8, or Lemma 3.9. Therefore, we have a complete characterization of which groups have a
rational form. Therefore, in sum, we conclude with the following theorem.
Theorem 3.10. For any carry group G, G has rational form if and only if every system of G is
bounded and all but …nitely many systems of G are simple.
23
Bibliography
[1] J. L. KING, The generic transformation has roots of all orders. Dedicated to the memory of Anzelm
Iwanik. Colloq. Math. 84/85 part 2, pp 521547, 2000.
[2] B. F. MADORE, Rankone group actions with simple mixing Z subactions, Ph.D. Thesis, University of
Toronto, 2000.
[3] T. W. HUNGERFORD, "Algebra," SpringerVerlag, New York, 1975.
[4] L. FUCHS, "In…nite Abelian Groups," Academic Press, New York, 197073.
[5] N. JACOBSON, "Basic Algebra I  Second Edition," W.H. Freeman and Company, New York, 1985.
[6] D.S. DUMMIT and R.S. FOOTE, "Abstract Algebra, 2nd Edition," J.W. Wiley and Sons, New York,
1999.
[7] B. MADORE, H. McDONOUGH, C. MILLER, D. VAN NORT, A. ROGALSKI, and J. WOOD, Structure
Theory for Carry Groups, Pi Mu Epsilon Journal, Vol. 12 (Fall 2004) 1, 1725.
[8] T. COOK, B. MADORE, E. MILLER, T. POLLIO, Z. RIEL, and A. SPAETH, Carry Groups, in prepa
ration.
24
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